Science.gov

Sample records for general screening method

  1. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  2. Allergic sensitization: screening methods.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Madsen, Charlotte B; Penninks, André; Pomés, Anna; Roggen, Erwin L; Smit, Joost; Wal, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis. These data and findings were presented at a 2012 international symposium in Prague organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. PMID:24739743

  3. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis. These data and findings were presented at a 2012 international symposium in Prague organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute’s Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. PMID:24739743

  4. Screening Outcomes Following Implementation of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in a General-Population Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Kontos, Despina; Synnestvedt, Marie; Tan, Kay See; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Schnall, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Background Early data on breast cancer screening utilizing digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) combined with digital mammography (DM) have shown improvements in false-positive and false-negative screening rates compared with DM alone. However, these trials were performed at sites where conventional mammographic screening was concurrently performed, possibly leading to selection biases or with complex, multireader algorithms not reflecting general clinical practice. Our study reports the impact on screening outcomes for DBT screening implemented in an entire clinic population. Methods Recall rates, cancer detection, and positive predictive values of screening were compared for 15571 women screened with DBT and 10728 screened with DM alone prior to DBT implementation at a single breast imaging center. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for recall rate adjusted for age, race, presence of prior mammograms, breast density and reader. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results DBT screening showed a statistically significant reduction in recalls compared to DM alone. For the entire population, there were 16 fewer recalls (8.8% vs 10.4%, P <.001, adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.88, P < .001) and 0.9 additional cancers detected per 1000 screened with DBT compared to DM alone. There was a statistically significant increase in PPV1 (6.2% vs 4.4%, P = .047). In women younger than age 50 years screened with DBT, there were 17 fewer recalls (12.3% vs 14.0%, P = .02) and 3.6 additional cancer detected per 1000 screened (5.7 vs 2.2 per 1000, P = .02). Conclusions Our data support the clinical implementation of DBT in breast cancer screening; however, larger prospective trials are needed to validate our findings in specific patient subgroups. PMID:25313245

  5. Display screen and method of manufacture therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A screen assembly that combines an angle re-distributing prescreen with a conventional diffusion screen. The prescreen minimizes or eliminates the sensitivity of the screen assembly to projector location. The diffusion screen provides other desirable screen characteristics. Compatible screen structures, along with methods for fabricating high resolution prescreens and methods and devices for maintaining the desired relationship between the prescreen and the diffusion screen are contemplated.

  6. Fast 3-D seismic modeling and prestack depth migration using generalized screen methods. Final report for period January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M. Nafi

    2001-03-31

    Completed a theoretical analysis of phase screen propagators to answer several critical questions: the existence of a singularity in the Green's function for the case of a zero vertical wavenumber, the stability and accuracy of such propagators, and the effects of backscattering for large contrast heterogeneous media. The theory is based on separating the wavefield into forescattering and backscattering parts. The approach is robust and appropriate for earth structures with high velocity contrast. This theory also resolves the apparent singularity problem that has persisted in generalized screen propagator formulations. With this formulation we studied the effects of the commonly used approximations as a function of the degree of velocity contrast in the media.

  7. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self-Help Strategies: Webinars to Calm Anxious Minds "Triumph" E-News ...

  8. Prestack elastic generalized-screen migration for multicomponent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byoung Yeop; Seol, Soon Jee; Lee, Ho-Young; Byun, Joongmoo

    2016-03-01

    An efficient prestack depth migration method based on the elastic one-way wave equation was developed using an improved elastic generalized-screen propagator, which effectively describes the behavior of elastic waves with mode conversion at the interfaces and efficiently computes wave propagation in media with lateral velocity variations. The elastic propagator presented in this study was improved from the elastic generalized-screen propagator. Several terms of the vertical slowness right symbol with orders are corrected from the original formulation, and the vertical slowness operator in the propagator was expanded up to the 2nd order which yields a more accurate approximation. In each screen propagation step, the multicomponent wavefields are automatically separated into the P and S wavefields by the P-S decomposition operator included in the elastic generalized-screen propagator. This process facilitates the imaging of the P and S waves separately without any additional P and S separation process after the wavefield extrapolation. Impulse response tests of the improved elastic generalized-screen propagator in a uniform-property medium proved that propagation accuracy increases with order, even when large medium perturbations are assigned. Migration tests using the developed algorithm on a simple layered model and two complex models (the SEG/EAGE salt and elastic Marmousi-2 model) demonstrated the functional advantages and capabilities of the algorithm compared with elastic migration using the scalar wave equation.

  9. The organization of cervical screening in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Havelock, Christine; Edwards, Robert; Cuzick, Jack; Chamberlain, Jocelyn

    1988-01-01

    Well organized cervical screening in general practice can have considerable clinical and financial rewards. Yet in a randomized survey of general practitioners in the United Kingdom only 43% operated a system for cervical screening which allows previously untested women to be identified and invited for testing. A younger age of general practitioner, a more rural practice, a larger practice size, employment of a practice nurse, a belief in the effectiveness of cervical screening and a positive view of the time spent on screening were all strong predictors of an organized approach to cervical screening within a practice. Being female or having a female partner was not statistically associated with systematic screening. The results demonstrate a need for education within general practice which emphasizes the relevance and significance of cervical screening and the essential contribution that can be made by each individual general practitioner to the success of the whole cervical screening programme. PMID:3210183

  10. Screening fifth forces in generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-05-01

    For a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions, the breaking of the gauge invariance allows the propagation of a longitudinal mode in addition to the two transverse modes. We consider generalized Proca theories with second-order equations of motion in a curved space-time and study how the longitudinal scalar mode of the vector field gravitates on a spherically symmetric background. We show explicitly that cubic-order self-interactions lead to the suppression of the longitudinal mode through the Vainshtein mechanism. Provided that the dimensionless coupling of the interaction is not negligible, this screening mechanism is sufficiently efficient to give rise to tiny corrections to gravitational potentials consistent with solar-system tests of gravity. We also study the quartic interactions with the presence of nonminimal derivative coupling with the Ricci scalar and find the existence of solutions where the longitudinal mode completely vanishes. Finally, we discuss the case in which the effect of the quartic interactions dominates over the cubic one and show that local gravity constraints can be satisfied under a mild bound on the parameters of the theory.

  11. Interlaboratory comparison of a general method to screen foods for pesticides using QuEChERs extraction with high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eitzer, Brian D; Hammack, Walter; Filigenzi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of a multipesticide residue analytical method is reported. The goal of the comparison was to evaluate the potential for liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry along with a specific automated screening procedure to allow the determination of the presence or absence of a set of targeted compounds without additional manual review. The method utilized an off the shelf QuEChERs based extraction followed by analysis with an orbitrap mass spectrometer with the data evaluated by ToxID. The method was tested at three laboratories, with three produce matrices (spinach, carrots, and oranges), and three levels of spiked pesticides with all analyses in triplicate. A series of 247 compounds were tested, and it was found that the three laboratories produced consistent data; however, manual review was still necessary. The data was shown to have no false negatives for 211 compounds in the three produce matrixes at 200 ppb. Of these 211 compounds, 189 had no false negatives at 50 ppb, and 129 had no false negatives at 10 ppb. The HRMS method was shown to be robust with similar data being achieved by all three laboratories and detectable concentrations only slightly above the range shown for triple quadrupole MS/MS. PMID:24320559

  12. 43 CFR 11.23 - Preassessment screen-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or OSC Report, unless doing so would unnecessarily delay the preassessment screen. (3) Where a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preassessment screen-general. 11.23... ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.23 Preassessment screen—general. (a) Requirement. Before beginning...

  13. 43 CFR 11.23 - Preassessment screen-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or OSC Report, unless doing so would unnecessarily delay the preassessment screen. (3) Where a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preassessment screen-general. 11.23... ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.23 Preassessment screen—general. (a) Requirement. Before beginning...

  14. Take the sex out of STI screening! Views of young women on implementing chlamydia screening in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Natasha L; Parker, Rhian; Fairley, Christopher K; Gunn, Jane M; Hocking, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background Australia is developing a chlamydia screening program. This study aimed to determine the attitudes of young women to the introduction of chlamydia screening in Australian General Practice. Methods In-depth face-to-face interviews with 24 young women from across Victoria, Australia, attending a randomly selected sample of general practices. Results Young women reported that they would accept age-based screening for chlamydia in general practice, during both sexual-health and non-sexual-health related consultations. Trust in their general practitioner (GP) was reported to be a major factor in the acceptability of chlamydia screening. The women felt chlamydia screening should be offered to all young women rather than targeted at "high risk" women based on sexual history and they particularly emphasised the importance of normalising chlamydia screening. The women reported that they did not want to be asked to provide a sexual history as part of being asked to have a chlamydia test. Some reported that they would lie if asked how many partners they had had Conclusion Women do not want a sexual history taken when being asked to have a chlamydia test while attending a general practitioner. They prefer the offer of chlamydia screening to be based on age rather than assessment of sexual risk. Chlamydia screening needs to be normalised and destigmatised. PMID:18471280

  15. Neonatal thyroid screening: methods-efficiency-failures.

    PubMed

    Yordam, N; Ozon, A

    2003-12-01

    Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the major achievements of preventive medicine, as the condition occurs frequently (1/4000 newborns) and results in brain damage if not detected and treated in the first few days of life. Measurement of T4 and/or TSH in dried blood spots collected on the second through fifth days of life are the most widely used methods in screening programs for CH currently. Some children with the disease may be missd in any screening program, however, owing to factors related to the disease itself and the methods employed in its detection, as well as factors ascribed to the element of human error, ie screening errors. The methods employed in newborn screening programs for CH, their efficiency in disease detecetion, and biological factors as well as screening errors leading to missed cases are discussed. PMID:16444156

  16. Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2005-10-01

    The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

  17. Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2006-02-01

    The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, environmental monitoring, and verification of treaties and agreements. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include beta-gamma, gamma-gamma and beta-gamma-gamma, into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for verifying the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

  18. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  19. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening of the general population in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasushi; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Li, Xiao-Bo; Wong, Martin C S; Chiu, Han-Mo; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Utsumi, Takahiro; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Iwatate, Mineo; Chiu, Philip; Sung, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing, and CRC has been becoming the major cause of cancer deaths in Asian countries. Therefore, an organized screening program to reduce CRC incidence and mortality is currently implemented in each country. In the present review, we summarize the current status and future perspectives of CRC screening of the general population in East Asian and South-East Asian countries. The fecal occult blood test is widely used for CRC screening in these countries, and its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality has been demonstrated; however, the low participation rate in CRC screening programs is a problem to be solved in every country. Improvement in the public awareness of CRC and promotion of CRC screening by physicians will help to raise the participation rate and reduce the number of deaths caused by CRC. Regarding screening colonoscopy, several studies have recently demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. However, at present, CRC screening colonoscopy is not adopted as a primary population-based screening tool because of staffing constraints in relation to large population sizes, increased medical costs, and potential adverse events (e.g. perforation and drug-induced anaphylaxis). Further study is required to consider colonoscopy as CRC screening that is established in Western countries. PMID:26595883

  1. Screening for Chlamydia is acceptable and feasible during Cervical Screening in General Practice.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S J; Dunphy, E; Navin, E; Marron, L; Fitzsimmons, C; Loy, A; O'Shea, B

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) & Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are rising in Ireland. Both are often undiagnosed and may cause infertility amongst other complications. CT/NG screening is not routinely offered during cervical cancer screening. This study aimed to ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of screening for CT/NG at time of smear and to measure the diagnostic yield. Screening was offered to women aged 25-40 years attending four participating general practices as part of Cervical Check. A retrospective review of the three months preceding the study period, indicated that out of 138 smears, CT/NG testing was performed in 10 (7%) of cases. 236 (93%) patients consented to screening for CT/NG. The detection rate for Chlamydia was 6 (2.4%), with no positive results for NG. Feedback from patients was positive. Interestingly, 42 (18%) of participants who completed the questionnaire believed STI screening was already part of the routine smear. PMID:26904785

  2. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas-Fermi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, ( N s ∝ r T F 3 / r d 3 where rTF and rd are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

  3. A Screening Method for Early Identification of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coury, Janine P.; Nessa, Donald B.

    This study was conducted in order to develop and evaluate a systematic screening method which could be used by counselors and school psychologists in the identification of first graders showing characteristics generally associated with learning disabilities. The study was conducted within three Title I schools in a large sourthern metropolitan…

  4. High-throughput screening methods for nitrilases.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ya-Ping; Yang, Yue-Kai; Lv, Sheng-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Nitrilases have been widely acknowledged as important alternatives to chemical catalysts, as they have been proved to transform an immense variety of nitriles under mild conditions and often in a stereoselective or regioselective manner. In the discovery of new nitrilases to establish viable industrial processes, screening plays an important role in identifying which subset of candidates contains a nitrilase of interest from a collection of organisms, clone banks, or enzyme libraries. However, the traditional methods for evaluating the nitrilases are a time-consuming, laborious, and costly process and have been regarded as a bottleneck in developing these nitrilases as industrial biocatalysts. In the past few years, a number of high-throughput screening methods have been developed for rapid evaluation and identification of nitrilases. Here, we review the various methodologies developed for high-throughput screening of nitrilases and focus on their advantages and limitations. PMID:26894402

  5. Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  6. Generalized high order compact methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub

    2010-09-01

    The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.

  7. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}∝r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar

  8. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  9. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments.

    PubMed

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros, George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-04-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admitted via A&E subsequently undertook an additional alcohol screening test (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Geriatric version; MAST-G). Results of the two tests were compared. Results FAST screening was completed for 71 patients and none were FAST-positive for alcohol misuse, yet using MAST-G, 18 patients scored positively for alcohol misuse. FAST screening failed to identify 8 patients with a documented history of alcohol misuse. Clinical implications Older adult alcohol misuse prevalence is significantly underreported using FAST. Screening older adults for alcohol problems requires a different approach to screening the general population. PMID:27087989

  10. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments

    PubMed Central

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros, George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admitted via A&E subsequently undertook an additional alcohol screening test (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Geriatric version; MAST-G). Results of the two tests were compared. Results FAST screening was completed for 71 patients and none were FAST-positive for alcohol misuse, yet using MAST-G, 18 patients scored positively for alcohol misuse. FAST screening failed to identify 8 patients with a documented history of alcohol misuse. Clinical implications Older adult alcohol misuse prevalence is significantly underreported using FAST. Screening older adults for alcohol problems requires a different approach to screening the general population. PMID:27087989

  11. 42 CFR 455.452 - Other State screening methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other State screening methods. 455.452 Section 455....452 Other State screening methods. Nothing in this subpart must restrict the State Medicaid agency from establishing provider screening methods in addition to or more stringent than those required...

  12. 42 CFR 455.452 - Other State screening methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other State screening methods. 455.452 Section 455....452 Other State screening methods. Nothing in this subpart must restrict the State Medicaid agency from establishing provider screening methods in addition to or more stringent than those required...

  13. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  14. The views of general practitioners on community carrier screening for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, M; Cummings, C; Williamson, R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent developments in molecular genetics have made it possible to identify carriers of the cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation, regardless of family history, before they have an affected child. Using these techniques, population or 'community' carrier screening can offer informed reproductive choice to individuals and couples who would not otherwise know of their risk of having a CF child. AIM: This study set out to assess the views of general practitioners (GPs) on community carrier screening for CF and to consider the factors that influence their willingness to offer it themselves. METHOD: A self-administered questionnaires was sent to all 616 GPs in four areas of North Thames (West) Region. RESULTS: Two-thirds of respondents indicated that identifying carrier couples to offer genetic counselling before conception was a very important benefit of community carrier screening. Two-thirds felt that general practice was the most appropriate place in which to offer it, and similar proportions that the most appropriate times to do so were when a close relative was diagnosed and when seeking family planning. About half wanted to offer community carrier screening themselves; this was related to experience with CF patients and CF carrier testing, and estimates of the numbers of CF carriers in the practice. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable support among GPs for community carrier screening for CF in general practice, particularly in the context of family planning services. Knowledge and experience of CF increase GPs' willingness to offer it themselves. PMID:8762747

  15. Screening system and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Jones, David A; Gresham, Christopher A; Basiliere, Marc L; Spates, James J; Rodacy, Philip J

    2014-04-15

    An integrated apparatus and method for screening an object for a target material is provided. The integrated apparatus comprises a housing and an integrated screener. The housing is positionable adjacent the object, and has a channel therethrough. The integrated screener is positionable in the housing, and comprises a fan, at least one filter, a heater and an analyzer. The fan is for drawing air carrying particles and vapor through the channel of the housing. The filter(s) is/are positionable in the channel of the housing for passage of the air therethrough. The filter(s) comprise(s) at least one metal foam having a plurality of pores therein for collecting and adsorbing a sample from the particles and vapor passing therethrough. The heater is for applying heat to the at least one metal foam whereby the collected sample is desorbed from the metal foam. The analyzer detects the target material from the desorbed sample.

  16. Display screen and method of manufacture therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A screen assembly that combines an angle re-distributing prescreen with a conventional diffusion screen is disclosed. The prescreen minimizes or eliminates the sensitivity of the screen assembly to projector location. The diffusion screen provides other desirable screen characteristics. The prescreen is preferably formed by a collection of light transmitting and refracting elements, preferably spheres 80, partially embedded in a light blocking layer. Toward the back of the spheres 80 are effective apertures 82 where the light blocking layer 81 is absent or at least thinner than in other regions toward the side of the spheres. The projected image enters spheres 80 through the effective apertures 82, and exits the spheres 80 centered orientationally about the normal to the lens axis. The re-oriented light rays then enter the diffusion screen for viewing.

  17. Generalizing Screen Inferiority--Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidi, Yael; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper.…

  18. [Selective screening for hypercholesterolemia. Results from a screening model in general practice].

    PubMed

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Mahnfeldt, M S; Baastrup, A; Jacobsen, K; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    At present, it appears to be probable that both dietary changes and medicinal treatment can reduce the risk of development of coronary disease in middle-aged men with moderately to severely raised blood cholesterol values. Internationally, the limits for cholesterol intervention are considerably lower than in Denmark. Extensive cholesterol screening is, however, very expensive and the identified persons with high cholesterol values will frequently be found in sex and age groups where the beneficial effect of intervention is probably limited. A model for selective cholesterol screening in high risk groups in general practice is described here. In 20 general practices, all of the men aged 45-59 years belonging to the practice were invited to examination of cholesterol and blood pressure. Plasma cholesterol was measured by means of a Reflotron (results are available within three minutes) and the blood pressure and tobacco consumption were registered. After this, the patient's own general practitioner calculated with each of the persons the risk for development of myocardial infarction within the next ten years and intervention could be commenced immediately. 41% of those invited came for examination. Out of these, 29% had cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l (Danish limiting value), 44% greater than or equal to 6.5 mmol/l (limiting value in the remainder of Western Europe), and 5% greater than or equal to 9.0 mmol/l (severe hypercholesterolaemia) while only 18% had completely normal cholesterol less than 5.2 mmol/l. In every practice, two patients on an average were found with severe hypercholesterolaemia greater than or equal to 9.0 mmol/l. 28% of the participants had at least two of the three risk factors investigated. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2238223

  19. Touch screen computer health assessment in Australian general practice patients: a cross-sectional study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mariko Leanne; Sanson-Fisher, Robert William; Russell, Grant; Mazza, Danielle; Makeham, Meredith; Paul, Christine Louise; Inder, Kerry Jane; D'Este, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are leading causes of death globally. Early detection of cancer and risk factors for CVD may improve health outcomes and reduce mortality. General practitioners (GPs) are accessed by the majority of the population and play a key role in the prevention and early detection of chronic disease risk factors. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the acceptability of an electronic method of data collection in general practice patients. The study will describe the proportion screened in line with guidelines for CVD risk factors and cancer as well as report the prevalence of depression, lifestyle risk factors, level of provision of preconception care, cervical cancer vaccination and bone density testing. Lastly, the study will assess the level of agreement between GPs and patients perception regarding presence of risk factors and screening. Methods and analysis The study has been designed to maximise recruitment of GPs by including practitioners in the research team, minimising participation burden on GPs and offering remuneration for participation. Patient recruitment will be carried out by a research assistant located in general practice waiting rooms. Participants will be asked regarding the acceptability of the touch screen computer and to report on a range of health risk and preventive behaviours using the touch screen computer. GPs will complete a one-page survey indicating their perception of the presence of risk behaviours in their patients. Descriptive statistics will be generated to describe the acceptability of the touch screen and prevalence of health risk behaviours. Cohen's κ will be used to assess agreement between GP and patient perception of presence of health risk behaviours. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the human research committees in participating universities. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations as well as practice

  20. SAR Ice Classification Using Fuzzy Screening Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, R. S.

    2003-04-01

    A semi-automatic SAR sea ice classification algorithm is described. It is based on combining the information in the original SAR data with those in the three 'image' products derived from it, namely Power-to-Mean Ratio (PMR), the Gamma distribution and the second order texture parameter entropy, respectively. The latter products contain information which is often useful during the manual interpretation of the images. The technique used to fuse the information in these products is based on a method c lled Multi Experts Multi Criteria Decision Making fuzzy a screening. The Multiple Experts in this case are the above four 'image' products. The two criteria used currently for making decisions are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution matching and the statistical mean of different surface classes. The algorithm classifies an image into any number of predefined classes of sea ice and open water. The representative classes of these surface types are manually identified by the user. Further, as SAR signals from sea ice covered regions and open water are ambiguous, it was found that a minimum of 4 pre-identified surface classes (calm and turbulent water and sea ice with low and high backscatter values) are required to accurately classify an image. Best results are obtained when a total of 8 surface classes (2 each of sea ice and open water in the near range and a similar number in the far range of the SAR image) are used. The main advantage of using this image classification scheme is that, like neural networks, no prior knowledge is required of the statistical distribution of the different surface types. Furthermore, unlike the methods based on neural networks, no prior data sets are required to train the algorithm. All the information needed for image classification by the method is contained in the individual SAR images and associated products. Initial results illustrating the potential of this ice classification algorithm using the RADARSAT ScanSAR Wide data are presented

  1. Wafer screening device and methods for wafer screening

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Przemyslaw

    2014-07-15

    Wafer breakage is a serious problem in the photovoltaic industry because a large fraction of wafers (between 5 and 10%) break during solar cell/module fabrication. The major cause of this excessive wafer breakage is that these wafers have residual microcracks--microcracks that were not completely etched. Additional propensity for breakage is caused by texture etching and incomplete edge grinding. To eliminate the cost of processing the wafers that break, it is best to remove them prior to cell fabrication. Some attempts have been made to develop optical techniques to detect microcracks. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to detect microcracks that are embedded within the roughness/texture of the wafers. Furthermore, even if such detection is successful, it is not straightforward to relate them to wafer breakage. We believe that the best way to isolate the wafers with fatal microcracks is to apply a stress to wafers--a stress that mimics the highest stress during cell/module processing. If a wafer survives this stress, it has a high probability of surviving without breakage during cell/module fabrication. Based on this, we have developed a high throughput, noncontact method for applying a predetermined stress to a wafer. The wafers are carried on a belt through a chamber that illuminates the wafer with an intense light of a predetermined intensity distribution that can be varied by changing the power to the light source. As the wafers move under the light source, each wafer undergoes a dynamic temperature profile that produces a preset elastic stress. If this stress exceeds the wafer strength, the wafer will break. The broken wafers are separated early, eliminating cost of processing into cell/module. We will describe details of the system and show comparison of breakage statistics with the breakage on a production line.

  2. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers. PMID:19363796

  3. Method to determine the speckle characteristics of front projection screens.

    PubMed

    Riechert, Falko; Glöckler, Felix; Lemmer, Uli

    2009-03-01

    We present a method to determine the speckle properties of front projection screens. Seven different screens are investigated in a backscattering geometry for 808 nm light. The speckle contrast reduction that results from polarization scrambling and reduced temporal coherence is modeled for the case of volume scattering in the screens. For this purpose, the screen's volume scattering path length distributions and depolarization characteristics are determined. This is done via a streak camera setup to measure the temporal broadening of ultrashort 50 fs light pulses scattered in the screens. We show that it is essential to properly select a projection screen with large volume roughness in order to achieve low speckle contrast values for moderate illumination bandwidths. PMID:19252632

  4. Improvement of screening methods for silicon planar semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the program for the development of a more sensitive method for selecting silicon planar semiconductor devices for long life applications are reported. The manufacturing technologies (MOS and Bipolar) are discussed along with the screening procedures developed as a result of the tests and evaluations, and the effectiveness of the MOS and Bilayer screening procedures are evaluated.

  5. High Throughput Screening and Selection Methods for Directed Enzyme Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Successful evolutionary enzyme engineering requires a high throughput screening or selection method, which considerably increases the chance of obtaining desired properties and reduces the time and cost. In this review, a series of high throughput screening and selection methods are illustrated with significant and recent examples. These high throughput strategies are also discussed with an emphasis on compatibility with phenotypic analysis during directed enzyme evolution. Lastly, certain limitations of current methods, as well as future developments, are briefly summarized. PMID:26074668

  6. The roles of general and technology-related parenting in managing youth screen time.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Wesley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the associations of 2 types of parenting practices-general adaptive parenting and technology-related strategies-with youth screen time. We hypothesized that technology-related parenting focused on behavioral control would relate directly to screen time and serve to link general parenting to screen time. Participants were 615 parents drawn from 3 community samples of families with children across 3 development stages: young childhood (3-7 years; n = 210), middle childhood (8-12 years; n = 200), and adolescents (13-17 years; n = 205). Using structural equation modeling, we found that general adaptive parenting was not related to child screen time but was positively related to technology-related parenting strategies for all 3 samples. For the young and, to some extent, middle childhood samples, but not for the adolescent sample, general adaptive parenting was positively linked to youth screen time through technology-related parenting strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751759

  7. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination in soil and wa...

  8. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM PCB METHOD: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  9. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  10. Outcomes of hepatitis C screening programs targeted at risk groups hidden in the general population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective screening programs are urgently needed to provide undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals with therapy. This systematic review of characteristics and outcomes of screening programs for HCV focuses on strategies to identify HCV risk groups hidden in the general population. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles published between 1991–2010, including studies that screened the general population using either a newly developed (nonintegrated) screening program or one integrated in existing health care facilities. Look-back studies, prevalence studies, and programs targeting high-risk groups in care (e.g., current drug users) were excluded. Results After reviewing 7052 studies, we identified 67 screening programs: 24 nonintegrated; 41 programs integrated in a variety of health care facilities (e.g., general practitioner); and 2 programs with both integrated and nonintegrated strategies. Together, these programs identified approximately 25,700 HCV-infected individuals. In general, higher HCV prevalence was found in programs in countries with intermediate to high HCV prevalence, in psychiatric clinics, and in programs that used a prescreening selection based on HCV risk factors. Only 6 programs used a comparison group for evaluation purposes, and 1 program used theory about effective promotion for screening. Comparison of the programs and their effectiveness was hampered by lack of reported data on program characteristics, clinical follow-up, and type of diagnostic test. Conclusions A prescreening selection based on risk factors can increase the efficiency of screening in low-prevalence populations, and we need programs with comparison groups to evaluate effectiveness. Also, program characteristics such as type of diagnostic test, screening uptake, and clinical outcomes should be reported systematically. PMID:24450797

  11. A New Screening Programme for Autism in a General Population of Swedish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evidence from early intervention studies of autism has emphasised the need for early diagnosis. Insight into the early presentation of autism is crucial for early recognition, and routine screening can optimise the possibility for early diagnosis. General population screening was conducted for 2.5-year-old children at child health centres in…

  12. A comparison between Pap and HPV screening tests and screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emma; Scarselli, Giorgio; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Fortunato, Carmine; Profeta, Valerio F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the results of cervical cancer (CC) screening over two 3-year periods (2008–2010 and 2011–2013) by comparing two screening tests [Papanicolaou (Pap) and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests] and two screening methods (organized and spontaneous). The study population includes women aged 25–64 years who underwent CC screening between 2008 and 2010 and/or 2011 and 2013, divided into those who responded to an invitation letter (organized screening) and those who spontaneously underwent testing at a public or private facility (non-programmed screening). Between 2008 and 2010, the response rates increased from 27.7% in 2008 to 44.5% in 2009 and 67.6% in 2010 (P<0.001). Women aged 25–34 years had the lowest response rate, whereas respondents were more frequent among women aged 35–44 and 45–54 years. Significant differences (P<0.001) were identified between organized and spontaneous screening test results with regard to diagnostic categories high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (50.5 vs. 49.5%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (42.8 vs. 57.2%) and undetermined lesion atypical glandular cells (AGC; 57.5 vs. 42.5%) or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 54.2 vs. 45.8%). Compared with spontaneous screening, the organized programme resulted in a larger number of women screened for CC; it reduced the frequency of undetermined diagnoses (AGC, ASC-US), and identified a larger number of high-grade lesions. PMID:27446578

  13. Item Selection Methods for the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the method of item selection tested in the development of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory. Method: The convenience sampling frame used for these analyses consisted of 26,781 Communities That Care Youth Surveys. The three item selection methods were used to assess known instrument,…

  14. Generalized model screening potentials for Fermi-Dirac plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, some properties of relativistically degenerate quantum plasmas, such as static ion screening, structure factor, and Thomson scattering cross-section, are studied in the framework of linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory with the newly proposed kinetic γ-correction to Bohm term in low frequency limit. It is found that the correction has a significant effect on the properties of quantum plasmas in all density regimes, ranging from solid-density up to that of white dwarf stars. It is also found that Shukla-Eliasson attractive force exists up to a few times the density of metals, and the ionic correlations are seemingly apparent in the radial distribution function signature. Simplified statically screened attractive and repulsive potentials are presented for zero-temperature Fermi-Dirac plasmas, valid for a wide range of quantum plasma number-density and atomic number values. Moreover, it is observed that crystallization of white dwarfs beyond a critical core number-density persists with this new kinetic correction, but it is shifted to a much higher number-density value of n0 ≃ 1.94 × 1037 cm-3 (1.77 × 1010 gr cm-3), which is nearly four orders of magnitude less than the nuclear density. It is found that the maximal Thomson scattering with the γ-corrected structure factor is a remarkable property of white dwarf stars. However, with the new γ-correction, the maximal scattering shifts to the spectrum region between hard X-ray and low-energy gamma-rays. White dwarfs composed of higher atomic-number ions are observed to maximally Thomson-scatter at slightly higher wavelengths, i.e., they maximally scatter slightly low-energy photons in the presence of correction.

  15. Method For Screening Microcrystallizations For Crystal Formation

    DOEpatents

    Santarsiero, Bernard D. , Stevens, Raymond C. , Schultz, Peter G. , Jaklevic, Joseph M. , Yegian, Derek T. , Cornell, Earl W. , Nordmeyer, Robert A.

    2003-10-07

    A method is provided for performing array microcrystallizations to determine suitable crystallization conditions for a molecule, the method comprising: forming an array of microcrystallizations, each microcrystallization comprising a drop comprising a mother liquor solution whose composition varies within the array and a molecule to be crystallized, the drop having a volume of less than 1 microliter; storing the array of microcrystallizations under conditions suitable for molecule crystals to form in the drops in the array; and detecting molecule crystal formation in the drops by taking images of the drops.

  16. NEW METHODS TO SCREEN FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of alternative methods for toxicity testing is driven by the need for scientifically valid data (i.e. predictive of a toxic effect) that can be obtained in a rapid and cost-efficient manner. These predictions will enable decisions to be made as to whether further ...

  17. EVALUATION OF POHC AND PIC SCREENING METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recurring theme in environmental work is the need to characterize emissions to the maximum extent at the minimum cost. Unfortunately, many projects have been carried out In the past with little thought or planning concerning the optimum application of analytical methods availab...

  18. An alternative method to screen for pepper spray residue.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Trevor D; Kubic, Thomas A; De Forest, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed to screen for pepper spray residue using instruments and methods other than those techniques commonly employed to analyze chemical residue (i.e.. gas chromatography mass spectrometry-GCMS or liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-LCMS). The method employed gas chromatography (GC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to screen for dried pepper spray stains. Pepper sprays from nine different manufacturers were investigated. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were identified and unique IR reflectance spectra are presented. An additional five compounds were presumptively found. Results showed that a particular stain could be characterized as a pepper-based stain. PMID:12570209

  19. Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.G.

    2007-11-04

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  20. Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.

    2008-02-01

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  1. PHOTOACTIVATED LUMINESCENCE METHOD FOR RAPID SCREENING OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have a strong need for screening capabilities for hazardous materials. his paper describes a new method based on enhanced photoactivated luminescence (ELP) for rapid detection of PCBs. he EPL method descri...

  2. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  3. Method for forming electromagnetic-wave-screening composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    A number of ways to give plastic parts the ability to screen out high frequency electromagnetic waves are outlined. Another method which consists of a one stage injection molding process for forming a thermoplastic sandwich whose plastic core, containing metal flakes, is coated with a surface layer of ABS is introduced. The method employs the Battenfeld two component injection molding machine.

  4. The Implementation of an Integrated Information System for Substance Use Screening in General Medical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen-Alawad, A.; Carney, B.L.; Persand, I.; Cruz, A.; Botticelli, M.; Pressman, K.; Adams, W.G.; Brolin, M.; Alford, D.P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Massachusetts Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (MASBIRT) Program, a substance use screening program in general medical settings, created a web-based, point-of-care (POC), application – the MASBIRT Portal (the “Portal”) to meet program goals. Objectives We report on development and implementation of the Portal. Methods Five year program process outcomes recorded by an independent evaluator and an anonymous survey of Health Educator’s (HEs) adoption, perceptions and Portal use with a modified version of the Technology Readiness Index are described. [8] Specific management team members, selected based on their roles in program leadership, development and implementation of the Portal and supervision of HEs, participated in semi-structured, qualitative interviews. Results At the conclusion of the program 73% (24/33) of the HEs completed a survey on their experience using the Portal. HEs reported that the Portal made recording screening information easy (96%); improved planning their workday (83%); facilitated POC data collection (84%); decreased time dedicated to data entry (100%); and improved job satisfaction (59%). The top two barriers to use were “no or limited wireless connectivity” (46%) and “the tablet was too heavy/bulky to carry” (29%). Qualitative management team interviews identified strategies for successful HIT implementation: importance of engaging HEs in outlining specifications and workflow needs, collaborative testing prior to implementation and clear agreement on data collection purpose, quality requirements and staff roles. Discussion Overall, HEs perceived the Portal favorably with regard to time saving ability and improved workflow. Lessons learned included identifying core requirements early during system development and need for managers to institute and enforce consistent behavioral work norms. Conclusion Barriers and HEs’ views of technology impacted the utilization of the MASBIRT Portal

  5. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Khadijeh; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant women particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test). Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential. PMID:25276689

  6. Standardization of a screening instrument (PHQ-15) for somatization syndromes in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The PHQ-15 is widely used as an open access screening instrument for somatization syndromes in different health care settings, thus far, normative data from the general population are not available. The objectives of the study were to generate normative data and to further investigate the construct validity of the PHQ-15 in the general population. Methods Nationally representative face-to face household surveys were conducted in Germany between 2003 and 2008 (n=5,031). The survey questionnaires included, the 15-item somatization module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15), the 9-item depression module (PHQ-9), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the SF-12 for the measurement of health related quality of life, and demographic characteristics. Results Normative data for the PHQ-15 were generated for both genders and different age levels including 5031 subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.9 (18.1) years. Somatization syndromes occured in 9.3% of the general population. Women had significantly higher mean (SD) scores compared with men [4.3 (4.1) vs. 3.4 (4.0)]. Intercorrelations with somatization were highest with depression, followed by the physical component summary scale of health related quality of life. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of somatization syndromes with other populations. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the PHQ-15 as a measure of somatization syndromes in the general population. PMID:23514436

  7. Estimating rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Japan using a screening method

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Kaoru; Hara, Megumi; Sakanishi, Yuta; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nishida, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Muneaki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    abstract Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a highly contagious, acute viral disease that imposes a significant health burden worldwide. In Japan, rotavirus vaccines have been commercially available since 2011 for voluntary vaccination, but vaccine coverage and effectiveness have not been evaluated. In the absence of a vaccination registry in Japan, vaccination coverage in the general population was estimated according to the number of vaccines supplied by the manufacturer, the number of children who received financial support for vaccination, and the size of the target population. Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified by reviewing the medical records of all children who consulted 6 major hospitals in Saga Prefecture with gastroenteritis symptoms. Vaccination status among these patients was investigated by reviewing their medical records or interviewing their guardians by telephone. Vaccine effectiveness was determined using a screening method. Vaccination coverage increased with time, and it was 2-times higher in municipalities where the vaccination fee was supported. In the 2012/13 season, vaccination coverage in Saga Prefecture was 14.9% whereas the proportion of patients vaccinated was 5.1% among those with clinically diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis and 1.9% among those hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis. Thus, vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 69.5% and 88.8%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate rotavirus vaccination coverage and effectiveness in Japan since vaccination began. PMID:26680277

  8. Estimating rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Japan using a screening method.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaoru; Hara, Megumi; Sakanishi, Yuta; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nishida, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Muneaki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a highly contagious, acute viral disease that imposes a significant health burden worldwide. In Japan, rotavirus vaccines have been commercially available since 2011 for voluntary vaccination, but vaccine coverage and effectiveness have not been evaluated. In the absence of a vaccination registry in Japan, vaccination coverage in the general population was estimated according to the number of vaccines supplied by the manufacturer, the number of children who received financial support for vaccination, and the size of the target population. Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified by reviewing the medical records of all children who consulted 6 major hospitals in Saga Prefecture with gastroenteritis symptoms. Vaccination status among these patients was investigated by reviewing their medical records or interviewing their guardians by telephone. Vaccine effectiveness was determined using a screening method. Vaccination coverage increased with time, and it was 2-times higher in municipalities where the vaccination fee was supported. In the 2012/13 season, vaccination coverage in Saga Prefecture was 14.9% whereas the proportion of patients vaccinated was 5.1% among those with clinically diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis and 1.9% among those hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis. Thus, vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 69.5% and 88.8%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate rotavirus vaccination coverage and effectiveness in Japan since vaccination began. PMID:26680277

  9. [Formalized dietary advice in hypercholesterolemia. Results in 110 men diagnosed by selective screening in general practice].

    PubMed

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Jacobsen, K; Baastrup, A; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    In connection with a screening investigation for high blood cholesterol in middle-aged men in general practice in the Municipality of Copenhagen, all participants with cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.5 mmol/l were given brief advice by their own general practitioner and were invited to come for fasting blood lipid tests approximately ten days later. In cases with continued cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.8 mmol/l, the participants together with wives or partners were invited to formalized dietary advice in small groups. Already before the formalized dietary advice, an average decrease in serum cholesterol of 10% was observed. This was attributed to biological variation, absence of fasting, the degree of error between the measuring methods and also a genuine decrease on the basis of the brief dietary advice by the general practitioner. On control after dietary advice, a further decrease in cholesterol of 15% was observed while low density lipoprotein cholesterol fell by 20% and triglycerides by 23%. These decreases must be considered to result mainly from the dietary advice. It is concluded that a single but professional session of dietary advice in small groups and with involvement of the wives or partners is an effective method of treatment in hypercholesterolaemia. If the decrease in cholesterol obtained can be maintained, the literature suggests that the risk of development of ischaemic heart disease during the subsequent 5-7 years is reduced by 20-30%. PMID:2238224

  10. In vitro evaluation method for screening of candidate prebiotic foods.

    PubMed

    Date, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Yumiko; Fukuda, Shinji; Nuijima, Yumi; Kato, Tamotsu; Umehara, Mikihisa; Ohno, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a simple and rapid in vitro evaluation method for screening and discovery of uncharacterised and untapped prebiotic foods. Using a NMR-based metabolomic approach coupled with multivariate statistical analysis, the metabolic profiles generated by intestinal microbiota after in vitro incubation with feces were examined. The viscous substances of Japanese bunching onion (JBOVS) were identified as one of the candidate prebiotic foods by this in vitro screening method. The JBOVS were primarily composed of sugar components, especially fructose-based carbohydrates. Our results suggested that ingestion of JBOVS contributed to lactate and acetate production by the intestinal microbiota, and were accompanied by an increase in the Lactobacillus murinus and Bacteroidetes sp. populations in the intestine and fluctuation of the host-microbial co-metabolic process. Therefore, our approach should be useful as a rapid and simple screening tool for potential prebiotic foods. PMID:24444934

  11. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  12. Nonlocal exchange correlation in screened-exchange densityfunctional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang; Spataru, Catalin D.; Louie,Steven G.

    2007-04-22

    We present a systematic study on the exchange-correlationeffects in screened-exchange local density functional method. Toinvestigate the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the bandgap correction, we have compared the exchange-correlation potential termin the sX-LDA formalism with the self-energy term in the GWapproximation. It is found that the band gap correction of the sX-LDAmethod primarily comes from the downshift of valence band states,resulting from the enhancement of bonding and the increase of ionizationenergy. The band gap correction in the GW method, on the contrary, comesin large part from the increase of theconduction band energies. We alsostudied the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the totalenergy by investigating the exchange-correlation hole in comparison withquantum Monte Carlo calculations. When the Thomas-Fermi screening isused, the sX-LDA method overestimates (underestimates) theexchange-correlation hole in short (long) range. From theexchange-correlation energy analysis we found that the LDA method yieldsbetter absolute total energy than sX-LDA method.

  13. Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.

  14. General practitioners' perceptions of private health screening: too much paper, anxiety, and reassurance.

    PubMed Central

    Paynton, D; Dunleavey, J; Smith, H

    1998-01-01

    There is no evidence to support the practice of screening consultations that include general physical examinations and batteries of tests; however, many patients may choose, or be sent by their employers, to have private full health screening (FHS). General practitioners (GPs) are routinely sent the results of these screening examinations and are expected to deal with any subsequent care required. GPs recognize some positive aspects of FHS, but in our survey there was a groundswell of dislike for these examinations because of uncertainty about patient benefit (raised anxiety or false assurance) and a potential to irritate the GP. The implications for workload were minimal but resented. GPs would welcome a precise summary of significant findings and for the screening doctor to take greater responsibility for follow-up. PMID:9747551

  15. Carotenoid analysis using the puree absorbance method for germplasm screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many fruits and vegetables contain health-promoting compounds which require labor intensive analyses to detect. This is the case with quantifying carotenoids in fresh fruits and vegetables. Carotenoid content can vary significantly between varieties; therefore a method to rapidly screen germplasm ...

  16. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  17. FIELD SCREENING METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AND TOXIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to present the technical papers that were presented at the Second International Symposium on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals. ixty platform presentations were made and included in one of ten sessions: hemical sensor...

  18. Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…

  19. FIELD SCREENING METHOD FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPOUNDS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been exploring the complexation of silver ions with certain organic pollutants as part of a search for alternative low-cost, rapid, field screening methods. he result is a rapid, easy, and inexpensive procedure for determining polychlo...

  20. Optimal assignment methods for ligand-based virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ligand-based virtual screening experiments are an important task in the early drug discovery stage. An ambitious aim in each experiment is to disclose active structures based on new scaffolds. To perform these "scaffold-hoppings" for individual problems and targets, a plethora of different similarity methods based on diverse techniques were published in the last years. The optimal assignment approach on molecular graphs, a successful method in the field of quantitative structure-activity relationships, has not been tested as a ligand-based virtual screening method so far. Results We evaluated two already published and two new optimal assignment methods on various data sets. To emphasize the "scaffold-hopping" ability, we used the information of chemotype clustering analyses in our evaluation metrics. Comparisons with literature results show an improved early recognition performance and comparable results over the complete data set. A new method based on two different assignment steps shows an increased "scaffold-hopping" behavior together with a good early recognition performance. Conclusion The presented methods show a good combination of chemotype discovery and enrichment of active structures. Additionally, the optimal assignment on molecular graphs has the advantage to investigate and interpret the mappings, allowing precise modifications of internal parameters of the similarity measure for specific targets. All methods have low computation times which make them applicable to screen large data sets. PMID:20150995

  1. The Edinburgh randomised trial of screening for breast cancer: description of method.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, M. M.; Alexander, F. E.; Anderson, T. J.; Forrest, A. P.; Hepburn, W.; Huggins, A.; Kirkpatrick, A. E.; Lamb, J.; Lutz, W.; Muir, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    Edinburgh was selected as one of the centres in the UK Seven-year Trial of Breast Screening of women aged 45-65 which began in 1979. Subsequently, our study was extended to a randomised trial with its own control population within the city. Half the practices were randomly allocated for screening, giving a cluster sampling of women. The total number in the trial is 65,000. Women with previously diagnosed breast cancer are excluded. Women allocated for screening are invited to the clinic and screened according to the procedures specified in the U.K. protocol, having clinical examination every year and mammography on alternate years. The two modalities of screening are assessed independently and the role of nurses is being evaluated. Breast cancer incidence is monitored by pathology register and the local cancer registry office and deaths from the General Register office. Long-term follow-up will be obtained through flagging at NHS Central Register. To determine the value of screening, standard statistical methods will be used to compare breast cancer mortality rates in the whole of the screening population with that of the controls. This trial has a power of 83% of detecting a reduction in mortality of 35% after 7 years of follow-up and a power of 95% of detecting a similar reduction at 10 years (alpha = 0.05, one-sided test). PMID:6743506

  2. Indicators of depression in elderly and different screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Amanda Gilvani Cordeiro; Fonsêca, Marília de Andrade; Gomes, Maria de Lourdes de Freitas; Matos, Marcos Antonio Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly and correlate the agreement between the screening methods used. Methods A cross-section study of 137 elderly attending the Programa Vivendo a Terceira Idade [Living for the Elderly Program]. Depressive symptoms were screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, by Yesavage. Cohen´s kappa analyzed the degree of agreement of these scales. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was 62.8% and, by the Geriatric Depression Scale, 52.6%. The Spearman correlation between the results of scales obtained rho=0.387, p<0.000. The Kappa reliability coefficient was 0.41 and significance level of p<0.001. The screening methods showed sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 44%. Conclusion Both scales showed moderate agreement and were useful for detecting a relevant prevalence of the target outcome of depression among the elderly. PMID:27074227

  3. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's α=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

  4. Modeling granular phosphor screens by Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Liaparinos, Panagiotis F.; Kandarakis, Ioannis S.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.; Delis, Harry B.; Panayiotakis, George S.

    2006-12-15

    The intrinsic phosphor properties are of significant importance for the performance of phosphor screens used in medical imaging systems. In previous analytical-theoretical and Monte Carlo studies on granular phosphor materials, values of optical properties, and light interaction cross sections were found by fitting to experimental data. These values were then employed for the assessment of phosphor screen imaging performance. However, it was found that, depending on the experimental technique and fitting methodology, the optical parameters of a specific phosphor material varied within a wide range of values, i.e., variations of light scattering with respect to light absorption coefficients were often observed for the same phosphor material. In this study, x-ray and light transport within granular phosphor materials was studied by developing a computational model using Monte Carlo methods. The model was based on the intrinsic physical characteristics of the phosphor. Input values required to feed the model can be easily obtained from tabulated data. The complex refractive index was introduced and microscopic probabilities for light interactions were produced, using Mie scattering theory. Model validation was carried out by comparing model results on x-ray and light parameters (x-ray absorption, statistical fluctuations in the x-ray to light conversion process, number of emitted light photons, output light spatial distribution) with previous published experimental data on Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb phosphor material (Kodak Min-R screen). Results showed the dependence of the modulation transfer function (MTF) on phosphor grain size and material packing density. It was predicted that granular Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens of high packing density and small grain size may exhibit considerably better resolution and light emission properties than the conventional Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens, under similar conditions (x-ray incident energy, screen thickness)

  5. Rapid screening methods for beta-emitters in food samples.

    PubMed

    Vos van Avezathe, A; Brandhoff, P N; van Bourgondiën, M J; Krijger, G C

    2015-03-01

    In case of a nuclear emergency, many samples need to be measured in a short time period. Therefore, it is of vital importance to have a quick and reliable (screening)method. Most methods to determine total beta activity are time-consuming because of extensive sample preparation, such as ashing. In this article three different rapid screening methods for beta emitting nuclides in agriculture, livestock and fishery products were tested and compared to each other, and to an accurate but more time consuming reference method. The goal was to find the method with the optimal trade-off between accuracy, speed and minimal detectable activity (MDA). All of the methods rely on liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or Cerenkov counting, and differ mainly in sample preparation. For matrices with little or no colour, the direct LSC-method is the most accurate and fastest option, while for darker coloured samples this method is not suitable because of high colour quenching. For such samples, two additional methods using a microwave digestion during sample preparation, produced good results. PMID:25577324

  6. On the order of general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-09-01

    General linear (GL) methods are numerical algorithms used to solve ODEs. The standard order conditions analysis involves the GL matrix itself and a starting procedure; however, a finishing method (F) is required to extract the actual ODE solution. The standard order analysis and stability are sufficient for the convergence of any GL method. Nonetheless, using a simple GL scheme, we show that the order definition may be too restrictive. Specifically, the order for GL methods with low order intermediate components may be underestimated. In this note we explore the order conditions for GL schemes and propose a new definition for characterizing the order of GL methods, which is focused on the final result--the outcome of F--and can provide more effective algebraic order conditions.

  7. High Throughput Screening Method to Explore Protein Interactions with Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Irem; Fatih, Warda; Svensson, Anja; Radu, Dennis; Linse, Sara; Cabaleiro Lago, Celia; Lundqvist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of biological macromolecules with nanoparticles underlie a wide variety of current and future applications in the fields of biotechnology, medicine and bioremediation. The same interactions are also responsible for mediating potential biohazards of nanomaterials. Some applications require that proteins adsorb to the nanomaterial and that the protein resists or undergoes structural rearrangements. This article presents a screening method for detecting nanoparticle-protein partners and conformational changes on time scales ranging from milliseconds to days. Mobile fluorophores are used as reporters to study the interaction between proteins and nanoparticles in a high-throughput manner in multi-well format. Furthermore, the screening method may reveal changes in colloidal stability of nanomaterials depending on the physicochemical conditions. PMID:26313757

  8. High Throughput Screening Method to Explore Protein Interactions with Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Irem; Fatih, Warda; Svensson, Anja; Radu, Dennis; Linse, Sara; Cabaleiro Lago, Celia; Lundqvist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of biological macromolecules with nanoparticles underlie a wide variety of current and future applications in the fields of biotechnology, medicine and bioremediation. The same interactions are also responsible for mediating potential biohazards of nanomaterials. Some applications require that proteins adsorb to the nanomaterial and that the protein resists or undergoes structural rearrangements. This article presents a screening method for detecting nanoparticle-protein partners and conformational changes on time scales ranging from milliseconds to days. Mobile fluorophores are used as reporters to study the interaction between proteins and nanoparticles in a high-throughput manner in multi-well format. Furthermore, the screening method may reveal changes in colloidal stability of nanomaterials depending on the physicochemical conditions. PMID:26313757

  9. The Promise and Peril of Genomic Screening in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael C.; Evans, James P.; Henderson, Gail E.; Berg, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Utilization of sequencing to screen the general population for preventable monogenic conditions is receiving substantial attention due to its potential to decrease morbidity and mortality. However, the selection of which variants to return is a serious implementation challenge. Procedures must be investigated to ensure optimal test characteristics and avoidance of harm from false positive test results. Methods We scanned exome sequences from 478 well-phenotyped individuals for potentially pathogenic variants in 17 genes representing 11 conditions that are among the most medically actionable Mendelian disorders in adults. We developed 5 variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity and measured their specificity in these 17 genes. Results Variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity exhibited decreased specificity, and performance was highly dependent on the genes analyzed. The most sensitive algorithm ranged from 88.8% to 99.6% specificity among the 17 genes. Conclusion For very low prevalence conditions, small reductions in specificity greatly increase false positives. This inescapable test characteristic governs the predictive value of genomic sequencing in the general population. To address this issue, test performance must be evaluated systematically for each condition so that the false negatives and false positives can be tailored for optimal outcomes, depending on the downstream clinical consequences. PMID:26540154

  10. Hilbert's axiomatic method and Carnap's general axiomatics.

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper compares the axiomatic method of David Hilbert and his school with Rudolf Carnap's general axiomatics that was developed in the late 1920s, and that influenced his understanding of logic of science throughout the 1930s, when his logical pluralism developed. The distinct perspectives become visible most clearly in how Richard Baldus, along the lines of Hilbert, and Carnap and Friedrich Bachmann analyzed the axiom system of Hilbert's Foundations of Geometry—the paradigmatic example for the axiomatization of science. Whereas Hilbert's axiomatic method started from a local analysis of individual axiom systems in which the foundations of mathematics as a whole entered only when establishing the system's consistency, Carnap and his Vienna Circle colleague Hans Hahn instead advocated a global analysis of axiom systems in general. A primary goal was to evade, or formalize ex post, mathematicians' 'material' talk about axiom systems for such talk was held to be error-prone and susceptible to metaphysics. PMID:26386526

  11. Screening for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy: analysis of two screening protocols and review of current methods.

    PubMed

    Hearty, R T; Traub, A I; Hadden, D R

    2000-05-01

    We assessed the ability of two screening protocols to detect varying degrees of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and to compare fetal outcome in those found to have normal and abnormal glucose metabolism by either protocol. 493 pregnant women were identified by one of two screening protocols to be at risk of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Pregnancy complications, induction of labour, method of delivery, birth weight, incidence of congenital anomalies and neonatal complications were assessed; there were no significant differences between those with normal and abnormal glucose metabolism detected by either protocol apart from a significant linear trend for the incidence of large for gestational infants with increasing hyperglycaemia in both groups. Protocol B was as effective in detecting new hyperglycaemia in pregnancy as Protocol A. It involved the use of a breakfast meal profile in the initial assessment of those screened positive, reducing the need for glucose tolerance tests in the vast majority of cases. In the population studied, hyperglycaemia in pregnancy was not associated with adverse fetal outcome. PMID:10881644

  12. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part...

  13. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part...

  14. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part...

  15. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part...

  16. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part...

  17. A screened automated structural search with semiempirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Machida, Masahiko; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-03-01

    We developed an interface program between a program suite for an automated search of chemical reaction pathways, GRRM, and a program package of semiempirical methods, MOPAC. A two-step structural search is proposed as an application of this interface program. A screening test is first performed by semiempirical calculations. Subsequently, a reoptimization procedure is done by ab initio or density functional calculations. We apply this approach to ion adsorption on cellulose. The computational efficiency is also shown for a GRRM search. The interface program is suitable for the structural search of large molecular systems for which semiempirical methods are applicable.

  18. Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies with cell-free DNA in the general pregnancy population: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Genevieve; Burigo, John; Sharon, Thomas; Song, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fetal aneuploidy screening in the general pregnancy population using non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as compared to first trimester combined screening (FTS) with serum markers and NT ultrasound. Methods: Using a decision-analytic model, we estimated the number of fetal T21, T18, and T13 cases identified prenatally, the number of invasive procedures performed, corresponding normal fetus losses, and costs of screening using FTS or NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Modeling was based on a 4 million pregnant women cohort, which represents annual births in the U.S. Results: For the general pregnancy population, NIPT identified 15% more trisomy cases, reduced invasive procedures by 88%, and reduced iatrogenic fetal loss by 94% as compared to FTS. The cost per trisomy case identified with FTS was $497 909. At a NIPT unit, cost of $453 and below, there were cost savings as compared to FTS. Accounting for additional trisomy cases identified by NIPT, a NIPT unit cost of $665 provided the same per trisomy cost as that of FTS. Conclusions: NIPT in the general pregnancy population leads to more prenatal identification of fetal trisomy cases as compared to FTS and is more economical at a NIPT unit cost of $453. PMID:26000626

  19. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer. PMID:27035407

  20. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    HAN, SHUWEN; YANG, XI; QI, QUAN; PAN, YUEFEN; CHEN, YONGCHAO; SHEN, JUNJUN; LIAO, HAIHONG; JI, ZHAONING

    2016-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer. PMID:27035407

  1. A general method to determine twinning elements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779

  2. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  3. Screening for celiac disease in the general population and in high-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Card, Timothy R; Kaukinen, Katri; Bai, Julio; Zingone, Fabiana; Sanders, David S; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) occurs in approximately 1% of the Western population. It is a lifelong disorder that is associated with impaired quality of life (QOL) and an excessive risk of comorbidity and death. Objectives To review the literature on screening for CD in relation to the current World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for mass screening. Methods We performed a PubMed search to identify indexed papers on CD screening with a publication date from 1900 until 1 June 2014. When we deemed an abstract relevant, we read the corresponding paper in detail. Results CD fulfills several WHO criteria for mass screening (high prevalence, available treatment and difficult clinical detection), but it has not yet been established that treatment of asymptomatic CD may reduce the excessive risk of severe complications, leading to higher QOL nor that it is cost-effective. Conclusions Current evidence is not sufficient to support mass screening for CD, but active case-finding may be appropriate, as we recognize that most patients with CD will still be missed by this strategy. Although proof of benefit is still lacking, screening for CD may be appropriate in high-risk groups. PMID:25922671

  4. Hori method for generalized canonical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Fernandes, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, some special features on the canonical version of Hori method, when it is applied to generalized canonical systems (systems of differential equations described by a Hamiltonian function linear in the momenta), are presented. Two different procedures, based on a new approach for the integration theory recently presented for the canonical version, are proposed for determining the new Hamiltonian and the generating function for systems whose differential equations for the coordinates describe a periodic system with one fast phase. These procedures are equivalent and they are directly related to the canonical transformations defined by the general solution of the integrable kernel of the Hamiltonian. They provide the same near-identity transformation for the coordinates obtained through the non-canonical version of Hori method. It is also shown that these procedures are connected to the classic averaging principle through a canonical transformation. As examples, asymptotic solutions of a non-linear oscillations problem and of the elliptic perturbed problem are discussed.

  5. A novel method for screening beta-glucosidase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few beta-glucosidase inhibitors have so far been reported from microorganisms due to the practical difficulties in performing the inhibition tests and subsequent interpretation of results. In an effort to investigate marine microbial extracts for β-glucosidase inhibitors, we developed a new protocol, using esculin as substrate in an agar plate based assay, to screen a large number of microbial extracts in a short span of time. Results With the new method, pale yellowish zones against the blackish brown background could be visually observed with more clarity in sample extracts where β-glucosidase inhibitor was present. The new method was compared with the closest existing method and established beyond doubt. This agar plate based procedure required about one hour for minimum 12 samples and the throughput increases with the size of the agar gel plate used. Conclusions The new protocol was simple, rapid and effective in detecting beta-glucosidase inhibitors in microbial extracts. PMID:23497098

  6. Generalized HPC method for the Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardazzi, A.; Lugni, C.; Antuono, M.; Graziani, G.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and innovative numerical algorithm based on the use of Harmonic Polynomials on each Cell of the computational domain (HPC method) has been recently proposed by Shao and Faltinsen (2014) [1], to solve Boundary Value Problem governed by the Laplace equation. Here, we extend the HPC method for the solution of non-homogeneous elliptic boundary value problems. The homogeneous solution, i.e. the Laplace equation, is represented through a polynomial function with harmonic polynomials while the particular solution of the Poisson equation is provided by a bi-quadratic function. This scheme has been called generalized HPC method. The present algorithm, accurate up to the 4th order, proved to be efficient, i.e. easy to be implemented and with a low computational effort, for the solution of two-dimensional elliptic boundary value problems. Furthermore, it provides an analytical representation of the solution within each computational stencil, which allows its coupling with existing numerical algorithms within an efficient domain-decomposition strategy or within an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm.

  7. Design of a general-purpose European compound screening library for EU-OPENSCREEN.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Lisurek, Michael; Rupp, Bernd; Kühne, Ronald; Specker, Edgar; von Kries, Jens; Rognan, Didier; Andersson, C David; Almqvist, Fredrik; Elofsson, Mikael; Enqvist, Per-Anders; Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Remez, Nikita; Mestres, Jordi; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexander; Hibert, Marcel; Quintana, Jordi; Frank, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a collaborative effort to define and apply a protocol for the rational selection of a general-purpose screening library, to be used by the screening platforms affiliated with the EU-OPENSCREEN initiative. It is designed as a standard source of compounds for primary screening against novel biological targets, at the request of research partners. Given the general nature of the potential applications of this compound collection, the focus of the selection strategy lies on ensuring chemical stability, absence of reactive compounds, screening-compliant physicochemical properties, loose compliance to drug-likeness criteria (as drug design is a major, but not exclusive application), and maximal diversity/coverage of chemical space, aimed at providing hits for a wide spectrum of drugable targets. Finally, practical availability/cost issues cannot be avoided. The main goal of this publication is to inform potential future users of this library about its conception, sources, and characteristics. The outline of the selection procedure, notably of the filtering rules designed by a large committee of European medicinal chemists and chemoinformaticians, may be of general methodological interest for the screening/medicinal chemistry community. The selection task of 200K molecules out of a pre-filtered set of 1.4M candidates was shared by five independent European research groups, each picking a subset of 40K compounds according to their own in-house methodology and expertise. An in-depth analysis of chemical space coverage of the library serves not only to characterize the collection, but also to compare the various chemoinformatics-driven selection procedures of maximal diversity sets. Compound selections contributed by various participating groups were mapped onto general-purpose self-organizing maps (SOMs) built on the basis of marketed drugs and bioactive reference molecules. In this way, the occupancy of chemical space by the EU-OPENSCREEN library could

  8. Autoradiographic method to screen for soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Zamani, B.; Knezek, B.D.; Flegler, S.L.; Beneke, E.S.; Dazzo, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic method was developed to screen for and isolate soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc (ZN). Diluted soil samples (pH 5.9) were plated on soil extract-glucose agar containing radioactive /sup 65/Zn. After 7 days of incubation, individual colonies which accumulated sufficient /sup 65/Zn could be detected by autoradiography. These colonies were isolated and confirmed as Zn accumulators in pure culture by using the autoradiographic plate technique. Most Zn accumulators were filamentous fungi, identified as Penicillium janthinellum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Paecilomyces sp. Isolates of Penicillium janthinellum were the most common Zn accumulators. The most abundant Zn-accumulating bacteria were Bacillus spp. The validity of the autoradiographic plate technique to differentiate soil microbes which accumulate Zn was examined independently by energy dispersive X-ray analysis in a scanning electron microscope. This method confirmed that fungal isolates which gave positive autoradiographic responses in the plate assay bioaccumulated more Zn in their biomass than fungal isolates from the same soil sample which gave negative autoradiographic responses. Thus, this technique can be applied to specifically screen for and isolate microbes from the environment which bioaccumulate Zn.

  9. Method for in vitro screening of aquatic fungicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods were developed for in vitro screening of candidate aquatic fungicides for efficacy against Achlya fiagellata, A. racemosa, Saprolegnia hypogyna and S. megasperma. Agar plugs containing fungal hyphae, removed from the edge of actively growing colonies, were placed in the depressions of spot plates containing 1a??0, 10a??0 and 100 mg/I of the candidate compounds for 15 or 60 min. After exposure, the plugs were transferred on to filter papers (0a??45-A?m pore) in a holder, rinsed, and then placed on cornmeal agar medium in tri-petri dishes. The plates were checked for mycelial growth after 48, 96 and 168 h of incubation in a lighted (400-800 A?m) environmental control chamber at 20A?2A?C. Criteria for the acceptance or rejection of candidate aquatic fungicides for further study were based on the antifungal spectrum index (ASI) comparisons between respective compounds and malachite green after 48 h and the concentration level producing complete growth inhibition. Candidate compounds whose ASI was less than 50% that of malachite green after 48 h or did not inhibit growth at levels less than 100 mg/l were rejected. This method provides a base from which in vivo and definitive test regimens can be developed. Preliminary in vitro screening of candidate fungicides reduces the need for costly in vivo tests on compounds that have low antifungal activity.

  10. Rapid Screening Method for Detection of Bacteria in Platelet Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Ribault, S.; Harper, K.; Grave, L.; Lafontaine, C.; Nannini, P.; Raimondo, A.; Faure, I. Besson

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness has long focused on the risks of the transmission of viral agents through blood product transfusion. This risk, however, pales in comparison to the less publicized danger associated with the transfusion of blood products contaminated with bacteria, in particular, platelet concentrates. Up to 1,000 cases of clinical sepsis after the transfusion of platelet concentrates are reported annually in the United States. The condition is characterized by acute reaction symptoms and the rapid onset of septicemia and carries a 20 to 40% mortality rate. The urgent need for a method for the routine screening of platelet concentrates to improve patient safety has long been recognized. We describe the development of a rapid and highly sensitive method for screening for bacteria in platelet concentrates for transfusion. No culture period is required; and the entire procedure, from the time of sampling to the time that the final result is obtained, takes less than 90 min. The method involves three basic stages: the selective removal of platelets by filtration following activation with a monoclonal antibody, DNA-specific fluorescent labeling of bacteria, and concentration of the bacteria on a membrane surface for enumeration by solid-phase cytometry. The method offers a universal means of detection of live, nondividing, or dead gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in complex cellular blood products. The sensitivity is higher than those of the culture-based methods available at present, with a detection limit of 10 to 102 CFU/ml, depending upon the bacterial strain. PMID:15131147

  11. Rapid screening method for detection of bacteria in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Ribault, S; Harper, K; Grave, L; Lafontaine, C; Nannini, P; Raimondo, A; Faure, I Besson

    2004-05-01

    Public awareness has long focused on the risks of the transmission of viral agents through blood product transfusion. This risk, however, pales in comparison to the less publicized danger associated with the transfusion of blood products contaminated with bacteria, in particular, platelet concentrates. Up to 1,000 cases of clinical sepsis after the transfusion of platelet concentrates are reported annually in the United States. The condition is characterized by acute reaction symptoms and the rapid onset of septicemia and carries a 20 to 40% mortality rate. The urgent need for a method for the routine screening of platelet concentrates to improve patient safety has long been recognized. We describe the development of a rapid and highly sensitive method for screening for bacteria in platelet concentrates for transfusion. No culture period is required; and the entire procedure, from the time of sampling to the time that the final result is obtained, takes less than 90 min. The method involves three basic stages: the selective removal of platelets by filtration following activation with a monoclonal antibody, DNA-specific fluorescent labeling of bacteria, and concentration of the bacteria on a membrane surface for enumeration by solid-phase cytometry. The method offers a universal means of detection of live, nondividing, or dead gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in complex cellular blood products. The sensitivity is higher than those of the culture-based methods available at present, with a detection limit of 10 to 10(2) CFU/ml, depending upon the bacterial strain. PMID:15131147

  12. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, internet-based chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexual men via the Internet. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexual men for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Results Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Conclusions Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people’s and health professionals’ attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing

  13. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC`s PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described.

  14. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H. )

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC's PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described.

  15. Treecode-based generalized Born method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenli; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Haizhao

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge-charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  16. A walk-in screening of dementia in the general population in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Wang, Ling-Chun; Ma, Tzu-Chiao; Yang, Yuan-Han

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased in its prevalence due to the increasing aged population. Currently there is no updated data on the prevalence of dementia including its very mild stage in Taiwan. Under the extensive coverage of Mentality Protection Center (MPC), Fo Guang Shan, Taiwan, the volunteers of MPC have conducted the medicine-related services and the screening of dementia by AD8 (ascertainment of dementia 8) that can screen the dementia even at its very mild stage in general population in all Taiwan. From 2011 to 2013, in total, 2,171 participants, 368 in the northern, 549 in the central, 877 in the southern, and 377 in the eastern part, were recruited with the mean age being 66.9 ± 10.2 years old. The ratio of suspected dementia patients, AD8 score greater than or equal to 2, was 13.6% of all recruited participants with their mean AD8 score being 2.9 ± 1.3, mean age being 69.4 ± 10.8 years old, and female predominance being 73.0%. Although this is a screening study, it has extensive coverage of all Taiwan and the use of AD8 is capable of screening very mild dementia. A further study with a randomized sampling to examine the prevalence and incidence of dementia including its very mild stage is encouraged. PMID:24883363

  17. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Current utility of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in general practice: implications for its use in cardiovascular disease screening

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a marker of systemic atherosclerosis and associated with a three to six fold increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. Furthermore, it is typically asymptomatic and under-diagnosed; this has resulted in escalating calls for the instigation of Primary Care PAD screening via Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) measurement. However, there is limited evidence regarding the feasibility of this and if the requisite core skills and knowledge for such a task already exist within primary care. This study aimed to determine the current utility of ABI measurement in general practices across Wales, with consideration of the implications for its use as a cardiovascular risk screening tool. Method A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all 478 General Practices within Wales, sent via their responsible Health Boards. Results The survey response rate was 20%. ABI measurement is primarily performed by nurses (93%) for the purpose of wound management (90%). It is infrequently (73% < 4 times per month) and often incorrectly used (42% out of compliance with current ABI guidance). Only 52% of general practitioners and 16% of nurses reported that patients with an ABI of ≤ 0.9 require aggressive cardiovascular disease risk factor modification (as recommended by current national and international guidelines). Conclusion ABI measurement is an under-utilised and often incorrectly performed procedure in the surveyed general practices. Prior to its potential adoption as a formalised screening tool for cardiovascular disease, there is a need for a robust training programme with standardised methodology in order to optimise accuracy and consistency of results. The significance of a diagnosis of PAD, in terms of associated increased cardiovascular risk and the necessary risk factor modification, needs to be highlighted. PMID:24742018

  19. Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder in a general psychiatric outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may affect survivors of a number of accidents and illnesses, in addition to violence victims and combat veterans. Prior research suggests that PTSD may be underdiagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem. Thus, a PTSD screening scale might have utility in routine clinical settings. The authors evaluated the screening performance of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a general psychiatric setting. Results indicated that the PDS performed as well in this setting as it did in the original trauma-focused validation studies, independent of PTSD status as a primary, versus secondary, reason for presenting. A simple cutoff score was adequate for case identification. There were no gender effects, and the scale performed equally well among patients with, versus without, a depressive diagnosis. PMID:12182279

  20. Antibody screening & identification in the general patient population at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Rosamma, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The development of alloantibodies can significantly complicate transfusion therapy and results in difficulties in cross-matching of blood. Most literature on alloimmunization is limited to multitransfused individuals, with very few studies on the general hospital patients. This study was aimed at assessing the frequency and type of unexpected red cell antibodies in the general patient population at a multispecialty tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods: The results of 49,077 antibody screening tests carried out on patients, from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. The clinical and transfusion records were reviewed. The data were compiled and statistically analysed. Results: A total of 49,077 (29,917; 60.96% males and 19,160; 39.04% females) patient samples were screened for the presence of unexpected antibodies. Antibody screening was positive in 403 patients (0.82%). In the serum samples of 164 patients only autoantibodies were identified, 27 revealed autoantibodies with one or more underlying alloantibodies, while 212 patients had only alloantibody/ies in their serum. The overall alloimmunization rate was 0.49 per cent. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent (64.1%), the most common alloantibody identified being anti E (37.2%), followed by anti D (19.2%). Interpretation & conclusions: Since clinically significant antibodies are frequently detected in our patient population, antibody screening and if required, identification is the need of the hour. Since antibodies against the common Rh and Kell blood group antigens are the most frequent, provision of Rh and Kell matched red cells may be of protective value. PMID:25366208

  1. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  2. Screening portal, system and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hunter, John A.; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2013-04-30

    A portal, system and method for screening an object for a target substance is provided. The portal includes an inflatable bladder expandable to form a test space for receiving the object and a plurality of nozzles positioned about the inflatable bladder. The nozzles are in fluid communication with a fluid source for directing air over the object whereby samples are removed from the object for examination. A collector is operatively connected to the inflatable bladder for collecting the samples removed from the object. A detector is operatively connected to the collector for examining the removed samples for the presence of the target substance. At least one preconcentrator may be operatively connected to the collector for concentrating the samples collected thereby.

  3. A Method for Universal Screening of Elementary School Students: Development of the Social Challenges Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Stein, Alexander J.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda; Matthews, Nicole L.; Openden, Daniel; Melmed, Raun D.

    2015-01-01

    Schools regularly screen students for hearing and vision impairments because they present impediments to academic progress. For the same reason, schools should consider adding a universal screening for social challenges, which may also impede the learning process. This study reports on the development of the Social Challenges Screening…

  4. A Desktop Screen Sharing System based on Various Connection Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Nobuo

    Recently it became very common to use information devices such as PCs during presentations and discussions. In these situations, a need arises for techniques that allow a smooth switch of presenters without changing cables, or an easy screen sharing in case of remote videoconferences. In this paper, we propose a desktop screen sharing system that can be used for such purposes and situations. For that, we designed an automatic control of connections in the VNC system that can be operated remotely over the network. We also suggested an interface that assigns a role such as “Screen sender" or “Screen receiver" to each terminal. In the proposed system, while sharing a screen between multiple terminals, one can easily display and browse the screen without having to understand how the others are connected. We also implemented a “role card" using contactless IC card, where roles are assigned only by placing the card in the IC reader.

  5. Screening methods to identify TALEN-mediated knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Kimi; Takeda, Naoki; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Sakuma, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided nucleases, such as the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system, is becoming the new standard for targeted genome modification in various organisms. Application of these techniques to the manufacture of knockout mice would be greatly aided by simple and easy methods for genotyping of mutant and wild-type pups among litters. However, there are no detailed or comparative reports concerning the identification of mutant mice generated using genome editing technologies. Here, we genotyped TALEN-derived enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) knockout mice using a combination of approaches, including fluorescence observation, heteroduplex mobility assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. The detection sensitivities for TALEN-induced mutations differed among these methods, and we therefore concluded that combinatorial testing is necessary for the screening and determination of mutant genotypes. Since the analytical methods tested can be carried out without specialized equipment, costly reagents and/or sophisticated protocols, our report should be of interest to a broad range of researchers who are considering the application of genome editing technologies in various organisms. PMID:24521866

  6. Screening Methods to Identify TALEN-Mediated Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Kimi; Takeda, Naoki; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Sakuma, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided nucleases, such as the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system, is becoming the new standard for targeted genome modification in various organisms. Application of these techniques to the manufacture of knockout mice would be greatly aided by simple and easy methods for genotyping of mutant and wild-type pups among litters. However, there are no detailed or comparative reports concerning the identification of mutant mice generated using genome editing technologies. Here, we genotyped TALEN-derived enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) knockout mice using a combination of approaches, including fluorescence observation, heteroduplex mobility assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. The detection sensitivities for TALEN-induced mutations differed among these methods, and we therefore concluded that combinatorial testing is necessary for the screening and determination of mutant genotypes. Since the analytical methods tested can be carried out without specialized equipment, costly reagents and/or sophisticated protocols, our report should be of interest to a broad range of researchers who are considering the application of genome editing technologies in various organisms. PMID:24521866

  7. A Screening Method for the ALK Fusion Gene in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer research has recently made significant progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and in developing treatments for it. Such achievements are directly utilized in clinical practice. Indeed, the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was first described in non-small cell lung cancer in 2007, and a molecularly targeted drug against the fusion was approved in 2011. However, lung cancer with the ALK fusion constitutes only a small fraction of lung cancers; therefore, efficient patient selection is crucial for successful treatment using the ALK inhibitor. Currently, RT-PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry are commonly used to detect the ALK fusion. Although FISH is currently the gold standard technique, there are no perfect methods for detecting these genetic alterations. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the possible criteria for selecting patients who are more likely to have the ALK fusion. If we can successfully screen patients, then ALK inhibitor treatment will be the best example of personalized therapy in terms of selecting patients with an uncommon genotype from a larger group with the same tumor phenotype. In other words, the personalized therapy may offer a new challenge for current clinical oncology. PMID:22655265

  8. A Screening Method for the ALK Fusion Gene in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Yoshiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer research has recently made significant progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and in developing treatments for it. Such achievements are directly utilized in clinical practice. Indeed, the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was first described in non-small cell lung cancer in 2007, and a molecularly targeted drug against the fusion was approved in 2011. However, lung cancer with the ALK fusion constitutes only a small fraction of lung cancers; therefore, efficient patient selection is crucial for successful treatment using the ALK inhibitor. Currently, RT-PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry are commonly used to detect the ALK fusion. Although FISH is currently the gold standard technique, there are no perfect methods for detecting these genetic alterations. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the possible criteria for selecting patients who are more likely to have the ALK fusion. If we can successfully screen patients, then ALK inhibitor treatment will be the best example of personalized therapy in terms of selecting patients with an uncommon genotype from a larger group with the same tumor phenotype. In other words, the personalized therapy may offer a new challenge for current clinical oncology. PMID:22655265

  9. A new method for screening and isolation of hypersecretion mutants in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Weenink, Xavier O; Punt, Peter J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Ram, Arthur F J

    2006-02-01

    Although filamentous fungi have a unique property of secreting a large amount of homologous extracellular proteins, the use of filamentous fungi as hosts for the production of heterologous proteins is limited because of the low production levels that are generally reached. Here, we report a general screening method for the isolation of mutants with increased protein production levels. The screening method makes use of an Aspergillus niger strain that lacks the two major amylolytic enzymes, glucoamylase (GlaA) and acid amylase (AamA). The double-mutant strain grows poorly on starch and its growth is restored after reintroducing the catalytic part of the glucoamylase gene (GlaA512). We show that the fusion of a heterologous protein, a laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus (Pox2), to the catalytic part of glucoamylase (GlaA512-Pox2) severely hampers efficient production of the glucoamylase protein, resulting in a slow-growth phenotype on starch. Laccase-hypersecreting mutants were obtained by isolating mutants that displayed improved growth on starch plates. The mutant with the highest growth rate on starch displayed the highest laccase activity, indicating that increased glucoamylase protein levels are correlated with higher laccase production levels. In principle, our method can be applied to any low-produced heterologous protein that is secreted as a fusion with the glucoamylase protein. PMID:16021486

  10. Inhibition screening method of microsomal UGTs using the cocktail approach.

    PubMed

    Gradinaru, Julieta; Romand, Stéphanie; Geiser, Laurent; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Spaggiari, Dany; Rudaz, Serge

    2015-04-25

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of the in vitro activity of the 10 major human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes was developed based on the cocktail approach. Specific substrates were first selected for each UGT: etoposide for UGT1A1, chenodeoxycholic acid for UGT1A3, trifluoperazine for UGT1A4, serotonin for UGT 1A6, isoferulic acid for UGT1A9, codeine for UGT2B4, azidothymidine for UGT2B7, levomedetomidine for UGT2B10, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine for UGT2B15 and testosterone for UGT2B17. Optimal incubation conditions, including time-based experiments on cocktail metabolism in pooled HLMs that had been performed, were then investigated. A 45-min incubation period was found to be a favorable compromise for all the substrates in the cocktail. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to separate the 10 substrates and their UGT-specific glucuronides in less than 6 min. The ability of the cocktail to highlight the UGT inhibitory potential of xenobiotics was initially proven by using well-known UGT inhibitors (selective and nonselective) and then by relating some of the screening results obtained by using the cocktail approach with morphine glucuronidation (substrate highly glucuronidated by UGT 2B7). All the results were in agreement with both the literature and with the expected effect on morphine glucuronidation. PMID:25684194

  11. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period.

  12. Use of unbalanced laminates as a screening method for microcracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    State-of-the-art, high temperature polyimide matrix composites, reinforced with continuous graphite fibers are known to be susceptible to intraply cracking when thermally cycled over their useful service temperature range. It is believed that the transply cracking, in part, results from residual stresses caused by differences in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the polymer matrix and the reinforcement. Thermal cycling tests to investigate this phenomenon involve expensive time and energy consuming programs which are not economically feasible for use as a part of a materials screening process. As an alternative to thermal cycling studies, a study of unbalanced crossply graphite fiber reinforcement composites was conducted to assess the effect of the composite ply layup and surface condition on the residual stresses that remain after the processing of these materials. The residual stresses were assessed by measuring the radii of curvature of the types of laminates that were studied. The temperature at which stress-free conditions existed were determined and a dye penetrant method was used to observe surface damage resulting from excessive residual stress buildup. These results are compared with some published results of thermal cycling tests that were previously conducted on balanced polyimide composites.

  13. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  14. Screening of the arrestin gene in dogs afflicted with generalized progressive retinal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Dekomien, Gabriele; Epplen, Jörg Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Background Intronic DNA sequences of the canine arrestin (SAG) gene was screened to identify potential disease causing mutations in dogs with generalized progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA). The intronic sequences flanking each of the 16 exons were obtained from clones of a canine genomic library. Results Using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequence analyses we screened affected and unaffected dogs of 23 breeds with presumed autosomal recessively (ar) transmitted gPRA. In the coding region of the SAG gene 12 nucleotide exchanges were identified, 5 of which lead to amino acid substitutions (H14C; A111V; A113T; D259T; A379E). 7 other exonic substitutions represent silent polymorphisms (C132C; Q199Q; H225H; V247V; P264P; T288T and L293L). 16 additional sequence variations were observed in intronic regions of different dog breeds. Conclusions In several breeds, these polymorphisms were found in homozygous state in unaffected and in heterozygous state in affected animals. Consequently these informative substitutions provide evidence to exclude mutations in the SAG gene as causing retinal degeneration in 14 of the 23 dog breeds with presumed ar transmitted gPRA. PMID:12123530

  15. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.; Dresel, P EVAN.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2006-08-07

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final. The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers). COC with similar properties were grouped for the screening evaluation. The screening evaluation was conducted in two primary steps. The initial screening step evaluated potential remediation methods based on whether they can be effectively applied within the environmental setting of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit for the specified contaminants. In the second step, potential remediation methods were screened using scoping calculations to estimate the scale of infrastructure, overall quantities of reagents, and conceptual approach for applying the method for each defined grouping of COC. Based on these estimates, each method was screened with respect to effectiveness, implementability, and relative cost categories of the CERCLA feasibility study screening process defined in EPA guidance.

  16. Screening the fifth force in the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    We study how the Vainshtein mechanism operates in the most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order equations of motion. The field equations of motion, which can be also applicable to most of other screening scenarios proposed in literature, are generally derived in a spherically symmetric space-time with a matter source. In the presence of a field coupling to the Ricci scalar, we clarify conditions under which the Vainshtein mechanism is at work in a weak gravitational background. We also obtain the solutions of the field equation inside a spherically symmetric body and show how they can be connected to exterior solutions that accommodate the Vainshtein mechanism. We apply our general results to a number of concrete models such as the covariant/extended Galileons and the DBI Galileons with Gauss-Bonnet and other terms. In these models the fifth force can be suppressed to be compatible with solar-system constraints, provided that non-linear field kinetic terms coupled to the Einstein tensor do not dominate over other non-linear field self-interactions.

  17. Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)

  18. Visual screening: an alternative method for reducing stereotypic behaviors.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, J J; Duncan, D; Cordisco, L; Barrett, R P

    1982-01-01

    Visual screening, a mildly aversive response suppression procedure, was evaluated across two studies for its effectiveness in reducing topographically similar and dissimilar stereotypic behaviors of four developmentally disabled children. In the first study, a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviors was used to assess the effectiveness of the procedure as a treatment for reducing the visual and auditory self-stimulatory responses of two 9-yr-old mentally retarded and behaviorally disturbed children. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used in the second study to evaluate the effectiveness of visual screening as a treatment for reducing stereotypic fabric pulling and self-mutilative ear bending, respectively, of two 13-yr-old mentally retarded, autisticlike adolescents. Long-term follow-up data for both studies were reported. The results suggested that visual screening was an easily administered, effective, and exceptionally durable treatment procedure for controlling a variety of stereotypic behaviors commonly associated with the developmentally disabled. PMID:7142063

  19. System and method for obtaining wide screen Schlieren photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for use in Schlieren photography includes (1) a viewing screen adjacently related to a large grating; (2) a small grating disposed in spaced relation with the large grating; (3) a transparent retainer for confining a transparent medium between the gratings; and (4) optics for imaging the small grating on the large grating. A light source and optically aligned lens are used to project a beam of light along axes extending through the small grating and strike the large grating, subsequent to passing through the medium. A Schlieren image of striations resulting from distortions of light rays proposed by the medium are formed on the screen. A camera is used to photograph the Schlieren image projected on the large screen.

  20. Eliminating Health Disparities: Innovative Methods to Improve Cervical Cancer Screening in a Medically Underserved Population

    PubMed Central

    Bharel, Monica; Santiago, Emely R.; Forgione, Sanju Nembang; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Homeless women have disproportionately lower rates of cervical cancer screening and higher rates of cervical cancer. In 2008, only 19% of the homeless women seen by Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) were screened for cervical cancer. To improve screening, BHCHP implemented a 6-part intervention that incorporates point-of-care service, multidisciplinary screening, improved health maintenance forms, population management, process improvement, and increased provider and patient education. This resulted in a significant increase in cervical cancer screening, from 19% in 2008 to 50% in 2013. When compared with national and local cervical cancer screening trends, BHCHP surpassed improvement rates seen in other vulnerable populations. Simple and innovative interventions proved to be the most effective and practical methods of improving screening. PMID:25905832

  1. Eliminating health disparities: innovative methods to improve cervical cancer screening in a medically underserved population.

    PubMed

    Bharel, Monica; Santiago, Emely R; Forgione, Sanju Nembang; León, Casey K; Weinreb, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Homeless women have disproportionately lower rates of cervical cancer screening and higher rates of cervical cancer. In 2008, only 19% of the homeless women seen by Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) were screened for cervical cancer. To improve screening, BHCHP implemented a 6-part intervention that incorporates point-of-care service, multidisciplinary screening, improved health maintenance forms, population management, process improvement, and increased provider and patient education. This resulted in a significant increase in cervical cancer screening, from 19% in 2008 to 50% in 2013. When compared with national and local cervical cancer screening trends, BHCHP surpassed improvement rates seen in other vulnerable populations. Simple and innovative interventions proved to be the most effective and practical methods of improving screening. PMID:25905832

  2. Postal urine specimens: are they a feasible method for genital chlamydial infection screening?

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, J; Rowsell, R; Horner, P; Crowley, T; Caul, E O; Low, N; Smith, G D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A United Kingdom (UK) screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis has recently been announced. Pilot projects involving the opportunistic testing of women attending health facilities are due to commence in several sites. There is a danger that this approach will fail to obtain adequate population coverage. The alternative--true systematic population screening--is generally assumed to be unfeasible. Studies in Denmark using postal urine specimens have challenged this assumption. No such studies have been reported from the UK. AIM: To assess the potential of urine specimens sent by post as the basis for a UK population screening strategy for genital chlamydial infection. METHOD: Two hundred patients (100 men, 100 women) aged 18 to 45 years were randomly sampled from the list of one urban group practice. Subjects were mailed an explanatory letter, a urine sample container, a sexual lifestyle questionnaire, and a prepaid return envelope. Non-responders were contacted by telephone; persistent non-responders were visited at home. Samples were tested for Chlamydia by DNA amplification and enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Sixty-four (32%) subjects were no longer living at their GP registered address. Of the remaining 136, 126 (93%) responded to the survey and 113 (83%) accepted the request for a urine sample and completed a questionnaire. Acceptance rates were similar for men and women and across age groups. Four samples (3%) were Chlamydia positive. CONCLUSION: Home mailed urine specimen collection in conjunction with a self-completed postal questionnaire is feasible. This could provide a viable basis both for determining population Chlamydia prevalence and for a UK Chlamydia population screening strategy. Overall cost effectiveness of such a strategy will depend on the cost of the test used. Comparative performance characteristics of the different currently available tests in this setting have yet to be fully determined. PMID:10562745

  3. Cross-screening: a new method to assemble clones rapidly and unambiguously into contigs.

    PubMed

    Locke, J; Rairdan, G; McDermid, H; Nash, D; Pilgrim, D; Bell, J; Roy, K; Hodgetts, R

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a new procedure that relies on an array of cross-hybridization tests to order a set of random clones into a contig. The method, called cross-screening, uses each clone as a target and its end sequences as probes, in a matrix of reciprocal cross-hybridization tests performed on a single blot. The relationships among the clones are determined rapidly from the pairwise tests, allowing clone order to be determined directly. We have applied this technique to DNAs from a set of overlapping lambda clones from Drosophila chromosome 4. The location and orientation of each clone derived from the cross-screening data was that expected from the map assembled from overlapping restriction sites and chromosomal walking. The procedure provided additional information on a previously unknown, internally repeated DNA sequence. To demonstrate the general utility of the procedure, we have applied it to a previously described clone set within a contig in region 22q12 of human chromosome 22. The correct relative position and orientation of these clones were derived from the cross-screening data without knowledge of, or reference to, any nucleotide sequence or restriction site analysis of the DNA concerned. The cross-screening procedure is fast, economical, and robust and allows clone overlaps to be determined efficiently, with minimal interference from repeated DNA sequences. This new procedure is specifically designed for small groups of overlapping clones (tens to hundreds) and should facilitate the ordering of subclone libraries derived from small chromosomes or the large cloned inserts carried in YAC, BAC, and P1 vectors. PMID:8919694

  4. Adaptive multiscale model reduction with Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Eric; Efendiev, Yalchin; Hou, Thomas Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss a general multiscale model reduction framework based on multiscale finite element methods. We give a brief overview of related multiscale methods. Due to page limitations, the overview focuses on a few related methods and is not intended to be comprehensive. We present a general adaptive multiscale model reduction framework, the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. Besides the method's basic outline, we discuss some important ingredients needed for the method's success. We also discuss several applications. The proposed method allows performing local model reduction in the presence of high contrast and no scale separation.

  5. Mounting method improves electrical and vibrational characteristics of screen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of the mesh or screen electrodes used in electron tubes are improved by decreasing the shunt capacitance of the tube while retaining the close spacing needed for the required resolution. Vibrational characteristics are enhanced by raising the natural resonant frequency.

  6. Methods and Procedures in Screening Gifted Mayan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Pedro Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Instruments, procedures, and criteria for the screening of Mayan students in Yucatan, Mexico are depicted and evaluated by analyzing the results of their use on 242 students in five different regions of Yucatan. These 242, 8th grade students were selected from a pool of 1,530 potentially gifted students. Participants responded to a variety of…

  7. A Polytomous Extension of the Generalized Distance Discriminating Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jianan; Xin, Tao; Zhang, Shumei; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a generalized distance discriminating method for test with polytomous response (GDD-P). The new method is the polytomous extension of an item response theory (IRT)-based cognitive diagnostic method, which can identify examinees' ideal response patterns (IRPs) based on a generalized distance index. The similarities…

  8. [Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease for general practitioners: screening instruments and early symptoms].

    PubMed

    Allegri, Ricardo F

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence and the potential benefits of early identification, dementias continue to be under-diagnosed. By some estimates, fewer than half of all dementia patients have been diagnosed. AD is particularly under-diagnosed in primary care settings perhaps because patients with early AD may appear entirely appropriate in the context of a brief office visit. This, coupled with increasingly abbreviated office visits and the lack of routine use of mental status exams, make identification of cognitive deficit challenging in the primary care setting. Detection of these patients must be made by the general practitioners, who must know the possibilities to detect and guide the study of them. Patients' screening must include discrimination of forgetfulness and use of mini mental examination. Once the cognitive impairment is suspected we need to continue with neuropsychological assessment for cognitive profile, ancillary studies and CT scan to exclude structural diseases. The appropriate knowledge and training of general practitioners will allow the early diagnosis of these patients and the beginning of preventive actions and adequate symptomatic treatment. PMID:21598736

  9. Evaluation of a standard test method for screening fuels in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.; Schabron, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    A new screening method for fuel contamination in soils was recently developed as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-5831-95, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be sued to screen organic- rich soils, as well as being fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and cola oil, can be determined. The screening method for fuels in soils was evaluated by conducting a Collaborative study on the method. In the Collaborative study, a sand and an organic soil spiked with various concentrations of diesel fuel were tested. Data from the Collaborative study were used to determine the reproducibility (between participants) and repeatability (within participants) precision of the method for screening the test materials. The Collaborative study data also provide information on the performance of portable field equipment (patent pending) versus laboratory equipment for performing the screening method and a comparison of diesel concentration values determined using the screening method versus a laboratory method.

  10. Comparison of three screening methods to select mixed-microbial inoculum for mixed-acid fermentations.

    PubMed

    Golub, Kristina W; Forrest, Andrea K; Wales, Melinda E; Hammett, Amy Jo M; Cope, Julia L; Wilkinson, Heather H; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2013-02-01

    Using a mixed culture of microorganisms, the carboxylate platform converts biomass into hydrocarbons and chemicals. To develop a method that identifies the highest performing inoculum for carboxylate fermentations, five bacterial communities were screened and ranked by three fermentation performance tests: (1) 30-day batch screen, (2) 28-day continuum particle distribution model (CPDM), and (3) 5-month continuous countercurrent fermentation trains. To screen numerous inocula sources, these tests were used sequentially in an aseptic environment. For the batch-fermentation screen, Inoculum 1 achieved the highest conversion. For the CPDM evaluation, the operating map for Inoculum 1 had the highest performance. For the continuous countercurrent fermentation, the train resulting from Inoculum 1 was among the best performers. This study suggests that the three screens are a useful and predictive method for choosing optimal inocula sources. The bacterial community with optimal performance in these three screens could be considered for use in commercial-scale fermentations. PMID:23334035

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field analytical screening program (FASP) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) method uses a temperature-programmable gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCBs. Gas chromatography is an EPA-approved method for determi...

  12. Knowledge-Based Methods To Train and Optimize Virtual Screening Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Swift, Robert V; Jusoh, Siti A; Offutt, Tavina L; Li, Eric S; Amaro, Rommie E

    2016-05-23

    Ensemble docking can be a successful virtual screening technique that addresses the innate conformational heterogeneity of macromolecular drug targets. Yet, lacking a method to identify a subset of conformational states that effectively segregates active and inactive small molecules, ensemble docking may result in the recommendation of a large number of false positives. Here, three knowledge-based methods that construct structural ensembles for virtual screening are presented. Each method selects ensembles by optimizing an objective function calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: either the area under the ROC curve (AUC) or a ROC enrichment factor (EF). As the number of receptor conformations, N, becomes large, the methods differ in their asymptotic scaling. Given a set of small molecules with known activities and a collection of target conformations, the most resource intense method is guaranteed to find the optimal ensemble but scales as O(2(N)). A recursive approximation to the optimal solution scales as O(N(2)), and a more severe approximation leads to a faster method that scales linearly, O(N). The techniques are generally applicable to any system, and we demonstrate their effectiveness on the androgen nuclear hormone receptor (AR), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPAR-δ) drug targets. Conformations that consisted of a crystal structure and molecular dynamics simulation cluster centroids were used to form AR and CDK2 ensembles. Multiple available crystal structures were used to form PPAR-δ ensembles. For each target, we show that the three methods perform similarly to one another on both the training and test sets. PMID:27097522

  13. Knowledge-Based Methods To Train and Optimize Virtual Screening Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble docking can be a successful virtual screening technique that addresses the innate conformational heterogeneity of macromolecular drug targets. Yet, lacking a method to identify a subset of conformational states that effectively segregates active and inactive small molecules, ensemble docking may result in the recommendation of a large number of false positives. Here, three knowledge-based methods that construct structural ensembles for virtual screening are presented. Each method selects ensembles by optimizing an objective function calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: either the area under the ROC curve (AUC) or a ROC enrichment factor (EF). As the number of receptor conformations, N, becomes large, the methods differ in their asymptotic scaling. Given a set of small molecules with known activities and a collection of target conformations, the most resource intense method is guaranteed to find the optimal ensemble but scales as O(2N). A recursive approximation to the optimal solution scales as O(N2), and a more severe approximation leads to a faster method that scales linearly, O(N). The techniques are generally applicable to any system, and we demonstrate their effectiveness on the androgen nuclear hormone receptor (AR), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPAR-δ) drug targets. Conformations that consisted of a crystal structure and molecular dynamics simulation cluster centroids were used to form AR and CDK2 ensembles. Multiple available crystal structures were used to form PPAR-δ ensembles. For each target, we show that the three methods perform similarly to one another on both the training and test sets. PMID:27097522

  14. Challenges to implementation of developmental screening in urban primary care: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify challenges to developmental screening and strategies for screening in an urban pediatric setting. Methods Parents of young children and clinicians at four urban pediatric practices participated in focus groups prior to implementation of screening. Participants were queried regarding attitudes, social norms, and barriers to developmental screening. Using information from the focus groups, workflow strategies were developed for implementing screening. Referral rates and satisfaction with screening were gathered at the conclusion. Results Six focus groups of parents and clinicians were conducted. Major themes identified included 1) parents desired greater input on child development and increased time with physicians, 2) physicians did not fully trust parental input, 3) physicians preferred clinical acumen over screening tools, and 4) physicians lacked time and training to conduct screening. For the intervention, developmental screening was implemented at the 9-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month well visits using the Ages & Stages Questionnaire-II and the Modified Checklist for Toddlers. 1397 (98% of eligible) children under 36 months old were enrolled, and 1184 (84%) were screened at least once. 1002 parents (85%) completed a survey at the conclusion of the screening trial. Most parents reported no difficulty completing the screens (99%), felt the screens covered important areas of child development (98%), and felt they learned about their child’s strengths and limitations (88%). Conclusions Developmental screening in urban low-income practices is feasible and acceptable, but requires strategies to capture parental input, provide training, facilitate referrals, and develop workflow procedures and electronic decision support. PMID:24447411

  15. Novel screening method for potential skin-whitening compounds by a luciferase reporter assay.

    PubMed

    Shirasugi, Ichiro; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Matsui, Takashi; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Suiko, Masahito

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the melanin content by using B16 melanoma cells is generally applied to find novel skin-whitening agents. However, this measurement method using B16 melanoma cells has such disadvantages, as the time taken, its sensitivity, and troublesomeness. We therefore attempted in the present study to establish a reporter assay system by measuring the tyrosinase promoter activity to use for convenient, high-throughput screening of new melanogenesis inhibitors. We first confirmed the validity of this reporter assay system by using such known skin-whitening agents, as arbutin, sulforaphane, and theaflavin 3,3'-digallate. We then compared the effect of 56 compounds on the tyrosinase promoter activity to test this reporter assay system. Carnosol, and rottlerin strongly inhibited the tyrosinase promoter activity. Moreover, carnosol and rottlerin decreased melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression in a dose-dependent manner when using B16 melanoma cells. These results indicate this new luciferase reported assay system to be an effective and convenient method for screening potential skin-whitening compounds. PMID:21071833

  16. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Sung-Hou; Kim, Rosalind; Jancarik, Jamila

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  17. Interventional Education Methods for Increasing Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Robertson, Lyn B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the three methods of education-individual, individual with an educational brochure for spouses, and group-on participation on breast cancer screening in Turkey. A total of 550 home visits were made and 446 women were interviewed to accrue 327 women for the study, 26.7% of whom reported receiving a screening mammogram within the past 2 years. Participants were divided into one of the three educational groups, and following the educational session, they were invited to attend a breast cancer screening program. The results indicated that the decision to have a screening mammogram was influenced by the method of education and the knowledge score. Women, who were educated, within a group scored the highest. These results demonstrate that group education is an effective method of increasing breast cancer knowledge and screening awareness. PMID:25077769

  18. A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.

  19. Terbium-sensitized luminescence screening method for fluoroquinolones in beef serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods commonly used for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay was developed...

  20. Time-resolved luminescence screening method for enrofloxacin in beef serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods currently used in the U.S. for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay ...

  1. Inexpensive Method for Selecting Receptor Structures for Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zunnan; Wong, Chung F

    2016-01-25

    This article introduces a screening performance index (SPI) to help select from a number of experimental structures one or a few that are more likely to identify more actives among its top hits from virtual screening of a compound library. It achieved this by docking only known actives to the experimental structures without considering a large number of decoys to reduce computational costs. The SPI is calculated by using the docking energies of the actives to all the receptor structures. We evaluated the performance of the SPI by applying it to study eight protein systems: fatty acid binding protein adipocyte FABP4, serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF, beta-1 adrenergic receptor ADRB1, TGF-beta receptor type I TGFR1, adenosylhomocysteinase SAHH, thyroid hormone receptor beta-1 THB, phospholipase A2 group IIA PA2GA, and cytochrome P450 3a4 CP3A4. We found that the SPI agreed with the results from other popular performance metrics such as Boltzmann-Enhanced Discrimination Receiver Operator Characteristics (BEDROC), Robust Initial Enhancement (RIE), Area Under Accumulation Curve (AUAC), and Enrichment Factor (EF) but is less expensive to calculate. SPI also performed better than the best docking energy, the molecular volume of the bound ligand, and the resolution of crystal structure in selecting good receptor structures for virtual screening. The implications of these findings were further discussed in the context of ensemble docking, in situations when no experimental structure for the targeted protein was available, or under circumstances when quick choices of receptor structures need to be made before quantitative indexes such as the SPI and BEDROC can be calculated. PMID:26651874

  2. Toward Harmonization of Performance Criteria for Mycotoxin Screening Methods: The EU Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T

    2016-07-01

    Screening methods are defined as methods that are used to detect the presence of a substance or class of substances at the level of interest. These methods must have the capability of high sample throughput when being used to screen large numbers of samples for potential noncompliant results. Before using a screening method for practical applications, its fitness for the intended purpose needs to be demonstrated. This is normally achieved by conducting a validation study, comparing method performance against predefined criteria. Official guidelines recently established by the European Union for the evaluation of fitness-for-purpose performance parameters of screening methods to be used for the detection of mycotoxins in foods are presented and discussed herein. Practical applications of this evaluation scheme for single- and interlaboratory validation studies, as well as relevant information on screening method performances are reviewed, with emphasis on the impact of mycotoxin contamination in real samples on the fitness-for-purpose of the screening test. Lastly, validation follow-up is discussed in terms of extension of the scope of the method (increasing the range of application in terms of mycotoxin/matrix combinations), method implementation and verification, and evaluation of the method's applicability to modified mycotoxins. PMID:27455932

  3. Effect of reminders mailed to general practitioners on colorectal cancer screening adherence: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Julien; Ferrat, Émilie; Attali, Claude; Bercier, Sandrine; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Brixi, Zahida; Veerabudun, Kalaivani; Renard, Vincent; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    Reminders have been used in various settings, but failed to produce convincing evidence of benefits on patient adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sending general practitioners (GPs) printed reminders about CRC screening. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 144 GPs in the Val-de-Marne district (France), who provided care for any reason to 20 778 patients eligible for CRC screening between June 2010 and November 2011. Data were collected from the main statutory health-insurance programme and local cancer screening agency. GPs were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 proportion to the intervention or the control group. Every 4 months, intervention-group GPs received a computer-generated printed list of patients who had not performed scheduled faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. The primary outcome was patient adherence to FOBT screening or exclusion from CRC screening for medical reasons. The screening adherence rate was 31.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.3-32.1] in the control group and 32.9% (95% CI 32.0-33.8) in the intervention group [crude relative risk, 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.09), P<0.01]. This rate was not significantly different between groups by multilevel modelling accounting for clustering and confounding variables [adjusted relative risk, 1.07 (95% CI 0.95-1.20), P=0.27]. Computer-generated printed reminders sent to GPs did not significantly improve patient adherence to organized CRC screening by the FOBT. PMID:26340058

  4. General Practitioners’ Experiences of, and Responses to, Uncertainty in Prostate Cancer Screening: Insights from a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer is controversial. There are unresolved tensions and disagreements amongst experts, and clinical guidelines conflict. This both reflects and generates significant uncertainty about the appropriateness of screening. Little is known about general practitioners’ (GPs’) perspectives and experiences in relation to PSA testing of asymptomatic men. In this paper we asked the following questions: (1) What are the primary sources of uncertainty as described by GPs in the context of PSA testing? (2) How do GPs experience and respond to different sources of uncertainty? Methods This was a qualitative study that explored general practitioners’ current approaches to, and reasoning about, PSA testing of asymptomatic men. We draw on accounts generated from interviews with 69 general practitioners located in Australia (n = 40) and the United Kingdom (n = 29). The interviews were conducted in 2013–2014. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods. Uncertainty in PSA testing was identified as a core issue. Findings Australian GPs reported experiencing substantially more uncertainty than UK GPs. This seemed partly explainable by notable differences in conditions of practice between the two countries. Using Han et al’s taxonomy of uncertainty as an initial framework, we first outline the different sources of uncertainty GPs (mostly Australian) described encountering in relation to prostate cancer screening and what the uncertainty was about. We then suggest an extension to Han et al’s taxonomy based on our analysis of data relating to the varied ways that GPs manage uncertainties in the context of PSA testing. We outline three broad strategies: (1) taking charge of uncertainty; (2) engaging others in managing uncertainty; and (3) transferring the responsibility for reducing or managing some uncertainties to other parties. Conclusion Our analysis suggests some GPs experienced uncertainties associated

  5. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  6. Feasibility of an electromagnetic compatibility method for MRgFUS using a wire mesh screen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated an electromagnetic compatibility method for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery using a conductive wire mesh screen. This screen has a good ultrasound transmission and shielding effectiveness. A hybrid acoustic simulation method was developed to analyze the effects of mesh parameters and the HIFU working frequency on the acoustic field. Experiments were performed to measure both acoustic pressure profile and radiated electromagnetic noise. With the proposed mesh screen, the electromagnetic radiation emission was reduced by 14dB at 128MHz while the acoustic focal intensity was reduced by less than 11% using one screen. This shielding method is easy to implement and requires no additional phase correction method. This method also improves the quality of MR images. PMID:27448456

  7. Method for screening inhibitors of the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis

    DOEpatents

    Cirino, Nick M.; Jackson, Paul J.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is integral to the mechanism of anthrax poisoning. The cloning, expression and purification of a 32 kDa B. anthracis PA fragment (PA32) is described. This fragment has also been expressed as a fusion construct to stabilized green fluorescent protein (EGFP-PA32). Both proteins were capable of binding to specific cell surface receptors as determined by fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometric assay. To confirm binding specificity in the flow cytometric assay, non-fluorescent PA83 or PA32 was used to competitively inhibit fluorescent EGFP-PA32 binding to cell receptors. This assay can be employed as a rapid screen for compounds which disrupts binding of PA to cells. Additionally, the high intracellular expression levels and ease of purification make this recombinant protein an attractive vaccine candidate or therapeutic treatment for anthrax poisoning.

  8. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Shevtsova, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Gladkowa, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Sterry, W.; Blume-Peytavi, U.

    2008-12-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients.

  9. EVALUATION OF A FLUOROMETRIC SCREENING METHOD FOR PREDICTING TOTAL PAH CONCENTRATIONS IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flurorometric screening method was used to estimate total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments collected from the St. Louis River Area of Concern in northeastern Minnesota. Sediments were collected as part of a Regional Environmental Monitoring and Asses...

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new technologies to assess their effectiveness. This bulletin summarizes results from the 1993 SITE demonstration of the Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Method to determine P...

  11. A Field Test of Web-Based Screening for Dry Eye Disease to Enhance Awareness of Eye Problems Among General Internet Users: A Latent Strategy to Promote Health

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Miki; Kawazoe, Takashi; Kamiyashiki, Masaaki; Sano, Kokoro; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Web-based self-check system including a brief questionnaire would seem to be a suitable tool for rapid disease screening. Objective The purpose of this preliminary study was to test a Web-based self-screening questionnaire for drawing attention to dry eye disease among general Internet users and identifying those with a higher risk of developing the condition. Methods A survey website was launched and used to recruit participants from general Internet users. In the first phase, volunteers were asked to complete a Web-based self-screening questionnaire containing 12 questions on dry eye symptoms. The second phase focused on the respondents who reported five or more dry eye symptoms and expressed their intention to seek medical attention. These participants performed the Schirmer test, for evaluating tear production, and completed a paper-based lifestyle questionnaire to provide relevant background data. Results Of the 1689 visitors to the website, 980 (58.0%) volunteers completed the Web-based self-screening questionnaire. Among these, 355 (36.2%) respondents reported five or more dry eye symptoms. Then, 99 (27.9%) of the symptomatic participants performed the Schirmer test and completed the paper-based lifestyle questionnaire. Out of these, 32 (32.2%) had abnormal tear production (≤5 mm). Conclusions The proposed Web-based self-screening questionnaire seems to be a promising tool for raising awareness of dry eye disease among general Internet users and identifying those with a higher risk of developing the condition, although further research is needed to validate its effectiveness. PMID:24072379

  12. Using pre-screening methods for an effective and reliable site characterization at megasites.

    PubMed

    Algreen, Mette; Kalisz, Mariusz; Stalder, Marcel; Martac, Eugeniu; Krupanek, Janusz; Trapp, Stefan; Bartke, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    This paper illustrates the usefulness of pre-screening methods for an effective characterization of polluted sites. We applied a sequence of site characterization methods to a former Soviet military airbase with likely fuel and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) contamination in shallow groundwater and subsoil. The methods were (i) phytoscreening with tree cores; (ii) soil gas measurements for CH4, O2, and photoionization detector (PID); (iii) direct-push with membrane interface probe (MIP) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) sensors; (iv) direct-push sampling; and (v) sampling from soil and from groundwater monitoring wells. Phytoscreening and soil gas measurements are rapid and inexpensive pre-screening methods. Both indicated subsurface pollution and hot spots successfully. The direct-push sensors yielded 3D information about the extension and the volume of the subsurface plume. This study also expanded the applicability of tree coring to BTEX compounds and tested the use of high-resolution direct-push sensors for light hydrocarbons. Comparison of screening results to results from conventional soil and groundwater sampling yielded in most cases high rank correlation and confirmed the findings. The large-scale application of non- or low-invasive pre-screening can be of help in directing and focusing the subsequent, more expensive investigation methods. The rapid pre-screening methods also yielded useful information about potential remediation methods. Overall, we see several benefits of a stepwise screening and site characterization scheme, which we propose in conclusion. PMID:25982981

  13. Predicting stages of adoption of mammography screening in a general population.

    PubMed

    Chamot, E; Charvet, A I; Perneger, T V

    2001-10-01

    This study assessed predictions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behaviour change applied to mammography screening in a random sample of 909 Swiss women aged 40-80 years. We examined stages of mammography adoption, positive and negative attitudes toward screening (pros, cons and decisional balance), and additional predisposing, enabling and reinforcing characteristics. The stage of mammography adoption was defined for 827 women, of whom 46.9% reported on-schedule screening (action 10.2%, maintenance 29.7%, relapse risk 7.0%) and 53% did not (precontemplation 23.1%, contemplation 13.5%, relapse 16.4%). Independent factors associated with more advanced stages (from precontemplation to maintenance) were high pros, low cons, belief that mammography screening is recommended every 2 years, high objective risk of breast cancer, being married and higher income. Independent correlates of stage regression (from action/maintenance to relapse) were high cons, belief that mammography screening is recommended every 4 years or not at all and not being married. Perceived utility of an organised screening programme and reluctance to pay for a mammogram were independently associated with only certain transitions between stages of adoption. Our results confirm the applicability of the TTM to mammography screening in a European context. They also suggest that constructs other than pros and cons may be useful in predicting mammography use. PMID:11576843

  14. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.; Lewis, Cris; Mahan, Cynthia A.; Wells, Cyndi A.

    2011-04-26

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  15. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.; Lewis, Cris; Mahan, Cynthia A.; Wells, Cyndi A.

    2009-04-14

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow-separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  16. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490

  17. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-01-01

    Four different methods of teaching--cooperative learning, class discussions, concept maps, and lectures--were integrated into a freshman-level general chemistry course to compare students' levels of participation. Findings support the idea that multiple modes of learning foster the metacognitive skills necessary for mastering general chemistry.…

  18. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MOUSE: GENERAL APPROACH AND METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse effects of chemicals on the lymphoreticular system have generated considerable toxicological interest. In the series of papers, the effects of selected environmentally relevant compounds are reported. The first paper describes the methods and general approach used in ...

  19. Predicting High-Throughput Screening Results With Scalable Literature-Based Discovery Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, T; Widdows, D; Stephan, C; Zinner, R; Kim, J; Rindflesch, T; Davies, P

    2014-01-01

    The identification of new therapeutic uses for existing agents has been proposed as a means to mitigate the escalating cost of drug development. A common approach to such repurposing involves screening libraries of agents for activities against cell lines. In silico methods using knowledge from the biomedical literature have been proposed to constrain the costs of screening by identifying agents that are likely to be effective a priori. However, results obtained with these methods are seldom evaluated empirically. Conversely, screening experiments have been criticized for their inability to reveal the biological basis of their results. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of a scalable literature-based approach, discovery-by-analogy, to identify a small number of active agents within a large library screened for activity against prostate cancer cells. The methods used permit retrieval of the knowledge used to infer their predictions, providing a plausible biological basis for predicted activity. PMID:25295575

  20. An expert system for screening enhanced oil recovery methods

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J. ); Luger, G.F. . Dept. of Computer Science); Bretz, R.E.; Osowski, J.J. . Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a small expert system can be written with inexpensive shells (CLIPS and EXSHELL) and run on inexpensive personal computers. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based system written in the C language. Rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL is a backward-chaining rule-based system written in the PROLOG language. These shells were used to write a small expert system, an expert assistant, which is used to help petroleum engineers screen possible enhanced oil recovery candidate processes. Though the final candidate process is selected on the basis of an economic evaluation, the expert assistant greatly reduces the amount of work involved. The system selects the optimal collection of paths to the solutions and is easily updated as new data become available. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells, compares the approach used by each, and demonstrates the relative advantages of forward-chaining versus backward-chaining for this problem. 11 refs.

  1. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  2. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  3. Large-scale systematic analysis of 2D fingerprint methods and parameters to improve virtual screening enrichments.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Madhavi; Lowrie, Jeffrey F; Dixon, Steven L; Sherman, Woody

    2010-05-24

    A systematic virtual screening study on 11 pharmaceutically relevant targets has been conducted to investigate the interrelation between 8 two-dimensional (2D) fingerprinting methods, 13 atom-typing schemes, 13 bit scaling rules, and 12 similarity metrics using the new cheminformatics package Canvas. In total, 157 872 virtual screens were performed to assess the ability of each combination of parameters to identify actives in a database screen. In general, fingerprint methods, such as MOLPRINT2D, Radial, and Dendritic that encode information about local environment beyond simple linear paths outperformed other fingerprint methods. Atom-typing schemes with more specific information, such as Daylight, Mol2, and Carhart were generally superior to more generic atom-typing schemes. Enrichment factors across all targets were improved considerably with the best settings, although no single set of parameters performed optimally on all targets. The size of the addressable bit space for the fingerprints was also explored, and it was found to have a substantial impact on enrichments. Small bit spaces, such as 1024, resulted in many collisions and in a significant degradation in enrichments compared to larger bit spaces that avoid collisions. PMID:20450209

  4. The importance of screening and monitoring: the Standard Days Method and cycle regularity.

    PubMed

    Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria; Arévalo, Marcos

    2004-03-01

    The Standard Days Method is a simple fertility awareness-based method of family planning with a correct-use pregnancy rate of 4.8 at 1 year and a typical-use pregnancy rate of 12. The protocol for providing the method includes guidelines for screening potential users for cycle regularity. There also are guidelines for monitoring users to determine continued method eligibility. This article explores the importance of these screening and monitoring procedures. A large existing dataset from a World Health Organization study of the Ovulation Method was used to estimate the theoretical probability of pregnancy using the Standard Days Method, with and without screening and monitoring. We used data from the efficacy study of the Standard Days Method to examine the effectiveness of current screening and monitoring procedures. Results suggest that current screening and monitoring procedures are useful in identifying women for whom the Standard Days Method is less effective. Strict adherence to these procedures is ideal, but even women who do not meet the cycle-regularity guidelines would have a relatively low probability of pregnancy. PMID:14969667

  5. Six Biophysical Screening Methods Miss a Large Proportion of Crystallographically Discovered Fragment Hits: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Schiebel, Johannes; Radeva, Nedyalka; Krimmer, Stefan G; Wang, Xiaojie; Stieler, Martin; Ehrmann, Frederik R; Fu, Kan; Metz, Alexander; Huschmann, Franziska U; Weiss, Manfred S; Mueller, Uwe; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard

    2016-06-17

    Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD) has become a pillar in drug development. Typical applications of this method comprise at least two biophysical screens as prefilter and a follow-up crystallographic experiment on a subset of fragments. Clearly, structural information is pivotal in FBLD, but a key question is whether such a screening cascade strategy will retrieve the majority of fragment-bound structures. We therefore set out to screen 361 fragments for binding to endothiapepsin, a representative of the challenging group of aspartic proteases, employing six screening techniques and crystallography in parallel. Crystallography resulted in the very high number of 71 structures. Yet alarmingly, 44% of these hits were not detected by any biophysical screening approach. Moreover, any screening cascade, building on the results from two or more screening methods, would have failed to predict at least 73% of these hits. We thus conclude that, at least in the present case, the frequently applied biophysical prescreening filters deteriorate the number of possible X-ray hits while only the immediate use of crystallography enables exhaustive retrieval of a maximum of fragment structures, which represent a rich source guiding hit-to-lead-to-drug evolution. PMID:27028906

  6. Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.

    PubMed

    Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

    2003-01-29

    Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products. PMID:12537422

  7. Pi sampling: a methodical and flexible approach to initial macromolecular crystallization screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrec, Fabrice Palmer, Colin M.; Lebon, Guillaume; Warne, Tony

    2011-05-01

    Pi sampling, derived from the incomplete factorial approach, is an effort to maximize the diversity of macromolecular crystallization conditions and to facilitate the preparation of 96-condition initial screens. The Pi sampling method is derived from the incomplete factorial approach to macromolecular crystallization screen design. The resulting ‘Pi screens’ have a modular distribution of a given set of up to 36 stock solutions. Maximally diverse conditions can be produced by taking into account the properties of the chemicals used in the formulation and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions. The Pi sampling method has been implemented in a web-based application that generates screen formulations and recipes. It is particularly adapted to screens consisting of 96 different conditions. The flexibility and efficiency of Pi sampling is demonstrated by the crystallization of soluble proteins and of an integral membrane-protein sample.

  8. Computationally efficient autoregressive method for generating phase screens with frozen flow and turbulence in optical simulations.

    PubMed

    Srinath, Srikar; Poyneer, Lisa A; Rudy, Alexander R; Ammons, S Mark

    2015-12-28

    We present a sample-based, autoregressive (AR) method for the generation and time evolution of atmospheric phase screens that is computationally efficient and uses a single parameter per Fourier mode to vary the power contained in the frozen flow and stochastic components. We address limitations of Fourier-based methods such as screen periodicity and low spatial frequency power content. Comparisons of adaptive optics (AO) simulator performance when fed AR phase screens and translating phase screens reveal significantly elevated residual closed-loop temporal power for small increases in added stochastic content at each time step, thus displaying the importance of properly modeling atmospheric "boiling". We present preliminary evidence that our model fits to AO telemetry are better reflections of real conditions than the pure frozen flow assumption. PMID:26831998

  9. Overview of Non-Volatile Testing and Screening Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh

    2001-01-01

    Testing methods for memories and non-volatile memories have become increasingly sophisticated as they become denser and more complex. High frequency and faster rewrite times as well as smaller feature sizes have led to many testing challenges. This paper outlines several testing issues posed by novel memories and approaches to testing for radiation and reliability effects. We discuss methods for measurements of Total Ionizing Dose (TID).

  10. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  11. A generalization of the method of harmonic balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is provided for generalizing the method of harmonic balance to obtain higher-order approximations to the periodic solutions of differential equations for two systems, one a conservative system and the other nonconservative. The procedure is currently being applied to investigate the possible solution behaviors of singular, nonlinear oscillators, where the usual perturbation methods do not work.

  12. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China. PMID:26911012

  13. Recruitment methods employed in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial

    PubMed Central

    Gren, Lisa; Broski, Karen; Childs, Jeffery; Cordes, Jill; Engelhard, Deborah; Gahagan, Betsy; Gamito, Eduard; Gardner, Vivien; Geisser, Mindy; Higgins, Darlene; Jenkins, Victoria; Lamerato, Lois; Lappe, Karen; Lowery, Heidi; McGuire, Colleen; Miedzinski, Mollie; Ogden, Sheryl; Tenorio, Sally; Watt, Gavin; Wohlers, Bonita; Marcus, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Background The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) is a US National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate whether certain screening tests reduce mortality from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. To obtain adequate statistical power, it was necessary to enroll over 150,000 healthy volunteers. Recruitment began in 1993 and ended in 2001. Purpose Our goal is to evaluate the success of recruitment methods employed by the 10 PLCO screening centers. We also provide estimates of recruitment yield and cost for our most successful strategy, direct mail. Methods Each screening center selected its own methods of recruitment. Methods changed throughout the recruitment period as needed. For this manuscript, representatives from each screening center provided information on methods utilized and their success. Results In the United States between 1993 and 2001, ten screening centers enrolled 154,934 study participants. Based on participant self-report, an estimated 95% of individuals were recruited by direct mail. Overall, enrollment yield for direct mail was 1.0%. Individual center enrollment yield ranged from 0.7% to 3.8%. Cost per enrolled participant was $9.64–35.38 for direct mail, excluding personnel costs. Limitations Numeric data on recruitment processes were not kept consistently at individual screening centers. Numeric data in this manuscript are based on the experiences of 5 of the 10 centers. Conclusions Direct mail, using rosters of names and addresses from profit and not-for-profit (including government) organizations, was the most successful and most often used recruitment method. Other recruitment strategies, such as community outreach and use of mass media, can be an important adjunct to direct mail in recruiting minority populations. PMID:19254935

  14. An Australian mixed methods pilot study exploring students performing patient risk screening.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Simone J; Golder, Janet; Cant, Robyn P; Davidson, Zoe E

    2016-06-01

    Clinical placement shortages and rising costs have created demand to provide low-resource, high value student learning opportunities. Malnutrition screening provides a vehicle for achieving this. A mixed methods explanatory sequential intervention study investigated time costs, and students' perceptions of preparedness after performing routine patient screening tasks, as well as students' overall views on their feelings of confidence and preparedness when commencing their first clinical placements. Pre-clinical student dietitians commencing initial placements participated (n=58), with 16 of these forming a subgroup who performed malnutrition screening tasks while the others attended usual placement orientation. The time saved when students undertook screening tasks usually assigned to nurses was substantial. Questionnaires revealed that student perceived confidence increased in the screening group when compared with controls. Focus group themes included "anxiety and confidence," "learning in the clinical learning environment," "communication skill development," and "the pre-placement screening experience." Students performing routine patient-screening tasks prior to initial clinical placement has potential cost savings for healthcare organizations and was perceived to be valuable for learning. PMID:26685779

  15. An analysis of highly viscous flow using Imai's complex function method with application to screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Jun-ichi; Shi-igai, Hiroyoshi; Yabuno, Kohei; Saito, Tadayuki

    1992-06-01

    The complex function method is applied to screen printing flow with low Reynolds number assuming that the printing ink is Newtonian. The screen printing flow is expressed through a Taylor flow in the corner. The pressure distribution, vorticity distribution and stream lines of the Taylor flow can easily be obtained by using the complex function method. A new model of the flow which may better express the screen printing is obtained through this method by placing a sink at the origin of the Taylor flow. The appropriate corner angle for printing, theoretically derived from this method as 65.4°, corresponds to the empirical angle in industrial use. The pressure distribution of this model shows good agreement with the experimental results obtained in the present work.

  16. Toxicology screen

    MedlinePlus

    Barbiturates - screen; Benzodiazepines - screen; Amphetamines - screen; Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test

  17. PATHOS: a quick screening method for assessing sexual addiction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pennie; Cashwell, Craig S; Cress, Jim; Barber, Tim; Dunn, Mary Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Pastors may understand that sex addiction exists and are frequently faced with people who need non-clinical and clinical services for the addiction. However, the pastoral counselors have no quick reliable method of assessing them. The purpose of this article is to define sexual addiction and provide information about a tool called PATHOS that can be used in clinical and non-clinical settings to identify potential sex addicts. PMID:24720235

  18. A robust general phase retrieval method for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yan, A.; Liu, H.

    2013-01-01

    From medical imaging perspective the robustness of a phase retrieval method is of critical importance. In this presentation we compare the robustness of two general phase retrieval methods, namely the transport of intensity equation inversion (TIE-inversion) method and the attenuation partition based (AP-based) method. We showed that the TIE-inversion method, regardless if being assisted with the Tikhonov regularization, failed to retrieve the phase maps in two experimental studies. The failure exposes this method’s weakness as being unstable against the noise. In contrast, the sample phase maps are retrieved successfully by using the AP-based method. The stark performance differences of the two methods are rooted in their different techniques dealing with the singularity problem. This comparison shows that the robust AP-based phase retrieval method will be superior to the TIE-inversion method for medical imaging applications where radiation doses are stringently limited. PMID:23894250

  19. Novel method for screening of enteric film coatings properties with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dorożyński, Przemysław; Jamróz, Witold; Niwiński, Krzysztof; Kurek, Mateusz; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-11-18

    The aim of the study is to present the concept of novel method for fast screening of enteric coating compositions properties without the need of preparation of tablets batches for fluid bed coating. Proposed method involves evaluation of enteric coated model tablets in specially designed testing cell with application of MRI technique. The results obtained in the testing cell were compared with results of dissolution studies of mini-tablets coated in fluid bed apparatus. The method could be useful in early stage of formulation development for screening of film coating properties that will shorten and simplify the development works. PMID:23994758

  20. On a New Numerical Method for Solving General Variational Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bnouhachem, Abdellah; Noor, Muhammad Aslam; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Sheng, Zhaohan

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze a new extragradient method for solving the general variational inequalities involving two operators. We also prove the global convergence of the proposed modified method under certain mild conditions. We used a self-adaptive technique to adjust parameter ρ at each iteration. It is proved theoretically that the lower-bound of the progress obtained by the proposed method is greater than that by the extragradient method. An example is given to illustrate the efficiency and its comparison with the extragradient method. Since the general variational inequalities include the classical variational inequalities and complementarity problems as special cases, our results obtained in this paper continue to hold for these problems. Results obtained in this paper may be viewed as an improvement and refinement of the previously known results in this field.

  1. [Screening for risk of child abuse and neglect. A practicable method?].

    PubMed

    Kindler, H

    2010-10-01

    Selective primary prevention programs for child abuse and neglect depend on risk screening instruments that have the goal of systematically identifying families who can profit most from early help. Based on a systematic review of longitudinal studies, a set of established risk factors for early child abuse and neglect is presented. Nearly half of the items included in screening instruments can be seen as validated. Available studies indicate a high sensitivity of risk screening instruments. Positive predictive values, however, are low. Overall, the use of risk screening instruments in the area of primary prevention for families at risk represents a feasible method, as long as stigmatizing effects can be avoided and participating families also benefit beyond preventing endangerment. PMID:20936452

  2. SARS-CoV protease inhibitors design using virtual screening method from natural products libraries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Zhou, Jiaju

    2005-04-15

    Two natural products databases, the marine natural products database (MNPD) and the traditional Chinese medicines database (TCMD), were used to find novel structures of potent SARS-CoV protease inhibitors through virtual screening. Before the procedure, the databases were filtered by Lipinski's ROF and Xu's extension rules. The results were analyzed by statistic methods to eliminate the bias in target-based database screening toward higher molecular weight compounds for enhancing the hit rate. Eighteen lead compounds were recommended by the screening procedure. They were useful for experimental scientists in prioritizing drug candidates and studying the interaction mechanism. The binding mechanism was also analyzed between the best screening compound and the SARS protein. PMID:15693056

  3. Micro x-ray fluorescence as a high throughput screening method for metal chelating compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minogue, Edel M.; Havrilla, George J.; Taylor, Tammy P.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2005-06-01

    Micro X-ray Fluorescence (MXRF) has proven to be a powerful tool in the rapid and quantitative means of screening oliogpeptides. MXRF is a non-destructive method of analysis, which can detect elemental composition of a sample by measuring its characteristic X-ray emission wavelengths or energies. An effective high throughput screening technique is described for the rapid screening of bead-based libraries by MXRF in order to identify suitable chelating agents that will bind metals found in radioactive dispersive devices. It is a sensitive technique which in conjunction with the wide range of chemistry inherent in peptide libraries (e.g. varying charge, length, hydrophobicity, aromaticity etc.), provides a rapid and quantitative means for screening chelator-ion binding. The method involves the selection of a suitable library of ligands; in this case it is a bead-based library of peptides. The library is exposed to the cation of interest and immobilized on to a microarray. The array is then analyzed by MXRF enabling rapid identification of chelating agents. This enables the screening of approximately 27,500 sequences per day. Initial experiments carried out successfully identified sequences that are selective for Co under certain binding conditions. This involved the screening of 8,400 sequences in adverse environmental conditions containing possible interferences (e.g. Ca, Fe, Al, Cs, Ir), which could be encountered in our application.

  4. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  5. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2-4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  6. A DNA method for screening hive debris for the presence of small hive beetle (Aethina tumida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (SHB) is a parasite and scavenger of honey bee colonies. It has recently become an invasive species creating the need for an efficient and reliable detection method. We present a method to screen hive debris for the presence of SHB using real-time PCR in conjunction with an aut...

  7. Development of a rapid method to isolate polyhydroxyalkanoates from bacteria for screening studies.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino-Caston, Isaac; Kelly, Catherine A; Fitzgerald, Annabel V L; Leeke, Gary A; Jenkins, Mike; Overton, Tim W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel method of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for use in screening studies. Compared to conventional chloroform extraction, the DMSO method was shown to release comparable quantities of PHA from Cupriavidus necator cells, with comparable properties as determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:26143034

  8. Microbial screening and analytical methods for the production of polyol oils from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to develop a new useful method including microbial screening and product identification for a bioprocess to produce polyol oils from soybean oil. Methods for separating of product polyol oils from soybean oil substrate and free fatty acid byproducts using HPLC and TLC...

  9. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  10. General Methods for Quantifying Uncertainty in Discharge Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Tim; Kiang, Julie; Mason, Robert, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Developing a general operational method for quantifying uncertainty in streamflow measurements has proven to be a difficult task. The Interpolated Variance Estimator (IVE), which can be applied to situations where sampling involves multiple verticals, has been shown to perform reasonably well at characterizing the nonsystematic errors associated with both irregular channel geometry and pulsating velocities. It is not obvious, however, how to generalize the procedure, or in fact find any alternative procedure, that can take advantage of the continuous current profiling associated with more sophisticated ADCP instruments. Developing a uniform and consistent operational method remains a tall and important order.

  11. An error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Philsu; Kim, Junghan; Jung, WonKyu; Bu, Sunyoung

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we develop an error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials for solving stiff initial value problems. The solution and the error at each integration step are calculated by generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two consecutive degrees having overlapping zeros, which enables us to minimize overall computational costs. Further the errors at each integration step are embedded in the algorithm itself. In terms of concrete convergence and stability analysis, the constructed algorithm turns out to have the 6th order convergence and an almost L-stability. We assess the proposed method with several numerical results, showing that it uses larger time step sizes and is numerically more efficient.

  12. A method for screening of plant species for space use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goeschl, J. D.; Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    A cost-effective methodology which monitors numerous dynamic aspects of carbon assimilation and allocation kinetics in live, intact plants is discussed. Analogous methods can apply to nitrogen uptake and allocation. This methodology capitalizes on the special properties of the short-lived, positron-gamma emitting isotope C-11 especially when applied as CO2-11 in a special extended square wave (ESW) pattern. The 20.4 minute half-life allows for repeated or continuous experiments on the same plant over periods of minutes, hours, days, or weeks. The steady-state isotope equilibrium approached during the ESW experiments, and the parameters which can be analyzed by this technique are also direct results of that short half-life. Additionally, the paired .511 MeV gamma rays penetrate any amount of tissue and their 180 deg opposite orientation provides good collimation and allows coincidence counting which nearly eliminates background.

  13. Cystic fibrosis: need for mass deployable screening methods.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Aditya Singh; Agarwal, Anirudh; Singh, Manish K

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette superfamily of proteins and it functions as a chloride channel. CFTR largely controls the working of epithelial cells of the airways, the gastrointestinal tract, exocrine glands, and genitourinary system. Cystic fibrosis is responsible for severe chronic pulmonary disorders in children. Other maladies in the spectrum of this life-limiting disorder include nasal polyposis, pansinusitis, rectal prolapse, pancreatitis, cholelithiasis, insulin-dependent hyperglycemia, and cirrhosis. This review summarizes the recent state of art in the field of cystic fibrosis diagnostic methods with the help of CF literature published so far and proposes new research domains in the field of cystic fibrosis diagnosis. PMID:24880895

  14. An Alternative Field Method for Screening Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, N. E.; Mauro, A. O.; Tihohood, D.

    1998-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) has become an increasingly severe problem in soybean production areas in Brazil. The development and use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient method of minimizing losses due to this pathogen. Our objective was to test the efficiency of an alternative method for screening soybean genotypes for resistance to H. glycines in field plots. The alternative method was compared to the standard method of sowing the test genotypes in fields found to be infested during the previous crop season. In the alternative method, the test genotypes are sown in the furrow following the uprooting of 45-day-old infected plants. The alternative method resulted in twice the cyst population and fewer escapes, and more consistent results than the standard method. The major advantage of the alternative method is that it permits screening in a more homogeneous distribution of H. glycines in the soil. PMID:19274244

  15. Screening for Serious Mental Illness in the General Population with the K6 screening scale: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Bromet, Evelyn; Cuitan, Marius; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Gureje, Oye; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chi-yi; Lara, Carmen; Lee, Sing; Mneimneh, Zeina; Myer, Landon; Oakley-Browne, Mark; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Data are reported on the background and performance of the K6 screening scale for serious mental illness (SMI) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. The K6 is a 6-item scale developed to provide a brief valid screen for DSM-IV SMI based on the criteria in the US ADAMHA Reorganization Act. Although methodological studies have documented good K6 validity in a number of countries, optimal scoring rules have never been proposed. Such rules are presented here based on analysis of K6 data in nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys in 14 countries (combined n = 41,770 respondents). Twelve-month prevalence of DSM-IV SMI was assessed with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nested logistic regression analysis was used to generate estimates of the predicted probability of SMI for each respondent from K6 scores taking into consideration the possibility of variable concordance as a function of respondent age, gender, education, and country. Concordance, assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), was generally substantial (Median .83; Range .76-.89; Inter-quartile range .81-.85). Based on this result, optimal scaling rules are presented for use by investigators working with the K6 scale in the countries studied. PMID:20527002

  16. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Dresel, P. EVAN; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2006-09-21

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final (EPA 1988). The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers) identified in the groundwater sampling and analysis plan for the operable unit (DOE/RL-2001-49, Rev. 1) with additions.

  17. New screening method for lung cancer by detecting volatile organic compounds in breath.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, C; de Castro Carpeño, J; Carrasco, J A; Moreno, V; Casado Sáenz, E; Feliu, J; Sereno, M; García Río, F; Barriuso, J; González Barón, M

    2007-06-01

    Lung cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. There is no valid screening process and this limits its detection to the late stages, with consequently high mortality rates. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are chemical compounds (mainly the products of cell catabolism) found as gases in the human breath. Different methods have been developed to analyse VOCs and to compare them in healthy subjects and lung cancer patients. In this review, we summarise the different techniques used to analyse VOC. Many reports have been published with promising results similar to those achieved with accepted screening methods such as mammography. These methods show good perspectives on lung cancer screening. PMID:17594950

  18. Comparison Of Methods Used To Measure The Characteristic Curve Of Radiographic Screen/Film Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Louis K.; Haus, Arthur G.; Barnes, Gary T.; Bencomo, Jose A.; Amtey, Sharad R.

    1980-08-01

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the accuracy and precision attained by four methods for determining the characteristic curve of radiographic screen/film systems. The four methods include: inverse square sensitometry, KVP adjusted bootstrap sensitometry step-wedge bootstrap sensitometry, and step wedge attenuation sensitometry. The inverse square method was used as the reference standard for accuracy. The extent of and the sources of the inaccurcies involved when using the alternative methods is discussed.

  19. Survey of methods for calculating sensitivity of general eigenproblems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of methods for sensitivity analysis of the algebraic eigenvalue problem for non-Hermitian matrices is presented. In addition, a modification of one method based on a better normalizing condition is proposed. Methods are classified as Direct or Adjoint and are evaluated for efficiency. Operation counts are presented in terms of matrix size, number of design variables and number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of interest. The effect of the sparsity of the matrix and its derivatives is also considered, and typical solution times are given. General guidelines are established for the selection of the most efficient method.

  20. Methods for contingency screening and ranking for voltage stability analysis of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ejebe, G.C.; Irisarri, G.D.; Mokhtari, S.; Obadina, O.; Ristanovic, P.; Tong, J.

    1996-02-01

    The comparison of performance of four methods for contingency screening and ranking for voltage stability analysis is presented. Three of the methods are existing methods, while a new method is proposed. The performance of all the methods is carried out by comparing with full solutions using a continuation power flow. It is shown that the newly proposed method has the best performance in terms of accuracy and computation time. All the methods are evaluated using a 234-bus system. Additional results using the best performing method are included for a 901-bus power system.

  1. Methods for contingency screening and ranking for voltage stability analysis of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ejebe, G.C.; Irisarri, G.D.; Mokhtari, S.; Obadina, O.; Ristanovic, P.; Tong, J.

    1995-12-31

    The comparison of performance of four methods for contingency screening and ranking for voltage stability analysis is presented. Three of the methods are existing methods, while a new method is proposed. The performance of all the methods is carried out by comparing with full solutions using a continuation power flow. It is shown that the newly proposed method has the best performance in terms of accuracy and computation time. All the methods are evaluated using a 234-bus system. Additional results using the best performing method are included for a 901-bus power system.

  2. Parental concerns based general developmental screening tool and autism risk: the Taiwan National Birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Early detection of developmental delay and childhood disorders are important for early intervention. This study aimed to describe the distribution of responses in a large population-based survey, identify cutoff points for the parent concern checklist (PCC) suitable for the Chinese language and culture, and explore how many children were identified as having evidence of problems at age 18 mo different from those at age 6 mo. Using a national randomly selected sample, the overall development of 21,248 children was investigated using the Taiwan Birth Cohort study instrument, and the PCC, a problem-oriented screening instrument. The Newton-Raphson iteration showed that the PCC should be separated into three groups, those scoring 1-2 in the first group, 3- 6 in the second group, and 7- 8 in the third group.Structural equation models showed that 6-mo development was predictive of 18-mo development; additionally, 18-mo development and the PCC showed good concurrent validity. This study identified three groups with distinct developmental trajectories and two cutoff points of 2/3 and 6/7. Thus, the PCC can be used as a first-stage screening instrument in a two-stage window screening procedure. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors, which contribute to the differences among these groups;follow-up on the typical and atypical development of these children is necessary. PMID:20091940

  3. Design and Methods of Large-Scale RNA Interference Screens in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Tong, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila is an ideal model system for addressing important questions in biology. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown gene expression in fly tissues is both very effective and relatively simple. In the past few decades, genome-wide UAS-RNAi transgenic libraries and thousands of Gal4 strains have been generated and have facilitated large-scale in vivo RNAi screening. Here, we discuss methods for the design and performance of a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen in Drosophila. Furthermore, methods for the validation of results and analysis of data will be introduced. PMID:27581292

  4. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  5. The trace minimization method for the symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameh, Ahmed; Tong, Zhanye

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the trace minimization method for the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problems proposed by Sameh and Wisniewski [35] is reviewed. Convergence of an inexact trace minimization algorithm is established and a variant of the algorithm that uses expanding subspaces is introduced and compared with the block Jacobi-Davidson algorithm.

  6. Heavy meson mass-spectra by general relativistic methods (*)

    SciTech Connect

    Italiano, A.; Lattuada, M.; Maccarrone, G.D.; Recami, E.; Riggi, F.; Vinciguerra, D.

    1984-11-01

    By applying the classical methods of general relativity to elementary particles, one can get-in a natural way-the observed confinement of their constituents, avoiding any recourse to phenomenological models such as the bag model and allowing the deduction of the heavy meson (i.e., charmonium (J/psi) and bottomonium (..gamma..)) mass-spectra.

  7. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GEOPHYSICAL METHODS APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysics is the application of physical quantity measurement techniques to provide information on conditions or features beneath the earth’s surface. With the exception of borehole geophysical methods and soil probes like a cone penetrometer, these techniques are generally noninvasive with physica...

  8. Assessing the feasibility of screening and providing brief advice for alcohol misuse in general dental practice: a clustered randomised control trial protocol for the DART study

    PubMed Central

    Ntouva, Antiopi; Porter, Jessie; Crawford, Mike J; Britton, Annie; Gratus, Christine; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Heilmann, Anja; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol misuse is a significant public health problem with major health, social and economic consequences. Systematic reviews have reported that brief advice interventions delivered in various health service settings can reduce harmful drinking. Although the links between alcohol and oral health are well established and dentists come into contact with large numbers of otherwise healthy patients regularly, no studies have been conducted in the UK to test the feasibility of delivering brief advice about alcohol in general dental settings. Methods and analysis The Dental Alcohol Reduction Trial (DART) aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice in patients attending National Health Service (NHS) general dental practices in North London. DART is a cluster randomised control feasibility trial and uses a mixed methods approach throughout the development, design, delivery and evaluation of the intervention. It will be conducted in 12 NHS general dental practices across North London and will include dental patients who drink above the recommended guidance, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) screening tool. The intervention involves 5 min of tailored brief advice delivered by dental practitioners during the patient's appointment. Feasibility and acceptability measures as well as suitability of proposed primary outcomes of alcohol consumption will be assessed. Initial economic evaluation will be undertaken. Recruitment and retention rates as well as acceptability of the study procedures from screening to follow-up will be measured. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Camden and Islington Research Ethics Committee. Study outputs will be disseminated via scientific publications, newsletters, reports and conference presentations to a range of professional and patient groups and stakeholders. Based on the results of the trial

  9. Attempts to Improve the Method of Screening Cowpea Germplasm for Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of visual symptom screening for cowpea plants in field plots improved screening for Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus (BICMV)-resistance. However, the method failed to improve the speed or accuracy of screening for Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)-resistance. Plants that displayed few visual virus sympt...

  10. The effect on compliance of a health education leaflet in colorectal cancer screening in general practice in central England.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A R; Barone, T L; Gay, S P; Inglis, A; Griffin, L; Tallon, C A; Mayberry, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To raise compliance in a general practice based colorectal cancer screening programme by the use of a simple health educational leaflet. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial of the leaflet's effect on completion of faecal occult blood tests. The leaflet explained the high frequency of colorectal cancer, the principles of screening, and addressed reasons for non-compliance. SETTING: The British town of Market Harborough where most of the population are registered with a single practice. PARTICIPANTS: These comprised 1571 residents aged 61 to 70 years registered with the practice. Residents were invited to receive a free faecal occult blood test in a colorectal cancer screening programme. Half the population were randomly assigned to receive the educational leaflet about screening. RESULTS: Compliance in test and control groups, positive rate of stool testing, and pathology detected were measured. Compliance was higher in men who received the leaflet in those aged 61 to 65 years (36% v 27%, chi2 = 4.0, p < 0.05) and in men aged 66 to 70 years (39% v 23%, chi2 = 9.7, p < 0.01). In women, use of the leaflet did not affect compliance in those aged either 61 to 65 years (38% v 36%, chi2 = 0.1, NS) or 66 to 70 years (31% v 31%, chi2 = 0.0, NS). The positive rate of stool testing in patients observing the required dietary restrictions was 1.6%. A significant lesion was detected in 1.4% of people tested (2 carcinomas and 5 patients with adenomatous polyps). CONCLUSIONS: Health education leaflets addressing reasons for non-compliance significantly increased compliance in men and should be used in screening programmes. Reasons for the lack of success of the leaflet in women should be investigated and other interventions for raising compliance should be developed. PMID:9196650

  11. Assessment of drugs against Cryptosporidium parvum using a simple in vitro screening method.

    PubMed

    Armson, A; Meloni, B P; Reynoldson, J A; Thompson, R C

    1999-09-15

    A rapid semi-quantitative screening method was devised for assessing the anticryptosporidial and cytotoxic effects of putative chemotherapeutic compounds. The method is suitable as an initial rapid screening procedure from which compounds demonstrating anticryptosporidial activity can be identified for further analysis. It has the advantages of speed, low cost and concurrent assessment of anticryptosporidial and cytotoxic effects and allows accurate determination of minimum lethal concentrations. Of the 71 compounds screened, six completely inhibited cryptosporidial growth at 1 microM (monensin, salinomycin, alborixin, lasalocid, trifluralin and nicarbazin) and a further eight showed significant anticryptosporidial activity at 1 or 20 microM (halquinol, bleomycin, suramin, mitomycin, doxycycline hydrochloride, toltrazuril, chloroquine phosphate and teniposide). Twelve compounds were found to have some degree of cytotoxicity at 1 microM and a further 12 at 20 microM. PMID:10499272

  12. Proposal of Screening Method of Sleep Disordered Breathing Using Fiber Grating Vision Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Masato

    Every conventional respiration monitoring technique requires at least one sensor to be attached to the body of the subject during measurement, thereby imposing a sense of restraint that results in aversion against measurements that would last over consecutive days. To solve this problem, we developed a respiration monitoring system for sleepers, and it uses a fiber-grating vision sensor, which is a type of active image sensor to achieve non-contact respiration monitoring. In this paper, we verified the effectiveness of the system, and proposed screening method of the sleep disordered breathing. It was shown that our system could equivalently measure the respiration with thermistor and accelerograph. And, the respiratory condition of sleepers can be grasped by our screening method in one look, and it seems to be useful for the support of the screening of sleep disordered breathing.

  13. Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632

  14. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Sidell, F.R.; Leffingwell, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  15. General Characterization Methods for Photoelectrochemical Cells for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinjian; Cai, Lili; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Xiaolin; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-10-12

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a very promising technology that converts water into clean hydrogen fuel and oxygen by using solar light. However, the characterization methods for PEC cells are diverse and a systematic introduction to characterization methods for PEC cells has rarely been attempted. Unlike most other review articles that focus mainly on the material used for the working electrodes of PEC cells, this review introduces general characterization methods for PEC cells, including their basic configurations and methods for characterizing their performance under various conditions, regardless of the materials used. Detailed experimental operation procedures with theoretical information are provided for each characterization method. The PEC research area is rapidly expanding and more researchers are beginning to devote themselves to related work. Therefore, the content of this Minireview can provide entry-level knowledge to beginners in the area of PEC, which might accelerate progress in this area. PMID:26365789

  16. Evaluation of three methods using deoxyribonuclease production as a screening test for Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Black, W. A.; Hodgson, R.; McKechnie, Ann

    1971-01-01

    Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) produced by Serratia marcescens is a characteristic feature which is useful in distinguishing this organism from closely related members of the Enterobacteriaceae. In an assessment of three methods of performing the DNase test as a screening procedure for Serratia marcescens, the conclusion was reached that the standard test was most suitable for use in the clinical bacteriology laboratory. PMID:4933661

  17. Validation of a GC-MS screening method for anabolizing agents in aqueous nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Thuyne, W Van; Delbeke, F T

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method for the screening of anabolizing agents in aqueous nutritional supplements is described and validated. A total of 28 different anabolizing agents are screened for, including testosterone and prohormones, nandrolone and prohormones, stanozolol, and metandienone. The different analytes are extracted from the aqueous nutritional supplements by liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of pentane and freshly distilled diethylether (1:1) after the supplements have been made alkaline with a NaHCO3-K2CO3 (2:1) buffer. The anabolizing agents are derivatized with a mixture of MSTFA-NH4I-ethanethiol (320:1:2) as routinely used for the screening of anabolic steroids extracted from urine. The derivatives are analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the selective ion monitoring mode. The limits of detection range from 1 to 10 ng/mL. One aqueous nutritional supplement (creatine serum) was analyzed with this screening method and was found to contain dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at very low concentrations. The presence of DHEA could be confirmed with GC-MS-MS. Results of the application of this method and a similar method for solid nutritional supplements previously described are given. PMID:15808000

  18. Perspectives on the provision of GDM screening in general practice versus the hospital setting: a qualitative study of providers and patients

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Marie; O'Dea, Angela; Danyliv, Andrii; Carmody, Louise; McGuire, Brian E; Glynn, Liam G; Dunne, Fidelma

    2016-01-01

    Objective A novel gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening programme which involved offering screening at the patient's general practitioner (GP) compared with the traditional hospital setting was trialled. This study investigates perspectives of involved stakeholders on the provision of GDM screening at both settings. Design Thematic analysis of the perspectives of stakeholders involved in the receiving and provision of GDM screening in both the GP and hospital settings drawn from focus groups and interviews. Participants 3 groups of participants are included in this research—patient participants, GP screening providers and hospital screening providers. All were recruited from a larger sample who participated in a randomised controlled screening trial. Purposeful sampling was utilised to select participants with a wide variety of perspectives on the provision of GDM screening. Setting Participants were recruited from a geographical area covered by 3 hospitals in Ireland. Results 4 themes emerged from thematic analysis—namely (1) travel distance, (2) best care provision, (3) sense of ease created and (4) optimal screening. Conclusions The influence of travel distance from the screening site is the most important factor influencing willingness to attend for GDM screening among women who live a considerable distance from the hospital setting. For patients who live equidistance from both settings, other factors are important; namely the waiting facilities including parking, perceived expertise of screening provider personnel, access to emergency treatment if necessary, accuracy of tests and access to timely results and treatment. Optimal screening for GDM should be specialist led, incorporate expert advice of GDM screening, treatment and management, should be provided locally, offer adequate parking and comfort levels, provide accurate tests, and timely access to results and treatment. Such a service should result in improved rates of GDM screening uptake

  19. Optimization and visualization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ligand‐based virtual screening plays a fundamental part in the early drug discovery stage. In a virtual screening, a chemical library is searched for molecules with similar properties to a query molecule by means of a similarity function. The optimal assignment of chemical graphs has proven to be a valuable similarity function for many cheminformatic tasks, such as virtual screening. The optimal assignment assumes all atoms of a query molecule to be equally important, which is not realistic depending on the binding mode of a ligand. The importance of a query molecule’s atoms can be integrated in the optimal assignment by weighting the assignment edges. We optimized the edge weights with respect to the virtual screening performance by means of evolutionary algorithms. Furthermore, we propose a visualization approach for the interpretation of the edge weights. Results We evaluated two different evolutionary algorithms, differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, for their suitability for optimizing the assignment edge weights. The results showed that both optimization methods are suited to optimize the edge weights. Furthermore, we compared our approach to the optimal assignment with equal edge weights and two literature similarity functions on a subset of the Directory of Useful Decoys using sophisticated virtual screening performance metrics. Our approach achieved a considerably better overall and early enrichment performance. The visualization of the edge weights enables the identification of substructures that are important for a good retrieval of ligands and for the binding to the protein target. Conclusions The optimization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods is a valuable approach for ligand‐based virtual screening experiments. The approach can be applied to any similarity function that employs the optimal assignment method, which includes a variety of similarity measures that have proven to be valuable in various

  20. Sensitivity analysis and approximation methods for general eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, D. V.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Optimization of dynamic systems involving complex non-hermitian matrices is often computationally expensive. Major contributors to the computational expense are the sensitivity analysis and reanalysis of a modified design. The present work seeks to alleviate this computational burden by identifying efficient sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis methods. For the algebraic eigenvalue problem involving non-hermitian matrices, algorithms for sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis are classified, compared and evaluated for efficiency and accuracy. Proper eigenvector normalization is discussed. An improved method for calculating derivatives of eigenvectors is proposed based on a more rational normalization condition and taking advantage of matrix sparsity. Important numerical aspects of this method are also discussed. To alleviate the problem of reanalysis, various approximation methods for eigenvalues are proposed and evaluated. Linear and quadratic approximations are based directly on the Taylor series. Several approximation methods are developed based on the generalized Rayleigh quotient for the eigenvalue problem. Approximation methods based on trace theorem give high accuracy without needing any derivatives. Operation counts for the computation of the approximations are given. General recommendations are made for the selection of appropriate approximation technique as a function of the matrix size, number of design variables, number of eigenvalues of interest and the number of design points at which approximation is sought.

  1. A sensitive mutation screening method supporting cell line development for biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Valisheva, Ildana; Harris, Reed J; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith

    2016-07-15

    Random genetic mutations, which can occur during cell line development, can lead to sequence variants that comprise pharmaceutical product quality generated by recombinant technology. Mutation screening can minimize the probability of selecting clones harboring sequence variants. Here we report a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based mutation screening approach using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis combined with a mutation enrichment step using limiting dilution to detect low-level mutations at 0.5%. The method allows unknown mutation discovery regardless of its location in a transgene as well as independent of its position in an HRM fragment, ranging from approximately 200 to 300 bp in size. PMID:27108188

  2. Generalization of the time-dependent numerical renormalization group method to finite temperatures and general pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, H. T. M.; Costi, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    The time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TDNRG) method [Anders et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 196801 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.196801] offers the prospect of investigating in a nonperturbative manner the time dependence of local observables of interacting quantum impurity models at all time scales following a quantum quench. Here, we present a generalization of this method to arbitrary finite temperature by making use of the full density matrix approach [Weichselbaum et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 076402 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.076402]. We show that all terms in the projected full density matrix ρi →f=ρ+++ρ--+ρ+-+ρ-+ appearing in the time evolution of a local observable may be evaluated in closed form at finite temperature, with ρ+-=ρ-+=0. The expression for ρ-- is shown to be finite at finite temperature, becoming negligible only in the limit of vanishing temperatures. We prove that this approach recovers the short-time limit for the expectation value of a local observable exactly at arbitrary temperatures. In contrast, the corresponding long-time limit is recovered exactly only for a continuous bath, i.e., when the logarithmic discretization parameter Λ →1+. Since the numerical renormalization group approach breaks down in this limit, and calculations have to be carried out at Λ >1, the long-time behavior following an arbitrary quantum quench has a finite error, which poses an obstacle for the method, e.g., in its application to the scattering-states numerical renormalization group method for describing steady-state nonequilibrium transport through correlated impurities [Anders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 066804 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.066804]. We suggest a way to overcome this problem by noting that the time dependence, in general, and the long-time limit, in particular, become increasingly more accurate on reducing the size of the quantum quench. This suggests an improved generalized TDNRG approach in which the system is time

  3. A General Method to Discover Epitopes from Sera

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Kurt; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Sykes, Kathryn; Shen, Luhui

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases or a specific proteome, rather than providing a universal platform. Most of these methods are not able to identify the specific antibody’s epitopes from unknown antigens, such as un-annotated neo antigens in cancer. Alternatively, a peptide library comprised of sequences unrestricted by naturally-found protein space provides for a universal search for mimotopes of an antibody’s epitope. Here we present the utility of such a non-natural random sequence library of 10,000 peptides physically addressed on a microarray for mimotope discovery without sequence information of the specific antigen. The peptide arrays were probed with serum from an antigen-immunized rabbit, or alternatively probed with serum pre-absorbed with the same immunizing antigen. With this positive and negative screening scheme, we identified the library-peptides as the mimotopes of the antigen. The unique library peptides were successfully used to isolate antigen-specific antibodies from complete immune serum. Sequence analysis of these peptides revealed the epitopes in the immunized antigen. We present this method as an inexpensive, efficient method for identifying mimotopes of any antibody’s targets. These mimotopes should be useful in defining both components of the antigen

  4. Functional-based screening methods for lipases, esterases, and phospholipases in metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Duarte, Dolores; Ferrer, Manuel; García-Arellano, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    The use of metagenomic techniques for enzyme discovery constitutes a powerful approach. Functional screens, in contrast to sequence homology search, enable us to select enzymes based on their activity. It is noteworthy that they additionally guarantee the identification of genes coding for enzymes that exhibited no sequence similarity to known counterparts from public databases and that even do not match any putative catalytic residues, involved in the selected catalytic function. Therefore, this strategy not only provides new enzymes for new biotechnological applications, but also allows functional assignment of many proteins, found in abundance in the databases, currently designated as "hypothetical" or "conserved hypothetical" proteins. In the past decade, there has been an exponential increase in the design of functional screening programmes, the majority of them established for hydrolases and oxidoreductases. Here, functional screening methods that guarantee the greatest enzyme diversity, for mining esterases and lipases, are described. PMID:22426714

  5. A novel screening method to assess developability of antibody-like molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Neeraj; Jain, Nidhi; Geddie, Melissa L; Razlog, Maja; Xu, Lihui; Lugovskoy, Alexey A

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and antibody-like molecules represent a fast-growing class of bio-therapeutics that has rapidly transformed patient care in a variety of disease indications. The discovery of antibodies that bind to particular targets with high affinity is now a routine exercise and a variety of in vitro and in vivo techniques are available for this purpose. However, it is still challenging to identify antibodies that, in addition to having the desired biological effect, also express well, remain soluble at different pH levels, remain stable at high concentrations, can withstand high shear stress, and have minimal non-specific interactions. Many promising antibody programs have ultimately failed in development due to the problems associated with one of these factors. Here, we present a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based screening method to assess these developability factors earlier in discovery process. This method is robust and requires only microgram quantities of proteins. Briefly, we show that for antibodies injected on a commercially available pre-packed Zenix HPLC column, the retention times are inversely related to their colloidal stability with antibodies prone to precipitation or aggregation retained longer on the column with broader peaks. By simply varying the salt content of running buffer, we were also able to estimate the nature of interactions between the antibodies and the column. We believe this approach should generally be applicable to assessment of the developability of other classes of bio-therapeutic molecules, and that the addition of this simple tool early in the discovery process will lead to selection of molecules with improved developability characteristics. PMID:25961854

  6. General finite state machine reasoning method for digital forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Guoyin

    2008-04-01

    Digital forensics investigator faces the challenge of reliability of forensic conclusions. Formal automatic analysis method is helpful to deal with the challenge. The finite state machine analysis method tries to determine all possible sequences of events that could have happened in a digital system during an incident. Its basic idea is to model the target system using a finite state machine and then explore its all possible states on the condition of available evidence. Timed mealy finite state machine is introduced to model the target system, and the formalization of system running process and evidence is presented to match the system running with possible source evidence automatically. Based on Gladyshev's basic reasoning method, general reasoning algorithms with multi strategies are developed to find the possible real scenarios. Case study and experimental results show that our method is feasible and adaptable to possible cases and takes a further step to practical formal reasoning for digital forensics.

  7. Field-screening method for 2,4-dinitrotoluene in soil. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, T.F.; Walsh, M.E.

    1991-10-01

    2,4-Dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) is a major component of several munitions formulations used by the U.S. Army. It is also one of the major impurities in production grade TNT and is often found in contaminated soils at army ammunition plants, depots and explosive ordnance disposal areas. Since 2,4-DNT migrates rapidly through the soil to groundwater and is thought to be toxic in water at quite low concentrations, methods are needed to locate sources of this contaminant in the soil. Laboratory procedures to quantify the concentration of 2,4-DNT in soil samples have been developed but no rapid field method is currently available to screen for this contaminant. Field screening methods have recently been developed for TNT and RDX. The TNT method involves extraction of the soil with acetone and generation of the red-colored Janowsky complex by addition of potassium hydroxide and sodium sulfite.

  8. Effective microwell plate-based screening method for microbes producing cellulase and xylanase and its application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer Jooyoun; Kwon, Young-Kyung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Lee, Su-Jin; Shim, Won-Bo; Jung, Won-Kyo; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kang, Do-Hyung; Oh, Chulhong

    2014-11-28

    Cellulase and xylanase are main hydrolysis enzymes for the degradation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic biomass, respectively. In this study, our aim was to develop and test the efficacy of a rapid, high-throughput method to screen hydrolytic-enzyme-producing microbes. To accomplish this, we modified the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method for microwell plate-based screening. Targeted microbial samples were initially cultured on agar plates with both cellulose and xylan as substrates. Then, isolated colonies were subcultured in broth media containing yeast extract and either cellulose or xylan. The supernatants of the culture broth were tested with our modified DNS screening method in a 96-microwell plate, with a 200 μl total reaction volume. In addition, the stability and reliability of glucose and xylose standards, which were used to determine the enzymatic activity, were studied at 100°C for different time intervals in a dry oven. It was concluded that the minimum incubation time required for stable color development of the standard solution is 20 min. With this technique, we successfully screened 21 and 31 cellulase- and xylanase-producing strains, respectively, in a single experimental trial. Among the identified strains, 19 showed both cellulose and xylan hydrolyzing activities. These microbes can be applied to bioethanol production from cellulosic and hemicellulosic biomass. PMID:25085570

  9. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this. PMID:19602858

  10. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions