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Sample records for generalised magnetic susceptibility

  1. Generalised relativistic Ohm's laws, extended gauge transformations, and magnetic linking

    SciTech Connect

    Pegoraro, F.

    2015-11-15

    Generalisations of the relativistic ideal Ohm's law are presented that include specific dynamical features of the current carrying particles in a plasma. Cases of interest for space and laboratory plasmas are identified where these generalisations allow for the definition of generalised electromagnetic fields that transform under a Lorentz boost in the same way as the real electromagnetic fields and that obey the same set of homogeneous Maxwell's equations.

  2. Generalised relativistic Ohm's laws, extended gauge transformations, and magnetic linking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, F.

    2015-11-01

    Generalisations of the relativistic ideal Ohm's law are presented that include specific dynamical features of the current carrying particles in a plasma. Cases of interest for space and laboratory plasmas are identified where these generalisations allow for the definition of generalised electromagnetic fields that transform under a Lorentz boost in the same way as the real electromagnetic fields and that obey the same set of homogeneous Maxwell's equations.

  3. A novel susceptibility locus at 2p24 for generalised epilepsy with febrile seizures plus.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, D; Claes, L; Claeys, K G; Deprez, L; Van Dyck, T; Goossens, D; Del-Favero, J; Van Paesschen, W; Van Broeckhoven, C; De Jonghe, P

    2005-12-01

    Generalised epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous epilepsy syndrome. Using positional cloning strategies, mutations in SCN1B, SCN1A, and GABRG2 have been identified as genetic causes of GEFS+. In the present study, we describe a large four generation family with GEFS+ in which we performed a 10 cM density genome-wide scan. We obtained conclusive evidence for a novel GEFS+ locus on chromosome 2p24 with a maximum two point logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 4.22 for marker D2S305 at zero recombination. Fine mapping and haplotype segregation analysis in this family delineated a candidate region of 3.24 cM, corresponding to a physical distance of 4.2 Mb. Linkage to 2p24 was confirmed (p = 0.007) in a collection of 50 nuclear and multiplex families with febrile seizures and epilepsy. Transmission disequilibrium testing and association studies provided further evidence (p < 0.05) that 2p24 is a susceptibility locus for febrile seizures and epilepsy. Furthermore, we could reduce the candidate region to a 2.14 cM interval, localised between D2S1360 and D2S2342, based upon an ancestral haplotype. Identification of the disease gene at this locus will contribute to a better understanding of the complex genetic aetiology of febrile seizures and epilepsy. PMID:15827091

  4. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  5. Magnetic Susceptibility as a Biosignature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryshyn, V.; Corsetti, F. A.; Lund, S.; Berelson, W.

    2011-12-01

    Stromatolites, laminated sedimentary structures generally thought to have been produced by the activity of microorganisms, have long been studied in the geobiologic community. However, abiotic processes such as mineral growth can mimic stromatolite morphology and diagenesis commonly obscures other potentially diagnostic features (microstructure, isotopes, etc.). Here, we report a new biosignature based on the detrital magnetic mineral component present in nearly all sedimentary rocks. Magnetic grains in an abiotic structure should obey the laws of gravity/angle of repose and be swept off peaks/concentrated in lows, whereas magnetic grains should adhere to a biofilm and be more evenly distributed around the structure, even at steep angles, versus the abiotic scenario. Laboratory experiments were preformed in which small (2 μm) particles of magnetite were introduced into a tank that contained glass slides on which carbonate had abiotically precipitated. The slides were inclined at a variety of angles, ranging from 0 (horizontal) to 90 degrees (vertical). Samples were taken from the slides, dried, and their magnetic susceptibility was measured. In these experiments, no magnetic signature was found on the slides inclined at angles higher than 45 degrees, even though carbonate had precipitated onto the slides. A parallel biotic laboratory experiment was performed using cyanobacterial mats inclined at a variety of angles. In this experiment, all mats had over an order of magnitude more magnetic susceptibility than their abiotic counterparts, and even mats inclined at 90 degrees (vertical) held significant amounts of magnetic particles. Lastly, using the results of the laboratory experiments as a framework, several stromatolites of both known and strongly suspected biogenicity (biotic and abiotic) were tested by microdrilling and measuring the magnetic susceptibility at different depositional angles along individual lamina. The results of these experiments suggest that

  6. Optimal magnetic susceptibility matching in 3D.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Kumar, Rajesh; Korvink, Jan G

    2013-04-01

    When an object is inserted into the strong homogeneous magnetic field of a magnetic resonance magnet, its intrinsic relative susceptibility can cause unwanted local magnetic field inhomogeneities in the space surrounding the object. As is known, this effect can be partially countered by selectively adding material layers with opposing sign in susceptibility to the part. The determination of an optimal magnetic susceptibility distribution is an inverse problem, in which the susceptibility-induced inhomogeneity of the magnetic field inside a region of interest is reduced by redistributing the placement of materials in the design domain. This article proposes an efficient numerical topology optimization method for obtaining an optimal magnetic susceptibility distribution, in particular, for which the induced spatial magnetic field inhomogeneity is minimized. Using a material density function as a design variable, the value of the magnetic field inside a computational domain is determined using a finite element method. The first-order sensitivity of the objective function is calculated using an adjoint equation method. Numerical examples on a variety of design domain geometries illustrate the effectiveness of the optimization method. The method is of specific interest for the design of interventional magnetic resonance devices. It is a particularly useful method if passive shimming of magnetic resonance equipment is aimed for. PMID:22576319

  7. Coalbed methane reservoir characterization using magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Makhatova, Meruyert; Kalbekov, Arkhat; Baibussinova, Zhanar; Moldagereyeva, Anel

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a study of the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and permeability as a new approach for coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir characterization. Experimental measurements were undertaken in coal cores from Kazakhstan (Karaganda Basin). The well sections containing coal are the area of high interest where regular deposition of sandstone, shale and coal is observed. The MS measurements were made by the core logging sensor with the sensitive area of the probe providing volume magnetic susceptibility values. Permeability has been determined by air permeameter. Both magnetic susceptibility and permeability have been measured at the same points. The obtained values of permeability and magnetic susceptibility exhibit the predicted pattern of deposition of reservoir rocks. Coal reservoirs generally is spaced between shale layers with extremely high MS values and highly low permeability. Sandstone with shale interlayers tends to be a transition area between shale and coal. Such tendency appears within several sections. The experimental results showed a strong correspondence between measured magnetic susceptibility and permeability of coal core samples. Therefore, inverse proportionality between magnetic susceptibility and permeability is observed. Generally, the high values of magnetic susceptibility correspond to low permeability, likewise the low diamagnetic MS values comply with high permeability of production zones. In a point of fact, linear proportionality appears as well due to fractures. In this case, permeability must be recalculated in relation to degree of fracturing. Magnetic susceptibility results could sometimes be affected by small content of ferrimagnetic minerals that resulted in high MS values. However, MS data demonstrated good correlations with permeability. The application of magnetic susceptibility values for coalbed methane reservoir characterization could be a non-destructive and rapid method potentially used in both

  8. Magnetic susceptibility of tetragonal titanium dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Pankey, T.; Grant, F.A.

    1960-01-01

    Careful measurements have been made of the magnetic susceptibility of the rutile and anatase crystalline forms of titanium dioxide. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of high-purity rutile was found to be (0.067??0.0015)??10-6 emu per gram, and was temperature-independent from 55??to 372??K. Difficulty was encountered in obtaining a good value of the magnetic susceptibility of anatase because of impurities. However, a value of 0.02??10-6 emu per gram was obtained as a maximum value for anatase powder. A discussion is given for the different values obtained for anatase and rutile. ?? 1960 The American Physical Society.

  9. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of DyH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization and differential magnetic susceptibility of powdered DyH3 samples are measured at a temperature of 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields ranging up to 9 Teslas. The differential magnetic susceptibility is also investigated in the zero applied field. Magnetization is plotted as a function of field strength, and differential susceptibility is described as a function of both field strength and temperature. A saturation magnetic moment of 5.12 Bohr magnetons per ion is derived from the magnetization data, and the zero-field susceptibility measurements are found to indicate antiferromagnetic ordering below 3.45 K. The susceptibility at 4.2 K is shown to have an inverse-square dependence on field strength for values of not less than 0.3 Tesla.

  10. An Inexpensive, Convenient Demonstration of Magnetic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, S. S.; Eaton, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A new, small magnetic susceptibility system is described which can be constructed from commercially available components for less than one hundred dollars for use with a standard laboratory balance. (BB)

  11. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of DyH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetization and differential magnetic susceptibility of powdered samples of DyH3 have been measured at 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields ranging to 9 Teslas. The differential magnetic susceptibility has also been studied in zero applied field as a function of temperature. The magnetization data are described by an equation of the form M = aB/(1 + bB + cB. The ratio a/b is a measure of the saturation magnetization and gives an effective moment of 5.12 Bohr magnetons per ion. The zero field susceptibility exhibits a maximum at T = 3.45 K, and an inflection point near 2.85 K. The susceptibility at 4.2 K has a 1/B squared dependence on the applied magnetic field for B approximately greater than 0.3 Teslas.

  13. Materials with low DC magnetic susceptibility for sensitive magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, R.; Dennis, L.; Kendrick, R.; Khosravi, M.; Peters, M.; Smith, E.; Snow, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    Materials with very low DC magnetic susceptibility have many scientific applications. To our knowledge however, relatively little research has been conducted with the goal to produce a totally nonmagnetic material. This phrase in our case means after spatially averaging over macroscopic volumes, it possesses an average zero DC magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the DC magnetic susceptibility of three different types of nonmagnetic materials at room temperature: (I) solutions of paramagnetic salts and diamagnetic liquids, (II) liquid gallium-indium alloys and (III) pressed powder mixtures of tungsten and bismuth. The lowest measured magnetic susceptibility among these candidate materials is in the order of 10-9 cgs volume susceptibility units, about two orders of magnitude smaller than distilled water. In all cases, the measured concentration dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is consistent with that expected for the weighted sum of the susceptibilities of the separate components within experimental error. These results verify the well-known Wiedemann additivity law for the magnetic susceptibility of inert mixtures of materials and thereby realize the ability to produce materials with small but tunable magnetic susceptibility. For our particular scientific application, we are also looking for materials with the largest possible number of neutrons and protons per unit volume. The gallium-indium alloys fabricated and measured in this work possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature liquid, and the tungsten-bismuth pressed powder mixtures possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature solid. This ratio is a figure of merit for a certain class of precision experiments that search for possible exotic spin-dependent forces of Nature.

  14. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Musakhanov, M.; Siddikov, M.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum, based on the instanton vacuum. Starting from the instanton liquid model for the instanton vacuum, we derive the light-quark partition function Z [ V, T,mˆ ] in the presence of the current quark mass mˆ as well as the external Abelian vector and tensor fields. We calculate a two-point correlation function relevant for the magnetic susceptibility and derive it beyond the chiral limit. We obtain for the different flavors the following magnetic susceptibility: χu, d< i ψu,d†ψu,d > 0 ∼ 40- 45MeV, while χs0 ≃ 6- 10MeV with the quark condensate < iψ† ψ > 0.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Oleksandr P.; Potter, David K.

    A knowledge of the magnetic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids may provide new techniques for improved reservoir characterisation, petroleum exploration and production. However, magnetic information is currently scarce for the vast majority of reservoir fluids. For instance, there is little in the literature concerning basic magnetic susceptibility values of crude oils or formation waters. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility ( χm) of several crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters from local and world-wide sites. All the fluids measured were diamagnetic, however there were distinct differences in magnitude between the different fluid types. In particular, χm for the crude oils was more negative than for the formation waters of the same locality. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties. The results correlated with the density, residue content, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, sulphur content and metal concentration of the fluids. Light fractions of crude oil were the most diamagnetic. The magnetic measurements potentially allow physical and chemical differences between the fluids to be rapidly characterised. The results suggest other possible applications, such as passive in situ magnetic susceptibility sensors for fluid monitoring (for example, the onset of water breakthrough, or the detection of migrating fines) in reservoirs, which would provide an environmentally friendly alternative to radioactive tracers. The mass magnetic susceptibilities of the fluids in relation to typical reservoir minerals may also play a role in fluid-rock interactions, such as studies of wettability. The χm of crude oil from the various world-wide oil provinces that were tested also showed some differences, possibly reflecting broad physical and chemical features of the geological history of each province.

  17. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  18. Separation of magnetic susceptibility components from magnetization curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosareva, L.; Nourgaliev, D.; Kuzina, D.; Spassov, S.; Fattakhov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Modern lake sediments are a unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally, because all environmental variations are recorded by these sediments with high resolution. The magnetic properties of Chernyshov Bay (Aral Sea) sediments we investigated from core number 4 (N45o57'04.2''; E59o17'14.3'') are taken at far water depth of 9.5 m. The length of the core is 4.16 m. Samples for measurements were taken to plastic sample boxes with internal dimensions 2x2x2 cm. Remanent magnetization curves were measured by coercivity spectrometer for the separate determination of the different contributions to the total bulk magnetic susceptibility. There was measured also magnetic susceptibility using MS2 susceptibility meter. Those operations were done for data comparison between 2 susceptibilities obtained from different equipment. Our goal is to decipher the magnetic susceptibility signal in lake sediments by decomposing the bulk susceptibility signal of a lake sediment sequence into ferromagnetic (χf), dia-/paramagnetic (χp) and superparamagnetic (χsp) components using data from remanent and indused magnetization curves Each of these component has a different origin: paramagnetic minerals are usually attributed to terrigenous sediment input, ferromagnetics are of biogenic origin, and superparamagnetic minerals may be of either biogenic or terrigenous origin. Comparison between susceptibility measurements of MS2-Bartington susceptometer and of the coercivity spectrometer has shown good correlation. The susceptibility values measured in two different equipment are fairly close and indicate thus the reliability the proposed method. In research also has shown water level changes in Aral Sea based on magnetic susceptibility. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University also by RFBR research projects No. 14-05-31376 - а, 14-05-00785- а.

  19. RF susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Srikanth; Hajndl, Ranko; Sanders, Jeff; Carpenter, Everett; Sudarshan, T.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles embedded in non-magnetic matrices like polymers or dielectric oxides are of great technological interest as the coating provides encapsulation and prevents grain growth and agglomeration. Moreover, in electromagnetic applications, the systems can be considered as nanocomposites with possible multi-functionality resulting from the magnetic and dielectric response. We have studied the static and dynamic magnetic properties of as-prepared nanoparticles (Fe, Co, γ-Fe_2O_3, MnFe_2O_4) and particles dispersed in a matrix (like polystyrene, SiO_2). The systems ranged from polymerized magnetic nanopowders synthesized using a microwave plasma method to highly monodisperse nanoparticles prepared by reverse-micelle techniques. The magnetic anisotropy and switching fields in these materials were systematically tracked over a wide range in temperatures and fields using a novel resonant RF method based on a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) operating at 10 MHz. This technique accurately probes the dynamic transverse susceptibility and has been validated in several nanoparticle systems. While the overall behavior of the transverse susceptibility can be described by standard Stoner-Wohlfarth formalism, there are subtle variations in the transverse susceptibility features including the approach to saturation that are different in the particles embedded in a dielectric matrix. A comparison between several systems and the role of matrix-mediated interactions will be discussed. HS acknowledges support from NSF through grant # NSF-ECS-0102622

  20. High-temperature-superconducting magnetic susceptibility bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasunas, J.; Lakew, B.; Lee, C.

    1992-01-01

    An infrared detector called the magnetic susceptibility bolometer is introduced which is based on the tmperature dependence of the diamagnetic screening of a high-Tc superconductor film near Tc. Results are reported for the response of a prototype model to modulated blackbody radiation. Possible improvements are discussed as is the potential sensitivity of an improved device.

  1. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. Superparamagnetism and dynamic transverse susceptibility in magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinu, L.; Srikanth, H.; O'Connor, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    Dynamic transverse susceptibility (\\chi _T) measurements yield important information about spin dynamics in magnetic materials. They also provide a very sensitive and unique way to probe the magnetic anisotropy in novel systems like nanoparticles. We have developed a resonant method based on a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) operating at around 5 MHz to accurately measure the variation in dynamic transverse susceptibility over a wide range in temperature (5K to 300K) and static magnetic fields (0 to 9 T). Our experiments on magnetic nanoparticles (γ -Fe_2O_3/Ag nanocomposites), synthesized using reverse-micelle technique, reveal singular peaks in the low temperature transverse susceptibility at characteristic anisotropy fields (± 400 Oe). As the temperature is increased, the peaks evolve from being asymmetric to symmetric and eventually disappear at high temperatures well into the superparamagnetic regime. For the first time, we have mapped the complete variation of \\chi T in the H-T plane. We have also theoretically analyzed our results based on coherent rotation and find good agreement with a two-level model developed by us that includes thermal relaxation effects. This work is supported by DARPA through grant No. MDA 972-97-1-003

  3. Time solved susceptibility spectra of magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, C. N.; Fannin, P. C.; Malaescu, I.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the frequency (f) and polarizing field (H) dependent complex magnetic susceptibility, χ(f, H)=χ‧(f, H)-iχ″(f, H) of a magnetic fluid over the frequency range 1 kHz to 2 MHz, in various polarizing fields from zero to approximately 7 kA/m are presented. The sample was a commercial magnetic fluid with magnetite particles in isopar-M. Usually, Brownian relaxation time measurements are involved in the investigation of particle agglomeration in magnetic fluids. In some situations the presence of miscellaneous particles may induce erroneous conclusions. The paper shows that over time measurements can solve the problem in giving confirmation of particle agglomeration within magnetic fluids. Measurements performed in a constant polarizing field of, H=7 kA/m, have shown that after 30 min both components of the complex magnetic susceptibility increased and the relaxation peak shifted towards higher frequencies. The phenomenon is correlated to the particle aggregation process and demonstrates that the relaxation peaks are due to the rotation of small aggregates.

  4. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  5. Classification of Meteorites by Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Mary Lou; Stolarz, M.

    2006-09-01

    Measurement of bulk magnetic susceptibility per unit mass is a new, quick, non-destructive method to classify meteorites. Macke et al. (2005) and Rochette et al. (2003) used it to classify ordinary chondrites. We have used a KLY Kappabridge on twelve more diverse meteorites and found it to be an accurate classifier except for one meteorite sample. The iron meteorites had the strongest bulk magnetic susceptibility per unit mass, as expected. The ordinary chondrites separated clearly into their H, L, and LL (high, low, low low iron) categories. The carbonaceous chondrites were lower still, then the achondrite was the lowest. However, one carbonaceous chondrite, NWA 801, fell between H and L ordinary chondrites. It is classified as CR (Renazzo type), and this type of meteorite is known to contain some nickel-iron, magnetite and iron sulfides. Why these metals occur in this type of meteorite is not yet understood. We conclude that magnetic susceptibility measurements are an excellent way to classify meteorites without having to destroy them. However, this would have to be combined with other methods to properly classify meteorites of the CR type. We thank Bob Summerfield and Al Witzgall for assistance in obtaining samples, and Stephanie Brachfeld for use of her equipment.

  6. Nonlinear Susceptibility Magnitude Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R2 = 0.99, CNR = 84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R2 > 0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI. PMID:25505816

  7. Out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility and environmental magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrouda, Frantisek; Chadima, Martin; Jezek, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Presence of ultrafine magnetic particles in rocks, soils and environmental materials is traditionally investigated by frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdMS) consisting of susceptibility measurement at two or more operating frequencies and the preferred orientation of these particles can be investigated through anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdAMS). In the instruments that measure the susceptibility in alternating magnetic field, the measured susceptibility can be resolved into a component that is in-phase with the applied field (ipMS) and a component that is out-of-phase (opMS). For materials in which the opMS is due to viscous phenomena (presence of magnetic particles on transition between superparamagnetic and stable single domain states with sufficiently wide range of relaxation times), there is theoretical relationship between fdMS and opMS, called the π/2 law. Approximate formulas exist for the conversion of the opMS into the fdMS and vice versa and their validity is tested on various loess/palaeosol samples. Consequently, the opMS, which is measured simultaneously with the ipMS during one measuring process, can be used in indicating the ultrafine magnetic particles even the measurement is made at one frequency, only. The width of the particle size interval investigated by the fdMS is controlled by the operating frequencies used. In case of opMS, the interval is slightly narrower than that in the fdMS and depends also on the operating frequency used. The preferred orientation of magnetically viscous particles can be investigated through the fdAMS and, newly, also through the anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS). While the correlations between fdMS and opMS in loess/palaeosol sequences are excellent, the relationship between fdAMS and opAMS is more complex. Nevertheless, the opAMS has large potential for investigating preferred orientation of magnetically viscous particles, mainly, as it is measured simultaneously with the ipAMS.

  8. AC magnetic susceptibility of Bi2223-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimishima, Y.; Inagaki, K.; Tanabe, K.; Nagata, N.; Ichiyanagi, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The AC magnetic susceptibilities χ AC of a Bi2223 sintered sample were measured by the Hartshorn bridge method. The linear AC χ' 0 showed the two-steps behavior at T C1 and T C2, where T C1 > T C2. The χ'0-data between T C1 and T C2 has no H AC-dependence and agreed well with those of powder specimen, and they can be regarded as the intragrain magnetic susceptibility. Below the inter-grain transition temperature T C2 the χ″ 0 showed a positive peak. The temperature dependence of χ' 0 and χ″ 0 were analyzed by the Bean's critical-state model. As a result, the temperature dependence of critical current density J C ∝ (1 - T/T C2) β was obtained with β = 2.3-2.6. The non-linear χ' 2 and χ″ 2 below T C2 resemble the behaviors derived from the Bean model, but the negative divergence of χ' 2 may show the evidence of d-wave paring in the present Bi2223-system.

  9. Generalised Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Raphael; Harrow, Aram W.; Popa, Alexandru; Sach, Benjamin

    Given a pattern p over an alphabet Σ p and a text t over an alphabet Σ t , we consider the problem of determining a mapping f from Σ p to {Σ}t+ such that t = f(p 1)f(p 2)...f(p m ). This class of problems, which was first introduced by Amir and Nor in 2004, is defined by different constraints on the mapping f. We give NP-Completeness results for a wide range of conditions. These include when f is either many-to-one or one-to-one, when Σ t is binary and when the range of f is limited to strings of constant length. We then introduce a related problem we term pattern matching with string classes which we show to be solvable efficiently. Finally, we discuss an optimisation variant of generalised matching and give a polynomial-time min (1,sqrt{k/OPT})-approximation algorithm for fixed k.

  10. Transverse susceptibility method in nanoparticulate magnetic media.

    PubMed

    Cimpoesu, Dorin; Spinu, Leonard; Stancu, Alexandru

    2008-06-01

    Transverse susceptibility (TS) method is a reliable method for the determination of anisotropy in nanoparticulate media. To correctly evaluate the value of anisotropy in various modern nanostructured materials, a number of theoretical problems related to the method have to be well understood to avoid significant systematic errors. This paper presents the state of the art in the TS method which includes the expression for single domain particles with any type of anisotropy, the theoretical and micromagnetic, using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and stochastic LLG equation studies of the effects of ac field amplitude, inter-particle interactions, and magnetic relaxation. The problem of both real and imaginary parts of the TS signal is also discussed. PMID:18681012

  11. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements for in Situ Characterization of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a viable method for concentration of components of lunar soils and rocks for use as feedstocks for manufacture of metals, oxygen, and for recovery of volatiles such as He-3. Work with lunar materials indicates that immature soils are the best candidates for magnetic beneficiation. The magnetic susceptibility at which selected soil components such as anorthite, ilmenite, or metallic iron are separated is not affected by soil maturity, but the recovery of the concentrated components is. Increasing soil maturity lowers recovery. Mature soils contain significant amounts of glass-encased metallic iron. Magnetic susceptibility, which is sensitive to metallic iron content, can be used to measure soil maturity. The relationship between the ratio of magnetic susceptibility and iron oxide and the conventional maturity parameter, I(sub s)/FeO, ferromagnetic resonant intensity divided by iron oxide content is given. The magnetic susceptibilities were determined using apparatus designed for magnetic separation of the lunar soils.

  12. Magnetic susceptibility as a biosignature in stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryshyn, Victoria A.; Corsetti, Frank A.; Frantz, Carie M.; Lund, Steve P.; Berelson, William M.

    2016-03-01

    Microbialites have long been a focus of study in geobiology because they are macroscopic sedimentary records of the activities of microscopic organisms. However, abiotic processes can result in microbialite-like morphologies. Developing robust tools for substantiating the biogenicity of putative microbialites remains an important challenge. Here, we report a new potential biosignature based on the detrital magnetic mineral component present in nearly all sedimentary rocks. Detrital grains falling onto a hard, abiogenic, chemically precipitated structure would be expected to roll off surfaces at high incline angles. Thus, the distribution of grains in an abiogenic microbialite should exhibit a dependence on the dip angle along laminae. In contrast, a microbialite formed by the active trapping and binding of detrital grains by microorganisms could exhibit a distribution of detrital grains significantly less dependent on the dip angle of the laminae. However, given that most ancient stromatolites are micritic (composed of carbonate mud), tracking detrital grains vs. precipitated carbonate is not straightforward. Recent advances in our ability to measure miniscule magnetic fields open up the possibility to map magnetic susceptibility as a tracer of detrital grains in stromatolites. In abiogenic carbonate precipitation experiments, magnetic susceptibility fell to zero when the growth surface was inclined above 30° (the angle at which grains rolled off). In cyanobacterial mat experiments, even vertically inclined mats held magnetic material. The results indicate that cyanobacterial mats trap and bind small grains more readily than abiogenic carbonate precipitates alone. A variety of stromatolites of known and unknown biogenicity were then analyzed. Tested stromatolites span many different ages (Eocene to Holocene) and depositional environments (hot springs, lakes), and compositional forms (micritic, sparry crusts, etc.). The results were consistent with the laboratory

  13. Toward Modelling Topsoil Magnetic Susceptibility for Demining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, J. A.; Dearing, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Landmine Monitor estimates that landmines cause up to 20,000 fatalities and casualties worldwide every year, in over 100 countries affected by landmine contamination. Although detection technologies have become more sophisticated, the metal detector still remains the most widely employed detection system in landmine affected regions. With increased use of minimum metal mines, the performance and sensitivity of metal detectors are increasingly challenged. In addition to mine constituents, depth of burial and orientation, soil properties significantly affect metal detection capabilities. Soils with high magnetic susceptibility, in particular those dominated by viscous components, interfere with the response signal in both frequency and time domain metal detection systems. Using Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) as a pilot region, we created an expert system to predict topsoil susceptibility from environmental information within a SOTER data base. Initially, the knowledge base is constructed from published relationships of environmental parameters and magnetic susceptibility and knowledge of experts in the field of soil magnetism. The knowledge base is underpinned by environmental conditions that are known to enhance or reduce magnetic susceptibility in topsoils. Where semi-quantitative data exists, transfer-functions are used to provide first approximations of susceptibility classes and offer a basis for a probability score for the susceptibility class. As a first approximation, susceptibility values are categorized into five continuous classes delimited by published magnetic susceptibility ranges in topsoils. The predicted susceptibility maps result in regional contrasts, delineated by the spatial scale of the environmental information. Further development of the model using a Baysean rule-based system with fuzzy boundaries is anticipated. Validation of the model is proposed using archived soil survey samples from BiH. In addition to providing essential data for

  14. Out-of-Plane Torque Influence on Magnetization Switching and Susceptibility in Magnetic Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chun-Yang; Wang, Zheng-Chuan

    2010-07-01

    Based on both the spin diffusion equation and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, we demonstrate the influence of out-of-plane spin torque on magnetization switching and susceptibility in a magnetic multilayer system. The variation of spin accumulation and local magnetization with respect to time are studied in the magnetization reversal induced by spin torque. We also research the susceptibility subject to a microwave magnetic field, which is compared with the results obtained without out-of-plane torque.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of strongly interacting matter across the deconfinement transition.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Negro, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    We propose a method to determine the total magnetic susceptibility of strongly interacting matter by lattice QCD simulations and present numerical results for the theory with two light flavors, which suggest a weak magnetic activity in the confined phase and the emergence of strong paramagnetism in the deconfined, quark-gluon plasma phase. PMID:24237508

  16. Complex susceptibility measurements of a suspension of magnetic beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, P. C.; Mac Oireachtaigh, C.; Cohen-Tannoudji, L.; Bertrand, E.; Bibette, J.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of the frequency and field dependence of the complex magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω,H)=χs'(ω,H)-iχs″(ω,H), of a suspension of magnetic beads in water over the frequency range 200 Hz to 1 MHz are presented. The magnetic polarizing field, H, is applied to the sample, first in a forward direction and then in a reverse direction and from a plot of the static susceptibility, χ, against polarizing field H, the existence of a hysteresis effect is demonstrated.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility and exchange coupling in the mineral ardennite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Donnay, G.

    1969-01-01

    Ardennite, a rare silicate mineral, contains about 19 wt.% manganese. Some of the manganese atoms are in positions which are close enough to allow negative exchange and hence a reduction of the total magnetic susceptibility. It is shown that the susceptibility can be accounted for approximately by the treatment of Earnshaw and Lewis (1958) for S = 5 2 and a Hamiltonian H = -2g??Hb-2JS1??S2. ?? 1969.

  18. Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and some other glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.

    1959-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility at several magnetic field strengths of about thirty tektites from various localities have been measured. The susceptibility ranges from 2 ?? 10-6 to about 7.9 ?? 10-6 e.m.u./g. Tektites from a given locality have similar susceptibilities. The intensity of magnetization of all the tektites measured is zero or very small. For comparison, the same measurements have been made on about thirty obsidians. The magnetic susceptibilities cover approximately the same range, but the intensity of magnetization of the impurity was found to be much higher. By heating the obsidians to 1450??C the intensity of magnetization was reduced to zero. From the above data, it is shown that the tektites must have been heated well above 1400??C, and that essentially all the iron is in solution. On the other hand, the evidence shows that obsidians have not been heated much above this temperature, and that there is a significant amount of undissolved iron in the glass, probably as magnetite. Further, if tektites are extraterrestrial, they probably entered the earth's atmosphere as a glass. ?? 1959.

  19. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, L.; Mejías, R.; Barber, D. F.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Serna, C. J.; Lázaro, F. J.; Morales, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  20. Modeling soil magnetic susceptibility and frequency-dependent susceptibility to aid landmine clearance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Jacqueline A.; Dearing, John A.

    2006-05-01

    Information on the electromagnetic properties of soils and their effects on metal detectors is increasingly necessary for effective demining due to limited detector efficacy in highly magnetic soils and the difficulty of detecting minimummetal mines. Magnetic measurements of soils, such as magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility can aid the detection of problem soils, but are not part of standard soil analyses. Consequently, little information about soil magnetism exists within the soil, environmental science and environmental geophysics communities. Lack of empirical data may be compensated through the estimation of soil magnetic characteristics by predictive modeling approaches. Initial modeling of soil types in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was attempted by expert and analogue approaches, using only coarse scale soil type information, which resulted in the production of national soil maps for low field and frequency-dependent susceptibility. Validation of the maps was achieved by comparison of empirical magnetic data from soil samples in the National Bosnian soil archive in Sarajevo. Discrepancies between the model and empirical data are explained in part by the differences in soil parent material within each soil type, which controls the amount of Fe released into the soil system available for in situ conversion to magnetic Fe oxides. The integration of soil information (type and parent material), expert knowledge and empirical data refines the predictive modeling of soil magnetic characteristics in temperate-Mediterranean environments such as BiH. Further spatial separation of soil types in the landscape can be achieved by digital terrain modeling. Preliminary fine-scale, landscape-soil modeling indicates improved spatial resolution of soil types compared with the original coarsely-mapped soil units, and the potential to synthesize local scale soil magnetic maps.

  1. Variable Temperature Equipment for a Commercial Magnetic Susceptibility Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Variable temperature equipment for the magnetic susceptibility balance MSB-MK1 of Sherwood Scientific, Ltd., is described. The sample temperature is controlled with streaming air heated by water in a heat exchanger. Whereas the balance as sold commercially can be used only for room temperature measurements, the setup we designed extends the…

  2. Understanding the Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements by Using an Analytical Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, M. E.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Sosa, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Baffa, O.

    2008-01-01

    A description of the measurement procedure, related theory and experimental data analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of materials is given. A short review of previous papers in the line of this subject is presented. This work covers the whole experimental process, in detail, and presents a pragmatic approach for pedagogical sake. (Contains 2…

  3. Accuracy of MRI-based Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russek, Stephen; Erdevig, Hannah; Keenan, Kathryn; Stupic, Karl

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map tissue susceptibility to identify microbleeds associated with brain injury and pathologic iron deposits associated with neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. To determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements, a set of phantoms with paramagnetic salts and nano-iron gels were fabricated. The shapes and orientations of features were varied. Measured susceptibility of 1.0 mM GdCl3 solution in water as a function of temperature agreed well with the theoretical predictions, assuming Gd+3 is spin 7/2. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry. The paramagnetic susceptibility sits on top of the much larger diamagnetic susceptibility of water (-9.04 x 10-6), which leads to errors in the SQUID measurements. To extract out the paramagnetic contribution using standard magnetometry, measurements must be made down to low temperature (2K). MRI-based susceptometry is shown to be as or more accurate than standard magnetometry and susceptometry techniques.

  4. Dynamic magnetic hysteresis and nonlinear susceptibility of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Ouari, Bachir; Titov, Serguey V.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear ac stationary response of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles subjected to both external ac and dc fields of arbitrary strength and orientation is investigated using Brown's continuous diffusion model. The nonlinear complex susceptibility and dynamic magnetic hysteresis (DMH) loops of an individual antiferromagnetic nanoparticle are evaluated and compared with the linear regime for extensive ranges of the anisotropy, the ac and dc magnetic fields, damping, and the specific antiferromagnetic parameter. It is shown that the shape and area of the DMH loops of antiferromagnetic particles are substantially altered by applying a dc field that permits tuning of the specific magnetic power loss in the nanoparticles.

  5. Dynamics of uniform quantum gases, II: Magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2010-03-01

    A general expression for temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility of quantum gases composed of particles possessing both charge and spin degrees of freedom has been obtained within the framework of the generalized random phase approximation. The conditions for the existence of dia-, para-, and ferro-magnetism have been analyzed in terms of a parameter involving single-particle charge and spin. The limit T→0 retrieves the expressions for the Landau and the Pauli susceptibilities for an electron gas. It is found for a Bose gas that on decreasing the temperature, it passes either through a diamagnetic incomplete Meissner-effect regime or through a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic large magnetization fluctuation regime before going to the Meissner phase at T=T.

  6. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-04-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53 × 10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals, such as augite, hornblende or biotite, often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that palaeointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  7. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53*10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals such as augite, hornblende or biotite often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that paleointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  8. Grain-size Distributions from Deconvolved Broadband Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, K.

    2014-12-01

    A magnetic susceptibility meter with several-decade frequency band has recently made it possible to obtain superparamagnetic grain-size distributions only by room-temperature measurement. A rigorous deconvolution scheme of frequency dependence of susceptibility is already available. I have made some corrections on the deconvolution scheme and present its applications to broadband susceptibility data on loess and volcanic rocks. Deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility was originally developed by Shchervakov and Fabian [2005]. Suppose an ensemble of grains distributed for two independent variables of volume (grain-size) and energy barrier. Applying alternating magnetic field with varying frequency results in differentiating grains by energy barrier - not directly by volume. Since the response function for frequency is known, deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility provide a rigorous solution for the second moment of volume on the volume-energy barrier distribution. Based on a common assumption of a linear relation between volume and energy barrier, we can obtain analytical volume or grain-size distributions of superparamagnetic grains. A ZH broadband susceptibility meter comprises of two separated devices for lower (SM-100, 65 - 16kHz) and higher (SM-105, 16k - 512kHz) frequency ranges. At every frequency susceptibility calibration was conducted using three kinds of paramagnetic rare earth oxides [Fukuma and Torii, 2011]. Almost all samples exhibited seemingly linear dependences of in-phase susceptibility on logarithmic frequency. This indicates that the measured data do not suffer serious noise, and that the second moment of volume is relatively constant against energy barrier. Nonetheless, third-order polynomial fittings revealed slight deflections from the quasi-linear susceptibility - logarithmic frequency relations. Deconvolving the polynomials showed that such slight defections come from peaks or troughs in varying second moment

  9. MRI diagnosis of brown tumor based on magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Negar G; Smith, Deven L; Outwater, Eric K

    2008-09-01

    A 56-year-old male with chronic renal failure was incidentally found to have lytic bone lesions in the pubic symphysis, left femoral head, left acetabulum, left iliac bone, and L1 vertebra on computed tomography (CT). Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen was performed (for evaluation of a renal lesion) which demonstrated marked loss of signal intensity in the L1 bone lesion on increasing TE gradient echo images, consistent with magnetic susceptibility effect due to hemosiderin. Brown tumor was confirmed at biopsy. The susceptibility imaging probes one particular histological characteristic of tissues and allows a restricted differential of lytic tumors that contain significant hemosiderin, including brown tumor. PMID:18777537

  10. Magnetic susceptibility properties of pesticide contaminated volcanic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini; Safiuddin, La Ode; Tamuntuan, Gerald; Bijaksana, Satria

    2013-09-01

    Pesticides, unfortunately, are still widely used in many countries as way to eradicate agricultural pests. As they are being used continuously over a long period of time, they accumulate as residues in soils posing serious threats to the environment. In this study, we study the changes in magnetite-rich volcanic soils that were deliberately contaminated by pesticide. Such changes, in any, would be useful in the detection of pesticide residue in contaminated soils. Two different types of magnetically strong volcanic soil from the area near Lembang, West Java, Indonesia were used in this study where they were contaminated with varying concentrations of pesticide. The samples were then measured for magnetic susceptibility at two different frequencies. The measurements were then repeated after a period of three months. We found a reduction of magnetic susceptibility as well as a reduction in SP (superparamagnetic) grains proportion in contaminated soil. These might be caused by pesticide-induced magnetic dissolution as supported by SEM analyses. However the impact of pesticide concentration as well as exposure time on magnetic dissolution is still inconclusive.

  11. Probing Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy of Large-Diameter Armchair Carbon Nanotubes via Magnetic Linear Dichroism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroz, Erik; Kono, Junichiro; Searles, Thomas; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming; Fagan, Jeffrey; McGill, Stephen; Smirnov, Dmitry

    2012-02-01

    We studied magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, via magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy, of aqueous suspensions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in high magnetic fields up to 22T using a unique magnet system (Split-Florida Helix magnet). Specifically, we measured magnetic susceptibility anisotropies, δχ, of several armchair species ranging from (5,5)-(13,13) at room temperature over an excitation wavelength range of 400-900 nm. For large diameter armchairs such as (12,12) and (13,13), we have observed some of the strongest alignment in a static magnetic field due to their large diameters. Results will be discussed in comparison with detailed calculations involving the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  12. The effect of magnetization anisotropy and paramagnetic susceptibility on the magnetization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolyachkin, A. S.; Neznakhin, D. S.; Bartashevich, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Sucksmith-Thompson method is a widespread technique for the accurate evaluation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants K1 and K2 of a single crystal with easy magnetization axis or basal plane type magnetic anisotropy. In this work, a generalized form of the method is represented. It takes into account several magnetization process features: spontaneous magnetization anisotropy, high-field differential susceptibility (paramagnetic process), and stray fields in terms of the demagnetizing factor. Corrected anisotropy field expressions for both magnetic anisotropy types are also established herein. The modified approach was verified by magnetization measurements of single crystalline LaCo5 and YFe3.

  13. ac susceptibility study of a magnetite magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala-Valenzuela, O. E.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A.; Galindo, J. T. Elizalde; Botez, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetite nanometric powder was synthesized from metal salts using a coprecipitation technique. The powders were used to produce magnetic fluid via a peptization method, with hydrocarbon Isopar M as liquid carrier and oleic acid as surfactant. The complex magnetic susceptibility χ =χ'+iχ″ was measured as a function of temperature T in steps of 2.5 K from 3 to 298 K for frequencies ranging from f =10 to 10 000 Hz. The magnetic fluid real and imaginary components of the ac susceptibility show a prominent maximum at temperatures that increase with the measuring frequency, which is attributed to a spin-glass-like behavior. The peak temperature Tp1 of χ″ depends on f following the Vogel-Fulcher law f =f0 exp[E /kB(Tp1-T0)], where f0 and E are positive constants and T0 is a parameter related to particle interactions. There is another kind of peak temperature, Tp2, in the loss factor tan δ =χ″/χ' which is related to a magnetic aftereffect. The peak temperature Tp2 is far less than Tp1 and shows an Arrhenius-type dependence on f.

  14. Exchange anisotropy determined by magnetic field dependence of ac susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Vilela Leão, L. H.; de Aguiar, F. M.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2003-10-01

    ac susceptibility measurements of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AF) bilayers are usually performed as a function of the temperature. In this work we describe measurements of transverse biased ac susceptibility (χt) of FM/AF bilayers as a function of the applied magnetic field H0. The measurements were carried out at room temperature by means of an ac magneto-optical Kerr effect susceptometer. The χt-1(H0) dependence, at the saturation magnetization regime, exhibits a linear behavior with the applied field parallel and perpendicular to the exchange bias direction. The linear extrapolation of χt-1 versus H0 cuts the abscissa at asymmetrical values of field due to the exchange bias coupling. The inverse susceptibility is calculated in the saturation regime by a model, which takes into account the free energy of both layers plus a term corresponding to the interfacial coupling. The exchange coupling field (HE) and uniaxial anisotropy (HU) are extracted from the best fit to the experimental results. The results obtained are crosschecked by those obtained from ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and dc magnetometry. The measurements of the exchange bias and the uniaxial field in all of the three analyzed bilayers gave values that are consistently lower when measured by FMR than those obtained by ac and dc magnetometry. It is argued that the apparently discrepant values of HE and HU, obtained by different techniques, might be explained by existence of unstable AF grains at the AF/FM interface.

  15. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements at Ultra-low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Xia, J. S.; Sullivan, N. S.; Zapf, V. S.; Paduan-Filho, A.

    2010-02-01

    We report the design and operation of a device for ac magnetic susceptibility measurements that can operate down to 1 mK. The device, a modification of the standard mutual inductance bridge, is designed with detailed consideration of the thermalization and optimization of each element. First, in order to reduce local heating, the primary coil is made with superconducting wire. Second, a low-temperature transformer which is thermally anchored to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator, is used to match the output of the secondary coil to a high-sensitivity bridge detector. The careful thermal anchoring of the secondary coil and the matching transformer is required to reduce the overall noise temperature and maximize sensitivity. The sample is immersed in liquid 3He to minimize the Kapitza thermal resistance. The magnetic susceptibility of several magnetic compounds, such as the well-known spin gap compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 and other powdered samples, have been successfully measured to temperatures well below 10 mK.

  16. Reentrant ac Magnetic Susceptibility in Josephson-Junction Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Moreira, F.M.; Barbara, P.; Cawthorne, A.B.; Lobb, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    We have measured the complex ac magnetic susceptibility of unshunted Josephson-junction arrays as a function of temperature T , amplitude of the excitation field h{sub ac} , and external magnetic field H{sub dc} . For small h{sub ac} Meissner screening occurs. For larger h{sub ac} , however, the screening is reentrant in T . This reentrance is not thermodynamic but dynamic and arises from the paramagnetic contribution of multijunction loops. This result gives an alternative explanation of the paramagnetic Meissner effect observed in granular superconductors. Experimental results are in agreement with a simplified model based on a single loop containing four junctions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Magnetization and susceptibility of ion-irradiated granular magnetite films

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; McCloy, J. S.; Lea, A. S.; Sundararajan, J. A.; Yao, Q.; Qiang, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Porous granular films of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with grains of {approx}3 nm in size were prepared using a state-of-the-art nanocluster deposition system. The films are initially superparamagnetic but become magnetized following Si{sup 2+} ion irradiation. A significant increase in the grain size and a dramatic change in the microstructure are observed. There are dipolar interactions between the nanoparticles in both the unirradiated and irradiated films. The in-phase alternating current magnetic susceptibility of the unirradiated film shows a blocking temperature of {approx}150 K, depending on frequency. A broadened Verwey transition for the irradiated film occurs at {approx}75 K, above which the susceptibility exhibits unusual behavior: a nearly linear decrease with decreasing temperature. There are irreversible domain rotations in the irradiated film during zero-field cooling and warming cycles between 10 and 300 K. The observed behavior of the irradiated granular films is quite distinct from that of metallic nanostructures after irradiation, and is due to the dramatic change in microstructures.

  18. Spectroscopic AC susceptibility imaging (sASI) of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement set and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R2=0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R2=0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R2=0.97, p<0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI.

  19. Spectroscopic AC Susceptibility Imaging (sASI) of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurement to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R2 = 0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R2 = 0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R2 = 0.97, p <0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. PMID:25477704

  20. Spectroscopic AC Susceptibility Imaging (sASI) of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Nadar, Priyanka M; Diamond, Solomon G

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurement to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R(2) = 0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R(2) = 0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R(2) = 0.97, p <0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. PMID:25477704

  1. Generalized longitudinal susceptibility for magnetic monopoles in spin ice

    PubMed Central

    Bramwell, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized longitudinal susceptibility χ(q,ω) affords a sensitive measure of the spatial and temporal correlations of magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Starting with the monopole model, a mean field expression for χ(q,ω) is derived as well as expressions for the mean square longitudinal field and induction at a point. Monopole motion is shown to be strongly correlated, and both spatial and temporal correlations are controlled by the dimensionless monopole density x which defines the ratio of the magnetization relaxation rate and the monopole hop rate. Thermal effects and spin-lattice relaxation are also considered. The derived equations are applicable in the temperature range where the Wien effect for magnetic monopoles is negligible. They are discussed in the context of existing theories of spin ice and the following experimental techniques: DC and AC magnetization, neutron scattering, neutron spin echo and longitudinal and transverse field μSR. The monopole theory is found to unify diverse experimental results, but several discrepancies between theory and experiment are identified. One of these, concerning the neutron scattering line shape, is explained by means of a phenomenological modification to the theory. PMID:23166378

  2. Concerning the preparation and use of substances with a magnetic susceptibility equal to the magnetic susceptibility of air.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Chris J G; de Roos, Remmert

    2006-11-01

    In this work it is demonstrated that the susceptibility of diamagnetic substances, such as water and agarose gel, can easily be tuned to the susceptibility of air by the addition of a proper amount of strongly paramagnetic ions, in this case 16.6 +/- 0.1 mM holmium(III). The resultant air-equivalent substances are shown to allow the creation of objects that do not disturb the static magnetic field of the scanner and hence do not invoke susceptibility artifacts, regardless of the objects' shape, size, and orientation with respect to B(0), and regardless of the pulse sequence being used. The addition of the proper amount of holmium(III) to aqueous solutions and gels is further shown to exert a negligible influence on the chemical shift and to cause a moderate increase of the relaxation rates 1/T(1) and 1/T(2). The results indicate the potential of air-equivalent substances for many purposes, including construction of artifact-free test objects; experimental setups and accessory devices; investigation of systems that contain air cavities, gas bubbles, etc.; and monitoring of system-related and object-induced field disturbances. PMID:17041881

  3. Magnetic susceptibility tensor and heme contact shifts determinations in the Rhodobacter capsulatus ferricytochrome c': NMR and magnetic susceptibility studies.

    PubMed

    Tsan, P; Caffrey, M; Daku, M L; Cusanovich, M; Marion, D; Gans, P

    2001-03-14

    The 1H and 15N resonances of the carbon monoxide complex of ferrocytochrome c' of Rhodobacter capsulatus, a ferrous diamagnetic heme protein, have been extensively assigned by TOCSY-HSQC, NOESY-HSQC, and HSQC-NOESY-HSQC 3D heteronuclear experiments performed on a 7 mM sample labeled with 15N. Based on short-range and medium-range NOEs and H(N) exchange rates, the secondary structure consists of four helices: helix 1 (3-29), helix 2 (33-48), helix 3 (78-101), and helix 4 (103-125). The 15N, 1HN, and 1H(alpha) chemical shifts of the CO complex form are compared to those of the previously assigned oxidized (or ferric) state. From the chemical shift differences between these redox states, the orientation and the anisotropy of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor have been determined using the crystallographic coordinates of the ferric state. The chi-tensor is axial, and the orientation of the z-axis is approximately perpendicular to the heme plane. The paramagnetic chemical shifts of the protons of the heme ligand have been determined and decomposed into the Fermi shift and dipolar shift contributions. Magnetic susceptibility studies in frozen solutions have been performed. Fits of the susceptibility data using the model of Maltempo (Maltempo, M. M. J. Chem. Phys. 1974, 61, 2540-2547) are consistent with a rather low contribution of the S = 3/2 spin state over the range of temperatures and confirm the value of the axial anisotropy. Values in the range 10.4-12.5 cm(-1) have been inferred for the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D). Analysis of the contact shift and the susceptibility data suggests that cytochrome c' of Rb. capsulatus exhibits a predominant high-spin character of the iron in the oxidized state at room temperature. PMID:11456869

  4. Magnetic Susceptibility Effects and Lorentz Damping in Diamagnetic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    2000-01-01

    A great number of crystals (semi-conductor and protein) grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity and g-jitter. Both static and dynamic (rotating or travelling wave) magnetic fields can be used to reduce the effects of convection in materials processing. In semi-conductor melts, due to their relatively high electrical conductivity, the induced Lorentz force can be effectively used to curtail convective effects. In melts/solutions with reduced electrical conductivity, such as aqueous solutions used in solution crystal growth, protein crystal growth and/or model fluid experiments for simulating melt growth, however, the variation of the magnetic susceptibility with temperature and/or concentration can be utilized to better damp fluid convection than the Lorentz force method. This paper presents a comprehensive, comparative numerical study of the relative damping effects using static magnetic fields and gradients in a simple geometry subjected to a thermal gradient. The governing equations are formulated in general terms and then simplified for the numerical calculations. Operational regimes, based on the best damping technique for different melts/solutions are identified based on fluid properties. Comparisons are provided between the numerical results and available results from experiments in surveyed literature.

  5. Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda

    2015-01-01

    Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…

  6. Magnetic Anisotropy of Maghemite Nanoparticles Probed by RF Transverse Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A. I.; Bartolomé, J.; García, L. M.; Bartolomé, F.; Arauzo, A.; Millán, A.; Palacio, F.

    We present radio frequency magnetic transverse susceptibility measurements on γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which yield an estimation of their effective anisotropy constant, Keff as a function of nanoparticle size. The resulting values range from 4 to 8 × 104 erg/cm3, being on the order of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in bulk maghemite. Keff values increase as the particle diameter increases. Evidences of anisotropy field distribution given by the size distribution in the samples, and interparticle interactions that increase as the particle size increases, are also observed in the TS measurements. The effects of such interparticle interaction overcome those of thermal fluctuations, in contrast with the behavior of other iron oxide particles.

  7. Magnetic Susceptibility Cyclostratigraphy of the Ediacaran Wonoka Formation, South Australia, from a Portable Susceptibility Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguez, D. A.; Kodama, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a rock magnetic cyclostratigraphy of the Ediacaran Wonoka Fm., from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. The Wonoka Fm. records the Shuram C-isotope excursion, and the results of this study provide an estimate of its duration. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) were made in the field with a portable susceptibility meter (GF Instruments SM-20) every 0.4 m over 600 m of dominantly carbonate stratigraphic section, with a 100 meter interval of fine sand turbidites. We filter the data series to pass wavelengths shorter than 300 meters (the Rayleigh frequency for our data series) and use Multi Taper Method (MTM) time series analysis to estimate the power spectrum of the series. We fit a red noise model to the MTM spectrum and calculate 99% chi squared confidence limits to identify cycles with statistical significance. Unambiguous spectral peaks rise above the 99% confidence level with wavelengths of 116.9 m, 45.5 m, 23.1 m, 7.0 m, 2.5 m, 1.7 m, 1.3 m, 1.2 m, 0.9 m, and 0.8 m. Haines (1988, Sed. Geo. V 58) recognizes cycles in clastic sediment delivery to the carbonate portions of the Wonoka with an average wavelength of 8 m and hypothesizes a climate driver related to Milankovitch cycles. The 7 m cycle in MS is likely a more precise measure of the same phenomenon. Furthermore, cycles with wavelengths of 24.1 m, 7.0 m, 1.7m, 1.26 m, and 0.9 m exhibit ratios matching modeled durations of long eccentricity (405 kyr), short eccentricity (123 kyr), obliquity (29 kyr), and the 2 periods of precession (19 and 14 kyr) for the late Neoproterozoic. This interpretation yields a duration of 10 Myr for the 600 m we sampled. Assuming a constant sedimentation rate yields an 11.3 Myr estimate for the ~675 m thick Shuram C-isotope excursion. However, uncertainty lies in applying the MTM-based estimate to the turbidite section. Our estimate will be refined and compared with laboratory rock magnetic measurements in an ongoing study of the Wonoka Fm.

  8. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements as a Proxy for Hydrocarbon Biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewafy, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Slater, L. D.; Werkema, D.; Revil, A.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Skold, M.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements have been commonly used in paleoclimate studies, as a proxy for environmental pollution such as heavy metal contamination, and for delineating zones of oil seeps related to hydrocarbon exploration. Few studies have assessed the use of MS measurements for mapping zones of oil pollution. In this study, we investigated the variation in magnetic susceptibility across a hydrocarbon contaminated site undergoing biodegradation. Our objective was to investigate if MS measurements could be used as a proxy indicator of intrinsic bioremediation linked to the activity of iron reducing bacteria. An improved understanding of the mechanisms generating geophysical signatures associated with microbial enzymatic activity could permit the development of geophysical imaging technologies for long-term, minimally invasive and sustainable monitoring of natural biodegradation at oil spill sites. We used a Bartington MS probe to measure MS data along fifteen boreholes within contaminated (both free phase and dissolved phase hydrocarbon plumes) and clean areas. Our results show the following: (1) an enhanced zone of MS straddling the water table at the contaminated locations, not observed at the clean locations; (2) MS values within the free product plume are higher compared to values within the dissolved product plume; (3) the MS values within the vadoze zone above the free product plume are higher compared to values within the dissolved product plume; 4) the zone of high MS is thicker within the free product plume compared to the dissolved product plume. We suggest that the zone of enhanced MS results from the precipitation of magnetite related to the oxidation of the hydrocarbons coupled to iron reduction. Our data documents a strong correlation between MS and hydrocarbon concentration. We conclude that recognition of these zones of enhanced magnetite formation allows for the application of MS measurements as a: (1) low cost, rapid monitoring

  9. Impact of wastewater application on magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowska, Zofia; Alekseev, Andrey; Skic, Kamil; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we attempted to analyse the changes in magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil irrigated with municipal wastewater in a period of four years. Effects of different plants (poplar and willow), wastewater doses, depths, as well as the concentration of the elements and the total carbon content were tested. The study showed that systematic wastewater irrigation diminished magnetic susceptibility values in the top layer of soil. However, statistical analysis revealed that both doses of wastewater and growing plants did not have a significant impact on the magnetic susceptibility of obtained results. Magnetic susceptibility decreased significantly with the depth, in accordance with higher total carbon and lower content of magnetic particles. High correlation coefficients were found between magnetic susceptibility and Zn, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO content, whereas no correlation was observed for Cr, as well as for Pb.

  10. Generalising Wigner's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarbicki, Gniewomir; Chruściński, Dariusz; Mozrzymas, Marek

    2016-07-01

    We analyse linear maps of operator algebras {{ B }}H({ H }) mapping the set of rank-k projectors onto the set of rank-l projectors surjectively. A complete characterisation of such maps for prime n={dim} { H } is provided. A particular case corresponding to k=l=1 is well known as Wigner’s theorem. Hence our result may be considered as a generalisation of this celebrated Wigner’s result.

  11. Controlling the magnetic susceptibility in an artificial elliptical quantum ring by magnetic flux and external Rashba effect

    SciTech Connect

    Omidi, Mahboubeh Faizabadi, Edris

    2015-03-21

    Magnetic susceptibility is investigated in a man-made elliptical quantum ring in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interactions and the magnetic flux. It is shown that magnetic susceptibility as a function of magnetic flux changes between negative and positive signs periodically. The periodicity of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations depends on the geometry of the region where magnetic field is applied, the eccentricity, and number of sites in each chain ring (the elliptical ring is composed of chain rings). The magnetic susceptibility sign can be reversed by tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength as well. Both the magnetic susceptibility strength and sign can be controlled via external spin-orbit interactions, which can be exploited in spintronics and nanoelectronics.

  12. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukada, K. Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-05-07

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  13. Zero-velocity magnetophoretic method for the determination of particle magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Watarai, Hitoshi; Duc, Hoang Trong Tien; Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Zhang, Tianyi; Tsukahara, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    A simple zero-velocity method to determine the particle magnetic susceptibility by measuring the magnetophoretic velocity was proposed. The principle is that the magnetophoretic velocity of a particle in a liquid medium must be zero when the magnetic susceptibilities of the medium and the particle are equal, or the gravity force and the magnetophoretic force are balanced. By changing the medium magnetic susceptibility and measuring the magnetophoretic velocity of a particle, the particle magnetic susceptibility was determined from the medium magnetic susceptibility under the zero-velocity condition. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated for polystyrene particles using a Dy(III) solution in the horizontal migration mode and different organic solvents in the vertical migration mode. PMID:25007934

  14. Synthesis and complex magnetic susceptibility characterization of magnetic fluids in different liquid carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala Valenzuela, O.; Matutes Aquino, J.; Betancourt Galindo, R.; Rodríguez Fernández, O.; Fannin, P. C.; Giannitsis, A. T.

    2005-05-01

    Kerosene, isopar M, and mineral oil based magnetic fluids were prepared. The magnetite nanoparticles have spherical shapes and a mean diameter of 10.2±3.2nm. The complex magnetic susceptibility χ(ω )=χ'(ω)-iχ″(ω) of the magnetic fluids was measured using the transmission line technique applying dc magnetic fields over the range 0-1212Oe over the frequency range 70MHz-6GHz, where resonance and relaxation are present. The resonance frequency fres defined as the frequency at which χ'(ω) goes from positive to negative values ranges from 2.1to5.4GHz. The maximum frequency fmax defined as the frequency at which maximum absorption occurs in χ″(ω) ranges from 1.2to4.8GHz. Anisotropy fields values were also determined.

  15. Magnetic susceptibilities of V3+ in corundum: Magnetic anisotropy at high fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumage, William H.; Quade, C. Richard; Dorman, C. Franklin

    1995-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of the V3+ ion as an impurity in Al2O3 under high magnetic fields, up to 20 T. In particular, we investigate the introduction of magnetic anisotropy that is lower than the trigonal symmetry of the host crystal. Two approaches are used for the calculations. First, fourth-order perturbation theory is used to develop quartic terms plus one sextic term in the susceptibility tensor that are good for fields up to 4 T. Then, the three-level energy matrix is reduced exactly to obtain the anisotropy at higher fields. It is found that the dominant contributions to the magnetic-induced anisotropy arise from the χxxxx term, while the χxxzz=χzxxz, χzzzz, and the χxxxxxx terms give a much lower contribution. Temperature-dependent effects are reported. There is a very small dependence of the magnetization upon the zero-field splitting.

  16. Three-dimensional quantification of susceptibility artifacts from various metals in magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Imai, Haruki; Tanaka, Yoji; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Kanno, Zuisei; Ohno, Kikuo; Ono, Takashi; Hanawa, Takao

    2013-09-01

    Susceptibility artifacts generated in magnetic resonance (MR) images were quantitatively evaluated for various metals using a three-dimensional (3-D) artifact rendering to demonstrate the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and artifact volume. Ten metals (stainless steel, Co-Cr alloy, Nb, Ti, Zr, Mo, Al, Sn, Cu and Ag) were prepared, and their magnetic susceptibilities measured using a magnetic balance. Each metal was embedded in a Ni-doped agarose gel phantom and the MR images of the metal-containing phantoms were taken using 1.5 and 3.0 T MR scanners under both fast spin echo and gradient echo conditions. 3-D renderings of the artifacts were constructed from the images and the artifact volumes were calculated for each metal. The artifact volumes of metals decreased with decreasing magnetic susceptibility, with the exception of Ag. Although Sn possesses the lowest absolute magnetic susceptibility (1.8×10(-6)), the artifact volume from Cu (-7.8×10(-6)) was smaller than that of Sn. This is because the magnetic susceptibility of Cu was close to that of the agarose gel phantom (-7.3×10(-6)). Since the difference in magnetic susceptibility between the agarose and Sn is close to that between the agarose and Ag (-17.5×10(-6)), their artifact volumes were almost the same, although they formed artifacts that were reversed in all three dimensions. PMID:23707948

  17. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy of human brain in vivo and its molecular underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Avram, Alexandru V; Liu, Chunlei

    2012-02-01

    Frequency shift of gradient-echo MRI provides valuable information for assessing brain tissues. Recent studies suggest that the frequency and susceptibility contrast depend on white matter fiber orientation. However, the molecular underpinning of the orientation dependence is unclear. In this study, we investigated the orientation dependence of susceptibility of human brain in vivo and mouse brains ex vivo. The source of susceptibility anisotropy in white matter is likely to be myelin as evidenced by the loss of anisotropy in the dysmyelinating shiverer mouse brain. A biophysical model is developed to investigate the effect of the molecular susceptibility anisotropy of myelin components, especially myelin lipids, on the bulk anisotropy observed by MRI. This model provides a consistent interpretation of the orientation dependence of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in normal mouse brain ex vivo and human brain in vivo and the microscopic origin of anisotropic susceptibility. It is predicted by the theoretical model and illustrated by the experimental data that the magnetic susceptibility of the white matter is least diamagnetic along the fiber direction. This relationship allows an efficient extraction of fiber orientation using susceptibility tensor imaging. These results suggest that anisotropy on the molecular level can be observed on the macroscopic level when the molecules are aligned in a highly ordered manner. Similar to the utilization of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in elucidating molecular structures, imaging magnetic susceptibility anisotropy may also provide a useful tool for elucidating the microstructure of ordered biological tissues. PMID:22036681

  18. Application of broadband alternating current magnetic susceptibility to the characterization of magnetic nanoparticles in natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed for characterizing magnetic particles by measuring low-field alternating current magnetic susceptibility at a number of frequency steps spanning four orders of magnitude, from 125 Hz to 512 kHz. This method was tested using natural samples with various grain size distributions, including basalt (Kilauea, Hawaii), loess and paleosol (Luochuan, China), tuff (Yucca Mountain, Nevada), granite (Minnesota Valley, Minnesota), and andesite (Sakurajima, Japan). The resulting frequency spectrum of magnetic susceptibility (FSMS) of the basalt, loess/paleosol, and tuff decreases with increasing frequency, but at different rates of decrease. The FSMS of the basalt is characterized by a monotonic decrease with increasing frequency over the entire range. The FSMS of the loess/paleosol and the tuff decreases more markedly than that of the basalt, which agrees with previous results showing that superparamagnetic particles are dominant in such material. Quantitative estimates using FSMSs allow reconstruction of characteristic grain size distributions and clearly identify differences in the distribution of superparamagnetic particles. The multidomain granite sample has no distinct frequency dependence, which is probably due to the smooth displacement of domain walls in the presence of the external field. In contrast, the FSMSs of the andesite samples exhibit maxima over a limited frequency range, between 16 and 128 kHz. This behavior, together with low-temperature measurements, can be accounted for by magnetic resonance of domain walls in the multidomain phenocrysts.

  19. Low biosorption of PVA coated engineered magnetic nanoparticles in granular sludge assessed by magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Herrling, Maria P; Fetsch, Katharina L; Delay, Markus; Blauert, Florian; Wagner, Michael; Franzreb, Matthias; Horn, Harald; Lackner, Susanne

    2015-12-15

    When engineered nanoparticles (ENP) enter into wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) their removal from the water phase is driven by the interactions with the biomass in the biological treatment step. While studies focus on the interactions with activated flocculent sludge, investigations on the detailed distribution of ENP in other types of biomass, such as granulated sludge, are needed to assess their potential environmental pollution. This study employed engineered magnetic nanoparticles (EMNP) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as model nanoparticles to trace their fate in granular sludge from WWT. For the first time, magnetic susceptibility was used as a simple approach for the in-situ quantification of EMNP with a high precision (error <2%). Compared to other analytical methods, the magnetic susceptibility requires no sample preparation and enabled direct quantification of EMNP in both the aqueous phase and the granular sludge. In batch experiments granular sludge was exposed to EMNP suspensions for 18 h. The results revealed that the removal of EMNP from the water phase (5-35%) and biosorption in the granular sludge were rather low. Less than 2.4% of the initially added EMNP were associated with the biomass. Loosely bounded to the granular sludge, desorption of EMNP occurred. Consequently, the removal of EMNP was mainly driven by physical co-sedimentation with the biomass instead of sorption processes. A mass balance elucidated that the majority of EMNP were stabilized by particulate organic matter in the water phase and can therefore likely be transported further. The magnetic susceptibility enabled tracing EMNP in complex matrices and thus improves the understanding of the general distribution of ENP in technical as well as environmental systems. PMID:26282738

  20. Quantum renormalizations in anisotropic multisublattice magnets and the modification of magnetic susceptibility under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val'kov, V. V.; Shustin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    The dispersion equation of a strongly anisotropic one-dimensional magnet catena-[FeII(ClO4)2{FeIII(bpca)2}]ClO4 containing alternating high-spin (HS) ( S = 2) and low-spin (LS) ( S = 1/2) iron ions is obtained by the diagram technique for Hubbard operators. The analysis of this equation yields six branches in the excitation spectrum of this magnet. It is important that the crystal field for ions with spin S = 2 is described by the Hamiltonian of single-ion easy-plane anisotropy, whose orientation is changed by 90° when passing from one HS iron ion to another. The U( N) transformation technique in the atomic representation is applied to diagonalize a single-ion Hamiltonian with a large number of levels. It is shown that the modulation of the orientation of easy magnetization planes leads to a model of a ferrimagnet with easy-axis anisotropy and to the formation of energy spectrum with a large gap. For HS iron ions, a decrease in the mean value of the spin projection due to quantum fluctuations is calculated. The analysis of the specific features of the spectrum of elementary excitations allows one to establish a correspondence to a generalized Ising model for which the magnetic susceptibility is calculated in a wide range of temperatures by the transfer-matrix method. The introduction of a statistical ensemble that takes into account the presence of chains of different lengths and the presence of iron ions with different spins allows one to describe the experimentally observed modification of the magnetic susceptibility of the magnet under optical irradiation.

  1. Quantum renormalizations in anisotropic multisublattice magnets and the modification of magnetic susceptibility under irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Val’kov, V. V. Shustin, M. S.

    2015-11-15

    The dispersion equation of a strongly anisotropic one-dimensional magnet catena-[Fe{sup II}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}(Fe{sup III}(bpca){sub 2})]ClO{sub 4} containing alternating high-spin (HS) (S = 2) and low-spin (LS) (S = 1/2) iron ions is obtained by the diagram technique for Hubbard operators. The analysis of this equation yields six branches in the excitation spectrum of this magnet. It is important that the crystal field for ions with spin S = 2 is described by the Hamiltonian of single-ion easy-plane anisotropy, whose orientation is changed by 90° when passing from one HS iron ion to another. The U(N) transformation technique in the atomic representation is applied to diagonalize a single-ion Hamiltonian with a large number of levels. It is shown that the modulation of the orientation of easy magnetization planes leads to a model of a ferrimagnet with easy-axis anisotropy and to the formation of energy spectrum with a large gap. For HS iron ions, a decrease in the mean value of the spin projection due to quantum fluctuations is calculated. The analysis of the specific features of the spectrum of elementary excitations allows one to establish a correspondence to a generalized Ising model for which the magnetic susceptibility is calculated in a wide range of temperatures by the transfer-matrix method. The introduction of a statistical ensemble that takes into account the presence of chains of different lengths and the presence of iron ions with different spins allows one to describe the experimentally observed modification of the magnetic susceptibility of the magnet under optical irradiation.

  2. Electronic Structures and Magnetic Susceptibility of LANTHANUM(2)COPPER-OXIDE(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Trei-Wen

    The wavevector dependent magnetic susceptibility, chi(q), has been calculated for body -centered-tetragonal La_2CuO _4. Many body enhancement was incorporated into the calculations with a local exchange-correlation potential correction potential included. The unenhanced susceptibility shows two possible poles of chi (q) along the (110) direction. The enhanced susceptibility chi(q) has been found to exhibit antiferromagnetic instability.

  3. Initial susceptibility and viscosity properties of low concentration ɛ-Fe3 N based magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Wu, Jianmin; Guo, Wei; Li, Rong; Cui, Liya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, the initial susceptibility of ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid at volume concentrations in the range Φ = 0.0 ˜ 0.0446 are measured. Compared with the experimental initial susceptibility, the Langevin, Weiss and Onsager susceptibility were calculated using the data obtained from the low concentration ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid samples. The viscosity of the ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid at the same concentrations is measured. The result shows that, the initial susceptibility of the low concentration ɛ-Fe3N magnetic fluid is proportional to the concentration. A linear relationship between relative viscosity and the volume fraction is observed when the concentration Φ < 0.02.

  4. The magnetic susceptibility on the transverse antiferromagnetic Ising model: Analysis of the reentrant behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Minos A.; de Sousa, J. Ricardo; Padilha, Igor T.; Rodriguez Salmon, Octavio D.; Roberto Viana, J.; Dinóla Neto, F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model in both uniform longitudinal (H) and transverse (Ω) magnetic fields by using the effective-field theory (EFT) with finite cluster N = 1 spin (EFT-1). We analyzed the behavior of the magnetic susceptibility to investigate the reentrant phenomena that we have seen in the same phase diagram previously obtained in other papers. Our results shows the presence of two divergences in the susceptibility that indicates the existence of a reentrant behavior.

  5. Wide-band complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of magnetic fluids as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, P. C.; Kinsella, L.; Charles, S. W.

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of the complex magnetic susceptibility over the frequency and temperature ranges of 2 MHz-6 GHz and 20 to -100°C, respectively, are reported for the first time for a magnetic fluid. The fluid used was a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles of median diameter 9 nm in a hydrocarbon oil (isopar m). Resonance was observed and found to increase from approx 1.5 GHz to 3.3 GHz in the temperature range 20 to -50°C. The increase in resonant frequency is attributed to a decrease in thermal fluctuations with decrease in temperature. At frequencies below approximately 19 MHz, a significant drop in χ'( ω) with decrease in temperature over the temperature range 20 to -100°C, is observed and is attributed to the changes in the Néel and Brownian relaxation processes. Below -60°C, the temperature at which the suspension becomes solid, Brownian relaxation ceases to exist.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility variations in Loess sequences and their relationship to astronomical forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verosub, Kenneth L.; Singer, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The long, well-exposed and often continuous sequences of loess found throughout the world are generally thought to provide an excellent opportunity for studying long-term, large-scale environmental change during the last few million years. In recent years, the most fruitful loess studies have been those involving the deposits of the loess in China. One of the most intriguing results of that work has been the discovery of an apparent correlation between variations in the magnetic susceptibility of the loess sequence and the oxygen isotope record of the deep sea. This correlation implies that magnetic susceptibility variations are being driven by astronomical parameters. However, the basic data have been interpreted in various ways by different authors, most of whom assumed that the magnetic minerals in the loess have not been affected by post-depositional processes. Using a chemical extraction procedure that allows us to separate the contribution of secondary pedogenic magnetic minerals from primary inherited magnetic minerals, we have found that the magnetic susceptibility of the Chinese paleosols is largely due to a pedogenic component which is present to a lesser degree in the loess. We have also found that the smaller inherited component of the magnetic susceptibility is about the same in the paleosols and the loess. These results demonstrate the need for additional study of the processes that create magnetic susceptibility variations in order to interpret properly the role of astronomical forcing in producing these variations.

  7. Effect of Object Orientation Angle on T2* Image and Reconstructed Magnetic Susceptibility: Numerical Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field resulting from material magnetization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an object orientation effect, which produces an orientation dependence for acquired T2* images. On one hand, the orientation effect can be exploited for object anisotropy investigation (via multi-angle imaging); on the other hand, it is desirable to remove the orientation dependence using magnetic susceptibility reconstruction. In this report, we design a stick-star digital phantom to simulate multiple orientations of a stick-like object and use it to conduct various numerical simulations. Our simulations show that the object orientation effect is not propagated to the reconstructed magnetic susceptibility distribution. This suggests that accurate susceptibility reconstruction methods should be largely orientation independent. PMID:25114542

  8. Magnetic field dependent polarizability and electric field dependent diamagnetic susceptibility of a donor in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishnaveni, M.; Srinivasan, N.

    2016-09-01

    The polarizability and diamagnetic susceptibility values of a shallow donor in Si are computed. These values are obtained for the cases bar{E}allel bar{B} and bar{E} bot bar{B}. The anisotropy introduced by these perturbations are properly taken care of in the expressions derived for polarizability and magnetic susceptibility. Our results show that the numerical value of the contribution from electric field to diamagnetic susceptibility is several orders smaller than that of the magnetic field effect. Polarizability values are obtained in a magnetic field by two different methods. The polarizability values decrease as the intensity of magnetic field increases. Using the Clausius-Mossotti relation, the anisotropic values of the refractive indices for different magnetic fields are estimated.

  9. Paleoclimatic forcing of magnetic susceptibility variations in Alaskan loess during the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Beget, J.E.; Stone, D.B.; Hawkins, D.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Visual matches and statistical tests suggest correlations between marine isotope curves, retrodictive solar insolation at lat 65{degree}N, and magnetic susceptibility profiles through late Quaternary age Alaskan loess sections. The susceptibility changes largely appear to reflect variability in magnetite content due to climatically controlled changes in wind intensity and competence. Magnetic susceptibility profiles through massive loess can provide stratigraphic context for intercalated paleosols and tephras. A prominent paleosol correlated with marine isotope stage 5 occurs several metres above the Old Crow ash in loess sections, indicating that this important tephra is older than suggested by thermoluminescence dates, and may have been deposited ca. 215 {plus minus}25 ka.

  10. Field Variation of Low-field Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks: Measurement Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrouda, F.

    Theory of low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) assumes linear rela- tionship between magnetization and magnetizing field. This assumption is precisely valid in diamagnetic and paramagnetic minerals by definition, while in ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic minerals this relationship is in general non-linear, represented by hysteresis loop, being linear only in very weak fields in which the initial suscep- tibility is measured. Recently, it has been shown that, in using common measuring fields, the initial susceptibility is always measured in magnetite, while in pyrrhotite, hematite, and titanomagnetite the measured susceptibility may often be outside the initial susceptibility range. The field variation of low-field AMS results in lowering the quality of the fit of the susceptibility ellipsoid to the measured data and in mis- estimating the degree of anisotropy. Fortunately, the orientations of the principal sus- ceptibilities are virtually field-independent. The problem can be solved in basically three ways. The simplest way is using very weak measuring fields (less than 10 A/m), but this can result in significant lowering sensitivity and precision. The other way is to respect the non-linearity and measure the susceptibility in so many directions that contour diagram of directional susceptibilities can be presented instead of suscepti- bility ellipsoid. The third way is to measure the AMS in at least two fields within the Rayleigh law range and calculate the initial directional susceptibilities from which the AMS can be correctly determined using linear theory.

  11. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM): Decoding MRI data for a tissue magnetic biomarker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    In MRI, the main magnetic field polarizes the electron cloud of a molecule, generating a chemical shift for observer protons within the molecule and a magnetic susceptibility inhomogeneity field for observer protons outside the molecule. The number of water protons surrounding a molecule for detecting its magnetic susceptibility is vastly greater than the number of protons within the molecule for detecting its chemical shift. However, the study of tissue magnetic susceptibility has been hindered by poor molecular specificities of hitherto used methods based on MRI signal phase and T2* contrast, which depend convolutedly on surrounding susceptibility sources. Deconvolution of the MRI signal phase can determine tissue susceptibility but is challenged by the lack of MRI signal in the background and by the zeroes in the dipole kernel. Recently, physically meaningful regularizations, including the Bayesian approach, have been developed to enable accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for studying iron distribution, metabolic oxygen consumption, blood degradation, calcification, demyelination, and other pathophysiological susceptibility changes, as well as contrast agent biodistribution in MRI. This paper attempts to summarize the basic physical concepts and essential algorithmic steps in QSM, to describe clinical and technical issues under active development, and to provide references, codes, and testing data for readers interested in QSM. PMID:25044035

  12. Magnetic susceptibilities measured on rocks of the upper Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alstatt, A.A.; Saltus, R.W.; Bruhn, R.L.; Haeussler, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    We have measured magnetic susceptibility in the field on most of the geologic rock formations exposed in the upper Cook Inlet near Anchorage and Kenai, Alaska. Measured susceptibilities range from less than our detection limit of 0.01 x 10-3 (SI) to greater than 100 x 10-3 (SI). As expected, mafic igneous rocks have the highest susceptibilities and some sedimentary rocks the lowest. Rocks of the Tertiary Sterling Formation yielded some moderate to high susceptibility values. Although we do not have detailed information on the magnetic mineralogy of the rocks measured here, the higher susceptibilities are sufficient to explain the magnitudes of some short-wavelength aeromagnetic anomalies observed on recent surveys of the upper Cook Inlet.

  13. Enhancement of MS2D Bartington point measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2015-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method used to assess the potential soil pollution. The most popular device used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. Typically, in order to calculate the reliable average value of soil magnetic susceptibility, a series of MS2D readings is performed in the sample point. As it was analyzed previously, such methodology makes it possible to significantly reduce the nugget effect of the variograms of soil magnetic susceptibility that is related to the micro-scale variance and measurement errors. The goal of this study was to optimize the process of taking a series of MS2D readings, whose average value constitutes a single measurement, in order to take into account micro-scale variations of soil magnetic susceptibility in proper determination of this parameter. This was done using statistical and geostatistical analyses. The analyses were performed using field MS2D measurements that were carried out in the study area located in the direct vicinity of the Katowice agglomeration. At 150 sample points 10 MS2D readings of soil magnetic susceptibility were taken. Using this data set, series of experimental variograms were calculated and modeled. Firstly, using single random MS2D reading for each sample point, and next using the data set increased by adding one more MS2D reading, until their number reached 10. The parameters of variogram: nugget effect, sill and range of correlation were used to determine the most suitable number of MS2D readings at sample point. The distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility at sample point were also analyzed in order to determine adequate number of readings enabling to calculate reliable average soil magnetic susceptibility. The research leading to these results has

  14. Static electric and magnetic multipole susceptibilities for Dirac one-electron atoms in the ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmytkowski, Radosław; Łukasik, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    We present tabulated data for several families of static electric and magnetic multipole susceptibilities for hydrogenic atoms with nuclear charge numbers from the range 1 ⩽ Z ⩽ 137. Atomic nuclei are assumed to be point-like and spinless. The susceptibilities considered include the multipole electric polarizabilities α E L → E L and magnetizabilities (magnetic susceptibilities) χ M L → M L with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4 (i.e., the dipole, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole ones), the electric-to-magnetic cross-susceptibilities α E L → M(L - 1) with 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 5 and α E L → M(L + 1) with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4, the magnetic-to-electric cross-susceptibilities χ M L → E(L - 1) with 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 5 and χ M L → E(L + 1) with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4 (it holds that χ M L → E(L ∓ 1) =α E(L ∓ 1) → M L), and the electric-to-toroidal-magnetic cross-susceptibilities α E L → T L with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4. Numerical values are computed from general exact analytical formulas, derived by us elsewhere within the framework of the Dirac relativistic quantum mechanics, and involving generalized hypergeometric functions 3F2 of the unit argument.

  15. Correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoil: a case study from the city of Xuzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue Song; Qin, Yong

    2005-11-01

    Anthropogenic influence, mainly due to urban and industrial activities and traffic exhaust, may affect urban topsoil via atmospheric contamination and solid waste. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were conducted on 21 urban topsoil samples from the city of Xuzhou, China. High intensities of magnetic susceptibility were detected in the majority of the samples. SEM analysis shows that magnetic minerals are in the form of spherules and mainly due to anthropogenic inputs. The heavy metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Se, Sc, Mo, Fe, and Bi show strong correlations with magnetic susceptibility, and Ag, Ba, Cd, Ni, Cr, Sb, and Sn, on the other hand, show a weak correlation with magnetic susceptibility. Whereas, of these metals studied, only Hg has no significant correlation with the susceptibility. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) also shows significant correlation with the susceptibility (χ). The present study shows that magnetic susceptibility is a fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive method for the detection and mapping of contaminated soils.

  16. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of solid oxygen at pressures up to 3.3 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Mito, M. Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuruda, H.; Deguchi, H.; Ishizuka, M.

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic susceptibility of solid oxygen had long been observed only in the restricted pressure region below 0.8 GPa. We succeeded in extending the pressure region up to 3.3 GPa by clamping condensed oxygen in the sample chamber of a miniature diamond anvil cell and measuring the dc magnetic susceptibility using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. In this experiment, the well-known α–β and β–γ transitions are observed in the phase diagram, suggesting consistency with the previous results of X-ray and Raman studies. In addition, a new magnetic anomaly is observed in the β phase.

  18. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order

    SciTech Connect

    Vannette, Matthew Dano

    2009-01-01

    The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, χ, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (~10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of TC local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in χ which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in χ well below TC which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.

  19. Quartz helix magnetic susceptibility balance using the Curie-Cheneveau principle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Lee, M.D.; Monkewicz, A.A.; Mayo, J.W.; Pankey, T.

    1958-01-01

    A quartz spring balance is described which can be used to measure the magnetic susceptibility of submilligram amounts of sample. The magnetic field is supplied by a moving permanent magnet, and the susceptibility is determined by the deflection of the spring observed in a measuring microscope. The apparatus is calibrated by a comparison standard (platinum) and results are shown for platinum, nickel aluminate, lead, manganese, and sucrose. A precision of better than 2% can be obtained on submilligram amounts of paramagnetic substances having a magnetic susceptibility of from 1 to 50??10-6 emu/g. On weakly paramagnetic or diamagnetic substances comparable precision can be obtained on less than 10 mg amounts of sample. ?? 1958 The American Institute of Physics.

  20. Estimating susceptibility and magnetization within the Earth's continental crust: Petrophysical and Satellite approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, M. E.; McEnroe, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic models (Xchaos) made from Champ and Orsted data are used to place constraints on the average magnetic susceptibility and its variability in the continental crust. Estimates of magnetic crustal thickness are made in a two-step process. The first step uses a recent seismic model (Crust1.0) to estimate the thickness of crystalline crust above the Moho, modified in the Andes and the Himalayas to account for the non-magnetic lower crust there. The second step calculates the magnetic field expected from such a layer of crystalline rock assuming the magnetization is solely induced in the earth's main field by rock of constant magnetic susceptibility, and modifies the starting crustal thickness to bring it into agreement with the Xchaos model. This global model removes spherical harmonic degrees less than 15 to account for the core field mask. We restrict our attention to the continental crust, in particular to Australia, western North America, and Scandinavia. Petrophysical and petrological data from Scandinavian rocks that have been deep in the crust help place limits on susceptibility values. Our simulations use two susceptibilities, 0.02 and 0.04 SI. The mean crystalline crustal thickness from the seismic model is 42 and 37 km in western North America and Australia, respectively, and the modification with the magnetic data makes little change to the mean crustal thickness, irrespective of whether the susceptibility is 0.02 or 0.04 SI. However, the modification with the magnetic data does make a significant difference to the standard deviation of the crustal thickness, increasing it by a factor of two in the case of a susceptibility of 0.04, and by a factor of four in the case of a susceptibility of 0.02. The changes to the standard deviation of the crustal thickness are also evident in the Scandinavian data, but the mean crystalline crustal thickness of 45 km is significantly larger than that found from either magnetic model (33 and 30 km). The differences

  1. Quantification of magnetic nanoparticles with broadband measurements of magnetic susceptibility in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto; An, Zhisheng; Chang, Hong; Qiang, Xiaoke

    2015-04-01

    Measurement of low-field magnetic susceptibility over a wide band of frequencies spanning four orders of magnitude is a useful method for the assessment of the grain size distribution of ultrafine magnetic particles smaller than the SP/SSD boundary. This method has been applied to a loess/paleosol sequence at Luochuan in the Chinese Loess Plateau. The studied succession consists of sequences from the latest paleosol unit to the upper part of the loess unit, spanning the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Reconstructed grain size distributions (GSDs) consist of volume fractions on the order of 10-24 m3, and the mean GSDs are modal but with distinctive skewness among the loess, the weakly developed paleosol (weak paleosol), and the mature paleosol. This indicates that the mean volume of SP particles in this sequence tends to increase during the transition from the loess to the paleosol. An index, defined as the difference between χ130 at the lowest (130 Hz) and χ500k at the highest (500 kHz) frequencies normalized to χ130, is judged to be a more suitable index than previous frequency dependence parameters for the concentration of SP particles. This index has a strong correlation with χ130, showing a continuous 'growth curve' with the rate of increase being highest for the loess, moderate for the weak paleosol, and saturated for the paleosol. The characteristic curve suggests that smaller SP particles are preferentially formed in the earlier stage of pedogenesis rather than the later phase when even larger particles are formed in the mature paleosol. These results demonstrate that the broad-band-frequency susceptibility measurement will be useful for the quantitative assessment of magnetic nanoparticles in soils and sediments. Additionally, we point out that the measurement in the frequency domain generally requires time and may not be most suitable to routine measurements. We thus propose an alternative manner, the measurement in the time domain that can be

  2. MR contrast due to intravascular magnetic susceptibility perturbations.

    PubMed

    Boxerman, J L; Hamberg, L M; Rosen, B R; Weisskoff, R M

    1995-10-01

    A particularly powerful paradigm for functional MR imaging of microvascular hemodynamics incorporates paramagnetic materials that create significant image contrast. These include exogenous (lanthanide chelates) and endogenous (deoxygenated hemoglobin) agents for mapping cerebral blood volume and neuronal activity, respectively. Accurate interpretation of these maps requires an understanding of the biophysics of susceptibility-based image contrast. The authors developed a novel Monte Carlo model with which the authors quantified the relationship between microscopic tissue parameters, NMR imaging parameters, and susceptibility contrast in vivo. The authors found vascular permeability to water and the flow of erythrocytes to be relatively unimportant contributors to susceptibility-induced delta R2. However, pulse sequence, echo time, and concentration of contrast agent have profound effects on the vessel size dependence of delta R2. For a model vasculature containing both capillaries and venules, the authors predicted a linear volume fraction dependence for physiological volume changes based on recruitment and dilation, and a concentration dependence that is nonlinear and pulse sequence dependent. Using the model, the authors demonstrated that spin echo functional images have greater microvascular sensitivity than gradient echo images, and that the specifies of the volume fraction and concentration dependence of transverse relaxivity change should allow for robust mapping of relative blood volume. The authors also demonstrated excellent agreement between the predictions of their model and experimental data obtained from the serial injection of superparamagnetic contrast agent in a rat model. PMID:8524024

  3. Magnetic susceptibility of Inconel alloys 718, 625, and 600 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira B.; Mitchell, Michael R.; Murphy, Allan R.; Goldfarb, Ronald B.; Loughran, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    After a hydrogen fuel bleed valve problem on the Discovery Space Shuttle was traced to the strong magnetization of Inconel 718 in the armature of the linear variable differential transformer near liquid hydrogen temperatures, the ac magnetic susceptibility of three samples of Inconel 718 of slightly different compositions, one sample of Inconel 625, and on sample of Inconel 600 were measured as a function of temperature. Inconel 718 alloys are found to exhibit a spin glass state below 16 K. Inconel 600 exhibits three different magnetic phases, the lowest-temperature state (below 6 K) being somewhat similar to that of Inconel 718. The magnetic states of the Inconel alloys and their magnetic susceptibilities appear to be strongly dependent on the exact composition of the alloy.

  4. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM): Decoding MRI data for a tissue magnetic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    In MRI, the main magnetic field polarizes the electron cloud of a molecule, generating a chemical shift for observer protons within the molecule and a magnetic susceptibility inhomogeneity field for observer protons outside the molecule. The number of water protons surrounding a molecule for detecting its magnetic susceptibility is vastly greater than the number of protons within the molecule for detecting its chemical shift. However, the study of tissue magnetic susceptibility has been hindered by poor molecular specificities of hitherto used methods based on MRI signal phase and T2* contrast, which depend convolutedly on surrounding susceptibility sources. Deconvolution of the MRI signal phase can determine tissue susceptibility but is challenged by the lack of MRI signal in the background and by the zeroes in the dipole kernel. Recently, physically meaningful regularizations, including the Bayesian approach, have been developed to enable accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for studying iron distribution, metabolic oxygen consumption, blood degradation, calcification, demyelination, and other pathophysiological susceptibility changes, as well as contrast agent biodistribution in MRI. This paper attempts to summarize the basic physical concepts and essential algorithmic steps in QSM, to describe clinical and technical issues under active development, and to provide references, codes, and testing data for readers interested in QSM. Magn Reson Med 73:82–101, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:25044035

  5. Mapping magnetic susceptibility anisotropies of white matter in vivo in the human brain at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Jones, Craig K; Farrell, Jonathan A D; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2012-08-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance phase- or frequency-shift images acquired at high field show contrast related to magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues. Such contrast varies with the orientation of the organ in the field, but the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has made it possible to reproducibly image the intrinsic tissue susceptibility contrast. However, recent studies indicate that magnetic susceptibility is anisotropic in brain white matter and, as such, needs to be described by a symmetric second-rank tensor( ̅χ). To fully determine the elements of this tensor, it would be necessary to acquire frequency data at six or more orientations. Assuming cylindrical symmetry of the susceptibility tensor in myelinated white matter fibers, we propose a simplified method to reconstruct the susceptibility tensor in terms of a mean magnetic susceptibility, MMS=(χ(//)+2 χ(⊥))/3 and a magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, MSA=χ(//)-χ(⊥), where χ(//) and χ(⊥) are susceptibility parallel and perpendicular to the white matter fiber direction, respectively. Computer simulations show that with a practical head rotation angle of around 20°-30°, four head orientations suffice to reproducibly reconstruct the tensor with good accuracy. We tested this approach on whole brain 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3) frequency data acquired from five healthy subjects at 7 T. The frequency information from phase images collected at four head orientations was combined with the fiber direction information extracted from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to map the white matter susceptibility tensor. The MMS and MSA were quantified for regions in several large white matter fiber structures, including the corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation and corpus callosum. MMS ranged from -0.037 to -0.053 ppm (referenced to CSF being about zero). MSA values could be quantified without the need for a reference and ranged between 0.004 and 0.029 ppm, in line with the

  6. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Xuzhou urban topsoils by magnetic susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue Song

    2013-05-01

    The concentrations of four selected heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni and Cr) were measured on 167 topsoil samples collected from the city of Xuzhou, China via inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). It was found that Pb and Zn were principally derived from anthropogenic inputs whereas Cr and Ni distributions were mainly controlled by parent materials. The spatial distribution patterns of Pb, and Zn were similar to that from low field magnetic susceptibility (χlf), suggesting interaction among them. Two threshold values for magnetic susceptibility and frequency-dependent susceptibility percentage (χfd) were applied to discriminate between polluted and unpolluted samples according to their magnetic susceptibility, resulting in 109 samples populating the “polluted” subset. The Pb and Zn concentrations of the “polluted” subset were statistically significantly higher than those measured in the “unpolluted” one. The heavy metal concentrations were also investigated varying the magnetic susceptibility thresholds to change the “polluted” subset.

  7. Determination of the Magnetic Ground State of a Polycrystalline Compound Based on Susceptibility Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, Randy Scott; Miller, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The diruthenium compound [Ru2(O2CMe)4]3[Cr(CN)6] contains two interpenetrating sublattices that behave like giant antiferromagnetically-coupled moments with strong anisotropy. The preferred orientations of the total moment of each sublattice are determined from susceptibility measurements on a polycrystalline sample. In agreement with previous mean-field calculations for the magnetic ground state, the fits to the experimental magnetization imply that the sublattice moments are restricted to cubic diagonals rather than the cubic axis or the edge diagonals. The parameterization of the sublattice susceptibility indicates that the sublattice spin states are more distorted when they are aligned antiparallel.

  8. Experimental and theoretical determination of the magnetic susceptibility of C60 and C70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddon, R. C.; Schneemeyer, L. F.; Waszczak, J. V.; Glarum, S. H.; Tycko, R.; Dabbagh, G.; Kortan, A. R.; Muller, A. J.; Mujsce, A. M.; Rosseinsky, M. J.; Zahurak, S. M.; Makhija, A. V.; Thiel, F. A.; Raghavachari, K.; Cockayne, E.; Elser, V.

    1991-03-01

    THE magnetic susceptibility of C60 and the possibility of magnetic-field-induced π-electron ring currents in this carbon spheroid have been of interest since the initial experiments on carbon clusters1. If the molecule is regarded as a sphere with a radius of 3.5 Å, on which 60 electrons are free to move, the Pauling ring-current model predicts a ring-current diamagnetic susceptibility 41 times the π-electron ring-current magnetic susceptibility of benzene with the field normal to the plane of the six-membered ring2,3. London theory predicts, however, that the π-electron ring currents in C60 should be weakly paramagnetic or diamagnetic, depending on the relative bond strengths used in the calculation2,3. With the availability of macroscopic quantities of C60 (ref. 4), it is now possible to study experimentally the magnetic properties of the molecule. Here we report on such measurements. We find that the diamagnetism of C60 is small, a result that we attribute to excited-state paramagnetic contributions to the π-electron ring-current magnetic susceptibility. Thus C60 seems to be an aromatic molecule with a vanishingly small π-electron ring-current magnetic susceptibility. We have performed similar measurements on C70, which indicate an appreciable π-electron diamagnetism, consistent with theoretical calculations. We attribute the differences in magnetic properties of these two molecules to their different fractions of five-membered ring structures. The fullerenes may thus constitute a class of compounds of 'ambiguous' aromatic character, traditional measures of which will not provide an adequate classification.

  9. Lanthanide-based susceptibility contrast agents: assessment of the magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Fossheim, S; Johansson, C; Fahlvik, A K; Grace, D; Klaveness, J

    1996-02-01

    The T2* contrast efficacy of paramagnetic contrast agents is dependent on their magnetic properties. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and the Live Chan NMR method have been used to evaluate the influence of ligand structure on the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) of low-molecular weight (LMW) lanthanide chelates. VSM was also used for the BMS assessment of LMW lanthanide chelates covalently attached to cross-linked starch particles. The ligand structure had no influence on the BMS of the gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy) chelates. The mean BMS value of the Dy-chelates was 1.8 fold higher than that of the Gd-chelates. The holmium (Ho) DTPA-BMA chelate had a similar BMS to that of Dy-DTPA-BMA while the lowest BMS was found for europium (Eu(III)) DTPA-BMA. The covalent attachment of Gd-DTPA and Dy-DTPA to a cross-linked starch particle had no impact on their intrinsic magnetic properties. The BMS data were in good accordance with those obtained for non-particulate bound LMW Dy- and Gd-chelates. The magnetic susceptibility of the Gd-DTPA labeled particles was described by the Curie law, indicative of no magnetic interactions between Gd-DTPA molecules. The magnetic susceptibility of the Dy-DTPA labeled particles followed the Curie-Weiss law with a Curie-Weiss temperature of about-2 K, indicating magnetic interactions. The magnetic susceptibility of Dy-DTPA will, however, not be affected by such magnetic interactions at physiological temperatures. PMID:8622584

  10. Comparison between theory and simulations for the magnetization and the susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Szalai, I; Nagy, S; Dietrich, S

    2013-11-20

    The influence of polydispersity on the magnetization of ferrofluids is studied based on a previously published magnetization equation of state (Szalai and Dietrich, 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 326004) and computer simulations. The polydispersity of the particle diameter is described by the gamma distribution function. Canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to test these theoretical results for the initial susceptibility and the magnetization. The results for the magnetic properties of the polydisperse systems turn out to be in quantitative agreement with our present simulation data. In addition, we find good agreement between our theory and experimental data for magnetite-based ferrofluids. PMID:24153397

  11. Impact of Long-Term Irrigation with Treated Sewage on Soil Magnetic Susceptibility and Organic Matter Content in North China.

    PubMed

    Yang, P G; Yang, M; Mao, R Z; Byrne, J M

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect on magnetic susceptibility and organic matter content of arable soil by irrigation with either treated sewage or groundwater. Results indicated that organic matter and magnetic susceptibility values in the soil irrigated with sewage were increased by 7.1 % and 13.5 %, respectively, compared to agricultural soil that irrigated with groundwater. Both the sewage and groundwater irrigated soils contained a significant fraction of ultrafine superpara magnetic grains, as indicated by high frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd > 6 %). The enhancement of soil magnetic properties was determined to be caused by anthropogenic sewage irrigation and agrochemical use by investigation of vertical soil profiles. Magnetic susceptibility parameters were shown to be significantly correlated with organic matter content (y = 0.0057x + 1.3439, R(2) = 0.09, p < 0.05). This work indicates that measurements of magnetic susceptibility may offer a rapid first step for identifying the potential pollution in arable soils. PMID:25985871

  12. Development of a Magnetic Nanoparticle Susceptibility Magnitude Imaging Array

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-01-01

    There are several emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in medicine. This study examines the potential for developing an mNP imager that meets these emerging clinical needs with a low cost imaging solution that uses arrays of digitally controlled drive coils in a multiple-frequency, continuous-wave operating mode and compensated fluxgate magnetometers. The design approach is described and a mathematical model is developed to support measurement and imaging. A prototype is used to demonstrate active compensation of up to 185 times the primary applied magnetic field, depth sensitivity up to 2.5 cm (p < 0.01), and linearity over 5 dilutions (R2 > 0.98, p <0.001). System frequency responses show distinguishable readouts for iron oxide mNPs with single magnetic domain core diameters of 10 nm and 40 nm, and multi-domain mNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm. Tomographic images show a contrast-to-noise ratio of 23 for 0.5 ml of 12.5 mg Fe/ml mNPs at 1 cm depth. A demonstration involving the injection of mNPs into pork sausage shows the potential for use in biological systems. These results indicate that the proposed mNP imaging approach can potentially be extended to a larger array system with higher-resolution. PMID:24504184

  13. Development of a magnetic nanoparticle susceptibility magnitude imaging array.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Nadar, Priyanka M; Hoopes, P Jack; Diamond, Solomon G

    2014-02-21

    There are several emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in medicine. This study examines the potential for developing an mNP imager that meets these emerging clinical needs with a low cost imaging solution that uses arrays of digitally controlled drive coils in a multiple-frequency, continuous-wave operating mode and compensated fluxgate magnetometers. The design approach is described and a mathematical model is developed to support measurement and imaging. A prototype is used to demonstrate active compensation of up to 185 times the primary applied magnetic field, depth sensitivity up to 2.5 cm (p < 0.01), and linearity over five dilutions (R(2) > 0.98, p < 0.001). System frequency responses show distinguishable readouts for iron oxide mNPs with single magnetic domain core diameters of 10 and 40 nm, and multi-domain mNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm. Tomographic images show a contrast-to-noise ratio of 23 for 0.5 ml of 12.5 mg Fe ml(-1) mNPs at 1 cm depth. A demonstration involving the injection of mNPs into pork sausage shows the potential for use in biological systems. These results indicate that the proposed mNP imaging approach can potentially be extended to a larger array system with higher-resolution. PMID:24504184

  14. Development of a magnetic nanoparticle susceptibility magnitude imaging array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-02-01

    There are several emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) in medicine. This study examines the potential for developing an mNP imager that meets these emerging clinical needs with a low cost imaging solution that uses arrays of digitally controlled drive coils in a multiple-frequency, continuous-wave operating mode and compensated fluxgate magnetometers. The design approach is described and a mathematical model is developed to support measurement and imaging. A prototype is used to demonstrate active compensation of up to 185 times the primary applied magnetic field, depth sensitivity up to 2.5 cm (p < 0.01), and linearity over five dilutions (R2 > 0.98, p < 0.001). System frequency responses show distinguishable readouts for iron oxide mNPs with single magnetic domain core diameters of 10 and 40 nm, and multi-domain mNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm. Tomographic images show a contrast-to-noise ratio of 23 for 0.5 ml of 12.5 mg Fe ml-1 mNPs at 1 cm depth. A demonstration involving the injection of mNPs into pork sausage shows the potential for use in biological systems. These results indicate that the proposed mNP imaging approach can potentially be extended to a larger array system with higher-resolution.

  15. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the

  16. Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and low temperature heat capacity of α-Na₂NpO₄.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anna L; Hen, Amir; Magnani, Nicola; Sanchez, Jean-Pierre; Colineau, Eric; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Raison, Philippe E; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J M; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2016-03-01

    The physical and chemical properties at low temperatures of hexavalent disodium neptunate α-Na2NpO4 are investigated for the first time in this work using Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements. The Np(VI) valence state is confirmed by the isomer shift value of the Mössbauer spectra, and the local structural environment around the neptunium cation is related to the fitted quadrupole coupling constant and asymmetry parameters. Moreover, magnetic hyperfine splitting is reported below 12.5 K, which could indicate magnetic ordering at this temperature. This interpretation is further substantiated by the existence of a λ-peak at 12.5 K in the heat capacity curve, which is shifted to lower temperatures with the application of a magnetic field, suggesting antiferromagnetic ordering. However, the absence of any anomaly in the magnetization and magnetic susceptibility data shows that the observed transition is more intricate. In addition, the heat capacity measurements suggest the existence of a Schottky-type anomaly above 15 K associated with a low-lying electronic doublet found about 60 cm(-1) above the ground state doublet. The possibility of a quadrupolar transition associated with a ground state pseudoquartet is thereafter discussed. The present results finally bring new insights into the complex magnetic and electronic peculiarities of α-Na2NpO4. PMID:26823458

  17. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of erbium and ytterbium in zircon, ZrSiO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Briggs, Charles; Tsang, T.; Senftle, F.; Alexander, Corrine

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made for both Er- and Yb-doped (1̃03ppm) zircon single crystals with the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the [001] axis. Large susceptibility anisotropies were found in both cases. Our observed anisotropies of ZrSiO4: Yb indicate small populations (1̃9%) of Yb ions at the axial (tetragonal) sites, as the susceptibility of ZrSiO4: Yb would be nearly isotropic if the Yb ions only occupied the orthorhombic sites. For Er3+ in orthorhombic sites of zircon, our data indicate that the first excited state is paramagnetic with gx = 9 and gy 5̃ at 20 cm-1 above the ground state (gx 0̃, gy 1̃5). The first excited state is quite similar to the ground states observed for Er3+ in many host lattices. ?? 1977.

  18. SUSCEPTIBILITY ARTIFACTS ON T2*-WEIGHTED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE CANINE AND FELINE SPINE.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Laura J; Hecht, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequence is a sensitive means to detect blood degradation products. While not a routine sequence in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in small animals, it can provide additional valuable information in select cases. The goal of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe findings when acquiring this sequence during magnetic resonance imaging examination of the spine in small animals. The University of Tennessee's veterinary radiology database was searched for dogs and cats that underwent magnetic resonance imaging for suspect spinal disease in which a T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequence was acquired and susceptibility artifact was identified. The following information was recorded: signalment, clinical signs, location and appearance of susceptibility artifact, and final diagnosis. Thirty-nine cases were included in the study. Extradural susceptibility artifacts were observed in cases of intervertebral disc herniation with or without associated hemorrhage (n = 28), extradural hemorrhage associated with spinal trauma (n = 2), hemophilia (n = 1), and in a cystic extradural mass (n = 1). Remaining lesions displaying susceptibility artifact were intramedullary and included presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), hemangiosarcoma metastasis (n = 1), intramedullary disc extrusion (n = 1), presumptive meningomyelitis (n = 1), and a mass of undetermined etiology (n = 1). Inclusion of a T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequence may be helpful in spinal magnetic resonance imaging when standard imaging sequences are ambiguous or intramedullary lesions are observed. PMID:25693447

  19. Magnetic Susceptibility as a Proxy for Investigating Microbial Mediated Iron Reduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated magnetic susceptibility (MS) variations in hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. Our objective was to determine if MS can be used as an intrinsic bioremediation indicator due to the activity of iron-reducing bacteria. A contaminated and an uncontaminated core were r...

  20. Improvement of immunoassay detection system by using alternating current magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, R; Mizoguchi, T; Kandori, A

    2016-03-01

    A major goal with this research was to develop a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay detection system by using alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility. We fabricated an improved prototype of our previously developed immunoassay detection system and evaluated its performance. The prototype continuously moved sample containers by using a magnetically shielded brushless motor, which passes between two anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) sensors. These sensors detected the magnetic signal in the direction where each sample container passed them. We used the differential signal obtained from each AMR sensor's output to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the magnetic signal measurement. Biotin-conjugated polymer beads with avidin-coated magnetic particles were prepared to examine the calibration curve, which represents the relation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. For the calibration curve measurement, we, respectively, measured the magnetic signal caused by the magnetic particles by using each AMR sensor installed near the upper or lower part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers. As a result, the SNR of the prototype was 4.5 times better than that of our previous system. Moreover, the data obtained from each AMR sensor installed near the upper part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers exhibited an accurate calibration curve that represented good correlation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that our improved immunoassay detection system will enable a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay. PMID:27036824

  1. Improvement of immunoassay detection system by using alternating current magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, R.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kandori, A.

    2016-03-01

    A major goal with this research was to develop a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay detection system by using alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility. We fabricated an improved prototype of our previously developed immunoassay detection system and evaluated its performance. The prototype continuously moved sample containers by using a magnetically shielded brushless motor, which passes between two anisotropic magneto resistance (AMR) sensors. These sensors detected the magnetic signal in the direction where each sample container passed them. We used the differential signal obtained from each AMR sensor's output to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the magnetic signal measurement. Biotin-conjugated polymer beads with avidin-coated magnetic particles were prepared to examine the calibration curve, which represents the relation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. For the calibration curve measurement, we, respectively, measured the magnetic signal caused by the magnetic particles by using each AMR sensor installed near the upper or lower part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers. As a result, the SNR of the prototype was 4.5 times better than that of our previous system. Moreover, the data obtained from each AMR sensor installed near the upper part in the lateral position of the passing sample containers exhibited an accurate calibration curve that represented good correlation between AC magnetic susceptibility change and polymer-bead concentration. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that our improved immunoassay detection system will enable a low-cost and highly sensitive immunoassay.

  2. In situ measurement of alternating current magnetic susceptibility of Pd-hydrogen system for determination of hydrogen concentration in bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamaru, Satoshi; Hara, Masanori; Matsuyama, Masao

    2012-07-01

    An alternating current magnetic susceptometer for use as a hydrogen gauge for hydrogen-storage materials was designed and developed. The experimental system can simultaneously measure the hydrogen equilibrium pressure and the magnetic susceptibility of metal hydrides. The background voltage of the susceptometer was stabilized for a long period of time, without any adjustments, by attaching an efficient compensation circuit. The performance of the susceptometer at a static hydrogen concentration was demonstrated by measuring the magnetic susceptibility of a Pd-hydrogen system under equilibrium conditions. The in situ measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of Pd during hydrogen absorption was carried out using the susceptometer. Since the in situ magnetic susceptibility obtained at a lower initial hydrogen pressure agreed with the magnetic susceptibility measured at a static hydrogen concentration, the susceptometer could be used to determine the hydrogen concentration in Pd in situ. At a higher initial hydrogen pressure, enhancement of the magnetic susceptibility was observed at the beginning of hydrogen absorption because the magnetic moments induced by the large temporary strain generated in the Pd affected the magnetic susceptibility.

  3. In situ measurement of alternating current magnetic susceptibility of Pd-hydrogen system for determination of hydrogen concentration in bulk.

    PubMed

    Akamaru, Satoshi; Hara, Masanori; Matsuyama, Masao

    2012-07-01

    An alternating current magnetic susceptometer for use as a hydrogen gauge for hydrogen-storage materials was designed and developed. The experimental system can simultaneously measure the hydrogen equilibrium pressure and the magnetic susceptibility of metal hydrides. The background voltage of the susceptometer was stabilized for a long period of time, without any adjustments, by attaching an efficient compensation circuit. The performance of the susceptometer at a static hydrogen concentration was demonstrated by measuring the magnetic susceptibility of a Pd-hydrogen system under equilibrium conditions. The in situ measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of Pd during hydrogen absorption was carried out using the susceptometer. Since the in situ magnetic susceptibility obtained at a lower initial hydrogen pressure agreed with the magnetic susceptibility measured at a static hydrogen concentration, the susceptometer could be used to determine the hydrogen concentration in Pd in situ. At a higher initial hydrogen pressure, enhancement of the magnetic susceptibility was observed at the beginning of hydrogen absorption because the magnetic moments induced by the large temporary strain generated in the Pd affected the magnetic susceptibility. PMID:22852719

  4. On the temperature dependence of the ac susceptibility of Fe 3O 4 magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Aljarayesh, I.; Al-Rawi, A.; Abu-Safia, H.

    1993-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility has been measured for Fe 3O 4 magnetic fluids with Isopar-M as a liquid carrier. The temperature range was 80 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K, and the volume fractions ɛ ranged from 0.004 to 0.062. With increasing temperature the in-phase magnetic susceptibility χ' increased from its initial value to a maximum at a temperature TB, then decreased monotonically until around the melting point of the liquid carrier, Tm ≈ 200 K. For T ≤ Tm, χ' increased rapidly to a second maximum at T = TB1. This behaviour was qualitatively similar for all studied samples. For the sample with ɛ = 0.047, χ' decreased with increasing frequency at all temperatures. When a static magnetic field was applied, a reduction in χ' was also observed. The effects of interparticle interactions on the static initial susceptibility χ i, are discussed. Analysis of the data yields information about the effective anisotropy energy, the median magnetic diameter, and relaxation times. The distribution of blocking temperature was calculated from the superparamagnetic blocking model of Wohlfarth. The results are further analysed and discussed within the framework of Lundgren model of spin glasses.

  5. Can the magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese Red Clay sequence be used for palaeomonsoon reconstructions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guoyong; Han, Yan; Liu, Xiuming; Chang, Liao; Lü, Bin; Chen, Qu; Guo, Xuelian; Yan, Junhui; Yan, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Red Clay underlying the loess-palaeosol sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau is an eolian deposit. There is a controversy over whether magnetic susceptibility (χ) variations in Red Clay sequence can be used as an indicator of summer palaeomonsoon intensity. This study investigates the magnetic mineralogy, magnetic concentration and magnetic grain size distribution of Jiaxian Red Clay with multimagnetic methods. Our results indicate that the magnetic properties of Jiaxian Red Clay are similar to those of the Quaternary loess-palaeosol sequences, and ultrafine ferrimagnetic grains produced during pedogenesis are responsible for an increase in susceptibility, therefore the χ enhancement mechanism of Red Clay is similar to that of the overlying loess-palaeosol sequences. This paper explores χ variations in the Red Clay sequence through spatial and temporal analysis. The susceptibility variation of six sites along a NNE to SSW transect correlate to palaeoclimatic cycles, so χ can be used to trace the summer palaeomonsoon intensity from a spatial perspective. However, a simple loess-derived calibration function cannot be used to quantitative reconstruct the palaeomonsoon intensity variations thought time. An adjusted calibration function for palaeosols from Red Clay sequence needs to be developed, so that χ can be used to quantitative reconstruct palaeomonsoon intensity. Further study is necessary to develop such a transfer function.

  6. Improving NMR Diffusion Logs by Accounting for High Magnetic Susceptibility in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, E. L.; Knight, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging can be used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient of fluids in the soil or rock around a well. NMR diffusion logs have several potential applications in the field of hydrogeophysics, such as improving estimates of permeability and characterizing LNAPL contamination. Near-surface environments, however, offer an added challenge to measuring diffusion with NMR due to the high variability in the magnetic mineral content of soils. In this work, we were able to improve the accuracy of diffusion measurements from an NMR log by accounting for the magnetic susceptibility of the sediments. NMR diffusion measurements have been used extensively both in laboratory and logging applications to measure the relative saturation of water, gas, and oil in reservoir rocks, due to the contrasting diffusion coefficients of these fluids. Laboratory diffusion measurements have also been used to study restricted diffusion in pore systems, which yields information on the pore size and the connectivity of the pore space, both critical to predicting the permeability of a material. NMR diffusion measurements rely on the application of an external magnetic field gradient across the measured volume. This magnetic field gradient is used to measure the displacement of fluid molecules during a specified diffusion time interval. The magnitude of the effective field gradient, i.e. the gradient experienced in the measured volume, must be known in order to calculate of the diffusion coefficient of the fluid from the NMR signal. Common practice in NMR logging is to assume that internal gradients are negligible and that the effective gradient is equal to the externally applied gradient, which is typically well characterized. In materials with low magnetic susceptibility, this is a valid assumption. Complications arise in materials with high magnetic susceptibility, because magnetic field gradients will be present within these materials before the

  7. Magnetic susceptibility effects on 13C MAS NMR spectra of carbon materials and graphite.

    PubMed

    Freita, J C; Emmerich, F G; Cernicchiaro, G R; Sampaio, L C; Bonagamba, T J

    2001-01-01

    13C high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study carbon materials prepared through the thermal decomposition of four different organic precursors (rice hulls, endocarp of babassu coconut, peat, and PVC). For heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) above about 600 C, all materials presented 13C NMR spectra composed of a unique resonance line associated with carbon atoms in aromatic planes. With increasing HTT a continuous broadening of this resonance and a diamagnetic shift in its central frequency were verified for all samples. The evolution of the magnitude and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of the heat-treated carbon samples with HTT explains well these findings. It is shown that these results are better understood when a comparison is made with the features of the 13C NMR spectrum of polycrystalline graphite, for which the magnetic susceptibility effect is also present and is much more pronounced. PMID:11529420

  8. Global Lithospheric Apparent Susceptibility Distribution Converted from Geomagnetic Models by CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Magnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinsong; Chen, Chao; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Yongdong; Liang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Recently, because of continually accumulated magnetic measurements by CHAMP satellite and Swarm constellation of three satellites and well developed methodologies and techniques of data processing and geomagnetic field modeling etc., global lithospheric magnetic anomaly field models become more and more reliable. This makes the quantitative interpretation of lithospheric magnetic anomaly field possible for having an insight into large-scale magnetic structures in the crust and uppermost mantle. Many different approaches have been utilized to understand the magnetized sources, such as forward, inversion, statistics, correlation analysis, Euler deconvolution, signal transformations etc. Among all quantitative interpretation methods, the directly converting a magnetic anomaly map into a magnetic susceptibility anomaly map proposed by Arkani-Hamed & Strangway (1985) is, we think, the most fast quantitative interpretation tool for global studies. We just call this method AS85 hereinafter for short. Although Gubbins et al. (2011) provided a formula to directly calculate the apparent magnetic vector distribution, the AS85 method introduced constraints of magnetized direction and thus corresponding results are expected to be more robust especially in world-wide continents. Therefore, in this study, we first improved the AS85 method further considering non-axial dipolar inducing field using formulae by Nolte & Siebert (1987), initial model or priori information for starting coefficients in the apparent susceptibility conversion, hidden longest-wavelength components of lithospheric magnetic field and field contaminations from global oceanic remanent magnetization. Then, we used the vertically integrated susceptibility model by Hemant & Maus (2005) and vertically integrated remanent magnetization model by Masterton et al. (2013) to test the validity of our improved method. Subsequently, we applied the conversion method to geomagnetic field models by CHAMP and Swarm satellite

  9. Estimating the contribution of Brownian and Néel relaxation in a magnetic fluid through dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Camargo, L.; Torres-Díaz, I.; Chiu-Lam, A.; Hernández, M.; Rinaldi, C.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate how dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements (DMS) can be used to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation to the dynamic magnetic response of a magnetic fluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles. The method applies to suspensions with particles that respond through Brownian or Néel relaxation and for which the characteristic Brownian and Néel relaxation times are widely separated. First, we illustrate this using magnetic fluids consisting of mixtures of particles that relax solely by the Brownian or Néel mechanisms. Then, it is shown how the same approach can be applied to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation in a suspension consisting of particles obtained from a single synthesis and whose size distribution straddles the transition from Néel to Brownian relaxation.

  10. Origin of magnetic susceptibility variations in early Paleogene BBCP cores (Wyoming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyde, W. C.; Welter, G. W.; Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility logs from late Paleocene-early Eocene cores taken during the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP) show significant variability that, in some cases (e.g. Polecat Bench), looks periodic in nature. In order to better understand the underlying mineralogical factors that cause this variability, we analyzed a suite of discrete samples from the cores using step-wise thermal demagnetization of a 3-axis orthogonal isothermal remananent magnetization (IRM) and back field (DC) demagnetization. Representative samples were collected from core depths that showed low, medium, or high susceptibilities based on the multi-sensor core logs. Bulk mass normalized susceptibility was measured for each of these discrete samples and compared to the corresponding core log measurement. Only those samples that showed good agreement between measured susceptibility and core log data were analyzed further. A hard (1.1 T) IRM was acquired and measured in a step-wise fashion along the z-axis of each sample with subsequent back-field IRMs of -100 and -300mT applied to further constrain the proportions of different magnetic minerals. After reacquiring a 1.1 T IRM along the z-axis, medium coercivity (0.4 mT) and low coercivity (.12 mT) IRMs were acquired along the y and x-axes of the samples and thermally demagnetized in a step-wise fashion. Results show that various mechanisms are responsible for elevated bulk susceptibility signals in these cores. At Polecat Bench, the highest susceptibility values are associated with coarser grained units (sandstones and siltstones) with high concentrations of detrital magnetite. At Gilmore Hill, higher susceptibilities are associated with higher concentrations of pedogenic hematite. Susceptibility values at Basin Substation are generally low and show mixed assemblages of hematite and magnetite. To assess whether hyperthermal events are associated with significant changes to magnetic mineralogy in these settings, we compared results from

  11. Monitoring colloidal stability of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles using AC susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Adriana P; Barrera, Carola; Zayas, Yashira; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2010-02-15

    The application of the response of magnetic nanoparticles to oscillating magnetic fields to probe transitions in colloidal state and structure of polymer-coated nanoparticles is demonstrated. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were prepared and shown to respond to oscillating magnetic fields through a Brownian relaxation mechanism, which is dependent on the mechanical coupling between the particle dipoles and the surrounding matrix. These nanoparticles were coated with covalently-attached poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) or poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) (pNIPMAM) through free radical polymerization. The temperature induced transitions of colloidal suspensions of these nanoparticles were studied through a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and AC susceptibility measurements. In the pNIPAM coated nanoparticles excellent agreement was found for a transition temperature of approximately 30 degrees C by all three methods, although the AC susceptibility measurements indicated aggregation which was not evident from the DLS results. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) results obtained for pNIPAM coated nanoparticles confirmed that aggregation indeed occurs above the lower critical transition temperature of pNIPAM. For the pNIPMAM coated nanoparticles DLS and AC susceptibility measurements indicated aggregation at a temperature of approximately 33-35 degrees C, much lower than the transition temperature peak at 40 degrees C observed by DSC. However, the transition observed by DSC is very broad, hence it is possible that aggregation begins to occur at temperatures lower than the peak, as indicated by the AC susceptibility and DLS results. These experiments and observations demonstrate the possibility of using AC susceptibility measurements to probe transitions in colloidal suspensions induced by external stimuli. Because magnetic measurements do not require optical transparency, these

  12. Magnetic susceptibility of actinide(iii) cations: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Autillo, Matthieu; Guerin, Laetitia; Bolvin, Hélène; Moisy, Philippe; Berthon, Claude

    2016-03-01

    In a previous paper, the influence of radioactive decay (α and β(-)) on magnetic susceptibility measurements by the Evans method has been demonstrated by the study of two americium isotopes. To characterize more accurately this phenomenon and particularly its influence on the Curie law, a new study has been performed on two uranium isotopes ((238)U and (233)U) and on tritiated water ((3)H2O). The results on the influence of α emissions have established a relationship between changes in the temperature dependence and the radioactivity in solution. Regarding the β(-) emissions, less influence was observed while no temperature dependence linked to this kind of radioactive emission could be identified. Once magnetic susceptibility measurements of actinide(iii) cations were corrected from radioactivity effects, methods of quantum chemistry have been used on free ions and aquo complexes to calculate the electronic structure explaining the magnetic properties of Pu(iii), Am(iii) and Cm(iii). The ligand field effect on the magnetic behavior (the Curie constant and temperature-independent susceptibilities) was analyzed by considering different solvation environments. PMID:26864302

  13. Source of the Magnetic Susceptibility Variations in Southern Ocean Sediments Over the Last Glacial Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, B.; Thompson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the sources, mineralogy and rates of iron supply to the Southern Ocean may have global impact and significance, by influencing plankton growth rates and nutrient take-up in this, the largest of the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the world ocean. Iron 'fertilization' in the Southern Ocean may increase rates of carbon export production and thus the ocean uptake flux of atmospheric CO2, and also diminish the northward flow of residual nutrients to the extra-polar ocean, especially the HNLC regions of the Pacific. Changes in Southern Ocean export production may contribute to global climate change over glacial-interglacial timescales. The key sources of iron for the Southern Ocean are reported to be windblown dust and sedimentary supply; their relative significance an issue of much long-standing debate. Links between aeolian dust fluxes to the Southern Ocean and to the Antarctic ice cores have been proposed for the Scotia Sea region of the Southern Ocean, downwind from the South American land mass. Regional downcore variations in the magnetic susceptibility of sediments from the Scotia Sea show remarkable similarity to variations in dust concentration and flux in East Antarctic ice cores (with glacial stages characterised by increases in ice dust and sediment magnetic susceptibility). Indeed, the strength of the ice dust/sediment magnetism correlations (r ~ 0.7) provides a pragmatic basis for use of the sedimentary magnetic susceptibility records as a chronostratigraphic proxy, a boon in the carbonate-free deep-sea sediments of the Southern Ocean. However, the source and causal basis of the sediment magnetism/ice dust co-variations remain controversial; aeolian dust, bacterial magnetite and wind-driven current transport of marine sediment have all been invoked as possible key sources. Here, we use magnetic and isotopic methods to resolve this debate, and identify and quantify the sources of magnetic material to the Scotia Sea for the last

  14. Frequency-Dependent Magnetic Susceptibility of Magnetite and Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Embedded in PAA Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Susanne; Dee, Joris T.; Philipse, Albert P.; Erné, Ben H.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically responsive hydrogels with embedded magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biosensors that magnetically detect chemical changes. A crucial point is the irreversible linkage of nanoparticles to the hydrogel network, preventing loss of nanoparticles upon repeated swelling and shrinking of the gel. Here, acrylic acid monomers are adsorbed onto ferrite nanoparticles, which subsequently participate in polymerization during synthesis of poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels (PAA). To demonstrate the fixation of the nanoparticles to the polymer, our original approach is to measure low-field AC magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz range. In the hydrogel, the magnetization dynamics of small iron oxide nanoparticles are comparable to those of the particles dispersed in a liquid, due to fast Néel relaxation inside the particles; this renders the ferrogel useful for chemical sensing at frequencies of several kHz. However, ferrogels holding thermally blocked iron oxide or cobalt ferrite nanoparticles show significant decrease of the magnetic susceptibility resulting from a frozen magnetic structure. This confirms that the nanoparticles are unable to rotate thermally inside the hydrogel, in agreement with their irreversible fixation to the polymer network. PMID:23673482

  15. Frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles embedded in PAA hydrogel.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, Susanne; Dee, Joris T; Philipse, Albert P; Erné, Ben H

    2013-01-01

    Chemically responsive hydrogels with embedded magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biosensors that magnetically detect chemical changes. A crucial point is the irreversible linkage of nanoparticles to the hydrogel network, preventing loss of nanoparticles upon repeated swelling and shrinking of the gel. Here, acrylic acid monomers are adsorbed onto ferrite nanoparticles, which subsequently participate in polymerization during synthesis of poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels (PAA). To demonstrate the fixation of the nanoparticles to the polymer, our original approach is to measure low-field AC magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz range. In the hydrogel, the magnetization dynamics of small iron oxide nanoparticles are comparable to those of the particles dispersed in a liquid, due to fast Néel relaxation inside the particles; this renders the ferrogel useful for chemical sensing at frequencies of several kHz. However, ferrogels holding thermally blocked iron oxide or cobalt ferrite nanoparticles show significant decrease of the magnetic susceptibility resulting from a frozen magnetic structure. This confirms that the nanoparticles are unable to rotate thermally inside the hydrogel, in agreement with their irreversible fixation to the polymer network. PMID:23673482

  16. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  17. Initial susceptibility, flow curves, and magneto-optics of inverse magnetic fluids.

    PubMed

    Raşa, M; Philipse, A P; Jamon, D

    2003-09-01

    We introduce inverse magnetic fluids, consisting of gibbsite [Al(OH)(3)] platelets and alumina (Al2O3) spheres dispersed in a magnetic fluid, studied together with silica (SiO2) dispersions based on the same magnetic fluid matrix. Atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and alternate gradient magnetometry confirm the remarkable stability of the samples. Optical microscopy shows aggregation of nonmagnetic spheres, which, surprisingly, strongly depends on the concentration of the magnetic fluid rather than the concentration of nonmagnetic particles. Our model for the initial susceptibility of inverse magnetic fluids agrees very well with experimental data for systems containing spherical particles. The flow curves in an external magnetic field are strongly influenced by the aggregation of nonmagnetic particles or preformed nonmagnetic particle clusters, and by their disruption due to the shear flow. Static linear magnetobirefringence and magnetodichroism of all samples are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. These effects, which occur in all magnetic fluids, can be enhanced by the additional anisotropy due to the magnetic holes. The experiments we performed showed that, at a wavelength of 820 nm, the magnetodichroism is increased while the magneto-birefringence decreases when nonmagnetic particles were dispersed in the magnetic fluid. Magneto-birefringence is expected to be increased at large enough wavelengths only. PMID:14524764

  18. Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timur, Emre

    2014-05-01

    Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

  19. Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids: The influence of polydispersity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexey O.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of theoretical explanation of extremely high low-temperature initial magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids. These laboratory synthesized samples [A.F. Pshenichnikov, A.V. Lebedev, J. Chem. Phys. 121(11) (2004) 5455; Colloid J. 67(2) (2005) 189] demonstrated the record-breaking values χ ~ 120 - 150 at temperatures ~ 230-240 K. The existing models predict such high susceptibility only under the assumption of unreasonably large dipolar coupling constant, which is out of the range of applicability. Here we calculate the second virial contribution to susceptibility for polydisperse ferrofluid, modeled by the dipolar hard sphere fluid. In the resulting expression there exists the parameter, which plays a part of dipolar coupling constant and which is defined in a form of double averaging of high powers of particle sizes over the granulometric distribution. For real particle size distribution this effective parameter at least twice exceeds the commonly defined polydisperse dipolar coupling constant. We show that the low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of the record-breaking ferrofluids could be explained theoretically on the basis of the first terms of the polydisperse second virial contribution in combination with the second-order modified mean field model.

  20. The influence of molecular order and microstructure on the R2* and the magnetic susceptibility tensor.

    PubMed

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Spincemaille, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that in the presence of ordered sub-voxel structure such as tubular organization, biomaterials with molecular isotropy exhibits only apparent R2* anisotropy, while biomaterials with molecular anisotropy exhibit both apparent R2* and susceptibility anisotropy by means of susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). To this end, R2* and STI from gradient echo magnitude and phase data were examined in phantoms made from carbon fiber and Gadolinium (Gd) solutions with and without intrinsic molecular order and sub-voxel structure as well as in the in vivo brain. Confidence in the tensor reconstructions was evaluated with a wild bootstrap analysis. Carbon fiber showed both apparent anisotropy in R2* and anisotropy in STI, while the Gd filled capillary tubes only showed apparent anisotropy on R2*. Similarly, white matter showed anisotropic R2* and magnetic susceptibility with higher confidence, while the cerebral veins displayed only strong apparent R2* tensor anisotropy. Ordered sub-voxel tissue microstructure leads to apparent R2* anisotropy, which can be found in both white matter tracts and cerebral veins. However, additional molecular anisotropy is required for magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, which can be found in white matter tracts but not in cerebral veins. PMID:26692502

  1. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of pure and mixed gadolinium-terbium fumarate heptahydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Want, B.; Shah, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic moment and susceptibility measurements of single crystals of pure and mixed rare earth fumarates of gadolinium and terbium were carried out at room temperature. The experimental values of molar susceptibilities for Gd2 (C4H2O4)3·7H2O, Tb2(C4H2O4)3·7H2O and GdTb (C4H2O4)3·7H2O are 2.68×10-2, 3.89×10-2, and 3.18×10-2 (in emu mol-1 Oe-1), respectively. The calculated effective magnetic moments are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions on rare earth ions.

  2. Influence of sampling on magnetic susceptibility anisotropy of soft sediments: comparison between gravity and piston cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, Takaya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Inoue, Seiko

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been used extensively for determining mineral orientatrections. In terms of the sample coordinate, K max declinations in the three gravity cores are oriented along the core-splitting surface, whereas K max declinations in the three piston cores are perpendicular to the splitting surface. We attribute the artificial AMS to the stress created by the deformation of core liners when being split. When interpreting AMS data from sediment cores, it is necessary to investigate the influence of sampling using the sample coordinates. In this paper, we also report over-sampling and under-sampling of piston cores from a comparison of down-core magnetic susceptibility variations between piston and gravity cores. It is noteworthy that under-sampling as well as over-sampling can occur in the uppermost few meters of piston cores.

  3. Bulk magnetic susceptibility induced broadening in the 19F NMR of suspended leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Adebodun, F; Post, J F

    1993-01-01

    The relevance of bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) induced broadening to in vivo NMR studies of intact cells has been examined and the significance of the contribution of BMS difference to the resolution of intra- and extracellular resonances was demonstrated. BMS difference between intra- and extracellular compartments was found to limit the resolution of intra- and extracellular 19F resonances of fluoro compounds in leukemic cells. PMID:8499242

  4. Magnetic susceptibility oscillation in neutron stars with the hadron-quark transition

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W. Z.; Van Giai, N.

    2006-11-02

    We analyze the de Hass-van Alphen (HVA) oscillation of magnetic susceptibility in the nuetron star matter using an analytic relativistic expression obtained before, showing that the oscillation frequency is proportional to the squared chemical potential and the reciprocal of the field, and is independent of the temperature. The numerical results for the HVA oscillation are also shown. A superposition of the HVA oscillations changes the oscillation properties drastically if the color deconfinement occurs at high densities.

  5. Transition Ion Strikes Back: Large Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy in Cobalt(II) Clathrochelates.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Valentin V; Pavlov, Alexander A; Belov, Alexander S; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Savitsky, Anton; Voloshin, Yan Z

    2014-11-01

    Transition-metal complexes are rarely considered as paramagnetic tags for NMR spectroscopy due to them generally having relatively low magnetic anisotropy. Here we report cobalt(II) cage complexes with the largest (among the transition-metal complexes) axial anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, reaching as high as 12.6 × 10(-32) m(3) at room temperature. This remarkable anisotropy, which results from an unusual trigonal prismatic geometry of the complexes and translates into large negative value of the zero-field splitting energy, is high enough to promote reliable paramagnetic pseudocontact shifts at the distance beyond 2 nm. Our finding paves the way toward the applications of cobalt(II) clathrochelates as future paramagnetic tags. Given the incredible stability and functionalization versatility of clathrochelates, the fine-tuning of the caging ligand may lead to new chemically stable mononuclear single-molecule magnets, for which magnetic anisotropy is of importance. PMID:26278750

  6. In situ study of atomic-vacancy ordering in stoichiometric titanium monoxide by the magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeeva, A. A.; Nazarova, S. Z.; Rempel, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    An in situ temperature study of a variation in the degree of long-range order in stoichiometric titanium monoxide has been performed by the magnetic susceptibility method. The measurements have been performed on annealed and quenched titanium monoxide in the temperature range from 300 to 1200 K. It has been found that the degree of long-range order depends on the regime and temperature of annealing of the initial samples. The degree of long-range order in the process of measurement of the magnetic susceptibility varies from 0.21 to 1.00; the larger the degree of long-range order, the smaller the magnetic susceptibility. Furthermore, the long-range order parameter decreases with an increase in the temperature above 1200 K and vanishes sharply at the order-disorder transition temperature. According to the results of this work, the critical long-range order parameter is 0.21 and the temperature of the nonequilibrium disorder-order transition is about 1073 K.

  7. Magnetic susceptibility well-logging unit with single power supply thermoregulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R. L.

    1985-11-05

    The magnetic susceptibility well-logging unit with single power supply thermoregulation system provides power from a single surface power supply over a well-logging cable to an integrated circuit voltage regulator system downhole. This voltage regulator system supplies regulated voltages to a temperature control system and also to a Maxwell bridge sensing unit which includes the solenoid of a magnetic susceptibility probe. The temperature control system is provided with power from the voltage regulator system and operates to permit one of several predetermined temperatures to be chosen, and then operates to maintain the solenoid of a magnetic susceptibility probe at this chosen temperature. The temperature control system responds to a temperature sensor mounted upon the probe solenoid to cause resistance heaters concentrically spaced from the probe solenoid to maintain the chosen temperature. A second temperature sensor on the probe solenoid provides a temperature signal to a temperature transmitting unit, which initially converts the sensed temperature to a representative voltage. This voltage is then converted to a representative current signal which is transmitted by current telemetry over the well logging cable to a surface electronic unit which then reconverts the current signal to a voltage signal.

  8. [Study of relation between crushed lava spectrum and magnetic susceptibility in Xiangshan uranium orefield].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Chun; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Lin-Qing; Jiang, Yong-Biao

    2013-12-01

    Rock spectrum research is the base of the remote sensing geology. It's of great significance of exploring the relations between rock spectrum and other rock natures. In the present study, 36 fine crushed lava samples each measuring 5 cmX5 cmX 5 cm were tested for its spectrums by SVC HR-768 portable spectrometer. But before measuring each sample, white boards should be calibrated and after measuring the curves of spectrum of each sample should make a 5 nm smooth resample so that meteoric water and noise caused by external environment can be eliminated. After such smooth resample, at the spectrum scope of 1 112-1322 nm, taking band value as horizontal axis and reflectivity as vertical axis, linear equations of rock samples can be obtained. Taking the slopes as the horizontal axis and volume magnetic susceptibility as vertical axis, y= -0. 256 31n(x) + 0. 913 7 was thus obtained and its equation correlation coefficient is up to 0. 78. The result shows that volume magnetic susceptibility is mainly caused by Fe2+ , and that the amount of Fe2+ can be almost measured in the spectrum scope of 1112 approximately 1322 nm that has a good correlation with volume magnetic susceptibility. PMID:24611387

  9. Demonstrating and Measuring Relative Molar Magnetic Susceptibility Using a Neodymium Magnet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malerich, Charles; Ruff, Patricia K.; Bird, Aubrey

    2004-01-01

    An easy-to-see method for demonstrating and measuring the magnetic force between paramagnetic substance and a rare earth magnet is presented. The readily available trapezoid-shaped neodymium magnet and a low cost, easy-to-set-up, portable apparatus are used in the experiments.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for a lanthanide ion series in a fixed protein matrix.

    PubMed

    Bertini, I; Janik, M B; Lee, Y M; Luchinat, C; Rosato, A

    2001-05-01

    The full series of lanthanide ions (except the radioactive promethium and the S-state gadolinium) has been incorporated into the C-terminal calcium binding site of the dicalcium protein calbindin D(9k). A fairly constant coordination environment is maintained throughout the series. At variance with several lanthanide complexes with small chelating ligands investigated in the past, the large protein moiety provides a large number of NMR signals whose hyperfine shifts can be exclusively ascribed to pseudocontact shifts (PCS). The chemical shifts of 1H and 15N backbone and side chain amide NH groups were accurately measured through HSQC experiments. 1097 PCS were estimated from these by subtracting the diamagnetic contributions measured on HSQC spectra of either the 4f(0) lanthanum(III) or the 4f(14) lutetium(III) derivatives and used to define a quality factor for the structure. The differences in diamagnetic chemical shifts between the two diamagnetic blanks were relatively small, although some were not negligible especially for the nuclei closest to the metal center. These differences were used as a tolerance for the PCS. The magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for each paramagnetic lanthanide ion were obtained as the result of the solution structure determination performed by using the NOEs of the cerium(III) derivative and the PCS of all lanthanides simultaneously. This set of reliable magnetic data permits an experimental assessment of Bleaney's theory relative to the magnetic properties for an extended series of lanthanide complexes in solution. All of the obtained tensors show some rhombicity, as could be expected from the lack of symmetry of the protein environment. The directions of the largest magnetic susceptibility component for Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, and Ho and of the smallest magnetic susceptibility component for Eu, Er, Tm, and Yb were found to be all within 15 degrees from their average (within 20 degrees for Sm), confirming the essential

  11. GEMAS: A unique data set to define magnetic susceptibility variability of European agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS data set provides the first comprehensive overview of magnetic susceptibility in European soil. Samples from the upper 20cm were taken in large agricultural fields (Ap-sample). After air drying and sieving to < 2mm, weight specific magnetic susceptibility k was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B bridge with dynamic background correction. k quantifies the magnetic response to a small change of the external magnetic field. k is typically high in samples with a high concentration of iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite, haematite), iron hydroxides (goethite, limonite), or iron sulphides (pyrrhotite, greigite), and low for soil with high carbonate or silica content. While the median value in Ap soil is 0.207 × 10-6m3/kg, k varies over four orders of magnitude and allows for a clear classification. Its spatial distribution shows a broad distinct low over the sandy sediments of the last glaciation in central northern Europe, which consist primarily of quartz (SiO2) with very little amounts of iron and iron oxides. Other broad minima in k are also related to sedimentary basins. Localised, consistently positive, k anomalies occur near young volcanism, or old basalts exposed on the surface. Also iron ore provinces or mineralizations, e.g. the Iberian Pyrite Belt, are associated with high k. Elevated k values due to precipitation and subsequent weathering are found in Mediterranean chromic luvisols (terra rossa). On the European scale a unique signal of anthropogenic enhancement of k in Ap soil cannot be distinguished. All major features of the k distribution can be related to geology. Thereby, the GEMAS data set of magnetic susceptibility provides a continent wide reference of the natural background of k in Ap soil. It can be used to define the geological background variability for national and local studies, where this knowledge is needed to distinguish between anthropogenic and geogenic sources of observed k anomalies.

  12. Strain analysis in quartzites with negative magnetic susceptibility using AMS and EBSD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendraprasad Renjith, A.; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2016-04-01

    This study is being done with the objective of trying to understand whether the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data can provide information about strain in quartzites with negative magnetic susceptibility. For this, nine quartzite samples have been collected from Rengali Province (located in the eastern part of India) with bulk magnetic susceptibility between -13.6 x 10-6 SI units and -3.06 x 10-6 SI units. Since these rocks did not show any visible foliation or lineation, AMS analysis was performed using KLY-4S Kappabridge and the orientation of three principal axes of the AMS ellipsoid (K1>K2>K3) were determined. Thin sections were prepared parallel to the K1K3 plane of the AMS ellipsoid (plane parallel to lineation and perpendicular to foliation), which is equivalent to the XZ plane of the strain ellipsoid. SEM based electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, shape preferred orientation (SPO) analysis and strain analysis were carried out in these sections. Recently, Renjith et al. (2016) used the same samples to establish that the AMS in quartzites gives information about the SPO and not the CPO. To further evaluate the robustness of AMS in strain analysis, the authors have integrated the degree of magnetic anisotropy (Pj - a measure of the eccentricity of AMS ellipsoid; Tarling and Hrouda, 1993) with the intensity of SPO (κ ; Piazolo and Passchier, 2002), and the strain (E - calculated using AMOCADO; Gerik and Kruhl, 2009) from the same samples from Rengali. EBSD data were used as the basis for the above calculations. Whilst the orientation of long axis of quartz grains from EBSD statistical data was used to calculate κ , the grain boundary map generated from EBSD analysis was used as the basis to determine strain (E). It is found that the sample with minimum Pj also has a minimum κ and E, and vice-versa. Hence it is concluded that one-to-one correlation exists between the degree of magnetic anisotropy, strain and intensity of SPO in

  13. Broadband alternating current magnetic susceptibility: Method and application to the characterization of magnetic particles in igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.

    2012-12-01

    Low-field alternating current magnetic susceptibility (MS) is among the most commonly used magnetic property, not only in rock and mineral magnetism but also in environmental magnetism studies. This study proposes a new rock magnetic method, Frequency Spectrum of MS (FSM), based on the measurement of the real component of MS over a wide range of frequency (100 Hz to 500 kHz) and the measurement of the imaginary component at high frequencies in the order of 10-102 kHz. This study presents the FSM results at room and low temperatures obtained from a variety of igneous rocks with SP to SD grain sizes, including acidic to basic volcanic rocks in Japan and a basalt in Hawaii. The FSMs from the andesite samples at room temperature unexceptionally show small but anomalous increase, as much as 5%, over a specific frequency interval between 10 kHz and 120 kHz. In contrast, FSMs of basalts from Oshima and Hawaii show no such peak, a typical pattern indicating the presence of SP grain ensembles. The anomalous FSM from the andesites suggests a new rock and mineral magnetic behavior indicating either magnetic resonance or magnetic relaxation. Considering the anomalous FSM patterns and their variations at low temperatures, it is suggested that the hypothetical resonance could be relevant to some magnetoelastic phenomenon, in which magnetic energy could be dissipated through a long-range, magnetostructural coupling, most likely, magnetostriction. The fact that the annealed andesite samples showed less developed FSM anomaly strongly supports this hypothesis, because annealing generally lowers the internal stress leading to the reduction of resistance in a forced oscillation system. Analyses of the low temperature results confirm magnetic relaxation phenomena taking place at low temperatures, and consequently support the above interpretation.

  14. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  15. Magnetic susceptibility and the spatial variability of heavy metals in soils developed on basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervi, Eduardo Cimino; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Saraiva; de Souza Junior, Ivan Granemann

    2014-12-01

    Topsoil magnetic susceptibility (κ) is a fast and convenient method used to detect potentially polluted areas by heavy metals. Topsoil measurements are carried out in situ with Bartington MS2D loop sensor, designed to measure the magnetic susceptibility of top 10 cm of soil and detect 90% of the total signal from a depth of 6 cm. However, soils developed on basalt are difficult to assess due to their large amounts of ferrimagnetic minerals. The aim of this study was evaluate the applicability of κ to discriminate anthropogenic/lithogenic environments characterized by different parent materials in the city of Maringá/Brazil. In this paper, topsoil susceptibility (κ) was measured in 66 urban soils using a Bartington MS2D loop sensor. To investigate the magnetic background levels, samples of a Rhodic Ferralsol profile were measured using a laboratory MS2B sensor. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis was carried out to verify the mineralogical composition of the different lithology. Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in 29 topsoil samples. The κ values ranged from 316 × 10- 5 SI in a sandstone region to 6,945 × 10- 5 SI in soils developed on basalt. The χfd values of urban topsoil varied from 2% to 11.3%. Lower values of κ and χfd in the sandstone region indicated that the lithogenic contribution is of primary significance. Significant positive correlations between κ and Cu, Fe and Mn are related to the parent material, enriched in iron oxides, as verified by XRD. The background values (mean of 4,235 × 10- 8 m3 kg- 1) were higher in subsoil, suggesting the inexistence of anthropogenic pollution. The topsoil susceptibility was efficient for distinguish different lithogenic environments. Although anthropogenic pollution in soils developed on basalt is difficult to assess due to the high natural background, our results suggest that heavy metal contents are not related to the human activity.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations.

    PubMed

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi

    2013-04-15

    White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:23296181

  17. Magnetic Susceptibility of Submicroscopic Metallic Iron Formation Through Laser Irradiation of Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, M. M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2014-12-01

    Surfaces of exposed solids change their integrity due to solar wind and micrometeorite impacts, resulting in significant modification of exposed mineral grains. Apart from the possibility of in-situ ice generation, initial iron rich composition allows for re-precipitation of iron. The importance of characterizing these SMFe (submicroscopic metallic iron) particles exists to better our interpretations in remote sensing of planetary surface minerals. For example, the presence of SMFe changes the spectral reflectance of silicate minerals in the visible (VIS) to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, and contributes to "space weathering": (1) SMFe darkens the overall reflectance, (2) steepens (or reddens) the spectral slope, and (3) decreases the contrast in the 1 µm band. Irradiating olivine samples with energies simulating micrometeorite impact energies revealed single domain (SD) and superparamagnetic (SPM) iron grains varying in size. All samples exhibit general VIS-NIR space weathering effects, but also magnetic anomalies in the immediate surface proximity and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility changes due to the production of SMFe. Planetary minerals such as olivine produce more SMFe when micrometeorite impacts and/or solar wind irradiation increases. Magnetic textures found during the scanning of the laser irradiated samples reveal anomalies that are dominantly caused by metallic iron and are in superparamagnetic state while at room temperature. We observed an increased dispersion of these metallic anomalies when irradiation energy increased. Frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements creates a data set that has potential to become a tool in remote detection of these surfaces by deep penetration radar incidence.

  18. Magnetic susceptibility and characteristics of the chemical structure of glasses of the system As-S-I

    SciTech Connect

    Pinzenik, V.P.; Kramarenko, A.N.; Khiminets, V.V.; Rosola, I.I.

    1987-09-01

    It was established that the model of the microheterogeneous structure of glasses explains well the concentration dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of glasses in the system As/sub 2/S/sub 3/-AsI/sub 3/. It was shown that small additions of elements with different electronic structure (iodine and iron) leads to the appearance of features, which have different characters, on the concentration curves of the magnetic susceptibility.

  19. Characterization of tissue magnetic susceptibility-induced distortions for MRIgRT

    SciTech Connect

    Stanescu, T.; Wachowicz, K.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: MR image geometric integrity is one of the building blocks of MRI-guided radiotherapy. In particular, tissue magnetic susceptibility-induced effects are patient-dependent and their behavior is difficult to assess and predict. In this study, the authors investigated in detail the characteristics of susceptibility ({chi}) distortions in the context of MRIgRT, including the case of two common MR-linac system configurations. Methods: The magnetic field distortions were numerically simulated for several imaging parameters and anatomical sites, i.e., brain, lung, pelvis (with air pockets), and prostate. The simulation process consisted of (a) segmentation of patient CT data into susceptibility relevant anatomical volumes (i.e., soft-tissue, bone and air/lung), (b) conversion of CT data into susceptibility masks by assigning bulk {chi} values to the structures defined at (a), (c) numerical computations of the local magnetic fields by using a finite difference algorithm, and (d) generation of the geometric distortion maps from the magnetic field distributions. For each patient anatomy, the distortions were quantified at the interfaces of anatomical structures with significantly different {chi} values. The analysis was performed for two specific orientations of the external main magnetic field (B{sub 0}) characteristic to the MR-linac systems, specifically along the z-axis for a bore MR scanner and in the (x,y)-plane for a biplanner magnet. The magnetic field local perturbations were reported in ppm. The metrics used to quantify the geometric distortions were the maximum, mean, and range of distortions. The numerical simulation algorithm was validated using phantom data measurements. Results: Susceptibility-induced distortions were determined for both quadratic and patient specific geometries. The numerical simulations showed a good agreement with the experimental data. The measurements were acquired at 1.5 and 3 T and with an encoding gradient varying between 3

  20. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and magnetic structure of CuNi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Escobal, Jaione; Pizarro, Jose L.; Mesa, Jose L. . E-mail: joseluis.mesa@ehu.es; Larranaga, Aitor; Fernandez, Jesus Rodriguez; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo

    2006-10-15

    CuNi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphate has been synthesized by the ceramic method at 800 deg. C in air. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional skeleton constructed from MO{sub 4} (M{sup II} =Cu and Ni) planar squares and M{sub 2}O{sub 8} dimers with square pyramidal geometry, which are interconnected by (PO{sub 4}){sup 3-} oxoanions with tetrahedral geometry. The magnetic behavior has been studied on powdered sample by using susceptibility, specific heat and neutron diffraction data. The bimetallic copper(II)-nickel(II) orthophosphate exhibits a three-dimensional magnetic ordering at, approximately, 29.8 K. However, its complex crystal structure hampers any parametrization of the J-exchange parameter. The specific heat measurements exhibit a three-dimensional magnetic ordering ({lambda}-type) peak at 29.5 K. The magnetic structure of this phosphate shows ferromagnetic interactions inside the Ni{sub 2}O{sub 8} dimers, whereas the sublattice of Cu(II) ions presents antiferromagnetic couplings along the y-axis. The change of the sign in the magnetic unit-cell, due to the [1/2, 0, 1/2] propagation vector determines a purely antiferromagnetic structure. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic structure of CuNi2(PO4)2.

  1. Ferromagnetic ordering in NpAl2: Magnetic susceptibility and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Selfslag, C.; Colineau, E.; Caciuffo, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of the neptunium based ferromagnetic compound NpAl2. We used magnetization measurements and 27Al NMR spectroscopy to access magnetic features related to the paramagnetic and ordered states (TC=56 K). While very precise DC SQUID magnetization measurements confirm ferromagnetic ordering, they show a relatively small hysteresis loop at 5 K reduced with a coercive field HCo~3000 Oe. The variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS) acquired in the paramagnetic state show a high sensitivity of the 27Al nuclei spectral parameters (Knight shifts and line broadening) to the ferromagnetic ordering, even at room temperature.

  2. 150 000 Years of Loess Deposition in Interior Alaska as Told by Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, B. J. L.; Evans, M. E.; Froese, D. G.; Kravchinsky, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Halfway House loess deposit in interior Alaska contains a well-studied and complex paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental record. Unfortunately, a lack of chronologic control has made it difficult to interpret the results of these studies. Detailed reexamination of stratigraphy, paleomagnetics and tephrostratigraphy reveals a relatively complete marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to Holocene record constrained by the Old Crow (124 ± 10 ka), VT (106 ± 10 ka), Sheep Creek-Klondike (ca. 80 ka), Dominion Creek (77 ± 8 ka) and Dawson (ca. 30.2 cal ka BP) tephras. Two well-developed paleosols are shown to have formed during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e and 5a, while MIS 5c and 5b are either poorly represented or absent. A magnetic excursion is identified as the post-Blake excursion (94.1 ± 7.8 ka) and provides independent age control while adding to an increasing body of evidence that Alaskan loess is a detailed recorder of variations of the Earth's magnetic field over time. High-resolution magnetic susceptibility profiles placed into this new chronostratigraphic framework help refine loess deposition models for the interior of Alaska, while providing a means to correlate to previous magnetic studies at this site. The profiles support the hypothesis that wind-intensity is the main variable controlling fluctuations in susceptibility, with the highest susceptibility during peak glacial times and the lowest values in paleosols representing interglacials. However, the correlation of the susceptibility record to global marine d18O records is complicated by highly variable accumulation rates. We find the lowest rates of accumulation during peak warm and cold stages, while abrupt increases are associated with periods of transition between marine isotope stages, represented by intermediate susceptibility values. Previous accumulation models for Alaska have emphasized the role of surface roughness as an important variable controlling loess accumulation. However our results

  3. Magnetic susceptibility and relation to initial 87Sr/86Sr for granitoids of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, P.C.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kistler, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of more than 6000 samples of granitic rock from the Mariposa 1?? by 2?? quadrangle, which crosses the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith between 37?? and 38??N latitude, shows that magnetic susceptibility values are above 10-2 SI units in the east and central parts of the batholith and drop abruptly to less than 10-3 SI units in the western foothills. In a narrow transitional zone, intermediate values (10-3 to 10-2) prevail. Magnetic susceptibility appears to decrease slightly westward within the zones of both high and low values. Magnetic susceptibility in plutonic rocks is chiefly a function of the abundance of magnetite, which depends, in turn, on the total iron content of the rocks and their oxidation ratio. Correlations of magnetic susceptibility with initial 87Sr/86Sr suggest that oxidation ratios have been inherited from the source regions for the magmas from which the rocks crystallized. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by organic carbon or other reducing substances may also have affected magnetic susceptibility. -from Authors

  4. Second-order-like cluster-monomer transition within magnetic fluids and its impact upon the magnetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The low-field (below 5 Oe) ac and dc magnetic response of a magnetic fluid [MF] sample in the range of 305 to 360 K and 410 to 455 K was experimentally and theoretically investigated. We found a systematic deviation of Curie's law, which predicts a linear temperature dependence of inverse initial susceptibility in the range of our investigation. This finding, as we hypothesized, is due to the onset of a second-order-like cluster-to-monomer transition with a critical exponent which is equal to 0.50. The susceptibility data were well fitted by a modified Langevin function, in which cluster dissociation into monomers, at the critical temperature [T*], was included. In the ac experiments, we found that T* was reducing from 381.8 to 380.4 K as the frequency of the applied field increases from 123 to 173 Hz. In addition, our ac experiments confirm that only monomers respond for the magnetic behavior of the MF sample above T*. Furthermore, our Monte Carlo simulation and analytical results support the hypothesis of a thermal-assisted dissociation of chain-like structures. PACS: 75.75.-C; 75.30.Kz; 75.30.Cr. PMID:22390618

  5. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity of Ce/sub 2/Sn/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, S.K.; Gschneidner K.A. Jr.; McMasters, O.D.

    1987-03-01

    Low-temperature (1.5--20 K) high-field (0--10 T) heat-capacity and magnetic-susceptibility (1.5--300 K) studies have been carried out on Ce/sub 2/Sn/sub 5/. These studies reveal that Ce/sub 2/Sn/sub 5/ orders magnetically at 3 K and exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior above 120 K with p/sub eff/ = 2.56..mu../sub B/ indicating that Ce is trivalent in Ce/sub 2/Sn/sub 5/. The peak in the heat capacity is suppressed in applied magnetic fields and disappears completely at high fields (>5.4 T) which suggests that the magnetic ordering is antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic. The magnetic entropy is about 42% of the theoretical expected entropy for a doublet ground state. The coefficient of the electronic heat capacity, which was derived from extrapolation of the heat-capacity data above the ordering temperature, is 22 mJ/mole-CeX sup 2: . It is suggested that both magnetic Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and Kondo exchange interactions coexist in this compound.

  6. An adapted Coffey model for studying susceptibility losses in interacting magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Osaci, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: Nanoparticles can be used in biomedical applications, such as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in tumor therapy or against cardiovascular diseases. Single-domain nanoparticles dissipate heat through susceptibility losses in two modes: Néel relaxation and Brownian relaxation. Results: Since a consistent theory for the Néel relaxation time that is applicable to systems of interacting nanoparticles has not yet been developed, we adapted the Coffey theoretical model for the Néel relaxation time in external magnetic fields in order to consider local dipolar magnetic fields. Then, we obtained the effective relaxation time. The effective relaxation time is further used for obtaining values of specific loss power (SLP) through linear response theory (LRT). A comparative analysis between our model and the discrete orientation model, more often used in literature, and a comparison with experimental data from literature have been carried out, in order to choose the optimal magnetic parameters of a nanoparticle system. Conclusion: In this way, we can study effects of the nanoparticle concentration on SLP in an acceptable range of frequencies and amplitudes of external magnetic fields for biomedical applications, especially for tumor therapy by magnetic hyperthermia. PMID:26665090

  7. Influence of radiation damage and isochronal annealing on the magnetic susceptibility of Pu(1-x)Am(x) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, S; Fluss, M; Chung, B; Haire, R

    2008-05-02

    Results of radiation damage in Pu and Pu{sub 1-x}Am{sub x} alloys studied with magnetic susceptibility, {chi}(T), and resistivity are presented. Damage accumulated at low temperatures increases {chi}(T) for all measured alloys, with the trend generally enhanced as the lattice expands. There is a trend towards saturation observable in the damage induced magnetic susceptibility data, that is not evident in similar damage induced resistivity data taken on the same specimen. A comparison of isochronal annealing curves measured by both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility on a 4.3at% Ga stabilized {delta}-Pu specimen show that Stage I annealing, where interstitials begin to move, is largely transparent to the magnetic measurement. This indicates that interstitials have little impact on the damage induced increase in the magnetic susceptibility. The isochronal annealing curves of the Pu{sub 1-x}Am{sub x} alloys do not show distinct annealing stages as expected for alloys. However, samples near 20% Am concentration show an unexpected increase in magnetization beginning when specimens are annealed to 35K. This behavior is also reflected in a time dependent increase in the magnetic susceptibility of damaged specimens indicative of first order kinetics. These results suggest there may be a metastable phase induced by radiation damage and annealing in Pu{sub 1-x}Am{sub x} alloys.

  8. Investigating the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties of the Beaver River Diabase in northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, S. H.; Brownlee, S. J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Jackson, M. J.; Miller, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Beaver River Diabase (BRD) is a series of mafic dikes and sills within the Beaver Bay Complex (BBC) of northern Minnesota, which formed during the development of the ~1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift (MCR). The BRD is one of the youngest and most extensive intrusive phases of the BBC. The BRD dikes and sills were emplaced into the medial levels of the 6-10 kilometer-thick North Shore Volcanic Group and occur over an arcuate area extending 120 by 20 kilometers. The BRD is composed of fine- to medium-grained ophitic olivine gabbro and does not display obvious foliation or lineation features and rarely displays modal layering. Without obvious magmatic internal structures, it is difficult to determine emplacement properties such as flow direction using standard geologic mapping or petrographic techniques. For this reason, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), in conjunction with other rock magnetic properties, to better understand the BRD's emplacement and deformation history in the context of the MCR. AMS measures the directional dependence of low-field magnetic susceptibility, and is used to infer a shape-preferred orientation of magnetic minerals within a rock, which can be related to specific emplacement mechanisms (e.g. directional flow or settling). Preliminary analysis of AMS at 20 sites within the southern half of the BRD (with 4-7 samples per site) shows maximum susceptibility values between 4.48 x 10-6 and 2.22 x 10-4 m3/kg (1165 and 65400 μSI). Most specimens display nearly isotropic AMS ellipsoids (Pj < 1.15) with minor degrees of prolateness and oblateness. However, about 20% of specimens have higher anisotropies (Pj between 1.15 and 1.67) and higher degrees of oblateness and prolateness. Variations in AMS properties may reflect differences in concentration and composition, as well as emplacement mechanisms. Measurements of susceptibility as a function of temperature yield Curie points between 470 and 570 °C, indicating a presence of

  9. Study of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on Central Chimei Fault, Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chimei fault is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range and is also a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the volcanic Tuluanshan Formation of Miocene over the sedimentary Paliwan Formation of Pleistocene. To investigate the deformation pattern across the Chimei fault more precisely, we analyzed oriented coring samples of mudstone across the fault zone, damage zone, fold zone and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Prolate (cigar-shaped) and oblate (disc-shaped) ellipsoids appear together at fault zone, damage zone and fold zone, suggesting that strong variation of deformation and lithology in each zone of the Chimei fault. Previous study pointed out that oblate ellipsoid usually appears in the footwall, further indicating that the Chimei fault behaves differently from regular detachment faults. It strongly speculates although the central Chimei fault displays N-S shortening, the deformation is not strong enough to develop penetrative oblate fabric, even in the main fault zone of the Chimei fault. Further studies will be rnrformation is not sobear theequired to identify the magnetic carriers and grain size to improve current concept. Keywords : Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Coastal Range, Chimei Fault, Taiwan

  10. Magnetic susceptibility of QCD at zero and at finite temperature from the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, G. S.; Bruckmann, F.; Constantinou, M.; Costa, M.; Endrődi, G.; Katz, S. D.; Panagopoulos, H.; Schäfer, A.

    2012-11-01

    The response of the QCD vacuum to a constant external (electro)magnetic field is studied through the tensor polarization of the chiral condensate and the magnetic susceptibility at zero and at finite temperature. We determine these quantities using lattice configurations generated with the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and Nf=1+1+1 flavors of stout smeared staggered quarks with physical masses. We carry out the renormalization of the observables under study and perform the continuum limit both at T>0 and at T=0, using different lattice spacings. Finite size effects are studied by using various spatial lattice volumes. The magnetic susceptibilities χf reveal a spin-diamagnetic behavior; we obtain at zero temperature χu=-(2.08±0.08)GeV-2, χd=-(2.02±0.09)GeV-2 and χs=-(3.4±1.4)GeV-2 for the up, down and strange quarks, respectively, in the MS¯ scheme at a renormalization scale of 2 GeV. We also find the polarization to change smoothly with the temperature in the confinement phase and then to drastically reduce around the transition region.

  11. EPR and magnetic susceptibility investigation of iron-zinc-phosphate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, A.; Stefan, R.; Bosca, M.; Dan, V.; Pop, V.; Pascuta, P.

    2013-11-13

    (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 40}⋅(ZnO){sub 60−x} glass ceramics containing different concentrations of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ranging from 1 to 20 mol% were obtained by heat treatment of glass samples at 650 °C for 2 h. The structural and magnetic properties of these glass ceramics were investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The EPR spectra of the studied samples revealed absorptions centered at g ≈ 2.0 and 4.3. The compositional variations of the intensity and line width of these absorption lines was interpreted in terms of the variation in Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions concentration in the glass ceramics as well as the interaction between the iron ions. The magnetic susceptibility data evidenced the presence of both Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions, with their relative content depending on the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. Dipolar and superexchange interactions involving iron ions were revealed depending on the iron content of the sample.

  12. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)-1.29 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1) for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, ~3.5 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1), CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb, ~3.0 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)), and one-sixth that of Co-Cr alloys (Co-Cr-Mo, ~7.7 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)). Among the Zr-Ru alloy series, Zr-1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr-Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  13. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. F.; Zhou, F. Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co–Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10‑6 cm3·g‑1–1.29 × 10‑6 cm3·g‑1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10‑6 cm3·g‑1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10‑6 cm3·g‑1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10‑6 cm3·g‑1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments.

  14. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.F.; Zhou, F.Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co–Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10−6 cm3·g−1–1.29 × 10−6 cm3·g−1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10−6 cm3·g−1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10−6 cm3·g−1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10−6 cm3·g−1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  15. Technique for magnetic susceptibility determination in the highly doped semiconductors by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Veinger, A. I.; Zabrodskii, A. G.; Tisnek, T. V.; Goloshchapov, S. I.; Semenikhin, P. V.

    2014-08-20

    A method for determining the magnetic susceptibility in the highly doped semiconductors is considered. It is suitable for the semiconductors near the metal - insulator transition when the conductivity changes very quickly with the temperature and the resonance line form distorts. A procedure that is based on double integration of the positive part of the derivative of the absorption line having a Dyson shape and takes into account the depth of the skin layer is described. Analysis is made for the example of arsenic-doped germanium samples at a rather high concentration corresponding to the insulator-metal phase transition.

  16. Automated determination of chemical functionalisation addition routes based on magnetic susceptibility and nucleus independent chemical shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lier, G.; Ewels, C. P.; Geerlings, P.

    2008-07-01

    We present a modified version of our previously reported meta-code SACHA, for systematic analysis of chemical addition. The code automates the generation of structures, running of quantum chemical codes, and selection of preferential isomers based on chosen selection rules. While the selection rules for the previous version were based on the total system energy, predicting purely thermodynamic addition patterns, we examine here the possibility of using other system parameters, notably magnetic susceptibility as a descriptor of global aromaticity, and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) as local aromaticity descriptor.

  17. Effects of anisotropy and stress on the non-linear magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, Yevgen; Hauser, Hans; Li, Lu; Jiles, David; Grossinger, Roland

    2004-03-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic materials changes if mechanical stress is applied. This arises mainly because of the changes in the effective anisotropy arising from the magnetoelastic coupling. In order to correctly describe these changes theoretically by non-linear hysteresis modeling, the variation of these parameters with both anisotropy and stress must be understood. The interpretation of the underlying physics behind these variations as well as the means for determining the changes in theoretical parameters are important issues in hysteresis modeling. We report studies undertaken using two non-linear hysteresis models, namely the Jiles-Atherton model and the Hauser energetic model. The study examined the initial magnetization curve at low magnetic fields - where domain wall displacements are dominant and the anhysteretic (hysteresis-free) magnetization at high fields - where most of the magnetization processes taking place are reversible. The results were verified by comparison with experimental results taken on amorphous Co77B23 ribbon under applied tensile stress. This research was supported by the US DoE, office of Basic Energy Science, Materials Science Division. Ames Laboratory is operated for the US DoE by ISU under contract number W-7405-ENG-82.

  18. Supersymmetric backgrounds and generalised special holonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We define intrinsic torsion in generalised geometry and use it to introduce a new notion of generalised special holonomy. We then consider generic warped supersymmetric flux compactifications of M theory and Type II of the form {{{R}}}D-{1,1}× M. Using the language of {E}d(d)× {{{R}}}+ generalised geometry, we show that, for D≥slant 4, preserving minimal supersymmetry is equivalent to the manifold M having generalised special holonomy and list the relevant holonomy groups. We conjecture that this result extends to backgrounds preserving any number of supersymmetries. As a prime example, we consider { N }=1 in D = 4. The corresponding generalised special holonomy group is {SU}(7), giving the natural M theory extension to the notion of a G 2 manifold, and, for Type II backgrounds, reformulating the pure spinor {SU}(3)× {SU}(3) conditions as an integrable structure.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility and parameters of electronic structure of Al2REM (Gd, Dy, and Ho) intermetallic compounds at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uporova, N. S.; Uporov, S. A.; Sidorov, V. E.

    2011-08-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of Al2REM (REM = Gd, Dy, and Ho) intermetallic compounds is experimentally investigated by the Faraday method in a wide temperature interval (290-2000 K) in different magnetic fields (0.3-1.3 T). In the crystalline state, the temperature dependences of the susceptibility follow the generalized Curie-Weiss law. In the liquid phase, the magnetic susceptibility of these intermetallic compounds above the melting point increases for all examined samples. The parameters of the electronic structure of the compounds are calculated based on the experimental data. It is established that the effective magnetic moment per rareearth metal atom is smaller than that characteristic of the free REM+ ion.

  20. Generalised heart rate statistics reveal neurally mediated homeostasis transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowiec, D.; Graff, B.; Miklaszewski, W.; Wejer, D.; Kaczkowska, A.; Budrejko, S.; Struzik, Z. R.

    2015-04-01

    Distributions of accelerations and decelerations, obtained from increments of heart rate recorded during a head-up tilt table (HUTT) test provide short-term characterization of the complex cardiovascular response to a rapid controlled dysregulation of homeostasis. A generalised statistic is proposed for evaluating the neural reflexes responsible for restoring the homeostatic dynamics. An evaluation of the effects on heart rate of the neural regulation involved in achieving homeostasis indicates a distinction between vasovagal patients and healthy subjects who are not susceptible to spontaneous fainting. A healthy cardiovascular response to the HUTT test is identified in the sympathetic tone appropriately punctuated by vagal activity.

  1. Reversible susceptibility studies of magnetization switching in FeCoB synthetic antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Cosmin; Cimpoesu, Dorin; Girt, Erol; Ju, Ganping; Stancu, Alexandru; Spinu, Leonard

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we present a study of switching characteristics of a series of synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) structures using reversible susceptibility experiments. Three series of SAF samples were considered in our study with (t1, t2), the thickness of the FeCoB layers of (80nm, 80nm), (50nm, 50nm), and (80nm, 20nm) and with the interlayer of Ru ranging from 0to2nm. A vector vibrating sample magnetometer was used to measure the hysteresis loops along the different directions in the plane of the samples. The reversible susceptibility experiments were performed using a resonant method based on a tunnel diode oscillator. We showed that the switching peaks in the susceptibility versus field plots obtained for different orientations of the applied dc field can be used to construct the switching diagram of the SAF structure. The critical curve constitutes the fingerprint of the switching behavior and provides information about micromagnetic and structural properties of SAF which is an essential component of modern magnetic random access memories.

  2. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P < 0.01) positively correlated with the contents of Fe2O3, Ni, Cu, As and V in the industrial top soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland. PMID:27548950

  3. RECONSTRUCTING PALEO-SMT POSITIONS ON THE CASCADIA MARGIN USING MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Joel; Phillips, Stephen

    2014-09-30

    Magnetic susceptibility (κ) is a mixed signal in marine sediments, representing primary depositional and secondary diagenetic processes. Production of hydrogen sulfide via anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) and organoclastic sulfate reduction above the SMT can result in the dissolution of iron oxides, altering κ in sediments in methane gas and gas hydrate bearing regions. We investigated records of κ on the Cascadia margin (ODP Sites 1249 and 1252; IODP Site 1325) using a Zr/Rb heavy mineral proxy from XRF core scanning to identify intervals of primary detrital magnetic susceptibility and intervals and predict intervals affected by magnetite dissolutions. We also measured total sulfur content, grain size distributions, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and magnetic mineral assemblage. The upper 100 m of Site 1252 contains a short interval of κ driven by primary magnetite, with multiple intervals (> 90 m total) of decreased κ correlated with elevated sulfur content, consistent with dissolution of magnetite and re-precipitation of pyrite. In the upper 90 m of Site 1249, κ is almost entirely altered by diagenetic processes, with much of the low κ explained by a high degree of pyritization, and some intervals affected by the precipitation of magnetic iron sulfides. At Site 1325, κ between 0-20 and 51-73 mbsf represents primary mineralogy, and in the interval 24-51 mbsf, κ may be reduced due to pyritization. This integrated approach allows for a prediction of primary κ and the amount of κ loss at each site when compared to actual κ measurements. In the case of magnetite dissolution and full pyritization, these drawdowns in κ are supported by sulfur measurements, and the exposure times of magnetite to hydrogen sulfide can be modeled. The presence of methane and methane hydrates at these sites, as well as large variations in TOC content, suggest that the past migration rates of the SMT and variation in sulfate

  4. Magnetic susceptibility curves of a nanoparticle assembly, I: Theoretical model and analytical expressions for a single magnetic anisotropy energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournus, F.; Bonet, E.

    2011-05-01

    We study a model system made of non-interacting monodomain ferromagnetic nanoparticles, considered as macrospins, with a randomly oriented uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. We derive a simple differential equation governing the magnetic moment evolution in an experimental magnetic susceptibility measurement, at low field and as a function of temperature, following the well-known Zero-Field Cooled/Field Cooled (ZFC/FC) protocol. Exact and approximate analytical solutions are obtained, together for the ZFC curve and the FC curve. The notion of blocking temperature is discussed and the influence of various parameters on the curves is investigated. A crossover temperature is defined and a comparison is made between our progressive crossover model (PCM) and the crude "two states" or abrupt transition model (ATM), where the particles are assumed to be either fully blocked or purely superparamagnetic. We consider here the case of a single magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE), which is a prerequisite before considering the more realistic and experimentally relevant case of an assembly of particles with a MAE distribution (cf. part II that follows).

  5. Towards magnetic susceptibility mapping of environmental pollution in Kathmandu urban area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, P.; Appel, E.; Blaha, U.; Neupane, G.

    2003-04-01

    A magnetic susceptibility distribution map is believed to be useful for quantification of the degree of environmental pollution arising from various factors (traffic movement, industrial activities e.g. emissions from brick-kilns, waste disposal, biomass burning) in and around Greater Kathmandu urban area (population >1 million) within the Kathmandu Valley (ca. 583 km2). To choose an appropriate mapping strategy, a preliminary in situ magnetic susceptibility (ĸ) survey was conducted: (i) Long traverses encompassing both urban as well as peripheral parts and short traverses across roads of varying categories were measured, including meter-scale vertical soil sections. Along the Machhegaon-Kuleshwar traverse (4 km), median ĸ ranges from 3-60.5 x 10-5 SI with a mode of 8.3 x 10-5 SI (log-normal distribution). Values in fluviolacustrine sediments with varying sand, silt and clay contents are mostly close to 2-20 x 10-5 SI. Within the first 1 km of the traverse located close to active brick-kilns, susceptibility is relatively high. Along road traverses, at a distance of 0.5-2.5 m from the black-topped road edge ĸ is 240-850 x 10-5 SI, which is caused by vehicular emission. High ĸ close to the road decays exponentially to the background value of ca. 10 x 10-5 SI within about 5 m. In soil profiles far from any anthropogenic source, ĸ is fairly low (<16 x 10-5 SI). Only Fe-enriched horizons of geogenic/pedogenic origin reveal values up to 60 x 10-5 SI. In most soils, exposed to anthropogenic activity, the upper 30-50 cm interval of the profile exhibits frequent enhancement in susceptibility. The observed magnitude is one to two orders higher than those expected from geogenic origin. (ii) Within the urban area some relatively small sectors (0.02-0.6 km2) and parks/recreational areas, both seemingly less polluted, were mapped in detail. In these areas ĸ varies within 3 to >100 x 10-5 SI. The lowest values were observed far-off from any roads (50 m, in average) and

  6. Magnetic Susceptibility of Ancient and Modern Potsherds Using a Fast, Cheap and Portable Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, P. W.

    2009-05-01

    It has been estimated that there exist over 100 million ancient potsherds in various collections worldwide, many of which have never been studied and for which the provenance is ambiguous or unknown. Indeed, many collections are extremely badly catalogued or completely mixed-up. We have been using a novel portable probe to measure the magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity of potsherds in the hope that this fast, cheap and portable measurement can provide data that will help to sort similar looking potsherds into sets in a manner which may help to define their provenance. The probe, which resembles a firearm, uses the Hall effect to make a non-destructive measurement on the potsherd. The probe is attached to an Dell Axim X51 PDA, which runs software that allows the measurement to be carried out and logged. Each measurement, which is made by pressing a button on the gun, takes only a few seconds. We have made measurements on three suites of ancient potsherds as well as a suite of modern potsherds that were created by using a garden centre and a hammer! In each case a set of 5 stacked measurements were taken on the inside and outside faces of the potsherd in two perpendicular directions. Potsherds which were either (i) so flat that the inside and outside could not be distinguished, (ii) so curved (radius of curvature less than 5 cm) that the probe tip could not approach the surface sufficiently closely, or (iii) smaller than the probe tip, were excluded from the suite of measurements. Each suite contained over 50 measureable potsherds. All measurements were completed within one day. In this pilot study we found that (1) each suite was represented by a normal distribution of magnetic susceptibility values, (2) the four different suites could be distinguished statistically on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility measurements, but (3) the distinction was not sufficiently powerful to separate all potsherds (i.e., there was a significant overlap of the

  7. Exploiting the Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility to Control Convection in Fundamental Studies of Solidification Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, C. D.; Evans, J. W.; Leslie, Fred; Jones, W. K., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that convection is a dominant mass transport mechanism when materials are solidified on Earth's surface. This convection is caused by gradients in density (and therefore gravitational force) that are brought about by gradients in temperature, composition or both. Diffusion of solute is therefore dwarfed by convection and the study of fundamental parameters, such as dendrite tip shape and growth velocity in the absence of convection is nearly impossible. Significant experimental work has therefore been carried out in orbiting laboratories with the intent of minimizing convection by minimizing gravity. One of the best known experiments of this kind is the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), supported by NASA. Naturally such experiments are costly and one objective of the present investigation is to develop an experimental method whereby convection can be- halted, in solidification and other experiments, on the surface. A second objective is to use the method to minimize convection resulting from the residual accelerations suffered by experiments in microgravity. The method to be used to minimize convection relies on the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of a fluid on temperature or composition (whichever is driving convection). All materials experience a force when placed in a magnetic field gradient. The direction and magnitude of that force depend on the magnetic susceptibility of the material. Consequently the force will vary if the susceptibility varies with temperature or composition. With a magnetic field gradient in the right direction (typically upward) and of the right magnitude, this variation in the magnetic force can be made to exactly cancel the variation in the gravitational force. Expressed another way, normal buoyancy is exactly countered by a "magnetic buoyancy". To demonstrate the principle, a solution of MnC12 in water has been used. First the variation of the susceptibility of this paramagnetic solution with

  8. Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1 chain: Magnetic susceptibility of the Haldane chain described using scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souletie, Jean; Drillon, Marc; Rabu, Pierre; Pati, Swapan K.

    2004-08-01

    The phenomenological expression χT/(Ng2μB2/k)=C1nexp(-W1n/T)+C2nexp(-W2n/T) describes very accurately the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility computed for antiferromagnetic rings of Heisenberg spins S=1 , whose size n is even and ranges from 6 to 20. This expression has been obtained through a strategy justified by scaling considerations together with finite size numerical calculations. For n large, the coefficients of the expression converge towards C1=0.125 , W1=0.451J , C2=0.564 , W2=1.793J ( J is the exchange constant), which are appropriate for describing the susceptibility of the spin-1 Haldane chain. The Curie constant, the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature, the correlation length at T=0 and the Haldane gap are found to be closely related to these coefficients. With this expression, a very good description of the magnetic behavior of Y2BaNiO5 and of Ni(C2H8N2)2NO2ClO4 (NENP), the archetype of the Haldane gap systems, is achieved over the whole temperature range.

  9. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites. PMID:26921813

  10. Noncontact technique for measuring the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of electrostatically levitated materials.

    PubMed

    Rustan, G E; Spyrison, N S; Kreyssig, A; Prozorov, R; Goldman, A I

    2012-10-01

    We describe the development of a new method for measuring the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of high temperature liquids and solids. The technique combines a tunnel diode oscillator with an electrostatic levitation furnace to perform noncontact measurements on spherical samples 2-3 mm in diameter. The tank circuit of the oscillator is inductively coupled to the sample, and measurements of the oscillator frequency as a function of sample temperature can be translated into changes in the sample's electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Particular emphasis is given on the need to improve the positional stability of the levitated samples, as well as the need to stabilize the temperature of the measurement coil. To demonstrate the validity of the technique, measurements have been performed on solid spheres of pure zirconium and low-carbon steel. In the case of zirconium, while absolute values of the resistivity were not determined, the temperature dependence of the resistivity was measured over the range of 640-1770 K and found to be in good agreement with literature data. In the case of low-carbon steel, the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition was clearly observable and, when combined with thermal data, appears to occur simultaneously with the solid-solid structural transition. PMID:23126782

  11. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  12. Influence of dipolar interactions on the magnetic susceptibility spectra of ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Sindt, Julien O; Camp, Philip J; Kantorovich, Sofia S; Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O

    2016-06-01

    The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of a ferrofluid is calculated under the assumption that the constituent particles undergo Brownian relaxation only. Brownian-dynamics simulations are carried out in order to test the predictions of a recent theory [A. O. Ivanov, V. S. Zverev, and S. S. Kantorovich, Soft Matter 12, 3507 (2016)1744-683X10.1039/C5SM02679B] that includes the effects of interparticle dipole-dipole interactions. The theory is based on the so-called modified mean-field approach and possesses the following important characteristics: in the low-concentration, noninteracting regime, it gives the correct single-particle Debye-theory results; it yields the exact leading-order results in the zero-frequency limit; it includes particle polydispersity correctly from the outset; and it is based on firm theoretical foundations allowing, in principle, systematic extensions to treat stronger interactions and/or higher concentrations. The theory and simulations are compared in the case of a model monodisperse ferrofluid, where the effects of interactions are predicted to be more pronounced than in a polydisperse ferrofluid. The susceptibility spectra are analyzed in detail in terms of the low-frequency behavior, the position of the peak in the imaginary (out-of-phase) part, and the characteristic decay time of the magnetization autocorrelation function. It is demonstrated that the theory correctly predicts the trends in all of these properties with increasing concentration and dipolar coupling constant, the product of which is proportional to the Langevin susceptibility χ_{L}. The theory is in quantitative agreement with the simulation results as long as χ_{L}≲1. PMID:27415368

  13. Influence of dipolar interactions on the magnetic susceptibility spectra of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindt, Julien O.; Camp, Philip J.; Kantorovich, Sofia S.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.

    2016-06-01

    The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of a ferrofluid is calculated under the assumption that the constituent particles undergo Brownian relaxation only. Brownian-dynamics simulations are carried out in order to test the predictions of a recent theory [A. O. Ivanov, V. S. Zverev, and S. S. Kantorovich, Soft Matter 12, 3507 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02679B] that includes the effects of interparticle dipole-dipole interactions. The theory is based on the so-called modified mean-field approach and possesses the following important characteristics: in the low-concentration, noninteracting regime, it gives the correct single-particle Debye-theory results; it yields the exact leading-order results in the zero-frequency limit; it includes particle polydispersity correctly from the outset; and it is based on firm theoretical foundations allowing, in principle, systematic extensions to treat stronger interactions and/or higher concentrations. The theory and simulations are compared in the case of a model monodisperse ferrofluid, where the effects of interactions are predicted to be more pronounced than in a polydisperse ferrofluid. The susceptibility spectra are analyzed in detail in terms of the low-frequency behavior, the position of the peak in the imaginary (out-of-phase) part, and the characteristic decay time of the magnetization autocorrelation function. It is demonstrated that the theory correctly predicts the trends in all of these properties with increasing concentration and dipolar coupling constant, the product of which is proportional to the Langevin susceptibility χL. The theory is in quantitative agreement with the simulation results as long as χL≲1 .

  14. Thermomagnetic behavior of magnetic susceptibility – heating rate and sample size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli

    2015-12-01

    Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility k(T) was carried out for a number of natural powder materials from soils, baked clay and anthropogenic dust samples using fast (11oC/min) and slow (6.5oC/min) heating rates available in the furnace of Kappabridge KLY2 (Agico). Based on the additional data for mineralogy, grain size and magnetic properties of the studied samples, behaviour of k(T) cycles and the observed differences in the curves for fast and slow heating rate are interpreted in terms of mineralogical transformations and Curie temperatures (Tc). The effect of different sample size is also explored, using large volume and small volume of powder material. It is found that soil samples show enhanced information on mineralogical transformations and appearance of new strongly magnetic phases when using fast heating rate and large sample size. This approach moves the transformation at higher temperature, but enhances the amplitude of the signal of newly created phase. Large sample size gives prevalence of the local micro- environment, created by evolving gases, released during transformations. The example from archeological brick reveals the effect of different sample sizes on the observed Curie temperatures on heating and cooling curves, when the magnetic carrier is substituted magnetite (Mn0.2Fe2.70O4). Large sample size leads to bigger differences in Tcs on heating and cooling, while small sample size results in similar Tcs for both heating rates.

  15. Suppression/Reversal of Natural Convection by Exploiting the Temperature/Composition Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seybert, C. D.; Evans, J. W.; Leslie, F.; Jones, W. K., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Natural convection, driven by temperature-or concentration gradients or both, is an inherent phenomenon during solidification of materials on Earth. This convection has practical consequences (e.g effecting macrosegregation) but also renders difficult the scientific examination of diffusive/conductive phenomena during solidification. It is possible to halt, or even reverse, natural convection by exploiting the variation (with temperature, for example) of the susceptibility of a material. If the material is placed in a vertical magnetic field gradient, a buoyancy force of magnetic origin arises and, at a critical field gradient, can balance the normal buoyancy forces to halt convection. At higher field gradients the convection can be reversed. The effect has been demonstrated in experiments at Marshall Space Flight Center where flow was measured by PIV in MnCl2 solution in a superconducting magnet. In auxiliary experiments the field in the magnet and the properties of the solution were measured. Computations of the natural convection, its halting and reversal, using the commercial software FLUENT were in good agreement with the measurements.

  16. Uncertainty of spatial distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility in areas of different type of land cover and anthropogenic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Fabijańczyk, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    There is still a high interest in the improvement of soil magnetometry procedures that would increase its accuracy. Soil magnetometry is usually used as a fast screening method that is used to assess the degree of soil pollution. As the magnetometric measurements do not provide the exact information about the concentration of elements in soil, it is very important to determine the uncertainty of the spatial distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility. The goal of this study was to analyze and present geostatistical methods of assessing the uncertainty of spatial distribution of soil magnetic susceptibility in areas of different land cover and anthropogenic pressure. In particular, spatial distributions of magnetic susceptibility measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device were calculated using indicator methods that make it possible to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical levels of soil magnetic susceptibility. Measurements were performed in areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements that included the determination of a concentration of selected elements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development underthe Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  17. Magnetic fabric of selected loess/paleosol sections as studied by AMS, anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.; Hrouda, F.; Jezek, J.

    2015-12-01

    The preferred orientation of magnetic minerals in loess/paleosol sequencies can be studied through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which can be above all employed in the investigation of the dynamics of the eolian deposition including the changes in paleowind directions. In addition, it can be used in the indication of the post-depositional magnetic fabric re-working, or in tracing the magnetic fabric changes during pedogenesis. Recently developed techniques using anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdAMS) and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS) can assess the magnetic sub-fabrics of viscous particles on transition between SP and SSD. The width of the particle size interval investigated by the fdAMS is controlled by the operating frequencies used and their differences. In case of opAMS, the interval is always narrower than that in fdAMS and depends also on the operating frequency used. In three loess/paleosol sequences investigated in the Czech Republic, the degrees of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are significantly lower in paleosols than in loess horizons. This indicates that the preferred orientation of magnetic particles created during pedogenesis is much weaker than that of the particles deposited during loess formation. In addition, the degrees of fdAMS and opAMS are much higher than that of AMS. This may indicate strong anisotropy of viscous magnetic particles, because the fdAMS and opAMS are primarily controlled by them. The degree of AMS of the whole rock is low due to compensation effects of SP and SSD particles, whose grain anisotropies are anti-coaxial. The principal directions of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are mostly roughly co-axial suggesting more or less identical origins of magnetic sub-fabrics according to grain size. Less frequently, the principal directions of fdAMS or opAMS differ from those of AMS probably indicating post-depositional effects on particular grain-size classes. The fdAMS and opAMS show as powerful

  18. Evaluation of Microcracks orientation at Stromboli volcano using a Magnetic Ferrofluid and the Method of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, O.; Benson, P. M.; Vinciguerra, S.; Meredith, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Most crustal rocks are anisotropic. In volcanic areas, anisotropy primarily results due to preferred directions of microcracks as magma cools. This effect is, in turn, enhanced due to local stress fields during deposition. The combined effects of these processes may thus give rise to a complex anisotropic fabric. Such fabrics can play crucial roles when enhancing the formation of slip surfaces which can lead to sector collapses of volcanic edifices, as is the case of Stromboli volcano (Italy) which experienced 4 sector collapses in the past 13ka. However, the rapid analysis of anisotropic microcrack fabrics (in terms of magnitude and principal direction) remains non-trivial. Current methods range from time consuming microcrack analysis of thin sections to the preparation of oriented cores for elastic-wave velocity measurement. To further our understanding of how microcrack fabrics influence the bulk properties of volcanic basalt, we employ a novel method which rapidly evaluates the 3-D microcrack orientation using technique of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS). First, we determine the rock matrix AMS (mAMS) using standard methods (via a Agico KLY-4 Kappabridge). Samples are then saturated with a magnetic ferrofluid, filling the microcrack network with a magnetically susceptible suspension of microscopic (10nm) magnetite particles. The AMS is then re-measured, with the matrix susceptibility values subtracted from these readings to yield the average 3-D pore space shape, size and orientation (pAMS). We describe the use of this method using basalt from Stromboli and comparing to a granite (Takidani) from the Japanese Alps in order to verify the technique and to investigate the relationship between the basalt microcrack geometry and field scale observation. For Takidani granite we find the structural anisotropy formed by the void space, as measured by pAMS, is well described by elastic wave velocity measurement; exhibiting anisotropy values of 19.1% and 7

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of magnetic susceptibility in areas with different type of land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Fabijańczyk, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the type of semivariance and its parameters such as nugget-effect, range of correlation and sill, that quantitatively characterize spatial variability of a studied environmental phenomenon, can be essential for both measurements planning and analysis of results. In particular this is the truth in the case of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution. Field magnetometry is internationally recognized as valuable, convenient and affordable tool for soil pollution screening and assessment. However, this geophysical method usually requires support of detailed statistical and geostatistical analyses. The goal of this study was to evaluate the parameters of spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility depending on the terrain usage. To do so, several types of study area were specially selected: forest, arable field and urban park. Some of the study areas were neighboring to each other, in order to ensure that the anthropogenic pressure was the same at each site. In order to analyze soil magnetic susceptibility in 3-dimensional space, measurements were performed on the soil surface and in soil profile, using the MS2D and MS2C Bartington instruments, respectively. MS2D measurements were performed using quasi-regular grids, and at each sample point 10 single MS2D readings were carried out in the circle with the diameter of about 2 meters. MS2C measurements were performed using soil cores collected in the field, down to the depth of about 30cm. Such approach combines the advantages of both types of measurements and allows to get deeper insight into the distribution of soil pollution. As the first step of the analysis, the semivariances of magnetic susceptibility were calculated and thoroughly modeled for all different forms of land use, on the basis of only the MS2D measurements. Then, the MS2D and MS2C measurements were jointed into one three-dimensional data set, and were used together to calculate and model the semivariances. Finally, the

  20. Errors in the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence of unconsolidated sediments produced by sampling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravenor, C. P.; Symons, D. T. A.; Coyle, D. A.

    1984-09-01

    Samples from glacial varves were obtained by cutting cubes and by pushing plastic cubical containers into the sediment. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility results show that the mean angular difference in the kmax direction can be altered by 32° by pushing in the sample containers in a north to south versus an east to west direction. The values of lineation and Q are raised or lowered dependent upon the direction of push and the original fabric direction. Mean remanence directions can deviate by as much as 43° in a single clay layer dependent upon the direction in which the sample containers are inserted into the sediment. Corresponding changes in mean intensity of the remanence also demonstrate that the remanence has been affected by pushing in sample containers. The overall results underline the need to adopt trustworthy procedures for the sampling of soft sediments deposited by settling and traction.

  1. Investigation of the complex susceptibility of magnetic beads containing maghemite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, P. C.; Cohen-Tannoudji, L.; Bertrand, E.; Giannitsis, A. T.; Mac Oireachtaigh, C.; Bibette, J.

    2006-08-01

    We report on frequency and field-dependent complex susceptibility, χ(ω)=χs'(ω)-iχs″(ω), measurements of a magnetic colloidal system consisting of 200 nm spherical beads, containing maghemite ( γFe 2O 3) nanoparticles. The relaxation properties of both the magnetic colloid and a free suspension of the γFe 2O 3 particles, are investigated over the frequency range 200 Hz-1 MHz. Under a polarizing field H, an absorption peak is detected in the χs″ component at frequencies fmax between 1.1 and 1.7 kHz. We show that this absorption peak can be attributed to the Néel relaxation of the inner maghemite nanoparticles. It is also shown that the general trend for the value of fmax and the amplitude of both χs' and χs″ is to increase with increasing H. Furthermore, the relation between χs'(ω) and χs″(ω) and their dependence on frequency, ω/2 π, is investigated by means of the magnetic analogue of the Cole-Cole plot and a measure of the Cole-Cole distribution parameter αs is determined.

  2. Ac-susceptibility investigations of superspin blocking and freezing in interacting magnetic nanoparticle ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, Cristian E.; Morris, Joshua L.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of dipolar interactions on the superspin blocking and freezing of 9 nm average size Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. Our dynamic susceptibility data reveals a two-regime behavior of the blocking temperature, T B, upon diluting a Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluid. As the nanoparticle volume ratio, Φ, is reduced from an as-prepared reference Φ = 1 to Φ = 1/96, the blocking temperature decreases from 46.1 K to 34.2 K, but higher values reenter upon further diluting the magnetic fluid to Φ = 1/384 (where T B = 42.5 K). We found evidence that cooling below T B within the higher concentration range (Φ > 1/48) leads to the collective freezing of the superspins, whereas individual superspin blocking occurs in the presence of weaker interactions (Φ < 1/96). The unexpected increase of the blocking temperature with the decrease of the inter-particle interactions observed at low nanoparticle concentrations is well described by the Mørup-Tronc model.

  3. AC-susceptibility investigations of superspin blocking and freezing in interacting magnetic nanoparticle ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joshua Logan

    We have investigated the effect of dipolar interactions on the superspin blocking and freezing of 10 nm average size Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. Our dynamic susceptibility data reveals a two-regime behavior of the blocking temperature, TB, upon diluting a Fe 3O4/hexane magnetic nanoparticle fluid. As the nanoparticle volume ratio, Phi, is reduced from an as-prepared reference Phi = 1 to Phi = 1/96, the blocking temperature decreases from 46.1 K to 34.2 K, but higher values reenter upon further diluting the magnetic fluid to Phi = 1/384 (where TB = 42.5 K). We show that cooling below TB within the higher concentration range (Phi > 1/48) leads to the collective freezing of the superspins in a spin-glass-like fashion, whereas individual superspin blocking occurs in the presence of weaker dipolar interactions (Phi < 1/96). The unexpected increase of the blocking temperature with the decrease of the interparticle interactions observed at low nanoparticle concentrations is well described by the Morup-Tronc (MT) model.

  4. Superspin relaxation in Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluids: A dynamic susceptibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botez, Cristian E.; Morris, Joshua L.; Eastman, Michael P.

    2012-07-01

    We have used frequency-resolved (100 Hz < f < 10,000 Hz) ac magnetic susceptibility measurements to directly determine the Néel and Brown relaxation times in 30-nm-size Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluids at temperatures between 200 and 300 K. Our data collected on both powder and magnetic fluid samples allow the separation of the contributions from the Néel and Brown relaxation mechanisms that act concomitantly within the above-mentioned temperature range. At all temperatures we find that the Brown relaxation times (τB) are shorter than their Néel counterparts (τN), evidence that the Brown mechanism yields the major contribution towards the system's overall superspin dynamics. τB exhibits a steep two-order-of-magnitude decrease upon heating, from τB = 1 × 10-3 s at T = 237 K to τB = 1.5 × 10-5 s at T = 270 K, a behavior mostly driven by the heating-induced reduction of the liquid carrier's viscosity.

  5. Ac-susceptibility investigations of superspin blocking and freezing in interacting magnetic nanoparticle ensembles.

    PubMed

    Botez, Cristian E; Morris, Joshua L

    2016-03-18

    We have investigated the effect of dipolar interactions on the superspin blocking and freezing of 9 nm average size Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle ensembles. Our dynamic susceptibility data reveals a two-regime behavior of the blocking temperature, T(B), upon diluting a Fe3O4/hexane magnetic fluid. As the nanoparticle volume ratio, Φ, is reduced from an as-prepared reference Φ = 1 to Φ = 1/96, the blocking temperature decreases from 46.1 K to 34.2 K, but higher values reenter upon further diluting the magnetic fluid to Φ = 1/384 (where T(B) = 42.5 K). We found evidence that cooling below T B within the higher concentration range (Φ > 1/48) leads to the collective freezing of the superspins, whereas individual superspin blocking occurs in the presence of weaker interactions (Φ < 1/96). The unexpected increase of the blocking temperature with the decrease of the inter-particle interactions observed at low nanoparticle concentrations is well described by the Mørup-Tronc model. PMID:26876797

  6. Low temperature magnetic susceptibility behavior of the Neuschwanstein EL6 meteorite and mineral daubreelite (FeCr2S4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, T.; Kletetschka, G.; Lehtinen, M.; Pesonen, L. J.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Neuschwanstein meteorite (enstatite chondrite EL-6) fall occurred on April 6, 2002 close to Neuschwanstein castle in Bavaria, Germany. Total three meteorite bodies were found on the fall site. Two fragments coming from a 1750g body found on July 14, 2002 were obtained to the Division of Geophysics, University of Helsinki. The low temperature magnetic properties were investigated using KLY-3 and KLY-4 kappabridges equipped with low temperature control unit. During the low-temperature susceptibility measurements an unknown kink feature was observed at ~150 K on all measured samples. The closest known magnetic transition is the curie temperature Tc ~170 K of synthetic FeCr2S4 mentioned in Müller et al., 2006. FeCr2S4 is naturally present in enstatite chondrites and iron meteorites in the form of mineral daubreelite and was reported to be present in the Neuschwanstein meteorite in Zipfel and Dreibus, 2003. The extensive study of magnetic susceptibility of Neuschwanstein meteorite and daubreelite extract form Coahuila iron meteorite (hexahedrite, II A) was conducted in order to investigate the low temperature magnetic susceptibility of those materials and its field and frequency dependence. The results indicate Tc of natural daubreelite extract from Coahuila meteorite to be ~160 K what is slightly lower than the Tc of synthetic FeCr2S4 reported in Müller et al., 2006. The magnetic susceptibility of natural daubreelite from Coahuila meteorite and of ~150 K feature in Neuschwanstein meteorite show no field dependence of magnetic susceptibility. Due to the similarity in the low temperature magnetic susceptibility behaviour of Neuschwanstein meteorite and daubreelite extract from Coahuila meteorite we link the Neuschwanstein ~150 K feature to the Tc of daubreelite present in this meteorite. The 10 K difference of the Tc of daubreelite in Neuschwanstein and Coahuila meteorites can be attributed to the presence of impurities or structural deformations in the daubreelite

  7. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on ancient and modern potsherds using a fast, cheap and portable probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, P. W. J.

    2009-04-01

    It has been estimated that there exist over 100 million ancient potsherds in various collections worldwide, many of which have never been studied and for which the provenance is ambiguous or unknown. Indeed, many collections are extremely badly catalogued or completely mixed-up. We have been using a novel portable probe to measure the magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity of potsherds in the hope that this fast, cheap and portable measurement can provide data that will help to sort similar looking potsherds into sets in a manner which may help to define their provenance. The probe, which resembles a firearm, uses the Hall effect to make a non-destructive measurement on the potsherd. The probe is attached to an Dell Axim X51 PDA, which runs software that allows the measurement to be carried out and logged. Each measurement, which is made by pressing a button on the gun, takes only a few seconds. We have made measurements on three suites of ancient potsherds as well as a suite of modern potsherds that were created by using a garden centre and a hammer! In each case a set of 5 stacked measurements were taken on the inside and outside faces of the potsherd in two perpendicular directions. Potsherds which were either (i) so flat that the inside and outside could not be distinguished, (ii) so curved (radius of curvature less than 5 cm) that the probe tip could not approach the surface sufficiently closely, or (iii) smaller than the probe tip, were excluded from the suite of measurements. Each suite contained over 50 measureable potsherds. All measurements were completed within one day. In this pilot study we found that (1) each suite was represented by a normal distribution of magnestic susceptibility values, (2) the four different suites could be distinguished statistically on the basis of their magnetic susceptibilty measurements, but (3) the distinction was not sufficiently powerful to separate all potsherds (i.e., there was a significant overlap of the

  8. Magnetic susceptibility of the normal-superconducting transition in high-purity single-crystal α-uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, J. L.; Hamilton, A. R.; Clark, R. G.; Mielke, C. H.; Smith, J. L.; Cooley, J. C.; Rickel, D. G.; Starrett, R. P.; Reilly, D. J.; Lumpkin, N. E.; Hanrahan, R. J.; Hults, W. L.

    2002-08-01

    We report complex ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of a superconducting transition in very high-quality single-crystal α-uranium using microfabricated coplanar magnetometers. We identify an onset of superconductivity at T~0.7 K in both the real and imaginary components of the susceptibility which is confirmed by resistivity data. A superconducting volume fraction argument, based on a comparison with a calibration YBa2Cu3O7-δ sample, indicates that superconductivity in these samples may be filamentary. Our data also demonstrate the sensitivity of the coplanar micro-magnetometers, which are ideally suited to measurements in pulsed magnetic fields exceeding 100 T.

  9. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility of brain iron is associated with childhood spatial IQ.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kimberly L H; Li, Wei; Wei, Hongjiang; Wu, Bing; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Chunlei; Worley, Gordon; Egger, Helen Link

    2016-05-15

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for healthy brain function and development. Because of the importance of iron in the brain, iron deficiency results in widespread and lasting effects on behavior and cognition. We measured iron in the basal ganglia of young children using a novel MRI method, quantitative susceptibility mapping, and examined the association of brain iron with age and cognitive performance. Participants were a community sample of 39 young children recruited from pediatric primary care who were participating in a 5-year longitudinal study of child brain development and anxiety disorders. The children were ages 7 to 11years old (mean age: 9.5years old) at the time of the quantitative susceptibility mapping scan. The differential abilities scale was administered when the children were 6years old to provide a measure of general intelligence and verbal (receptive and expressive), non-verbal, and spatial performance. Magnetic susceptibility values, which are linearly related to iron concentration in iron-rich areas, were extracted from regions of interest within iron-rich deep gray matter nuclei from the basal ganglia, including the caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, globus pallidus, and thalamus. Controlling for scan age, there was a significant positive association between iron in the basal ganglia and spatial IQ, with this effect being driven by iron in the right caudate We also replicated previous findings of a significant positive association between iron in the bilateral basal ganglia and age. Our finding of a positive association between spatial IQ and mean iron in the basal ganglia, and in the caudate specifically, suggests that iron content in specific regions of the iron-rich deep nuclei of the basal ganglia influences spatial intelligence. This provides a potential neurobiological mechanism linking deficits in spatial abilities reported in children who were severely iron deficient as infants to decreased iron within the caudate. PMID:26899787

  11. Dynamic imaging with lanthanide chelates in normal brain: contrast due to magnetic susceptibility effects.

    PubMed

    Villringer, A; Rosen, B R; Belliveau, J W; Ackerman, J L; Lauffer, R B; Buxton, R B; Chao, Y S; Wedeen, V J; Brady, T J

    1988-02-01

    Using a one-dimensional rapid imaging technique, we have found that injection of lanthanide chelates such as Gd(DTPA)2- leads to a significant decrease (50%) in rat brain signal intensity at 1.45 T using T2-weighted pulse sequences; however, no effect of comparable size is observed with T1-weighted pulse sequences. The transient effect and its kinetics were followed with a temporal resolution of between 1 and 8 s. Experiments with different lanthanide chelates show that the observed decrease in signal intensity correlates with the magnetic moment of each agent but not with their longitudinal relaxivity. Three-dimensional chemical-shift resolved experiments demonstrate significant line broadening in brain during infusion with Dy(DTPA)2-. Our results show that the cause of this effect is the difference in susceptibility between the capillaries, containing the contrast agent, and the surrounding tissue. As a result of these susceptibility differences, field gradients are produced in the tissue and diffusion of water through these gradients leads to a loss of spin phase coherence and thus a decrease in signal intensity. We propose this as a new type of contrast agent mechanism in NMR. The effect and its kinetics are likely to be related to important physiological parameters such as cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow, and do not depend on a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier as do conventional contrast agent techniques. PMID:3367774

  12. Preparation, Magnetic Susceptibility, and Specific Heat on Interlanthanide Perovskites {ital AB}O

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kentaro; Tezuka, Keitaro; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2001-02-15

    The interlanthanide perovskites LaHoO{sub 3}, LaErO{sub 3}, LaTmO{sub 3}, LaYbO{sub 3}, LaLuO{sub 3}, CeTmO{sub 3}, CeYbO{sub 3}, CeLuO{sub 3}, PrYbO{sub 3}, and PrLuO{sub 3} were prepared by the coprecipitation method. Their magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out in the temperature range between 1.8 and 300 K, and it was found that LaYbO{sub 3}, CeYbO{sub 3}, and PrYbO{sub 3} had antiferromagnetic ordering with a weak ferromagnetism at 2.7 K. LaErO{sub 3} also showed antiferromagnetic ordering at 2.4 K. Specific heat measurements for LaErO{sub 3} and LaYbO{sub 3} showed the {lambda}-type anomaly at 2.4 and 2.7 K, respectively, which is in good agreement with the susceptibility measurements.

  13. Magnetic susceptibility of semiconductors by an all-electron first-principles approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, K. |; Mauri, F.; Louie, S.G. |

    1997-07-01

    The magnetic susceptibility ({chi}) of the semiconductors (diamond, Si, GaAs, and GaP) and of the inert-gas solids (Ne, Ar, and Kr) are evaluated within density-functional theory in the local-density approximation, using a mixed-basis all-electron approach. In Si, GaAs, GaP, Ar, and Kr, the contribution of core electrons to {chi} is comparable to that of valence electrons. However, our results show that the contribution associated with the core states is independent of the chemical environment and can be computed from the isolated atoms. Moreover, our results indicate that the use of a {open_quotes}scissor operator{close_quotes} does not improve the agreement of the theoretical {chi} with experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Fahr disease: use of susceptibility-weighted imaging for diagnostic dilemma with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genc, Berhan; Kulu, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Fahr disease (FD) is a well-defined rare neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by idiopathic bilateral symmetric extensive striopallidodentate calcifications. The patients may present with diverse manifestations, most commonly movement disorder, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be critical for accurate diagnosis because it is difficult to reliably identify calcifications by routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a relatively new 3D gradient-echo (GE) MR sequence with special phase and magnitude processing. SWI phase images can recognize calcifications definitively with higher sensitivity compared to other MRI sequences. In this article, we present two cases of FD with different manifestations and neuroimaging in different age groups and genders, which were diagnosed by SWI and confirmed with CT, and we discuss the contribution of SWI in the diagnosis of FD. In conclusion, we suggest integrating SWI with MRI protocol to identify calcifications in suspicion of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26435928

  15. Magnetic susceptibility as a proxy for investigating microbially mediated iron reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mewafy, F.M.; Atekwana, E.A.; Werkema, D.D.; Slater, L.D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Revil, A.; Skold, M.; Delin, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated magnetic susceptibility (MS) variations in hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. Our objective was to determine if MS can be used as an intrinsic bioremediation indicator due to the activity of iron-reducing bacteria. A contaminated and an uncontaminated core were retrieved from a site contaminated with crude oil near Bemidji, Minnesota and subsampled for MS measurements. The contaminated core revealed enriched MS zones within the hydrocarbon smear zone, which is related to iron-reduction coupled to oxidation of hydrocarbon compounds and the vadose zone, which is coincident with a zone of methane depletion suggesting aerobic or anaerobic oxidation of methane is coupled to iron-reduction. The latter has significant implications for methane cycling. We conclude that MS can serve as a proxy for intrinsic bioremediation due to the activity of iron-reducing bacteria iron-reducing bacteria and for the application of geophysics to iron cycling studies. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Ferromagnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and transformation of domain structure in CoFeB film with growth induced anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuilov, S. A.; Grishin, A. M.; Munakata, M.

    2011-04-01

    Field dependence of magnetic susceptibility in nanocrystalline CoFeB film was studied in a wide frequency range from 500 kHz to 15 GHz. Anomalies of the susceptibility were detected exciting CoFeB film with a solenoidal coil, microwave strip line, in the tunable microwave cavity as well as employing magneto-optical domains imaging. Critical spin fluctuations in the form of "soft" modes were observed in a whole range of orientations of magnetic field perpendicular to the "easy" magnetic axis. A sequence of domain structure transformations was extensively examined in a "hard" direction in in-plane magnetic field reduced below the field of uniaxial anisotropy Hp = 535 Oe. At first, uniformly magnetized state in CoFeB film transforms to stripe domains separated by low angle Néel domain walls (DWs) parallel to the "hard"-axis. Then, at critical field Hcr = 232 Oe, Néel DWs gradually convert to the"easy"-axis oriented Bloch DWs loaded with vertical Bloch lines (VBLs). After field reversal at H = -Hcr, backward conversion of VBL-loaded Bloch DWs to Néel DWs results in instantaneous energy release and sharp anomaly of magnetic susceptibility. Appearance of critical spin fluctuations accomplishes domains transformation to the uniformly magnetized state at H = -535 Oe.

  17. The magnetic susceptibility effect of gadolinium-based contrast agents on PRFS-based MR thermometry during thermal interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry exploits the local magnetic field changes induced by the temperature dependence of the electron screening constant of water protons. Any other local magnetic field changes will therefore translate into incorrect temperature readings and need to be considered accordingly. Here, we investigated the susceptibility changes induced by the inflow and presence of a paramagnetic MR contrast agent and their implications on PRFS thermometry. Methods Phantom measurements were performed to demonstrate the effect of sudden gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) inflow on the phase shift measured using a PRFS thermometry sequence on a clinical 3 T magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) system. By proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the temperature dependence of the Gd-DTPA susceptibility was measured, as well as the effect of liposomal encapsulation and release on the bulk magnetic susceptibility of Gd-DTPA. In vivo studies were carried out to measure the temperature error induced in a rat hind leg muscle upon intravenous Gd-DTPA injection. Results The phantom study showed a significant phase shift inside the phantom of 0.6 ± 0.2 radians (mean ± standard deviation) upon Gd-DTPA injection (1.0 mM, clinically relevant amount). A Gd-DTPA-induced magnetic susceptibility shift of ΔχGd-DTPA = 0.109 ppm/mM was measured in a cylinder parallel to the main magnetic field at 37°C. The temperature dependence of the susceptibility shift showed dΔχGd-DTPA/dT = -0.00038 ± 0.00008 ppm/mM/°C. No additional susceptibility effect was measured upon Gd release from paramagnetic liposomes. In vivo, intravenous Gd-DTPA injection resulted in a perceived temperature change of 2.0°C ± 0.1°C at the center of the hind leg muscle. Conclusions The use of a paramagnetic MR contrast agent prior to MR-HIFU treatment may influence the accuracy of the PRFS MR thermometry

  18. Magnetic Susceptibility Analyses of Nanophase Iron Particle Diameters and Volumes Produced through Laser Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, M. M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2015-12-01

    Micrometeorite impacts greatly modify surfaces exposed to the space environment. This interaction vaporizes the surficial material and allows for the re-precipitation of minerals and iron. Characterizing the recondensed iron or nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) improves our interpretations in remote sensing of planetary surfaces. We irradiated olivine samples with energies simulating micrometeorite impact energies from around the inner Solar System. They revealed npFe0 as single domain (SD) and superparamagnetic (SPM) iron grains varying in size. Spectrally they changed the spectral reflectance of silicate minerals and contribute to "space weathering": (1) darkens the overall reflectance, (2) steepens (or reddens) the spectral slope, and (3) decreases the contrast in the silicate 1 µm band. Using frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility (MS), we revealed patterns of npFe0 sizes. Fresh samples contained some nanophase magnetic sources due to decreasing magnetic susceptibility, when changing frequency from 4 kHz to 16 kHz. Using the fresh olivine as a standard, the lunar analog displayed increased MS at the lower 4 kHz indicating that more iron was transformed into magnetic sources. At 16 kHz, the MS decreased due to SPM particles that were being formed with sizes <10 nm. With the Mercury analog, at higher 16 kHz frequencies the MS increased rather than decreased. We can infer that the excess energy from our laser converted the amount of smaller <10 nm SPM particles by growth into an increasing volume of >10 nm particles. With the asteroid analog, we found a lower MS at 16 kHz, but nothing less MS than the Lunar analog. The 4 kHz MS was similar to the fresh olivine. At the lowest irradiation energy for the asteroid sample we have evidence that we are producing npFe0 particles. Our data compares well with traditional methods of forming npFe0, such as thermal processing of olivine, suggesting that with laser irradiation there is a linear increase of nanoparticles

  19. Automated Generalisation Within NMAs in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoter, Jantien; van Altena, Vincent; Post, Marc; Burghardt, Dirk; Duchêne, Cecile

    2016-06-01

    Producing maps and geo-data at different scales is traditionally one of the main tasks of National (and regional) Mapping Agencies (NMAs). The derivation of low-scale maps (i.e. with less detail) from large-scale maps (with more detail), i.e. generalisation, used to be a manual task of cartographers. With the need for more up-to-date data as well as the development of automated generalisation solutions in both research and industry, NMAs are implementing automated generalisation production lines. To exchange experiences and identify remaining issues, a workshop was organised end 2015 by the Commission on Generalisation and Multirepresentation of the International Cartographic Association and the Commission on Modelling and Processing of the European Spatial Data Research. This paper reports about the workshop outcomes. It shows that, most NMAs have implemented a certain form of automation in their workflows, varying from generalisation of certain features while still maintaining a manual workflow; semiautomated editing and generalisation to a fully automated procedure.

  20. Magnetism in Complex Oxides Probed by Magnetocaloric Effect and Transverse Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Nicholas S.

    Magnetic oxides exhibit rich complexity in their fundamental physical properties determined by the intricate interplay between structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. The common themes that are often present in these systems are the phase coexistence, strong magnetostructural coupling, and possible spin frustration induced by lattice geometry. While a complete understanding of the ground state magnetic properties and cooperative phenomena in this class of compounds is key to manipulating their functionality for applications, it remains among the most challenging problems facing condensed-matter physics today. To address these outstanding issues, it is essential to employ experimental methods that allow for detailed investigations of the temperature and magnetic field response of the different phases. In this PhD dissertation, I will demonstrate the relatively unconventional experimental methods of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and radio-frequency transverse susceptibility (TS) as powerful probes of multiple magnetic transitions, glassy phenomena, and ground state magnetic properties in a large class of complex magnetic oxides, including La0.7Ca0.3- xSrxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.25), Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3, Pr1-xSrxCoO 3 (x = 0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.5), La5/8- xPrxCa3/8MnO3 (x = 0.275 and 0.375), and Ca3Co2O 6. First, the influences of strain and grain boundaries, via chemical substitution and reduced dimensionality, were studied via MCE in La0.7Ca 0.3-xSrxMnO 3. Polycrystalline, single crystalline, and thin-film La0.7Ca 0.3-xSrxMnO 3 samples show a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at a wide variety of temperatures as well as an observed change in the fundamental nature of the transition (i.e. first-order magnetic transition to second order magnetic transition) that is dependent on the chemical concentration and dimensionality. Systematic TS and MCE experiments on Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO 3 and Pr0.5Sr0.5CoO3 have uncovered the different nature of low

  1. Diffeomorphic susceptibility artifact correction of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Ruthotto, L; Kugel, H; Olesch, J; Fischer, B; Modersitzki, J; Burger, M; Wolters, C H

    2012-09-21

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a key investigation technique in modern neuroscience. In clinical settings, diffusion-weighted imaging and its extension to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are usually performed applying the technique of echo-planar imaging (EPI). EPI is the commonly available ultrafast acquisition technique for single-shot acquisition with spatial encoding in a Cartesian system. A drawback of these sequences is their high sensitivity against small perturbations of the magnetic field, caused, e.g., by differences in magnetic susceptibility of soft tissue, bone and air. The resulting magnetic field inhomogeneities thus cause geometrical distortions and intensity modulations in diffusion-weighted images. This complicates the fusion with anatomical T1- or T2-weighted MR images obtained with conventional spin- or gradient-echo images and negligible distortion. In order to limit the degradation of diffusion-weighted MR data, we present here a variational approach based on a reference scan pair with reversed polarity of the phase- and frequency-encoding gradients and hence reversed distortion. The key novelty is a tailored nonlinear regularization functional to obtain smooth and diffeomorphic transformations. We incorporate the physical distortion model into a variational image registration framework and derive an accurate and fast correction algorithm. We evaluate the applicability of our approach to distorted DTI brain scans of six healthy volunteers. For all datasets, the automatic correction algorithm considerably reduced the image degradation. We show that, after correction, fusion with T1- or T2-weighted images can be obtained by a simple rigid registration. Furthermore, we demonstrate the improvement due to the novel regularization scheme. Most importantly, we show that it provides meaningful, i.e. diffeomorphic, geometric transformations, independent of the actual choice of the regularization parameters. PMID:22941943

  2. Detection of Magnetically Susceptible Dyke Swarms in a Fresh Coastal Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater constitutes the main source of freshwater in Shalatein, on the western coast of the Red Sea, in Egypt. The fresh aquifer of Shalatein is intensively dissected by shallow and deep faults associated with the occurrence of dykes and/or dyke swarms. In this context, synthesis of electrical resistivity, ground magnetics, and borehole data was implemented to investigate the freshwater aquifer condition, locate the intrusive dykes and/or dyke swarms, and demarcate the potential freshwater zones. Nine Schlumberger VES's with maximum current electrode half-spacing (AB/2) of 682 m were conducted. The subsurface was successfully delineated by general four layers. The fresh aquifer of the Quaternary and Pre-Quaternary alluvium sediments was effectively demarcated with true resistivities ranged from 30 to 105 Ωm and thickness ranged between 20 and 60 m. A ground magnetic survey comprised 35 magnetic profiles, each 7 km in length. Magnetic data interpretation of the vertical derivatives (first and second order), downward continuation (100 m), apparent susceptibility (depth of 100 m), and wavelength filters (Butterworth high-pass of wavelengths <100 m and Band-Pass of wavelengths 30-100 m) successfully distinguished the near surface structure with five major clusters of dyke swarms, whereas filters of the upward continuation (300 m) and Butterworth low-pass (wavelengths >300 m) clearly reflected the deep-seated structure. The computed depth by the 3D Euler deconvolution for geological contacts and faults (SI = 0) ranged from 14 to 545 m, whereas for dyke and sill (SI = 1), it ranged from 10 to 1,095 m. The western part of the study area is recommended as a potential freshwater zone as it is characterized by depths >100 m to the top of the dykes, higher thickness of the fresh aquifer (45-60 m), depths to the top of the fresh aquifer ranging from 25 to 40 m, and higher resistivities reflecting better freshwater quality (70-105 Ωm).

  3. Use of an advanced composite material in construction of a high pressure cell for magnetic ac susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Misek, M.; Jacobsen, M. K.; Kamenev, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    The applicability of fibre-reinforced polymers for fabrication of high pressure cells was assessed using finite element analysis and experimental testing. Performance and failure modes for the key components of the cell working in tension and in compression were evaluated and the ways for optimising the designs were established. These models were used in construction of a miniature fully non-metallic diamond anvil cell for magnetic ac susceptibility measurements in a magnetic property measurement system. The cell is approximately 14 mm long, 8.5 mm in diameter and was demonstrated to reach a pressure of 5.6 GPa. AC susceptibility data collected on Dy2O3 demonstrate the performance of the cell in magnetic property measurements and confirm that there is no screening of the sample by the environment which typically accompanies the use of conventional metallic high pressure cells in oscillating magnetic fields.

  4. The initial magnetic susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids: A comparison between experiment and theory over a wide range of concentration.

    PubMed

    Solovyova, Anna Y; Goldina, Olga A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Lebedev, Aleksandr V; Elfimova, Ekaterina A

    2016-08-28

    Temperature dependencies of the static initial magnetic susceptibility for ferrofluids at various concentrations are studied using experiment and statistical-mechanical theories. Magnetic susceptibility measurements are carried out for twelve samples of magnetite-based fluids stabilized with oleic acid over a wide range of temperatures (210 K ≲T ≲ 390 K); all samples have the same granulometric composition but different volume ferroparticle concentrations (0.2 ≲ φ ≲ 0.5). Experimental results are analyzed using three theories: the second-order modified mean-field theory (MMF2) [A. O. Ivanov and O. B. Kuznetsova, Phys. Rev. E 64, 41405 (2001)]; its correction for polydisperse ferrofluids arising from Mayer-type cluster expansion and taking into account the first terms of the polydisperse second virial coefficient [A. O. Ivanov and E. A. Elfimova, J. Magn. Magn. Mater 374, 327 (2015)]; and a new theory based on MMF2 combined with the first terms of the polydisperse second and third virial contributions to susceptibility. It turns out that the applicability of each theory depends on the experimental sample density. If twelve ferrofluid samples are split into three groups of strong, moderate, and low concentrated fluids, the temperature dependences of the initial magnetic susceptibility in each group are very precisely described by one of the three theories mentioned above. The determination of a universal formula predicting a ferrofluid susceptibility over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures remains as a challenge. PMID:27586948

  5. Petrophysical Characterization of Stony Meteorites Using Low Field Magnetic Susceptibility: Initial Results From Anisotropy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Ernst, R. E.; Herd, R. K.; Claire, S.

    2004-05-01

    Low field magnetic susceptibility represents a fast, systematic and non-destructive technique of meteorite classification [1-4]. We previously reported measurements of bulk susceptibility, and its frequency dependence, along with a `proxy' measure of anisotropy, on 204 specimens from 108 different meteorites in the National Meteorite Collection of Canada [5,6]. Measurements were performed on a Sapphire Instruments Model 2B. Bulk susceptibility values followed expected trends, governed by metal content, with values increasing from LL, to L, to H, to E chondrites. Frequency dependence (19000 vs 825 Hz) was greatest in H and C chondrites. Aubrites (AUB) and Howardites (HOW) had the lowest. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured using a `proxy' approach: the mean value determined from a series of random sample orientations was compared with repeated measurements in one orientation. AUB, E chondrites and Martian SNCs had the largest inferred anisotropies, while LL and C chondrites had the lowest. Here we report initial results from a follow-up study. Quantitative measurements of the AMS were made on 67 stony meteorite specimens. AMS measurements [3,5,6,7,8,9] can provide information on the physical fabric of the meteorite, and may relate to its deformational history. Samples measured show significant degrees of anisotropy ranging from 1-50 % for an individual specimen (in parentheses is the number of specimens used in the class mean): AUB (5), Acapulcoites (1) and E chondrites (10) display the largest degrees of anisotropy, 40±11 (1 standard deviation), 34, and 24±10, respectively. These classes are followed by Diogenite (1) 20, H (13) 14±7 and L (10) 13±6 chondrites, Brachinite (1) 11, Ureilite (2) 8, Eucrite (4) 7±4, C chondrites (14) 6±3, and Rumurutiite (1) 4. These results match a similar trend based on the `proxy' method [5,6]: AUB and E chondrites were found to have the highest inferred anisotropies followed by tightly grouped H and L

  6. Intermolecular shielding from molecular magnetic susceptibility. A new view of intermolecular ring current effects.

    PubMed

    Facelli, Julio C

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents calculations of the NICS (nuclear independent chemical shieldings) in a rectangular grid surrounding the molecules of benzene, naphthalene and coronene. Using the relationship between calculated NICS and the induced magnetic field, the calculated NICS are used to predict intermolecular effects due to molecular magnetic susceptibility or ring current effects. As expected from approximate ring current models, these intermolecular shielding effects are concentrated along the direction perpendicular to the molecular plane and they approach asymptotically to a dipolar functional dependence, i.e. (1-3 cos(2)theta)/r(3)). The deviations from the dipolar functional form require that the calculations of these intermolecular effects be done using a suitable interpolation scheme of the NICS calculated on the grid. The analysis of the NICS tensor components shows that these intermolecular shielding effects should be primarily expected on shielding components of the neighboring molecules nuclei, which are perpendicular to the molecular plane of the aromatic compound generating the induced field. The analysis of the calculated NICS along the series benzene, naphthalene and coronene shows that these intermolecular effects increase monotonically with the number of aromatic rings. PMID:16477673

  7. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Igneous Rocks: Lessons From Obsidians and Pyroclastic Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon-Tapia, E.

    2013-05-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of igneous rocks differs from that of other lithologies in several aspects that are related to their characteristics of emplacement history. Nevertheless, within the group of igneous rocks there are also differences on emplacement mechanisms that can lead to specific and distinctive AMS signatures. In this work, a review of the most important emplacement regimes is made, paying special attention to the extreme conditions represented by obsidians and pyroclastic deposits. These two extreme emplacement regimes are controlled mainly by the viscosity of the fluid phase, but the differences in AMS signatures also includes other differences in the nature of the ferromagnetic grains that are present in the rocks during emplacement. For example, the results of this work indicate that the AMS can be associated to a population of ferromagnetic minerals of a submicroscopic size, despite of which it can be very well defined and yield large degrees of anisotropy. It is suggested that the AMS associated to such population of small grains might indeed be the origin of the AMS of other igneous rocks that have an optically observable fraction of mineral grains, although until present it had been overlooked in most instances. As it had been suggested before, use of tests designed to identify the contribution of a superparamagnetic fraction (SP) in the magnetic properties of a rock can help us to identify the presence of such a SP-related AMS in other cases.

  8. On the broadband measurement of the permittivity and magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, P. C.; Charles, S. W.; Relihan, T.

    1997-03-01

    Transmission line techniques have been used to determine both, the complex magnetic susceptibility χ(ω) = χ'(ω) - iχ″(ω) , and complex permittivity ɛ( ω) = ɛ'( ω) - i ɛ″( ω), over the frequency range 30 MHz-6 GHz, of a number of test specimens including four ferrofluid samples of ferrite particles in a hydrocarbon carrier. All four fluids display a resonance effect indicated by the transition of the χ'(ω) components from a positive to a negative value. The corresponding ɛ'( ω) components are found to be approximately constant up to a frequency of 1 GHz and it is shown that a good estimate of the measured values can be determined by the use of the magnetic analogue of the Gunther and Heinrich formula for the complex dielectric constant of a composite dielectric. Automated measurements are obtained by means of a Hewlett-Packard Network Analyser which operates over the frequency range concerned and appropriate equations for the calculation of the complex components of χ( ω) and ɛ( ω) are presented.

  9. Susceptibility of single molecule magnet Mn12-acetate single crystals as a function of temperature and transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Pradeep; Wen, Bo; Bo, Lin; Sarachik, Myriam; Yeshurun, Yosi; Kent, Andrew; Lampropoulos, Christos; Christou, George

    2010-03-01

    The longitudinal susceptibility of Mn12-acetate single crystals has been measured in a magnetic field applied transverse to the Ising axis using micro-Hall effect magnetometry in a He^3 cryostat with a 3D vector superconducting magnet. We have investigated the blocking temperature as a function of longitudinal-field-sweep-rate and as a function of the magnitude of the transverse field. We find that the transverse field accelerates the relaxation to equilibrium and lowers the blocking temperature, as expected based on the Mn12-ac spin-Hamiltonian and a classical model of single domain uniaxial nanomagnets. The susceptibility is found to obey a Curie-Weiss law, indicating a low temperature transition to a ferromagnetic phase due to dipolar interactions. We discuss these experiments as well as experiments in which an array of Hall-bars is used to spatially resolve the longitudinal susceptibility above the blocking temperature.

  10. Magnetic Susceptibility, Geochemistry, and Origin of Variscan West Carpathian Granites: Evaluation of Literary Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorova, D.; Kohut, M.; Hrouda, F.

    Magnetic susceptibility of granites of the world over displays a bimodal distribution, with one mode corresponding to the values of 10-5 to 10-4 and the other one to those of 10-3 to 10-2 [SI]. The former mode granites (with ilmenite) often correspond to an S (sedimental) type, while the latter (with magnetite) to an I (igneous) type. Iso- tope geochemistry discriminated two principal groups of Variscan granites in the West Carpathians: (1) the older (350 U 330 Ma) peraluminous two-mica granites and gra- nodiorites with monazite and ilmenite that resemble common S-type and/or Ilmenite Series granites, (2) younger (310 U 300 Ma) metaluminous to subaluminous biotite tonalites to granodiorites with allanite and magnetite that can be compared to I-type and/or Magnetite Series granites. It is supposed that main Meso-Variscan collisional period is characterised by collisional processes resulting in the formation of crustal- scale nappe structures and generation of collision-related felsic S-type granite mag- matism in the West Carpathians. Neo-Variscan stage is connected with collapse of the collisionally thickened crust. The final collisional shortening was followed by the gravitational instability of thickened lithosphere, which resulted in the process of thin- ning the lithosphere (lithospheric delamination, detachment of lithospheric root from the light continental lithosphere, or slab breakoff). As a result of the breakoff, the as- thenosphere upwells and thermal perturbation leads to melting of the metasomatised lithospheric mantle and subsequent formation of I-type granites at the base of crust. This period was characterised by a shift from compressional towards extensional tec- tonics. Magnetic susceptibility of the West Carpathian granites is in general low, in the order of 10-4, hence corresponding to the values typical of S types. In the minority of specimens it is in the order of 10-5 and in exceptional specimens it is higher, in the order of 10-3. This is in

  11. The magnetic susceptibility measurements of turbidity current sediments from Fuxian Lake of Yunnan Province and their correlations with earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie-Sen; Song, Xue-Liang; Sun, Ying-Lun; Zhang, Zi-Xiong; Song, Yi-De; Liu, Gang

    1999-01-01

    This paper has advanced a new method for determining historical earthquakes. Its object of study is lake sediments. The research method is environmental magnetism represented by susceptibility. The purpose is extracting historical earthquake informations from lake sediments to explore the correlation between the turbidity current sediments initiated by the earthquakes and historical earthquakes round Fuxian Lake.

  12. A comparative quantitative analysis of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in echo planar and PROPELLER diffusion-weighted images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Yang, Han-Joon; Lee, Gui-Won; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether periodically-rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can remove magnetic susceptibility artifacts and compared apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for PROPELLER DWI and the common echo planar (EP) DWI. Twenty patients that underwent brain MRI with a metal dental implant were selected. A 3.0T MR scanner was then used to obtain EP DWI, PROPELLER DWI, and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for a b-value of 0 and 1,000 s/mm2. The frequencies of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in four parts of the brain (bilateral temporal lobes, pons, and orbit) were selected. In the ADC maps, we measured the ADC values of both sides of the temporal lobe and the pons. According to the study results, the frequency of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in PROPELLER DW images was lower than it was in EP DW images. In ADC maps, the ADC values of the bilateral temporal lobes and the pons were all higher in PROPELLER ADC maps than in EP ADC maps. Our findings show that when a high-field MRI machine is used, magnetic susceptibility artifacts can distort anatomical structures and produce high-intensity signals. Furthermore, our findings suggest that in many cases, PROPELLER DWI would be helpful in terms of achieving a correct diagnosis.

  13. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of Eolian sediments in Altun Shan: implications for Altyn Tagh Fault tectonics since Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.

    2015-12-01

    Ancient windblown (eolian) dust, such as in Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), are treasured for understanding the evolution of aridity and influence by Plateau(mountain)uplift on climate change. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is an effective tool in tracking atmospheric direction under weak to moderate speed currents to reconstruct the paleomonsoon model was studied in recent years. Whilst it is sometimes directly or indirectly associated with the effects of tectonic process and developed as a results of burial diagenesis process for these eolian sediments. Here we firstly investigated AMS in a Red clay sequence (eolian deposits during Miocene to Pliocene) accumulated in the margin of Altun Mountains, which has the similar mineral content as that in CLP. The average north-west orientations of minimum magnetic susceptibility (Kmin) axes is tilting towards the active Althy Tagh Fault direction and the average direction of intermediate magnetic susceptibility (Kint) axes is close to be vertical and compacted by the gravity as a second force. The average maximum magnetic susceptibility (Kmax) is perpendicular to either tectonic or gravity directions. Considering there is no obvious metamorphic effects and plastic deformation of particles, we attribute these two stresses determined the transition of petrofabrics from the deposition to tectonics, by the intensified Pleistocene activity of Altyn Tagh Fault.

  14. Asteroid impact vs. Deccan eruptions: The origin of low magnetic susceptibility beds below the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Font, Eric; Florindo, Fabio; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    The respective roles of an asteroid impact and Deccan Traps eruptions in biotic changes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary are still debated. In many shallow marine sediments from around the world, the K-Pg boundary is marked by a distinct clay layer that is often underlain by a several decimeter-thick low susceptibility zone. A previous study of the Gubbio section, Italy (Lowrie et al., 1990), attributed low magnetization intensity in this interval to post-depositional dissolution of ferrimagnetic minerals. Dissolution was thought to be a consequence of downward infiltration of reducing waters that resulted from rapid accumulation of organic matter produced by mass extinctions after the K-Pg event. We compare the magnetic properties of sediments from the Gubbio section with those of the Bidart section in southern France. The two sections are similar in their carbonate lithology and the presence of a boundary clay and low susceptibility zone. When compared to background Cretaceous sediments, the low susceptibility zone in both sections is marked by an absence of biogenic magnetite, a decrease in total ferrimagnetic mineral content, and a preferential loss of magnetite with respect to hematite - features that are consistent with reductive dissolution. However, unlike the Gubbio section, where the low susceptibility zone starts immediately below the boundary clay, the low susceptibility zone and the clay layer at Bidart are separated by a ∼4-cm carbonate interval that contains abundant biogenic magnetite. Such separation casts doubt on a causal link between the impact and sediment bleaching. More likely, the low susceptibility layer marks a different environmental event that preceded the impact. An episode of increased atmospheric and oceanic acidity associated with Deccan Traps volcanism that occurred well before the K-Pg impact is argued here to account for the distinct magnetic properties of the low susceptibility intervals.

  15. Hydrogenation of Zr0.9Ti0.1CrxFe2-x Intermetallic Compounds: Free Electron Model for Magnetic Susceptibility and Thermoelectric Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyomsoan, S.; Termsuksawad, P.; Goldfarb, R. B.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; Kaydanov, V.; Gavra, Z.

    2008-02-01

    The magnetic susceptibility and thermoelectric power of Zr0.9Ti0.1CrxFe2-x intermetallic compounds were investigated as functions of hydrogen content. The alloys are paramagnetic, with magnetic susceptibility and Seebeck coefficient increasing with the amount of stored hydrogen. The susceptibility is proportional to the Seebeck coefficient and to the d-electron concentration, consistent with a free-electron model. The susceptibility of alloys with lower iron concentration suggests exchange-enhanced Pauli paramagnetism. However, Curie-Weiss paramagnetism likely coexists in alloys with higher iron content. Magnetic and electronic measurements may be used to assess the ability of an alloy to store hydrogen.

  16. Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of magnetite primary particle size in aqueous dispersions of nanoclusters for high magnetic susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki Youl; Xue, Zheng; Fei, Yunping; Lee, Jae Ho; Cheng, Victoria; Bagaria, Hitesh G; Huh, Chun; Bryant, Steven L; Kong, Seong Deok; Ngo, Vincent W; Rahmani, Amir-Reza; Ahmadian, Mohsen; Ellison, Christopher J; Johnston, Keith P

    2016-01-15

    Aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanoparticles with a high initial magnetic susceptibility (χi) are of interest as contrast agents in electromagnetic tomography. Nanoclusters composed of iron oxide primary particles were formed by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides at alkaline conditions and high temperature of 95°C. Two-step addition of citrate was used to produce large primary particles and then stabilize the nanoclusters. The size of the primary particles was tuned from 5nm to 15nm by varying the citrate/iron precursor ratio during the normal phase hydrolysis reaction, while the second iteration of citrate stabilized the nanoclusters with hydrodynamic diameters of 30-75nm. The crystallinity of the iron oxide nanoparticles was promoted by annealing at 95°C and systematically studied with Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The dependence of χi was examined over a range of low volume fractions (0.005<θ<0.02) to understand the magnetic behavior of dispersions. The χi of the dispersions increased markedly with the size and concentration of the constituent primary particles, reaching an unusually high value of 0.85 at 1.6% v/v for 15nm primary particles, which is 2-3 times higher than that for typical commercial ferrofluids. The high χi values are favored by the high crystallinity and the large magnetic diameter of 9.3nm, indicating a relatively thin surface nonmagnetic layer where the spin orientations are disordered. PMID:26479199

  18. Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Speranza, Fabio; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline (here renamed as Patagonian Arc), and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous ~ N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from ~ E-W in the Patagonian Andes to ~ N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc (i.e., no relative vertical-axis rotation of the limbs occurs during its formation), then other mechanisms different from oroclinal bending should be invoked to explain the documented radial strain field. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin

  19. Using magnetic susceptibility to discriminate between soil moisture regimes in selected loess and loess-like soils in northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaee, Morteza; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Khormali, Farhad; Lu, Sheng Gao; Karimzadeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-04-01

    This study used discriminant analysis to determine the efficacy of magnetic measures for discriminating between four soil moisture regimes in northern Iran. The study area was located on loess deposits and loess-like soils containing similar parent material. Four soil moisture regimes including aridic, xeric, udic, and aquic were selected. A total of 25 soil profiles were drug from each regime and composite soil samples were collected within the moisture control section. A set of magnetic measures including magnetic susceptibility at low (χlf) and high (χhf) frequencies, frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM), and isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM100 mT, IRM 20 mT) were measured in the laboratory. Dithionite citrate bicarbonate (Fed) and acid oxalate (Feo) contents of all soil samples were also determined. The lowest and highest χlf and χhf were observed in aquic and udic moisture regimes, respectively. A similar trend was obtained for Fed and Fed-Feo. The significant positive correlation between Fed and SIRM (r = 0.60; P < 0.01) suggested the formation of stable single domains (SSD) due to pedogenic processes. The results of discriminant analysis indicated that a combination of magnetic measures could successfully discriminate between the selected moisture regimes in the study area (average accuracy = 80%). It can thus be concluded that magnetic measures could be applied as a powerful indicator for differentiation of soil moisture regimes in the study area.

  20. High-Pressure Magnetic Susceptibility Experiments on the Heavy Lanthanides Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D D; Malba, V; Weir, S T; Baker, P A; Vohra, Y K

    2004-11-19

    The high pressure magnetic properties of the heavy lanthanide elements Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm have been investigated using ac magnetic susceptibility with a diamond anvil cell. It is found that the magnetic transition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing pressure. In addition, the amplitudes of the magnetic transition signals decrease with increasing pressure, with the signals all eventually disappearing at pressures by 20 GPa. In contrast to previous studies, we see no evidence of any pressure-induced transitions from one magnetically ordered phase to another in Gd, Tb, Dy, or Ho. The transition temperatures, T{sub crit} are all found to drop at a rate proportional to their de Gennes factor, and the values of T{sub crit}/T{sub crit}(P = 0) vs P/P{sub crit}, where P{sub crit} is the pressure where the magnetic transition disappears, all sit on a single phase diagram.

  1. 1D magnetic interactions in Cu(II) oxovanadium phosphates (VPO), magnetic susceptibility, DFT, and single-crystal EPR.

    PubMed

    Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Spodine, Evgenia; Saldias, Marianela; Vega, Andrés; Paredes-García, Verónica; Calvo, Rafael; de Santana, Ricardo Costa

    2015-04-20

    We report the crystal face indexing and molecular spatial orientation, magnetic properties, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of two previously reported oxovanadium phosphates functionalized with Cu(II) complexes, namely, [Cu(bipy)(VO2)(PO4)]n (1) and [{Cu(phen)}2(VO2(H2O)2)(H2PO4)2 (PO4)]n (2), where bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, obtained by a new synthetic route allowing the growth of single crystals appropriate for the EPR measurements. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the triclinic group P1̅ and in the orthorhombic Pccn group, respectively, containing dinuclear copper units connected by two -O-P-O- bridges in 1 and by a single -O-P-O- bridge in 2, further connected through -O-P-O-V-O- bridges. We emphasize in our work the structural aspects related to the chemical paths that determine the magnetic properties. Magnetic susceptibility data indicate bulk antiferromagnetism for both compounds, allowing to calculate J = -43.0 cm(-1) (dCu-Cu = 5.07 Å; J defined as Hex(i,j) = -J Si·Sj), considering dinuclear units for 1, and J = -1.44 cm(-1) (dCu-Cu = 3.47 Å) using the molecular field approximation for 2. The single-crystal EPR study allows evaluation of the g matrices, which provide a better understanding of the electronic structure. The absence of structure of the EPR spectra arising from the dinuclear character of the compounds allows estimation of weak additional exchange couplings |J'| > 0.3 cm(-1) for 1 (dCu-Cu = 5.54 Å) and a smaller value of |J'| ≥ 0.15 cm(-1) for 2 (dCu-Cu = 6.59 Å). DFT calculations allow evaluating two different exchange couplings for each compound, specifically, J = -36.60 cm(-1) (dCu-Cu = 5.07 Å) and J' = 0.20 cm(-1) (dCu-Cu =5.54 Å) for 1 and J = -1.10 cm(-1) (dCu-Cu =3.47 Å) and J' = 0.01 cm(-1) (dCu-Cu = 6.59 Å) for 2, this last value being in the range of the uncertainties of the calculations. Thus, these values are in good agreement

  2. Emplacement of the Puy de Dôme Investigated Using Structural, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, D.; Petronis, M. S.; Van Wyk De Vries, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study uses detailed geological mapping and various geophysical methods (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), rock magnetic, and paleomagnetic data) to understand the emplacement mechanism of the Puy de Dôme located in south-central Auvergne, France. Geologic mapping shows that the Puy de Dôme has a smooth NE-SSW facing side with the opposite side being a steeper ridged area separated by a major ridge orientated NNE-SSW on the south side and a fault on the north side. The western side is bounded by two ridges that are strongly foliated and have an approximate 270° bearing in the basal sections and rotates towards 290° towards the summit. The remaining ridges are massive and unfoliated, yet often humpback in shape. Eleven paleomangetic/AMS/rock magnetic sampling sites were collected via standard acquisition methods during summer of 2013 while an additional eight sites were drilled during summer of 2014. For the preliminary sites, AMS data shows strong oblate fabrics for all eleven sites, Curie point data suggests that all magnetic carrier for all sites are dominated by titanomagnetite. Preliminary paleomagnetic data reveal two possible remanence directions. We argue either a hiatus in the eruption highlighted by slight rotation or, alternatively, the variation in site mean data may reflect secular variation or a tectonic disturbance. We propose that these These data indicate an original dome being deformed and pushed upwards and outwards as magma filled in major faults. This deformation resulted in two "hinges" on either side forming strong foliations along the hinge line while the rest of the ridged area remained unfoliated to the west and smooth to the east. We argue that the Puy de Dôme was erupted from a NE-SW oriented fissure that pierced the surface. The dome was buttressed on the NE and E side by the Peitit-Puy de Dôme Bulge, but free to extend SE to form the elongated ridge. The dome reached a height sufficient to flow laterally to the west

  3. Measuring the magnetic-field-dependent chemical potential of a low-density three-dimensional electron gas in n -GaAs and extracting its magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Choudhury, Aditya N.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report the magnetic-field-dependent shift of the electron chemical potential in bulk, n -type GaAs at room temperature. A transient voltage of ˜100 μ V was measured across a Au-Al2O3 -GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor in a pulsed magnetic field of ˜6 T . Several spurious voltages larger than the signal that had plagued earlier researchers performing similar experiments were carefully eliminated. The itinerant magnetic susceptibility of GaAs is extracted from the experimentally measured data for four different doping densities, including one as low as 5 ×1015cm-3 . Though the susceptibility in GaAs is dominated by Landau-Peierls diamagnetism, the experimental technique demonstrated can be a powerful tool for extracting the total free carrier magnetization of any electron system. The method is also virtually independent of the carrier concentration and is expected to work better in the nondegenerate limit. Such experiments had been successfully performed in two-dimensional electron gases at cryogenic temperatures. However, an unambiguous report on having observed this effect in any three-dimensional electron gas has been lacking. We highlight the 50 year old literature of various trials and discuss the key details of our experiment that were essential for its success. The technique can be used to unambiguously yield only the itinerant part of the magnetic susceptibility of complex materials such as magnetic semiconductors and hexaborides, and thus shed light on the origin of ferromagnetism in such systems.

  4. Fabric analysis of quartzites with negative magnetic susceptibility - Does AMS provide information of SPO or CPO of quartz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renjith, A. R.; Mamtani, Manish A.; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-01-01

    We ask the question whether petrofabric data from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis of deformed quartzites gives information about shape preferred orientation (SPO) or crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz. Since quartz is diamagnetic and has a negative magnetic susceptibility, 11 samples of nearly pure quartzites with a negative magnetic susceptibility were chosen for this study. After performing AMS analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was done in thin sections prepared parallel to the K1K3 plane of the AMS ellipsoid. Results show that in all the samples quartz SPO is sub-parallel to the orientation of the magnetic foliation. However, in most samples no clear correspondance is observed between quartz CPO and K1 (magnetic lineation) direction. This is contrary to the parallelism observed between K1 direction and orientation of quartz c-axis in the case of undeformed single quartz crystal. Pole figures of quartz indicate that quartz c-axis tends to be parallel to K1 direction only in the case where intracrystalline deformation of quartz is accommodated by prism slip. It is therefore established that AMS investigation of quartz from deformed rocks gives information of SPO. Thus, it is concluded that petrofabric information of quartzite obtained from AMS is a manifestation of its shape anisotropy and not crystallographic preferred orientation.

  5. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of Hannuoba basalt, northern China: Constraints on the vent position of the lava sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Shi, Caidong; Liu, Qingsong

    2003-01-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was determined for Hannuoba basaltic samples from 17 flows (21.4 +/- 0.7Ma) distributed in three sections (Jianshaba, Yuershan and Manjing) around Zhangbei, northern China. The results show normal `flow' fabrics with horizontal foliation planes. The typical ratios of the principal AMS axes are 1.01 for the magnetic lineation (L) and 1.02 for the foliation (F), respectively. Magnetic hysteresis loop, isothermal remanence, thermomagnetic properties, and optical observations indicate that pseudo-single domain (PSD) low-titanium magnetite particles dominate the low-field susceptibility of samples. Thus the AMS of the magma at this area is believed to be originated from the lineation of the low-Titanium magnetite particles driven by the lava flow. Since the Kmax trends coincide well with the observed flow directions, the intersection of the mean Kmax trends from these three sites perfectly defines the previously known vent position of the lava sequences.

  6. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  7. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of uniaxial superparamagnetic particles: Consequences for its interpretation in magnetite and maghemite bearing rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanci, Luca; Zanella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A simple model that provides a quantitative description of the magnetic susceptibility of superparamagnetic to stable single-domain uniaxial magnetic particles can be built in the framework of the theory of stochastic resonance. This model expands that of Mullins and Tile (1973) for superparamagnetic grains by considering the dependence of superparamagnetic susceptibility on the particle orientation and thus describes the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of ensembles of superparamagnetic as well as single-domain particles. The theory predicts that on the contrary of stable single domain, the maximum anisotropy of superparamagnetic particles is parallel to their easy axis and shows that the AMS of ensembles of uniaxial particle is strongly dependent on the distribution of particle grain size, coercivity, measurement temperature, and frequency. It also explains why the inverse AMS pattern expected for stable single-domain particles is rarely observed in natural samples. We use examples of well-characterized obsidian specimens to show that, as predicted by the theory, in the presence of significant superparamagnetic contributions, the maximum susceptibility axis of AMS is directed along the preferential direction of particles easy axis.

  8. Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and low temperature heat capacity of α-Na2NpO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anna L.; Hen, Amir; Magnani, Nicola; Sanchez, Jean-Pierre; Colineau, Eric; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2016-03-01

    The physical and chemical properties at low temperatures of hexavalent disodium neptunate α-Na2NpO4 are investigated for the first time in this work using Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements. The Np(VI) valence state is confirmed by the isomer shift value of the Mössbauer spectra, and the local structural environment around the neptunium cation is related to the fitted quadrupole coupling constant and asymmetry parameters. Moreover, magnetic hyperfine splitting is reported below 12.5 K, which could indicate magnetic ordering at this temperature. This interpretation is further substantiated by the existence of a λ-peak at 12.5 K in the heat capacity curve, which is shifted to lower temperatures with the application of a magnetic field, suggesting antiferromagnetic ordering. However, the absence of any anomaly in the magnetization and magnetic susceptibility data shows that the observed transition is more intricate. In addition, the heat capacity measurements suggest the existence of a Schottky-type anomaly above 15 K associated with a low-lying electronic doublet found about 60 cm-1 above the ground state doublet. The possibility of a quadrupolar transition associated with a ground state pseudoquartet is thereafter discussed. The present results finally bring new insights into the complex magnetic and electronic peculiarities of α-Na2NpO4.

  9. 2-D and 3-D joint inversion of loop-loop electromagnetic and electrical data for resistivity and magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Myeong-Jong; Sasaki, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-domain loop-loop electromagnetic (EM) methods are sensitive to the magnetic susceptibility of the Earth as well as its resistivity. Thus, inversion techniques have been used to simultaneously reconstruct both resistivity and susceptibility models from EM data. However, to take full advantage of inversion methods, calibration errors must be assessed and removed because ignoring them can result in misleading models. We present a multidimensional inversion method that jointly inverts EM and direct current (DC) resistivity data to derive offset errors as well as resistivity and susceptibility models, assuming that calibration errors can be represented by in-phase and quadrature offsets at each frequency. Addition of independent data such as DC data is effective for more accurately estimating the offsets, resulting in more reliable subsurface models. Synthetic examples involving small-loop EM data show that simultaneous inversion for resistivity and susceptibility is not stable, because of strong correlations between in-phase offset parameters and background susceptibility, but that the offsets are well determined when the data misfit is reduced rapidly in the early iteration step. Improvements achieved by joint inversion are mainly on the resistivity model. For airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, the inversion process is stable, because AEM data are acquired using more loop-loop geometries and a wider range of frequencies. As a result, both the resistivity and susceptibility models are significantly improved by joint inversion.

  10. Generalised multi-axle vehicle handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Daniel Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The familiar two-axle bicycle model and associated basic concepts of vehicle handling are reviewed and used to introduce minor changes in convention from the literature. The two-axle model is extended to a three-axle vehicle to illustrate the effectiveness of the notation combined with a simplifying mathematical identity found in the two-axle vehicle literature. A generalised model is then developed that produces dynamic equations of motion by inspection for a vehicle with an arbitrary number of steerable and non-steerable axles. Furthermore, the vehicle dynamic concepts of understeer and wheelbase are generalised and can be directly computed for various arbitrary vehicle configurations.