Photonic processes in Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dávila, José Manuel; Schubert, Christian; Trejo, María Anabel
2014-12-01
We study the processes of photon-photon scattering and photon splitting in a magnetic field in Born-Infeld theory. In both cases we combine the terms from the tree-level Born-Infeld Lagrangian with the usual one-loop QED contributions, where those are approximated by the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian, including also the interference terms. For photon-photon scattering we obtain the total cross-section in the low-energy approximation. For photon splitting we compute the total absorption coefficient in the hexagon (weak field) approximation, and also show that, due to the non-birefringence property of Born-Infeld theory, the selection rules found by Adler for the QED case continue to hold in this more general setting. We discuss the bounds on the free parameter of Born-Infeld theory that may be obtained from this type of processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayaram, B.; Liu, Y.; Beveridge, D. L.
1998-07-01
We present herein an appraisal on the performance of the generalized Born (GB) model in estimating the solvation energies of small molecules and pKa shifts of dicarboxylic acids. The quality of the solvation energy results obtained with the GB model was exceedingly good as already reported in the literature but the pKa shift estimates fell short of expectations. Analysis of the problem on a simple prototype system revealed that with the GB model, the estimates of the two components, viz. the shielding and the self-energy terms, to be somewhat in error. These errors compensate each other in the calculation of solvation energies but affect the intramolecular interaction energies and hence pK shifts differently. We examine here the feasibility of introducing modifications to the GB model for a simultaneous evaluation of both solvation and intramolecular interaction energies.
Dualities in M-theory and Born-Infeld Theory
Brace, Daniel, M
2001-08-01
We discuss two examples of duality. The first arises in the context of toroidal compactification of the discrete light cone quantization of M-theory. In the presence of nontrivial moduli coming from the M-theory three form, it has been conjectured that the system is described by supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory on a noncommutative torus. We are able to provide evidence for this conjecture, by showing that the dualities of this M-theory compactification, which correspond to T-duality in Type IIA string theory, are also dualities of the noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills description. One can also consider this as evidence for the accuracy of the Matrix Theory description of M-theory in this background. The second type of duality is the self-duality of theories with U(1) gauge fields. After discussing the general theory of duality invariance for theories with complex gauge fields, we are able to find a generalization of the well known U(1) Born-Infeld theory that contains any number of gauge fields and which is invariant under the maximal duality group. We then find a supersymmetric extension of our results, and also show that our results can be extended to find Born-Infeld type actions in any even dimensional spacetime.
Bardhan, J. P.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2008-10-14
The importance of molecular electrostatic interactions in aqueous solution has motivated extensive research into physical models and numerical methods for their estimation. The computational costs associated with simulations that include many explicit water molecules have driven the development of implicit-solvent models, with generalized-Born (GB) models among the most popular of these. In this paper, we analyze a boundary-integral equation interpretation for the Coulomb-field approximation (CFA), which plays a central role in most GB models. This interpretation offers new insights into the nature of the CFA, which traditionally has been assessed using only a single point charge in the solute. The boundary-integral interpretation of the CFA allows the use of multiple point charges, or even continuous charge distributions, leading naturally to methods that eliminate the interpolation inaccuracies associated with the Still equation. This approach, which we call boundary-integral-based electrostatic estimation by the CFA (BIBEE/CFA), is most accurate when the molecular charge distribution generates a smooth normal displacement field at the solute-solvent boundary, and CFA-based GB methods perform similarly. Conversely, both methods are least accurate for charge distributions that give rise to rapidly varying or highly localized normal displacement fields. Supporting this analysis are comparisons of the reaction-potential matrices calculated using GB methods and boundary-element-method (BEM) simulations. An approximation similar to BIBEE/CFA exhibits complementary behavior, with superior accuracy for charge distributions that generate rapidly varying normal fields and poorer accuracy for distributions that produce smooth fields. This approximation, BIBEE by preconditioning (BIBEE/P), essentially generates initial guesses for preconditioned Krylov-subspace iterative BEMs. Thus, iterative refinement of the BIBEE/P results recovers the BEM solution; excellent agreement
Flux compactifications in Einstein-Born-Infeld theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramadhan, Handhika S.; Cahyo, Brian A.; Iqbal, Muhammad
2015-07-01
We investigate the flux compactification mechanism in simple toy models of Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. These are the direct generalizations of the Einstein-Maxwell flux compactifications that recently gained fame as a toy model for tunneling in the landscape. Our investigation reveals that the Born-Infeld form does not significantly modify the qualitative result of the Einstein-Maxwell theory. For the case of Einstein-Higgs theory, however, we found that the effect of Born-Infeld nonlinearity is to render all q >1 extradimensional compactification unstable against semiclassical tunneling to nothing.
Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory
Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio
2009-11-15
Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation to the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry. In addition, in the Appendix the repulsive or attractive character of the wormhole geometries is briefly discussed.
Topological vortices in generalized Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, R.; Hora, E. da; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Santos, C. dos
2015-08-01
A consistent BPS formalism to study the existence of topological axially symmetric vortices in generalized versions of the Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics is implemented. Such a generalization modifies the field dynamics via the introduction of three nonnegative functions depending only in the Higgs field, namely, , , and . A set of first-order differential equations is attained when these functions satisfy a constraint related to the Ampère law. Such a constraint allows one to minimize the system's energy in such way that it becomes proportional to the magnetic flux. Our results provides an enhancement of the role of topological vortex solutions in Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics. Finally, we analyze a set of models entailing the recovery of a generalized version of Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics in a certain limit of the theory.
Treecode-based generalized Born method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhenli; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Haizhao
2011-02-01
We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge-charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.
Generalized extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics
Niklasson, Anders M. N. Cawkwell, Marc J.
2014-10-28
Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory is generalized in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization prior to the force evaluations. The equations of motion are derived directly from the extended Lagrangian under the condition of an adiabatic separation between the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom. We show how this separation is automatically fulfilled and system independent. The generalized equations of motion require only one diagonalization per time step and are applicable to a broader range of materials with improved accuracy and stability compared to previous formulations.
An n log n Generalized Born Approximation.
Anandakrishnan, Ramu; Daga, Mayank; Onufriev, Alexey V
2011-03-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the generalized Born (GB) model of implicit solvation offer a number of important advantages over the traditional explicit solvent based simulations. Yet, in MD simulations, the GB model has not been able to reach its full potential partly due to its computational cost, which scales as ∼n(2), where n is the number of solute atoms. We present here an ∼n log n approximation for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent model. The approximation is based on the hierarchical charge partitioning (HCP) method (Anandakrishnan and Onufriev J. Comput. Chem. 2010 , 31 , 691 - 706 ) previously developed and tested for electrostatic computations in gas-phase and distant dependent dielectric models. The HCP uses the natural organization of biomolecular structures to partition the structures into multiple hierarchical levels of components. The charge distribution for each of these components is approximated by a much smaller number of charges. The approximate charges are then used for computing electrostatic interactions with distant components, while the full set of atomic charges are used for nearby components. To apply the HCP concept to the GB model, we define the equivalent of the effective Born radius for components. The component effective Born radius is then used in GB computations for points that are distant from the component. This HCP approximation for GB (HCP-GB) is implemented in the open source MD software, NAB in AmberTools, and tested on a set of representative biomolecular structures ranging in size from 632 atoms to ∼3 million atoms. For this set of test structures, the HCP-GB method is 1.1-390 times faster than the GB computation without additional approximations (the reference GB computation), depending on the size of the structure. Similar to the spherical cutoff method with GB (cutoff-GB), which also scales as ∼n log n, the HCP-GB is relatively simple. However, for the structures considered here, we show
Generalized higher gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritter, Patricia; Sämann, Christian; Schmidt, Lennart
2016-04-01
We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid T M ⊕ T ∗ M over some manifold M and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-09-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Generalized teleparallel theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.
2016-07-01
We construct a theory in which the gravitational interaction is described only by torsion, but that generalizes the teleparallel theory still keeping the invariance of local Lorentz transformations in one particular case. We show that our theory falls, in a certain limit of a real parameter, under f(bar{R}) gravity or, in another limit of the same real parameter, under modified f( T) gravity; on interpolating between these two theories it still can fall under several other theories. We explicitly show the equivalence with f(bar{R}) gravity for the cases of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker flat metric for diagonal tetrads, and a metric with spherical symmetry for diagonal and non-diagonal tetrads. We study four applications, one in the reconstruction of the de Sitter universe cosmological model, for obtaining a static spherically symmetric solution of de Sitter type for a perfect fluid, for evolution of the state parameter ω _{DE}, and for the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon.
Born-Infeld thin-shell wormholes supported by generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azam, M.
2016-03-01
This paper investigates thin-shell wormholes in Born-Infeld theory supported by generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG). We study their stability via radial perturbations for distinct values of charge and Born-Infeld parameter. The comparison of wormhole solutions corresponding to generalized Chaplygin gas, modified Chaplygin gas with GCCG quation of state is established. It is found that similar type of wormhole solutions exists for small value of charge and Born-Infeld parameter for all type of equation of state, while some extra stable as well as unstable solution are found corresponding to large value of charge and Born-Infeld parameter. Thus, it is concluded that GCCG and large value of charge may responsible for such extra solutions.
Static potential in a topologically massive Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio
2004-03-01
For a (2+1)-dimensional topologically massive Born-Infeld theory, we compute the interaction potential within the structure of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism. The result is equivalent to that of QED3 with a Thirring interaction term among fermions, in the short distance regime.
Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. I. General considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas
2016-06-01
This article, as the first of three, aims at establishing the (time-dependent) Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the sense of space adiabatic perturbation theory, for quantum systems constructed by techniques of the loop quantum gravity framework, especially the canonical formulation of the latter. The analysis presented here fits into a rather general framework and offers a solution to the problem of applying the usual Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for molecular (or structurally analogous) systems to more general quantum systems (e.g., spin-orbit models) by means of space adiabatic perturbation theory. The proposed solution is applied to a simple, finite dimensional model of interacting spin systems, which serves as a non-trivial, minimal model of the aforesaid problem. Furthermore, it is explained how the content of this article and its companion affect the possible extraction of quantum field theory on curved spacetime from loop quantum gravity (including matter fields).
A differential equation for the Generalized Born radii.
Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro
2013-06-28
The Generalized Born (GB) model offers a convenient way of representing electrostatics in complex macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids. The computation of atomic GB radii is currently performed by different non-local approaches involving volume or surface integrals. Here we obtain a non-linear second-order partial differential equation for the Generalized Born radius, which may be solved using local iterative algorithms. The equation is derived under the assumption that the usual GB approximation to the reaction field obeys Laplace's equation. The equation admits as particular solutions the correct GB radii for the sphere and the plane. The tests performed on a set of 55 different proteins show an overall agreement with other reference GB models and "perfect" Poisson-Boltzmann based values. PMID:23676843
c-Map for Born-Infeld theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrianopoli, L.; D'Auria, R.; Ferrara, S.; Trigiante, M.
2016-07-01
The c-map of four dimensional non-linear theories of electromagnetism is considered both in the rigid case and in its coupling to gravity. In this way theories with antisymmetric tensors and scalars are obtained, and the three non-linear representations of N = 2 supersymmetry partially broken to N = 1 related. The manifest Sp (2 n) and U (n) covariance of these theories in their multifield extensions is also exhibited. This construction extends to H-invariant non-linear theories of Born-Infeld type with non-dynamical scalars spanning a symmetric coset manifold G/H and the vector field strengths and their duals in a symplectic representation of G as is the case for extended supergravity.
Chocholousová, Jana; Feig, Michael
2006-04-30
Different integrator time steps in NVT and NVE simulations of protein and nucleic acid systems are tested with the GBMV (Generalized Born using Molecular Volume) and GBSW (Generalized Born with simple SWitching) methods. The simulation stability and energy conservation is investigated in relation to the agreement with the Poisson theory. It is found that very close agreement between generalized Born methods and the Poisson theory based on the commonly used sharp molecular surface definition results in energy drift and simulation artifacts in molecular dynamics simulation protocols with standard 2-fs time steps. New parameters are proposed for the GBMV method, which maintains very good agreement with the Poisson theory while providing energy conservation and stable simulations at time steps of 1 to 1.5 fs. PMID:16518883
Introducing Charge Hydration Asymmetry into the Generalized Born Model.
Mukhopadhyay, Abhishek; Aguilar, Boris H; Tolokh, Igor S; Onufriev, Alexey V
2014-04-01
The effect of charge hydration asymmetry (CHA)-non-invariance of solvation free energy upon solute charge inversion-is missing from the standard linear response continuum electrostatics. The proposed charge hydration asymmetric-generalized Born (CHA-GB) approximation introduces this effect into the popular generalized Born (GB) model. The CHA is added to the GB equation via an analytical correction that quantifies the specific propensity of CHA of a given water model; the latter is determined by the charge distribution within the water model. Significant variations in CHA seen in explicit water (TIP3P, TIP4P-Ew, and TIP5P-E) free energy calculations on charge-inverted "molecular bracelets" are closely reproduced by CHA-GB, with the accuracy similar to models such as SEA and 3D-RISM that go beyond the linear response. Compared against reference explicit (TIP3P) electrostatic solvation free energies, CHA-GB shows about a 40% improvement in accuracy over the canonical GB, tested on a diverse set of 248 rigid small neutral molecules (root mean square error, rmse = 0.88 kcal/mol for CHA-GB vs 1.24 kcal/mol for GB) and 48 conformations of amino acid analogs (rmse = 0.81 kcal/mol vs 1.26 kcal/mol). CHA-GB employs a novel definition of the dielectric boundary that does not subsume the CHA effects into the intrinsic atomic radii. The strategy leads to finding a new set of intrinsic atomic radii optimized for CHA-GB; these radii show physically meaningful variation with the atom type, in contrast to the radii set optimized for GB. Compared to several popular radii sets used with the original GB model, the new radii set shows better transferability between different classes of molecules. PMID:24803871
Control Theory and Statistical Generalizations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powers, William T.
1990-01-01
Contrasts modeling methods in control theory to the methods of statistical generalizations in empirical studies of human or animal behavior. Presents a computer simulation that predicts behavior based on variables (effort and rewards) determined by the invariable (desired reward). Argues that control theory methods better reflect relationships to…
Rotating black branes in Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.
2008-08-01
In this paper, we present a new class of charged rotating black brane solutions in the higher dimensional Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theory and investigate their properties. Solving the field equations directly is a nontrivial task because they include the second derivatives of the scalar field. We remove this difficulty through a conformal transformation. Also, we find that the suitable Lagrangian of Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity is not the same as presented by Dehghani et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 0702, 020 (2007)]. We show that the given solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane, or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. These black brane solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti-)de Sitter. Then we calculate finite Euclidean action, the conserved, and thermodynamic quantities through the use of counterterm method. Finally, we argue that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.
Eddington-Born-Infeld theory and the dark sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skordis, Constantinos
2009-10-01
I consider a unified description of the phenomena of dark matter and dark energy which is given by a simple modification of gravity. Gravity is modified with new degrees of freedom which come from a second connection, different from the usual Levi-Civita connection. A candidate action, the Eddington-Born-Infeld action (EBI) for these degrees of freedom was proposed by Bañados and is shown to be dual to a theory with two metrics called bi-gravity. This modification directly gives solutions to the field equations which mimic dark matter for spherically symmetric systems while for cosmological spacetimes it gives, in addition, the effect of dark energy. I shall further show that the effect of dark matter is present even at the linearized cosmological level and that this makes it in harmony with all known large scale cosmological observations.
Poorun, Ravi; Hartley, Caroline; Goksan, Sezgi; Worley, Alan; Boyd, Stewart; Cornelissen, Laura; Berde, Charles; Rogers, Richard; Ali, Tariq; Slater, Rebeccah
2016-01-01
Objectives Premature birth is associated with a wide range of complications in later life, including structural and functional neurological abnormalities and altered pain sensitivity. We investigated whether during anaesthesia premature-born children display different patterns of background EEG activity and exhibit increased responses to nociceptive stimuli. Methods We examined background EEG and time-locked responses to clinical cannulation in 45 children (mean age (±SD) at study: 4.9 (± 3.0) years) under sevoflurane monoanaesthesia maintained at a steady-state end-tidal concentration of 2.5%. 15 were born prematurely (mean gestational age at birth: 29.2 ± 3.9 weeks) and 30 were age-matched term-born children. Results Background levels of alpha and beta power were significantly lower in the premature-born children compared to term-born controls (p = 0.048). Clinical cannulation evoked a significant increase in delta activity (p = 0.032), which was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.44). Conclusions The results indicate that whilst under anaesthesia premature-born children display different patterns of background brain activity compared to term-born children. Significance As electrophysiological techniques are increasingly used by anaesthetists to gauge anaesthetic depth, differences in background levels of electrophysiological brain activity between premature and term-born children may be relevant when considering titration of anaesthetic dose. PMID:26589678
Generalized Brans-Dicke theories
De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp
2010-07-01
In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.
Testing general relativity in space-borne and astronomical laboratories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Will, Clifford M.
1989-01-01
The current status of space-based experiments and astronomical observations designed to test the theory of general relativity is surveyed. Consideration is given to tests of post-Newtonian gravity, searches for feeble short-range forces and gravitomagnetism, improved measurements of parameterized post-Newtonian parameter values, explorations of post-Newtonian physics, tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, observational tests of post-Newtonian orbital effects, and efforts to detect quadrupole and dipole radiation damping. Recent numerical results are presented in tables.
Anisotropic power-law solutions for a supersymmetry Dirac-Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Do, Tuan Q.; Kao, W. F.
2016-04-01
A new set of Bianchi type I power-law expanding solutions is obtained for a supersymmetric Dirac-Born-Infeld (SDBI) theory coupled to a gauge field. Stability analysis is also performed to show that this set of power-law expanding solutions is stable. In particular, this set of power-law solutions provides an explicit example to the role played by the supersymmetry correction term. We also show by a general approach that any stable anisotropic solution of SDBI model will turn unstable when a phantom field is introduced. We also show that the result of the scalar perturbation indicates that the SDBI model is a realistic model.
Corrections to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation by means of perturbation theory
Fernandez, F.M. )
1994-10-01
We develop an efficient method for the calculation of corrections to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation by means of perturbation theory. The perturbation terms through sixth order in the small parameter [kappa]=([ital m]/[ital M])[sup 1/4], where [ital m] and [ital M] are, respectively, electronic and nuclear masses, allow the construction of an effective vibrational Hamiltonian that takes into account adiabatic and nonadiabatic effects. The latter is negative and linearly dependent on the vibrational quantum numbers. We illustrate the application of the main equations and verify the general results by means of an exactly solvable model of two coupled harmonic oscillators.
A generalized-Yvon-Born-Green method for coarse-grained modeling. Advances, Challenges, and Insight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudzinski, J. F.; Noid, W. G.
2015-09-01
The Yvon-Born-Green (YBG) integral equation is a basic result of liquid state theory that relates the pair potential of a simple fluid to the resulting equilibrium two- and three-body correlation functions. Quite recently, we derived a more general form that can be applied to complex molecular systems. This generalized-YBG (g-YBG) theory provides not only an exact relation between a given potential and the resulting equilibrium correlation functions, but also a remarkably powerful framework for directly solving the statistical mechanics inverse problem of determining potentials from equilibrium structure ensembles. In the context of coarse-grained (CG) modeling, the g-YBG theory determines a variationally optimal approximation to the many-body potential of mean force directly (i.e., noniteratively) from structural correlation functions and, in particular, allows "force-matching" without forces. While our initial efforts numerically validated the g-YBG theory with relatively simple systems, our more recent efforts have considered increasingly complex systems, such as peptides and polymers. This minireview summarizes this progress and the resulting insight, as well as discusses the outstanding challenges and future directions for the g-YBG theory.
Duality rotations and type D solutions of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salazar, H.; Garcia, A.; Plebanski, J. F.
Explicit type D solutions, which generalize the charged Taub-NUT metric with cosmological constant, are constructed within nonlinear electrodynamics of the Born-Infeld type, constrained by the condition that freedom of duality rotations is included. The Carter (+,-) type D separable metrics in an optimal coordinatization is discussed, and the nonlinear electrodynamics in general relativity is described in terms of the null tetrad formalism. The class of nonlinear theories endowed with the freedom of duality rotations is defined. It is shown that B(+,-) branches are indeed carriers of solutions to the dynamical scheme of nonlinear electrodynamics, deriving explicit solutions which generalize the Taub-NUT charged solutions with lambda for the case of 'nonlinear charges'.
On the generalized wormhole in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamang, Amarjit; Potapov, Alexander A.; Lukmanova, Regina; Izmailov, Ramil; Nandi, Kamal K.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we wish to investigate certain observable effects in the recently obtained wormhole solution of the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory, which generalizes the zero-mass Ellis-Bronnikov wormhole of general relativity. The solutions of EiBI theory contain an extra parameter κ having the inverse dimension of the cosmological constant Λ, and which is expected to modify various general relativistic observables such as the masses of wormhole mouths, tidal forces and light deflection. A remarkable result is that a non-zero κ could prevent the tidal forces in the geodesic orthonormal frame from becoming arbitrarily large near a small throat radius ({r}0˜ 0) contrary to what happens near a small Schwarzschild horizon radius (M˜ 0). The role of κ in the flare-out and energy conditions is also analyzed, which reveals that the energy conditions are violated. We show that the exotic matter in the EiBI wormhole cannot be interpreted as a phantom (ω =\\frac{{p}{{r}}}{ρ }\\lt -1) or ghost field ϕ of general relativity due to the fact that both ρ and p r are negative for all κ.
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
Cosmology in generalized Proca theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-06-01
We consider a massive vector field with derivative interactions that propagates only the 3 desired polarizations (besides two tensor polarizations from gravity) with second-order equations of motion in curved space-time. The cosmological implications of such generalized Proca theories are investigated for both the background and the linear perturbation by taking into account the Lagrangian up to quintic order. In the presence of a matter fluid with a temporal component of the vector field, we derive the background equations of motion and show the existence of de Sitter solutions relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also obtain conditions for the absence of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations in the small-scale limit. Our results are applied to concrete examples of the general functions in the theory, which encompass vector Galileons as a specific case. In such examples, we show that the de Sitter fixed point is always a stable attractor and study viable parameter spaces in which the no-ghost and stability conditions are satisfied during the cosmic expansion history.
Role of Local Response in Ion Solvation: Born Theory and Beyond.
Remsing, Richard C; Weeks, John D
2016-07-01
The nature of ion solvation has drawn the interest of scientists for over a century, yet a thorough theoretical understanding is still lacking. In this work, we focus on the microscopic origins underlying ionic charge asymmetric and nonlinear response contributions to ion solvation free energies. We first derive an exact expression for the charging component of the ionic free energy, the free energy change when the Coulomb interactions between a fixed ion and the solvent are gradually "turned on". We then introduce the concept of a Gaussian test charge distribution, a generalization of the classical electrostatic point test charge that can be used to probe dielectric response in atomically detailed models. This enables the study of a thermodynamic cycle that isolates a linear and charge-symmetric contribution to the free energy that is well-described by Born-model-like dielectric continuum theories. We give a simple physical derivation of the classic Born model that locally relates the induced charge density in a linear dielectric model to the applied ionic charge distribution. The nonlinear response and charge asymmetric contributions to the ion solvation free energy are then examined in the remaining steps of the cycle and compared to classic thermodynamic cycles for this process using computer simulations. The insights provided by this work will aid the development of quantitative theories for the solvation of charged solutes. PMID:27183036
Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.
1979-01-01
Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.
Is Eddington-Born-Infeld theory really free of cosmological singularities?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Che-Yu; Chen, Pisin
2014-03-01
The Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory has recently been resurrected. Such a theory is characterized by being equivalent to Einstein theory in vacuum but differing from it in the presence of matter. One of the virtues of the theory is that it avoids the Big Bang singularity for a radiation-filled universe. In this paper, we analyze singularity avoidance in this kind of model. More precisely, we analyze the behavior of a homogeneous and isotropic universe filled with phantom energy in addition to the dark and baryonic matter. Unlike the Big Bang singularity that can be avoided in this kind of model through a bounce or a loitering effect on the physical metric, we find that the Big Rip singularity is unavoidable in the EiBI phantom model even though it can be postponed towards a slightly further future cosmic time as compared with the same singularity in other models based on the standard general relativity and with the same matter content as described above.
Corrected Article: Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104033 (2009)
Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio
2010-05-15
Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation with the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry.
Cosmology in a reduced Born-Infeld f (T ) theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, Soumya
2014-12-01
A perfect fluid, spatially flat cosmology in a f (T ) model, derived from a recently proposed general Born-Infeld-type theory of gravity is studied. Four-dimensional cosmological solutions are obtained assuming the equation of state p =ω ρ . For a positive value of λ (a parameter in the theory) the solution is singular (of the big bang type) but may have accelerated expansion at an early stage. For λ <0 there exists a nonzero minimum scale factor and a finite maximum value of the energy density, but the curvature scalar diverges. Interestingly, for λ <0 , the Universe may undergo an eternal accelerated expansion with a de Sitter expansion phase at late times. We find these features without considering any extra matter field or even negative pressure. Fitting our model with supernova data we find that the simplest dust model (p =0 ), with λ >0 , is able to generate acceleration and fits well, although the resulting properties of the Universe differ much from the known, present day, accepted values. The best fit model requires (with λ >0 ) an additional component of the physical matter density, with a negative value of the equation of state parameter, along with dust. The λ <0 solutions do not fit well with observations. Though these models do not explain the dark energy problem with consistency, their analysis does shed light on the plausibility of an alternative geometrical explanation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Feig, Michael
2005-03-01
Reliable computer simulations of complex biological environments such as integral membrane proteins with explicit water and lipid molecules remain a challenging task. We propose a modification of the standard generalized Born theory of homogeneous solvent for modeling the heterogeneous dielectric environments such as lipid/water interfaces. Our model allows the representation of biological membranes in the form of multiple layered dielectric regions with dielectric constants that are different from the solute cavity. The proposed new formalism is shown to predict the electrostatic component of solvation free energy with a relative error of 0.17% compared to exact finite-difference solutions of the Poisson equation for a transmembrane helix test system. Molecular dynamics simulations of melittin and bacteriorhodopsin are carried out and performed over 10ns and 7ns of simulation time, respectively. The center of melittin along the membrane normal in these stable simulations is in excellent agreement with the relevant experimental data. Simulations of bacteriorhodopsin started from the experimental structure remained stable and in close agreement with experiment. We also examined the free energy profiles of water and amino acid side chain analogs upon membrane insertion. The results with our implicit membrane model agree well with the experimental transfer free energy data from cyclohexane to water as well as explicit solvent simulations of water and selected side chain analogs.
Analysis of regularizing properties of nonlinear electrodynamics in the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory
Denisov, V. I. Sokolov, V. A.
2011-12-15
New regularizing manifestations of the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory for a massive charged force center in the space-time are considered. The properties of isotropic geodesics in this space are analyzed. It is shown that the charge may exceed the maximum possible charge in the Reissner-Nordstroem solution; the possibility of eliminating one of the metric horizons is also noted.
General Relativity Theory: Recognition through Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Zhuk, A. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E. V.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.
2015-10-01
The book provides an overview of the current state of the General Relativity Theory on the eve of its centennial. The authors describe briefly the basis of this theory, systematize experimental verifications and outline the main areas of its applications in astrophysics, cosmology and astrometry in the light of the last decade. For researchers and students specializing in the Relativity Theory as well as for anyone interested in Relativity Theory, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology.
General Education: Practice Without Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kridel, Craig
The contemporary literature on general education, most of which is aimed at college and university reform, is evaluated. The underlying assumptions of some of the representive works on this topic are examined, and persistent issues in the field are identified and alternatives proposed. Although the emphasis of the analysis is directed to "Missions…
Solitons and black holes in non-Abelian Einstein-Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyadichev, V. V.; Gal'tsov, D. V.
2000-08-01
Recently it was shown that the Born-Infeld modification of the quadratic Yang-Mills action gives rise to classical particle-like solutions in the flat space which have a striking similarity with the Bartnik-McKinnon solutions obtained within the gravity coupled Yang-Mills theory. We show that both families of solutions are continuously related within the framework of the Einstein-Born-Infeld theory via interpolating sequences of parameters. We also investigate an internal structure of the associated black holes and find that the Born-Infeld non-linearity changes drastically the black hole interior typical for the usual quadratic Yang-Mills theory. In the latter case a generic solution exhibits violent metric oscillations near the singularity. In the Born-Infeld case the generic interior solution is smooth, the metric tends to the standard Schwarzschild type singularity, and we did not observe internal horizons. Smoothing of the `violent' EYM singularity may be interpreted as a result of non-gravitational quantum effects.
The general theory of relativity - Why 'It is probably the most beautiful of all existing theories'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandrasekhar, S.
1984-03-01
An attempt is made to objectively evaluate the frequent judgment of Einstein's general theory of relativity, by such distinguished physicists as Pauli (1921), Dirac, Born, and Rutherford, as 'beautiful' and 'a work of art'. The criteria applied are that of Francis Bacon ('There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportions') and that of Heisenberg ('Beauty is the proper conformity of the parts to one another and to the whole'). The strangeness in the proportions of the theory of general relativity consists in its relating, through juxtaposition, the concepts of space and time and those of matter and motion; these had previously been considered entirely independent. The criterion of 'conformity' is illustrated through the directness with which the theory allows the description of black holes.
Generalized local-spin-density-functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yufei; Whitehead, M. A.
1991-01-01
An alternative density-functional theory, the generalized local-spin-density-functional (G-LSD) theory, is proposed based on the boundary conditions and sum rule of the Fermi-correlation factor in the Hartree-Fock (HF) limit. It avoids the physical restrictions to the boundary conditions and the sum rule used in the generalized exchange local-spin-density-functional (GX-LSD) theory completely, the homogeneous electron-density approximation in the Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) theory and in the Gáspár-Kohn-Sham (GKS) theory partly, and the time-consuming step to search for the optimal exchange parameter for each atom or ion in the Xα and Ξa theories. The alternative G-LSD theory generates the GX-LSD, HFS, GKS, Xα, and Ξa theories, when additional approximations or certain Fermi-hole shapes or high electron-density limit in a system are used. Theoretically, the G-LSD theory is more rigorous than the GX-LSD, HFS, GKS, and Ξa theories. Numerically, the statistical total energies for atoms in the G-LSD theory are in excellent agreement with the HF results, when the Gopinathan, Whitehead, and Bogdanovic [Phys. Rev. A 14, 1 (1976)] Fermi-hole parameters are used.
Teaching Evolutionary Theory as General Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Todd, Paul
1984-01-01
Provides a rationale for including evolution as part of a college general education curriculum, discussing the content of evolutionary theory, instructional principles, Darwin's contributions, evolution and religion, and the relationship of evolution with current events. (DMM)
Perturbative double field theory on general backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohm, Olaf; Marques, Diego
2016-01-01
We develop the perturbation theory of double field theory around arbitrary solutions of its field equations. The exact gauge transformations are written in a manifestly background covariant way and contain at most quadratic terms in the field fluctuations. We expand the generalized curvature scalar to cubic order in fluctuations and thereby determine the cubic action in a manifestly background covariant form. As a first application we specialize this theory to group manifold backgrounds, such as S U (2 )≃S3 with H -flux. In the full string theory this corresponds to a Wess-Zumino-Witten background CFT. Starting from closed string field theory, the cubic action around such backgrounds has been computed before by Blumenhagen, Hassler, and Lüst. We establish precise agreement with the cubic action derived from double field theory. This result confirms that double field theory is applicable to arbitrary curved background solutions, disproving assertions in the literature to the contrary.
Utilizing general information theories for uncertainty quantification
Booker, J. M.
2002-01-01
Uncertainties enter into a complex problem from many sources: variability, errors, and lack of knowledge. A fundamental question arises in how to characterize the various kinds of uncertainty and then combine within a problem such as the verification and validation of a structural dynamics computer model, reliability of a dynamic system, or a complex decision problem. Because uncertainties are of different types (e.g., random noise, numerical error, vagueness of classification), it is difficult to quantify all of them within the constructs of a single mathematical theory, such as probability theory. Because different kinds of uncertainty occur within a complex modeling problem, linkages between these mathematical theories are necessary. A brief overview of some of these theories and their constituents under the label of Generalized lnforrnation Theory (GIT) is presented, and a brief decision example illustrates the importance of linking at least two such theories.
Tests of General Theory of Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brynjolfsson, Ari
2002-04-01
Einstein’s theory of general relativity and experiments proving it are all in the domain of classical physics. These include experiments by Pound, Rebka, and Snider of the gravitational redshift of 14.4 keV photons; the rocket experiments by Vessot et al.; the Galileo redshift experiments by Krisher et al.; the gravitational deflection of light experiments by Riveros and Vucetich; and delay of echoes of radar signals passing close to Sun as observed by Shapiro et al. Bohr’s correspondence principle assures that the quantum mechanical theory of general relativity agrees with Einstein’s classical theory when frequency and gravitational field gradient approach zero, or when photons cannot interact with the gravitational field. Quantum theory invalidates some of the assumption made by Einstein. His argument that equally many crests of waves must arrive on Earth as leave Sun is correct in classical physics, but impermissible in quantum mechanics. We will show that solar redshift experiments contradict the classical theory and support a quantum mechanically modified theory of general relativity. This changes drastically the entire theory, including the equivalence principle.
Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahne, G. E.
1992-01-01
A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.
Sensors operating at exceptional points: General theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiersig, Jan
2016-03-01
A general theory of sensors based on the detection of splittings of resonant frequencies or energy levels operating at so-called exceptional points is presented. Exploiting the complex-square-root topology near such non-Hermitian degeneracies has a great potential for enhanced sensitivity. Passive and active systems are discussed. The theory is specified for whispering-gallery microcavity sensors for particle detection. As example, a microdisk with two holes is studied numerically. The theory and numerical simulations demonstrate a sevenfold enhancement of the sensitivity.
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duggen, Lars; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan; Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten
2016-04-01
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.
Dyonic (A)dS black holes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory in diverse dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shoulong; Lü, H.; Wei, Hao
2016-07-01
We study Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity and construct the dyonic (A)dS planar black holes in general even dimensions, that carry both the electric charge and magnetic fluxes along the planar space. In four dimensions, the solution can be constructed with also spherical and hyperbolic topologies. We study the black hole thermodynamics and obtain the first law. We also classify the singularity structure.
Consistent theory for causal non-locality beyond the Born's rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Wonmin
2014-02-01
According to the theory of relativity and causality, a special type of correlation beyond quantum mechanics is possible in principle under the name of a non-local box. The concept has been introduced from the principle of non-locality, which satisfies relativistic causality. In this paper, we show that a correlation leading to the non-local box can be derived consistently if we release one of major axioms in quantum mechanics, Born's rule. This allows us to obtain a theory that in one end of the spectrum agrees with the classical probability and in the other end agrees with the theory of non-local causality. At the same time, we argue that the correlation lies in a space with special mathematical constraints such that a physical realization of the correlation through a probability measure is not possible in one direction of its limit, but is possible in the other limit.
General Relativity theory: tests through time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, O. V.; Khmil, S. V.
2005-09-01
Theoretical basis of General relativity Theory, its experimental tests as well as GRT applications are briefly summarized taking into account the results of the last decade. The monograph addresses scientists, post-graduated students, and students specialized in the natural sciences as well as everyone who takes a great interest in GRT.
Nonlinear SUSY General Relativity Theory and Significances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shima, Kazunari; Tsuda, Motomu
2012-02-01
We show some interesting consequences of the nonliear supersymmetric general relativity theory(NLSUSYGR) on particle physics, cosmology and their relations. They may geiv new insights into the SUSY breaking mechanism, dark energy, dark matter and the low enegy superpartner particles which are compatible with the recent LHC data.
General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salisbury, David F.
1990-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)
General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, T.; Garrick, I. E.
1979-01-01
The problem of determining the two dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any shape is examined. The problem is condensed into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process. An attempt is made to analyze and coordinate the results of earlier studies relating to properties of wing sections. The existing approximate theory of thin wing sections and the Joukowski theory with its numerous generalizations are reduced to special cases of the general theory of arbitrary sections, permitting a clearer perspective of the entire field. The method which permits the determination of the velocity at any point of an arbitrary section and the associated lift and moments is described. The method is also discussed in terms for developing new shapes of preassigned aerodynamical properties.
A Short Introduction to General Gyrokinetic Theory
H. Qin
2005-02-14
Interesting plasmas in the laboratory and space are magnetized. General gyrokinetic theory is about a symmetry, gyro-symmetry, in the Vlasov-Maxwell system for magnetized plasmas. The most general gyrokinetic theory can be geometrically formulated. First, the coordinate-free, geometric Vlasov-Maxwell equations are developed in the 7-D phase space, which is defined as a fiber bundle over the space-time. The Poincar{copyright}-Cartan-Einstein 1-form pullbacked onto the 7-D phase space determines particles' worldlines in the phase space, and realizes the momentum integrals in kinetic theory as fiber integrals. The infinite small generator of the gyro-symmetry is then asymptotically constructed as the base for the gyrophase coordinate of the gyrocenter coordinate system. This is accomplished by applying the Lie coordinate perturbation method to the Poincar{copyright}-Cartan-Einstein 1-form, which also generates the most relaxed condition under which the gyro-symmetry still exists. General gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations are then developed as the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the gyrocenter coordinate system, rather than a set of new equations. Since the general gyrokinetic system-developed is geometrically the same as the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, all the coordinate independent properties of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, such as energy conservation, momentum conservation, and Liouville volume conservation, are automatically carried over to the general gyrokinetic system. The pullback transformation associated with the coordinate transformation is shown to be an indispensable part of the general gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Without this vital element, a number of prominent physics features, such as the presence of the compressional Alfven wave and a proper description of the gyrokinetic equilibrium, cannot be readily recovered. Three examples of applications of the general gyrokinetic theory developed in the areas of plasma equilibrium and plasma waves are
A general relaxation theory of simple liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merilo, M.; Morgan, E. J.
1973-01-01
A relatively simple relaxation theory to account for the behavior of liquids under dynamic conditions was proposed. The general dynamical equations are similar in form to the phenomenological relaxation equations used in theories of viscoelasticity, however, they differ in that all the coefficients of the present equations are expressed in terms of thermodynamic and molecular quantities. The theory is based on the concept that flow in a liquid distorts both the radial and the velocity distribution functions, and that relaxation equations describing the return of these functions to their isotropic distributions, characterizing a stationary liquid, can be written. The theory was applied to the problems of steady and oscillatory shear flows and to the propagation of longitudinal waves. In all cases classical results are predicted for strain rates, and an expression for the viscosity of a liquid, simular to the Macedo-Litovitz equation, is obtained.
Cleary, Sean; Doucette, Karen; Doig, Christopher J.; Coffin, Carla; Grant, David; Dixon, Elijah
2016-01-01
Summary The potential for transmission of hematogenously transmitted pathogens during exposure-prone procedures is a clinically important concern to both patients and surgeons. There is inconsistency among regulatory bodies in Canada regarding the management of infection risk among surgeons, particularly with regard to screening and the postexposure management of infected surgeons. The Canadian Association of General Surgeons commissioned a task force to review the evidence regarding the management of blood-borne pathogens and transmission risk during surgical procedures. The results of this review indicate a need for several jurisdictions to update their guidelines to reflect current evidence-based practices. PMID:26820317
Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control
Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M.; George, Dylan B.; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Garcia, Andres J.; Gatton, Michelle L.; Gething, Peter W.; Hartley, David M.; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y.; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L.; Pigott, David M.; Reisen, William K.; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K.; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J.; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Cohen, Justin M.; Hay, Simon I.; Scott, Thomas W.
2014-01-01
Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross–Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453
Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control.
Smith, David L; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H Charles J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W
2014-04-01
Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross-Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, James M.; Hofmann, D. J.; Carpenter, J. R.; Harder, J. W.; Oltsmans, S. J.
1988-01-01
Balloon-borne frost point measurements were performed over Antarctica during September-October 1987 as part of the NOZE II effort at McMurdo. The results show water mixing ratios on the order of 2 ppmv in the 20 km region, suggesting that models of the springtime Antarctic stratosphere should be based on approximately 2 ppmv water vapor. Evidence indicating that some PSCs form at temperatures higher than the frost point in the 15 to 20 km region is discussed. This supports the binary HNO3-H2O theory of PSC composition.
Entanglement and thermodynamics in general probabilistic theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; Scandolo, Carlo Maria
2015-10-01
Entanglement is one of the most striking features of quantum mechanics, and yet it is not specifically quantum. More specific to quantum mechanics is the connection between entanglement and thermodynamics, which leads to an identification between entropies and measures of pure state entanglement. Here we search for the roots of this connection, investigating the relation between entanglement and thermodynamics in the framework of general probabilistic theories. We first address the question whether an entangled state can be transformed into another by means of local operations and classical communication. Under two operational requirements, we prove a general version of the Lo-Popescu theorem, which lies at the foundations of the theory of pure-state entanglement. We then consider a resource theory of purity where free operations are random reversible transformations, modelling the scenario where an agent has limited control over the dynamics of a closed system. Our key result is a duality between the resource theory of entanglement and the resource theory of purity, valid for every physical theory where all processes arise from pure states and reversible interactions at the fundamental level. As an application of the main result, we establish a one-to-one correspondence between entropies and measures of pure bipartite entanglement. The correspondence is then used to define entanglement measures in the general probabilistic framework. Finally, we show a duality between the task of information erasure and the task of entanglement generation, whereby the existence of entropy sinks (systems that can absorb arbitrary amounts of information) becomes equivalent to the existence of entanglement sources (correlated systems from which arbitrary amounts of entanglement can be extracted).
Eleven theses of general systems theory (GST)
Waelchli, F.
1992-12-31
This paper chronicles an effort to distill and order (for purposes of discussion and elaboration) frequently mentioned and significant ideas encountered in the literature of General Systems theory (GST). The product is a set of eleven theses, representing the author`s selection and collation of seminal and recurrent GST themes. The author argues that attention to theory could aid the effort to develop practical applications of systems thinking. (Remember that a thesis is a statement or assertion, offered originally without proof, as the basis for an argument, discussion, or empirical test). 10 refs.
A general theory for the Uranian satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskar, J.
1986-09-01
A general analytical theory of the five main satellites of Uranus, including the secular and short period terms hereafter denoted by GUST, is presented. A comparison is made with an internal numerical integration with nominal masses of Veillet (1983). The precision of the theory goes from about 10 km for Miranda to 100 km for Oberon. The short period terms in the motions of Titania and Oberon are larger than 500 km. They should make possible the determination of the masses of the outer satellites through the optical data of Voyager encounter.
Toward a general evolutionary theory of oncogenesis
Ewald, Paul W; Swain Ewald, Holly A
2013-01-01
We propose an evolutionary framework, the barrier theory of cancer, which is based on the distinction between barriers to oncogenesis and restraints. Barriers are defined as mechanisms that prevent oncogenesis. Restraints, which are more numerous, inhibit but do not prevent oncogenesis. Processes that compromise barriers are essential causes of cancer; those that interfere with restraints are exacerbating causes. The barrier theory is built upon the three evolutionary processes involved in oncogenesis: natural selection acting on multicellular organisms to mold barriers and restraints, natural selection acting on infectious organisms to abrogate these protective mechanisms, and oncogenic selection which is responsible for the evolution of normal cells into cancerous cells. The barrier theory is presented as a first step toward the development of a general evolutionary theory of cancer. Its attributes and implications for intervention are compared with those of other major conceptual frameworks for understanding cancer: the clonal diversification model, the stem cell theory and the hallmarks of cancer. The barrier theory emphasizes the practical value of distinguishing between essential and exacerbating causes. It also stresses the importance of determining the scope of infectious causation of cancer, because individual pathogens can be responsible for multiple essential causes in infected cells. PMID:23396676
Towards a general theory of implementation
2013-01-01
Understanding and evaluating the implementation of complex interventions in practice is an important problem for healthcare managers and policy makers, and for patients and others who must operationalize them beyond formal clinical settings. It has been argued that this work should be founded on theory that provides a foundation for understanding, designing, predicting, and evaluating dynamic implementation processes. This paper sets out core constituents of a general theory of implementation, building on Normalization Process Theory and linking it to key constructs from recent work in sociology and psychology. These are informed by ideas about agency and its expression within social systems and fields, social and cognitive mechanisms, and collective action. This approach unites a number of contending perspectives in a way that makes possible a more comprehensive explanation of the implementation and embedding of new ways of thinking, enacting and organizing practice. PMID:23406398
Hyperons in neutron stars within an Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qauli, A. I.; Iqbal, M.; Sulaksono, A.; Ramadhan, H. S.
2016-05-01
We investigate the mass-radius relation of the neutron star (NS) with hyperons inside its core by using the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory of gravity. The equation of state of the star is calculated by using the relativistic mean field model under which the standard SU(6) prescription and hyperon potential depths are used to determine the hyperon coupling constants. We found that, for 4 ×106 m2≲κ ≲6 ×106 m2 , the corresponding NS mass and radius predicted by the EiBI theory of gravity is compatible with observational constraints of maximum NS mass and radius. The corresponding κ value is also compatible with the κ range predicted by the astrophysical-cosmological constraints. We also found that the parameter κ could control the size and the compactness of a neutron star.
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations.
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L C; Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten
2016-04-20
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics. PMID:26986189
TOPICS IN THEORY OF GENERALIZED PARTON DISTRIBUTIONS
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2013-05-01
Several topics in the theory of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. First, we give a brief overview of the basics of the theory of generalized parton distributions and their relationship with simpler phenomenological functions, viz. form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes. Then, we discuss recent developments in building models for GPDs that are based on the formalism of double distributions (DDs). A special attention is given to a careful analysis of the singularity structure of DDs. The DD formalism is applied to construction of a model GPDs with a singular Regge behavior. Within the developed DD-based approach, we discuss the structure of GPD sum rules. It is shown that separation of DDs into the so-called ``plus'' part and the $D$-term part may be treated as a renormalization procedure for the GPD sum rules. This approach is compared with an alternative prescription based on analytic regularization.
Cosmology in general massive gravity theories
Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@aquila.infn.it
2014-05-01
We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w{sub eff} has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w{sub eff} from -1. Taking into account current limits on w{sub eff} and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w{sub eff} form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory.
Non-signalling Theories and Generalized Probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tylec, Tomasz I.; Kuś, Marek; Krajczok, Jacek
2016-09-01
We provide mathematically rigorous justification of using term probability in connection to the so called non-signalling theories, known also as Popescu's and Rohrlich's box worlds. No only do we prove correctness of these models (in the sense that they describe composite system of two independent subsystems) but we obtain new properties of non-signalling boxes and expose new tools for further investigation. Moreover, it allows strightforward generalization to more complicated systems.
Non-signalling Theories and Generalized Probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tylec, Tomasz I.; Kuś, Marek; Krajczok, Jacek
2016-04-01
We provide mathematically rigorous justification of using term probability in connection to the so called non-signalling theories, known also as Popescu's and Rohrlich's box worlds. No only do we prove correctness of these models (in the sense that they describe composite system of two independent subsystems) but we obtain new properties of non-signalling boxes and expose new tools for further investigation. Moreover, it allows strightforward generalization to more complicated systems.
A general theory of DC electromagnetic launchers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engel, Thomas G.; Timpson, Erik J.
2015-08-01
The non-linear, transient operation of DC electromagnetic launchers (EMLs) complicates their theoretical understanding and prevents scaling studies and performance comparisons without the aid of detailed numerical models. This paper presents a general theory for DC electromagnetic launchers that has simplified these tasks by identifying critical EML parameters and relationships affecting the EML's voltage, current, and power scaling, as well as its performance and energy conversion efficiency. EML parameters and relationships discussed in this paper include the specific force, the operating mode, the launcher constant, the launcher characteristic velocity, the contact characteristic velocity, the energy conversion efficiency, and the kinetic power and voltage-current scaling relationship. The concepts of the ideal EML, same-scale comparisons, and EML impedance are discussed. This paper defines conditions needed for the EML to operate in the steady-state. A comparison of the general theory with experimental results of several different types of DC (i.e., non-induction) electromagnetic launchers ranging from medium velocity (100's m/s) to high velocity (1000's m/s) is performed. There is good agreement between the general theory and the experimental results.
Possibilistic systems within a general information theory
Joslyn, C.
1999-06-01
The author surveys possibilistic systems theory and place it in the context of Imprecise Probabilities and General Information Theory (GIT). In particular, he argues that possibilistic systems hold a distinct position within a broadly conceived, synthetic GIT. The focus is on systems and applications which are semantically grounded by empirical measurement methods (statistical counting), rather than epistemic or subjective knowledge elicitation or assessment methods. Regarding fuzzy measures as special provisions, and evidence measures (belief and plausibility measures) as special fuzzy measures, thereby he can measure imprecise probabilities directly and empirically from set-valued frequencies (random set measurement). More specifically, measurements of random intervals yield empirical fuzzy intervals. In the random set (Dempster-Shafer) context, probability and possibility measures stand as special plausibility measures in that their distributionality (decomposability) maps directly to an aggregable structure of the focal classes of their random sets. Further, possibility measures share with imprecise probabilities the ability to better handle open world problems where the universe of discourse is not specified in advance. In addition to empirically grounded measurement methods, possibility theory also provides another crucial component of a full systems theory, namely prediction methods in the form of finite (Markov) processes which are also strictly analogous to the probabilistic forms.
Extended 2D generalized dilaton gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mello, R. O.
2008-09-01
We show that an anomaly-free description of matter in (1+1) dimensions requires a deformation of the 2D relativity principle, which introduces a non-trivial centre in the 2D Poincaré algebra. Then we work out the reduced phase space of the anomaly-free 2D relativistic particle, in order to show that it lives in a noncommutative 2D Minkowski space. Moreover, we build a Gaussian wave packet to show that a Planck length is well defined in two dimensions. In order to provide a gravitational interpretation for this noncommutativity, we propose to extend the usual 2D generalized dilaton gravity models by a specific Maxwell component, which guages the extra symmetry associated with the centre of the 2D Poincaré algebra. In addition, we show that this extension is a high energy correction to the unextended dilaton theories that can affect the topology of spacetime. Further, we couple a test particle to the general extended dilaton models with the purpose of showing that they predict a noncommutativity in curved spacetime, which is locally described by a Moyal star product in the low energy limit. We also conjecture a probable generalization of this result, which provides strong evidence that the noncommutativity is described by a certain star product which is not of the Moyal type at high energies. Finally, we prove that the extended dilaton theories can be formulated as Poisson Sigma models based on a nonlinear deformation of the extended Poincaré algebra.
Generalized Quantum Theory and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maroun, Michael Anthony
This dissertation is divided into two main topics. The first is the generalization of quantum dynamics when the Schrodinger partial differential equation is not defined even in the weak mathematical sense because the potential function itself is a distribution in the spatial variable, the same variable that is used to define the kinetic energy operator, i.e. the Laplace operator. The procedure is an extension and broadening of the distributional calculus and offers spectral results as an alternative to the only other two known methods to date, namely a) the functional calculi; and b) non-standard analysis. Furthermore, the generalizations of quantum dynamics presented within give a resolution to the time asymmetry paradox created by multi-particle quantum mechanics due to the time evolution still being unitary. A consequence is the randomization of phases needed for the fundamental justification Pauli master equation. The second topic is foundations of the quantum theory of fields. The title is phrased as ``foundations'' to emphasize that there is no claim of uniqueness but rather a proposal is put forth, which is markedly different than that of constructive or axiomatic field theory. In particular, the space of fields is defined as a space of generalized functions with involutive symmetry maps (the CPT invariance) that affect the topology of the field space. The space of quantum fields is then endowed the Frechet property and interactions change the topology in such a way as to cause some field spaces to be incompatible with others. This is seen in the consequences of the Haag theorem. Various examples and discussions are given that elucidate a new view of the quantum theory of fields and its (lack of) mathematical structure.
Comment on "Extended Born-Infeld theory and the bouncing magnetic universe"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Salcedo, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Tame; Horta-Rangel, Antonio; Quiros, Israel
2014-12-01
In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 85, 023528 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.023528] the authors proposed a generalized Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to general relativity which produces a nonsingular bouncing universe. For a magnetic universe the resulting cosmic evolution inevitably interpolates between asymptotic de Sitter states. Here we show that (i) the conclusion about the inevitability of the asymptotic vacuum regime in a magnetic universe is wrong, (ii) a sudden curvature singularity—not better than the big bang—arises, but for spaces of positive curvature, (iii) the square sound speed can be a negative quantity, signaling instability against small perturbations of the background energy density, and (iv) the speed of sound can exceed the speed of light, which raises a causality issue.
Born Hartree Bethe approximation in the theory of inelastic electron molecule scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kretinin, I. Yu; Krisilov, A. V.; Zon, B. A.
2008-11-01
We propose a new approximation in the theory of inelastic electron atom and electron molecule scattering. Taking into account the completeness property of atomic and molecular wavefunctions, considered in the Hartree approximation, and using Bethe's parametrization for electronic excitations during inelastic collisions via the mean excitation energy, we show that the calculation of the inelastic total integral cross-sections (TICS), in the framework of the first Born approximation, involves only the ground-state wavefunction. The final analytical formula obtained for the TICS, i.e. for the sum of elastic and inelastic ones, contains no adjusting parameters. Calculated TICS for electron scattering by light atoms and molecules (He, Ne, and H2) are in good agreement within the experimental data; results show asymptotic coincidence for heavier ones (Ar, Kr, Xe and N2).
General Relativity Theory: Tests through Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E.V .; Khmil, S. V.
2006-08-01
Theoretical basis of the General Relativity theory (GR), its experimental tests as well as GR applications were briefly summarized in the new textbook devoted to the World Year of Physics-2005 (authors - Yatskiv Ya.S., Alexandrov A.N., Vavilova I.B., Zhdanov V.I., Kudrya Yu.N., Parnovsky S.L., Fedorova E.V., Khmil S.V., Kyiv:Akademperiodika, 2005, 288 p.). The monograph addresses scientists, post-graduate students, and students specialized in the natural sciences as well as everyone who takes a great interest in GR. Special attention is paid on Relativistic Reference Systems, as an attachment to this book, including attachment to this book where the Resolution of the XXIV IAU General Assembly is given (in Ukrainian).
Theory of a generalized Helmholtz resonator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, P. K.; Sirignano, W. A.
1973-01-01
Based on the jet-flow model which is manifested in the nonlinearity of the orifice flow upon the passage of a high intensity wave, the theory of a generalized Helmholtz resonator has been developed. The results for some special devices, such as the conventional Helmholtz resonator and the quarter-wave tube, can be obtained through this general approach. The performance of the acoustic damper is characterized by a quantity known as the real part of the admittance coefficient. It is known that the conventional Helmholtz resonator has the lowest peak performance but the response is quite flat over a certain frequency range. On the other hand, a quarter-wave tube offers the largest peak in energy absorption with rather poor off-resonance behavior. Once the orifice length goes beyond the quarter-wave tube configuration, the performance of the so-called long damping device is even less attractive away from resonance.
A general theory of quantum relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minic, Djordje; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
2004-02-01
The geometric form of standard quantum mechanics is compatible with the two postulates: (1) the laws of physics are invariant under the choice of experimental setup and (2) every quantum observation or event is intrinsically statistical. These postulates remain compatible within a background independent extension of quantum theory with a local intrinsic time implying the relativity of the concept of a quantum event. In this extension the space of quantum events becomes dynamical and only individual quantum events make sense observationally. At the core of such a general theory of quantum relativity is the three-way interplay between the symplectic form, the dynamical metric and non-integrable almost complex structure of the space of quantum events. Such a formulation provides a missing conceptual ingredient in the search for a background independent quantum theory of gravity and matter. The crucial new technical element in our scheme derives from a set of recent mathematical results on certain infinite-dimensional almost Kahler manifolds which replace the complex projective spaces of standard quantum mechanics.
Inflation in general covariant theory of gravity
Huang, Yongqing; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu
2012-10-01
In this paper, we study inflation in the framework of the nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant λ. We find that the Friedmann-Robterson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat in such a setup. We work out explicitly the linear perturbations of the flat FRW universe without specifying to a particular gauge, and find that the perturbations are different from those obtained in general relativity, because of the presence of the high-order spatial derivative terms. Applying the general formulas to a single scalar field, we show that in the sub-horizon regions, the metric and scalar field are tightly coupled and have the same oscillating frequencies. In the super-horizon regions, the perturbations become adiabatic, and the comoving curvature perturbation is constant. We also calculate the power spectra and indices of both the scalar and tensor perturbations, and express them explicitly in terms of the slow roll parameters and the coupling constants of the high-order spatial derivative terms. In particular, we find that the perturbations, of both scalar and tensor, are almost scale-invariant, and, with some reasonable assumptions on the coupling coefficients, the spectrum index of the tensor perturbation is the same as that given in the minimum scenario in general relativity (GR), whereas the index for scalar perturbation in general depends on λ and is different from the standard GR value. The ratio of the scalar and tensor power spectra depends on the high-order spatial derivative terms, and can be different from that of GR significantly.
Asymptotic properties of a supposedly regular (Dirac-Born-Infeld) modification of general relativity
García-Salcedo, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Tame; Napoles, Yunelsy; Leyva, Yoelsy; Moreno, Claudia; Quiros, Israel E-mail: tame@uclv.edu.cu E-mail: yna@uclv.edu.cu E-mail: iquiros@fisica.ugto.mx
2010-02-01
We apply the dynamical systems tools to study the asymptotic properties of a cosmological model based on a non-linear modification of General Relativity in which the standard Einstein-Hilbert action is replaced by one of Dirac-Born-Infeld type. It is shown that the dynamics of this model is extremely rich: there are found equilibrium points in the phase space that can be associated with matter-dominated, matter-curvature scaling, de Sitter, and even phantom-like solutions. Depending on the value of the overall parameters the dynamics in phase space can show multi-attractor structure into the future (multiple future attractors may co-exist). This is a consequence of bifurcations in control parameter space, showing strong dependence of the model's dynamical properties on the free parameters. Contrary to what is expected from non-linear modifications of general relativity of this kind, removal of the initial spacetime singularity is not a generic feature of the corresponding cosmological model. Instead, the starting point of the cosmic dynamics — the past attractor in the phase space — is a state of infinitely large value of the Hubble rate squared, usually associated with the big bang singularity.
A generalized target theory and its applications
Zhao, Lei; Mi, Dong; Hu, Bei; Sun, Yeqing
2015-01-01
Different radiobiological models have been proposed to estimate the cell-killing effects, which are very important in radiotherapy and radiation risk assessment. However, most applied models have their own scopes of application. In this work, by generalizing the relationship between “hit” and “survival” in traditional target theory with Yager negation operator in Fuzzy mathematics, we propose a generalized target model of radiation-induced cell inactivation that takes into account both cellular repair effects and indirect effects of radiation. The simulation results of the model and the rethinking of “the number of targets in a cell” and “the number of hits per target” suggest that it is only necessary to investigate the generalized single-hit single-target (GSHST) in the present theoretical frame. Analysis shows that the GSHST model can be reduced to the linear quadratic model and multitarget model in the low-dose and high-dose regions, respectively. The fitting results show that the GSHST model agrees well with the usual experimental observations. In addition, the present model can be used to effectively predict cellular repair capacity, radiosensitivity, target size, especially the biologically effective dose for the treatment planning in clinical applications. PMID:26411887
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, James M.; Hofmann, D. J.; Carpenter, J. R.; Harder, J. W.; Oltmans, S. J.
1988-01-01
The first balloon-borne frost point measurements over Antarctica were made during September and October, 1987 as part of the NOZE 2 effort at McMurdo. The results indicate water vapor mixing ratios on the order of 2 ppmv in the 15 to 20 km region which is somewhat smaller than the typical values currently being used significantly smaller than the typical values currently being used in polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) theories. The observed water vapor mixing ratio would correspond to saturated conditions for what is thought to be the lowest stratospheric temperatures encountered over the Antarctic. Through the use of available lidar observations there appears to be significant evidence that some PSCs form at temperatures higher than the local frost point (with respect to water) in the 10 to 20 km region thus supporting the nitric acid theory of PSC composition. Clouds near 15 km and below appear to form in regions saturated with respect to water and thus are probably mostly ice water clouds although they could contain relatively small amounts of other constituents. Photographic evidence suggests that the clouds forming above the frost point probably have an appearance quite different from the lower altitude iridescent, colored nacreous clouds.
Screening fifth forces in generalized Proca theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2016-05-01
For a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions, the breaking of the gauge invariance allows the propagation of a longitudinal mode in addition to the two transverse modes. We consider generalized Proca theories with second-order equations of motion in a curved space-time and study how the longitudinal scalar mode of the vector field gravitates on a spherically symmetric background. We show explicitly that cubic-order self-interactions lead to the suppression of the longitudinal mode through the Vainshtein mechanism. Provided that the dimensionless coupling of the interaction is not negligible, this screening mechanism is sufficiently efficient to give rise to tiny corrections to gravitational potentials consistent with solar-system tests of gravity. We also study the quartic interactions with the presence of nonminimal derivative coupling with the Ricci scalar and find the existence of solutions where the longitudinal mode completely vanishes. Finally, we discuss the case in which the effect of the quartic interactions dominates over the cubic one and show that local gravity constraints can be satisfied under a mild bound on the parameters of the theory.
Quantization of higher abelian gauge theory in generalized differential cohomology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabo, R.
We review and elaborate on some aspects of the quantization of certain classes of higher abelian gauge theories using techniques of generalized differential cohomology. Particular emphasis is placed on the examples of generalized Maxwell theory and Cheeger-Simons cohomology, and of Ramond-Ramond fields in Type II superstring theory and differential K-theory.
Generalized Rayleigh scattering. I. Basic theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, V. V.
1995-11-01
The classsical problem of multiple molecular (in particular, Rayleigh) scattering in plane-parallel atmospheres is considered from a somewhat broader viewpoint than usual. The general approach and ideology are borrowed from non-LTE line formation theory. The main emphasis is on the depth dependence of the corresponding source matrix rather than on the emergent radiation. We study the azimuth-averaged radiation field of polarized radiation in a semi-infinite atmosphere with embedded primary sources. The corresponding 2x2 phase matrix of molecular scattering is P=(1-W) P_I_+W P_R_, where P_I_ and P_R_ are the phase matrices of the scalar isotropic scattering and of the Rayleigh scattering, respectively, and W is the depolarization parameter. Contrary to the usual assumption that W{in}[0,1], we assume W{in} [0,{infinity}) and call this generalized Rayleigh scattering (GRS). Using the factorization of P which is intimately related to its diadic expansion, we reduce the problem to an integral equation for the source matrix S(τ) with a matrix displacement kernel. In operator form this equation is S={LAMBDA}S+S^*^, where {LAMBDA} is the matrix {LAMBDA}-operator and S^*^ is the primary source term. This leads to a new concept, the matrix albedo of single scattering λ =diag(λ_I_,λ_Q_), where λ_I_ is the usual (scalar) single scattering albedo and λ_Q_=0.7Wλ_I_. Its use enables one to formulate matrix equivalents of many of the results of the scalar theory in exactly the same form as in the scalar case. Of crucial importance is the matrix equivalent of the sqrt(ɛ) law of the scalar theory. Another useful new concept is the λ-plane, i.e., the plane with the axes (λ_I_,λ_Q_). Systematic use of the matrix sqrt(ɛ) law and of the λ-plane proved to be a useful instrument in classifying various limiting and particular cases of GRS and in discussing numerical data on the matrix source functions (to be given in Paper II of the series).
Arthur, Evan J; Brooks, Charles L
2016-04-15
Two fundamental challenges of simulating biologically relevant systems are the rapid calculation of the energy of solvation and the trajectory length of a given simulation. The Generalized Born model with a Simple sWitching function (GBSW) addresses these issues by using an efficient approximation of Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory to calculate each solute atom's free energy of solvation, the gradient of this potential, and the subsequent forces of solvation without the need for explicit solvent molecules. This study presents a parallel refactoring of the original GBSW algorithm and its implementation on newly available, low cost graphics chips with thousands of processing cores. Depending on the system size and nonbonded force cutoffs, the new GBSW algorithm offers speed increases of between one and two orders of magnitude over previous implementations while maintaining similar levels of accuracy. We find that much of the algorithm scales linearly with an increase of system size, which makes this water model cost effective for solvating large systems. Additionally, we utilize our GPU-accelerated GBSW model to fold the model system chignolin, and in doing so we demonstrate that these speed enhancements now make accessible folding studies of peptides and potentially small proteins. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26786647
Routine Microsecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations with AMBER on GPUs. 1. Generalized Born
2012-01-01
We present an implementation of generalized Born implicit solvent all-atom classical molecular dynamics (MD) within the AMBER program package that runs entirely on CUDA enabled NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). We discuss the algorithms that are used to exploit the processing power of the GPUs and show the performance that can be achieved in comparison to simulations on conventional CPU clusters. The implementation supports three different precision models in which the contributions to the forces are calculated in single precision floating point arithmetic but accumulated in double precision (SPDP), or everything is computed in single precision (SPSP) or double precision (DPDP). In addition to performance, we have focused on understanding the implications of the different precision models on the outcome of implicit solvent MD simulations. We show results for a range of tests including the accuracy of single point force evaluations and energy conservation as well as structural properties pertainining to protein dynamics. The numerical noise due to rounding errors within the SPSP precision model is sufficiently large to lead to an accumulation of errors which can result in unphysical trajectories for long time scale simulations. We recommend the use of the mixed-precision SPDP model since the numerical results obtained are comparable with those of the full double precision DPDP model and the reference double precision CPU implementation but at significantly reduced computational cost. Our implementation provides performance for GB simulations on a single desktop that is on par with, and in some cases exceeds, that of traditional supercomputers. PMID:22582031
Evaluation of Generalized Born Model Accuracy for Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations.
Zeller, Fabian; Zacharias, Martin
2014-06-27
Generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent models are widely used in molecular dynamics simulations to evaluate the interactions of biomolecular complexes. The continuum treatment of the solvent results in significant computational savings in comparison to an explicit solvent representation. It is, however, not clear how accurately the GB approach reproduces the absolute free energies of biomolecular binding. On the basis of induced dissociation by means of umbrella sampling simulations, the absolute binding free energies of small proline-rich peptide ligands and a protein receptor were calculated. Comparative simulations according to the same protocol were performed by employing an explicit solvent model and various GB-type implicit solvent models in combination with a nonpolar surface tension term. The peptide ligands differed in a key residue at the peptide-protein interface, including either a nonpolar, a neutral polar, a positively charged, or a negatively charged group. For the peptides with a neutral polar or nonpolar interface residue, very good agreement between the explicit solvent and GB implicit solvent results was found. Deviations in the main separation free energy contributions are smaller than 1 kcal/mol. In contrast, for peptides with a charged interface residue, significant deviations of 2-4 kcal/mol were observed. The results indicate that recent GB models can compete with explicit solvent representations in total binding free energy calculations as long as no charged residues are present at the binding interface. PMID:24941018
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardini, Alex Eduardo; Bertolami, Orfeu
An equivalence between Born-Infeld and effective real scalar field theories for brane structures is built in some specific warped space-time scenarios. Once the equations of motion for tachyon fields related to the Born-Infeld action are written as first-order equations, a simple analytical connection with a particular class of real scalar field superpotentials can be found. This equivalence leads to the conclusion that, for a certain class of superpotentials, both systems can support identical thick brane solutions as well as brane structures described through localized energy densities, T_{00}(y), in the 5(th) dimension, y. Our results indicate that thick brane solutions realized by the Born-Infeld cosmology can be connected to real scalar field brane scenarios which can be used to effectively map the tachyon condensation mechanism, which is relevant in several dark sector scenarios.
Incorporation of generalized uncertainty principle into Lifshitz field theories
Faizal, Mir; Majumder, Barun
2015-06-15
In this paper, we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into field theories with Lifshitz scaling. We will first construct both bosonic and fermionic theories with Lifshitz scaling based on generalized uncertainty principle. After that we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into a non-abelian gauge theory with Lifshitz scaling. We will observe that even though the action for this theory is non-local, it is invariant under local gauge transformations. We will also perform the stochastic quantization of this Lifshitz fermionic theory based generalized uncertainty principle.
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.
Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro
2016-01-01
Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework
Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro
2016-01-01
Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436
de Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Aguiar, Larissa de Fátima Pontes; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz
2013-09-01
The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of home care of children born exposed to HIV in the perspective of the environmental theory. It consists of an exploratory descriptive qualitative study, developed between January and April of 2011. Study participants were ten HIV-infected mothers with infants exposed to the virus, living in Fortaleza, Ceará. The data collection instruments included a disposable digital camera and forms to obtain information on health associated with the home environment. Results were contextualized according to the theory and organized into the following categories: vulnerabilities associated with the physical structure of the house; contaminated intra and peridomestic air; unclean water used for drinking; sanitation and sewerage system; lighting and ventilation of the house. In conclusion, the home environment offers unfavorable environmental conditions for the child. Targeted interventions in the home environment are necessary so as to promote the health of children born exposed to HIV. PMID:24344586
A survey of solutions in a gravitational Born-Infeld theory
Chern, Jann-Long Yang, Sze-Guang
2014-03-15
An elliptic equation that arises from a cosmic string model with the action of the Born-Infeld nonlinear electromagnetism, is considered. We classify and establish the uniqueness of radially symmetric solutions.
The general theory of convolutional codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mceliece, R. J.; Stanley, R. P.
1993-01-01
This article presents a self-contained introduction to the algebraic theory of convolutional codes. This introduction is partly a tutorial, but at the same time contains a number of new results which will prove useful for designers of advanced telecommunication systems. Among the new concepts introduced here are the Hilbert series for a convolutional code and the class of compact codes.
Empirical Predictions from a General Theory of Signs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oller, John W., Jr.; Chen, Liang; Oller, Stephen D.; Pan, Ning
2005-01-01
General sign theory (GST) deals with how distinct sign systems are grounded, developed with increasing abstractness over time, and differentiated in efficacies in experience and discourse. GST has 3 components: The theory of true narrative representations (TNR theory) shows that TNRs are unique in being relatively well determined with respect to…
Engine isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction in a general aviation aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.
1981-01-01
Engine vibration isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction is investigated. A laboratory based test procedure to simulate engine induced structure-borne noise transmission, the testing of a range of candidate isolators for relative performance data, and the development of an analytical model of the transmission phenomena for isolator design evaluation are addressed. The isolator relative performance test data show that the elastomeric isolators do not appear to operate as single degree of freedom systems with respect to noise isolation. Noise isolation beyond 150 Hz levels off and begins to decrease somewhat above 600 Hz. Coupled analytical and empirical models were used to study the structure-borne noise transmission phenomena. Correlation of predicted results with measured data show that (1) the modeling procedures are reasonably accurate for isolator design evaluation, (2) the frequency dependent properties of the isolators must be included in the model if reasonably accurate noise prediction beyond 150 Hz is desired. The experimental and analytical studies were carried out in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz.
Hypermass generalization of Einstein's gravitation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, J. D., Jr.
1973-01-01
The curvilinear invariant quaternion formalism is examined for curved space time. Einstein's gravitation equation is shown to have a simple and natural form in this notation. The hypermass generalization of particle mass, which was generated in our studies of the Dirac equation, is incorporated in gravitation by generalizing Einstein's equation. Covariance requires that the gravitational constant be generalized to an invariant quaternion when the mass is. The modification appears minor and of no importance cosmologically, unless one begins considering time and mass dependence of G.
General autocatalytic theory and simple model of financial markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thuy Anh, Chu; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2015-06-01
The concept of autocatalytic theory has become a powerful tool in understanding evolutionary processes in complex systems. A generalization of autocatalytic theory was assumed by considering that the initial element now is being some distribution instead of a constant value as in traditional theory. This initial condition leads to that the final element might have some distribution too. A simple physics model for financial markets is proposed, using this general autocatalytic theory. Some general behaviours of evolution process and risk moment of a financial market also are investigated in framework of this simple model.
Client-Controlled Case Information: A General System Theory Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitch, Dale
2004-01-01
The author proposes a model for client control of case information via the World Wide Web built on principles of general system theory. It incorporates the client into the design, resulting in an information structure that differs from traditional human services information-sharing practices. Referencing general system theory, the concepts of…
Analysis of composite laminates with a generalized zigzag theory
Liu, D.; Li, X.
1994-12-31
This study presents a generalized expression for laminate theories, namely a generalized zigzag theory. It unifies shear deformation theories, layerwise theories, and zigzag theories. To begin with, two layer-dependent variables are assumed for each in-plane displacement components. The layer-dependent variables can be converted into layer-independent variables through the enforcement of continuity conditions for both interlaminar displacements and interlaminar shear stresses. The total number of degrees-of-freedom of the theory then becomes layer-number independent and the computational efficiency is thus guaranteed. Since the properties of individual layers are considered in the analysis, the generalized zigzag theory gives excellent in-plane displacements and stresses in the cases examined by Pagano. Satisfactory transverse shear stresses can also be obtained directly from the constitutive equations. Although the interlaminar normal stresses are not forced to be continuous on the laminate interfaces, the discrepancy seems to be very insignificant.
General topology meets model theory, on and
Malliaris, Maryanthe; Shelah, Saharon
2013-01-01
Cantor proved in 1874 [Cantor G (1874) J Reine Angew Math 77:258–262] that the continuum is uncountable, and Hilbert’s first problem asks whether it is the smallest uncountable cardinal. A program arose to study cardinal invariants of the continuum, which measure the size of the continuum in various ways. By Gödel [Gödel K (1939) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25(4):220–224] and Cohen [Cohen P (1963) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 50(6):1143–1148], Hilbert’s first problem is independent of ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice). Much work both before and since has been done on inequalities between these cardinal invariants, but some basic questions have remained open despite Cohen’s introduction of forcing. The oldest and perhaps most famous of these is whether “,” which was proved in a special case by Rothberger [Rothberger F (1948) Fund Math 35:29–46], building on Hausdorff [Hausdorff (1936) Fund Math 26:241–255]. In this paper we explain how our work on the structure of Keisler’s order, a large-scale classification problem in model theory, led to the solution of this problem in ZFC as well as of an a priori unrelated open question in model theory. PMID:23836659
General Open Systems Theory and the Substrata-Factor Theory of Reading.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kling, Martin
This study was designed to extend the generality of the Substrata-Factor Theory by two methods of investigation: (1) theoretically, to est"blish the validity of the hypothesis that an isomorphic relationship exists between the Substrata-Factor Theory and the General Open Systems Theory, and (2) experimentally, to disc"ver through a series of…
GGADT: Generalized Geometry Anomalous Diffraction Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, John; Tarczon, Michael; Draine, Bruce T.
2015-10-01
GGADT uses anomalous diffraction theory (ADT) to compute the differential scattering cross section (or the total cross sections as a function of energy) for a specified grain of arbitrary geometry (natively supports spheres, ellipsoids, and clusters of spherical monomers). It is written in Fortran 95. ADT is valid when the grain is large compared to the wavelength of incident light. GGADT can calculate either the integrated cross sections (absorption, scattering, extinction) as a function of energy, or it can calculate the differential scattering cross section as a function of scattering angle.
General theory of thin wing sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munk, Max M
1923-01-01
This report contains a new, simple method of calculating the air forces to which thin wings are subjected at small angles of attack, if their curvature is not too great. Two simple integrals are the result. They contain only the coordinates of the wing section. The first integral gives the angle of attack at which the lift of the wing is zero, the second integral gives the moment experienced by the wing when its angle is zero. The two constants thus obtained are sufficient to determine the lift and moment for any other angle of attack. This with the theory of the aerodynamical induction, and with our empirical knowledge of the drag due to friction, the results are valuable for actual wings also. A particular result obtained is the calculation of the elevator effect. (author)
Covariant generalization of cosmological perturbation theory
Enqvist, Kari; Hoegdahl, Janne; Nurmi, Sami; Vernizzi, Filippo
2007-01-15
We present an approach to cosmological perturbations based on a covariant perturbative expansion between two worldlines in the real inhomogeneous universe. As an application, at an arbitrary order we define an exact scalar quantity which describes the inhomogeneities in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and which is conserved on all scales for a barotropic ideal fluid. We derive a compact form for its conservation equation at all orders and assign it a simple physical interpretation. To make a comparison with the standard perturbation theory, we develop a method to construct gauge-invariant quantities in a coordinate system at arbitrary order, which we apply to derive the form of the nth order perturbation in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and its exact evolution equation. On large scales, this provides the gauge-invariant expression for the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces and its evolution equation at any order.
An alternative topological field theory of generalized complex geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Noriaki; Tokunaga, Tatsuya
2007-09-01
We propose a new topological field theory on generalized complex geometry in two dimension using AKSZ formulation. Zucchini's model is A model in the case that the generalized complex structure depends on only a symplectic structure. Our new model is B model in the case that the generalized complex structure depends on only a complex structure.
Generalized Einstein-Aether theories and the Solar System
Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Zlosnik, Tom G.; Starkman, Glenn
2008-01-15
It has been shown that generalized Einstein-Aether theories may lead to significant modifications to the nonrelativistic limit of the Einstein equations. In this paper we study the effect of a general class of such theories on the Solar System. We consider corrections to the gravitational potential in negative and positive powers of distance from the source. Using measurements of the perihelion shift of Mercury and time delay of radar signals to Cassini, we place constraints on these corrections. We find that a subclass of generalized Einstein-Aether theories is compatible with these constraints.
Generalization of the theory of far-field caustics by the catastrophe theory.
Theocaris, P S; Michopoulos, J G
1982-03-15
To generalize the theory of far-field caustics, three theorems and several corollaries are presented in this paper. Using the law of reflection and catastrophe theory we have established conditions to predict caustic patterns in a 3-D space, which were created from the reflection of a light beam from an analytically known surface. The general theory was readily reduced to the already known cases of diffraction, indicating the validity of the general theory. Experimental evidence in two simple cases of reflectors, consisting of triangular and rectangular membranes, corroborated the results of the theory. PMID:20389809
Generalized Courant-Snyder Theory for Charged-Particle Dynamics in General Focusing Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Chung, Moses; Burby, Joshua W.
2013-09-01
The Courant-Snyder (CS) theory for one degree of freedom is generalized to the case of coupled transverse dynamics in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D sympletic rotation. The envelope equation, the transfer matrix, and the CS invariant of the original CS theory all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory.
Huang, Danhong; Lyo, S.K.
1999-08-09
The effect of higher-order corrections to the Born approximation is studied for the previously obtained giant conductance enhancement in tunnel-coupled double quantum wires in a parallel magnetic field. The relative correction is found to be significant and depends on various effects such as the magnetic field, electron and impurity densities, impurity positions, symmetric and asymmetric doping profiles, and center barrier thickness.
A general theory of turbulent fragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Philip F.
2013-04-01
We develop an analytic framework to understand fragmentation in turbulent, self-gravitating media. In previous work, we showed how some properties of turbulence can be predicted by application of the excursion-set formalism. Here, we generalize this to understand fully time-dependent gravo-turbulent fragmentation and collapse. We show that turbulent systems are always gravitationally unstable in a probabilistic sense. The fragmentation mass spectrum, size-mass-density-linewidth relations of collapsing objects, their correlation functions and clustering, the range of spatial scales over which fragmentation occurs, and the time-dependent rate of collapse/fragmentation (as a function of size/mass) are analytically predictable. We show how these depend on bulk properties of turbulence; fragmentation is promoted at higher Mach numbers and shallower power spectra. We also generalize the model to properly include rotation, complicated gas equations of state, collapsing/expanding backgrounds, magnetic fields, intermittency and non-normal statistics (with inherently correlated fluctuations). This allows us to formally derive how fragmentation is suppressed with `stiffer' equations of state (e.g. higher polytropic index γ) or differently driven turbulence (solenoidal versus compressive). The suppression appears at an `effective sonic scale' where b {M}(R_s, ρ _crit[R_s])≈ 1, with ρcrit being the (scale-dependent) critical density for fragmentation. Gas becomes stable against collapse below this scale for γ > 4/3; however, fragmentation still occurs on larger scales. We show that the scale-free nature of turbulence and gravity generically drives mass spectra and correlation functions towards universal shapes (observed in a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena), with weak residual dependence on many properties of the media. We find that correlated fluctuations on different scales, non-Gaussian density distributions and intermittency have surprisingly small effects on
Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle
Kober, Martin
2010-10-15
There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.
Density perturbations in general modified gravitational theories
De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Mukohyama, Shinji
2010-07-15
We derive the equations of linear cosmological perturbations for the general Lagrangian density f(R,{phi},X)/2+L{sub c}, where R is a Ricci scalar, {phi} is a scalar field, and X=-{partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}/}2 is a field kinetic energy. We take into account a nonlinear self-interaction term L{sub c}={xi}({phi}) {open_square}{phi}({partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}}) recently studied in the context of ''Galileon'' cosmology, which keeps the field equations at second order. Taking into account a scalar-field mass explicitly, the equations of matter density perturbations and gravitational potentials are obtained under a quasistatic approximation on subhorizon scales. We also derive conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with propagation speeds. Our analysis includes most of modified gravity models of dark energy proposed in literature; and thus it is convenient to test the viability of such models from both theoretical and observational points of view.
A generalized theory of preferential linking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Haibo; Guo, Jinli; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofan
2014-12-01
There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How do various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, and present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios. We study the mathematical structure of degree distributions and find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic and inverse tangent functions, and extremely complex network structure will emerge even for very simple sublinear preferential linking. This work not only provides a verifiable origin for the emergence of various network characteristics in social networks, but bridges the micro individuals' behaviors and the global organization of social networks.
Generalized pseudopotential theory of d-band metals
Moriarty, J.A.
1983-01-01
The generalized pseudopotential theory (GPT) of metals is reviewed with emphasis on recent developments. This theory, which attempts to rigorously extend to d-band metals the spirit of conventional simple-metal pseudopotential perturbation theory, has now been optimized and fully integrated with the Kohn-Sham local-density-functional formalism, allowing for systematic first-principles calculations. Recent work on the problems of cohesion, lattice dynamics, structural phase stability, pressure- and temperature-induced phase transitions, and melting is discussed.
Magnetotail acceleration using generalized drift theory - A kinetic merging scenario
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whipple, E. C.; Rosenberg, M.; Brittnacher, M.
1990-01-01
It is possible to describe particle behavior in the magnetotail, including particle energization, by means of generalized drift theory. Generalized drift velocities are obtained by using the generalized first invariant which has been shown to be useful in such current sheet configurations. Particles whose generalized invariant is preserved gain energy entirely in the field-aligned direction. The form of the accelerated particle velocity distribution is obtained and self-consistency conditions are derived.
General Strain Theory, Peer Rejection, and Delinquency/Crime
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, George E.; Piquero, Nicole L.; Piquero, Alex R.
2011-01-01
The development of general strain theory (GST) has led to a renewed focus on the influence of negative life experiences on antisocial behavior. Although a number of studies have generated an impressive array of support for the theory, several avenues remain open for research. In this article, we examine how a specific noxious stimuli, peer…
General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peery, Newman S., Jr.
1975-01-01
Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…
BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benton, S. J.; Ade, P. A.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.
2014-07-01
We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and power systems. For accurate timing control to tie everything together, the system operates in a fully synchronous manner. BLASTbus electronics have been successfully deployed to the South Pole, and own on stratospheric balloons.
Do People Use Their Implicit Theories of Creativity as General Theories?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hong; Kim, Jungsik; Ryu, Yeonjae; Song, Seokjong
2015-01-01
This study examines whether people use the general implicit theories of creativity or not when applying them to themselves and others. On the basis of the actor-observer asymmetry theory, the authors propose that conception of creativity would be differently constructed depending on the targets of attention: general, self, and other. Three studies…
Electric transition dipole moment in pre-Born-Oppenheimer molecular structure theory.
Simmen, Benjamin; Mátyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus
2014-10-21
This paper presents the calculation of the electric transition dipole moment in a pre-Born-Oppenheimer framework. Electrons and nuclei are treated equally in terms of the parametrization of the non-relativistic total wave function, which is written as a linear combination of basis functions constructed from explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and the global vector representation. The integrals of the electric transition dipole moment are derived corresponding to these basis functions in both the length and the velocity representation. The calculations are performed in laboratory-fixed Cartesian coordinates without relying on coordinates which separate the center of mass from the translationally invariant degrees of freedom. The effect of the overall motion is eliminated through translationally invariant integral expressions. The electric transition dipole moment is calculated between two rovibronic levels of the H2 molecule assignable to the lowest rovibrational states of the X (1)Σ(g)(+) and B (1)Σ(u)(+) electronic states in the clamped-nuclei framework. This is the first evaluation of this quantity in a full quantum mechanical treatment without relying on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. PMID:25338879
Quantum mechanical generalization of the balistic electron wind theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacina, A.
1980-06-01
The Fiks' quasiclassical theory of the electron wind force is quantum mechanically generalized. Within the framework of this generalization the space dependence of the electron wind force is calculated in the vicinity of an interface between two media. It is found that quantum corrections may be comparable with or even greater than corresponding quasiclassical values.
When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology
Messner, Steven F.
2016-01-01
This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives—Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory—that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally. PMID:27087864
Theory-independent limits on correlations from generalized Bayesian networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henson, Joe; Lal, Raymond; Pusey, Matthew F.
2014-11-01
Bayesian networks provide a powerful tool for reasoning about probabilistic causation, used in many areas of science. They are, however, intrinsically classical. In particular, Bayesian networks naturally yield the Bell inequalities. Inspired by this connection, we generalize the formalism of classical Bayesian networks in order to investigate non-classical correlations in arbitrary causal structures. Our framework of ‘generalized Bayesian networks’ replaces latent variables with the resources of any generalized probabilistic theory, most importantly quantum theory, but also, for example, Popescu-Rohrlich boxes. We obtain three main sets of results. Firstly, we prove that all of the observable conditional independences required by the classical theory also hold in our generalization; to obtain this, we extend the classical d-separation theorem to our setting. Secondly, we find that the theory-independent constraints on probabilities can go beyond these conditional independences. For example we find that no probabilistic theory predicts perfect correlation between three parties using only bipartite common causes. Finally, we begin a classification of those causal structures, such as the Bell scenario, that may yield a separation between classical, quantum and general-probabilistic correlations.
Hyperbolicity of physical theories with application to general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilditch, David; Richter, Ronny
2016-08-01
We consider gauge theories from the free evolution point of view, in which initial data satisfying constraints of a theory are given, and because the constraints satisfy a closed evolution system, they remain so. We study a model constrained Hamiltonian theory and identify a particular structure in the equations of motion which we call the standard gauge freedom. The pure gauge subsystem of this model theory is identified, and the manner in which the gauge variables couple to the field equations is presented. We demonstrate that the set of gauge choices that can be coupled to the field equations to obtain a strongly hyperbolic formulation is exactly the set of strongly hyperbolic pure gauges. Consequently we analyze a parametrized family of formulations of general relativity. The generalization of the harmonic gauge formulation to a five parameter family of gauge conditions is obtained.
General theory of Taylor dispersion phenomena. Part 3. Surface transport
Dill, L.H.; Brenner, H.
1982-01-01
An asymptotic theory of Brownian tracer particle transport phenomena within a bulk fluid, as augmented by surface transport, is presented in the context of generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The analysis expands upon prior work, which was limited to transport wholly within a continuous phase, so as to now include surface adsorption, diffusion, and convection of the tracer along a continuous surface bounding the continuous fluid phase.
An extended Coleman-Noll procedure for generalized continuum theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hütter, Geralf
2016-05-01
Within rational continuum mechanics, the Coleman-Noll procedure is established to derive requirements to constitutive equations. Aiming in particular at generalized continuum theories, the present contribution demonstrates how this procedure can be extended to yield additionally the underlying balance equations of stress-type quantities. This is demonstrated for micromorphic and strain gradient media as well as for the microforce theory. The relation between the extended Coleman-Noll procedure and the method of virtual powers is pointed out.
Construction of Lagrangian Local Symmetries for General Quadratic Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deriglazov, A. A.
We propose a procedure which allows one to construct local symmetry generators of general quadratic Lagrangian theory. Manifest recurrence relations for generators in terms of the so-called structure matrices of the Dirac formalism are obtained. The procedure fulfill in terms of initial variables of the theory, and does not imply either separation of constraints on first and second class subsets or any other choice of basis for constraints.
Generalized conservation laws in non-local field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kegeles, Alexander; Oriti, Daniele
2016-04-01
We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalized conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalization of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose-Einstein condensates. We expect our analysis and results to be of particular interest for the group field theory formulation of quantum gravity.
Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S
2015-10-14
Using a simple model Hamiltonian, the three correction terms for Born-Oppenheimer (BO) breakdown, the adiabatic diagonal correction (DC), the first-derivative momentum non-adiabatic correction (FD), and the second-derivative kinetic-energy non-adiabatic correction (SD), are shown to all contribute to thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties as well as to thermal non-diabatic chemical reaction rates. While DC often accounts for >80% of thermodynamic and spectroscopic property changes, the commonly used practice of including only the FD correction in kinetics calculations is rarely found to be adequate. For electron-transfer reactions not in the inverted region, the common physical picture that diabatic processes occur because of surface hopping at the transition state is proven inadequate as the DC acts first to block access, increasing the transition state energy by (ℏω)(2)λ/16J(2) (where λ is the reorganization energy, J the electronic coupling and ω the vibration frequency). However, the rate constant in the weakly-coupled Golden-Rule limit is identified as being only inversely proportional to this change rather than exponentially damped, owing to the effects of tunneling and surface hopping. Such weakly-coupled long-range electron-transfer processes should therefore not be described as "non-adiabatic" processes as they are easily described by Born-Huang ground-state adiabatic surfaces made by adding the DC to the BO surfaces; instead, they should be called just "non-Born-Oppenheimer" processes. The model system studied consists of two diabatic harmonic potential-energy surfaces coupled linearly through a single vibration, the "two-site Holstein model". Analytical expressions are derived for the BO breakdown terms, and the model is solved over a large parameter space focusing on both the lowest-energy spectroscopic transitions and the quantum dynamics of coherent-state wavepackets. BO breakdown is investigated pertinent to: ammonia inversion, aromaticity
A general-purpose balloon-borne pointing system for solar scientific instruments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polites, M. E.
1990-01-01
A general purpose balloonborne pointing system for accommodating a wide variety of solar scientific instruments is described. It is designed for precise pointing, low cost, and quick launch. It offers the option of three-axis control, pitch-yaw-roll, or two-axis control, pitch-yaw, depending on the needs of the solar instrument. Simulation results are presented that indicate good pointing capability at Sun elevation angles ranging from 10 to 80 deg.
How General is General Strain Theory? Assessing Determinacy and Indeterminacy across Life Domains
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Coster, Stacy; Kort-Butler, Lisa
2006-01-01
This article explores how assumptions of determinacy and indeterminacy apply to general strain theory. Theories assuming determinacy assert that motivational conditions determine specific forms of deviant adaptations, whereas those assuming indeterminacy propose that a given social circumstance can predispose a person toward many forms of…
Ward identities and renormalization of general gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigore, D. R.
2004-02-01
We introduce the concept of general gauge theory which includes Yang-Mills models. We use the framework of the causal approach and show that the anomalies can appear only in the vacuum sector of the identities obtained from the gauge invariance condition by applying derivatives with respect to the basic fields. For the Yang-Mills model we provide these identities in the lowest orders of the perturbation theory and prove that they are valid. The investigation of higher orders of the perturbation theory is still an open problem.
Derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petti, Richard
2016-03-01
This article presents a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity with no additional assumptions or parameters. The derivation begins with distributions of Kerr masses that converge to a continuum with constant densities of mass, momentum, and angular momentum. The limit includes torsion and the spin-torsion relationship of Einstein-Cartan theory. The construction of curvature and torsion is equivalent to definition of curvature with Cartan forms on fiber bundles. Advantages of Einstein-Cartan theory include accommodating exchange of classical intrinsic and orbital angular momentum and generation of inflation-like expansion in high density cosmological models.
General theory for apparent energy distribution of sea waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ke-Jian; Sun, Fu
1997-12-01
This paper presents a general theory for the apparent energy distribution of sea waves. Using the joint distribution of wave periods and heights proposed earlier by the second author, the authors define the generalized apparent energy distribution and derive the analytical form of the so called generalized outer frequency spectrum or nth-order frequency spectrum. Some possible relationships between it and the Fourier frequency spectrum are discussed. It is shown that the widely used Bretschneider spectrum can be easily obtained from the above definition and that generalized outer frequency spectrum has equilibrium range with exponent -( n+3) whose upper limit is -3.
On the general theory of thin airfoils for nonuniform motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reissner, Eric
1944-01-01
General thin-airfoil theory for a compressible fluid is formulated as boundary problem for the velocity potential, without recourse to the theory of vortex motion. On the basis of this formulation the integral equation of lifting-surface theory for an incompressible fluid is derived with the chordwise component of the fluid velocity at the airfoil as the function to be determined. It is shown how by integration by parts this integral equation can be transformed into the Biot-Savart theorem. A clarification is gained regarding the use of principal value definitions for the integral which occur. The integral equation of lifting-surface theory is used a s the starting point for the establishment of a theory for the nonstationary airfoil which is a generalization of lifting-line theory for the stationary airfoil and which might be called "lifting-strip" theory. Explicit expressions are given for section lift and section moment in terms of the circulation function, which for any given wing deflection is to be determined from an integral equation which is of the type of the equation of lifting-line theory. The results obtained are for airfoils of uniform chord. They can be extended to tapered airfoils. One of the main uses of the results should be that they furnish a practical means for the analysis of the aerodynamic span effect in the problem of wing flutter. The range of applicability of "lifting-strip" theory is the same as that of lifting-line theory so that its results may be applied to airfoils with aspect ratios as low as three.
Emmy Noether on Conservation of Energy in the General Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byers, Nina
2005-03-01
Emmy Noether proved two deep theorems, and their converses, on the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The work was done following Hilbert's discovery of the Hilbert-Einstein lagrangian and his derivation of the general theory from Hamilton's principle .The failure of local energy conservation in the general theory was a problem that concerned many at that time. Noether proved theorems which solved the problem. With her characteristically deep insight and thorough analysis, she proved very general theorems that have profoundly influenced modern physics. Einstein wrote to Hilbert ``Yesterday I received from Miss Noether a very interesting paper on invariant forms. I am impressed that one can comprehend these matters from so general a viewpoint. It would not have done the old guard at Göttingen any harm had they picked up a thing or two from her..."
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Urbasi
2011-09-01
This paper is based on work published in [1]. It describes a triple slit experiment using single photons that has been used to provide a bound on one of the most fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics i.e. Born's rule for probabilities [2]. In spite of being one of the most successful theories which describes various natural phenomena, quantum mechanics has enough intricacies and "weirdness" associated with it which makes many physicists believe that it may not be the final theory and hints towards the possibility of more generalized versions. Quantum interference as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment only occurs from pairs of paths. Even in multi-slit versions, interference can only occur between pairs of possibilities and increasing the number of slits does not increase the complexity of the theory that still remains second-order. However, more generalized versions of quantum mechanics may allow for multi-path i.e. higher than second order interference. This experiment also provides a bound on the magnitude of such higher order interference. We have been able to bound the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10-2 of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule.
The general class of the vacuum spherically symmetric equations of the general relativity theory
Karbanovski, V. V. Sorokin, O. M.; Nesterova, M. I.; Bolotnyaya, V. A.; Markov, V. N. Kairov, T. V.; Lyash, A. A.; Tarasyuk, O. R.
2012-08-15
The system of the spherical-symmetric vacuum equations of the General Relativity Theory is considered. The general solution to a problem representing two classes of line elements with arbitrary functions g{sub 00} and g{sub 22} is obtained. The properties of the found solutions are analyzed.
Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul
2010-01-01
Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…
An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, Charles O.
1992-01-01
Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)
What Should Instructional Designers Know about General Systems Theory?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salisbury, David F.
1989-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and explains the relationship between instructional systems design (ISD) and GST. Benefits of integrating GST into the curriculum of ISD graduate programs are discussed, and a short bibliography on GST is included. (LRW)
Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R.; Galloway, James Cole
2014-01-01
Background and Purpose Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Case Description Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Outcomes Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Discussion Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. PMID:24903116
Gravitation experiments at Stanford. [using general relativity theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lipa, J. A.
1980-01-01
The experimental situation in post-Newtonian gravitation is briefly reviewed in order to reexamine the extent to which experiment supports or refutes general relativity. A description is given of the equivalence principle project, the gyroscope experiment, and the search for gravity waves. It is noted that even though some doubt has been cast on the value of the perihelion advance and the gravitational redshift as precise tests of general relativity in the past few years, many competing theories have been ruled out; in particular, the results from the Viking mission significantly reduce the credibility of the Brans-Dicke theory (Brans and Dicke, 1961). The dimensionless constant omega in this theory is now forced to exceed 50, while the value originally proposed was 6 (omega being infinity in general relativity). It is noted that the gyro experiment described is capable of putting much tighter limits on this parameter, and together with the other experiments in progress will help place gravitational theory on a firmer experimental footing.
Entropy and information causality in general probabilistic theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, Howard; Barrett, Jonathan; Orloff Clark, Lisa; Leifer, Matthew; Spekkens, Robert; Stepanik, Nicholas; Wilce, Alex; Wilke, Robin
2010-03-01
We investigate the concept of entropy in probabilistic theories more general than quantum mechanics, with particular reference to the notion of information causality (IC) recently proposed by Pawlowski et al (2009 arXiv:0905.2292). We consider two entropic quantities, which we term measurement and mixing entropy. In the context of classical and quantum theory, these coincide, being given by the Shannon and von Neumann entropies, respectively; in general, however, they are very different. In particular, while measurement entropy is easily seen to be concave, mixing entropy need not be. In fact, as we show, mixing entropy is not concave whenever the state space is a non-simplicial polytope. Thus, the condition that measurement and mixing entropies coincide is a strong constraint on possible theories. We call theories with this property monoentropic. Measurement entropy is subadditive, but not in general strongly subadditive. Equivalently, if we define the mutual information between two systems A and B by the usual formula I(A: B)=H(A)+H(B)-H(AB), where H denotes the measurement entropy and AB is a non-signaling composite of A and B, then it can happen that I(A:BC)theory in which measurement entropy is strongly subadditive, and also satisfies a version of the Holevo bound, is informationally causal, and on the other hand we observe that Popescu-Rohrlich boxes, which violate IC, also violate strong subadditivity. We also explore the interplay between measurement and mixing entropy and various natural conditions on theories that arise in quantum axiomatics.
Generality with specificity: the dynamic field theory generalizes across tasks and time scales
Simmering, Vanessa R.; Spencer, John P.
2008-01-01
A central goal in cognitive and developmental science is to develop models of behavior that can generalize across both tasks and development while maintaining a commitment to detailed behavioral prediction. This paper presents tests of one such model, the Dynamic Field Theory (DFT). The DFT was originally proposed to capture delay-dependent biases in spatial recall and developmental changes in spatial recall performance. More recently, the theory was generalized to adults’ performance in a second spatial working memory task, position discrimination. Here we use the theory to predict a specific, complex developmental pattern in position discrimination. Data with 3- to 6-year-old children and adults confirm these predictions, demonstrating that the DFT achieves generality across tasks and time scales, as well as the specificity necessary to generate novel, falsifiable predictions. PMID:18576962
Dirac-born-infeld and k-inflation: The CMB anisotropies from string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ringeval, Christophe
2010-01-01
Inflationary models within string theory exhibit unusual scalar field dynamics involving non-minimal kinetic terms and generically referred to as k-inflation. In this situation, the standard slow-roll approach used to determine the behavior of the primordial cosmological perturbations cannot longer be used. We present a generic method, based on the uniform approximation, to analytically derive the primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations. At leading order, the scalar spectral index, its running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are modified by the new dynamics. We provide their new expression, correct previous results at next-to-leading order and clarify the definition of what is the tensor-to-scalar ratio when the sound horizon and Hubble radius are not the same. Finally, we discuss the constraints the parameters encoding the non-minimal kinetic terms have to satisfy, such as the sound speed and the energy scale of k-inflation, in view of the fifth year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) data.
A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagos, Macarena; Baker, Tessa; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Noller, Johannes
2016-08-01
We present a method for parametrizing linear cosmological perturbations of theories of gravity, around homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds. The method is sufficiently general and systematic that it can be applied to theories with any degrees of freedom (DoFs) and arbitrary gauge symmetries. In this paper, we focus on scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, invariant under linear coordinate transformations. In the case of scalar-tensor theories, we use our framework to recover the simple parametrizations of linearized Horndeski and ``Beyond Horndeski'' theories, and also find higher-derivative corrections. In the case of vector-tensor theories, we first construct the most general quadratic action for perturbations that leads to second-order equations of motion, which propagates two scalar DoFs. Then we specialize to the case in which the vector field is time-like (à la Einstein-Aether gravity), where the theory only propagates one scalar DoF. As a result, we identify the complete forms of the quadratic actions for perturbations, and the number of free parameters that need to be defined, to cosmologically characterize these two broad classes of theories.
General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank
2014-01-01
In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.
Testing general metric theories of gravity with bursting neutron stars
Psaltis, Dimitrios
2008-03-15
I show that several observable properties of bursting neutron stars in metric theories of gravity can be calculated using only conservation laws, Killing symmetries, and the Einstein equivalence principle, without requiring the validity of the general relativistic field equations. I calculate, in particular, the gravitational redshift of a surface atomic line, the touchdown luminosity of a radius-expansion burst, which is believed to be equal to the Eddington critical luminosity, and the apparent surface area of a neutron star as measured during the cooling tails of bursts. I show that, for a general metric theory of gravity, the apparent surface area of a neutron star depends on the coordinate radius of the stellar surface and on its gravitational redshift in the exact same way as in general relativity. On the other hand, the Eddington critical luminosity depends also on an additional parameter that measures the degree to which the general relativistic field equations are satisfied. These results can be used in conjunction with current and future high-energy observations of bursting neutron stars to test general relativity in the strong-field regime.
Magnetotail equilibrium theory - The general three-dimensional solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birn, J.
1987-01-01
The general magnetostatic equilibrium problem for the geomagnetic tail is reduced to the solution of ordinary differential equations and ordinary integrals. The theory allows the integration of the self-consistent magnetotail equilibrium field from the knowledge of four functions of two space variables: the neutral sheet location, the total pressure, the magnetic field strength, and the z component of the magnetic field at the neutral sheet.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smalley, L. L.
1983-01-01
The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-07-01
Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized Γ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized Γ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on the gauge-fixing parameters, although the physical quantities remain gauge independent. We discuss nontrivial checks of high-order calculations based on gauge independence and determine how powerful they are.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moon, Byongook; Hwang, Hye-Won; McCluskey, John D.
2011-01-01
A growing number of studies indicate the ubiquity of school bullying: It is a global concern, regardless of cultural differences. Little previous research has examined whether leading criminological theories can explain bullying, despite the commonality between bullying and delinquency. The current investigation uses longitudinal data on 655…
General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandes, Jürgen
In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.
Generality with Specificity: The Dynamic Field Theory Generalizes across Tasks and Time Scales
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simmering, Vanessa R.; Spencer, John P.
2008-01-01
A central goal in cognitive and developmental science is to develop models of behavior that can generalize across both tasks and development while maintaining a commitment to detailed behavioral prediction. This paper presents tests of one such model, the Dynamic Field Theory (DFT). The DFT was originally proposed to capture delay-dependent biases…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, David T.
Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful and accurate physical theory, yet since its inception, it has been afflicted with numerous conceptual difficulties. The primary subject of this thesis is the theory of entropic quantum dynamics (EQD), which seeks to avoid these conceptual problems by interpreting quantum theory from an informational perspective. We begin by reviewing Cox's work in describing probability theory as a means of rationally and consistently quantifying uncertainties. We then discuss how probabilities can be updated according to either Bayes' theorem or the extended method of maximum entropy (ME). After that discussion, we review the work of Caticha and Giffin that shows that Bayes' theorem is a special case of ME. This important result demonstrates that the ME method is the general method for updating probabilities. We then review some motivating difficulties in quantum mechanics before discussing Caticha's work in deriving quantum theory from the approach of entropic dynamics, which concludes our review. After entropic dynamics is introduced, we develop the concepts of symmetries and transformations from an informational perspective. The primary result is the formulation of a symmetry condition that any transformation must satisfy in order to qualify as a symmetry in EQD. We then proceed to apply this condition to the extended Galilean transformation. This transformation is of interest as it exhibits features of both special and general relativity. The transformation yields a gravitational potential that arises from an equivalence of information. We conclude the thesis with a discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We discuss the difficulties that arise in the standard quantum mechanical approach to measurement before developing our theory of entropic measurement. In entropic dynamics, position is the only observable. We show how a theory built on this one observable can account for the multitude of measurements present in
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cook, Desmond L.
This document, one of a series of reports examining the possible contribution of other disciplines to evaluation methodology, describes the major elements of general systems theory (GST), cybernetics theory (CT) and management control theory (MCT). The author suggests that MCT encapsulates major concerns of evaluation since it reveals that…
Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.
2004-01-01
In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.
Early Recollections of First-Borns.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.
1984-01-01
Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)
Proper Time Dynamics in General Relativity and Conformal Unified Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyngazov, L. N.; Pawlowski, M.; Pervushin, V. N.; Smirichinski, V. I.
1998-12-01
The paper is devoted to the description a measurable time-interval ("proper time") in the Hamiltonian version of general relativity with the Dirac-ADM metric. To separate the dynamical parameter of evolution from the space metric we use the Lichnerowicz conformally invariant variables. In terms of these variables GR is equivalent to the conformally invariant Penrose-Chernikov-Tagirov theory of a scalar field the role of which is played by the scale factor multiplied by the Planck constant. Identification of this scalar field with the modulus of the Higgs field in the standard model of electroweak and strong interactions allows us to formulate an example of conformally invariant unified theory where the vacuum averaging of the scalar field is determined by cosmological integrals of motion of the evolution of the universe.
Unsteady compressible potential flow around lifting bodies - General theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1973-01-01
The general theory of potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green's function method, an integral representation for the velocity potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. This representation reduces properly to the lifting surface theories as well as to other classical mathematical formulas. Under small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point P in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body. Hence, if the point P approaches the surface of the body, the representation reduces to an integrodifferential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body.
Potential Performance Theory (PPT): A General Theory of Task Performance Applied to Morality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trafimow, David; Rice, Stephen
2008-01-01
People can use a variety of different strategies to perform tasks and these strategies all have two characteristics in common. First, they can be evaluated in comparison with either an absolute or a relative standard. Second, they can be used at varying levels of consistency. In the present article, the authors develop a general theory of task…
Flaws in Black Hole Theory and General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crothers, Stephen J.
2014-03-01
Alleged black hole models pertain to a universe that is spatially infinite, is eternal, contains only one mass, is not expanding, and is asymptotically flat or asymptotically not flat. But the alleged big bang cosmology pertains to a universe that is spatially finite (one case) or spatially infinite (two different cases), is of finite age, contains radiation and many masses including multiple black holes (some of which are primordial), is expanding, and is not asymptotically anything. Thus the black hole and the big bang contradict one another - they are mutually exclusive. It is surprisingly easy to prove that neither General Relativity nor Newton's theory predicts the black hole. Despite numerous claims for discovery of black holes in their millions, nobody has ever actually found one. It is also not difficult to prove that General Relativity violates the usual conservation of energy and momentum. Fundamentally there are contradictions contained in black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity. Numerical methods are therefore to no avail.
Dynamical horizon entropy and equilibrium thermodynamics of generalized gravity theories
Wu Shaofeng; Ge Xianhui; Yang Guohong; Zhang Pengming
2010-02-15
We study the relation between the thermodynamics and field equations of generalized gravity theories on the dynamical trapping horizon with sphere symmetry. We assume the entropy of a dynamical horizon as the Noether charge associated with the Kodama vector and point out that it satisfies the second law when a Gibbs equation holds. We generalize two kinds of Gibbs equations to Gauss-Bonnet gravity on any trapping horizon. Based on the quasilocal gravitational energy found recently for f(R) gravity and scalar-tensor gravity in some special cases, we also build up the Gibbs equations, where the nonequilibrium entropy production, which is usually invoked to balance the energy conservation, is just absorbed into the modified Wald entropy in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with slowly varying horizon. Moreover, the equilibrium thermodynamic identity remains valid for f(R) gravity in a static spacetime. Our work provides an alternative treatment to reinterpret the nonequilibrium correction and supports the idea that the horizon thermodynamics is universal for generalized gravity theories.
General Strain Theory and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents.
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle
2013-01-01
Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected. PMID:23826511
Generalized probabilistic theories and conic extensions of polytopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiorini, Samuel; Massar, Serge; Patra, Manas K.; Tiwary, Hans Raj
2015-01-01
Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT) provide a general framework that includes classical and quantum theories. It is described by a cone C and its dual C*. We show that whether some one-way communication complexity problems can be solved within a GPT is equivalent to the recently introduced cone factorization of the corresponding communication matrix M. We also prove an analogue of Holevo's theorem: when the cone C is contained in {{{R}}n}, the classical capacity of the channel realized by sending GPT states and measuring them is bounded by log n. Polytopes and optimising functions over polytopes arise in many areas of discrete mathematics. A conic extension of a polytope is the intersection of a cone C with an affine subspace whose projection onto the original space yields the desired polytope. Extensions of polytopes can sometimes be much simpler geometric objects than the polytope itself. The existence of a conic extension of a polytope is equivalent to that of a cone factorization of the slack matrix of the polytope, on the same cone. We show that all 0/1 polytopes whose vertices can be recognized by a polynomial size circuit, which includes as a special case the travelling salesman polytope and many other polytopes from combinatorial optimization, have small conic extension complexity when the cone is the completely positive cone. Using recent exponential lower bounds on the linear extension complexity of polytopes, this provides an exponential gap between the communication complexity of GPT based on the completely positive cone and classical communication complexity, and a conjectured exponential gap with quantum communication complexity. Our work thus relates the communication complexity of generalizations of quantum theory to questions of mainstream interest in the area of combinatorial optimization.
Multiphoton-scattering theory and generalized master equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Tao; Chang, Darrick E.; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2015-11-01
We develop a scattering theory to investigate the multiphoton transmission in a one-dimensional waveguide in the presence of quantum emitters. It is based on a path integral formalism, uses displacement transformations, and does not require the Markov approximation. We obtain the full time evolution of the global system, including the emitters and the photonic field. Our theory allows us to compute the transition amplitude between arbitrary initial and final states, as well as the S matrix of the asymptotic in and out states. For the case of few incident photons in the waveguide, we also rederive a generalized master equation in the Markov limit. We compare the predictions of the developed scattering theory and that with the Markov approximation. We illustrate our methods with five examples of few-photon scattering: (i) by a two-level emitter, (ii) in the Jaynes-Cummings model; (iii) by an array of two-level emitters; (iv) by a two-level emitter in the half-end waveguide; and (v) by an array of atoms coupled to Rydberg levels. In the first two, we show the application of the scattering theory in the photon scattering by a single emitter, and examine the correctness of our theory with the well-known results. In the third example, we analyze the condition of the Markov approximation for the photon scattering in the array of emitters. In the fourth one, we show how a quantum emitter can generate entanglement of outgoing photons. Finally, we highlight the interplay between the phenomenon of electromagnetic-induced transparency and the Rydberg interaction, and show how this results in a rich variety of possibilities in the quantum statistics of the scattering photons.
A general geometric theory of attitude determination from directional sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fang, B. T.
1976-01-01
A general geometric theory of spacecraft attitude determination from external reference direction sensors was presented. Outputs of different sensors are reduced to two kinds of basic directional measurements. Errors in these measurement equations are studied in detail. The partial derivatives of measurements with respect to the spacecraft orbit, the spacecraft attitude, and the error parameters form the basis for all orbit and attitude determination schemes and error analysis programs and are presented in a series of tables. The question of attitude observability is studied with the introduction of a graphical construction which provides a great deal of physical insight. The result is applied to the attitude observability of the IMP-8 spacecraft.
General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.
2006-01-01
The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.
Entanglement witnesses for graph states: General theory and examples
Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Guehne, Otfried
2011-09-15
We present a general theory for the construction of witnesses that detect genuine multipartite entanglement in graph states. First, we present explicit witnesses for all graph states of up to six qubits which are better than all criteria so far. Therefore, lower fidelities are required in experiments that aim at the preparation of graph states. Building on these results, we develop analytical methods to construct two different types of entanglement witnesses for general graph states. For many classes of states, these operators exhibit white noise tolerances that converge to 1 when increasing the number of particles. We illustrate our approach for states such as the linear and the 2D cluster state. Finally, we study an entanglement monotone motivated by our approach for graph states.
Lin, Chih-Ming; Angot, Ludovic
2008-06-15
The first Born approximation is applied to calculate the angular selectivity for different positions on the reconstructed image as a function of the object beam's optical axis angle theta(ob) and reference beam angle theta(rw) for a holographic data storage system that records the Fourier transform holograms in a medium with an infinite plane-wave reference beam. Results are compared with those calculated by the coupled-wave theory. PMID:18552937
No-go theorems for generalized chameleon field theories.
Wang, Junpu; Hui, Lam; Khoury, Justin
2012-12-14
The chameleon, or generalizations thereof, is a light scalar that couples to matter with gravitational strength, but whose manifestation depends on the ambient matter density. A key feature is that the screening mechanism suppressing its effects in high-density environments is determined by the local scalar field value. Under very general conditions, we prove two theorems limiting its cosmological impact: (i) the Compton wavelength of such a scalar can be at most ~/= 1 MPc at the present cosmic density, which restricts its impact to nonlinear scales; and (ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time, which precludes the possibility of self-acceleration. These results imply that chameleonlike scalar fields have a negligible effect on the linear-scale growth history; theories that invoke a chameleonlike scalar to explain cosmic acceleration rely on a form of dark energy rather than a genuine modified gravity effect. Our analysis applies to a broad class of chameleon, symmetron, and dilaton theories. PMID:23368302
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Walt, Patrick S.
2009-01-01
This dissertation explores the applicability of a "stretched" Expanded Nigrescence theory (Cross and Vandiver 2001; NT-E) to the racial identities/attitudes of six First Generation U.S.-Born Africans (FGAs) at a predominantly White institution (PWI). This instrumental case study blended ethnographic techniques and surveys to tell the stories of…
General Cavity Theories for Photon and Neutron Dosimetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kearsley, Eric Edward
1982-03-01
The aim of a general cavity theory is to predict the energy deposition from a source of ionizing radiation in a cavity of arbitrary size and composition. This thesis proposes two new general cavity theories. The first is intended for cavities in photon fields. The second is for spherical cavities in fast neutron fields. Both models can be written in the familiar form of the Burlin cavity theory. The proposed photon model takes into account the effect of secondary electron scattering at the cavity boundaries. The model can be used to calculate the average cavity dose, the dose distribution inside the cavity, as well as the relative contributions of the wall and the cavity to the cavity response. A comparison is made between the proposed model, the well known Burlin model, and experimental data. The second model discussed is a calculation of the response of a sphere of arbitrary size in a fast neutron field. The dose deposited in the cavity is calculated taking into account the energy dependence of the stopping power, the secondary starting energy distribution, and the cavity volume. An analytical solution is derived. From this a simple three parameter power function is fitted which accurately predicts cavity doses to within 0.1% of the values predicted by the analytical model. Results of the calculation are given in a table for TE/TE, TE/air, and C/CO2 wall-gas combinations for neutron energies between 0.76 Mev and 14 Mev and cavity sizes between 0.01 cm('3) and 10 cm('3). These results are compared with a more detailed calculation. There is good agreement between the two methods under 5 MeV in all cases and up to 14 MeV in the hydrogenous cases. That is, the model works well when elastic scattering interactions dominate the cavity response.
Generalized energy conditions in extended theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, José P.
2015-06-01
In this work, we consider the further degrees of freedom related to curvature invariants and scalar fields in extended theories of gravity (ETG). These new degrees of freedom can be recast as "effective fluids" that differ in nature with respect to the standard matter fluids generally adopted as sources of the field equations. It is, thus, somewhat misleading to apply the standard general relativistic energy conditions to this effective energy-momentum tensor, as the latter contains the matter content and a geometrical quantity, which arises from the specific ETG considered. Here we explore this subtlety, extending our previous work, in particular, to cases with the contracted Bianchi identities with diffeomorphism invariance and to cases with generalized explicit curvature-matter couplings, which imply the nonconservation of the energy-momentum tensor. Furthermore, we apply the analysis to specific ETGs, such as scalar-tensor gravity and f (R ) gravity. Thus, in the context of ETGs, interesting results appear such as matter that may exhibit unusual thermodynamical features, for instance, gravity that retains its attractive character in the presence of large negative pressures; or alternatively, we verify that repulsive gravity may occur for standard matter.
Double metric, generalized metric, and α' -deformed double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton
2016-03-01
We relate the unconstrained "double metric" of the "α' -geometry" formulation of double field theory to the constrained generalized metric encoding the spacetime metric and b -field. This is achieved by integrating out auxiliary field components of the double metric in an iterative procedure that induces an infinite number of higher-derivative corrections. As an application, we prove that, to first order in α' and to all orders in fields, the deformed gauge transformations are Green-Schwarz-deformed diffeomorphisms. We also prove that to first order in α' the spacetime action encodes precisely the Green-Schwarz deformation with Chern-Simons forms based on the torsionless gravitational connection. This seems to be in tension with suggestions in the literature that T-duality requires a torsionful connection, but we explain that these assertions are ambiguous since actions that use different connections are related by field redefinitions.
Slab waveguide theory for general multi-slot waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, ZiChun; Yin, LiXiang; Zou, Yu; Wu, Xiang
2016-07-01
Optical devices based on slot waveguide are of considerable interest in numerous applications due to the distinct feature of strong electric field confinement in a low-refractive index region. A theoretical model based on multi-slab waveguide theory is used to reveal the physical mechanism of the slot waveguide. The calculation results derived from the basic Helmholtz equation for the conventional single-slot waveguide with a ~2% validation of the effective refractive index are compared to the former experiment results by the Cornell University group. Moreover, we extend the theoretical model to a general multi-slot waveguide. Its electric field distribution and key properties such as optical power confinement factor and enhancement factor in slot are deduced theoretically and fully discussed.
A General Theory of Unsteady Compressible Potential Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1974-01-01
The general theory of potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green function method, an integral representation for the potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. Under small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point, P, in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface, sigma, of the body. Hence, if the point P approaches the surface of the body, the representation reduces to an integro-differential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative (which is known from the boundary conditions) on the surface sigma. For the important practical case of small harmonic oscillation around a rest position, the equation reduces to a two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation of second-type. It is shown that this equation reduces properly to the lifting surface theories as well as other classical mathematical formulas. The question of uniqueness is examined and it is shown that, for thin wings, the operator becomes singular as the thickness approaches zero. This fact may yield numerical problems for very thin wings.
Gender, General Strain Theory, negative emotions, and disordered eating.
Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul
2010-04-01
Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal-especially violent-activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally female-specific self-directed outcome. Using a sample of 338 young adults (54% female, 95% white), this article applies GST to disordered eating by examining how strain and negative emotions relate to this particular outcome across gender. Findings indicate that two types of strain measures predict depressive symptoms among males and females, that inequitable strainful experiences relate to disordered eating among females but not males, that depressive symptoms but not anger increase disordered eating for both males and females, and that membership in Greek organizations (sororities or fraternities) is associated with disordered eating but only for males. Implications for theory and directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:19882239
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-08-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to nontrivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling Geff with matter density perturbations under a quasistatic approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility for reducing Geff. In fact, within the parameter space, Geff can be even smaller than the Newton gravitational constant G at the late cosmological epoch, with a peculiar phantom dark energy equation of state (without ghosts). The modifications to the slip parameter η and the evolution of the growth rate f σ8 are discussed as well. Thus, dark energy models in the framework of generalized Proca theories can be observationally distinguished from the Λ CDM model according to both cosmic growth and expansion history. Furthermore, we study the evolution of vector perturbations and show that outside the vector sound horizon the perturbations are nearly frozen and start to decay with oscillations after the horizon entry.
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses
2014-04-08
The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a Uð2Þ element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function β. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses
2014-04-01
The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a U(2) element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function β. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.
Cortical entropy changes with general anaesthesia: theory and experiment.
Sleigh, J W; Steyn-Ross, D A; Steyn-Ross, M L; Grant, C; Ludbrook, G
2004-08-01
Commonly used general anaesthetics cause a decrease in the spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram as the patient transits from the conscious to the unconscious state. Although the spectral entropy is a configurational entropy, it is plausible that the spectral entropy may be acting as a reliable indicator of real changes in cortical neuronal interactions. Using a mean field theory, the activity of the cerebral cortex may be modelled as fluctuations in mean soma potential around equilibrium states. In the adiabatic limit, the stochastic differential equations take the form of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. It can be shown that spectral entropy is a logarithmic measure of the rate of synaptic interaction. This model predicts that the spectral entropy should decrease abruptly from values approximately 1.0 to values of approximately 0.7 as the patient becomes unconscious during induction of general anaesthesia, and then not decrease significantly on further deepening of anaesthesia. These predictions were compared with experimental results in which electrocorticograms and brain concentrations of propofol were recorded in seven sheep during induction of anaesthesia with intravenous propofol. The observed changes in spectral entropy agreed with the theoretical predictions. We conclude that spectral entropy may be a sensitive monitor of the consciousness-unconsciousness transition, rather than a progressive indicator of anaesthetic drug effect. PMID:15382831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hong
2014-10-01
The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices is analyzed using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The general focusing lattices are allowed to include quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, solenoidal, and dipole components, as well as variation of beam energy and torsion of the fiducial orbit. The scalar envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the scalar envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation. The phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or an U(2) element. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the CS invariant, transfer matrix, and Twiss functions all have their counterparts in the generalized theory with remarkably similar expressions. The gauge group of the generalized theory is analyzed. If the gauge freedom is fixed with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space quantum mechanics and optics has been recently realized. It is shown that the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice are uniquely determined by the generalized phase advance. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory developed enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to significantly simplify the theoretical and numerical analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study the coupled dynamics of high-intensity charged particle beams and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Shock wave polarizations and optical metrics in the Born and the Born-Infeld electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minz, Christoph; von Borzeszkowski, Horst-Heino; Chrobok, Thoralf; Schellstede, Gerold
2016-01-01
We analyze the behavior of shock waves in nonlinear theories of electrodynamics. For this, by use of generalized Hadamard step functions of increasing order, the electromagnetic potential is developed in a series expansion near the shock wave front. This brings about a corresponding expansion of the respective electromagnetic field equations which allows for deriving relations that determine the jump coefficients in the expansion series of the potential. We compute the components of a suitable gauge-normalized version of the jump coefficients given for a prescribed tetrad compatible with the shock front foliation. The solution of the first-order jump relations shows that, in contrast to linear Maxwell's electrodynamics, in general the propagation of shock waves in nonlinear theories is governed by optical metrics and polarization conditions describing the propagation of two differently polarized waves (leading to a possible appearance of birefringence). In detail, shock waves are analyzed in the Born and Born-Infeld theories verifying that the Born-Infeld model exhibits no birefringence and the Born model does. The obtained results are compared to those ones found in literature. New results for the polarization of the two different waves are derived for Born-type electrodynamics.
A general theory of multimetric indices and their properties
Schoolmaster, Donald R., Jr.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William
2012-01-01
1. Stewardship of biological and ecological resources requires the ability to make integrative assessments of ecological integrity. One of the emerging methods for making such integrative assessments is multimetric indices (MMIs). These indices synthesize data, often from multiple levels of biological organization, with the goal of deriving a single index that reflects the overall effects of human disturbance. Despite the widespread use of MMIs, there is uncertainty about why this approach can be effective. An understanding of MMIs requires a quantitative theory that illustrates how the properties of candidate metrics relates to MMIs generated from those metrics. 2. We present the initial basis for such a theory by deriving the general mathematical characteristics of MMIs assembled from metrics. We then use the theory to derive quantitative answers to the following questions: Is there an optimal number of metrics to comprise an index? How does covariance among metrics affect the performance of the index derived from those metrics? And what are the criteria to decide whether a given metric will improve the performance of an index? 3. We find that the optimal number of metrics to be included in an index depends on the theoretical distribution of signal of the disturbance gradient contained in each metric. For example, if the rank-ordered parameters of a metric-disturbance regression can be described by a monotonically decreasing function, then an optimum number of metrics exists and can often be derived analytically. We derive the conditions by which adding a given metric can be expected to improve an index. 4. We find that the criterion defining such conditions depends nonlinearly of the signal of the disturbance gradient, the noise (error) of the metric and the correlation of the metric errors. Importantly, we find that correlation among metric errors increases the signal required for the metric to improve the index. 5. The theoretical framework presented in this
Xia, Bin; Tsui, Vickie; Case, David A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E
2002-04-01
The inclusion of explicit solvent water in molecular dynamics refinement of NMR structures ought to provide the most physically meaningful accounting for the effects of solvent on structure, but is computationally expensive. In order to evaluate the validity of commonly used vacuum refinements and of recently developed continuum solvent model methods, we have used three different methods to refine a set of NMR solution structures of a medium sized protein, Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 2, from starting structures calculated using the program DYANA. The three different refinement protocols used molecular dynamics simulated annealing with the program AMBER in vacuum (VAC), including a generalized Born (GB) solvent model, and a full calculation including explicit solvent water (WAT). The structures obtained using the three methods of refinements were very similar, a reflection of their generally well-determined nature. However, the structures refined with the generalized Born model were more similar to those from explicit water refinement than those refined in vacuum. Significant improvement was seen in the percentage of backbone dihedral angles in the most favored regions of phi, psi space and in hydrogen bond pattern for structures refined with the GB and WAT models, compared with the structures refined in vacuum. The explicit water calculation took an average of 200 h of CPU time per structure on an SGI cluster, compared to 15-90 h for the GB calculation (depending on the parameters used) and 2 h for the vacuum calculation. The generalized Born solvent model proved to be an excellent compromise between the vacuum and explicit water refinements, giving results comparable to those of the explicit water calculation. Some improvement for phi and psi angle distribution and hydrogen bond pattern can also be achieved by energy minimizing the vacuum structures with the GB model, which takes a much shorter time than MD simulations with the GB model. PMID:12018480
General orbital invariant MP2-F12 theory.
Werner, Hans-Joachim; Adler, Thomas B; Manby, Frederick R
2007-04-28
A general form of orbital invariant explicitly correlated second-order closed-shell Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2-F12) is derived, and compact working equations are presented. Many-electron integrals are avoided by resolution of the identity (RI) approximations using the complementary auxiliary basis set approach. A hierarchy of well defined levels of approximation is introduced, differing from the exact theory by the neglect of terms involving matrix elements over the Fock operator. The most accurate method is denoted as MP2-F12/3B. This assumes only that Fock matrix elements between occupied orbitals and orbitals outside the auxiliary basis set are negligible. For the chosen ansatz for the first-order wave function this is exact if the auxiliary basis is complete. In the next lower approximation it is assumed that the occupied orbital space is closed under action of the Fock operator [generalized Brillouin condition (GBC)]; this is equivalent to approximation 2B of Klopper and Samson [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6397 (2002)]. Further approximations can be introduced by assuming the extended Brillouin condition (EBC) or by neglecting certain terms involving the exchange operator. A new approximation MP2-F12/3C, which is closely related to the MP2-R12/C method recently proposed by Kedzuch et al. [Int. J. Quantum Chem. 105, 929 (2005)] is described. In the limit of a complete RI basis this method is equivalent to MP2-F12/3B. The effect of the various approximations (GBC, EBC, and exchange) is tested by studying the convergence of the correlation energies with respect to the atomic orbital and auxiliary basis sets for 21 molecules. The accuracy of relative energies is demonstrated for 16 chemical reactions. Approximation 3C is found to perform equally well as the computationally more demanding approximation 3B. The reaction energies obtained with smaller basis sets are found to be most accurate if the orbital-variant diagonal Ansatz combined with localized orbitals
On the general theory of the origins of retroviruses
2010-01-01
Background The order retroviridae comprises viruses based on ribonucleic acids (RNA). Some, such as HIV and HTLV, are human pathogens. Newly emerged human retroviruses have zoonotic origins. As far as has been established, both repeated infections (themselves possibly responsible for the evolution of viral mutations (Vm) and host adaptability (Ha)); along with interplay between inhibitors and promoters of cell tropism, are needed to effect retroviral cross-species transmissions. However, the exact modus operadi of intertwine between these factors at molecular level remains to be established. Knowledge of such intertwine could lead to a better understanding of retrovirology and possibly other infectious processes. This study was conducted to derive the mathematical equation of a general theory of the origins of retroviruses. Methods and results On the basis of an arbitrarily non-Euclidian geometrical "thought experiment" involving the cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus (sfv) from a non-primate species Xy to Homo sapiens (Hs), initially excluding all social factors, the following was derived. At the port of exit from Xy (where the species barrier, SB, is defined by the Index of Origin, IO), sfv shedding is (1) enhanced by two transmitting tensors (Tt), (i) virus-specific immunity (VSI) and (ii) evolutionary defenses such as APOBEC, RNA interference pathways, and (when present) expedited therapeutics (denoted e2D); and (2) opposed by the five accepting scalars (At): (a) genomic integration hot spots, gIHS, (b) nuclear envelope transit (NMt) vectors, (c) virus-specific cellular biochemistry, VSCB, (d) virus-specific cellular receptor repertoire, VSCR, and (e) pH-mediated cell membrane transit, (↓pH CMat). Assuming As and Tt to be independent variables, IO = Tt/As. The same forces acting in an opposing manner determine SB at the port of sfv entry (defined here by the Index of Entry, IE = As/Tt). Overall, If sfv encounters no unforeseen effects on transit
Information theory as a general language for functional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collier, John
2000-05-01
Function refers to a broad family of concepts of varying abstractness and range of application, from a many-one mathematical relation of great generality to, for example, highly specialized roles of designed elements in complex machines such as degaussing in a television set, or contributory processes to control mechanisms in complex metabolic pathways, such as the inhibitory function of the appropriate part of the lac-operon on the production of lactase through its action on the genome in the absence of lactose. We would like a language broad enough, neutral enough, but yet powerful enough to cover all such cases, and at the same time to give a framework form explanation both of the family resemblances and differences. General logic and mathematics are too abstract, but more importantly, too broad, whereas other discourses of function, such as the biological and teleological contexts, are too narrow. Information is especially suited since it is mathematically grounded, but also has a well-known physical interpretation through the Schrodinger/Brillouin Negentropy. Principle of Information, and an engineering or design interpretation through Shannon's communication theory. My main focus will be on the functions of autonomous anticipatory systems, but I will try to demonstrate both the connections between this notion of function and the others, especially to dynamical systems with a physical interpretation on the one side and intentional systems on the other. The former are based in concepts like force, energy and work, while the latter involve notions like representation, control and purpose, traditionally, at least in Modern times, on opposite sides of the Cartesian divide. In principle, information can be reduced to energy, but it has the advantage of being more flexible, and easier to apply to higher level phenomena.
Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method
Nguyen, Kiet A. E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Day, Paul N.
2014-06-28
We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.
Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method.
Nguyen, Kiet A; Pachter, Ruth; Day, Paul N
2014-06-28
We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes. PMID:24985612
Teaching Discourse Study To Resist General Discourse Theories.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yarbrough, Stephen R.
If an instructor teaches in a rhetoric and composition program, one of the most important ways to teach discourse study as a resistance to discourse theory is by tracing the fundamental founding dichotomies of discourse theory through the history of rhetorical theory, examining how assumptions of the legitimacy of such founding dichotomies has…
Generalized Pauli constraints in reduced density matrix functional theory
Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Marques, Miguel A. L.
2015-04-21
Functionals of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM) are routinely minimized under Coleman’s ensemble N-representability conditions. Recently, the topic of pure-state N-representability conditions, also known as generalized Pauli constraints, received increased attention following the discovery of a systematic way to derive them for any number of electrons and any finite dimensionality of the Hilbert space. The target of this work is to assess the potential impact of the enforcement of the pure-state conditions on the results of reduced density-matrix functional theory calculations. In particular, we examine whether the standard minimization of typical 1-RDM functionals under the ensemble N-representability conditions violates the pure-state conditions for prototype 3-electron systems. We also enforce the pure-state conditions, in addition to the ensemble ones, for the same systems and functionals and compare the correlation energies and optimal occupation numbers with those obtained by the enforcement of the ensemble conditions alone.
On the role of general system theory for functional neuroimaging
Stephan, Klaas Enno
2004-01-01
One of the most important goals of neuroscience is to establish precise structure–function relationships in the brain. Since the 19th century, a major scientific endeavour has been to associate structurally distinct cortical regions with specific cognitive functions. This was traditionally accomplished by correlating microstructurally defined areas with lesion sites found in patients with specific neuropsychological symptoms. Modern neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution have promised an alternative approach, enabling non-invasive measurements of regionally specific changes of brain activity that are correlated with certain components of a cognitive process. Reviewing classic approaches towards brain structure–function relationships that are based on correlational approaches, this article argues that these approaches are not sufficient to provide an understanding of the operational principles of a dynamic system such as the brain but must be complemented by models based on general system theory. These models reflect the connectional structure of the system under investigation and emphasize context-dependent couplings between the system elements in terms of effective connectivity. The usefulness of system models whose parameters are fitted to measured functional imaging data for testing hypotheses about structure–function relationships in the brain and their potential for clinical applications is demonstrated by several empirical examples. PMID:15610393
GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES
Eitle, David
2010-01-01
Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526
General systems theory, brain organization, and early experiences.
Denenberg, V H
1980-01-01
Three hypothetical brain processes--interhemispheric coupling, hemispheric activation, and interhemispheric inhibition--are derived from an equation characterizing general systems theory. To investigate these processes, experimental rats were reared under differing early experience conditions. When adult, they had their right or left neocortex lesioned, had a sham operation, or were left undisturbed. Interhemispheric coupling was measured by means of a correlation coefficient between the right and left hemispheres. The presence of a significant positive correlation is taken as evidence of a negative feedback loop between the hemispheres. In one experimental population, in which rats did not receive any extra stimulation in infancy, the correlation was not significantly different from zero, thus implying that the two hemispheres were operating independently. In another population, in which rats had received handling stimulation in infancy, the correlation coefficient was significant (0.543), indicating that the hemispheres were coupled in a systems arrangement. The processes of hemispheric activation and interhemispheric inhibition were assessed by comparing the mean performance of the two unilateral lesion groups and the group with intact brain. The two rat populations had different forms of brain organizations as measured by these processes. These analyses show that the behavior of the isolated hemisphere cannot be directly extrapolated to the behavior of the connected hemisphere. If there is hemispheric coupling via a negative feedback loop or if there is interhemispheric inhibition, then the disconnected hemisphere may show behaviors that are not evident in the normal connected condition. PMID:7356045
[The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].
Golubev, A G
2009-01-01
Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve. PMID:19827677
Solvation of polymers as mutual association. I. General theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.
2013-04-01
A Flory-Huggins (FH) type lattice theory of self-assembly is generalized to describe the equilibrium solvation of long polymer chains B by small solvent molecules A. Solvation is modeled as a thermally reversible mutual association between the polymer and a relatively low molar mass solvent. The FH Helmholtz free energy F is derived for a mixture composed of the A and B species and the various possible mutual association complexes AiB, and F is then used to generate expressions for basic thermodynamic properties of solvated polymer solutions, including the size distribution of the solvated clusters, the fraction of solvent molecules contained in solvated states (an order parameter for solvation), the specific heat (which exhibits a maximum at the solvation transition), the second and the third osmotic virial coefficients, and the boundaries for phase stability of the mixture. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the "entropic" contribution χs to the FH interaction parameter χ of polymer solutions, both with and without associative interactions. The entropic χs parameter arises from correlations associated with polymer chain connectivity and disparities in molecular structure between the components of the mixture. Our analysis provides the first explanation of the longstanding enigma of why χs for polymer solutions significantly exceeds χs for binary polymer blends. Our calculations also reveal that χs becomes temperature dependent when interactions are strong, in sharp contrast to models currently being used for fitting thermodynamic data of associating polymer-solvent mixtures, where χs is simply assumed to be an adjustable constant based on experience with solutions of homopolymers in nonassociating solvents.
Microscopic theory of singlet exciton fission. I. General formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.
2013-03-01
Singlet fission, a spin-allowed energy transfer process generating two triplet excitons from one singlet exciton, has the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic solar cells. However, the dynamical mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood and a complete, microscopic theory of singlet fission is lacking. In this work, we assemble the components of a comprehensive microscopic theory of singlet fission that connects excited state quantum chemistry calculations with finite-temperature quantum relaxation theory. We elaborate on the distinction between localized diabatic and delocalized exciton bases for the interpretation of singlet fission experiments in both the time and frequency domains. We discuss various approximations to the exact density matrix dynamics and propose Redfield theory as an ideal compromise between speed and accuracy for the detailed investigation of singlet fission in dimers, clusters, and crystals. Investigations of small model systems based on parameters typical of singlet fission demonstrate the numerical accuracy and practical utility of this approach.
Chemical Principles Revisited: Updating the Atomic Theory in General Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitman, Mark
1984-01-01
Presents a descriptive overview of recent achievements in atomic structure to provide instructors with the background necessary to enhance their classroom presentations. Topics considered include hadrons, quarks, leptons, forces, and the unified fields theory. (JN)
Weber electrodynamics, part I. general theory, steady current effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wesley, J. P.
1990-10-01
The original Weber action at a distance theory, valid for slowly varying effects, is extended to time-retarded fields, valid for rapidly varying effects including radiation. A new law for the force on a charge moving in this field is derived (replacing the Lorentz force which violates Newton's third law). The limitations of the Maxwell theory are discussed. The Weber theory, in addition to predicting all of the usual electrodynamic results, predicts the following crucial results for slowly varying effects (where Maxwell theory fails): 1) the force on Ampere's bridge in agreement with the measurements of Moyssides and Pappas, 2) the tension required to rupture current carrying wires as observed by Graneau, 3) the force to drive the Graneau-Hering submarine, 4) the force to drive the mercury in Hering's pump, and 5) the force to drive the oscillations in a current carrying mercury wedge as observed by Phipps.
Generalized van der Waals density functional theory for nonuniform polymers
Patra, Chandra N.; Yethiraj, Arun
2000-01-15
A density functional theory is presented for the effect of attractions on the structure of polymers at surfaces. The theory treats the ideal gas functional exactly, and uses a weighted density approximation for the hard chain contribution to the excess free energy functional. The attractive interactions are treated using a van der Waals approximation. The theory is in good agreement with computer simulations for the density profiles at surfaces for a wide range of densities and temperatures, except for low polymer densities at low temperatures where it overestimates the depletion of chains from the surface. This deficiency is attributed to the neglect of liquid state correlations in the van der Waals term of the free energy functional. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Approximate Near-Field Blast Theory: A Generalized Approach
Hutchens, G.J.
1999-10-25
A method for analyzing strong shock waves in arbitrary one-dimensional geometry is presented. An approximation to classical Taylor-Sedov theory is extended to the near-field case where source mass is not negligible, accounting for differences in the chemical properties of the source mass and ambient medium. Results from example calculations are compared with previously published analytical formulae.
Integrated control-system design via generalized LQG (GLQG) theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernstein, Dennis S.; Hyland, David C.; Richter, Stephen; Haddad, Wassim M.
1989-01-01
Thirty years of control systems research has produced an enormous body of theoretical results in feedback synthesis. Yet such results see relatively little practical application, and there remains an unsettling gap between classical single-loop techniques (Nyquist, Bode, root locus, pole placement) and modern multivariable approaches (LQG and H infinity theory). Large scale, complex systems, such as high performance aircraft and flexible space structures, now demand efficient, reliable design of multivariable feedback controllers which optimally tradeoff performance against modeling accuracy, bandwidth, sensor noise, actuator power, and control law complexity. A methodology is described which encompasses numerous practical design constraints within a single unified formulation. The approach, which is based upon coupled systems or modified Riccati and Lyapunov equations, encompasses time-domain linear-quadratic-Gaussian theory and frequency-domain H theory, as well as classical objectives such as gain and phase margin via the Nyquist circle criterion. In addition, this approach encompasses the optimal projection approach to reduced-order controller design. The current status of the overall theory will be reviewed including both continuous-time and discrete-time (sampled-data) formulations.
Marcel Grossmann and his Contribution to the General Theory of Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauer, Tilman
2015-01-01
This article reviews the biography of the Swiss mathematician Marcel Grossmann (1878-1936) and his contributions to the emergence of the general theory of relativity. The first part is his biography, while the second part reviews his collaboration with Einstein in Zurich which resulted in the Einstein-Grossmann theory of 1913. This theory is a precursor version of the final theory of general relativity with all the ingredients of that theory except for the correct gravitational field equations. Their collaboration is analyzed in some detail with a focus on the question of exactly what role Grossmann played in it.
Generalized Bezout's Theorem and its applications in coding theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berg, Gene A.; Feng, Gui-Liang; Rao, T. R. N.
1996-01-01
This paper presents a generalized Bezout theorem which can be used to determine a tighter lower bound of the number of distinct points of intersection of two or more curves for a large class of plane curves. A new approach to determine a lower bound on the minimum distance (and also the generalized Hamming weights) for algebraic-geometric codes defined from a class of plane curves is introduced, based on the generalized Bezout theorem. Examples of more efficient linear codes are constructed using the generalized Bezout theorem and the new approach. For d = 4, the linear codes constructed by the new construction are better than or equal to the known linear codes. For d greater than 5, these new codes are better than the known codes. The Klein code over GF(2(sup 3)) is also constructed.
General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, Theodore
1979-01-01
The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom were determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which were identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind, and of zero and first order. The theory, based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability was analyzed. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, was derived. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter k. The flutter velocity, treated as the unknown quantity, was determined as a function of a certain ratio of the frequencies in the separate degrees of freedom for any magnitudes and combinations of the airfoil-aileron parameters.
General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, Theodore
1949-01-01
The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom have been determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which have been identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind and of zero and first order. The theory, being based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing-section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been arrived at. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter K.
Nonlinear structure formation in gravity theories beyond general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mota, David F.
2016-07-01
We investigate the effects of modified gravity theories, in particular, the symmetron and f(R) gravity, on the nonlinear regime of structure formation. In particular, we investigate the velocity dispersion of galaxy clusters as a function of the halo masses, how the matter power spectra depend on the coupling, range and screening scale of the fifth force, and on possible ways of detecting violations of the equivalence principle using the mass inferred via lensing methods versus the mass inferred via dynamical methods.
Generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups
Carone, Christopher D.
2005-04-01
We consider a natural generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups. These theories have a simple moose representation and a gauge boson spectrum that can be interpreted via the deconstruction of a 5D theory with unified symmetry broken on a boundary. Although the matter and Higgs sectors of the theory have no simple extra-dimensional analog, gauge unification retains features characteristic of the 5D theory. We determine possible assignments of the matter and Higgs fields to unified multiplets and present theories that are viable alternatives to minimal trinified GUTs.
ECOLOGICAL THEORY. A general consumer-resource population model.
Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J; Dobson, Andrew P; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M
2015-08-21
Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model. PMID:26293960
Zhang, Zhen-Lu; Huang, Yong-Chang
2014-03-15
Quantization theory gives rise to transverse phonons for the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and to scalar and longitudinal photons for the Lorentz gauge condition. We describe a new approach to quantize the general singular QED system by decomposing a general gauge potential into two orthogonal components in general field theory, which preserves scalar and longitudinal photons. Using these two orthogonal components, we obtain an expansion of the gauge-invariant Lagrangian density, from which we deduce the two orthogonal canonical momenta conjugate to the two components of the gauge potential. We then obtain the canonical Hamiltonian in the phase space and deduce the inherent constraints. In terms of the naturally deduced gauge condition, the quantization results are exactly consistent with those in the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and superior to those in the Lorentz gauge condition. Moreover, we find that all the nonvanishing quantum commutators are permanently gauge-invariant. A system can only be measured in physical experiments when it is gauge-invariant. The vanishing longitudinal vector potential means that the gauge invariance of the general QED system cannot be retained. This is similar to the nucleon spin crisis dilemma, which is an example of a physical quantity that cannot be exactly measured experimentally. However, the theory here solves this dilemma by keeping the gauge invariance of the general QED system. -- Highlights: •We decompose the general gauge potential into two orthogonal parts according to general field theory. •We identify a new approach for quantizing the general singular QED system. •The results obtained are superior to those for the Lorentz gauge condition. •The theory presented solves dilemmas such as the nucleon spin crisis.
Mathematical developments regarding the general theory of the Earth magnetism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, A.
1983-01-01
A literature survey on the Earth's magnetic field, citing the works of Gauss, Erman-Petersen, Quintus Icilius and Neumayer is presented. The general formulas for the representation of the potential and components of the Earth's magnetic force are presented. An analytical representation of magnetic condition of the Earth based on observations is also made.
Theory of Alfven wave heating in general toroidal geometry
Tataronis, J.A.; Salat, A.
1981-09-01
A general treatment of Alfven wave heating based on the linearized equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is given. The conclusion of this study is that the geometry of the plasma equilium could play an important role on the effectiveness of this heating mechanism, and for certain geometries the fundamental equations may not possess solutions which satisfy prescribed boundary conditions.
Einstein-aether theory with a Maxwell field: General formalism
Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P.S.
2014-11-15
We extend the Einstein-aether theory to include the Maxwell field in a nontrivial manner by taking into account its interaction with the time-like unit vector field characterizing the aether. We also include a generic matter term. We present a model with a Lagrangian that includes cross-terms linear and quadratic in the Maxwell tensor, linear and quadratic in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector, linear in its second covariant derivative and in the Riemann tensor. We decompose these terms with respect to the irreducible parts of the covariant derivative of the aether velocity, namely, the acceleration four-vector, the shear and vorticity tensors, and the expansion scalar. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of an aether non-uniform motion on the polarization and magnetization of the matter in such an aether environment, as well as on its dielectric and magnetic properties. The total self-consistent system of equations for the electromagnetic and the gravitational fields, and the dynamic equations for the unit vector aether field are obtained. Possible applications of this system are discussed. Based on the principles of effective field theories, we display in an appendix all the terms up to fourth order in derivative operators that can be considered in a Lagrangian that includes the metric, the electromagnetic and the aether fields.
Black holes and neutron stars in the generalized tensor-vector-scalar theory
Lasky, Paul D.
2009-10-15
Bekenstein's tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory has had considerable success as a relativistic theory of modified Newtonian dynamics. However, recent work suggests that the dynamics of the theory are fundamentally flawed and numerous authors have subsequently begun to consider a generalization of TeVeS where the vector field is given by an Einstein-Aether action. Herein, I develop strong-field solutions of the generalized TeVeS theory, in particular exploring neutron stars as well as neutral and charged black holes. I find that the solutions are identical to the neutron star and black hole solutions of the original TeVeS theory, given a mapping between the parameters of the two theories, and hence provide constraints on these values of the coupling constants. I discuss the consequences of these results in detail including the stability of such spacetimes as well as generalizations to more complicated geometries.
The origin of continental crust: Outlines of a general theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lowman, P. D., Jr.
1985-01-01
The lower continental crust, formerly very poorly understood, has recently been investigated by various geological and geophysical techniques that are beginning to yield a generally agreed on though still vague model (Lowman, 1984). As typified by at least some exposed high grade terranes, such as the Scottish Scourian complex, the lower crust in areas not affected by Phanerozoic orogeny or crustal extension appears to consist of gently dipping granulite gneisses of intermediate bulk composition, formed from partly or largely supracrustal precursors. This model, to the degree that it is correct, has important implications for early crustal genesis and the origin of continental crust in general. Most important, it implies that except for areas of major overthrusting (which may of course be considerable) normal superposition relations prevail, and that since even the oldest exposed rocks are underlain by tens of kilometers of sial, true primordial crust may still survive in the lower crustal levels (of. Phinney, 1981).
Generalized theory of helicon waves. I. Normal modes
Chen, F.F.; Arnush, D.
1997-09-01
The theory of helicon waves is extended to include finite electron mass. This introduces an additional branch to the dispersion relation that is essentially an electron cyclotron or Trivelpiece{endash}Gould (TG) wave with a short radial wavelength. The effect of the TG wave is expected to be important only for low dc magnetic fields and long parallel wavelengths. The normal modes at low fields are mixtures of the TG wave and the usual helicon wave and depend on the nature of the boundaries. Computations show, however, that since the TG waves are damped near the surface of the plasma, the helicon wave at high fields is almost exactly the same as is found when the electron mass is neglected. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
General theory of asymmetric steric interactions in electrostatic double layers.
Maggs, A C; Podgornik, R
2016-01-28
We study the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the context of dense ionic liquids where steric effects become important. We generalise lattice gas theory by introducing a Flory-Huggins entropy for ions of differing volumes and then compare the effective free energy density to other existing lattice gas approximations, not based on the Flory-Huggins Ansatz. Within the methodology presented we also invoke more realistic equations of state, such as the Carnahan-Starling approximation, that are not based on the lattice gas approximation and lead to thermodynamic functions and properties that differ strongly from the lattice gas case. We solve the Carnahan-Starling model in the high density limit, and demonstrate a slow, power-law convergence at high potentials. We elucidate how equivalent convex free energy functions can be constructed that describe steric effects in a manner which is more convenient for numerical minimisation. PMID:26584630
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Othman, Mohamed I. A.; Said, Samia M.
2012-06-01
The present paper is concerned with effect of mechanical force on generalized thermoelasticity in a fiber-reinforcement. The formulation is applied to generalized thermoelasticity based on the coupled theory, Lord-Shulman theory, and Green-Lindsay theory. The analytical expression of the displacement components, stresses, and temperature are obtained in the physical domain and illustrated graphically using normal mode analysis. Comparisons are made among the three theories for the field quantities in the absence and in the presence of a fiber-reinforcement as well as for different values of mechanical force.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.115 Born. Born in the case of chicken means...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.115 Born. Born in the case of chicken means...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.115 Born. Born in the case of chicken means...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.115 Born. Born in the case of chicken means...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.115 Born. Born in the case of chicken means...
A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everitt, C. W. F.
1978-01-01
Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.
The general theory of secondary weak gravitational lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarkson, Chris
2015-09-01
Weak gravitational lensing is normally assumed to have only two principle effects: a magnification of a source and a distortion of the sources shape in the form of a shear. However, further distortions are actually present owing to changes in the gravitational field across the scale of the ray bundle of light propagating to us, resulting in the familiar arcs in lensed images. This is normally called the flexion, and is approximated by Taylor expanding the shear and magnification across the image plane. However, the physical origin of this effect arises from higher-order corrections in the geodesic deviation equation governing the gravitational force between neighbouring geodesics— so involves derivatives of the Riemann tensor. We show that integrating the second-order geodesic deviation equation results in a `Hessian map' for gravitational lensing, which is a higher-order addition to the Jacobi map. We derive the general form of the Hessian map in an arbitrary spacetime paying particular attention to the separate effects of local Ricci versus non-local Weyl curvature. We then specialise to the case of a perturbed FLRW model, and give the general form of the Hessian for the first time. This has a host of new contributions which could in principle be used as tests for modified gravity.
Quasilinear theory of general electromagnetic fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas
Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu; Yoon, P. H. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu
2014-09-15
The general quasilinear Fokker-Planck kinetic equation for the plasma particle distribution functions in unmagnetized plasmas is derived, making no restrictions on the frequency of the electromagnetic fluctuations. The derived kinetic particle equation complements our earlier study of the general fluctuation's kinetic equation. For collective plasma eigenmodes and gyrotropic particle distribution functions, the two coupled kinetic equations describe the self-consistent dynamical evolution of the plasma. The limit of weakly damped collective modes correctly reproduces the well-known textbook kinetic particle equation with longitudinal Langmuir and ion-acoustic fluctuations, demonstrating, in particular, the resonant nature of parallel momentum diffusion of particles. In the limit of aperiodic modes, the Fokker-Planck equation contains the nonresonant diffusion of particles in momentum and the parallel and perpendicular momentum drag coefficients. As an application these drag and diffusion coefficients are calculated for extragalactic cosmic ray particles propagating in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium. Whereas for all cosmic rays, the perpendicular momentum diffusion in intergalactic aperiodic fluctuations is negligibly small; cosmic ray protons with energies below 10{sup 5 }GeV are affected by the plasma drag.
A general theory of acute and chronic heart failure.
MacIver, David H; Dayer, Mark J; Harrison, Andrew J I
2013-04-30
Current concepts of heart failure propose multiple heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms. Recently a theoretical framework for understanding chronic heart failure was suggested. This paper develops this framework to include acute heart failure syndromes. We propose that all acute heart failure syndromes may be understood in terms of a relative fall in left ventricular stroke volume. The initial compensatory mechanism is frequently a tachycardia often resulting in a near normal cardiac output. In more severe forms a fall in cardiac output causes hypotension or cardiogenic shock. In chronic heart failure the stroke volume and cardiac output is returned to normal predominantly through ventricular remodeling or dilatation. Ejection fraction is simply the ratio of stroke volume and end-diastolic volume. The resting stroke volume is predetermined by the tissue's needs; therefore, if the ejection fraction changes, the end-diastolic volume must change in a reciprocal manner. The potential role of the right heart in influencing the presentation of left heart disease is examined. We propose that acute pulmonary edema occurs when the right ventricular stroke volume exceeds left ventricular stroke volume leading to fluid accumulation in the alveoli. The possible role of the right heart in determining pulmonary hypertension and raised filling pressures in left-sided heart disease are discussed. Different clinical scenarios are presented to help clarify these proposed mechanisms and the clinical implications of these theories are discussed. Finally an alternative definition of heart failure is proposed. PMID:22483252
General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.
2015-05-01
The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.
General theory of intraband relaxation processes in heavily doped graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupčić, I.
2015-05-01
The frequency and wave-vector-dependent memory function in the longitudinal conductivity tensor of weakly interacting electronic systems is calculated by using an approach based on quantum transport equations. In this paper, we show that there is a close relation between the single-electron self-energy, the electron-hole pair self-energy, and the memory function. It is also shown in which way singular long-range Coulomb interactions, together with other q ≈0 scattering processes, drop out of both the memory function and the related transport equations. The theory is illustrated on heavily doped graphene, which is the prototype of weakly interacting single-band electron-phonon systems. A steplike increase of the width of the quasiparticle peak in angle-resolved photoemission spectra at frequencies of the order of the frequency of in-plane optical phonons is shown to be consistent with the behavior of an intraband plasmon peak in the energy loss spectroscopy spectra. Both anomalies can be understood as a direct consequence of weak electron scattering from in-plane optical phonons.
T-equivariant K-theory of generalized flag varieties
Kostant, Bertram; Kumar, Shrawan
1987-01-01
Let G be a Kac—Moody group with Borel subgroup B and compact maximal torus T. Analogous to Kostant and Kumar [Kostant, B. & Kumar, S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 1543-1545], we define a certain ring Y, purely in terms of the Weyl group W (associated to G) and its action on T. By dualizing Y we get another ring Ψ, which, we prove, is “canonically” isomorphic with the T-equivariant K-theory KT(G/B) of G/B. Now KT(G/B), apart from being an algebra over KT(pt.) ≈ A(T), also has a Weyl group action and, moreover, KT(G/B) admits certain operators {Dw}w[unk]W similar to the Demazure operators defined on A(T). We prove that these structures on KT(G/B) come naturally from the ring Y. By “evaluating” the A(T)-module Ψ at 1, we recover K(G/B) together with the above-mentioned structures. We believe that many of the results of this paper are new in the finite case (i.e., G is a finite-dimensional semisimple group over C) as well. PMID:16593856
T-equivariant K-theory of generalized flag varieties.
Kostant, B; Kumar, S
1987-07-01
Let G be a Kac-Moody group with Borel subgroup B and compact maximal torus T. Analogous to Kostant and Kumar [Kostant, B. & Kumar, S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 1543-1545], we define a certain ring Y, purely in terms of the Weyl group W (associated to G) and its action on T. By dualizing Y we get another ring Psi, which, we prove, is "canonically" isomorphic with the T-equivariant K-theory K(T)(G/B) of G/B. Now K(T)(G/B), apart from being an algebra over K(T)(pt.) approximately A(T), also has a Weyl group action and, moreover, K(T)(G/B) admits certain operators {D(w)}w[unk]W similar to the Demazure operators defined on A(T). We prove that these structures on K(T)(G/B) come naturally from the ring Y. By "evaluating" the A(T)-module Psi at 1, we recover K(G/B) together with the above-mentioned structures. We believe that many of the results of this paper are new in the finite case (i.e., G is a finite-dimensional semisimple group over C) as well. PMID:16593856
Are Singularities Integral to General Theory of Relativity?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krori, K.; Dutta, S.
2011-11-01
Since the 1960s the general relativists have been deeply obsessed with the possibilities of GTR singularities - blackhole as well as cosmological singularities. Senovilla, for the first time, followed by others, showed that there are cylindrically symmetric cosmological space-times which are free of singularities. On the other hand, Krori et al. have presently shown that spherically symmetric cosmological space-times - which later reduce to FRW space-times may also be free of singularities. Besides, Mitra has in the mean-time come forward with some realistic calculations which seem to rule out the possibility of a blackhole singularity. So whether singularities are integral to GTR seems to come under a shadow.
Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves: General theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagstrom, Thomas
1990-01-01
An outstanding issue in the computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.
Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves - General theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagstrom, Thomas
1991-01-01
An outstanding issue in computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.
General theory of peak compression in liquid chromatography.
Gritti, Fabrice
2016-02-12
A new and general expression of the peak compression factor in liquid chromatography is derived. It applies to any type of gradients induced by non-uniform columns (stationary) or by temporal variations (dynamic) of the elution strength related to changes in solvent composition, temperature, or in any external field. The new equation is validated in two ideal cases for which the exact solutions are already known. From a practical viewpoint, it is used to predict the achievable degree of peak compression for curved retention models, retained solvent gradients, and for temperature-programmed liquid chromatography. The results reveal that: (1) curved retention models affect little the compression factor with respect to the best linear strength retention models, (2) gradient peaks can be indefinitely compressed with respect to isocratic peaks if the propagation speed of the gradient (solvent or temperature) becomes smaller than the chromatographic velocity, (3) limitations are inherent to the maximum intensity of the experimental intrinsic gradient steepness, and (4) dynamic temperature gradients can be advantageously combined to solvent gradients in order to improve peak capacities of microfluidic separation devices. PMID:26805599
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pitchford, Nicola; Johnson, Samantha; Scerif, Gaia; Marlow, Neil
2011-01-01
Cognitive impairment often follows preterm birth but its early underlying nature is not well understood. We used a novel approach by investigating the development of colour cognition in 54 very preterm children born less than or equal to 30 weeks gestational age without severe neurosensory impairment and 37 age-matched term-born controls, aged 2-5…
The Intersectional Potential of Queer Theory: An Example from a General Education Course in English
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlin, Deborah
2011-01-01
In this chapter, the author describes how a pedagogical approach utilizing insights and principles from queer theory facilitated an intersectional analysis in a large lecture, general education course on "Gender, Sexuality, Literature and Culture" at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Her goal in using queer theory's deconstructive…
A Partial Test of Agnew's General Theory of Crime and Delinquency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Yan; Day, George; Cao, Liqun
2012-01-01
In 2005, Agnew introduced a new integrated theory, which he labels a general theory of crime and delinquency. He proposes that delinquency is more likely to occur when constraints against delinquency are low and motivations for delinquency are high. In addition, he argues that constraints and motivations are influenced by variables in five life…
Fan, Hong-Yi; Lu, Hai-Liang
2006-02-01
The admissibility condition of a mother wavelet is explored in the context of quantum optics theory. By virtue of Dirac's representation theory and the coherent state property we derive a general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets. A comparison between a wavelet transform computed with the newly found mother wavelet and one computed with a Mexican hat wavelet is presented. PMID:16480224