Science.gov

Sample records for generalized dressing method

  1. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  2. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. Three-state selective population of dressed states via generalized spectral phase-step modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Bayer, Tim; Baumert, Thomas; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2010-05-15

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study of selective population of dressed states (SPODS) in a three-level system. Control is exerted by shaped intense femtosecond laser pulses generated by a generalized spectral phase-step modulation function. We show that both control parameters (i.e., the phase-step amplitude and position) can be used to switch population among each three dressed states with high selectivity. The dynamics of the system, and hence the resulting photoelectron signal is studied theoretically by analyzing the time evolution of the adiabatic dressed-state energies and populations.

  4. A variational method for the calculation of dynamic polarizabilities and two-photon transition moments - The dressed molecule approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    The solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation of the molecule + radiation field system is analyzed. A quantized radiation field is used. The relationship between the oscillatory wave function and the dressed state wave function is established, the oscillatory wave function being the solution if the radiation field is turned on at t = 0 and the dressed state being the stationary solution satisfying the boundary condition only if the field is present at t = negative infinity. In general, the oscillatory wave function can be expressed using a complete set of dressed states. However, in the presence of a nonresonant radiation field, the system is well represented by a single dressed state. Molecular properties such as dynamic polarizabilities and two-photon transition moments can be deduced from the dressed state wave function instead of the oscillatory wave function as in previous methods. Because of its stationary character, the dressed state is more amenable to approximate calculations. A CI method is developed for this purpose. The CI matrix is simple in form and can be readily constructed using existing computer codes. The present method can also be adapted to calculate other optical properties.

  5. Noncommutative Extension of \\bar{\\partial}-Dressing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Wadati, Miki

    2003-06-01

    The \\bar{\\partial}-dressing method is extended to noncommutative space-time. It is shown that a noncommutative soliton equation and its Lax operators can be represented in the forms of Moyal product, the operator (functional of creation-annihilation operators) and the kernel function of the operator in coherent state representation (CSR). Noncommutative KP (ncKP) equation is taken as an example to illustrate how to solve a noncommutative soliton equation. It is found that the induced soliton equation in the CSR is different from the matrix KP equation usually considered in articles, but is a new soliton equation of integral operator. It is shown that the solutions of a noncommutative soliton equation (both multi-lump and multi-line solitons) can be reduced to solving a set of c-number linear differential equations.

  6. Dressing method for the vector sine-Gordon equation and its soliton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Papamikos, Georgios; Wang, Jing Ping

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we develop the dressing method to study the exact solutions for the vector sine-Gordon equation. The explicit formulas for one kink and one breather are derived. The method can be used to construct multi-soliton solutions. Two soliton interactions are also studied. The formulas for position shift of the kink and position and phase shifts of the breather are given. These quantities only depend on the pole positions of the dressing matrices.

  7. Wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Lionelli, Gerald T; Lawrence, W Thomas

    2003-06-01

    There are currently hundreds of dressings on the market to aid in wound management. Before selecting a dressing for a particular wound, a practitioner must assess carefully the needs of the wound to understand which dressing would provide maximal benefit. Frequently, there is not one clear best choice, and it is crucial that the pros and cons of each dressing modality be understood. This article has provided a framework to assist in dressing assessment. PMID:12822729

  8. [Evaluation of the influence of sterilization method on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose wound dressing].

    PubMed

    Muselík, Jan; Wojnarová, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Sopuch, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose, especially its sodium salt, is a versatile pharmaceutical excipient. From a therapeutic point of view, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of modern wound dressings to allow moist wound healing. Wound dressings must be sterile and stable throughout their shelf life and have to be able to withstand different temperature conditions. At the present time, a number of sterilization methods are available. In the case of polymeric materials, the selected sterilization process must not induce any changes in the polymer structure, such as polymer chains cleavage, changes in cross-linking, etc. This paper evaluates the influence of different sterilization methods (γ-radiation, β-radiation, ethylene oxide) on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose and the results of long-term and accelerated stability testing. Evaluation of samples was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. The obtained results showed that ethylene oxide sterilization was the least aggressive variant of the sterilization methods tested. When the γ-radiation sterilization was used, the changes in the size of the carboxymethyl cellulose molecule occurred. In the course of accelerated and long term stability studies, no further degradation changes were observed, and thus sterilized samples are suitable for long term storage. PMID:23822575

  9. Development and application of methods for the determination of silver in polymeric dressings used for the care of burns.

    PubMed

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Fenzi, Federica; Guerriero, Paolo; Cairns, Warren R L

    2013-10-15

    Open vessel and microwave digestion methods have been developed for the determination of total silver in six commercial dressing used for the treatment of skin burns. An extraction method using TMAH has also been developed to determine the amount of silver present in the exudates found on the surface after dressing removal so an estimation of the patient dose can be made. All microwave methods had a quantitative recovery, whereas the open vessel had recoveries that ranged from 80 to 100%. The silver concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using an external calibration. In the absence of suitable reference materials, isotope dilution analysis was applied to validate the accuracy of results obtained by external calibration. All the products had a total Ag content that agreed with the values declared by the producer, which ranged from 10 to 0.2% Ag by weight. One of the methods was applied to the indirect determination of Ag released in vivo by Acticoat™ Flex 3, a dressing composed of silver nanoparticles on a polymer net. Silver levels were determined in used dressings after application to patients with partial thickness skin burns. A maximum of 62% of the silver was found to have been released onto the patient where hemopurulent exudate occurred, indicating that the dressing was virtually exhausted after 3 days of use. We conclude that the Ag released into the patient's tissues is closely correlated with the local severity of the wound. PMID:24054566

  10. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815

  11. Wound Healing and the Dressing*

    PubMed Central

    Scales, John T.

    1963-01-01

    The evolution of surgical dressings is traced from 1600 b.c. to a.d. 1944. The availability of an increasing variety of man-made fibres and films from 1944 onwards has stimulated work on wound dressings, and some of the more important contributions, both clinical and experimental, are discussed. The functions of a wound dressing and the properties which the ideal wound dressing should possess are given. The necessity for both histological and clinical evaluation of wound dressings in animals and in man is stressed. Wound dressings are the most commonly used therapeutic agents, but there is no means whereby their performance can be assessed. An attempt should be made either nationally or internationally to establish a standard method of assessing the performance of wound dressings. For this it is necessary to have an internationally agreed standard dressing which could be used as a reference or control dressing in all animal and human work. The only animal with skin morphologically similar to that of man is the domestic pig. Three types of wounds could be used: (1) partial-thickness wounds; (2) full-thickness excisions; and (3) third-degree burns. The development of standard techniques for the assessment of the efficiency of wound dressings would be of considerable benefit to the research worker, the medical profession, the patient, and the surgical dressings industry. PMID:13976490

  12. [DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Adamcová, Monika; Šturdík, Igor; Koller, Tomáš; Payer, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is severe drug-induced allergic-type reaction which occurs few days to weeks after taking a drug in a predisposed patient. Organ damage, eosinophilia and skin rash are typical at presentation. Corticotherapy is often necessary in severe cases. In this report we describe a case of 56-year old female with fever, elevated liver tests and skin rash. DRESS syndrome was diagnosed and allopurinol was indentified as a causative drug. Due to possible fatal outcome, DRESS syndrome should be considered in a differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with similar signs and symptoms. PMID:27250614

  13. A Change of Traditional Method of Treatment of Partial Thickness Burn with Hydrofibre Dressings.

    PubMed

    Mitura, Kryspin; Osłowska, Jolanta; Mitura, Alicja

    2015-02-01

    Nearly 1% of population is affected with burn trauma annually. Among patients seeking advanced medical care almost 8% require hospital stay. Most burns are superficial and do not cause full thickness damage to the skin. Standard topical treatment of burn wounds with creams and ointments requires frequent dressings' changes. The healing process is long and expensive. The technological revolution, as occurred in the last decade in the field of dressing care allows us to introduce the use of advanced material solutions. Modern materials allow to shorten the treatment time, reduce the expenses and diminish the patient discomfort leading to good outcome. The study presented a case of four patients treated due to the partial thickness burn wound. Hydrofiber dressing with silver ions were introduced in the treatment. We observed good short and long term results. PMID:26146101

  14. Two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via the {partial_derivative}-dressing method: New exactly solvable potentials, wave functions, and their physical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.

    2010-09-15

    The classes of exactly solvable multiline soliton potentials and corresponding wave functions of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via {partial_derivative}-dressing method are constructed and their physical interpretation is discussed.

  15. [Debridement dressings].

    PubMed

    Faure, Christine; Meaume, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    For any wound, necrosis is an obstacle to the formation of granulation tissue and creates an environment which is particularly favourable to the proliferation of bacteria. Mechanical debridement, carried out by a doctor or nurse, or surgical debridement, is usually necessary. It is completed by autolytic debridement using technical dressings. Among the many modern dressings designed on the principle of the moist healing environment, some are more adapted to the debridement phase and are recommended by the French National Authority for Health. PMID:26763564

  16. Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2005-10-01

    The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

  17. Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2006-02-01

    The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, environmental monitoring, and verification of treaties and agreements. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include beta-gamma, gamma-gamma and beta-gamma-gamma, into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for verifying the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

  18. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  19. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  20. Designing tragacanth gum based sterile hydrogel by radiation method for use in drug delivery and wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2016-07-01

    Present article discusses synthesis and characterization of the sterile and pure hydrogel wound dressings which were prepared through radiation method by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), tragacanth gum (TG) and sodium alginate (SA). The polymer films were characterized by SEM, Cryo-SEM, FTIR, solid state C(13) NMR and XRD, TGA, and DSC. Some important biological properties such as O2 permeability, water vapor transmission rate, microbial permeability, haemolysis, thrombogenic behavior, antioxidant activity, bio-adhesion and mechanical properties were also studied. The hydrogel film showed thrombogenicity (82.43±1.54%), haemolysis (0.83±0.09%), oxygen permeability (6.433±0.058mg/L) and water vapor permeability (197.39±25.34g/m(2)/day). Hydrogel films were found biocompatible and impermeable to microbes. The release of antibiotic drug moxifloxacin occurred through non-Fickian mechanism and release profile was best fitted in Hixson-Crowell model for drug release. Overall, these results indicate the suitability of these hydrogels in wound dressing applications. PMID:27020943

  1. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25680964

  2. Generalized high order compact methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub

    2010-09-01

    The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.

  3. A cost and clinical effectiveness analysis among moist wound healing dressings versus traditional methods in home care patients with pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Kalemikerakis, Ioannis; Saridi, Maria; Papageorgiou, Manto; Kalokerinou, Athena

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was a cost and clinical effectiveness analysis between moist wound healing dressings and gauze in a homecare set up for the treatment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers up to complete healing. In addition, we assessed the overall economic burden on the Healthcare System. Treatment method for each patient was chosen randomly by using sealed opaque envelopes. The authors monitored the healing progress and recorded treatment costs without interfering with the treatment process. The healing progress was estimated by using surface measurement transparent films. To estimate treatment costs, the authors took into account labor costs, cost of dressings, as well the cost of other materials such as cleansing gauzes, normal saline, syringes, examination gloves, antiseptics and adhesive tape. The patient group under treatment with moist wound healing dressings consisted of 27 men and 20 women aged 75.1 ± 8,6 and had an average ulcer surface of 43.5 ± 30.70 cm(2) ; the patient group under treatment with gauze comprised 25 men and 23 women aged 77.02 ± 8.02 and had an average ulcer surface 41.52 ± 29.41 cm(2) (p = 0.25, 95% CI, Student's t test). The average healing time for the moist wound healing dressings group' was 85.56 ± 52.09 days, while 121.4 ± 52.21 days for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The dressing change frequency per patient was reduced in the "moist wound healing dressings group," 49.5 ± 29.61, compared with a dressing change frequency per patient of 222.6 ± 101.86 for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The use of moist wound healing dressings had a lower total treatment cost of 1,351 € per patient compared with, the use of gauzes (3,888 €). PMID:27037729

  4. A Comparative Study of Colostrum Dressing Versus Conventional Dressing in Deep Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Pednekar, Akshay S.; Mahna, Abhishek; Patankar, Ritvij; Shaikh, Ashar; Nagur, Basavraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep wounds are extending deeper, across deep fascia into muscles or deeper structures. Understanding of nutrition, immunology, psychological issues, the physiology and the metabolic interactions require for optimal treatment of deep wounds. Wound dressing plays one of the important roles in wound healing. Newer type of wound dressings - Biological dressings like colostrum powder, collagen granules create the physiological interface between the wound surface and environment which is impermeable to bacteria. Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of colostrum dressing and conventional dressing in deep wounds. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from all patients with deep wounds (stage II-IV), admitted during the period of April 2013 to March 2014, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Less number of dressings, short healing time, rapid healing and decrease pain seen in colostrum dressing group compared to conventional dressing group. Conclusion: Colostrum powder dressings are safe, promoter of wound healing, more patient compliance in terms of less pain, less number of dressing required. This treatment though found to be more expensive than conventional dressings; results indicate that colostrum powder dressings may be used as an adjunct in management of deep wound. PMID:26023589

  5. Recent advances on the development of wound dressings for diabetic foot ulcer treatment--a review.

    PubMed

    Moura, Liane I F; Dias, Ana M A; Carvalho, Eugénia; de Sousa, Hermínio C

    2013-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a chronic, non-healing complication of diabetes that lead to high hospital costs and, in extreme cases, to amputation. Diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the main factors that hinder diabetic wound repair. DFUs represent a current and important challenge in the development of novel and efficient wound dressings. In general, an ideal wound dressing should provide a moist wound environment, offer protection from secondary infections, remove wound exudate and promote tissue regeneration. However, no existing dressing fulfills all the requirements associated with DFU treatment and the choice of the correct dressing depends on the wound type and stage, injury extension, patient condition and the tissues involved. Currently, there are different types of commercially available wound dressings that can be used for DFU treatment which differ on their application modes, materials, shape and on the methods employed for production. Dressing materials can include natural, modified and synthetic polymers, as well as their mixtures or combinations, processed in the form of films, foams, hydrocolloids and hydrogels. Moreover, wound dressings may be employed as medicated systems, through the delivery of healing enhancers and therapeutic substances (drugs, growth factors, peptides, stem cells and/or other bioactive substances). This work reviews the state of the art and the most recent advances in the development of wound dressings for DFU treatment. Special emphasis is given to systems employing new polymeric biomaterials, and to the latest and innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches. PMID:23542233

  6. Lasers without inversion: Interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states

    SciTech Connect

    Imamoglu, A.; Harris, S.E.

    1989-12-15

    We describe the use of a coupling electromagnetic field to provide a general method of producing inversion-free laser systems. The interference between dressed states produces a zero in absorption while allowing gains of the order of that of the uncoupled system.

  7. Dressed qubits in nuclear spin baths

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Lianao

    2010-04-15

    We present a method to encode a dressed qubit into the product state of an electron spin localized in a quantum dot and its surrounding nuclear spins via a dressing transformation. In this scheme, the hyperfine coupling and a portion of a nuclear dipole-dipole interaction become logic gates, while they are the sources of decoherence in electron-spin qubit proposals. We discuss errors and corrections for the dressed qubits. Interestingly, the effective Hamiltonian of nuclear spins is equivalent to a pairing Hamiltonian, which provides the microscopic mechanism to protect dressed qubits against decoherence.

  8. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  18. DRESS Syndrome Presents as Leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tonekaboni, Seyed Hasan; Jafari, Narjes; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome, which reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, presenting by generalized skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, and internal organ involvement. Herein a 21-month old male infant with DRESS and Encephalopathy syndrome is presented who complicated after phenobarbital usage that persisted due to phenytoin cream usage. The case received phenobarbital after a seizure disorder presented as "status epilepticus". He developed drug eruption, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, increased liver enzymes, encephalopathy and progressive loss of consciousness with extensive hyperintense white matter lesions in brain MRI. After discontinuation of phenobarbital and phenytoin, all symptoms were resolved, while brain MRI became normal after two months. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case that developed leukoencephalopathy along with DRESS syndrome. PMID:27411428

  19. Wound dressings for primary and revision total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhry, Madhav

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing post-surgical complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is of great importance, and application of an appropriate wound dressing is necessary. Since no dressing encompasses all the parameters required for ideal wound healing, a comparison of the available dressing types can assist the surgeon to choose the best dressing after TJA. Methods Studies evaluating postoperative wound dressings after TJA were reviewed in order to assess the outcomes, complications and costs associated with dressing types. Results Traditional cotton dressings have a high ability to absorb exudate. However, they dry out sooner and there is a risk of pain and additional trauma during dressing changes. Although vapor permeable dressings allow transmission of moisture, but they have low absorptive capacity and require frequent changes even with moderately exudating wounds. On the other hand, hydrofiber and hydrocolloid dressings have high absorptive capacity and permeability, and can cope with exudate production. They are changed less often and have low blistering rates, which may reduce surgical site infection (SSI). Although the unit cost associated with advanced dressings is much higher than the traditional dressings, the decreased rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the cost associated with treating PJI more than compensate for it. Conclusions Choice of dressing type after TJA should depend upon permeability, absorptive capacity, documented rate of SSI and cost effectiveness with its use, apart from a surgeon’s past clinical experience and familiarity. PMID:26605314

  20. Seizure and Psychosocial Outcomes of Childhood and Juvenile Onset Generalized Epilepsies: Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, or Well-Dressed Wolf?

    PubMed

    Nickels, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Studies of generalized electroclinical syndromes can provide guidance regarding long-term seizure, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes. Childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone are electroclinical syndromes typically associated with normal intellect and good response to antiseizure medications. However, studies have demonstrated significantly poorer psychosocial outcomes than expected for these syndromes, regardless of seizure control. Potential causes for this include underlying abnormalities in social skills, social stigma, and underlying abnormalities in brain development and maturation. PMID:26316843

  1. [Modern wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

  2. [Improper use of dressings].

    PubMed

    Candas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Neither nurses nor doctors receive initial training in wounds and the use of dressings. They are however required in their daily practice to provide this type of care. Advances in wound healing techniques and the appearance of "modern" dressings offer a wide range of solutions to caregivers. Professionals must acquire skills in this area and make the best possible use of the dressings at their disposal to optimise the controlled wound healing. PMID:26763571

  3. Fournier's Gangrene: Conventional Dressings versus Dressings with Dakin's Solution

    PubMed Central

    Altunoluk, Bülent; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Eren, Mustafa; Benlioglu, Can; Kankilic, Nazim; Baykan, Halit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Fournier's gangrene is a fulminant and destructive inflammation of the scrotum, penis, and perineum. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different approaches to wound management after aggressive surgical debridement. Methods. Data from 14 patients with Fournier's gangrene were retrospectively collected (2005–2011). Once the patients were stabilized following surgery, they were treated with either daily antiseptic (povidone iodine) dressings (group I, n = 6) or dressings with dakin's solution (sodium hypochloride) (group II, n = 8). Results. The mean age of the patients was 68.2 ± 7.8 (55–75) years in group I and 66.9 ± 10.2 (51–79) years in group II. Length of hospital stay was 13 ± 3.5 (7–16) days in group I and 8.9 ± 3.0 (4–12) days in group II (P < 0.05). The number and rate of mortality was 1/6 (16.7%) in group I, and 1/8 (12.5%) in group II. Conclusions. The hospitalization time can be reduced with the use of dakin's solution for the dressings in the treatment of FG. Also, dressings with dakin's solution seems to have favorable effects on morbidity and mortality. Consequently dakin's solution may alter the treatment of this disastrous disease by reducing cost, morbidity and mortality. PMID:22567424

  4. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  5. [Healing "booster" dressings].

    PubMed

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Téot, Luc; Meaume, Sylvie

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between the dressing and the wound is vital to clinical effectiveness. The more-or-less standard wound-surface coverings have been replaced with initial dressings, referred to as modern dressings, which contain an oily and sticky compound. They provide a moist medium by applying the basic mechanistic principles (liquid absorption and release). Other types of products and techniques modify the behaviour of wound cells by acting directly through irritation, biochemical stimulation or genetic modification of the cells, which accelerates the healing process. PMID:22003786

  6. Wound dressings - a review.

    PubMed

    Dhivya, Selvaraj; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Santhini, Elango

    2015-12-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process which requires suitable environment to promote healing process. With the advancement in technology, more than 3000 products have been developed to treat different types of wounds by targeting various aspects of healing process. The present review traces the history of dressings from its earliest inception to the current status and also discusses the advantage and limitations of the dressing materials. PMID:26615539

  7. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children’s Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kyla P.; Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1). Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students’ knowledge attribution and learning preferences. PMID:26636980

  8. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490 Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing....

  9. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490 Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing....

  10. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... To change your dressings, you will need: Sterile gloves Cleaning solution A special sponge A special patch, ... paper towel. Put on a pair of clean gloves. Gently peel off the old dressing and Biopatch. ...

  11. Prototype Development of a Responsive Emotive Sensing System (DRESS) to aid older persons with dementia to dress independently

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Burleson, Winslow; Lozano, Cecil; Ravishankar, Vijay; Mahoney, Edward Leo

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior research has critiqued the lack of attention to the stressors associated with dementia related dressing issues, stigmatizing patient clothing, and wearable technology challenges. This paper describes the conceptual development and feasibility testing of an innovative ‘smart dresser’ context aware affective system (DRESS) to enable dressing by people with moderate memory loss through individualized audio and visual task prompting in real time. Methods Mixed method feasibility study involving qualitative focus groups with 25 Alzheimer’s family caregivers experiencing dressing difficulties to iteratively inform system design and a quantitative usability trial with 10 healthy subjects in a controlled laboratory setting to assess validity of technical operations. Results Caregivers voiced the need for tangible dressing assistance to reduce their frustration from time spent in repetitive cueing and power struggles over dressing. They contributed 6 changes that influenced the prototype development, most notably adding a dresser top iPad to mimic a familiar ‘TV screen’ for the audio and visual cueing. DRESS demonstrated promising overall functionality, however the validity of identification of dressing status ranged from 0% for the correct pants dressing to 100% for all shirts dressing scenarios. Adjustments were made to the detection components of the system raising the accuracy of detection of all acted dressing scenarios for pants from 50% to 82%. Conclusions Findings demonstrate family caregiver acceptability of the proposed system, the successful interoperability of the built system’s components, and the system’s ability to interpret correct and incorrect dressing actions in controlled laboratory simulations. Future research will advance the system to the alpha stage and subsequent testing with end users in real world settings. PMID:26321895

  12. Patients' perspectives on how doctors dress.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, S; Hocken, D B

    2010-01-01

    Infection in hospitals is a serious problem. Attempting to address the spread of infection, many UK National Health Service trusts have adopted a 'bare-below-the-elbows' and tie-less dress-code policy. This followed publication of Department of Health guidelines on staff uniforms in September 2007. Although the potential for colonisation of clothing with pathogens has been investigated, patients' opinions on dress-code and policy change have not. This survey of 75 patients in Great Western Hospital, Swindon, UK, used questionnaires to address this. The survey showed that, although patients did feel that doctors' dress was important, neckties and white coats were not expected. Moreover, surgical scrubs were considered acceptable forms of attire. Problems of identifying doctors and determining their grade were repeatedly raised. Patients were generally unaware of the new dress-code, and few knew anything of its relationship to infection control. This work demonstrates that more 'traditional' dress is not expected. Given the problems of identification and perception of surgical scrubs as suitable, their introduction as a 'uniform for doctors' should be considered. Furthermore, work needs to be done to advertise policy change and increase patient awareness of infection control. PMID:19914743

  13. Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.G.

    2007-11-04

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  14. Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.

    2008-02-01

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  15. Extending optical filaments using auxiliary dress beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew; Heinrich, Matthias; Kolesik, Miroslav; Christodoulides, Demetrios

    2015-05-01

    Dressed optical filaments offer a way to greatly protract an optical filament’s natural length while at the same time mitigating nonlinear losses and unwanted multifilamentation effects. In this article, we first theoretically reexamine the quasi-linear propagation dynamics of a standard Gaussian-ring wavefront and then proceed to explore several optical dress beam arrangements of equal-energy. The purpose of this study is to numerically simulate configurations which more economically utilize the finite amount of energy available for filament prolongation. In general, we find that parameters such as beam width and inward radial chirp, when adjusted in unison, play an important role in extending a filament whereas the spatial distribution of power in the optical dress only affects the characteristic intensity fluctuations seen during refocusing cycles.

  16. Dresses Make the Girl: Gender and Identity from "The Hundred Dresses" to "10,000 Dresses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulders, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a close reading of two works, Eleanor Estes' "The Hundred Dresses" (1944) and Marcus Ewert's "10,000 Dresses" (2008), that feature in current anti-bullying campaigns. Starting with "The Hundred Dresses," this essay examines how Estes' use of the school story not only exposes the social dynamics of…

  17. Assessment for the mean value total dressing method: Comparison with coupled cluster including triples methods for BF, NO + , CN + , C2, BeO, NH3, CH2, H2O, BH, HF, SiH2, Li2, LiNa, LiBe + , NeH + , and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cuesta, I.; Sánchez-Marín, J.; Sánchez de Merás, A.; Amor, N. Ben

    1997-10-01

    Limited previous experience with the mean value total dressing (MVTD) method had shown that MVTD energies for closed shell systems are generally better than CCSD(T) ones compared to FCI. The method, previously published as total dressing 2'(td-2'), is based on the single reference intermediate Hamiltonian theory. It is not a CC method but deals in a great part with the same physical effects that CC methods that incorporate amplitudes of triples such as CCSDT or its CCSDT-1n approaches. A number of test calculations comparing to diverse CC methods, as well as FCI and experiment when available, have been performed. The tests concern equilibrium energies in NH3 and CH2, equilibrium energies and distances in some diatomics (BF, NO+, CN+, C2, BeO), different bond breaking situations (H2O, BH, HF, SiH2) and spectroscopic properties of different bonding conditions (Li2, LiNa, LiBe+, NeH+, and O3). The results are in general closer to the full CCSDT ones in the equilibrium regions and close to CCSDT-1 along most dissociation curves. A few exceptions to this rule are analyzed with the help of an approach to MVTD that does not take into account the effects of linked quadriexcitations. Such analysis suggests the interest of improving the treatment of effects of linked triples in the MVTD model. The separate contributions of linked and unlinked triples and quadruples are also analyzed for some of the above diatomics representing different behaviors of bond breaking. The interest of such analysis is illustrated in the NeH+ molecule. The MVTD results show, in general, a high quality, provided that the nature of the correlation problem does not become largely multiconfigurational, as occurs in multiple bond dissociation or in the asymmetric stretching of ozone.

  18. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  19. Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.

  20. An Inexpensive Bismuth-Petrolatum Dressing for Treatment of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, Kathleen; Nguyen, Khoa; Galvez, Michael G.; Legrand, Anais; Davis, Christopher; McGoldrick, Rory; Long, Chao; Pham, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xeroform remains the current standard for treating superficial partial-thickness burns but can be prohibitively expensive in developing countries with prevalent burn injuries. This study (1) describes the production of an alternative low-cost dressing and (2) compares the alternative dressing and Xeroform using the metrics of cost-effectiveness, antimicrobial activity, and biocompatibility in vitro, and wound healing in vivo. Methods: To produce the alternative dressing, 3% bismuth tribromophenate powder was combined with petroleum jelly by hand and applied to Kerlix gauze. To assess cost-effectiveness, the unit costs of Xeroform and components of the alternative dressing were compared. To assess antimicrobial properties, the dressings were placed on agar plated with Escherichia coli and the Kirby-Bauer assay performed. To assess biocompatibility, the dressings were incubated with human dermal fibroblasts and cells stained with methylene blue. To assess in vivo wound healing, dressings were applied to excisional wounds on rats and the rate of re-epithelialization calculated. Results: The alternative dressing costs 34% of the least expensive brand of Xeroform. Antimicrobial assays showed that both dressings had similar bacteriostatic effects. Biocompatibility assays showed that there was no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the cytotoxicity of Xeroform, alternative dressing, and Kerlix gauze. Finally, the in vivo healing model showed no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in mean re-epithelialization time between Xeroform (13.0 ± 1.6 days) and alternative dressing (13.5 ± 1.0 days). Conclusions: Xeroform is biocompatible, reduces infection, and enhances healing of burn wounds by preventing desiccation and mechanical trauma. Handmade petrolatum gauze may be a low-cost replacement for Xeroform. Future studies will focus on clinical trials in burn units. PMID:27482485

  1. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strength, dressed lumber or similar building products may be secured in accordance with the general... apply to the transportation of bundles of dressed lumber, packaged lumber, building products such...

  2. Improvement of ensemble reliability with a new dressing kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuguang; Bishop, Craig H.

    2005-04-01

    A new method of combining dynamical and statistical ensembles for the purpose of improving ensemble reliability for underdispersive ensembles is introduced. The method involves adding independent sets of N random four-dimensional 'dressing' perturbations to each of the K members of a dynamical ensemble forecast to obtain an N × K dressed ensemble. The new method mathematically constrains the stochastic process used to generate the statistical dressing perturbations so that it removes seasonally averaged errors in the second moment measures for originally underdispersive ensembles. A random-number generator experiment and an experiment with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) ensemble generation scheme show that the previously proposed 'bestmember' dressing method fails to reliably predict the second moment of the distribution of forecast errors, whereas the new dressing method reliably predicts this second moment. After being dressed with the second moment constraint method, the ETKF ensemble is more skilful than the undressed ensemble. The ETKF ensemble postprocessed with the new dressing method is applied for probabilistic forecasts of cooling degree-days (CDD) for Boston. It is shown that the new kernel's ability to account for temporally correlated forecast errors results in ensemble forecasts of CDDs with reliable spread, whereas the best-member method leads to an underdispersive ensemble of CDD forecasts.

  3. DRESS syndrome in ophthalmic patients.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Jacqueline Martins de; Nascimento, Heloisa; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime before symptoms developed. We were unable to identify the causal drug owing to the large number of medications concurrently administered. The second case presented with DRESS syndrome symptoms during ocular toxoplasmosis treatment. In this case, a clearer association with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine was observed. As a result of the regular prescription of pharmacological agents associated with DRESS syndrome, ophthalmologists should be aware of the potentially serious complications of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27463633

  4. On the order of general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-09-01

    General linear (GL) methods are numerical algorithms used to solve ODEs. The standard order conditions analysis involves the GL matrix itself and a starting procedure; however, a finishing method (F) is required to extract the actual ODE solution. The standard order analysis and stability are sufficient for the convergence of any GL method. Nonetheless, using a simple GL scheme, we show that the order definition may be too restrictive. Specifically, the order for GL methods with low order intermediate components may be underestimated. In this note we explore the order conditions for GL schemes and propose a new definition for characterizing the order of GL methods, which is focused on the final result--the outcome of F--and can provide more effective algebraic order conditions.

  5. Hilbert's axiomatic method and Carnap's general axiomatics.

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper compares the axiomatic method of David Hilbert and his school with Rudolf Carnap's general axiomatics that was developed in the late 1920s, and that influenced his understanding of logic of science throughout the 1930s, when his logical pluralism developed. The distinct perspectives become visible most clearly in how Richard Baldus, along the lines of Hilbert, and Carnap and Friedrich Bachmann analyzed the axiom system of Hilbert's Foundations of Geometry—the paradigmatic example for the axiomatization of science. Whereas Hilbert's axiomatic method started from a local analysis of individual axiom systems in which the foundations of mathematics as a whole entered only when establishing the system's consistency, Carnap and his Vienna Circle colleague Hans Hahn instead advocated a global analysis of axiom systems in general. A primary goal was to evade, or formalize ex post, mathematicians' 'material' talk about axiom systems for such talk was held to be error-prone and susceptible to metaphysics. PMID:26386526

  6. Dressed spin of polarized {sup 3}He in a cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.-H.; Esler, A. M.; Peng, J. C.; Beck, D. H.; Chandler, D. E.; Clayton, S.; Williamson, S.; Yoder, J.; Hu, B.-Z.; Ngan, S. Y.; Sham, C. H.; So, L. H.

    2011-08-15

    We report a measurement of the modification of the effective precession frequency of polarized {sup 3}He atoms in response to a dressing field in a room-temperature cell. The {sup 3}He atoms were polarized using the metastability spin-exchange method. An oscillating dressing field was then applied perpendicular to the constant magnetic field. Modification of the {sup 3}He effective precession frequency was observed over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field. The observed effects are compared with calculations based on quantum optics formalism.

  7. Dressed spin of polarized 3He in a cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P.-H.; Esler, A. M.; Peng, J. C.; Beck, D. H.; Chandler, D. E.; Clayton, S.; Hu, B.-Z.; Ngan, S. Y.; Sham, C. H.; So, L. H.; Williamson, S.; Yoder, J.

    2011-08-01

    We report a measurement of the modification of the effective precession frequency of polarized 3He atoms in response to a dressing field in a room-temperature cell. The 3He atoms were polarized using the metastability spin-exchange method. An oscillating dressing field was then applied perpendicular to the constant magnetic field. Modification of the 3He effective precession frequency was observed over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field. The observed effects are compared with calculations based on quantum optics formalism.

  8. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  9. A general method to determine twinning elements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779

  10. Hori method for generalized canonical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Fernandes, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, some special features on the canonical version of Hori method, when it is applied to generalized canonical systems (systems of differential equations described by a Hamiltonian function linear in the momenta), are presented. Two different procedures, based on a new approach for the integration theory recently presented for the canonical version, are proposed for determining the new Hamiltonian and the generating function for systems whose differential equations for the coordinates describe a periodic system with one fast phase. These procedures are equivalent and they are directly related to the canonical transformations defined by the general solution of the integrable kernel of the Hamiltonian. They provide the same near-identity transformation for the coordinates obtained through the non-canonical version of Hori method. It is also shown that these procedures are connected to the classic averaging principle through a canonical transformation. As examples, asymptotic solutions of a non-linear oscillations problem and of the elliptic perturbed problem are discussed.

  11. DRESS syndrome with autoimmune hepatitis from strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    di Meo, Nicola; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Crocè, Lory; Tiribelli, Claudio; Trevisan, Giusto

    2016-05-01

    Strontium ranelate, which is used for postmenopausal osteoporosis, has been associated with drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, a severe, acute, potentially fatal, multisystem adverse drug reaction characterized by skin rash, fever, hematological abnormalities, and lymphadenopathy with involvement of several internal organs. We report the case of a woman who developed DRESS syndrome with a generalized maculopapular rash, eosinophilia, dyspnea, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with liver damage 3 weeks after administration of strontium ranelate for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Approximately 6 months after total remission of cutaneous symptoms, the patient developed autoimmune hepatitis. This case confirms that strontium ranelate should be considered as a possible factor in the etiopathology of DRESS syndrome as well as in the subsequent development of autoimmune hepatitis. The possibility of developing autoimmune hepatitis as a part of DRESS syndrome related to strontium ranelate use can occur months after the acute episode. PMID:27274555

  12. [Design of a Special Shaped Foam Dressing Based on Anatomy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunming; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Siyu; Zhang, Keping; Zheng, Kun

    2015-07-01

    As the dressings currently used in clinic settings unflat shape in general, they can't be fitted completely on occiput, heel, elbow, knee and other body parts unflat. This paper developed one kind of foam dressing of special shape based on local anatomy. The foam dressing is waterproof and air permeable, it can cover the wound closely enough to prevent bacteria from invasion and infection. With a saturated absorption ratio of 1: 8 or higher, it can keep the wound clean and moisture by absorbing large amounts of wound inflammatory secretions and is almost completely permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Assuring safety and effect meanwhile, it has better outcomes than common dressings in the same application settings. PMID:26665946

  13. Novel Asymmetric Wettable AgNPs/Chitosan Wound Dressing: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Donghui; Lu, Zhong; Yang, Hao; Gao, Jingting; Chen, Rong

    2016-02-17

    A novel silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/chitosan composite dressing with asymmetric wettability surfaces was successfully prepared via a simple two-step method for biomedical applications as wound healing materials. First, AgNPs were assembled into the chitosan sponge which was prepared by lyophilization process. Then one side of the sponge was modified by a thin layer of stearic acid. The incorporation of AgNPs into chitosan dressing could enhance the antibacterial activity against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The asymmetric surface modification endows the dressing with both highly hydrophobic property and inherent hydrophilic nature of chitosan. The hydrophobic surface of the dressing shows waterproof and antiadhesion for contaminant properties, whereas the hydrophilic surface preserves its water-absorbing capability and efficiently inhibits the growth of bacteria. Furthermore, the AgNPs/chitosan composite dressing displays improved moisture retention and blood clotting ability compared to the unmodified dressings. Cytocompatibility test evaluated in vitro and in a wound infection model illustrates the nontoxic nature of the composite dressing. More importantly, the in vivo wound healing model evaluation in mice reveals that the asymmetric AgNPs/chitosan dressing promotes the wound healing and accelerates the reepithelialization and collagen deposition. The silver accumulation in mice body treated by the composite dressing is far lower than that of the clinically used Acasin nanosilver dressing treated mice. This work indicates the huge potential of the novel AgNPs/chitosan wound dressing with asymmetrical wettability for clinical use. PMID:26800283

  14. Generalized HPC method for the Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardazzi, A.; Lugni, C.; Antuono, M.; Graziani, G.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and innovative numerical algorithm based on the use of Harmonic Polynomials on each Cell of the computational domain (HPC method) has been recently proposed by Shao and Faltinsen (2014) [1], to solve Boundary Value Problem governed by the Laplace equation. Here, we extend the HPC method for the solution of non-homogeneous elliptic boundary value problems. The homogeneous solution, i.e. the Laplace equation, is represented through a polynomial function with harmonic polynomials while the particular solution of the Poisson equation is provided by a bi-quadratic function. This scheme has been called generalized HPC method. The present algorithm, accurate up to the 4th order, proved to be efficient, i.e. easy to be implemented and with a low computational effort, for the solution of two-dimensional elliptic boundary value problems. Furthermore, it provides an analytical representation of the solution within each computational stencil, which allows its coupling with existing numerical algorithms within an efficient domain-decomposition strategy or within an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm.

  15. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  20. Dressed soliton in quantum dusty pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Roy, Kaushik

    2009-11-15

    Nonlinear propagation of a quantum ion-acoustic dressed soliton is studied in a dusty pair-ion plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived using reductive perturbation technique. A higher order inhomogeneous differential equation is obtained for the higher order correction. The expression for a dressed soliton is calculated using a renormalization method. The expressions for higher order correction are determined using a series solution technique developed by Chatterjee et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 072102 (2009)].

  1. Treecode-based generalized Born method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenli; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Haizhao

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge-charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  2. [Dressing and wound care pain].

    PubMed

    Chin, Yen-Fan

    2006-12-01

    Wound care is an important step for promoting wound healing. Nevertheless it is also a major source of pain for patients with wounds. The results of a survey showed that not only burn patients but also non-burn ones suffered from wound care pain which occurred in inpatients and outpatients. One of the significant factors causing wound care pain was that the dressing adhered to the wound bed. Although some agencies claimed that particular dressings with low adhesion can result in painless removal, the actual effects needed to be verified. Results of clinical trials revealed that for relieving wound care pain of certain kinds of wound, it was recommended to use particular dressings, such as banana leaf dressing, boiled potato peel bandage, Acticoat, Mepital or Mefix. PMID:17160873

  3. Teacher Dress Codes in Employee Handbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey

    2010-01-01

    This study used role theory to analyze dress codes for teachers to discern what dress items expressed role embracement and role distance. Inductive content analysis of teacher dress codes in 103 U.S. K-12 school handbooks revealed three categories of dress: (a) conventional dress (mentioned in 97.1% of the dress codes); (b) casual dress (mentioned…

  4. Comparative evaluation of silver-containing antimicrobial dressings and drugs.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Joseph J; Shafii, Susan M; Ko, Francis; Donate, Guillermo; Wright, Terry E; Mannari, Rudolph J; Payne, Wyatt G; Smith, David J; Robson, Martin C

    2007-06-01

    Wound dressings containing silver as antimicrobial agents are available in various forms and formulations; however, little is understood concerning their comparative efficacy as antimicrobial agents. Eight commercially available silver-containing dressings, Acticoat 7, Acticoat Moisture Control, Acticoat Absorbent, Silvercel, Aquacel Ag, Contreet F, Urgotol SSD and Actisorb, were tested to determine their comparative antimicrobial effectiveness in vitro and compared against three commercially available topical antimicrobial creams, a non treatment control, and a topical silver-containing antimicrobial gel, Silvasorb. Zone of inhibition and quantitative testing was performed by standard methods using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed all silver dressings and topical antimicrobials displayed antimicrobial activity. Silver-containing dressings with the highest concentrations of silver exhibited the strongest bacterial inhibitive properties. Concreet F and the Acticoat dressings tended to have greater antimicrobial activity than did the others. Topical antimicrobial creams, including silver sulfadiazine, Sulfamylon and gentamicin sulfate, and the topical antimicrobial gel Silvasorb exhibited superior bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties, essentially eliminating all bacterial growth at 24 hours. Silver-containing dressings are likely to provide a barrier to and treatment for infection; however, their bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties are inferior to commonly used topical antimicrobial agents. PMID:17651227

  5. School Dress Code Law in the 90's: "Tinkering" with Fashion and Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    Dress codes directed at gang attire present school officials with the dilemma of ensuring the safety of the students in a school environment versus the First Amendment rights of students to express themselves. A review of some of the court decisions limited to freedom of expression and general dress code cases serves as a foundation from which to…

  6. A Graduated Guidance Procedure for Teaching Self-Dressing Skills to Multihandicpped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Lori A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a graduated guidance procedure for increasing independence in dressing was examined in a multiple baseline analysis across behaviors with two multihandicapped children (ages nine and five). Results showed both children learned dressing skills with generalization of training to similar garments and maintenance of skills and 18…

  7. A prospective comparison of a new, synthetic donor site dressing versus an impregnated gauze dressing.

    PubMed

    Hickerson, W L; Kealey, G P; Smith, D J; Thomson, P D

    1994-01-01

    Three institutions enrolled 38 patients who required bilateral skin graft donor sites into a safety and efficacy study of a new synthetic donor site dressing. Bilateral donor sites were randomized to receive either a new, synthetic donor site dressing or an impregnated gauze dressing. Wounds were assessed by time to healing, pain, and patient preference. Synthetic dressing wounds were treated 7.9 days compared with 10.2 days for gauze dressing wounds (p < 0.001), and synthetic dressing wounds were more completely epithelialized. Visual analogue pain analysis revealed significantly less donor site pain with synthetic dressing (2.94) versus gauze dressing (4.64) (p < 0.001). Synthetic dressing had fewer treatment-related adverse experiences than gauze dressing (2 vs 7) and was judged by recipients to be superior to gauze dressing in comfort, pain relief, cosmetic appeal, ease of ambulation, and overall acceptance. PMID:7929519

  8. Relationship between dressing and motor function in stroke patients: a study with partial correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to elucidate which motor functions are most or more important for dressing performance before and after rehabilitation. [Subjects] Seventy-nine first episode stroke patients in a hospital convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Methods] The relationships between motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs, unaffected side function, trunk function, balance, cognitive function, and independence level in dressing were examined at admission and discharge using partial correlation analysis. [Results] Independence level of dressing correlated with motor function of the affected upper limb and balance at admission, but correlated only with balance at discharge. [Conclusion] Balance function was strongly associated with level of dressing independence. The effect of gross motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs on the level of independence in dressing may thus be smaller than originally expected. Enhanced balance ability can be important for learning single-handed actions of self-dressing during rehabilitation. PMID:26834349

  9. Relationship between dressing and motor function in stroke patients: a study with partial correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to elucidate which motor functions are most or more important for dressing performance before and after rehabilitation. [Subjects] Seventy-nine first episode stroke patients in a hospital convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Methods] The relationships between motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs, unaffected side function, trunk function, balance, cognitive function, and independence level in dressing were examined at admission and discharge using partial correlation analysis. [Results] Independence level of dressing correlated with motor function of the affected upper limb and balance at admission, but correlated only with balance at discharge. [Conclusion] Balance function was strongly associated with level of dressing independence. The effect of gross motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs on the level of independence in dressing may thus be smaller than originally expected. Enhanced balance ability can be important for learning single-handed actions of self-dressing during rehabilitation. PMID:26834349

  10. Cytotoxicity of silver dressings on diabetic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shi-Bo; Yoon, Won-Young; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Cui, Zheng-Jun; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2013-06-01

    A large number of silver-based dressings are commonly used in the management of chronic wounds that are at risk of infection, including diabetic foot ulcers. However, there are still controversies regarding the toxicity of silver dressings on wound healing. The purpose of this study was to objectively test the cytotoxicity of silver dressings on human diabetic fibroblasts. Human diabetic fibroblasts were obtained from the foot skin of four diabetic foot ulcer patients and cultured. The effect of five silver-containing dressing products (Aquacel Ag, Acticoat*Absorbent, Medifoam Ag, Biatain Ag and PolyMem Ag) and their comparable silver-free dressing products on morphology, proliferation and collagen synthesis of the cultured human diabetic fibroblasts were compared in vitro. In addition, extracts of each dressing were tested in order to examine the effect of other chemical components found in the dressings on cytotoxicity. The diabetic fibroblasts cultured with each silver-free dressing adopted the typical dendritic and fusiform shape. On the other hand, the diabetic fibroblasts did not adopt this typical morphology when treated with the different silver dressings. All silver dressings tested in the study reduced the viability of the diabetic fibroblasts and collagen synthesis by 54-70 and 48-68%, respectively, when compared to silver-free dressings. Silver dressings significantly changed the cell morphology and decreased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis of diabetic fibroblasts. Therefore, silver dressings should be used with caution when treating diabetic wounds. PMID:22533495

  11. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440.132 General..., removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to surface mines, any area...

  12. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440.132 General..., removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to surface mines, any area...

  13. Modified wound dressing with phyto-nanostructured coating to prevent staphylococcal and pseudomonal biofilm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ficai, Anton; Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Maganu, Maria; Lazǎr, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports a newly fabricated nanophyto-modified wound dressing with microbicidal and anti-adherence properties. Nanofluid-based magnetite doped with eugenol or limonene was used to fabricate modified wound dressings. Nanostructure coated materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR. For the quantitative measurement of biofilm-embedded microbial cells, a culture-based method for viable cell count was used. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to staphylococcal and pseudomonal colonization and biofilm formation compared to the uncoated controls. The functionalized surfaces for wound dressing seems to be a very useful tool for the prevention of wound microbial contamination on viable tissues.

  14. Wound dressings: selecting the most appropriate type.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Karen C; Powers, Jennifer Gloeckner

    2013-12-01

    Appropriate wound dressing selection is guided by an understanding of wound dressing properties and an ability to match the level of drainage and depth of a wound. Wounds should be assessed for necrosis and infection, which need to be addressed prior to selecting an ideal dressing. Moisture-retentive dressings include films, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, alginates, and hydrofibers and are useful in a variety of clinical settings. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressings can be useful in wounds that are superficially infected or are at higher risk for infection. For refractory wounds that need more growth stimulation, tissue-engineered dressings have become a viable option in the past few decades, especially those that have been approved for burns, venous ulcers, and diabetic ulcers. As wounds heal, the ideal dressing type may change, depending on the amount of exudate and depth of the wound; thus success in wound dressing selection hinges on recognition of the changing healing environment. PMID:24062083

  15. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  16. Speeding up Adiabatic Quantum State Transfer by Using Dressed States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksic, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Hugo; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-06-01

    We develop new pulse schemes to significantly speed up adiabatic state transfer protocols. Our general strategy involves adding corrections to an initial control Hamiltonian that harness nonadiabatic transitions. These corrections define a set of dressed states that the system follows exactly during the state transfer. We apply this approach to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage protocols and show that a suitable choice of dressed states allows one to design fast protocols that do not require additional couplings, while simultaneously minimizing the occupancy of the "intermediate" level.

  17. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  19. Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)

  20. Redressing Cross-Dressed Shakespeare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Thomas L.; Pesta, Duke

    2003-01-01

    Gender critics obsess over the boy actors who played female roles on the Elizabethan stage. But, in their far-fetched interpretation of Shakespearean drama as a spectacle of cross dressing, these new historicists lose sight of a fundamental principle of theater. Thomas Martin and Duke Pesta argue that with their prurient chatter of "the…

  1. Dress Codes and Gang Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1996-01-01

    Concern with school violence and efforts to reduce gang visibility at school have led to controversy about students' constitutional rights to freedom of expression. This document outlines legal precedents and offers guidelines for developing a sound school policy on dress codes. It answers the following questions: (1) Are gang clothing and symbols…

  2. A Dressing Solution for Burn Wounds: Antibacterial and Low-Adherent Wound Dressings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Tianyun

    Considering the infection and second trauma caused by dressing changes, development of antibacterial and low-adherent wound dressings is urgently needed. Silver ion is a widely used antimicrobial agent, but its cytotoxicity remains a problem. In this study, low-adherent PAM (polyacrylamide) hydrogel incorporated with less toxic AgNP (silver nanoparticle), was immobilized onto PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) substrates by an IPN (interpenetrating polymer network) method. The modified PET is effectively antibacterial and the surface is significantly less adherent than untreated PET. However, silver-resistant bacteria become a potential problem. Thus, ionic 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) analogues containing either a quaternary ammonium moiety or a phosphonate functional group were designed and synthesized. The DMH analogues were converted to antibacterial N-chloramine counterparts through chlorination to serve as potential alternatives to AgNP. The N-chloramine with a structural cation exhibited distinctly enhanced antibacterial functions both in solution and after immobilization on fabrics.

  3. Adaptive multiscale model reduction with Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Eric; Efendiev, Yalchin; Hou, Thomas Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss a general multiscale model reduction framework based on multiscale finite element methods. We give a brief overview of related multiscale methods. Due to page limitations, the overview focuses on a few related methods and is not intended to be comprehensive. We present a general adaptive multiscale model reduction framework, the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. Besides the method's basic outline, we discuss some important ingredients needed for the method's success. We also discuss several applications. The proposed method allows performing local model reduction in the presence of high contrast and no scale separation.

  4. The design, characteristics, and application of polyurethane dressings using the electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampeerapappun, Piyaporn

    In general, a dressing is used to protect and help heal wounds. There are several types of dressings on the market such as hydrocolloid, hydrogel, and medicated dressings. One technique for making a dressing is electrospinning, which is a very simple procedure used to produce fibers. Due to much smaller fiber-diameters than produced with the conventional technique, the fibers from electrospinning have unique properties: high porosity and high surface areas, which are advantageous for wound healing. In this research, the fibers were electrospun using polyurethane, TecophilicRTM or TecoflexRTM, with various additives. First, multilayer transdermal electrospun dressings, four and five-layers, were developed that allowed for the controlled release of nitric oxide (NO) from a NO2 -/ascorbic acid system encapsulated in polymer nanofibers. The amount of NO released from each wound dressing was investigated. Both the four and five-layer dressings were tested for morphology of fibers, water absorption, nitrite distribution, NO release profile after sterilization by gamma radiation, and stability. In the case of the four-layer transdermal dressing, the dressing was tested in diabetic, periodontal, and cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Furthermore, the color change of dressing was investigated. TecophilicRTM was also spun with an antimicrobial agent, which was added to the TecophilicRTM solution to electrospin an antimicrobial dressing. The morphology of fibers was tested using an optical microscope and the water absorption, uniformity, and percent extraction of dressing were also determined. In addition, the efficiency of the antimicrobial agent in the dressing was determined according to SN 195920-1994 and ASTM 2149-01. Another NO-releasing dressing was developed employing the NO donor molecules, sodium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Na) and calcium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Ca), which were electrospun with TecophilicRTM. The NO

  5. A Polytomous Extension of the Generalized Distance Discriminating Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jianan; Xin, Tao; Zhang, Shumei; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a generalized distance discriminating method for test with polytomous response (GDD-P). The new method is the polytomous extension of an item response theory (IRT)-based cognitive diagnostic method, which can identify examinees' ideal response patterns (IRPs) based on a generalized distance index. The similarities…

  6. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  7. Nitrofurantoin: cause of DRESS syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Barreto, Paulo; Leão, Ricardo R; Ribeiro, José Vaz

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common pathological entity among elderly patients. The widespread use of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs has gained many opponents mainly due to the increasing drug resistance observed. Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used antibacterial drug because it has low side effects and a good antiurinary bacterial profile. However, in this paper, we present a case of a nitrofurantoin-induced DRESS (drug reaction/rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome in a 77-year-old woman. During UTI treatment, the patient developed an acute skin rash which spread all over the body and a considerable decrease in urine volume. At the emergency department, we found her developing eosinophilic pneumonia, anaemia and renal impairment that we relate to nitrofurantoin administration. To our knowledge, this is the second published case report which evokes nitrofurantoin as a possible cause of DRESS syndrome. PMID:23661654

  8. A model for quantitative evaluation of skin damage at adhesive wound dressing removal.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hajime; Ahmatjan, Niyaz; Ida, Yukiko; Imai, Ryutaro; Wanatabe, Katsueki

    2013-06-01

    The removal of adhesive wound dressings from the wound surface involves a risk of damaging the intact stratum corneum and regenerating epithelium. Pain associated with the removal of wound dressings is a major issue for patients and medical personnel. Recently, wound dressings coated with a silicone adhesive have been developed to reduce such skin damage and pain on removal and they have received good evaluation in various clinical settings. However, there is neither a standard method to quantify whether or not the integrity of the stratum corneum and regenerating epithelium is retained or if both structures are damaged by the removal of wound dressings, nor are there standardised values with which to assess skin damage. We applied six different types of adhesive wound dressing on plain copy paper printed with black ink by a laser printer, removed the dressings, examined the adhesive-coated surface of the wound dressings using a high-power videoscope, and examined the stripped areas. Wound dressings coated with a silicone adhesive showed significantly less detachment of the stratum corneum and regenerating epithelium, followed by those coated with polyurethane, hydrocolloid, and acrylic adhesives. The assessment method utilised in this study revealed distinct differences between wound dressing types, but less variation in the evaluation outcome of each type. This assessment method may be useful for the evaluation of adhesive wound dressings, particularly during product development. However, further studies will be needed to examine the effectiveness of this assessment method in the clinical setting because the adherent properties of polyurethane and hydrocolloid adhesives may be altered by the absorption of water from the skin. PMID:22533468

  9. A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.

  10. Avoided-Level-Crossing Spectroscopy with Dressed Matter Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, Andre; Holthaus, Martin

    2008-12-12

    We devise a method for probing resonances of macroscopic matter waves in shaken optical lattices by monitoring their response to slow parameter changes, and show that such resonances can be disabled by particular choices of the driving amplitude. The theoretical analysis of this scheme reveals far-reaching analogies between dressed atoms and time periodically forced matter waves.

  11. A comparison of the efficacy and cost of different venous leg ulcer dressings: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed M Asim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simple nonadherent dressings with other more expensive dressing types in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Location. The leg ulcer clinic at the University Hospital of South Manchester. Subjects and Methods. The healing rates of twelve leg ulcer patients treated with simple nonadherent dressings (e.g., NA Ultra) were compared with an equal number of patients treated with modern dressings to determine differences in healing rates and cost. Main Outcome Measures. Rate of healing as determined by reduction in ulcer area over a specified period of time and total cost of dressing per patient. Results. Simple nonadherent dressings had a mean healing rate of 0.353 cm(2)/week (standard deviation ± 0.319) compared with a mean of 0.415 cm(2)/week (standard deviation ± 0.383) for more expensive dressings. This resulted in a one-tailed p value of 0.251 and a two-tailed p value of 0.508. Multiple regression analysis gave a significance F of 0.8134. Conclusion. The results indicate that the difference in healing rate between simple and modern dressings is not statistically significant. Therefore, the cost of dressing type should be an important factor influencing dressing selection. PMID:25954532

  12. A Comparison of the Efficacy and Cost of Different Venous Leg Ulcer Dressings: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed M. Asim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simple nonadherent dressings with other more expensive dressing types in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Location. The leg ulcer clinic at the University Hospital of South Manchester. Subjects and Methods. The healing rates of twelve leg ulcer patients treated with simple nonadherent dressings (e.g., NA Ultra) were compared with an equal number of patients treated with modern dressings to determine differences in healing rates and cost. Main Outcome Measures. Rate of healing as determined by reduction in ulcer area over a specified period of time and total cost of dressing per patient. Results. Simple nonadherent dressings had a mean healing rate of 0.353 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.319) compared with a mean of 0.415 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.383) for more expensive dressings. This resulted in a one-tailed p value of 0.251 and a two-tailed p value of 0.508. Multiple regression analysis gave a significance F of 0.8134. Conclusion. The results indicate that the difference in healing rate between simple and modern dressings is not statistically significant. Therefore, the cost of dressing type should be an important factor influencing dressing selection. PMID:25954532

  13. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...” (Uranium) is measured by the procedure discussed in 40 CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440... the extraction, removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to...

  14. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...” (Uranium) is measured by the procedure discussed in 40 CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440... the extraction, removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to...

  15. A silver-coated antimicrobial barrier dressing used postoperatively on meshed autografts: a dressing comparison study.

    PubMed

    Silver, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Symanthia W; Halerz, Marcia M; Conrad, Peggie; Supple, Kathy G; Gamelli, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to optimize the management of freshly grafted burn wounds, a silver-coated, low-adherence dressing, Acticoat (Smith & Nephew Inc., Largo, FL), was compared with 5% sulfamylon-soaked Exu-Dry burn wound dressings. Twenty subjects admitted to the Loyola University Medical Center were randomized to either Acticoat dressings or 5% sulfamylon-soaked burn wound dressings. Dressings were applied immediately after grafting in the operating room. Acticoat dressings were left in place for 3 days and then changed every 3 days thereafter. Sulfamylon-soaked dressings were changed at 48 hours and then every day. Subjects continued to have dressing changes on a twice-daily basis to wounds that were not grafted managed. Subjects were assessed for graft take, time to wound healing, and the number of dressings required until healing. Hospital charges and labor costs were retrospectively tabulated, yielding an expense estimate for each group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, %TBSA, %TBSA of the grafted test sites, graft take, time to graft healing, or infectious complications. The median number of dressing changes to the test site was significantly less in the Acticoat group (P < .05). The average expense per dressing change was not significantly different between the two groups; however, the average total expense per patient was significantly lower for the Acticoat group because of the reduced number of dressing changes. Acticoat and 5% sulfamylon-soaked burn wound dressings were equivalent with respect to wound healing and infectious complications. The use of Acticoat was found to be a safe alternative to the use of 5% sulfamylon as a postsurgical dressing in this group of subjects. Because of the reduced number of dressing changes, the use of Acticoat was a less expensive alternative to 5% sulfamylon dressing changes in this study. PMID:17667837

  16. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490

  17. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-01-01

    Four different methods of teaching--cooperative learning, class discussions, concept maps, and lectures--were integrated into a freshman-level general chemistry course to compare students' levels of participation. Findings support the idea that multiple modes of learning foster the metacognitive skills necessary for mastering general chemistry.…

  18. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MOUSE: GENERAL APPROACH AND METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse effects of chemicals on the lymphoreticular system have generated considerable toxicological interest. In the series of papers, the effects of selected environmentally relevant compounds are reported. The first paper describes the methods and general approach used in ...

  19. Hadronic Structure from Perturbative Dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz

    2005-09-01

    Perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD produces the internal structure of an extended object, the so-called Valon. The valon structure is universal and independent of the hosting hadron. Polarized and unpolarized proton and pion structure functions are calculated in the valon representation. One finds that although all the available data on g1p,n,d are easily reproduced, a sizable orbital angular momentum associated with the partonic structure of the valon is required in order to have a spin 1/2 valon.

  20. Clinical Curative Effect of Mesalt Combined with Mepilex Dressing in Postoperative Infection of Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenjun; Xiong, Zhonghua; Wu, Jiayu; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Inguinal hernia is a common surgical disease. Tension-free hernioplasty is currently commonly used for its treatment, with multiple advantages such as simple surgical method, low recurrence rate, and ability to be performed in primary care hospitals, but the risk of incision infection still exists. Mild infection can be cured by local washing, dressing, and systemic antibiotics. If the infection is severe, the wound may not heal after removing the patch, and secondary suturing is needed. Material/Methods A total of 60 patients with postoperative infection after tension-free repair of inguinal hernia were randomly divided into control (n=30) and treatment (n=30) groups. Patients in the treatment group received Mesalt combined with Mepilex for dressing while the patients in the control group received conventional gauze for dressing. Pain degree, wound healing time, and dressing times were observed. Results The clinical therapeutic effect in the treatment group was significantly better than in the control group. The treatment group exhibited significantly less pain when patients receive dressing, shorter wounds healing time (15±3.5 vs. 30±5.0), and less dressing frequency (10±2.1 vs. 20±2.4). Conclusions Mesalt combined with Mepilex can effectively improve postoperative infection after inguinal hernia treatment, obviously reducing pain, shorting wound healing time, and decreasing dressing frequency. It can be widely used in clinical practice. PMID:25854191

  1. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D R; Goode, P S; LaMaster, K; Tennyson, T

    1998-10-01

    Aloe vera has been used for centuries as a topical treatment for various conditions and as a cathartic. An amorphous hydrogel dressing derived from the aloe plant (Carrasyn Gel Wound Dressing, Carrington Laboratories, Inc., Irving, TX) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of Stages I through IV pressure ulcers. To evaluate effectiveness of this treatment, 30 patients were randomized to receive either daily topical application of the hydrogel study dressing (acemannan hydrogel wound dressing) or a moist saline gauze dressing. Complete healing of the study ulcer occurred in 19 of 30 subjects (63%) during the 10-week observation period. No difference was observed in complete healing between the experimental and the control groups (odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.16, 5.2). This study indicates that the acemannan hydrogel dressing is as effective as, but is not superior to, a moist saline gauze wound dressing for the management of pressure ulcers. PMID:10326343

  2. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them. PMID:26061489

  3. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  4. A generalization of the method of harmonic balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is provided for generalizing the method of harmonic balance to obtain higher-order approximations to the periodic solutions of differential equations for two systems, one a conservative system and the other nonconservative. The procedure is currently being applied to investigate the possible solution behaviors of singular, nonlinear oscillators, where the usual perturbation methods do not work.

  5. Dressing wear time after breast reconstruction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the major risk variables for surgical site infection is wound management. Understanding infection risk factors for breast operations is essential in order to develop infection-prevention strategies and improve surgical outcomes. The aim of this trial is to assess the influence of dressing wear time on surgical site infection rates and skin colonization. Patients’ perception at self-assessment will also be analyzed. Methods/Design This is a two-arm randomized controlled trial. Two hundred breast cancer patients undergoing immediate or delayed breast reconstruction will be prospectively enrolled. Patients will be randomly allocated to group I (dressing removed on postoperative day one) or group II (dressing removed on postoperative day six). Surgical site infections will be defined by standard criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Skin colonization will be assessed by culture of samples collected at predefined time points. Patients will score dressing wear time with regard to safety, comfort and convenience. Discussion The evidence to support dressing standards for breast surgery wounds is empiric and scarce. CDC recommends protecting, with a sterile dressing for 24 to 48 hours postoperatively, a primarily closed incision, but there is no recommendation to cover this kind of incision beyond 48 hours, or on the appropriate time to shower or bathe with an uncovered incision. The results of the ongoing trial may support standard recommendations regarding dressing wear time after breast reconstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: http://NCT01148823. PMID:23432779

  6. Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, E. R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Austin, D. R.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S. E. E.; Siegel, T.; Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V.; Miseikis, L.; Strüber, C. S.; Chipperfield, L.; Marangos, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the vectorial response of strongly dressed helium atoms probed by an attosecond pulse train (APT) polarised either parallel or perpendicular to the dressing field polarisation. The transient absorption is probed as a function of delay between the APT and the linearly polarised 800 nm field of peak intensity 1.3× {10}14 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The APT spans the photon energy range 16–42 eV, covering the first ionisation energy of helium (24.59 eV). With parallel polarised dressing and probing fields, we observe modulations with periods of one half and one quarter of the dressing field period. When the polarisation of the dressing field is altered from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the APT polarisation we observe a large suppression in the modulation depth of the above ionisation threshold absorption. In addition to this we present the intensity dependence of the harmonic modulation depth as a function of delay between the dressing and probe fields, with dressing field peak intensities ranging from 2 × 1012 to 2 × 1014 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. We compare our experimental results with a full-dimensional solution of the single-atom time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation obtained using the recently developed abinitio TD B-spline ADC method and find good qualitative agreement for the above threshold harmonics.

  7. Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Biesaga, Magdalena; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces. Material/Methods Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors. Results All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around. Conclusions Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used. PMID:26264209

  8. DSE inspired model for the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Mezrag, C.; Moutarde, H.; Roberts, C. D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.; Sabatié, F.

    2015-07-01

    We sketch here an approach to the computation of genaralised parton distributions (GPDs), based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL) truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, Hvπ(x,ξ,t). Our analysis focuses on the case of zero skewness, ξ = 0, and underlines that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hvπ(x,0,t), expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hvπ(x,0,t) and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, , which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pion's dressed-quark structure at an hadronic scale.

  9. A robust general phase retrieval method for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yan, A.; Liu, H.

    2013-01-01

    From medical imaging perspective the robustness of a phase retrieval method is of critical importance. In this presentation we compare the robustness of two general phase retrieval methods, namely the transport of intensity equation inversion (TIE-inversion) method and the attenuation partition based (AP-based) method. We showed that the TIE-inversion method, regardless if being assisted with the Tikhonov regularization, failed to retrieve the phase maps in two experimental studies. The failure exposes this method’s weakness as being unstable against the noise. In contrast, the sample phase maps are retrieved successfully by using the AP-based method. The stark performance differences of the two methods are rooted in their different techniques dealing with the singularity problem. This comparison shows that the robust AP-based phase retrieval method will be superior to the TIE-inversion method for medical imaging applications where radiation doses are stringently limited. PMID:23894250

  10. On a New Numerical Method for Solving General Variational Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bnouhachem, Abdellah; Noor, Muhammad Aslam; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Sheng, Zhaohan

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze a new extragradient method for solving the general variational inequalities involving two operators. We also prove the global convergence of the proposed modified method under certain mild conditions. We used a self-adaptive technique to adjust parameter ρ at each iteration. It is proved theoretically that the lower-bound of the progress obtained by the proposed method is greater than that by the extragradient method. An example is given to illustrate the efficiency and its comparison with the extragradient method. Since the general variational inequalities include the classical variational inequalities and complementarity problems as special cases, our results obtained in this paper continue to hold for these problems. Results obtained in this paper may be viewed as an improvement and refinement of the previously known results in this field.

  11. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2-4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  12. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  13. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Open Wound Treatment vs Occlusive Dressings in Elective Surgical Cases with Respect to Surgical Site Infections

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Anmol; Sidhu, D S

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical wounds heal by primary intention in all the elective and emergency surgical procedures. Current practice is to place dressing over the closed wound before the patient leaves the sterile environment of the operating theatre. Dressing is a material applied to protect a wound and favour its healing. However, to leave wound open in direct contact to environment following any procedure by just applying some ointment on it, the so called open wound treatment is still controversial one. In the present study we have compared open wound treatment vs occlusive dressings in elective surgical cases with respect to surgical site infections. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted on 100 patients admitted for elective general surgery after taking written informed consent. Patients were divided randomly in to two equal groups each comprising of 50 patients. In Group A, patients had occlusive dressing till removal of stitches and in Group B, patients wounds were kept exposed to environment after the surgical procedure. Results In present study we observed total 7% of postoperative wounds were infected of all the clean and clean contaminated wounds we studied. In Group A, patients had occlusive dressing and these patients had 8% infection rate whereas in Group B patients, wounds were kept exposed to environment and these patients had 6% infection rate. Conclusion It is hereby concluded that in the elective surgical cases there is no harm in leaving the wounds open postoperatively. This method not only helps in arresting the infective pathology at a lesser stage but also saves surgeon’s time and patient’s money. PMID:26266164

  14. General Methods for Quantifying Uncertainty in Discharge Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Tim; Kiang, Julie; Mason, Robert, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Developing a general operational method for quantifying uncertainty in streamflow measurements has proven to be a difficult task. The Interpolated Variance Estimator (IVE), which can be applied to situations where sampling involves multiple verticals, has been shown to perform reasonably well at characterizing the nonsystematic errors associated with both irregular channel geometry and pulsating velocities. It is not obvious, however, how to generalize the procedure, or in fact find any alternative procedure, that can take advantage of the continuous current profiling associated with more sophisticated ADCP instruments. Developing a uniform and consistent operational method remains a tall and important order.

  15. An error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Philsu; Kim, Junghan; Jung, WonKyu; Bu, Sunyoung

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we develop an error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials for solving stiff initial value problems. The solution and the error at each integration step are calculated by generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two consecutive degrees having overlapping zeros, which enables us to minimize overall computational costs. Further the errors at each integration step are embedded in the algorithm itself. In terms of concrete convergence and stability analysis, the constructed algorithm turns out to have the 6th order convergence and an almost L-stability. We assess the proposed method with several numerical results, showing that it uses larger time step sizes and is numerically more efficient.

  16. Wound dressings, does it matter and why?

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, Marjolein Birgitte; van Montfrans, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Compression therapy and treating venous insufficiency is the standard of care for venous leg ulcers. The need for debridement on healing venous leg ulcers is still debated. Dressings are often used under compression bandages to promote faster healing and prevent adherence of the bandage to the ulcer. A wide range of dressings is available, including modern dressings with different kinds of biological activity. Microbial burden is believed to underlie delayed healing, but the exact role of microbiofilm in wound healing is uncertain. Before choosing a specific wound dressing, four main functions should be considered: (1) cleaning, (2) absorbing, (3) regulating or (4) the necessity of adding medication. There is no clear evidence to support the use of one dressing over another, as demonstrated by many Cochrane review studies. In addition, the prescriber should enquire about contact allergies that may also develop during wound treatment. It is shown that early intervention and early investment may reduce the cost of treatment. The choice of wound dressings should be guided by cost, ease of application and patient and physician preference and be part of the complete strategy. The role of the medical specialist is evident. Wound dressings matter as part of the optimal treatment in VLU patients. PMID:26916771

  17. Survey of methods for calculating sensitivity of general eigenproblems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of methods for sensitivity analysis of the algebraic eigenvalue problem for non-Hermitian matrices is presented. In addition, a modification of one method based on a better normalizing condition is proposed. Methods are classified as Direct or Adjoint and are evaluated for efficiency. Operation counts are presented in terms of matrix size, number of design variables and number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of interest. The effect of the sparsity of the matrix and its derivatives is also considered, and typical solution times are given. General guidelines are established for the selection of the most efficient method.

  18. Heavy meson mass-spectra by general relativistic methods (*)

    SciTech Connect

    Italiano, A.; Lattuada, M.; Maccarrone, G.D.; Recami, E.; Riggi, F.; Vinciguerra, D.

    1984-11-01

    By applying the classical methods of general relativity to elementary particles, one can get-in a natural way-the observed confinement of their constituents, avoiding any recourse to phenomenological models such as the bag model and allowing the deduction of the heavy meson (i.e., charmonium (J/psi) and bottomonium (..gamma..)) mass-spectra.

  19. The trace minimization method for the symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameh, Ahmed; Tong, Zhanye

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the trace minimization method for the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problems proposed by Sameh and Wisniewski [35] is reviewed. Convergence of an inexact trace minimization algorithm is established and a variant of the algorithm that uses expanding subspaces is introduced and compared with the block Jacobi-Davidson algorithm.

  20. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GEOPHYSICAL METHODS APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysics is the application of physical quantity measurement techniques to provide information on conditions or features beneath the earth’s surface. With the exception of borehole geophysical methods and soil probes like a cone penetrometer, these techniques are generally noninvasive with physica...

  1. Evaluation of boiled potato peel as a wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Dattatreya, R M; Nuijen, S; van Swaaij, A C; Klopper, P J

    1991-08-01

    In a series of experiments full thickness skin defects in 68 rats were covered with dressings made of boiled potato peels according to the method developed in Bombay. The wounds closed within 14 days and histologically complete repair of epidermis was found. The cork layer of the potato peel prevents dehydration of the wound and protects against exogenous agents. Experiments with homogenates revealed that a complete structure of the peel is necessary. Steroidal glycosides may have contributed to the favourable results. PMID:1930669

  2. Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632

  3. Comparison of three different dressings for partial thickness burns in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the paediatric population, pain and distress associated with burn injuries during wound care procedures remain a constant challenge. Although silver dressings are the gold standard for burn care in Australasia, very few high-level trials have been conducted that compare silver dressings to determine which will provide the best level of care clinically. Therefore, for paediatric patients in particular, identifying silver dressings that are associated with lower levels of pain and rapid wound re-epithelialisation is imperative. This study will determine whether there is a difference in time to re-epithelialisation and pain and distress experienced during wound care procedures among Acticoat™, Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ and Mepilex Ag™ dressings for acute, paediatric partial thickness burns. Methods/Design Children aged 0 to 15 years with an acute partial thickness (superficial partial to deep partial thickness inclusive) burn injury and a burn total body surface area of ≤10% will be eligible for the trial. Patients will be randomised to one of the three dressing groups: (1) Acticoat™ or (2) Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ or (3) Mepilex Ag™. A minimum of 28 participants will be recruited for each treatment group. Primary measures of pain, distress and healing will be repeated at each dressing change until complete wound re-epithelialisation occurs or skin grafting is required. Additional data collected will include infection status at each dressing change, physical function, scar outcome and scar management requirements, cost effectiveness of each dressing and staff perspectives of the dressings. Discussion The results of this study will determine the effects of three commonly used silver and silicone burn dressing combinations on the rate of wound re-epithelialisation and pain experienced during dressing procedures in acute, paediatric partial thickness burn injuries. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  4. Modified wound dressing with phyto-nanostructured coating to prevent staphylococcal and pseudomonal biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a newly fabricated nanophyto-modified wound dressing with microbicidal and anti-adherence properties. Nanofluid-based magnetite doped with eugenol or limonene was used to fabricate modified wound dressings. Nanostructure coated materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR. For the quantitative measurement of biofilm-embedded microbial cells, a culture-based method for viable cell count was used. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to staphylococcal and pseudomonal colonization and biofilm formation compared to the uncoated controls. The functionalized surfaces for wound dressing seems to be a very useful tool for the prevention of wound microbial contamination on viable tissues. PMID:23272823

  5. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features ... chap 16. Read More Compartment syndrome Leg or foot amputation Peripheral artery disease - legs Type 1 diabetes ...

  6. Dressed Zeno effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Ge, Guo-Qin; Feng, Shun-Bin

    2014-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum Zeno effect in a driven superconducting charge qubit strongly and ultrastrongly coupled to a transmission line resonator. Using the dressed-state approach, we predict the different dynamics behaviors of the dressed qubit subjected to two opposite projection measurements. We show that, for very frequent measurements, the survival probability of the initial state is of exponential form and the Zeno time of the dressed qubit can be several orders of magnitude longer than that of the bare qubit. For slowly repeated measurements, the detuning of the driving field has significant impact on the measurement dynamics, and by choosing appropriate parameters for the dressed qubit, the Zeno effect can occur in the nonresonant coupling case. Such a Zeno effect is excluded from a usual two-level system.

  7. [Neutral and impregnated dressings and products].

    PubMed

    Nicodème, Marguerite; Rollot, Florence; Fromantin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Dressings without active ingredients are adapted to each stage of healing, depending on their degree of moisture, their absorption capacity and their non-traumatic character. Impregnated and mechanical dressings are also available. They are indicated for preventing or treating a symptom or a complication, or for "boosting" healing, in the form of a sequential treatment. Understanding their composition enables their indications to be better targeted thereby improving the efficacy of the overall wound management. PMID:26763565

  8. General Characterization Methods for Photoelectrochemical Cells for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinjian; Cai, Lili; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Xiaolin; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-10-12

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a very promising technology that converts water into clean hydrogen fuel and oxygen by using solar light. However, the characterization methods for PEC cells are diverse and a systematic introduction to characterization methods for PEC cells has rarely been attempted. Unlike most other review articles that focus mainly on the material used for the working electrodes of PEC cells, this review introduces general characterization methods for PEC cells, including their basic configurations and methods for characterizing their performance under various conditions, regardless of the materials used. Detailed experimental operation procedures with theoretical information are provided for each characterization method. The PEC research area is rapidly expanding and more researchers are beginning to devote themselves to related work. Therefore, the content of this Minireview can provide entry-level knowledge to beginners in the area of PEC, which might accelerate progress in this area. PMID:26365789

  9. Sensitivity analysis and approximation methods for general eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, D. V.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Optimization of dynamic systems involving complex non-hermitian matrices is often computationally expensive. Major contributors to the computational expense are the sensitivity analysis and reanalysis of a modified design. The present work seeks to alleviate this computational burden by identifying efficient sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis methods. For the algebraic eigenvalue problem involving non-hermitian matrices, algorithms for sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis are classified, compared and evaluated for efficiency and accuracy. Proper eigenvector normalization is discussed. An improved method for calculating derivatives of eigenvectors is proposed based on a more rational normalization condition and taking advantage of matrix sparsity. Important numerical aspects of this method are also discussed. To alleviate the problem of reanalysis, various approximation methods for eigenvalues are proposed and evaluated. Linear and quadratic approximations are based directly on the Taylor series. Several approximation methods are developed based on the generalized Rayleigh quotient for the eigenvalue problem. Approximation methods based on trace theorem give high accuracy without needing any derivatives. Operation counts for the computation of the approximations are given. General recommendations are made for the selection of appropriate approximation technique as a function of the matrix size, number of design variables, number of eigenvalues of interest and the number of design points at which approximation is sought.

  10. Ghee and honey dressing for infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, Tehemton E

    2011-08-01

    Ghee and honey has been advocated and used as dressing for infected wounds by Sushruta (600BC) and since 1991 in four Mumbai Hospitals. The gratifying results observed with the dressing have prompted this study which aims to establish its efficacy in five recalcitrant subset of chronic infected wounds over a three year period 2006-2009. A standardized ghee and honey dressing was used to treat: a) Eight cases of fungating malignant lesions. b) Thirteen chronic venous ulcers. c) Twenty nine diabetic foot ulcers. d) Eleven of infected ventral hernia mesh hernioplasty. e) Eleven patient with post-cesarean wound dehiscence. The dressing markedly reduced the foul odour and discharge, significantly improving the quality of life in malignant lesions. The results were equivocal in cases of venous ulcers. The results were uniformly good in the last three groups. In view of our results, as also result of innumerable Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) reported on honey dressing for infected wounds, there is substantial evidence that ghee and honey dressing has at least comparable results to other modes of treatment. The easy availability and low cost of this treatment makes it significant in developing countries. Further trials seem warranted. PMID:22851841

  11. Using absorbable chitosan hemostatic sponges as a promising surgical dressing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Sun, Yongfu; Nie, Jingyi; Lu, Wentao; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yin, Hongping; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2015-04-01

    As absorbable hemostatic dressings, chitosan with a deacetylation degree of 40% (CS-40) and 73% (CS-73) have been fabricated into sponges via a modified method. The hemostatic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties were evaluated through in vivo assays. In a hepatic hemorrhage model, the chitosan sponges, with excellent blood compatibility, achieved less blood loss than the gelation sponge (GS). In addition, CS-40 showed better hemostatic capability and biodegradability than CS-73. After implantation, a histological analysis indicated that CS-40 exhibited the best biodegradability, tissue regeneration and least tissue adhesion. By contrasting CS-40 and CS-73, the deacetylation degree is confirmed to be a key factor for the hemostatic effect, biodegradability, biocompatibility and tissue regeneration. Our overall results demonstrated the potential application of CS-40 for use in absorbable hemostatic dressings. PMID:25661881

  12. Generalization of the time-dependent numerical renormalization group method to finite temperatures and general pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, H. T. M.; Costi, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    The time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TDNRG) method [Anders et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 196801 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.196801] offers the prospect of investigating in a nonperturbative manner the time dependence of local observables of interacting quantum impurity models at all time scales following a quantum quench. Here, we present a generalization of this method to arbitrary finite temperature by making use of the full density matrix approach [Weichselbaum et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 076402 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.076402]. We show that all terms in the projected full density matrix ρi →f=ρ+++ρ--+ρ+-+ρ-+ appearing in the time evolution of a local observable may be evaluated in closed form at finite temperature, with ρ+-=ρ-+=0. The expression for ρ-- is shown to be finite at finite temperature, becoming negligible only in the limit of vanishing temperatures. We prove that this approach recovers the short-time limit for the expectation value of a local observable exactly at arbitrary temperatures. In contrast, the corresponding long-time limit is recovered exactly only for a continuous bath, i.e., when the logarithmic discretization parameter Λ →1+. Since the numerical renormalization group approach breaks down in this limit, and calculations have to be carried out at Λ >1, the long-time behavior following an arbitrary quantum quench has a finite error, which poses an obstacle for the method, e.g., in its application to the scattering-states numerical renormalization group method for describing steady-state nonequilibrium transport through correlated impurities [Anders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 066804 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.066804]. We suggest a way to overcome this problem by noting that the time dependence, in general, and the long-time limit, in particular, become increasingly more accurate on reducing the size of the quantum quench. This suggests an improved generalized TDNRG approach in which the system is time

  13. General finite state machine reasoning method for digital forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Guoyin

    2008-04-01

    Digital forensics investigator faces the challenge of reliability of forensic conclusions. Formal automatic analysis method is helpful to deal with the challenge. The finite state machine analysis method tries to determine all possible sequences of events that could have happened in a digital system during an incident. Its basic idea is to model the target system using a finite state machine and then explore its all possible states on the condition of available evidence. Timed mealy finite state machine is introduced to model the target system, and the formalization of system running process and evidence is presented to match the system running with possible source evidence automatically. Based on Gladyshev's basic reasoning method, general reasoning algorithms with multi strategies are developed to find the possible real scenarios. Case study and experimental results show that our method is feasible and adaptable to possible cases and takes a further step to practical formal reasoning for digital forensics.

  14. Randomized Comparison of Dry Dressings Versus Hydrogel in Management of Radiation-Induced Moist Desquamation

    SciTech Connect

    Macmillan, Maureen S. . E-mail: m.macmillan@napier.ac.uk; Wells, Mary; MacBride, Sheila; Raab, Gillian M.; Munro, Alastair; MacDougall, Hugh

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a randomized controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effect of a hydrogel or dry dressing on the time to healing of moist desquamation after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck, breast, or anorectal areas. Methods and Materials: A total of 357 patients were randomized before radiotherapy to receive simple dry dressings (Tricotex) or a hydrogel (Intrasite), with Tricotex as a secondary dressing. Patients were instructed to use their dressings from the onset of moist desquamation, if it occurred. Results: Of the 357 patients, 100 (28%) developed moist desquamation. The time to healing was significantly prolonged (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.99), in patients assigned to gel dressings. No evidence was found that gel dressings had a significant impact on subjectively reported skin symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study have not supported the routine use of hydrogels in the care of patients with moist desquamation and suggests that the healing times are prolonged, without any improvement in patient comfort.

  15. Choosing a Wound Dressing Based on Common Wound Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Ganary; Damstetter, Elizabeth; Phillips, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds are a major healthcare burden.The practitioner should have an appropriate understanding of both the etiology of the wound as well as the optimal type of dressings to use. Fundamental wound characteristics may be used to guide the practitioner's choice of dressings. The identification of optimal dressings to use for a particular wound type is an important element in facilitating wound healing. Recent Advances: Researchers have sought to design wound dressings that aim to optimize each stage in the healing process. In addition, dressings have been designed to target and kill infection-causing bacteria, with the incorporation of antimicrobial agents. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are frequently dynamic in presentation, and the numerous wound dressings available make dressing selection challenging for the practitioner. Choosing the correct dressing decreases time to healing, provides cost-effective care, and improves patient quality of life. Future Directions: Research into the mechanisms of wound healing has enhanced our ability to heal chronic wounds at a faster rate through the use of moisture-retentive dressings. Newer dressings are incorporating the use of nanotechnology by incorporating miniature electrical sensors into the dressing. These dressings are engineered to detect changes in a wound environment and alert the patient or practitioner by altering the color of the dressing or sending a message to a smartphone. Additional investigations are underway that incorporate biologic material such as stem cells into dressings. PMID:26858913

  16. On-machine precision preparation and dressing of ball-headed diamond wheel for the grinding of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Ziang; Yu, Bo; Peng, Hui; Fang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    In the grinding of high quality fused silica parts with complex surface or structure using ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel with small diameter, the existing dressing methods are not suitable to dress the ball-headed diamond wheel precisely due to that they are either on-line in process dressing which may causes collision problem or without consideration for the effects of the tool setting error and electrode wear. An on-machine precision preparation and dressing method is proposed for ball-headed diamond wheel based on electrical discharge machining. By using this method the cylindrical diamond wheel with small diameter is manufactured to hemispherical-headed form. The obtained ball-headed diamond wheel is dressed after several grinding passes to recover geometrical accuracy and sharpness which is lost due to the wheel wear. A tool setting method based on high precision optical system is presented to reduce the wheel center setting error and dimension error. The effect of electrode tool wear is investigated by electrical dressing experiments, and the electrode tool wear compensation model is established based on the experimental results which show that the value of wear ratio coefficient K' tends to be constant with the increasing of the feed length of electrode and the mean value of K' is 0.156. Grinding experiments of fused silica are carried out on a test bench to evaluate the performance of the preparation and dressing method. The experimental results show that the surface roughness of the finished workpiece is 0.03 μm. The effect of the grinding parameter and dressing frequency on the surface roughness is investigated based on the measurement results of the surface roughness. This research provides an on-machine preparation and dressing method for ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel used in the grinding of fused silica, which provides a solution to the tool setting method and the effect of electrode tool wear.

  17. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  18. Generalized slave-particle method for extended Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a set of generalized slave-particle models for extended Hubbard models that treat localized electronic correlations using slave-boson decompositions. Our models automatically include two slave-particle methods of recent interest, the slave-rotor and slave-spin methods, as well as a ladder of new intermediate models where one can choose which of the electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., spin or orbital labels) are treated as correlated degrees of freedom by the slave bosons. In addition, our method removes the aberrant behavior of the slave-rotor model, where it systematically overestimates the importance of electronic correlation effects for weak interaction strength, by removing the contribution of unphysical states from the bosonic Hilbert space. The flexibility of our formalism permits one to separate and isolate the effect of correlations on the key degrees of freedom.

  19. General method for quantifying base adducts in specific mammalian genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.C.; Morton, A.G.; Bohr, V.A.; Sancar, A.

    1988-06-01

    A general method has been developed to measure the formation and removal of DNA adducts in defined sequences of mammalian genomes. Adducted genomic DNA is digested with an appropriate restriction enzyme, treated with Escherichia coli UvrABC excision nuclease (ABC excinuclease), subjected to alkaline gel electrophoresis, and probed for specific sequences by Southern hybridization. The ABC excinuclease incises DNA containing bulky adducts and thus reduces the intensity of the full-length fragments in Southern hybridization in proportion to the number of adducts present in the probed sequence. This method is similar to that developed by Bohr et al. for quantifying pyrimidine dimers by using T4 endonuclease V. Because of the wide substrate range of ABC exinuclease, however, our method can be used to quantify a large variety of DNA adducts in specific genomic sequences.

  20. Bio-Conjugated Polycaprolactone Membranes: A Novel Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Teo, Erin Yiling; Jing, Lim; Koh, Yun Pei; Qian, Tan Si; Wen, Feng; Lee, James Wai Kit; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Yap, Yan Lin; Lee, Hanjing; Lee, Chuen Neng; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Lim, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid creates an ideal environment for wound healing. Hyaluronic acid maintains a moist wound environment and accelerates the in-growth of granulation tissue. Polycaprolactone has excellent mechanical strength, limits inflammation and is biocompatible. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of bio-conjugated polycaprolactone membranes (BPM) as a wound dressing. Methods 16 New Zealand white rabbits were sedated and local anaesthesia was administered. Two 3.0×3.0 cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of each rabbit, between the lowest rib and the pelvic bone. The wounds were dressed with either BPM (n=12) or Mepitel (n=12) (control), a polyamide-silicon wound dressing. These were evaluated macroscopically on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days for granulation, re-epithelialization, infection, and wound size, and histologically for epidermal and dermal regeneration. Results Both groups showed a comparable extent of granulation and re-epithelialization. No signs of infection were observed. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in wound size between the two groups. BPM (n=6): 8.33 cm2, 4.90 cm2, 3.12 cm2, 1.84 cm2; Mepitel (n=6): 10.29 cm2, 5.53 cm2, 3.63 cm2, 2.02 cm2; at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days. The extents of epidermal and dermal regeneration were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions BPM is comparable to Mepitel as a safe and efficacious wound dressing. PMID:25396174

  1. Ovine-Based Collagen Matrix Dressing: Next-Generation Collagen Dressing for Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Gregory; Liden, Brock; Schultz, Gregory; Yang, Qingping; Gibson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MMP) reduction along with inherent aspects of an extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing can bring about improved wound healing outcomes and shorter treatment duration. Initial reports of clinical effectiveness of a new ovine-based collagen extracellular matrix (CECM) dressing demonstrate benefits in chronic wound healing. Recent Advances: CECM dressings are processed differently than oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen dressings. CECM dressings consist primarily of collagens I and III arranged as native fibers that retain the three-dimensional architecture present in tissue ECM. As such, ovine-based ECM dressings represent a new generation of collagen dressings capable of impacting a broad spectrum of MMP excess known to be present in chronic wounds. Critical Issues: While MMPs are essential in normal healing, elevated presence of MMPs has been linked to wound failure. Collagen has been shown to reduce levels of MMPs, acting as a sacrificial substrate for excessive proteases in a chronic wound. Preserving collagen dressings in a more native state enhances bioactivity in terms of the ability to affect the chronic wound environment. Clinical observation and assessment may not be sufficient to identify a wound with elevated protease activity that can break down ECM, affect wound fibroblasts, and impair growth factor response. Future Directions: Collagen dressings that target broad-spectrum excessive MMP levels and can be applied early in the course of care may positively impact healing rates in difficult wounds. Next-generation collagen dressings offer broader MMP reduction capacity while providing a provisional dermal matrix or ECM. PMID:26858910

  2. The effectiveness of hydrocolloid dressings versus other dressings in the healing of pressure ulcers in adults and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Pott, Franciele Soares; Meier, Marineli Joaquim; Stocco, Janislei Giseli Dorociak; Crozeta, Karla; Ribas, Janyne Dayane

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrocolloids in the healing of pressure ulcers in adult and older adult patients. Method systematic review with meta-analysis, based on the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook. The search was undertaken in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Cochrane Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science and the Scientific Electronic Library Online. Results 646 primary studies were identified, 69 were evaluated and nine were selected, referring to the use of the hydrocolloid dressing in healing; of these, four studies allowed meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the hydrocolloid group and the foams group (p value=0.84; Odds Ratio 1.06, CI 95% 0.61-1.86). A slight superiority of the polyurethane dressings was observed in relation to the hydrocolloid dressings. Conclusion the evidence is not sufficient to affirm whether the efficacy of hydrocolloid dressings is superior to that of other dressings. It is suggested that clinical randomized trials be undertaken so as to ascertain the efficacy of this intervention in the healing of pressure ulcers, in relation to other treatments. PMID:25029065

  3. A general method for unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Platzer, Max F.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a general method for calculating unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades is described. It is based on the numerical solution of the boundary-layer equations for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows. A novel procedure has been developed to account for the movement of the stagnation point caused by blade-passing wakes and has been applied to the stagnation region of three model flows with results which confirm its validity for laminar flows. It has also been applied to an experimental arrangement in which the average Nusselt number has been reported for turbulent flows and the results show considerable promise.

  4. Neutron electric dipole moment and dressed spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ping-Han

    The neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment has played a unique role in examining the violation of fundamental symmetries and understanding the nature of electroweak and strong interaction. A non-zero neutron EDM is one of direct evidence for CP and T violation and has the potential to reveal the origin of CP violation and to explore physics beyond the Standard Model. A new neutron EDM experiment will be built to improve a factor of 100 by using a novel technique of ultra-cold neutrons(UCN) in superfluid 4He at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the experiment, 3He in the measurement cell will be used as a neutron spin analyzer and a comagnetometer. The absorption between UCN and 3He atoms will emit scintillation light in the superfluid 4He depending on the angle between nuclear spins of two particles. Consequently, the neutron precession frequency can be derived by the scintillation light amplitude. Furthermore, the 3He precession frequency can be measured by the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). A dressed-spin technique will also be applied to measure the small precession frequency change due to a non-zero neutron EDM. The dressed-spin technique is used to modify the effective precession frequencies of neutrons and 3He atoms to make them equal by applying an oscillatory field (dressing field) that is perpendicular to the static magnetic field. The phenomenon of the dressed spin for 3He in a cell should be demonstrated before the proposed neutron EDM experiment. A successful measurement over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field was done at the University of Illinois. The observed effects can be explained by using quantum optics formalism. The formalism is diagonalized to solve the solution and confirms the data. In addition, the application of the dressed-spin technique was investigated. The modulation and the feedback loop technique should be considered with

  5. Tripless control method for general-purpose inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, N.; Ueda, A. . Hitachi Research Lab.); Nandoh, K.; Ibori, S. )

    1992-09-01

    In this paper a new control method is described. This method prevents general-purpose inverters without current regulators from tripping easily, i.e., to be tripless no matter how their load is varied, and enables motors to rotate stably at high frequencies. This control is performed using only current sensors and is a combination of PWM control and torque control. This approach for PWM control changes an asynchronized mode to a synchronized mode when the modulation ratio becomes more than one. This enables the carrier wave frequency to be continuously varied with the inverter frequency. As a result, motors can rotate stably over a wide frequency range. The torque control uses a real and reactive component detector, magnetic flux compensator, slip compensator, and current limit controller.

  6. [A generalized chemical-kinetic method for modeling gene networks].

    PubMed

    Likhoshvaĭ, V A; Matushkin, Iu G; Ratushnyĭ, A V; Anan'ko, E A; Ignat'eva, E V; Podkolodnaia, O A

    2001-01-01

    Development of methods for mathematical simulation of biological systems and building specific simulations is an important trend of bioinformatics development. Here we describe the method of generalized chemokinetic simulation generating flexible and adequate simulations of various biological systems. Adequate simulations of complex nonlinear gene networks--control system of cholesterol by synthesis in the cell and erythrocyte differentiation and maturation--are given as the examples. The simulations were expressed in terms of unit processes--biochemical reactions. Optimal sets of parameters were determined and the systems were numerically simulated under various conditions. The simulations allow us to study possible functional conditions of these gene networks, calculate consequences of mutations, and define optimal strategies for their correction including therapeutic ones. Graphical user interface for these simulations is available at http://wwwmgs.bionet.nsc.ru/systems/MGL/GeneNet/. PMID:11771132

  7. Predict octane numbers using a generalized interaction method

    SciTech Connect

    Twu, C.H.; Coon, J.E.

    1996-02-01

    An interaction-based correlation using a new approach can be used to predict research and motor octane numbers of gasoline blends. An ultimately detailed analysis of the gasoline cut is not necessary. This correlation can describe blending behavior over the entire composition range of gasoline cuts. The component-oriented interaction approach is general and will accurately predict, without performing additional blending studies, blending behavior for new gasoline cuts. The proposed correlation fits the data quite closely for blends of many gasoline cuts. The regression gives realistic values for binary interaction parameters between components. A unique set of binary interaction parameters was found for the equation for predicting octane number of any gasoline blend. The binary interaction parameters between components contained in gasoline cuts have been converted to binary interaction parameters between gasoline cuts through a general equation to simplify the calculations. Because of the proposed method`s accuracy, optimum allocation of components among gasoline grades can be obtained and predicted values can be used for quality control of the octane number of marketed gasolines.

  8. Generalized Hartree-Fock method for electron-atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L.

    1997-09-01

    In the widely used Hartree-Fock procedure for atomic structure calculations, trial functions in the form of linear combinations of Slater determinants are constructed and the Rayleigh-Ritz minimum principle is applied to determine the best in that class. A generalization of this approach, applicable to low-energy electron-atom scattering, is developed here. The method is based on a unique decomposition of the scattering wave function into open- and closed-channel components, so chosen that an approximation to the closed-channel component may be obtained by adopting it as a trial function in a minimum principle, whose rigor can be maintained even when the target wave functions are imprecisely known. Given a closed-channel trial function, the full scattering function may be determined from the solution of an effective one-body Schr{umlt o}dinger equation. Alternatively, in a generalized Hartree-Fock approach, the minimum principle leads to coupled integrodifferential equations to be satisfied by the basis functions appearing in a Slater-determinant representation of the closed-channel wave function; it also provides a procedure for optimizing the choice of nonlinear parameters in a variational determination of these basis functions. Inclusion of additional Slater determinants in the closed-channel trial function allows for systematic improvement of that function, as well as the calculated scattering parameters, with the possibility of spurious singularities avoided. Electron-electron correlations can be important in accounting for long-range forces and resonances. These correlation effects can be included explicitly by suitable choice of one component of the closed-channel wave function; the remaining component may then be determined by the generalized Hartree-Fock procedure. As a simple test, the method is applied to s-wave scattering of positrons by hydrogen. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: A general method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan

    2014-03-07

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ{sub 9−40}, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  10. Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.

    2011-01-01

    The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  11. Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I.

    1995-12-31

    The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.

  12. Morphofunctional evaluation of the effect of collagen-1-based dressing on skin regeneration after burn trauma in mice of two genetic strains.

    PubMed

    Kolokolchikova, E G; Zhirkova, E A; Golovatenko-Abramov, P K; Platonov, E S; Botcharova, V S; Khvatov, V B

    2010-07-01

    Morphofunctional evaluation of the effect of biological dressing with collagen-1 on healing of 3A degree burn wound in outbred and mutant Hr(hr)/Hr(hr)(hairless) mice was carried out by the histological method and optic radioautography. A pronounced stimulatory effect of the dressing on skin regeneration in mice was demonstrated. According to radioautography data, early dressing of the burn wounds in Hr(hr)/Hr(hr)mice led to active proliferation of epithelial cells in dermal cyst and vascular endotheliocytes. The possible mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of collagen-based dressing on wound healing are discussed. PMID:21113480

  13. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kiet A. E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Day, Paul N.

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  14. Flutter and Divergence Analysis using the Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    The Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method (GAAM) is applied to the analysis of three well-studied checkcases: restrained and unrestrained airfoil models, and a wing model. An eigenvalue iteration procedure is used for converging upon roots of the complex stability matrix. For the airfoil models, exact root loci are given which clearly illustrate the nature of the flutter and divergence instabilities. The singularities involved are enumerated, including an additional pole at the origin for the unrestrained airfoil case and the emergence of an additional pole on the positive real axis at the divergence speed for the restrained airfoil case. Inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new, exact results are discussed and resolved. The generalization of a Doublet Lattice Method computer code is described and the code is applied to the calculation of root loci for the wing model for incompressible and for subsonic flow conditions. The error introduced in the reduction of the singular integral equation underlying the unsteady lifting surface theory to a linear algebraic equation is discussed. Acknowledging this inherent error, the solutions of the algebraic equation by GAAM are termed 'exact.' The singularities of the problem are discussed and exponential series approximations used in the evaluation of the kernel function shown to introduce a dense collection of poles and zeroes on the negative real axis. Again, inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new 'exact' results are discussed and resolved. In all cases, aeroelastic flutter and divergence speeds and frequencies are in good agreement with published results. The GAAM solution procedure allows complete control over Mach number, velocity, density, and complex frequency. Thus all points on the computed root loci can be matched-point, consistent solutions without recourse to complex mode tracking logic or dataset interpolation, as in the k and p

  15. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kiet A; Pachter, Ruth; Day, Paul N

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes. PMID:24985612

  16. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S; Tomaselli, Nancy L

    2014-08-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to "ideal" as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the "ideal" dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  17. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S.; Tomaselli, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to “ideal” as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the “ideal” dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  18. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. [in celestial mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A. H.; Tapley, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence Duffing's equation, the van der Pol equation and the oscillator with quadratic damping problem are solved using each method.

  19. Primary prevention in general practice – views of German general practitioners: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policy efforts focus on a reorientation of health care systems towards primary prevention. To guide such efforts, we analyzed the role of primary prevention in general practice and general practitioners’ (GPs) attitudes toward primary prevention. Methods Mixed-method study including a cross-sectional survey of all community-based GPs and focus groups in a sample of GPs who collaborated with the Institute of General Practice in Berlin, Germany in 2011. Of 1168 GPs 474 returned the mail survey. Fifteen GPs participated in focus group discussions. Survey and interview guidelines were developed and tested to assess and discuss beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding primary prevention. Results Most respondents considered primary prevention within their realm of responsibility (70%). Primary prevention, especially physical activity, healthy eating, and smoking cessation, was part of the GPs’ health care recommendations if they thought it was indicated. Still a quarter of survey respondents discussed reduction of alcohol consumption with their patients infrequently even when they thought it was indicated. Similarly 18% claimed that they discuss smoking cessation only sometimes. The focus groups revealed that GPs were concerned about the detrimental effects an uninvited health behavior suggestion could have on patients and were hesitant to take on the role of “health policing”. GPs saw primary prevention as the responsibility of multiple actors in a network of societal and municipal institutions. Conclusions The mixed-method study showed that primary prevention approaches such as lifestyle counseling is not well established in primary care. GPs used a selective approach to offer preventive advice based upon indication. GPs had a strong sense that a universal prevention approach carried the potential to destroy a good patient-physician relationship. Other approaches to public health may be warranted such as a multisectoral approach to population

  20. A general moment expansion method for stochastic kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ale, Angelique; Kirk, Paul; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Moment approximation methods are gaining increasing attention for their use in the approximation of the stochastic kinetics of chemical reaction systems. In this paper we derive a general moment expansion method for any type of propensities and which allows expansion up to any number of moments. For some chemical reaction systems, more than two moments are necessary to describe the dynamic properties of the system, which the linear noise approximation is unable to provide. Moreover, also for systems for which the mean does not have a strong dependence on higher order moments, moment approximation methods give information about higher order moments of the underlying probability distribution. We demonstrate the method using a dimerisation reaction, Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a model of an oscillating p53 system. We show that for the dimerisation reaction and Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics system higher order moments have limited influence on the estimation of the mean, while for the p53 system, the solution for the mean can require several moments to converge to the average obtained from many stochastic simulations. We also find that agreement between lower order moments does not guarantee that higher moments will agree. Compared to stochastic simulations, our approach is numerically highly efficient at capturing the behaviour of stochastic systems in terms of the average and higher moments, and we provide expressions for the computational cost for different system sizes and orders of approximation. We show how the moment expansion method can be employed to efficiently quantify parameter sensitivity. Finally we investigate the effects of using too few moments on parameter estimation, and provide guidance on how to estimate if the distribution can be accurately approximated using only a few moments.

  1. A General Method of Empirical Q-matrix Validation.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Chiu, Chia-Yi

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to unidimensional item response models that postulate a single underlying proficiency, cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) posit multiple, discrete skills or attributes, thus allowing CDMs to provide a finer-grained assessment of examinees' test performance. A common component of CDMs for specifying the attributes required for each item is the Q-matrix. Although construction of Q-matrix is typically performed by domain experts, it nonetheless, to a large extent, remains a subjective process, and misspecifications in the Q-matrix, if left unchecked, can have important practical implications. To address this concern, this paper proposes a discrimination index that can be used with a wide class of CDM subsumed by the generalized deterministic input, noisy "and" gate model to empirically validate the Q-matrix specifications by identifying and replacing misspecified entries in the Q-matrix. The rationale for using the index as the basis for a proposed validation method is provided in the form of mathematical proofs to several relevant lemmas and a theorem. The feasibility of the proposed method was examined using simulated data generated under various conditions. The proposed method is illustrated using fraction subtraction data. PMID:25943366

  2. The Exoplanet Census: A General Method Applied to Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-01

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R ⊕, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is ~0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R ⊕. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of ~3 R ⊕ planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  3. THE EXOPLANET CENSUS: A GENERAL METHOD APPLIED TO KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-20

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R{sub Circled-Plus }, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is {approx}0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of {approx}3 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  4. Extended generalized Lagrangian multipliers for magnetohydrodynamics using adaptive multiresolution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Margarete O.; Gomes, Anna Karina F.; Mendes, Odim; Schneider, Kai

    2013-10-01

    We present a new adaptive multiresoltion method for the numerical simulation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The governing equations, i.e., the compressible Euler equations coupled with the Maxwell equations are discretized using a finite volume scheme on a two-dimensional Cartesian mesh. Adaptivity in space is obtained via multiresolution analysis, which allows the reliable introduction of a locally refined mesh while controlling the error. The explicit time discretization uses a compact Runge-Kutta method for local time stepping and an embedded Runge-Kutta scheme for automatic time step control. An extended generalized Lagrangian multiplier approach with the mixed hyperbolic-parabolic correction type is used to control the incompressibility of the magnetic field. Applications to a two-dimensional problem illustrate the properties of the method. Memory savings and numerical divergences of the magnetic field are reported and the accuracy of the adaptive computations is assessed by comparing with the available exact solution. This work was supported by the contract SiCoMHD (ANR-Blanc 2011-045).

  5. An efficient iterative method for the generalized Stokes problem

    SciTech Connect

    Sameh, A.; Sarin, V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an efficient iterative scheme for the generalized Stokes problem, which arises frequently in the simulation of time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow. The general form of the linear system is where A = {alpha}M + vT is an n x n symmetric positive definite matrix, in which M is the mass matrix, T is the discrete Laplace operator, {alpha} and {nu} are positive constants proportional to the inverses of the time-step {Delta}t and the Reynolds number Re respectively, and B is the discrete gradient operator of size n x k (k < n). Even though the matrix A is symmetric and positive definite, the system is indefinite due to the incompressibility constraint (B{sup T}u = 0). This causes difficulties both for iterative methods and commonly used preconditioners. Moreover, depending on the ratio {alpha}/{nu}, A behaves like the mass matrix M at one extreme and the Laplace operator T at the other, thus complicating the issue of preconditioning.

  6. Novel Methods for Communicating Plasma Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Merali, Aliya; Wissel, S. A.; Delooper, John

    2012-10-01

    The broader implications of Plasma Science remains an elusive topic that the general public rarely discusses, regardless of their relevance to energy, the environment, and technology. Recently, we have looked beyond print media for methods to reach large numbers of people in creative and informative ways. These have included video, art, images, and music. For example, our submission to the ``What is a Flame?'' contest was ranked in the top 15 out of 800 submissions. Images of plasmas have won 3 out of 5 of the Princeton University ``Art of Science'' competitions. We use a plasma speaker to teach students of all ages about sound generation and plasma physics. We report on the details of each of these and future videos and animations under development.

  7. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hemostatic agent and dressing. (a) Identification. An absorbable hemostatic agent or dressing is a...

  18. Rationale for Student Dress Codes: A Review of School Handbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Workman, Jane E.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    Through dress codes, schools establish rules governing student appearance. This study examined stated rationales for dress and appearance codes in secondary school handbooks; 182 handbooks were received. Of 150 handbooks containing a rationale, 117 related dress and appearance regulations to students' right to a non-disruptive educational…

  19. Burn injuries in children and the use of biological dressings.

    PubMed

    Hartstein, Bonnie; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-08-01

    Burns represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In this article, a case discussion will serve as a platform for discussing the evaluation and treatment of burns in children. Use of various burn dressings such as hydrocolloids, polyurethane films, hydrogels, biosynthetic skin dressing, and biological dressings will be discussed. PMID:23925256

  20. Podiatry evaluation of a chitosan gelling fibre dressing in diabetic foot ulceration.

    PubMed

    Walker, Angela

    2016-06-23

    The purpose of this small evaluation on five patients presenting to community podiatry services in Birmingham with foot ulceration was to explore common problems associated with diabetes and other high-risk conditions and illustrate the clinical effectiveness and experience of using a chitosan absorbent gelling fibre dressing (KytoCel®, Aspen Medical). Each of these case studies bought their individual complex issues and complications that affected the healing process. General wound care involved debridement, if required, dressings, pressure redistribution addressing footwear needs, systemic antibiotics where required, and shared care with the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in secondary care where appropriate. PMID:27345085

  1. General flow field analysis methods for helicopter rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C. Gordon; Bliss, Donald B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work in the analysis of rotor flow fields for aeroacoustic applications involved the preliminary development of an efficient and accurate Lagrangian simulation of the unsteady vorticity field in the vicinity of helicopter main rotor that could analyze a limited class of rotor/wake interactions. The capabilities of this analysis have subsequently been considerably enhanced to allow it to serve as the foundation for a general analysis of the rotor/wake interaction noise. This paper presents the details of these enhancements, which focus on the expansion of the reconstruction approach developed previously to handle arbitrary vortex wake interactions within three-dimensional regions located near or within the rotor disk. Also, the development of nearfield velocity corrections appropriate for the analysis of such interactions is described, as is a preliminary study of methods for using the new high-resolution flow field analysis for noise predictions. The results show that by employing this novel flow field reconstruction technique it is possible to employ full-span free wake analyses with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustic applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to traditional methods.

  2. A generalized inversion method: Simultaneous source localization and environmental inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Knobles, David P.

    2002-05-01

    The problem of localizing and tracking a source in the shallow ocean is often complicated by uncertainty in the environmental parameters. Likewise, the estimates of environmental parameters in the shallow ocean obtained by inversion methods can be degraded by incorrect information about the source location. To overcome both these common obstacles-environmental mismatch in matched field processing and incorrect source location in geoacoustic inversions-a generalized inversion scheme is developed that includes both source and environmental parameters as unknowns in the inversion. The new technique called systematic decoupling using rotated coordinates (SDRC) expands the original idea of rotated coordinates [M. D. Collins and L. Fishman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1637-1644 (1995)] by using multiple sets of coherent broadband rotated coordinates, each corresponding to a different set of bounds, to systematically decouple the unknowns in a series of simulated annealing inversions. The results of applying the SDRC inversion method to data from the Area Characterization Test II experiment performed on the New Jersey continental shelf are presented. [Work supported by ONR.

  3. Generalized method of eigenoscillations for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Castro Neto, Antonio; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the ``probe'') and a material surface (the ``sample'') is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances (eigenoscillations), corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe, as well as the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several axisymmetric particle shapes (spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped). For spheroids an efficient numerical method is proposed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. The method is applied to modeling near-field spectroscopy studies of various materials. For highly resonant materials such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene) a rich structure of the simulated signal is found, including multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves. These features have a strong dependence on physical parameters, e.g., the probe shape. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide the dependence is weaker, and the spheroid model is generally applicable.

  4. A Dressed Spin Qubit in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Arne; Kalra, Rachpon; Dehollain, Juan; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha; Mohiyaddin, Fahd; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei; Jamieson, David; McCallum, Jeff; Dzurak, Andrew; Morello, Andrea

    Coherent dressing of a quantum two-level system has been demonstrated on a variety of systems, including atoms, self-assembled quantum dots, and superconducting quantum bits, and can be demonstrated by measuring Rabi oscillations, or a Mollow triplet in the spectrum. It can be used to gain access to a new quantum system with improved properties - a different and tunable level splitting, faster and easier control, and longer coherence times. In our work we investigate the properties of the dressed, donor-bound electron spin in silicon, and probe its potential for the use as quantum bit in scalable architectures. Here, the two dressed spin-polariton levels constitute the quantum bit. The dressed qubit can be coherently driven with an oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating electric field, by frequency modulating the driving field, or by a simple detuning pulse. We measure coherence times of T2* = 2.4 ms and T2 = 9 ms (Hahn echo), one order of magnitude longer than those of the undressed qubit. This research was funded by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (Project Number CE110001027) and the US Army Research Office (W911NF-13-1-0024).

  5. Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-11-01

    We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0){yields}{infinity}, w(0){yields}-{infinity} such that u(0)+w(0){yields}-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0){yields}-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,{lambda}), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,{lambda})=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV{sup -1}. We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80{sup 4} lattice at {beta}=5.7 we obtain F{sub R}(0,{mu}=1.5 GeV){approx_equal}2.2.

  6. Student Dress Policies. ERIC Digest, Number 117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Lynne

    Educators and the public are divided over the value of implementing school-uniform policies in the public schools. This digest examines arguments for and against school-uniform policies, identifies legal considerations, and offers guidelines for implementing policies on student dress. Most parents have responded favorably to uniform policies,…

  7. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and the…

  8. Business Dress for Women Corporate Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study designed (1) to determine any underlying considerations governing the perceptions of professional people as to the appropriateness of specific types of garment styles for female business dress and (2) to determine if a difference exists in the perceptions of appropriateness of garment styles by sex. (CT)

  9. Dress: Images of America. Elementary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary school (grades 2-6) unit which traces the history of dress in America over the last century. Using authentic visuals including posters, paintings, advertising, documentary photography, movies, cartoons,…

  10. Swellability of Silver (I) Antimicrobial Wound Dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center, we have developed antimicrobial silver- CM-cotton print cloth from CM-Printcloth with l...

  11. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  12. Clinical Efficacy Test of Polyester Containing Herbal Extract Dressings in Burn Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Muangman, Pornprom; Praditsuktavorn, Banjerd; Chinaroonchai, Kusuma; Chuntrasakul, Chomchark

    2016-09-01

    Technological advancement has assisted in developing various availabilities of wound products that help in not only in healing and preventing infection but also in providing patients' comfort and pain reduction during application. However, most of advanced wound healing products in Thailand were imported at high costs to patients. Nowadays, there are increased numbers of local researches of herbs that could provide healing environment for successful wound care. Herbal wound products are currently being introduced as alternatives to those imported dressings. The aim of this study was to report the clinical efficacy of using polyester containing herbal extract dressings in healing of second-degree burns. The volunteers were divided by simply randomized method into the study group of patient using polyester containing herbal extract dressing and the control group of patients treating with dressings that are commercially available and common use. The standard treatment protocols were performed at every 3 days of dressing change. Comparative evaluation consisted of time of healing, length of hospital stays, pain analog score assessment, percentage of infection, and descriptive notification of unfavorable clinical symptoms or signs or side effects. PMID:27440796

  13. Surgical Adhesive Drape (IO-ban) as Postoperative Surgical Site Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Hasan R; Snyder, Rita; McGowan, Jason E; Jha, Ribhu T; Nair, Mani N

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective chart analysis. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the senior author’s (MNN) experience applying a widely available surgical drape as a postoperative sterile surgical site dressing for both cranial and spinal procedures. Summary of Background Data: Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important complication of spine surgery that can result in significant morbidity. There is wide variation in wound care management in practice, including dressing type. Given the known bactericidal properties of the surgical drape, there may be a benefit of continuing its use immediately postoperatively. Methods: All of the senior author’s cases from September 2014 through September 2015 were reviewed. These were contrasted to the previous year prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as a postoperative dressing. Results: Only one surgical case out of 157 operative interventions (35 cranial, 124 spinal) required operative debridement due to infection. From September 2013 to September 2014, prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as dressing, the author had five infections out of 143 operations (46 cranial, 97 spinal) requiring intervention. Conclusion: The implementation of a sterile surgical drape as a closed postoperative surgical site dressing has led to a decrease in surgical site infections. The technique is simple and widely available, and should be considered for use to diminish surgical site infections. PMID:26798570

  14. The Lutterloh Dress Patterns: An Unexpected Application of Polar Co-Ordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Lutterloh method of making dress patterns, which was developed in Germany in the 1930s. The underlying principle involves the modification of basic designs and it is claimed that it provides better fits for women of different sizes and shapes than do other commercially available patterns. The method is…

  15. Residual-driven online generalized multiscale finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin; Leung, Wing Tat

    2015-12-01

    The construction of local reduced-order models via multiscale basis functions has been an area of active research. In this paper, we propose online multiscale basis functions which are constructed using the offline space and the current residual. Online multiscale basis functions are constructed adaptively in some selected regions based on our error indicators. We derive an error estimator which shows that one needs to have an offline space with certain properties to guarantee that additional online multiscale basis function will decrease the error. This error decrease is independent of physical parameters, such as the contrast and multiple scales in the problem. The offline spaces are constructed using Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods (GMsFEM). We show that if one chooses a sufficient number of offline basis functions, one can guarantee that additional online multiscale basis functions will reduce the error independent of contrast. We note that the construction of online basis functions is motivated by the fact that the offline space construction does not take into account distant effects. Using the residual information, we can incorporate the distant information provided the offline approximation satisfies certain properties. In the paper, theoretical and numerical results are presented. Our numerical results show that if the offline space is sufficiently large (in terms of the dimension) such that the coarse space contains all multiscale spectral basis functions that correspond to small eigenvalues, then the error reduction by adding online multiscale basis function is independent of the contrast. We discuss various ways computing online multiscale basis functions which include a use of small dimensional offline spaces.

  16. Confinement and hadron-hadron interactions by general relativistic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    By postulating covariance of physical laws under global dilations, one can describe gravitational and strong interactions in a unified way. Namely, in terms of the new discrete dilational degree of freedom, our cosmos and hadrons can be regarded as finite, similar systems. And a discrete hierarchy of finite ``universes'' may be defined, which are governed by fields with strengths inversally proportional to their radii; in each universe an Equivalence Principle holds, so that the relevant field can be there geometrized. Scaled-down Einstein equations -with cosmological term- are assumed to hold inside hadrons (= strong micro-cosmoses); and they yield in a natural way classical confinement, as well as ``asymptotic freedom'', of the hadron constituents. In other words, the association of strong micro-universes of Friedmann type with hadrons (i.e., applying the methods of General Relativity to subnuclear particle physics) allows avoiding recourse to phenomenological models such as the Bag Model. Inside hadrons we have to deal with a tensorial field (= strong gravity), and hadron constituents are supposed to exchange spin-2 ``gluons''. Our approach allows us also to write down a tensorial, bi-scale field theory of hadron-hadron interactions, based on modified Einstein-type equations here proposed for strong interactions in our space. We obtain in particular: (i) the correct Yukawa behaviour of the strong scalar potential at the static limit and for r>~l fm; (ii) the value of hadron radii. As a byproduct, we derive a whole ``numerology'', connecting our gravitational cosmos with the strong micro-cosmoses (hadrons), such that it does imply no variation of G with the epoch. Finally, since a structute of the ``micro-universe'' type seems to be characteristic even of leptons, a hope for the future is including also weak interactions in our classical unification of the fundamental forces.

  17. Compressive and rarefactive dressed solitons in plasma with nonthermal electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Zahran, M. A.; Elwakil, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The study of dressed solitary ion waves in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma composed warm fluid of ion, nonthermal distributed positrons and electrons are discussed. Concerning nonlinear ion acoustic waves, a reductive perturbation method is applied to obtain the KdV equation in terms of first order potential. Our results exemplify that, if soliton amplitude enlarged, the shape of the wave sidetrack from KdV equation. In order to improve the soliton shape, the perturbed KdV equation is suggest. In particular, the effects of nonthermal positrons and ionic temperature on the electrostatic dressed rarefactive and compressive soliton structures are discussed.

  18. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  19. Inductively guided circuits for ultracold dressed atoms.

    PubMed

    Sinuco-León, German A; Burrows, Kathryn A; Arnold, Aidan S; Garraway, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in optics, atomic physics and material science has paved the way to study quantum effects in ultracold atomic alkali gases confined to non-trivial geometries. Multiply connected traps for cold atoms can be prepared by combining inhomogeneous distributions of DC and radio-frequency electromagnetic fields with optical fields that require complex systems for frequency control and stabilization. Here we propose a flexible and robust scheme that creates closed quasi-one-dimensional guides for ultracold atoms through the 'dressing' of hyperfine sublevels of the atomic ground state, where the dressing field is spatially modulated by inductive effects over a micro-engineered conducting loop. Remarkably, for commonly used atomic species (for example, (7)Li and (87)Rb), the guide operation relies entirely on controlling static and low-frequency fields in the regimes of radio-frequency and microwave frequencies. This novel trapping scheme can be implemented with current technology for micro-fabrication and electronic control. PMID:25348163

  20. (Super-)renormalizably dressed black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Méndez-Zavaleta, Julio A.

    2015-07-01

    Black holes supported by self-interacting conformal scalar fields can be considered as renormalizably dressed since the conformal potential is nothing but the top power-counting renormalizable self-interaction in the relevant dimension. On the other hand, potentials defined by powers which are lower than the conformal one are also phenomenologically relevant since they are in fact super-renormalizable. In this work we provide a new map that allows one to build black holes dressed with all the (super-)renormalizable contributions starting from known conformal seeds. We explicitly construct several new examples of these solutions in dimensions D =3 and D =4 , including not only stationary configurations but also time-dependent ones.

  1. A real decoupled method and free interface component mode synthesis methods for generally damped systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huan; Wang, Tao; Chen, Guoping; Sun, Dongyang; Sun, Rujie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new transformation method. In contrast to most existing mode transformation methods in which the first-order state-space equation of the damped vibration system is transformed into a decoupled form with complex coefficient matrices, using the decoupled method presented in this paper, the equation of the damped system can be decomposed into a decoupled equation with real coefficient matrices. Two new free interface component mode synthesis methods are also presented. The equivalent full-mode matrix of the damped structure is used to capture the effects of the higher-order modes. Additionally, this work modifies the compatibility conditions at the junctions that are employed in most of the previous component mode synthesis methods for generally damped systems. The first component mode synthesis method is performed in complex space, whereas the second method can be applied in real space. Because the coefficient matrices of the coupled equation constructed by the second component mode synthesis method are all real-valued, the solution of the eigenproblem for this coupled equation can be performed in real space as well. Additionally, numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and validity of these two component mode synthesis methods.

  2. Root-cubing and general root-powering methods for finding the zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical analysis technique generalizes a root squaring and root cubing method into a general root powering method. The introduction of partitioned polynomials into this general root powering method simplifies the coding of the polynomial transformations into input data suitable for processing by computer. The method includes analytic functions.

  3. Normal saline wound dressing--is it really normal?

    PubMed

    Lim, J K; Saliba, L; Smith, M J; McTavish, J; Raine, C; Curtin, P

    2000-01-01

    Gauze swabs soaked in normal saline are frequently used as dressing on open wounds. Their exact mechanism of action is not known. This study was designed to assess the hypothesis that normal saline dressings act in part as an osmotic dressing. Ten patients had skin ulcers (n = 10) dressed with normal saline soaked sponges. Acting as controls (n = 10) identical sponges were placed upon intact skin. The sponge fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations were serially assayed to test our hypothesis. In the control group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations increased with time as a result of evaporation, altering it from an isotonic to a hypertonic dressing. However, in the ulcer group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the sponge fluid remained relatively isotonic with time. This result is statistically significant (P< 0.05). We postulate that, as a result of evaporation, the sponge dressing increases its tonicity. This draws fluid from the wound into the dressing so that a dynamic equilibrium occurs and the sponge dressing regains isotonicity. The dressing remains functional provided that the wound fluid is absorbed freely from the wound. This process is terminated when either the dressing completely absorbs the wound fluid or the dressing dries out. The latter often occurs prematurely in a contaminated wound or in a wound where exudate forms a non-permeable barrier which prevents osmosis and allows the remaining water in the dressing to evaporate completely. This correlates with the observation in clinical practice that for maximum efficacy the dressing should be changed regularly. PMID:10657448

  4. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Fabbri, Alessandro; Martínez, Cristián; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space-time with a negative cosmological constant in (2 + 1)-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress-energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space-time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak) cosmic censorship.

  5. Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in

  6. DRESS syndrome: à propos de trois observations

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi, Wafa; Souissi, Jihed; Chelli, Jihène; Larbi, Fatma; Zantour, Baha; Habib Sfar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome d'hypersensibilité médicamenteuse ou Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) est une toxidermie rare mais sévère. Nous rapportons trois observations de DRESS syndromes secondaires à la prise de carbamazipine dans deux cas et de salazopyrine dans un cas. Le délai moyen entre la prise médicamenteuse et la survenue du DRESS syndrome était de six semaines. Le médicament incriminé était arrêté d'une façon définitive dans tous les cas. Une corticothérapie par voie générale était instaurée chez tous les patients devant l'atteinte hépatique sévère. L’évolution était favorable avec disparation des lésions cutanées et normalisation du bilan hépatique. Le diagnostic du syndrome DRESS doit être évoqué devant un tableau associant une éruption fébrile et des signes systémiques faisant suite à une prise médicamenteuse. La précocité du diagnostic est fondamentale pour l'arrêt définitif des médicaments suspects. Le traitement n'est pas bien codifié mais repose actuellement sur la corticothérapie générale. PMID:25810802

  7. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. II. New methods

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2011-01-01

    Removing noise from signals which are piecewise constant (PWC) is a challenging signal processing problem that arises in many practical scientific and engineering contexts. In the first paper (part I) of this series of two, we presented background theory building on results from the image processing community to show that the majority of these algorithms, and more proposed in the wider literature, are each associated with a special case of a generalized functional, that, when minimized, solves the PWC denoising problem. It shows how the minimizer can be obtained by a range of computational solver algorithms. In this second paper (part II), using this understanding developed in part I, we introduce several novel PWC denoising methods, which, for example, combine the global behaviour of mean shift clustering with the local smoothing of total variation diffusion, and show example solver algorithms for these new methods. Comparisons between these methods are performed on synthetic and real signals, revealing that our new methods have a useful role to play. Finally, overlaps between the generalized methods of these two papers and others such as wavelet shrinkage, hidden Markov models, and piecewise smooth filtering are touched on. PMID:22003313

  8. Dressed active particles in spherical crystals.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhenwei

    2016-08-17

    We investigate the dynamics of an active particle in two-dimensional spherical crystals, which provide an ideal environment to illustrate the interplay between active particles and crystallographic defects. A moving active particle is observed to be surrounded by localized topological defects, becoming a dressed active particle. Such a physical picture characterizes both the lattice distortion around the moving particle and the healing of the distorted lattice in its trajectory. We find that the dynamical behaviors of an active particle in both random and ballistic motions uniformly conform to this featured scenario, whether the particle is initially a defect or not. We further observe that the defect pattern around a dressed ballistic active particle randomly oscillates between two well-defined wing-like defect motifs regardless of its speed. The established physical picture of dressed active particles in this work partially deciphers the complexity of the intriguing nonequilibrium behaviors in active crystals, and opens the promising possibility of introducing the activity to engineer defects, which has strong connections with the design of materials. PMID:27491597

  9. Iterative methods for elliptic finite element equations on general meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.; Choudhury, Shenaz

    1986-01-01

    Iterative methods for arbitrary mesh discretizations of elliptic partial differential equations are surveyed. The methods discussed are preconditioned conjugate gradients, algebraic multigrid, deflated conjugate gradients, an element-by-element techniques, and domain decomposition. Computational results are included.

  10. Real-time hydrologic probability forecasting using ensemble dressing, with application to river Rhine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkade, Jan; Brown, James; Reggiani, Paolo; Weerts, Albrecht

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologic forecasts are affected by inherent uncertainties. These originate from multiple sources including atmospheric forcing, hydrologic model schematisation and its parameters, and observations used in the forecasting process. Hydrologic streamflow forecasts are often produced using ensemble forcing predictions without additional hydrologic post-processing. As a result, the streamflow ensembles can be underdispersive or overconfident because the estimated predictive distribution does not take into account hydrologic uncertainties. Under the assumption that the meteorological ensemble forecasts is unbiased, "ensemble dressing" constitutes a promising method for estimating combined forcing and hydrologic uncertainties. Hydrologic uncertainties are estimated from the joint distribution of streamflow simulations and observations, whereby simulations are produced using observed meteorological forcings. Each of the predicted streamflow ensemble members is then dressed using these estimates of hydrologic uncertainties. From the dressed ensembles, the combined predictive uncertainty distribution, i.e. the probability forecast is determined. The present paper describes a study for river Rhine where ensemble dressing is applied at multiple forecasting locations. Hydrologic uncertainties are characterised using the Hydrologic Uncertainty Processor. Streamflow ensembles are produced by routing the 5 member ECMWF reforecast ensembles of precipitation and temperature through a conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model. The ensemble members are used to create conditional estimates of hydrologic uncertainty. The posterior predictive distribution is produced by averaging probability distributions of each of the dressed ensemble members. From a record of approx. 2,900 hindcasts, a number of verification metrics is determined. These include correlation coefficient, relative mean error, the Brier skill score, the continuous ranked probability skill score, and the relative operating

  11. CHLORHEXIDINE-IMPREGNATED DRESSING FOR PREVENTION OF CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION: A META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nasia; O’Horo, John C.; Ghufran, Aiman; Bearden, Allison; Didier, Maria Eugenia; Chateau, Dan; Maki, Dennis G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and effective methods for their prevention are needed. Objective To assess the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter-related colonization and CRBSI using meta-analysis. Data Sources Multiple computerized database searches supplemented by manual searches including relevant conference proceedings. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing compared with conventional dressings for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI. Data Extraction Data were extracted on patient and catheter characteristics and outcomes. Data Synthesis Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and I2. Subgroup analyses were used to explore heterogeneity. Results Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Use of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing resulted in a reduced incidence of CRBSI (random effects RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42–0.79, P=0.002). The incidence of catheter colonization was also markedly reduced in the chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing group (random effects RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.39–0.67, P< 0.001). There was significant benefit for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI, including arterial catheters used for hemodynamic monitoring. Other than in low birth weight infants, adverse effects were rare and minor. Conclusions Our analysis shows that a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing is beneficial in preventing catheter colonization and, more importantly, CRBSI and warrants routine use in patients at high risk of CRBSI and CVC or arterial catheter colonization in ICUs. PMID:24674924

  12. Economic impact of Tegaderm chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) dressing in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Thokala, Praveen; Arrowsmith, Martin; Poku, Edith; Martyn-St James, Marissa; Anderson, Jeff; Foster, Steve; Elliott, Tom; Whitehouse, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the economic impact of a TegadermTM chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) gel dressing compared with a standard intravenous (i.v.) dressing (defined as non-antimicrobial transparent film dressing), used for insertion site care of short-term central venous and arterial catheters (intravascular catheters) in adult critical care patients using a cost-consequence model populated with data from published sources. Material and Methods: A decision analytical cost-consequence model was developed which assigned each patient with an indwelling intravascular catheter and a standard dressing, a baseline risk of associated dermatitis, local infection at the catheter insertion site and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), estimated from published secondary sources. The risks of these events for patients with a Tegaderm CHG were estimated by applying the effectiveness parameters from the clinical review to the baseline risks. Costs were accrued through costs of intervention (i.e. Tegaderm CHG or standard intravenous dressing) and hospital treatment costs depended on whether the patients had local dermatitis, local infection or CRBSI. Total costs were estimated as mean values of 10,000 probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) runs. Results: Tegaderm CHG resulted in an average cost-saving of £77 per patient in an intensive care unit. Tegaderm CHG also has a 98.5% probability of being cost-saving compared to standard i.v. dressings. Conclusions: The analyses suggest that Tegaderm CHG is a cost-saving strategy to reduce CRBSI and the results were robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:27582899

  13. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. For the purposes of regulations promulgated...

  14. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130.12 Section 130.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General methods for water capacity and...

  15. A General Simulation Method for Multiple Bodies in Proximate Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of unsteady aerodynamic simulation for an arbitrary number of independent bodies flying in close proximity are considered. A novel method to efficiently detect collision contact points is described. A method to compute body trajectories in response to aerodynamic loads, applied loads, and inter-body collisions is also given. The physical correctness of the methods are verified by comparison to a set of analytic solutions. The methods, combined with a Navier-Stokes solver, are used to demonstrate the possibility of predicting the unsteady aerodynamics and flight trajectories of moving bodies that involve rigid-body collisions.

  16. Evaluation of Stimulus Preference Assessment Methods with General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2009-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the ability of three stimulus preference assessments to identify effective reinforcers for general education students. Four students from Grades K through 5 and their teachers participated. A student nomination, teacher nomination, and ongoing (daily) stimulus preference assessment were evaluated. The results…

  17. Precise Method for Investigation of Lissajous Generalized Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers--a horizontal and a vertical--cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate…

  18. Physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel films for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Okajima, Maiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2016-08-01

    The thin hydrogel films consisting of water-swollen polymer networks can potentially be applied for biomedical fields. Recently, natural polysaccharides have great attentions to be developed as wound healing and protection. In the present study, we newly prepared and characterized a physically crosslinked-hydrogel film composed of a novel megamolecular polysaccharide sacran for wound dressing application. We successfully fabricated a physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel film by a solvent-casting method. The thickness of a sacran hydrogel film was lower than that of a sodium alginate (Na-alginate) film. Importantly, the swollen ratio of a sacran hydrogel film in water at 24h was 19-fold, compared to initial weight. Meanwhile, a Na-alginate hydrogel film was completely broken apart after rehydration. Moreover, a sacran hydrogel film did not show any cytotoxicity on NIH3T3 cells, a murine fibroblast cell line. The in vivo skin hydration study revealed that a sacran hydrogel film significantly increased the moisture content on hairless mice skin and considerably improved wound healing ability, compared to control (non-treated), probably due to not only the moisturing effect but also the anti-inflammatory effect of sacran. These results suggest that sacran has the potential properties as a basic biomaterial in a hydrogel film for wound dressing application. PMID:27151668

  19. Extending the alias Monte Carlo sampling method to general distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.L.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Smidt, R.K. )

    1991-01-07

    The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The local treatment and available dressings designed for chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Skórkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Szopa, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The great diversity of wounds and the broad range of available dressings complicate the selection of proper chronic wound treatment. Choosing the right treatment is the essential step in the healing process. In this review, we focus on chronic nonhealing ulcers, which are a critical problem in clinical practice, and current knowledge about persistent wound care. Here, we present the objectives of local treatment with description of several types of dressings and their ingredients, features, indications, and contraindications. These include hydrocolloid, alginate, hydrogel, and dextranomer dressings; polyurethane foam and membrane dressings; semipermeable polyurethane membrane dressings; and TenderWet (Hartmann, Rock Hill, SC) and flax dressings. There is also a brief section on the use of other alternative wound-healing accelerators, such as platelet-rich plasma and light-emitting diode therapy. PMID:21982060

  1. Dressings Combined with Injection of Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Alireza; Talaee, Rezvan; Rahshenas, Makan; Khamesipour, Ali; Mehryan, Pedram; Tehrani, Sepideh; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected infectious disease and a major health problem in several developing countries. Despite some reasonable explanation for their potential benefits, there is only trace evidence regarding the role of dressings in the treatment of CL. Methods This randomized, assessor-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in an endemic area for CL caused by Leishmania major in Iran to assess the efficacy of administration of weekly intralesional meglumine antimoniate (i.l.MA) either alone or combined with application of a silver or a non-silver polyester dressing on their lesions for 6 weeks. After screening of 241 patients with CL lesions, 83 eligible patients with 158 lesions were randomly allocated in three arms of the study. Eligibility criteria included parasitologically confirmed CL, age of 12 to 60 years; willingness to participate, duration of lesion<3 months, number of lesions<5, largest ulcer diameter<5 cm. Pregnant or lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome was absolute risk reduction (ARR) based on the proportion of complete healing, which was defined as more than 75% reduction in the size of the lesion compared with baseline in each group at the termination of treatment and 1 month later. Findings ARR (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was 5.98% (−7.07% to 20.25%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −0.23% (−13.53% to 14.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −6.21%(−18.28% to 6.52%) after 6 weeks of treatment. ARR (95% CI) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was −2.22% (−22.12% to 18.10%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 3.64% (−15.36% to 22.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 5.86% (−12.86% to 24.31%) 1 month later. Conclusion It could not be demonstrated that the efficacy of i

  2. Exact Solutions for The Generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov Equation with Variable Coefficients Using The Generalized (G'/G)-expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Elsayed M. E.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud A. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this article, the generalized G'/G-expansion method using a generalized wave transformation is applied to find exact traveling wave solutions of the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients. As a result, hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational function solutions with parameters are obtained. When these parameters are taken special values, the solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solution. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be applied to many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  3. Propensity-matched analysis of the gap between capacity and actual performance of dressing in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Sone, Toshimasa; Midorikawa, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Bumsuk, Lee; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Dressing is an activity of daily living for which stroke patients often show discrepancies between capacity and actual performance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical function and unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients that reduce their level of actual performance despite having the capacity for dressing independently. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 60 first-time stroke patients judged by occupational therapists as able to dress independently. The patients were divided into two groups according to their FIM(®) instrument scores for dressing the upper and lower body: an independent group with both scores ≥6 and an assistance group with one or both scores ≤5. After adjusting for confounding factors through propensity score matching, the groups were compared by using Stroke Impairment Assessment Set items, the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function of both upper limbs, and the Berg balance scale. [Results] The assistance group had a significantly lower score for the Berg balance scale than the independent dressing group (31.0 ± 12.3 vs. 47.8 ± 7.4). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggested that the balance function has an effect on the discrepancy between dressing capacity and performance. PMID:27390439

  4. Propensity-matched analysis of the gap between capacity and actual performance of dressing in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Sone, Toshimasa; Midorikawa, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Bumsuk, Lee; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Dressing is an activity of daily living for which stroke patients often show discrepancies between capacity and actual performance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical function and unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients that reduce their level of actual performance despite having the capacity for dressing independently. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 60 first-time stroke patients judged by occupational therapists as able to dress independently. The patients were divided into two groups according to their FIM® instrument scores for dressing the upper and lower body: an independent group with both scores ≥6 and an assistance group with one or both scores ≤5. After adjusting for confounding factors through propensity score matching, the groups were compared by using Stroke Impairment Assessment Set items, the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function of both upper limbs, and the Berg balance scale. [Results] The assistance group had a significantly lower score for the Berg balance scale than the independent dressing group (31.0 ± 12.3 vs. 47.8 ± 7.4). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggested that the balance function has an effect on the discrepancy between dressing capacity and performance. PMID:27390439

  5. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale). Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s) that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such patients. Thus, we aim to

  6. 26 CFR 1.446-1 - General rule for methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General rule for methods of accounting. 1.446-1 Section 1.446-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Methods of Accounting § 1.446-1 General rule for methods of accounting. (a) General rule. (1)...

  7. 26 CFR 1.446-1 - General rule for methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General rule for methods of accounting. 1.446-1 Section 1.446-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Methods of Accounting § 1.446-1 General rule for methods of accounting. (a) General rule. (1)...

  8. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:18693424

  9. The role of dressings in the prevention of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie

    2016-08-11

    Pressure ulceration is a significant global healthcare problem and represents a considerable burden on healthcare resources. Within the literature an increasing number of studies have examined the role prophylactic dressings play in redistributing pressure and helping to protect the skin from the effects of friction and shear. The use of dressings to prevent pressure ulcers may be considered a controversial issue, as previous opinion has been that dressings do not reduce the effects of pressure. This article will critically evaluate the literature to examine the role dressings play in the prevention of pressure ulceration. PMID:27523773

  10. A general, mass-preserving Navier-Stokes projection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salac, David

    2016-07-01

    The conservation of mass is a common issue with multiphase fluid simulations. In this work a novel projection method is presented which conserves mass both locally and globally. The fluid pressure is augmented with a time-varying component which accounts for any global mass change. The resulting system of equations is solved using an efficient Schur-complement method. Using the proposed method four numerical examples are performed: the evolution of a static bubble, the rise of a bubble, the breakup of a thin fluid thread, and the extension of a droplet in shear flow. The method is capable of conserving the mass even in situations with morphological changes such as droplet breakup.

  11. Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, Y.; Galvis, J.; Lazarov, R.; Moon, M.; Sarkis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the “mass” matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples.

  12. Rapid Methods for the Detection of General Fecal Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specified that EPA should develop: appropriate and effective indicators for improving detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coastal waters

  13. Physical methods of nucleic acid transfer: general concepts and applications

    PubMed Central

    Villemejane, Julien; Mir, Lluis M

    2009-01-01

    Physical methods of gene (and/or drug) transfer need to combine two effects to deliver the therapeutic material into cells. The physical methods must induce reversible alterations in the plasma membrane to allow the direct passage of the molecules of interest into the cell cytosol. They must also bring the nucleic acids in contact with the permeabilized plasma membrane or facilitate access to the inside of the cell. These two effects can be achieved in one or more steps, depending upon the methods employed. In this review, we describe and compare several physical methods: biolistics, jet injection, hydrodynamic injection, ultrasound, magnetic field and electric pulse mediated gene transfer. We describe the physical mechanisms underlying these approaches and discuss the advantages and limitations of each approach as well as its potential application in research or in preclinical and clinical trials. We also provide conclusions, comparisons, and projections for future developments. While some of these methods are already in use in man, some are still under development or are used only within clinical trials for gene transfer. The possibilities offered by these methods are, however, not restricted to the transfer of genes and the complementary uses of these technologies are also discussed. As these methods of gene transfer may bypass some of the side effects linked to viral or biochemical approaches, they may find their place in specific clinical applications in the future. This article is part of a themed section on Vector Design and Drug Delivery. For a list of all articles in this section see the end of this paper, or visit: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2009 PMID:19154421

  14. A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Steinke, Robert C.; Zhu, Jianting; Talbot, Cary A.; Wilson, John L.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed an alternative to the one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) attributed to Richards (1931) that describes unsaturated porous media flow in homogeneous soil layers. Our solution is a set of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from unsaturated flux and mass conservation principles. We used a hodograph transformation, the Method of Lines, and a finite water-content discretization to produce ODEs that accurately simulate infiltration, falling slugs, and groundwater table dynamic effects on vadose zone fluxes. This formulation, which we refer to as "finite water-content", simulates sharp fronts and is guaranteed to conserve mass using a finite-volume solution. Our ODE solution method is explicitly integrable, does not require iterations and therefore has no convergence limits and is computationally efficient. The method accepts boundary fluxes including arbitrary precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The method can simulate heterogeneous soils using layers. Results are presented in terms of fluxes and water content profiles. Comparing our method against analytical solutions, laboratory data, and the Hydrus-1D solver, we find that predictive performance of our finite water-content ODE method is comparable to or in some cases exceeds that of the solution of Richards' equation, with or without a shallow water table. The presented ODE method is transformative in that it offers accuracy comparable to the Richards (1931) PDE numerical solution, without the numerical complexity, in a form that is robust, continuous, and suitable for use in large watershed and land-atmosphere simulation models, including regional-scale models of coupled climate and hydrology.

  15. [General calculation method of diffraction efficiency of concave blazed gratings].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Huang, Yuan-Shen; Xu, Bang-Lian; Li, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Da-Wei; Tao, Chun-Xian; Ling, Jin-Zhong; Zhuang, Song-Lin

    2013-07-01

    In order to make diffraction energy of concave gratings more concentrated in the desired order, the present paper puts forward that the concave blazed grating with variable groove angles could be fabricated on the concave substrates by mechanical ruling method, and the theoretical method of simultaneously calculating the diffraction efficiency in the main section and non-main section is deduced by using Fresnel-Kirchhoff's diffraction formula, which makes up the shortage of the diffraction efficiency calculated only in the main section. Finally, the diffraction efficiency curves varied with wavelength is simulated by Matlab software, and the variation laws of the diffraction efficiency are compared for different production methods and application parameters, which provides a valuable reference for the design and production of the concave gratings. PMID:24059218

  16. Generalized framework for context-specific metabolic model extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Robaina Estévez, Semidán; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) are increasingly applied to investigate the physiology not only of simple prokaryotes, but also eukaryotes, such as plants, characterized with compartmentalized cells of multiple types. While genome-scale models aim at including the entirety of known metabolic reactions, mounting evidence has indicated that only a subset of these reactions is active in a given context, including: developmental stage, cell type, or environment. As a result, several methods have been proposed to reconstruct context-specific models from existing genome-scale models by integrating various types of high-throughput data. Here we present a mathematical framework that puts all existing methods under one umbrella and provides the means to better understand their functioning, highlight similarities and differences, and to help users in selecting a most suitable method for an application. PMID:25285097

  17. A General Interface Method for Aeroelastic Analysis of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzong, T.; Chen, H. H.; Chang, K. C.; Wu, T.; Cebeci, T.

    1996-01-01

    The aeroelastic analysis of an aircraft requires an accurate and efficient procedure to couple aerodynamics and structures. The procedure needs an interface method to bridge the gap between the aerodynamic and structural models in order to transform loads and displacements. Such an interface method is described in this report. This interface method transforms loads computed by any aerodynamic code to a structural finite element (FE) model and converts the displacements from the FE model to the aerodynamic model. The approach is based on FE technology in which virtual work is employed to transform the aerodynamic pressures into FE nodal forces. The displacements at the FE nodes are then converted back to aerodynamic grid points on the aircraft surface through the reciprocal theorem in structural engineering. The method allows both high and crude fidelities of both models and does not require an intermediate modeling. In addition, the method performs the conversion of loads and displacements directly between individual aerodynamic grid point and its corresponding structural finite element and, hence, is very efficient for large aircraft models. This report also describes the application of this aero-structure interface method to a simple wing and an MD-90 wing. The results show that the aeroelastic effect is very important. For the simple wing, both linear and nonlinear approaches are used. In the linear approach, the deformation of the structural model is considered small, and the loads from the deformed aerodynamic model are applied to the original geometry of the structure. In the nonlinear approach, the geometry of the structure and its stiffness matrix are updated in every iteration and the increments of loads from the previous iteration are applied to the new structural geometry in order to compute the displacement increments. Additional studies to apply the aero-structure interaction procedure to more complicated geometry will be conducted in the second phase

  18. General Method to Determine Replica Symmetry Breaking Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinari, E.; Naitza, C.; Zuliani, F.; Parisi, G.; Picco, M.; Ritort, F.

    1998-08-01

    We introduce a new parameter to investigate replica symmetry breaking transitions using finite-size scaling methods. Based on exact equalities initially derived by F. Guerra this parameter is a direct check of the self-averaging character of the spin-glass order parameter. This new parameter can be used to study models with time reversal symmetry but its greatest interest lies in models where this symmetry is absent. We apply the method to long-range and short-range Ising spin-glasses with and without a magnetic field as well as short-range multispin interaction spin-glasses.

  19. A new magnetotelluric inversion scheme using generalized RRI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Kazunobu; Takasugi, Shinji; Lee, Ki Ha

    1996-09-01

    A new two-dimensional (2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inversion scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme is based on a locally 2-D analysis in order to minimize computational time and computer memory. The MT governing equation is linearized in terms of the magnetic field and electrical conductivity for the perturbation analysis. The perturbed equation is then multiplied by a test function and integrated over the cross-section. Integrating by parts and then substituting this test function with local magnetic fields, a new equation is obtained that is a 2-D variational integral for the electrical conductivity. The new equation is general in the sense that it can explicitly include the horizontal derivative of the magnetic field. If the horizontal derivative term is eliminated, the new equation becomes identical to the Rapid Relaxation Inversion (RRI) scheme proposed by Smith and Booker (J. Geophys. Res., 96: 3905-3922, 1991).

  20. One Dress, Two Dress: Dialectal Influence on Spelling of English Words among Kindergarten Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of Singapore Colloquial English (SCE) on Standard English word spelling through a plural formation task of four words ("man", "tooth", "dress" and "child") among 168 Singaporean bilingual children with Chinese background. It was found that "dropping the plural" was the most prevalent type of error. Poor…

  1. Scalable Kernel Methods and Algorithms for General Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuksa, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of large-scale sequential data has become an important task in machine learning and pattern recognition, inspired in part by numerous scientific and technological applications such as the document and text classification or the analysis of biological sequences. However, current computational methods for sequence comparison still lack…

  2. Projected Hybrid Orbitals: A General QM/MM Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A projected hybrid orbital (PHO) method was described to model the covalent boundary in a hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) system. The PHO approach can be used in ab initio wave function theory and in density functional theory with any basis set without introducing system-dependent parameters. In this method, a secondary basis set on the boundary atom is introduced to formulate a set of hybrid atomic orbtials. The primary basis set on the boundary atom used for the QM subsystem is projected onto the secondary basis to yield a representation that provides a good approximation to the electron-withdrawing power of the primary basis set to balance electronic interactions between QM and MM subsystems. The PHO method has been tested on a range of molecules and properties. Comparison with results obtained from QM calculations on the entire system shows that the present PHO method is a robust and balanced QM/MM scheme that preserves the structural and electronic properties of the QM region. PMID:25317748

  3. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  4. Large energy superpositions via Rydberg dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazali, Mohammadsadegh; Lau, Hon Wai; Humeniuk, Adam; Simon, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    We propose to create superposition states of over 100 strontium atoms in a ground state or metastable optical clock state using the Kerr-type interaction due to Rydberg state dressing in an optical lattice. The two components of the superposition can differ by an order of 300 eV in energy, allowing tests of energy decoherence models with greatly improved sensitivity. We take into account the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, spatial inhomogeneity of the interaction, decay from the Rydberg state, collective many-body decoherence, atomic motion, molecular formation, and diminishing Rydberg level separation for increasing principal number.

  5. Reviewing the evidence for advanced dressings.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Martyn; White, Richard

    The principles of moist wound healing have become widely accepted since the seminal work of George Winter in the 1960s. In the subsequent 50 years, many publications have extolled the clinical value of modern or advanced wound dressings. This article reviews the findings of two studies arguing that the benefits of advanced wound care products, which are based largely on th principles of moist wound healing, cannot be justified in terms of healing outcomes or cost effectiveness. These studies have the potential to affect clinical practice and decision making, and the article highlights the importance of analysing and interpreting the findings of such studies cautiously. PMID:23923167

  6. A comparison of nurses' and parents' or caregivers' perceptions during pediatric burn dressing changes: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ana L; Murray, Deborah A; McBride, Charissa J; McBride-Henry, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Providing emotional support both to children or young persons and to their parents or caregivers during pediatric burn dressing changes is a crucial aspect of nursing care in a burn unit; however, little research has examined perceptions of the effectiveness of typical interventions. Therefore, the aim of this research was to compare nurses' and parents' or caregivers' perceptions of support interventions provided before, during, and after pediatric burn dressing changes. This research was exploratory in nature and included the development of two differing questionnaires that focused on the perceptions of both parents or caregivers and nursing staff involved in dressing changes. Nurses and parents or caregivers involved in a total of 30 dressing changes completed surveys. Results were then analyzed using Microsoft Excel computer program, and a simple thematic analysis was performed on the responses to the open-ended survey questions. The survey results indicated that participants were generally favorable in their perceptions of the interventions used to support children during dressing changes; however, some gaps in the provision of care were identified. These included the need for clearer communication between the nurse and the parent or caregiver, poor pain assessment skills, and the need for debriefing for those involved in burn dressing procedures. Also highlighted were the difficulties nursing staff had in recognizing distress in parents or caregivers and when this occurred during the process. This research provided insights into coping strategies used by families and nurses and the value of support currently provided by the pediatric burn team. The results indicate that there is a need for improved communication with parents. The presence of a hospital play specialist, in addition to the parent or caregiver, was valuable. Also important was focusing on "comfort" positioning and use of distraction/alternative focus during dressing changes. The information

  7. A General Method to Discover Epitopes from Sera

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Kurt; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Sykes, Kathryn; Shen, Luhui

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases or a specific proteome, rather than providing a universal platform. Most of these methods are not able to identify the specific antibody’s epitopes from unknown antigens, such as un-annotated neo antigens in cancer. Alternatively, a peptide library comprised of sequences unrestricted by naturally-found protein space provides for a universal search for mimotopes of an antibody’s epitope. Here we present the utility of such a non-natural random sequence library of 10,000 peptides physically addressed on a microarray for mimotope discovery without sequence information of the specific antigen. The peptide arrays were probed with serum from an antigen-immunized rabbit, or alternatively probed with serum pre-absorbed with the same immunizing antigen. With this positive and negative screening scheme, we identified the library-peptides as the mimotopes of the antigen. The unique library peptides were successfully used to isolate antigen-specific antibodies from complete immune serum. Sequence analysis of these peptides revealed the epitopes in the immunized antigen. We present this method as an inexpensive, efficient method for identifying mimotopes of any antibody’s targets. These mimotopes should be useful in defining both components of the antigen

  8. A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.

  9. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do. PMID:24057917

  10. [Development and use of periodontal dressing of collagen and Lactobacillus casei 37 cell suspension in combined treatment of periodontal disease of inflammatory origin (a microbiological study)].

    PubMed

    Volozhin, A I; Il'in, V K; Maksimovskiĭ, Iu M; Sidorenko, A B; Istranov, L P; Tsarev, V N; Istranova, E V; Aboiants, R K

    2004-01-01

    Periodontal dressing consisting of collagen and Lactobacillus casei 37 cell suspension (cell concentration 108 cells/ml) was created and used in combined treatment of patients with chronic generalized parodontitis. Efficacy of the developed isolation was explained by a considerable decrease of the number and frequency of isolation of aggressive microbial representatives (pigment synthesizing Bacteroids, Actinomyces and Str. intermedius) in periodontal pockets and also Fungus (Candida albicans). This periodontal dressing provided remission up to 10-12 months. PMID:15602477

  11. Combustor flow computations in general coordinates with a multigrid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyy, Wei; Braaten, Mark E.

    The computational approach presented for single-phase combusting turbulent flowfields balances the requirements of complex physical and chemical flow interactions with those of resolving the three-dimensional geometrical constraints of the combustor contours, film cooling slots, and circular dilution holes. Attention is given to the three-dimensional grid-generation algorithm, the two-dimensional adaptive grid method applied to recirculating turbulent reacting flows, and theory/data assessments for three-dimensional combusting flows in an annular gas turbine combustor.

  12. Collocation method for chatter avoidance of general turning operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbicain, G.; Olvera, D.; Fernández, A.; Rodríguez, A.; López de Lacalle, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    An accurate prediction of the dynamic stability of a cutting system involves the implementation of tool geometry and cutting conditions on any model used for such purpose. This study presents a dynamic cutting force model based on the collocation method by Chebyshev polynomials taking advantage from its ability to consider tool geometry and cutting parameters. In the paper, a simple 1DOF model is used to forecast chatter vibrations due to the workpiece and tool, which are distinguished in separate sections. The proposed model is verified positively against experimental dynamic tests.

  13. Variational method for finding periodic orbits in a general flow.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yueheng; Cvitanović, Predrag

    2004-01-01

    A variational principle is proposed and implemented for determining unstable periodic orbits of flows as well as unstable spatiotemporally periodic solutions of extended systems. An initial loop approximating a periodic solution is evolved in the space of loops toward a true periodic solution by a minimization of local errors along the loop. The "Newton descent" partial differential equation that governs this evolution is an infinitesimal step version of the damped Newton-Raphson iteration. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by its application to the Hénon-Heiles system, the circular restricted three-body problem, and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system in a weakly turbulent regime. PMID:14995703

  14. Porous dressings of modified chitosan with poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) for topical wound delivery of levofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Siafaka, Panoraia I; Zisi, Asimina P; Exindari, Maria K; Karantas, Ioannis D; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2016-06-01

    Absorbable and non-absorbable dressings have been fabricated into sponges via a modified thermally induced phase separation method, using a grafted derivative of chitosan with 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (CS-g-PHEA). The material was synthesized via free-radical polymerization and was characterized with FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. The swelling ability, biocompatibility and biodegradability of the dressings were evaluated through in vitro assays while antibacterial studies were performed using three different bacterial strains, Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Levofloxacin was used as model drug at different concentrations. Morphological characterization of the drug loaded dressings was performed by scanning electron microscopy, while drug-matrix interactions were evaluated by FT-IR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out for the identification of the physical state for both neat and drug loaded materials. The prepared dressings showed a significant inhibition zone of the bacteria indicating the antibacterial property of the materials and loaded sponges. PMID:27083347

  15. Comparison of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) &conventional wound dressings in the open fracture wounds

    PubMed Central

    Arti, Hamidreza; Khorami, Mohsen; Ebrahimi-Nejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Successful closure is a primary step of treatment in open fracture wounds. Delayed healing or complications can lead to increased treatment duration, costs and disability rates. The aim of this study was to compare Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) and conventional wound dressings in patients with open fracture wounds. Methods: In a prospective randomized clinical trial study, 90 patients with open fractures that were referred for treatment were enrolled between February 2013 to March 2015. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I underwent NPWT and group II underwent conventional wound dressing. Then patients were followed up for one month. Within the one month, the number of dressing change varied based on the extent of the wound. Duration of wound healing, presence of infection and the number of hospitalization days in these patients were recorded and compared at the end of the study between the two groups. Questionnaires and check lists were used to collect data. Analysis was done with SPSS 20, paired sample T-test, and chi-square tests. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was a significant difference between the rate of wound healing in the group one or NPWT group and group II (conventional wound dressings) P<0.05. There was no significant difference between two groups in incidence of infection (P=0.6). Conclusion: Using NPWT expedites the healing process of extremity wounds. It is more economical and can be considered as a substitute for the treatment of extremity wounds. PMID:27022347

  16. Foam dressing with epidermal growth factor for severe radiation dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyo; Lee, Sang-Wook; Hong, Joon Pio; Shon, Myeong Wha; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Ahn, Seung Do

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of foam dressing with human recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on the healing process in head and neck cancer patients who experience radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Seven patients, including three with oropharyngeal, two with nasopharyngeal and one each with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma, who underwent radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer at the Asan Medical Center from March to December 2008 were prospectively included in this study. Patients who showed severe RID (more than wet desquamation) on the supraclavicular fossa or neck areas were treated by wound cleaning and debridement of granulation tissue, followed by daily rhEGF spray and foam dressing. Median time to stop exudates and reepithelialisation was 4 days. Within 14 days (median 8 days), all patients showed complete healing of RID and no longer required dressings. This new method of treatment with dressing containing rhEGF may have the potential to accelerate the healing process in patients with RID. A case-control study is needed to confirm this finding. PMID:24947011

  17. Formulation of Novel Layered Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Film Wound Dressings with Ibuprofen for Alleviating Wound Pain.

    PubMed

    Vinklárková, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Vetchý, David; Doležel, Petr; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and management of wound pain can facilitate both improvements in healing rates and overall quality of life. From a pharmacological perspective, topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of film wound dressings may be a good choice. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop novel layered film wound dressings containing ibuprofen based on partially substituted fibrous sodium carboxymethylcellulose (nonwoven textile Hcel NaT). To this end, an innovative solvent casting method using a sequential coating technique has been applied. The concentration of ibuprofen which was incorporated as an acetone solution or as a suspension in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose dispersion was 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 1.0 mg/cm(2) of film. Results showed that developed films had adequate mechanical and swelling properties and an advantageous acidic surface pH for wound application. An in vitro drug release study implied that layered films retained the drug for a longer period of time and thus could minimize the frequency of changing the dressing. Films with suspended ibuprofen demonstrated higher drug content uniformity and superior in vitro drug release characteristics in comparison with ibuprofen incorporation as an acetone solution. Prepared films could be potential wound dressings for the effective treatment of wound pain in low exuding wounds. PMID:26090454

  18. Formulation of Novel Layered Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Film Wound Dressings with Ibuprofen for Alleviating Wound Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vinklárková, Lenka; Vetchý, David; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and management of wound pain can facilitate both improvements in healing rates and overall quality of life. From a pharmacological perspective, topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of film wound dressings may be a good choice. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop novel layered film wound dressings containing ibuprofen based on partially substituted fibrous sodium carboxymethylcellulose (nonwoven textile Hcel NaT). To this end, an innovative solvent casting method using a sequential coating technique has been applied. The concentration of ibuprofen which was incorporated as an acetone solution or as a suspension in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose dispersion was 0.5 mg/cm2 and 1.0 mg/cm2 of film. Results showed that developed films had adequate mechanical and swelling properties and an advantageous acidic surface pH for wound application. An in vitro drug release study implied that layered films retained the drug for a longer period of time and thus could minimize the frequency of changing the dressing. Films with suspended ibuprofen demonstrated higher drug content uniformity and superior in vitro drug release characteristics in comparison with ibuprofen incorporation as an acetone solution. Prepared films could be potential wound dressings for the effective treatment of wound pain in low exuding wounds. PMID:26090454

  19. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the "probe") and a material surface (the "sample") is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  20. Uniforms and Dress-Code Policies. ERIC Digest Number 148.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest examines schools' dress-code policies and discusses the legal considerations and research findings about the effects of such changes. Most revisions to dress codes involve the use of uniforms, typically as a way to curb school violence and create a positive learning environment. A recent survey of secondary school principals found that…

  1. Identification of Workplace Dress by Low-Income Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiki, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The author examined how low-income job seekers participating in a workplace dress program identified traditional business and business casual dress. Seventy low-income job seekers identified clothing items as traditional business (e.g., suits, ties), similar to identifications made by professionals and image consultants in previous literature.…

  2. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  3. Moral Crisis in Higher Institutions and the Dress Code Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayokun, K. O.; Adedeji, S. O.; Oyebade, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed the case of indecent dressing among the youth of today especially on the universities campuses, which has forced the authorities of those institutions to enact dress codes to stem the tide and restore high moral standards, integrity and decency. Whether this bid was successful or not was another thing which was a function of…

  4. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on wound dressings

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Calderon, Diego F.; Kierski, Patricia R.; Brown, Amanda L.; Shah, Nihar M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Schurr, Michael J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-healing skin wounds often contain bacterial biofilms that prevent normal wound healing and closure and present challenges to the use of conventional wound dressings. We investigated inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, a common pathogen of chronic skin wounds, on a commercially available biological wound dressing. Building upon prior reports, we examined whether the amino acid tryptophan would inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the 3-dimensional surface of the biological dressing. Bacterial biomass and biofilm polysaccharides were quantified using crystal violet staining or an enzyme linked lectin, respectively. Bacterial cells and biofilm matrix adherent to the wound dressing were visualized through scanning electron microscopy. D-/L-tryptophan inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the wound dressing in a dose dependent manner and was not directly cytotoxic to immortalized human keratinocytes although there was some reduction in cellular metabolism or enzymatic activity. More importantly, D-/L-tryptophan did not impair wound healing in a splinted skin wound murine model. Furthermore, wound closure was improved when D-/L-tryptophan treated wound dressing with P. aeruginosa biofilms were compared with untreated dressings. These findings indicate that tryptophan may prove useful for integration into wound dressings to inhibit biofilm formation and promote wound healing. PMID:26342168

  5. Civil Behavior, Safe-School Planning, and Dress Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studak, Cathryn M.; Workman, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined news reports in order to identify incidents that precipitated dress code revisions. News reports were examined within the framework of rules for civil behavior. Using key words "school dress codes" and "violence," LEXIS/NEXIS was used to access 104 articles from 44 U.S. newspapers from December 3, 2004 to December 2, 2005.…

  6. A general method for modeling biochemical and biomedical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Lerd Ng, Jia; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The impressive achievements of biomedical science have come mostly from experimental research with human subjects, animal models, and sophisticated laboratory techniques. Additionally, theoretical chemistry has been a major aid in designing new drugs. Here we introduce a method which is similar to others already well known in theoretical systems biology, but which specifically addresses biochemical changes as the human body responds to medical interventions. It is common in systems biology to use first-order differential equations to model the time evolution of various chemical concentrations, and we as physicists can make a significant impact through designing realistic models and then solving the resulting equations. Biomedical research is rapidly advancing, and the technique presented in this talk can be applied in arbitrarily large models containing tens, hundreds, or even thousands of interacting species, to determine what beneficial effects and side effects may result from pharmaceuticals or other medical interventions.

  7. Novel silk fibroin/elastin wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2012-08-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) and elastin (EL) scaffolds were successfully produced for the first time for the treatment of burn wounds. The self-assembly properties of SF, together with the excellent chemical and mechanical stability and biocompatibility, were combined with elastin protein to produce scaffolds with the ability to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). Porous scaffolds were obtained by lyophilization and were further crosslinked with genipin (GE). Genipin crosslinking induces the conformational transition from random coil to β-sheet of SF chains, yielding scaffolds with smaller pore size and reduced swelling ratios, degradation and release rates. All results indicated that the composition of the scaffolds had a significant effect on their physical properties, and that can easily be tuned to obtain scaffolds suitable for biological applications. Wound healing was assessed through the use of human full-thickness skin equivalents (EpidermFT). Standardized burn wounds were induced by a cautery and the best re-epithelialization and the fastest wound closure was obtained in wounds treated with 50SF scaffolds; these contain the highest amount of elastin after 6 days of healing in comparison with other dressings and controls. The cytocompatibility demonstrated with human skin fibroblasts together with the healing improvement make these SF/EL scaffolds suitable for wound dressing applications. PMID:22546517

  8. Dressed Charge of Electron by Radiation Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SETO, Keita; Zhang, Sen; KOGA, James; Moritaka, Toseo; Homma, Kensuke; Nakamiya, Yoshihide; NAGATOMO, Hideo; MIMA, Kunioki

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of ultraintense short pulse laser technologies, the maximum intensity of the lasers has reached the order of 1022W/cm2. Now, several institutes are aiming at higher intensities of over 1024∼W/cm2. It is expected that these lasers can investigate the regime of the ultra-intense field effects like electron-positron pair creation and annihilation, these high-intense laser fields enters into the non-linear QED regime. However, when an electron interacts with lasers with intensities over 1022W/cm2, it has been predicted that the radiation reaction effect becomes significant. The strong radiation field can induce the fluctuation of QED vacuum (vacuum polarization or photon-photon scatterings). Though the propagator for fields is deformed by it, some kind of a polarized charge exists as the dress. In this paper, we will discuss about this dress of an electron generated by radiation in the description of classical physics. It leads to the avoidance of the mathematical difficulty of the radiation reaction problems.

  9. Wound dressings for a proteolytic-rich environment.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2011-04-01

    Wound dressings have experienced continuous and significant changes over the years based on the knowledge of the biochemical events associated with chronic wounds. The development goes from natural materials used to just cover and conceal the wound to interactive materials that can facilitate the healing process, addressing specific issues in non-healing wounds. These new types of dressings often relate with the proteolytic wound environment and the bacteria load to enhance the healing. Recently, the wound dressing research is focusing on the replacement of synthetic polymers by natural protein materials to delivery bioactive agents to the wounds. This article provides an overview on the novel protein-based wound dressings such as silk fibroin keratin and elastin. The improved properties of these dressings, like the release of antibiotics and growth factors, are discussed. The different types of wounds and the effective parameters of healing process will be reviewed. PMID:21360151

  10. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 1: title VII of the civil rights act and religion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Moore, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    As more and more individuals choose to express themselves and their religious beliefs with headwear, jewelry, dress, tattoos, and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article addresses the issue of religious discrimination focusing on dress and appearance and some of the court cases that provide guidance for employers. PMID:24168864

  11. 26 CFR 1.446-1 - General rule for methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) General rule. (1) Section 446(a) provides that taxable income shall be computed under the method.... The term “method of accounting” includes not only the overall method of accounting of the taxpayer but... disbursements method, an accrual method, combinations of such methods, and combinations of the foregoing...

  12. Raman-dressed spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled quantum gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Zhihao; Öhberg, Patrik

    2014-02-01

    The recently realized spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases [Lin et al., Nature (London) 471, 83 (2011), 10.1038/nature09887; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.095301; Cheuk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095302 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.095302] mark a breakthrough in the cold atom community. In these experiments, two hyperfine states are selected from a hyperfine manifold to mimic a pseudospin-1/2 spin-orbit-coupled system by the method of Raman dressing, which is applicable to both bosonic and fermionic gases. In this paper, we show that the method used in these experiments can be generalized to create any large pseudospin spin-orbit-coupled gas if more hyperfine states are coupled equally by the Raman lasers. As an example, we study, in detail, a quantum gas with three hyperfine states coupled by the Raman lasers and show, when the state-dependent energy shifts of the three states are comparable, triple-degenerate minima will appear at the bottom of the band dispersions, thus, realizing a spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled quantum gas. A novel feature of this three-minima regime is that there can be two different kinds of stripe phases with different wavelengths, which has an interesting connection to the ferromagnetic and polar phases of spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates without spin-orbit coupling.

  13. The Use of Forward Guided Practice to Increase Independent Dressing Skills with Profoundly Multi-Handicapped Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Sheila; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A forward graduated guidance procedure was used to increase the independent dressing skills of two profoundly multihandicapped adolescents living in a noninstitutional environment. One subject reached criterion and treatment gains generalized to other settings. The other subject failed to reach criterion but required fewer prompts after training.…

  14. 29 CFR 4281.17 - Asset valuation methods-in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset valuation methods-in general. 4281.17 Section 4281.17... MASS WITHDRAWAL Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.17 Asset valuation methods—in general. (a) General rule. The plan sponsor shall value plan assets as of the valuation date, using...

  15. Quantum Magnetism and Topological Ordering via Rydberg Dressing near Förster Resonances.

    PubMed

    van Bijnen, R M W; Pohl, T

    2015-06-19

    We devise a cold-atom approach to realizing a broad range of bilinear quantum magnets. Our scheme is based on off-resonant single-photon excitation of Rydberg P states (Rydberg dressing), whose strong interactions are shown to yield controllable XYZ interactions between effective spins, represented by different atomic ground states. The distinctive features of Förster-resonant Rydberg atom interactions are exploited to enhance the effectiveness of Rydberg dressing and, thereby, yield large spin interactions that greatly exceed the corresponding decoherence rates. We illustrate the concept on a spin-1 chain implemented with cold rubidium atoms, and demonstrate that this permits the dynamical preparation of topological magnetic phases. Generally, the described approach provides a viable route to exploring quantum magnetism with dynamically tunable (an)isotropic interactions as well as variable space and spin dimensions in cold-atom experiments. PMID:26196973

  16. An observational evaluation of a new foam adhesive dressing.

    PubMed

    Merlin-Manton, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Michelle; Linthwaite, Adele

    Following the work of Winter demonstrating the benefits of moist wound healing, there has been a constant stream of wound care products launched into the market to support this concept. This article will describe the findings of an observational evaluation to observe, document and analyse the clinical effectiveness of a new foam adhesive dressing, UrgoTul® Absorb Border (Urgo Medical). The main objective of the evaluation was to define the parameters to allow data capture that would demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of the dressing. Parameters studied and analysed included atraumatic pain-free dressing changes; ease of dressing application; comfort and conformability; exudate management; ability of the dressing to stay in place; and peri-wound skin management. A total of 25 patients with wounds suitable to be dressed using the evaluation product were recruited following a full documented wound assessment by the tissue viability nurse. Participants were selected across the organisation from acute hospital wards and outpatient departments, care homes, wound care clinics and the participants' own homes. Digital photography was used to demonstrate improvement or deterioration of the wound bed and surrounding skin, and images were assessed by non-participating clinicians to confirm documented observations made within the evaluation. The dressing was found to be clinically effective in both chronic and acute wound types, and had an excellent level of participant acceptance. PMID:26266560

  17. Increasing the Effectiveness of a Collaborative General Methods Course for Secondary Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Peggy; Wilder Melinda S.; White, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    Eastern Kentucky University's secondary teacher education program revised a general methods course and content specific methods courses to increase student teachers' effectiveness. Curricular change included more emphasis on classroom management, professional development, and instructional technology. Participant surveys investigated whether the…

  18. Generalization of the residual cutting method based on the Krylov subspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Toshihiko; Sekine, Yoshihito; Kikuchi, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The residual cutting (RC) method has been reported to have superior converging characteristics in numerically solving elliptic partial differential equations. However, its application is limited to linear problems with diagonal-dominant matrices in general, for which convergence of a relaxation method such as SOR is guaranteed. In this study, we propose the generalized residual cutting (GRC) method, which is based on the Krylov subspace and applicable to general unsymmetric linear problems. Also, we perform numerical experiments with various coefficient matrices, and show that the GRC method has some desirable properties such as convergence characteristics and memory usage, in comparison to the conventional RC, BiCGSTAB and GMRES methods.

  19. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  20. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  1. Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness (CASCADE) in paediatrics: protocol for pilot randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Victoria; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara; Hallahan, Andrew; Mihala, Gabor; Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric central venous access devices (CVADs) are associated with a 25% incidence of failure. Securement and dressing are strategies used to reduce failure and complication; however, innovative technologies have not been evaluated for their effectiveness across device types. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale randomised controlled efficacy trial across three CVAD types regarding CVAD securement and dressing, using predefined feasibility criteria. Methods and analysis Three feasibility randomised, controlled trials are to be undertaken at the Royal Children's Hospital and the Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. CVAD securement and dressing interventions under examination compare current practice with sutureless securement devices, integrated securement dressings and tissue adhesive. In total, 328 paediatric patients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter (n=100); non-tunnelled CVAD (n=180) and tunnelled CVAD (n=48) to be inserted will be recruited and randomly allocated to CVAD securement and dressing products. Primary outcomes will be study feasibility measured by eligibility, recruitment, retention, attrition, missing data, parent/staff satisfaction and effect size. CVAD failure and complication (catheter-associated bloodstream infection, local infection, venous thrombosis, occlusion, dislodgement and breakage) will be compared between groups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval to conduct the research has been obtained. All dissemination will be undertaken using the CONSORT Statement recommendations. Additionally, the results will be sent to the relevant organisations which lead CVAD focused clinical practice guidelines development. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12614001327673; ACTRN12615000977572; ACTRN12614000280606. PMID:27259529

  2. Triple-mode squeezing with dressed six-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Li, Zepei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Che, Junling; Che, Junling; Abdulkhaleq, Hasan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Wang, Hongxing

    2016-05-01

    The theory of proof-of-principle triple-mode squeezing is proposed via spontaneous parametric six-wave mixing process in an atomic-cavity coupled system. Special attention is focused on the role of dressed state and nonlinear gain on triple-mode squeezing process. Using the dressed state theory, we find that optical squeezing and Autler-Towns splitting of cavity mode can be realized with nonlinear gain, while the efficiency and the location of maximum squeezing point can be effectively shaped by dressed state in atomic ensemble. Our proposal can find applications in multi-channel communication and multi-channel quantum imaging.

  3. Hand burn management: minimising pain and trauma at dressing change.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jacky; Mason, Sally

    The aim of wound management in hand burn injuries is to restore function and prevent problem scars, so a key consideration in wound healing is the removal of dressings without causing pain and further trauma as well as preserving function. Conventionally, wound dressings such as paraffin gauze were used for burn injuries, but this led to pain and trauma on removal, as well as drying out. This study looks at the use of Mepitel® One on hand burns; this dressing incorporates all the benefits of Mepitel, however, it only has Safetac technology on the wound contact side, allowing easy handling and application. PMID:24225512

  4. Triple-mode squeezing with dressed six-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Li, Zepei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Che, Junling; Che, Junling; Abdulkhaleq, Hasan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Wang, Hongxing

    2016-01-01

    The theory of proof-of-principle triple-mode squeezing is proposed via spontaneous parametric six-wave mixing process in an atomic-cavity coupled system. Special attention is focused on the role of dressed state and nonlinear gain on triple-mode squeezing process. Using the dressed state theory, we find that optical squeezing and Autler-Towns splitting of cavity mode can be realized with nonlinear gain, while the efficiency and the location of maximum squeezing point can be effectively shaped by dressed state in atomic ensemble. Our proposal can find applications in multi-channel communication and multi-channel quantum imaging. PMID:27169878

  5. Triple-mode squeezing with dressed six-wave mixing

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Li, Zepei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Che, Junling; Che, Junling; Abdulkhaleq, Hasan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Wang, Hongxing

    2016-01-01

    The theory of proof-of-principle triple-mode squeezing is proposed via spontaneous parametric six-wave mixing process in an atomic-cavity coupled system. Special attention is focused on the role of dressed state and nonlinear gain on triple-mode squeezing process. Using the dressed state theory, we find that optical squeezing and Autler-Towns splitting of cavity mode can be realized with nonlinear gain, while the efficiency and the location of maximum squeezing point can be effectively shaped by dressed state in atomic ensemble. Our proposal can find applications in multi-channel communication and multi-channel quantum imaging. PMID:27169878

  6. Approximate Method of Calculating Heating Rates at General Three-Dimensional Stagnation Points During Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. H., II

    1982-01-01

    An approximate method for calculating heating rates at general three dimensional stagnation points is presented. The application of the method for making stagnation point heating calculations during atmospheric entry is described. Comparisons with results from boundary layer calculations indicate that the method should provide an accurate method for engineering type design and analysis applications.

  7. Optical properties of parabolic quantum dots with dressed impurity: Combined effects of pressure, temperature and laser intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseghi, B.; Rezaei, G.; Sajadi, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper simultaneous effects of pressure, temperature and laser radiation on the optical absorption coefficient and refractive index of a spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement and dressed impurity are studied. By means of matrix diagonalization technique, energy eigenvalues and functions are evaluated and used to find the optical properties of the system via density operator method. It is shown that linear and nonlinear optical properties strongly depend on pressure, temperature and dressing laser intensity. The interesting point is that the influence of laser radiation depends on pressure and temperature.

  8. A Special Investigation to Develop a General Method for Three-dimensional Photoelastic Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frocht, M M; Guernsey, R , Jr

    1953-01-01

    The method of strain measurement after annealing is reviewed and found to be satisfactory for the materials available in this country. A new general method is described for the photoelastic determination of the principal stresses at any point of a general body subjected to arbitrary load. The method has been applied to a sphere subjected to diametrical compressive loads. The results show possibilities of high accuracy.

  9. Mix of methods is needed to identify adverse events in general practice: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wetzels, Raymond; Wolters, René; van Weel, Chris; Wensing, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background The validity and usefulness of incident reporting and other methods for identifying adverse events remains unclear. This study aimed to compare five methods in general practice. Methods In a prospective observational study, with five general practitioners, five methods were applied and compared. The five methods were physician reported adverse events, pharmacist reported adverse events, patients' experiences of adverse events, assessment of a random sample of medical records, and assessment of all deceased patients. Results A total of 68 events were identified using these methods. The patient survey accounted for the highest number of events and the pharmacist reports for the lowest number. No overlap between the methods was detected. The patient survey accounted for the highest number of events and the pharmacist reports for the lowest number. Conclusion A mix of methods is needed to identify adverse events in general practice. PMID:18554418

  10. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY FOR HYDROTHERAPY AREA AT RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1054, South side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  11. Achieving value for money? Evaluation of two wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Gray, David; White, Richard; Russell, Fiona; Cooper, Pam

    2002-10-01

    During the past three decades there has been dramatic increase in spending on wound dressing products in the UK. While the rise in costs in many ways reflects a rise in the performance of the products purchased, it remains vital that nurses charged with prescribing such products achieve value for money. This article describes a small study of the use of a primary dressing and a secondary wound dressing in 12 patients, representing a range of wounds. In each case a more expensive alternative would normally have been used. In each case observed, involving both primary and secondary dressings, no deficit in clinical performance was noted but potential cost benefits were identified. The authors conclude that these initial findings are encouraging and further studies are required to address this important area of wound management. PMID:12399706

  12. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... establishment shall have dressing rooms, toilet facilities, and lavatory accommodations, including hot and cold running water, soap, towels, and the like. They shall be in sufficient number, ample in size,...

  13. Reducing bloodstream infection with a chlorhexidine gel IV dressing.

    PubMed

    Jeanes, Annette; Bitmead, James

    The use of vascular access devices (VAD) is common in healthcare provision but there is a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Central venous catheters (CVC) are associated with the highest risk of intravenous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). 3M™ Tegaderm™ CHG IV dressing is a semi-permeable transparent adhesive dressing with an integrated gel pad containing chlorhexidine gluconate 2%. This product was reviewed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2015, recommending that Tegaderm CHG could be used for CVC and arterial line dressings in high-dependency and intensive-care settings. This article discusses issues around CRBSI, interventions to reduce the risk of CRBSI, and the use of Tegaderm CHG dressing. PMID:26496869

  14. 12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING DRESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING DRESSING FROM AND WORK/CHAMBER ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  15. 9. View to west of Tropic Dressing Room (typical). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View to west of Tropic Dressing Room (typical). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  16. Shifted-action expansion and applicability of dressed diagrammatic schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Werner, Félix; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    While bare diagrammatic series are merely Taylor expansions in powers of interaction strength, dressed diagrammatic series, built on fully or partially dressed lines and vertices, are usually constructed by reordering the bare diagrams, which is an a priori unjustified manipulation, and can even lead to convergence to an unphysical result [E. Kozik, M. Ferrero, and A. Georges, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 156402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.156402]. Here we show that for a broad class of partially dressed diagrammatic schemes, there exists an action S(ξ ) depending analytically on an auxiliary complex parameter ξ , such that the Taylor expansion in ξ of correlation functions reproduces the original diagrammatic series. The resulting applicability conditions are similar to the bare case. For fully dressed skeleton diagrammatics, analyticity of S(ξ ) is not granted, and we formulate a sufficient condition for converging to the correct result.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEXT-GENERATION ANTIMICROBIAL WOUND DRESSING.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Daniel; Parsons, David; Bowler, I Philip

    2016-03-01

    Delayed wound healing due to infection is a burden on healthcare systems, and the patient and caregiver alike. An emerging factor in infection and delayed healing is the presence development of biofilm in wounds. Biofilm is communities of microorganisms, protected by an extracellular matrix of slime in the wound, which can tolerate host defences and applied antimicrobials such as antibiotics or antimicrobial dressings. A growing evidence base exists suggesting that biofilm exists in a majority of chronic wounds, and can be a precursor to infection while causing delayed healing itself. In vivo models have demonstrated that the inflammatory, granulation and epithelialization processes of normal wound healing are impaired by biofilm presence. The challenge in the development of a new antimicrobial wound dressing was to make standard antimicrobial agents more effective against biofilm, and this was answered following extensive biofilm research and testing. A combination of metal chelator, surfactant and pH control displayed highly synergistic anti-biofilm action with 1.2% ionic silver in a carboxymethylcellulose dressing. Its effectiveness was challenged and proven in complex in vitro and in vivo wound biofilm models, followed by clinical safety and performance demonstrations in a 42-patient study and 113 clinical evaluations. Post-market surveillance was conducted on the commercially available dressing, and in a 112-case evaluation, the dressing was shown to effectively manage exudate and suspected biofilm while shifting difficult-to-heal wounds onto healing trajectories, after an average of 4 weeks of new dressing use in otherwise standard wound care protocols. This was accompanied by a low frequency of dressing related adverse events. In a second evaluation, clinical signs of infection and wound dimension data, before and after the evaluations, were also available. Following an average of 5.4 weeks of dressing use, all signs of clinical infection were reduced, from

  18. Chitosan hemostatic dressing for control of hemorrhage from femoral arterial puncture site in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Removal of an introducer-sheath from a femoral artery after completing transarterial embolization of a patent ductus arteriosus can cause life-threatening hemorrhage in dogs. In the present study, the effectiveness of chitosan acetate dressing in 10 experimental dogs was tested. Under general anesthesia, an introducer-sheath was placed into the femoral artery with percutaneous puncture using Seldinger's technique. The outer diameter of the introducer-sheaths varied from 3.0 to 4.0 mm with an introducer/artery ratio of 80 to 123%. The artery's diameter was measured using ultrasonography. Following removal of the introducer-sheath, a chitosan acetate dressing was applied to the wound and held in place with manual compression for 10 min. Successful hemostasis was reached on 12 arteries. However, on two arteries, hemorrhage was uncontrollable and led to a hypovolemic shock during 10 min of manual compression. Possible causes of the negative outcome in two dogs were their old age and an introducer-sheath with a too large diameter. The chitosan acetate dressing was easy to use and the artery remained patent. Dogs could walk directly after recovery from anesthesia and their femoral arteries were saved. In conclusion, the outer diameter of the introducer-sheath should not exceed 3 mm or the inner diameter of the artery. PMID:26119165

  19. Biomedical evaluation of a novel nitrogen oxides releasing wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rachna N; Joshi, Hiren M; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2012-12-01

    Chronic wounds are a major cause for both suffering and economical losses. Management of chronic non-healing wounds requires multipronged approach. They are polymicrobial and agonizing for the patient due to associated pain. Moist dressing providing antimicrobial action is a highly desirable chronic wound management option. Here we report a hydrogel based dressing that possesses the antimicrobial properties of acidified sodium nitrite and the homeostatic property of a hydrogel. The dressing was developed by combining citric acid cross-linked cotton gauze and sodium nitrite loaded gelatin. The cotton gauze was cross-linked with citric acid by pad-dry-curing in presence of nano-titania catalyst. The cotton gauze-gelatin hydrogel combination was gamma-irradiated and freeze-dried. At the time of application, the freeze-dried dressing is wetted by sodium nitrite solution. The dressing has a fluid uptake ability of 90 % (w/v) and the water vapour evaporation rate was estimated to be 2,809 ± 20 g/m(2)/day. The dressing showed significant antimicrobial activity against both planktonic and biofilm forms and was effective during consecutive re-uses. Cytotoxicity study showed inhibition of fibroblasts, but to a lesser extent than clinically administered concentrations of antiseptic like povidone iodine. Storage at 37 °C over a 3 month period resulted in no significant loss of its antimicrobial activity. PMID:23001289

  20. Evaluation of a new liquid occlusive dressing for excisional wounds.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam J; Nable, Maria; Cameau, Paul; Singer, Daniel D; McClain, Steve A

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated a novel octylcyanoacrylate-based liquid occlusive dressing for partial-thickness wounds. One hundred and fifteen standardized wounds were created with an electric dermatome set at a depth of 600 micro on the flanks of three pigs and randomly treated with liquid occlusive dressing, a hydrocolloid dressing, or gauze. In one pig, wounds were swabbed with Staphylococcus aureus. Biopsies were taken after 4, 5, 6, and 21 days. Hemostasis was obtained in all wounds treated with the liquid occlusive. The percent reepithelialization of wounds treated with the liquid occlusive and hydrocolloid dressings were significantly greater at days 4 and 5 than control wounds (78% and 82% vs. 40%, p < 0.001 and 99% and 100% vs. 72%, p < 0.001, respectively). None of the liquid occlusive-treated wounds challenged with bacteria became infected. Foreign body reactions were least common in wounds treated with the liquid occlusive (p < 0.001). Scar depth was less for liquid occlusive- and hydrocolloid-treated wounds than controls (285 micro and 303 micro vs. 490 micro, p < 0.001). We conclude that excisional wounds treated with the liquid occlusive dressing reepithelialize as quickly as hydrocolloid-treated wounds. The liquid occlusive dressing is an effective microbial barrier and hemostatic agent resulting in fewer foreign body reactions than hydrocolloid-treated wounds or controls. PMID:12753599

  1. Sowing simulation tests of a pneumatic drill equipped with systems aimed at reducing the emission of abrasion dust from maize dressed seed.

    PubMed

    Biocca, Marcello; Conte, Elisa; Pulcini, Patrizio; Marinelli, Enzo; Pochi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of dressed seed for spring sowing is a widespread practice to control some pests with reduced doses of chemical products. However some insecticides employed in maize seed dressing, namely belonging to the neonicotinoid family and fipronil, have been claimed to play a role in the decline of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Pneumatic drills used in maize sowing are charged with contributing to the dispersion of the abrasion dust produced by dressed seeds, favoring the contamination of the honeybee habitat. Different devices similar to air deflectors have been introduced on pneumatic drills in order to reduce dust drift. During previous field tests carried out by the authors during recent years reduction of dust concentration both in the air and at soil surface has been shown as a consequence of their application. As field tests are affected by the variability of environmental parameters (namely wind speed and direction) the results are not always reliable, comparable and of a general validity. This paper refers to a sowing simulation test system in which pneumatic drills can be tested at a fixed point under controlled conditions of the main environmental parameters. In the test area, protected by external influences, artificial wind conditions are created by means of a fan. The drill, suitably placed in the test area, operates the seed distribution "sur place" by means of an electric engine connected to the drill's driving wheel. A 22.5 m long sampling area, leeward with respect to the drill position, has been identified. Along the sampling area a series of Petri dishes has been placed, with the aim of capturing the depositing dust and providing the concentration of the active ingredients (a.i.) at ground level. At the same time, three air samplers with PTFE diskette filters have been used for the detection of the a.i. The test system has been used for the test of a pneumatic drill, equipped with and without air deflectors, using maize seed dressed with

  2. A New DEM Generalization Method Based on Watershed and Tree Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonggang; Ma, Tianwu; Chen, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zhende; Yang, Chunju; Lin, Chenzhi; Shan, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    The DEM generalization is the basis of multi-dimensional observation, the basis of expressing and analyzing the terrain. DEM is also the core of building the Multi-Scale Geographic Database. Thus, many researchers have studied both the theory and the method of DEM generalization. This paper proposed a new method of generalizing terrain, which extracts feature points based on the tree model construction which considering the nested relationship of watershed characteristics. The paper used the 5 m resolution DEM of the Jiuyuan gully watersheds in the Loess Plateau as the original data and extracted the feature points in every single watershed to reconstruct the DEM. The paper has achieved generalization from 1:10000 DEM to 1:50000 DEM by computing the best threshold. The best threshold is 0.06. In the last part of the paper, the height accuracy of the generalized DEM is analyzed by comparing it with some other classic methods, such as aggregation, resample, and VIP based on the original 1:50000 DEM. The outcome shows that the method performed well. The method can choose the best threshold according to the target generalization scale to decide the density of the feature points in the watershed. Meanwhile, this method can reserve the skeleton of the terrain, which can meet the needs of different levels of generalization. Additionally, through overlapped contour contrast, elevation statistical parameters and slope and aspect analysis, we found out that the W8D algorithm performed well and effectively in terrain representation. PMID:27517296

  3. A New DEM Generalization Method Based on Watershed and Tree Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonggang; Ma, Tianwu; Chen, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zhende; Yang, Chunju; Lin, Chenzhi; Shan, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    The DEM generalization is the basis of multi-dimensional observation, the basis of expressing and analyzing the terrain. DEM is also the core of building the Multi-Scale Geographic Database. Thus, many researchers have studied both the theory and the method of DEM generalization. This paper proposed a new method of generalizing terrain, which extracts feature points based on the tree model construction which considering the nested relationship of watershed characteristics. The paper used the 5 m resolution DEM of the Jiuyuan gully watersheds in the Loess Plateau as the original data and extracted the feature points in every single watershed to reconstruct the DEM. The paper has achieved generalization from 1:10000 DEM to 1:50000 DEM by computing the best threshold. The best threshold is 0.06. In the last part of the paper, the height accuracy of the generalized DEM is analyzed by comparing it with some other classic methods, such as aggregation, resample, and VIP based on the original 1:50000 DEM. The outcome shows that the method performed well. The method can choose the best threshold according to the target generalization scale to decide the density of the feature points in the watershed. Meanwhile, this method can reserve the skeleton of the terrain, which can meet the needs of different levels of generalization. Additionally, through overlapped contour contrast, elevation statistical parameters and slope and aspect analysis, we found out that the W8D algorithm performed well and effectively in terrain representation. PMID:27517296

  4. Incidence of Salmonellae in Dressed Broiler-Fryer Chickens1

    PubMed Central

    Woodburn, Margy

    1964-01-01

    Salmonellae were isolated from 72 of 264 broiler-fryer type chickens that had been purchased in retail stores in the Lafayette, Ind., area in 1963. Meat from the tail area and giblet portions were used in sampling. Equal numbers of dressed whole and cut-up birds were positive for salmonellae. Thirteen different serotypes were identified, the more common being Salmonella infantis, S. reading, and S. blockley. Incubation at 43 C of the blended sample in Selenite-F Enrichment broth containing cystine gave a larger number of recoveries than did incubation at 37 C. There was no significant difference between the means for the birds that yielded salmonellae and those that did not in the locally processed group, when compared for numbers of aerobic microorganisms at 37 C, coliforms, or most probable number of enterococci. In a comparison of poultry processed in-state by the five processors included in the study with that processed out-of-state, there was a general trend for a larger number of positive specimens in the locally produced group. The fall season was an exception. PMID:14239580

  5. Wound dressing based on chitosan/hyaluronan/nonwoven fabrics: Preparation, characterization and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Hrdina, R; Burgert, L; Fohlerova, Z; Pavliňák, D; Sayed, O N; Jancar, J

    2016-08-01

    Thin layers of chitosan (positively charged)/sodium hyaluronate (negatively charged)/nonwoven fabrics were constructed by polyelectrolyte multilayer pad-dry-cure technique. Pure chitosan (CS) was isolated from shrimp shell and immobilized onto nonwoven fabrics (NWFs) using citric acid (CTA) as cross linker and solvent agents through a pad-dry-cure method. The prepared thin layer of chitosan citrate/nonwoven fabrics (CSCTA/NWFs) were consequently impregnated with hyaluronan (CSCTA/HA/NWFs) in the second path through a pad-dry-cure method. Chitosan/hyaluronan/nonwoven fabrics wound dressing was characterized by different techniques such as FTIR-ATR, TGA and SEM. The antibacterial activity and the cytotoxicity of the dressing sheets were evaluated against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Streptococcus aureus (S. aureus), mouse fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell lines, respectively. The cell-fabrics interaction was also investigated using fluorescence microscope, based on live/dead staining assay of 3T3 cells. The healing properties of the new wound dressing were evaluated and compared with the control sample. PMID:27151671

  6. Impregnation of silver sulfadiazine into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jiabin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Yudong; Song, Wenhui; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Jia; Ding, Xun

    2012-12-01

    Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is a useful antimicrobial agent for wound treatment. However, recent findings indicate that conventional SSD cream has several drawbacks for use in treatments. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a promising material for wound dressing due to its outstanding properties of holding water, strength and degradability. Unfortunately, BC itself exhibits no antimicrobial activity. A combination of SSD and BC is envisaged to form a new class of wound dressing with both antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility, which has not been reported to date. To achieve antimicrobial activity, SSD particles were impregnated into BC by immersing BC into SSD suspension after ultrasonication, namely SSD-BC. Parameters influencing SSD-BC impregnation were systematically studied. Optimized conditions of sonication time for no less than 90 min and the proper pH value between 6.6 and 9.0 were suggested. The absorption of SSD onto the BC nanofibrous network was revealed by XRD and SEM analyses. The SSD-BC membranes exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus evaluated by the disc diffusion method. In addition, the favorable biocompatibility of SSD-BC was verified by MTT colorimetry, epidermal cell counting method and optical microscopy. The results demonstrate the potential of SSD-BC membranes as a new class of antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing. PMID:23182757

  7. Magnetite nanoparticles for functionalized textile dressing to prevent fungal biofilms development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to improve the antibiofilm properties of textile dressing, tested in vitro against monospecific Candida albicans biofilms. Functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4/C18), with an average size not exceeding 20 nm, has been synthesized by precipitation of ferric and ferrous salts in aqueous solution of oleic acid (C18) and NaOH. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and differential thermal analysis coupled with thermo gravimetric analysis were used as characterization methods for the synthesized Fe3O4/C18. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the architecture of the fungal biofilm developed on the functionalized textile dressing samples and culture-based methods for the quantitative assay of the biofilm-embedded yeast cells. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to C. albicans colonization, as compared to the uncoated ones; these functionalized surfaces-based approaches are very useful in the prevention of wound microbial contamination and subsequent biofilm development on viable tissues or implanted devices. PMID:22950367

  8. Magnetite nanoparticles for functionalized textile dressing to prevent fungal biofilms development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Ion; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Ficai, Anton; Saviuc, Crina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to improve the antibiofilm properties of textile dressing, tested in vitro against monospecific Candida albicans biofilms. Functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4/C18), with an average size not exceeding 20 nm, has been synthesized by precipitation of ferric and ferrous salts in aqueous solution of oleic acid (C18) and NaOH. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and differential thermal analysis coupled with thermo gravimetric analysis were used as characterization methods for the synthesized Fe3O4/C18. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the architecture of the fungal biofilm developed on the functionalized textile dressing samples and culture-based methods for the quantitative assay of the biofilm-embedded yeast cells. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to C. albicans colonization, as compared to the uncoated ones; these functionalized surfaces-based approaches are very useful in the prevention of wound microbial contamination and subsequent biofilm development on viable tissues or implanted devices.

  9. The DRESS trial: a feasibility randomized controlled trial of a neuropsychological approach to dressing therapy for stroke inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, Alan; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna; Drummond, Avril; Logan, Pip; Edmans, Judi A; Garvey, Katherine; Dineen, Robert A; Ince, Paul; Horne, Jane; Fisher, Rebecca J; Taylor, Jenny L

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate two approaches to treating patients with persistent dressing problems and cognitive difficulties following stroke. Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation service. Subjects: Seventy consecutive stroke patients with persistent dressing problems and accompanying cognitive difficulties at two weeks after their stroke. Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated to six weeks of either a systematic neuropsychological approach, based on analysis of dressing problems and further cognitive testing, or to the control group who received conventional (functional) dressing practice. Both groups received treatment three times a week in accordance with two separately prepared manuals. Main measures: Nottingham Stroke Dressing Assessment (NSDA), Line Cancellation, 10-hole peg transfer test, Object Decision, Gesture Imitation. Patients were assessed at six weeks after randomization by an independent assessor masked to group allocation. Results: Both neuropsychological and functional groups improved performance on the NSDA over the treatment period (31% and 22%, respectively) but there was no significant difference between groups at six weeks. However, the neuropsychological group showed a significantly greater improvement on a line cancellation test of visual neglect (t(62) = 2.1, P < 0.05) and a planned subanalysis for those with right hemisphere damage showed a trend towards better dressing outcome (P = 0.07, one-tailed). Conclusions: Results demonstrate the potential benefits of a systematic neuropsychological approach to dressing therapy, particularly for patients with right hemisphere damage. This study suggests the need for a phase III study evaluating the efficacy of a systematic neuropsychological approach in treating dressing difficulties, targeting patients with right hemisphere stroke and visuospatial impairments. PMID:22180445

  10. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced caked litter production compared with control pens in 6 of 9 flocks. However, average total litter production over all 9 flocks was not different between the 2 litter management strategies. In all flocks, litter N content was significantly reduced in top-dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing

  11. Inductively guided circuits for ultracold dressed atoms

    PubMed Central

    Sinuco-León, German A.; Burrows, Kathryn A.; Arnold, Aidan S.; Garraway, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in optics, atomic physics and material science has paved the way to study quantum effects in ultracold atomic alkali gases confined to non-trivial geometries. Multiply connected traps for cold atoms can be prepared by combining inhomogeneous distributions of DC and radio-frequency electromagnetic fields with optical fields that require complex systems for frequency control and stabilization. Here we propose a flexible and robust scheme that creates closed quasi-one-dimensional guides for ultracold atoms through the ‘dressing’ of hyperfine sublevels of the atomic ground state, where the dressing field is spatially modulated by inductive effects over a micro-engineered conducting loop. Remarkably, for commonly used atomic species (for example, 7Li and 87Rb), the guide operation relies entirely on controlling static and low-frequency fields in the regimes of radio-frequency and microwave frequencies. This novel trapping scheme can be implemented with current technology for micro-fabrication and electronic control. PMID:25348163

  12. Antibacterial Efficacy of Silver-Impregnated Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Immobilized on a Biological Dressing in a Murine Wound Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Kathleen M.; Agarwal, Ankit; Tackes, Dana S.; Johnson, Kevin W.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Czuprynski, Charles J.; Kierski, Patricia R.; Schurr, Michael J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial effect of augmenting a biological dressing with polymer films containing silver nanoparticles. Background Biological dressings, such as Biobrane, are commonly used for treating partial-thickness wounds and burn injuries. Biological dressings have several advantages over traditional wound dressings. However, as many as 19% of wounds treated with Biobrane become infected, and, once infected, the Biobrane must be removed and a traditional dressing approach should be employed. Silver is a commonly used antimicrobial in wound care products, but current technology uses cytotoxic concentrations of silver in these dressings. We have developed a novel and facile technology that allows immobilization of bioactive molecules on the surfaces of soft materials, demonstrated here by augmentation of Biobrane with nanoparticulate silver. Surfaces modified with nanometer-thick polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) impregnated with silver nanoparticles have been shown previously to result in in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis at loadings of silver that are noncytotoxic. Methods We demonstrated that silver-impregnated PEMs can be nondestructively immobilized onto the surface of Biobrane (Biobrane-Ag) and determined the in vitro antibacterial activity of Biobrane-Ag with Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we used an in vivo wound infection model in mice induced by topical inoculation of S aureus onto full-thickness 6-mm diameter wounds. After 72 hours, bacterial quantification was performed. Results Wounds treated with Biobrane-Ag had significantly (P < 0.001) fewer colony-forming units than wounds treated with unmodified Biobrane (more than 4 log10 difference). Conclusions The results of our study indicate that immobilizing silver-impregnated PEMs on the wound-contact surface of Biobrane significantly reduces bacterial bioburden in full-thickness murine skin wounds. Further research will investigate whether

  13. Evaluation of Six Split-thickness Skin Graft Donor-site Dressing Materials in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Masella, Pamela C.; Balent, Eric M.; Carlson, Terri L.; Lee, Karen W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous dressings for split-thickness skin graft donor sites are commercially available with no conclusive evidence-based consensus regarding the optimal dressing choice. This study was conducted to identify which of 5 commonly used materials promotes wound healing most effectively for use on split-thickness donor sites in comparison with our standard dressing, Xeroform (petrolatum gauze). Methods: Twenty-four partial-thickness wounds were created on the backs of 4 pigs using a dermatome. Wounds (n = 4 per dressing type per pig) were treated with Xeroform, Opsite (polyurethane film), Kaltostat ( calcium sodium alginate), DuoDERM (hydrocolloid), Aquacel (hydrofiber), and Mepilex (silicone foam). Full-thickness skin samples were excised at 3 or 5 days and evaluated histologically for reepithelialization and inflammation. Comparisons also included incidence of infection, ease of use, and cost analyses. Results: DuoDERM elicited the greatest percent reepithelialization (81%) and Mepilex the lowest (33%) after 3 days (P = 0.004). All dressings demonstrated complete reepithelialization except Mepilex (85%) at 5 days. There were no infections and inflammation was mild among all treatments. Mepilex was easiest to use, whereas Aquacel, Kaltostat, and Opsite were most difficult (P = 0.03). Xeroform was most cost-effective and Aquacel most expensive. Combined scoring revealed DuoDERM = Xeroform > Opsite = Mepilex > Kaltostat > Aquacel. Conclusions: DuoDERM and Xeroform were most effective overall. DuoDERM tended to outperform all dressings in reepithelialization at 3 days, while Xeroform was least expensive, easy to use, and demonstrated rapid reepithelialization. These findings suggest that Xeroform may be preferred for use on large donor-site areas. DuoDERM may be more appropriate for small donor sites when healing time is a priority. PMID:25289278

  14. The effect of a silver-containing Hydrofiber dressing on superficial wound bed and bacterial balance of chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Pat; Sibbald, R Gary

    2005-12-01

    The treatment of chronic wounds represents a major cost to society and has a profound effect on the participant's quality of life. Chronic wounds may have an increased bacterial burden that can impair healing without all the clinical signs of infection. Silver dressings may provide an alternative topical method to control bacterial burden. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical improvement in chronic wounds through the effect on wound size, maceration, resolution of surface slough and conversion to healthy granulation during a 4-week application of the silver-containing Hydrofiber dressing. This was a single centre, open-label case series study which included a total of 30 evaluable participants: four with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers, 13 venous stasis ulcers, four pressure ulcers and nine miscellaneous wounds that did not fit any of the previous categories. All participants had adequate vascular supply, indicating the potential to heal. The wounds were stalled or had the signs and symptoms consistent with critical colonisation. The underlying cause of the ulceration was identified and corrected, or the symptoms and signs were treated. This was followed by the application of silver-containing Hydrofiber dressings for a period of 4 weeks. The majority of wounds treated decreased in size (70%) with decreased exudate, decreased purulence and resolution of surface slough (75%). There was an increased quality and quantity of healthy granulation tissue. Unlike some silver dressings, the Hydrofiber and silver combination dressing was unlikely to cause burning and stinging on application. Peri-wound maceration was present in 54% of participants at baseline, and 85% of these resolved with this dressing. A desloughing action was seen in those patients with pre-existing slough at baseline and its removal will lower the bacterial burden of the wound. PMID:16618321

  15. A Generalized Method of Image Analysis from an Intercorrelation Matrix which May Be Singular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanai, Haruo; Mukherjee, Bishwa Nath

    1987-01-01

    This generalized image analysis method is applicable to singular and non-singular correlation matrices (CMs). Using the orthogonal projector and a weaker generalized inverse matrix, image and anti-image covariance matrices can be derived from a singular CM. (SLD)

  16. A generalized polar coordinate method for sound propagation over large-scale irregular terrain.

    PubMed

    Parakkal, Santosh; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Di, Xiao; Bass, Henry E

    2010-11-01

    The polar coordinate method in You [Ph.D. thesis, The University of Mississippi (1993)] is rederived in differential form and is generalized by defining a local, continuously varying, radius of curvature. The generalization makes it possible to compute sound propagation over arbitrary large-scale terrain where the local radii of curvature are much larger than an acoustic wavelength. For a simple hill, both the original and generalized method are in good agreement with measured low-frequency propagation loss data. The generalized method is applied to more complex terrain in a numerical example. The example demonstrates the utility of the method and also shows that complex terrain can have a significant effect on low-frequency sound propagation, even when the slope angles are small. PMID:21110555

  17. A selective learning method to improve the generalization of multilayer feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Galván, I M; Isasi, P; Aler, R; Valls, J M

    2001-04-01

    Multilayer feedforward neural networks with backpropagation algorithm have been used successfully in many applications. However, the level of generalization is heavily dependent on the quality of the training data. That is, some of the training patterns can be redundant or irrelevant. It has been shown that with careful dynamic selection of training patterns, better generalization performance may be obtained. Nevertheless, generalization is carried out independently of the novel patterns to be approximated. In this paper, we present a learning method that automatically selects the training patterns more appropriate to the new sample to be predicted. This training method follows a lazy learning strategy, in the sense that it builds approximations centered around the novel sample. The proposed method has been applied to three different domains: two artificial approximation problems and a real time series prediction problem. Results have been compared to standard backpropagation using the complete training data set and the new method shows better generalization abilities. PMID:14632169

  18. Effects of Conceptual Systems and Instructional Methods on General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three instructional methods and conceptual systems orientation on achievement in a freshman general chemistry laboratory course. Traditional approach, learning cycle, and computer simulations are discussed. (KR)

  19. Generalized transfer matrix method for propagation of surface waves in layered azimuthally anisotropic half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyun; Zhao, Chongbin; Duan, Yunling

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic and efficient method, namely the generalized transfer matrix method, for evaluating the dispersion curves and eigenfunctions of surface waves in multilayered azimuthally anisotropic half-space. Apart from avoiding the well-known numerical difficulties associated with the existing Thomson-Haskell method, the generalized transfer matrix method possesses the robust determination of independent polarization vectors by using the singular value decomposition (SVD) approach, the explicit inversion of the 6 × 6 eigencolumn matrix without any resort to numerical inversion and the efficient computation of eigenfunctions for layered azimuthally anisotropic media. By means of straightforward transformations, the generalized transfer matrix method leads to a twofold recursive algorithm: (1) for the recursive computation of phase velocities it starts from the bottom half-space to the top layer and (2) for the recursive solution of eigenfunctions it starts from the top layer to the bottom half-space. While keeping the simplicity of the Thomson-Haskell transfer matrix method, the generalized transfer matrix method is of unconditional stability and computational efficiency. The related numerical examples demonstrate that the generalized transfer matrix method is a powerful and robust tool for simulating the propagation of elastic surface waves in the layered azimuthally anisotropic half-space.

  20. CONTINUOUS-ENERGY MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR CALCULATING GENERALIZED RESPONSE SENSITIVITIES USING TSUNAMI-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Perfetti, Christopher M; Rearden, Bradley T

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a new approach for calculating sensitivity coefficients for generalized neutronic responses to nuclear data uncertainties using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. The approach presented in this paper, known as the GEAR-MC method, allows for the calculation of generalized sensitivity coefficients for multiple responses in a single Monte Carlo calculation with no nuclear data perturbations or knowledge of nuclear covariance data. The theory behind the GEAR-MC method is presented here, and proof of principle is demonstrated by using the GEAR-MC method to calculate sensitivity coefficients for responses in several 3D, continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications.

  1. A Nonlinear Generalized Thermoelasticity Model of Temperature-Dependent Materials Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Ibrahim A.; Youssef, Hamdy M.

    2012-07-01

    In this article, a general finite element method (FEM) is proposed to analyze transient phenomena in a thermoelastic model in the context of the theory of generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time. The exact solution of the nonlinear model of the thermal shock problem of a generalized thermoelastic half-space of temperature-dependent materials exists only for very special and simple initial- and boundary problems. In view of calculating general problems, a numerical solution technique is to be used. For this reason, the FEM is chosen. The results for the temperature increment, the stress components, and the displacement component are illustrated graphically with some comparisons.

  2. Generalization of the residual cutting method based on the Krylov subspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Toshihiko; Sekine, Yoshihito; Kikuchi, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The residual cutting (RC) method has been reported to have superior converging characteristics in numerically solving elliptic partial differential equations. However, its application is limited to linear problems with diagonal-dominant matrices in general, for which convergence of a relaxation method such as SOR is guaranteed. In this study, we propose the generalized residual cutting (GRC) method, which is based on the Krylov subspace and applicable to general unsymmetric linear problems. Also, we perform numerical experiments with various coefficient matrices, and show that the GRC method has some desirable properties such as convergence characteristics and memory usage, in comparison to the conventional RC, BiCGSTAB and GMRES methods. At the request of the author of this paper, a corrigendum was issued on 22 June 2016 to correct an error in Eq. (2) and Eq. (3).

  3. Prevalence of silver resistance in bacteria isolated from diabetic foot ulcers and efficacy of silver-containing wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Percival, Steven L; Woods, Emma; Nutekpor, Moses; Bowler, Phil; Radford, Alan; Cochrane, Christine

    2008-03-01

    Silver dressings are used to manage wounds at risk of infection or locally infected. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the prevalence of silver resistance genes in 112 bacterial isolates obtained from the diabetic foot ulcers of patients attending the Diabetic Foot Clinic at Tameside General Hospital, UK. Using polymerase chain reaction to screen for three silver-resistance transcriptional units--silE, silS and silP--two silver-resistant bacteria were identified; both are strains of Enterobacter cloacae, an organism rarely implicated as a primary pathogen in chronic wounds. No recognized wound pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus-24 isolates and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-nine isolates) were found to contain silver-resistant genes. Analysis of the efficacy of silver-containing dressings on the silver-resistant strains of Enterobacter cloacae using confocal laser microscopy showed that, despite evidence of genetic resistance to silver, all strains were killed following a maximum of 48 hours of exposure to the dressings. Results suggest that presence of silver resistance genes is rare and that genetic resistance does not necessarily translate to phenotypic resistance to silver. While silver resistance in wound care should be monitored, the threat of widespread resistance is low and silver-containing dressings remain an extremely important tool in managing wound infection. PMID:18382046

  4. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 2: title VII of the civil rights act and gender.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed. PMID:24463587

  5. Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

    2012-11-01

    Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin-papain membranes without glycerol was 14.30±6.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in the absorption capacity. Moisture vapour transmission rate of the membranes was 4285.77±455.61 g/m2/24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25-35 kGy. The irradiated chitin-papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin-papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity.

  6. Effect of hydrogel grafting, water and surfactant wetting on the adherence of PET wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chenxi Coco; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Ghughare, Shivkumar; Liu, Song

    2014-09-01

    Traditional wound dressings, including cotton gauze, absorbent pads and bandages, can cause trauma and pain to wounds during dressing changes, leading to a variety of physical and psychosocial sequelae. The aim of this study was to adapt an in vitro model of adherence to evaluate the effects of various methods to theoretically reduce the adherence of wound dressings. Gelatin in liquid form was cast onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric and allowed to solidify and progressively dry to simulate wound desiccation in the clinical setting. A 180° peel test of PET from the gelatin slab yielded adherence data of peeling energy. The peeling energy of PET increased with the drying time. It was possible to reduce the force by drying at 75% relative humidity (RH). After drying for 24h, either 500μL of water or surfactant solution was added onto the PET surface (16×60mm(2)). The peeling energy decreased dramatically with wetting and there was no significant difference between water and surfactant. As a long-term strategy for decreasing adherence, a thin layer of polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel was deposited onto PET fabric via UV irradiation. This resulted in a much lower peeling energy without severely compromising fabric flexibility. This hydrogel layer could also serve as a reservoir for bioactive and antimicrobial agents which could be sustainably released to create a microbe-free microenvironment for optimized wound healing. PMID:24485358

  7. Method for Finding Metabolic Properties Based on the General Growth Law. Liver Examples. A General Framework for Biological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for finding metabolic parameters of cells, organs and whole organisms, which is based on the earlier discovered general growth law. Based on the obtained results and analysis of available biological models, we propose a general framework for modeling biological phenomena and discuss how it can be used in Virtual Liver Network project. The foundational idea of the study is that growth of cells, organs, systems and whole organisms, besides biomolecular machinery, is influenced by biophysical mechanisms acting at different scale levels. In particular, the general growth law uniquely defines distribution of nutritional resources between maintenance needs and biomass synthesis at each phase of growth and at each scale level. We exemplify the approach considering metabolic properties of growing human and dog livers and liver transplants. A procedure for verification of obtained results has been introduced too. We found that two examined dogs have high metabolic rates consuming about 0.62 and 1 gram of nutrients per cubic centimeter of liver per day, and verified this using the proposed verification procedure. We also evaluated consumption rate of nutrients in human livers, determining it to be about 0.088 gram of nutrients per cubic centimeter of liver per day for males, and about 0.098 for females. This noticeable difference can be explained by evolutionary development, which required females to have greater liver processing capacity to support pregnancy. We also found how much nutrients go to biomass synthesis and maintenance at each phase of liver and liver transplant growth. Obtained results demonstrate that the proposed approach can be used for finding metabolic characteristics of cells, organs, and whole organisms, which can further serve as important inputs and constraints for many applications in biology (such as protein expression), biotechnology (synthesis of substances), and medicine. PMID:24940740

  8. Using generalized Cayley transformations within an inexact rational Krylov sequence method.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, R. B.; Meerbergen, K.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Utrecht Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The rational Krylov sequence (RKS) method is a generalization of Arnoldi's method. It constructs an orthogonal reduction of a matrix pencil into an upper Hessenberg pencil. The RKS method is useful when the matrix pencil may be efficiently factored. This article considers approximately solving the resulting linear systems with iterative methods. We show that a Cayley transformation leads to a more efficient and robust eigensolver than the usual shift-invert transformation when the linear systems are solved inexactly within the RKS method. A relationship with the recently introduced Jacobi--Davidson method is also established.

  9. Effective multipoles and Yukawa electrostatics in dressed molecule theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Rosa; Kjellander, Roland

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we derive the multipolar expansion of the screened Coulomb potential in electrolyte solutions with molecular solvent. The solute and solvent molecules can have arbitrary sizes, shapes, and internal charge distributions. We use the exact statistical mechanical definition of renormalized charge distributions coming from "dressed molecule theory" to determine the effective multipoles of a molecule immersed in an electrolyte. The effects of many-body correlations are fully included in our formally exact theory. We restrict ourselves to sufficiently dilute solutions so the screened Coulomb potential decays for large distances like a Yukawa function, exp(-κr )/r, where r is the distance and 1/κ is the decay length (it is normally different from the Debye length). The resulting "Yukawa electrostatics" differ in many respects from ordinary, unscreened electrostatics. The "Yukawa charge" of a molecule (the lowest order moment in the multipolar expansion) is in general not equal to its Coulombic charge and it is not the integral of the renormalized charge distribution of the molecule. Moreover, as shown in this paper, the multipolar expansion of the Yukawa potential does not correspond, contrary to the case of the Coulomb potential, to its asymptotic expansion for large r. As a consequence, the charge term in the multipolar expansion is not the leading term in the asymptotic expansion. Instead, for large r values, multipoles of all orders contribute to the leading asymptotic term. Thus, the electrostatic potential from, for example, an electroneutral solvent molecule in an electrolyte solution has generally the same range as that from an ion. The proper asymptotic expansion for electrostatic interactions in electrolytes is derived. It is briefly shown how the multipole expansion formalism can also be applied in the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation for primitive model electrolytes.

  10. Effective multipoles and Yukawa electrostatics in dressed molecule theory.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Rosa; Kjellander, Roland

    2006-10-14

    In this paper we derive the multipolar expansion of the screened Coulomb potential in electrolyte solutions with molecular solvent. The solute and solvent molecules can have arbitrary sizes, shapes, and internal charge distributions. We use the exact statistical mechanical definition of renormalized charge distributions coming from "dressed molecule theory" to determine the effective multipoles of a molecule immersed in an electrolyte. The effects of many-body correlations are fully included in our formally exact theory. We restrict ourselves to sufficiently dilute solutions so the screened Coulomb potential decays for large distances like a Yukawa function, exp(-kappa r)/r, where r is the distance and 1/kappa is the decay length (it is normally different from the Debye length). The resulting "Yukawa electrostatics" differ in many respects from ordinary, unscreened electrostatics. The "Yukawa charge" of a molecule (the lowest order moment in the multipolar expansion) is in general not equal to its Coulombic charge and it is not the integral of the renormalized charge distribution of the molecule. Moreover, as shown in this paper, the multipolar expansion of the Yukawa potential does not correspond, contrary to the case of the Coulomb potential, to its asymptotic expansion for large r. As a consequence, the charge term in the multipolar expansion is not the leading term in the asymptotic expansion. Instead, for large r values, multipoles of all orders contribute to the leading asymptotic term. Thus, the electrostatic potential from, for example, an electroneutral solvent molecule in an electrolyte solution has generally the same range as that from an ion. The proper asymptotic expansion for electrostatic interactions in electrolytes is derived. It is briefly shown how the multipole expansion formalism can also be applied in the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation for primitive model electrolytes. PMID:17042582

  11. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... container with distilled water at 68 °F to 3/16 inch vertical distance below the top level of the container... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of... methods for water capacity and fill of containers. For the purposes of regulations promulgated...

  12. A Health Website Recommendation from Gold Coast General Practitioners to Their Patients: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To identify health website recommendation trends by Gold Coast (Australia) general practitioners (GPs) to their patients. Method: A mixed method approach to data collection and analysis was employed. Quantitative data were collected using a prepaid postal survey, consisting of 17 questions, mailed to 250 (61 per cent) of 410 GPs on…

  13. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim's Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered. PMID:26854588

  14. The research of object selection method based on rough set in map generalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Long, Yi; Lin, Zhiyong

    2007-06-01

    Object selection is an important technical problem in the process of map generalization. Considering creative-thinking characteristic of map generalization process, the paper bring the Rough Set theory from spatial data mine field to map generalization field, put forward a new thought for map generalization based on classification idea of Rough Set. The method of Rough Set which has the benefit on enormous data with the imperfection and non-precision character has become a new tool to make research on spatial data mining. The paper analyzes the imperfection characters of geo-spatial data processing based on Rough Set and the selection problem in the processing of map generalization with classification thought; presents the thought that map generalization is a kind of classification for map objects. The method mentioned in this paper use different spatial and attribute information as different point of view to observe the map objects. The result of the classification is ordered by the weightiness of all kinds of factors. In the end, a river objects selection test validates the rough set map generalization method mentioned in this paper.

  15. Alginate Hydrogels Coated with Chitosan for Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; Gomez d’Ayala, Giovanna; Romano, Ida; Oliva, Adriana; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl), with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different calcium contents were prepared by the internal setting method and coated by immersion in a CH-Cl solution. Structural analysis by cryo-scanning electron microscopy was carried out to highlight morphological alterations due to the coating layer. Tests in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were assessed to check the absence of toxicity of CH-Cl. Swelling, stability in physiological solution and release characteristics using rhodamine B as the hydrophilic model drug were compared to those of relative uncoated hydrogels. Finally, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was tested. Results show that alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan hydrochloride described here can be proposed as a novel medicated dressing by associating intrinsic antimicrobial activity with improved sustained release characteristics. PMID:25969981

  16. Ion-acoustic dressed solitons in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, R.S.; Mishra, M.K.

    2006-06-15

    Using the reductive perturbation method, equations for ion-acoustic waves governing the evolution of first- and second-order potentials in a dusty plasma including the dynamics of charged dust grains have been derived. The renormalization procedure of Kodama and Taniuti is used to obtain a steady state nonsecular solution of these equations. The variation of velocity and width of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) as well as dressed solitons with amplitude have been studied for different concentrations and charge multiplicity of dust grains. The higher-order perturbation corrections to the KdV soliton description significantly affect the characteristics of the solitons in dusty plasma. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains the system supports only compressive solitons. However, the plasma with negatively charged dust grains can support compressive solitons only up to a certain concentration of dust. Above this critical concentration of negative charge, the dusty plasma can support rarefactive solitons. An expression for the critical concentration of negatively charged dust in terms of charge and mass ratio of dust grains with plasma ions is also derived.

  17. Study of wound dressing structure and hydration/dehydration properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugão, A. B.; Machado, L. D. B.; Miranda, L. F.; Alvarez, M. R.; Rosiak, J. M.

    1998-06-01

    Hydrogels manufactured by radio-induced crosslinking and simultaneous sterilisation of hydrogels of PVP, PEG and agar, according to the Rosiak method, have many desirable properties for using as wound dressings. However, some properties need to be improved or better controlled. The membranes need to be strong enough to be freely used. Another important property to be controlled is the capacity of absorption of exudate and the kinetics of drying. Therefore, it was necessary to understand the role of main parameters (agar, PVP, PEG concentration and dose) in the structure of the net and in the hydration and dehydration properties. The structure of the membranes was studied by sol analysis and the hydrating/dehydrating properties were studied by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The gel content for all samples were always in agreement with expected values considering that only PVP undergoes crosslinking. The hydrating and dehydration results did not show variation with the tested parameters. It was concluded that the network was solely composed of crosslinked PVP plasticezed by the other compounds. The properties of hydration/dehydration is related rather to diffusion than to capillarity or osmose and to the chemical retention of water in the polymeric matrix.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of vegetables, spices and dressings relevant to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Mea, Gloria; Giorgini, Samantha; Rocchi, Marco; Bacchiocca, Mara

    2005-02-01

    Vegetables are the most important sources of phenolics in the Mediterranean diet. Phenolics, especially flavonoids, are suggested as being essential bioactive compounds providing health benefits. In this study, twenty-seven vegetables, fifteen aromatic herbs and some spices consumed in Central Italy (the Marches region) were studied to reveal total phenolic, flavonoid and flavanol content as well as their antioxidant capacity measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity was made between different salads, as well as between salads to which aromatic herbs had been added. Lemon balm and marjoram at a concentration of 1.5 % w/w increased by 150 % and 200 % respectively the antioxidant capacity of a salad portion. A 200 g portion of a salad enriched with marjoram corresponded to an intake of 200 (SD 10) mg phenolics and 4000 (SD 300) ORAC units (micromol Trolox equivalents). Olive oils and wine or apple vinegars were the salad dressings that provided the highest increase in antioxidant capacity. Among the spices tested, cumin and fresh ginger made the most significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. The results are useful in surveying the antioxidant parameters of vegetables, herbs and spices produced and consumed in our geographical area as well as in quantifying the daily intake of phenolics and ORAC units. The results can be used in public health campaigns to stimulate the consumption of vegetables able to provide significant health protection in order to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:15788119

  19. Collective synchronization as a method of learning and generalization from sparse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Takaya; Tsutsui, Takako

    2008-02-01

    We propose a method for extracting general features from multivariate data using a network of phase oscillators subject to an analogue of the Kuramoto model for collective synchronization. In this method, the natural frequencies of the oscillators are extended to vector quantities to which multivariate data are assigned. The common frequency vectors of the groups of partially synchronized oscillators are interpreted to be the template vectors representing the general features of the data set. We show that the proposed method becomes equivalent to the self-organizing map algorithm devised by Kohonen when the governing equations are linearized about their solutions of partial synchronization. As a case study to test the utility of our method, we applied it to care-needs-certification data in the Japanese public long-term care insurance program, and found major general patterns in the health status of the elderly needing nursing care.

  20. Comparison of the Chebyshev Method and the Generalized Crank-Nicholson Method for time Propagation in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Formanek, Martin; Vana, Martin; Houfek, Karel

    2010-09-30

    We compare efficiency of two methods for numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, namely the Chebyshev method and the recently introduced generalized Crank-Nicholson method. As a testing system the free propagation of a particle in one dimension is used. The space discretization is based on the high-order finite diferences to approximate accurately the kinetic energy operator in the Hamiltonian. We show that the choice of the more effective method depends on how many wave functions must be calculated during the given time interval to obtain relevant and reasonably accurate information about the system, i.e. on the choice of the time step.

  1. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Transient absorption spectra of the laser-dressed hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Mitsuko; Chu, Shih-I.

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of transient absorption spectra of laser-dressed hydrogen atoms, based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The timing of absorption is controlled by the delay between an extreme ultra violet (XUV) pulse and an infrared (IR) laser field. The XUV pulse is isolated and several hundred attoseconds in duration, which acts as a pump to drive the ground-state electron to excited p states. The subsequent interaction with the IR field produces dressed states, which manifest as sidebands between the 1s-np absorption spectra separated by one IR-photon energy. We demonstrate that the population of dressed states is maximized when the timing of the XUV pulse coincides with the zero crossing of the IR field, and that their energies can be manipulated in a subcycle time scale by adding a chirp to the IR field. An alternative perspective to the problem is to think of the XUV pulse as a probe to detect the dynamical ac Stark shifts. Our results indicate that the accidental degeneracy of the hydrogen excited states is removed while they are dressed by the IR field, leading to large ac Stark shifts. Furthermore, we observe the Autler-Townes doublets for the n=2 and 3 levels using the 656 nm dressing field, but their separation does not agree with the prediction by the conventional three-level model that neglects the dynamical ac Stark shifts.

  3. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5-3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  4. Review of new topical hemostatic dressings for combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Littlejohn, Lanny

    2014-05-01

    This review analyzes the new (2008-2013) hemostatic agents and dressings for enhanced efficacy in preclinical studies, and investigates supportive findings among case reports of effectiveness and safety in hospital and prehospital literature. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, National Library of Medicine using key words and phrases. The search revealed a total of 16 articles that fit the criteria established for third-generation hemostatic dressings. There were a total of 9 preclinical, 5 clinical, and 2 prehospital studies evaluated. Evaluation of these third-generation studies reveals that mucoadhesive (chitosan) dressings, particularly Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze, clearly show equal efficacy to Combat Gauze across many dependent variables. Chitosan-based products are ideal prehospital dressings because they are shown to work independently from the physiological clotting mechanisms. Many first-, second-, and third-generation chitosan-based dressings have been in use for years by the United States and other NATO militaries at the point of injury, and during tactical evacuation, in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom without reported complications or side effects. Based on the reported efficacy and long-term safety of chitosan-based products, increased use of Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze within the Department of Defense and civilian venues merits further consideration and open debate. PMID:24806495

  5. Development of antimicrobial and scar preventive chitosan hydrogel wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Sadiya; Arora, Abha; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-07-11

    Antimicrobial and scar preventive wound dressings were developed by coating a blend of chitosan (CS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) on the cotton fabric and subsequent freeze drying. The miscibility of blend systems and functional group interaction were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-infra red spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy of the coated fabric revealed porous structure. The porosity of the material was 54-70% and the pore size was in the range of 75-120μm depending on the blend composition. The air permeability diminished as the PVP content increased. The water vapour transmission rate was in the range of 2000-3500g/m(2)day which may offer to be proper material for the wound dressing with moderate exudate absorption. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as model drug within the hydrogel matrix. The cumulative release of drug was found to be ∼80% of the total loading after ∼48h. The drug loaded dressings showed good antimicrobial nature against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. In vivo wound healing and tissue compatibility studies were carried out over a period of 21 days on full-thickness skin wounds created on male Wistar rats. Fast healing was observed in drug loaded dressing treated wounds with minimum scarring, as compared to the other groups. These results suggest that drug loaded dressing could provide scar preventive wound healing. PMID:27163526

  6. Acticoat dressings and major burns: systemic silver absorption.

    PubMed

    Moiemen, Naiem S; Shale, Elizabeth; Drysdale, Kate J; Smith, Gary; Wilson, Yvonne T; Papini, Remo

    2011-02-01

    Despite widespread use of wound dressings containing silver, few studies have investigated patients' serum silver levels. An earlier study of Acticoat use in small burns showed transient elevations of serum silver. The aim of this study was to examine the serum silver profile when Acticoat is used in major burns. A prospective study of 6 patients with burns greater than 20% total body surface area (TBSA). All burn wounds, including grafted and non-grafted areas and skin graft donor sites, were dressed with Acticoat or Acticoat Absorbent. Patients' serum silver levels, biochemistry and haematology were examined before, during and after the application of the silver dressings. The median total wound size (including donor sites) was 46.1% TBSA. The median maximum serum silver level recorded, 200.3 μg/L, reached at a median of 9.5 days following initial silver dressing application. This decreased to a median of 164.8 μg/L at the end of the treatment period and to a median of 8.2 μg/L at the end of follow-up. One adverse event, partial skin graft loss was thought to be dressing related. In this small study, serum silver levels were elevated but remained similar to that reported following the use of silver sulfadiazine. This study confirmed our view that Acticoat is safe to use on patients with burns, even when they are extensive. PMID:20961690

  7. Use of Acticoat dressings in burns: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Khundkar, Roba; Malic, Claudia; Burge, Tim

    2010-09-01

    The virtues of silver as an antimicrobial agent have been known for some time. Various silver containing dressings are currently used for the treatment of wounds. Introduced in the late 1990s, Acticoat is a nanocrystalline silver dressing developed to overcome some shortcomings of the older dressings by providing sustained release of silver up to 7 days. We aim to determine the level of evidence available in the literature in view of recent increased usage of Acticoat. A Medline search was conducted to identify articles evaluating the use of Acticoat in burn wounds. A level of evidence adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based-Medicine was assigned to each of these articles. Only one study was considered to be LOE 1, which is a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing Acticoat against Silver Sulfadiazine. One further randomised control trial was downgraded to LOE 2 due to a wide confidence interval. Twenty studies (66%) were LOE 5 of which 6 were case reports and 14 were in vitro/animal studies. The available LOE 1 study demonstrates that Acticoat has better antimicrobial activity compared to another available silver dressing. Other studies suggest Acticoat has fewer adverse effects and reduces healing times. Its ease of application and low frequency of change makes it an ideal dressing in burn wounds. More well designed and properly reported randomised controlled trials are essential for informed clinical decision-making. PMID:20346592

  8. Advanced Therapeutic Dressings for Effective Wound Healing--A Review.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Catanzano, Ovidio

    2015-11-01

    Advanced therapeutic dressings that take active part in wound healing to achieve rapid and complete healing of chronic wounds is of current research interest. There is a desire for novel strategies to achieve expeditious wound healing because of the enormous financial burden worldwide. This paper reviews the current state of wound healing and wound management products, with emphasis on the demand for more advanced forms of wound therapy and some of the current challenges and driving forces behind this demand. The paper reviews information mainly from peer-reviewed literature and other publicly available sources such as the US FDA. A major focus is the treatment of chronic wounds including amputations, diabetic and leg ulcers, pressure sores, and surgical and traumatic wounds (e.g., accidents and burns) where patient immunity is low and the risk of infections and complications are high. The main dressings include medicated moist dressings, tissue-engineered substitutes, biomaterials-based biological dressings, biological and naturally derived dressings, medicated sutures, and various combinations of the above classes. Finally, the review briefly discusses possible prospects of advanced wound healing including some of the emerging physical approaches such as hyperbaric oxygen, negative pressure wound therapy and laser wound healing, in routine clinical care. PMID:26308473

  9. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilova, N. V. Fomenko, A. N. Korovin, M. S.

    2015-11-17

    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  10. Inverse scattering method and soliton double solution family for the general symplectic gravity model

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yajun

    2008-08-15

    A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.

  11. A generalized reverse projection method for fan beam geometry under partially coherent illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wang, Z. L.; Gao, K.; Zhang, K.; Ge, X.; Wang, D. J.; Wang, S. H.; Chen, J.; Pan, Z. Y.; Zhu, P. P.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a generalized reverse projection (RP) method for grating-based fan beam phase contrast imaging is presented. Compared to the original RP method, rays rather than projection images are taken into account during the information extraction process. We also discuss the influence of partial coherence on the extracted information. Theoretical derivations and numerical simulations are performed to confirm the validity of the method.

  12. A new volume-of-fluid method with a constructed distance function on general structured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaoyuan; Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick

    2012-05-01

    A second-order volume-of-fluid method (VOF) is presented for interface tracking and sharp interface treatment on general structured grids. Central to the new method is a second-order distance function construction scheme on a general structured grid based on the reconstructed interface. A novel technique is developed for evaluating the interface normal vector using the distance function. With the normal vector, the interface is reconstructed from the volume fraction function via a piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) scheme on the computational domain. Several numerical tests are conducted to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the present method. In general, the new VOF method is more efficient than both the high-order level set and the coupled level set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) methods. The results from the new method are better than those from the benchmark VOF method, particularly in the under-resolved regions, and are comparable to those from the CLSVOF method. Breaking waves over a submerged bump and around a wedge-shaped bow are simulated to demonstrate the application of the new method and sharp interface treatment in a two-phase flow solver on curvilinear grids. The computational results are in good agreement with the available experimental measurements.

  13. Generalized second-order Thomas-Fermi method for superfluid Fermi systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, J. C.; Fei, Na; Zhang, Y. N.; Schuck, P.

    2015-12-01

    Using the ℏ expansion of the Green's function of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation, we extend the second-order Thomas-Fermi approximation to generalized superfluid Fermi systems by including the density-dependent effective mass and the spin-orbit potential. We first implement and examine the full correction terms over different energy intervals of the quasiparticle spectra in calculations of finite nuclei. Final applications of this generalized Thomas-Fermi method are intended for various inhomogeneous superfluid Fermi systems.

  14. Micromechanics of metal matrix composites using the Generalized Method of Cells model (GMC) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1992-01-01

    A user's guide for the program gmc.f is presented. The program is based on the generalized method of cells model (GMC) which is capable via a micromechanical analysis, of predicting the overall, inelastic behavior of unidirectional, multi-phase composites from the knowledge of the properties of the viscoplastic constituents. In particular, the program is sufficiently general to predict the response of unidirectional composites having variable fiber shapes and arrays.

  15. Development of a General Method for Determining Leak Rates from Limiting Enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zografos, A. I.; Blackwell, C. C.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a general method for the determination of very low leak rates from limiting enclosures. There are many methods that can be used to detect and repair leaks from enclosures. Many methods have also been proposed that allow the estimation of actual leak rates, usually expressed as enclosure volume turnover. The proposed method combines measurements of the state variables (pressure, temperature, and volume) as well as the change in the concentration of a tracer gas to estimate the leak rate. The method was applied to the containment enclosure of the Engineering Development Unit of the CELSS Test Facility, currently undergoing testing at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  16. Generalized fictitious methods for fluid-structure interactions: Analysis and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue; Baek, Hyoungsu; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-07-01

    We present a new fictitious pressure method for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in incompressible flow by generalizing the fictitious mass and damping methods we published previously in [1]. The fictitious pressure method involves modification of the fluid solver whereas the fictitious mass and damping methods modify the structure solver. We analyze all fictitious methods for simplified problems and obtain explicit expressions for the optimal reduction factor (convergence rate index) at the FSI interface [2]. This analysis also demonstrates an apparent similarity of fictitious methods to the FSI approach based on Robin boundary conditions, which have been found to be very effective in FSI problems. We implement all methods, including the semi-implicit Robin based coupling method, in the context of spectral element discretization, which is more sensitive to temporal instabilities than low-order methods. However, the methods we present here are simple and general, and hence applicable to FSI based on any other spatial discretization. In numerical tests, we verify the selection of optimal values for the fictitious parameters for simplified problems and for vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) even at zero mass ratio ("for-ever-resonance"). We also develop an empirical a posteriori analysis for complex geometries and apply it to 3D patient-specific flexible brain arteries with aneurysms for very large deformations. We demonstrate that the fictitious pressure method enhances stability and convergence, and is comparable or better in most cases to the Robin approach or the other fictitious methods.

  17. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Teresa A.; Angelo, Lauren B.; Lea Bonner, C.; Dhing, Conrad W.; Farley, Joel F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students’ education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist’s education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy’s (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015. PMID:27402977

  18. Dust acoustic dressed soliton with dust charge fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.

    2010-06-15

    Modeling of dust acoustic solitons observed in dusty plasma experiment [Bandyopadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 065006 (2008)] using the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation showed significant discrepancies in the regime of large amplitudes (or high soliton speed). In this paper, higher order perturbation corrections to the standard KdV soliton are proposed and the resulting dressed soliton is shown to describe the experimental data better, in particular, at high soliton speed. The effects of dust charge fluctuations on the dust acoustic dressed soliton in a dusty plasma system are also investigated. The KdV equation and a linear inhomogeneous equation, governing the evolution of first and second order potentials, respectively, are derived for the system by using reductive perturbation technique. Renormalization procedure is used to obtain nonsecular solutions of these coupled equations. The characteristics of dust acoustic dressed solitons with and without dust charge fluctuations are discussed.

  19. DRESS syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura: are they related?

    PubMed Central

    Sandouk, Zahrae; Alirhayim, Zaid; Khoulani, Dania; Hassan, Syed

    2012-01-01

    A middle-aged man diagnosed with a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) syndrome, secondary to phenytoin use, subsequently developed thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura. The patient improved with steroids and plasmapheresis. Their diagnosis can be challenging, and an early recognition and treatment are critical owing to their high mortality rates. Both diseases are thought to be of an autoimmune origin, and a potential relationship between them led to the consideration of the DRESS syndrome as an aetiology for thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura in this case. We concluded that two possibilities exist: some type of antibody developed during the clinical presentation of DRESS syndrome and subsequently resulted in an inhibition of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type-1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) leading to thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura, or perhaps this patient's autoimmune predisposition to thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura contributed to the drug reaction. PMID:23152183

  20. Use of fibre dressings in children with severe epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Denyer, Jacqueline; Gibson, Elaine

    This non-comparative study explored the benefits of a natural gelling fibre dressing in 10 children with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). The clinical challenge in managing these children is that they often present with recalcitrant wounds that are perpetuated by critical colonisation, presence of biofilms and infection. KytoCel® (Aspen Medical) is a highly absorbent dressing composed of natural, biodegradable acylated chitosan. These fibres bond with wound exudate to form a clear gel that locks in fluid absorbs pathogens and is conformable to the wound bed. It also has haemostatic properties. ( Dutta PK et al, 2004 ; Lee et al, 2009 ; Stephen Haynes et al, 2014 ). Factors considered were whether the dressing could aid healing, reduce bleeding, reduce bioburden, be atraumatic and comfortable during wear time and removal. PMID:25816002

  1. [Skin reaction to carbamazepine or DRESS syndrome: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Fundora, Emigdio Jesús; Cabrera Osorio, Yuliet; Cabrera Osorio, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a frequently used drug that can produce adverse reactions like vertigo, somnolence and severe skin reactions like Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome (DRESS Syndrome). This syndrome is characterized by a late-appearing, slow-progressing cutaneous eruption accompanied by atypical lymphocytes, eosinophilia, and systemic symptoms such as fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatic compromise, and renal dysfunction that can be severe enough to cause death. We present a case that aims to highlight the importance of an early diagnosis of DRESS syndrome to adjust therapy and improve survival. The patient is a female patient prescribed carbamazepine for trigeminal neuralgia who presented with skin lesions, which were initially attributed to a hypersensitivity reaction. The lesions worsened in spite of treatment and systemic symptoms ensued. A diagnosis of DRESS syndrome was proposed and steroid treatment was initiated with rapid improvement. PMID:26938717

  2. Co-Trimoxazole-Induced DRESS Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Paitorn, Limvorraphan

    2016-02-01

    Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS syndrome) is a severe adverse drug reaction. The drugs, which most commonly induce this condition, are anti-convulsants and sulfonamides. A 15-year-old Thai woman with no known underlying disease was prescribed co-trimoxazole, and two months after initiation, DRESS was diagnosed by RegiSCAR's score. Her clinical symptoms were fever laboratory abnormalities and maculopapular rash on her face, trunk and extremities. She was treated with antipyretics, antihistamines and steroid therapy, and her clinical and laboratory findings were restored to normal by the 10th day of treatment. Early diagnosis, discontinuation of the culprit drug, and management with steroids therapy can reduce the severity of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27266243

  3. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses

    2014-04-01

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a U(2) element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function β. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.

  4. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses

    2014-04-08

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a Uð2Þ element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function β. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.

  5. Strain analysis from objects with a random distribution: A generalized center-to-center method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yehua; Liang, Xinquan

    2014-03-01

    Existing methods of strain analysis such as the center-to-center method and the Fry method estimate strain from the spatial relationship between point objects in the deformed state. They assume a truncated Poisson distribution of point objects in the pre-deformed state. Significant deviations occur in nature and diffuse the central vacancy in a Fry plot, limiting the its effectiveness as a strain gauge. Therefore, a generalized center-to-center method is proposed to deal with point objects with the more general Poisson distribution, where the method outcomes do not depend on an analysis of a graphical central vacancy. This new method relies upon the probability mass function for the Poisson distribution, and adopts the maximum likelihood function method to solve for strain. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by applying it to artificial data sets generated for known strains. Further analysis of these sets by use of the bootstrap method shows that the accuracy of the strain estimate has a strong tendency to increase either with point number or with the inclusion of more pre-deformation nearest neighbors. A poorly sorted, well packed, deformed conglomerate is analyzed, yielding strain estimate similar to the vector mean of the major axis directions of pebbles and the harmonic mean of their axial ratios from a shape-based strain determination method. These outcomes support the applicability of the new method to the analysis of deformed rocks with appropriate strain markers.

  6. A General Method of Selecting Quantum Channel for Bidirectional Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hong-Zi; Tian, Xiu-Lao; Hu, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Based on tensor representation and Bell basis measurement in bidirectional quantum teleportation, a criterion that can be used to judge whether a four-qubit quantum state can be regarded as quantum channel or not in bidirectional teleportation is suggested and a theoretical scheme of bidirectional teleportation via four-qubit state as the quantum channel is proposed. In accordance with this criterion we give a general method of selecting quantum channel in bidirectional teleportation, which is determined by the channel parameter matrix R in the Bell basis measurement. This general method provide a theoretical basis for quantum channel selection in bidirectional quantum teleportation experiments.

  7. The ideal split-thickness skin graft donor site dressing: rediscovery of polyurethane film.

    PubMed

    Dornseifer, Ulf; Fichter, Andreas M; Herter, Frank; Sturtz, Gustavo; Ninkovic, Milomir

    2009-08-01

    The almost single disadvantage of polyurethane film dressings, an uncontrolled leakage, is probably as often described as its numerous advantages for split-thickness skin graft donor sites. We solved this problem by perforating the polyurethane film, which permits a controlled leakage into a secondary absorbent dressing. The study included 30 adult patients. Skin graft donor sites at the proximal thigh were dressed with the modified film dressing. Our results indicate that this dressing concept is associated with a reliable, rapid rate of epithelization. Both, controlled leakage and minimal pain caused particular comfort for patients and ward staff. Furthermore, this dressing was also suited for differently shaped and large donor sites. We conclude that the modification results in a more practicable, comfortable, and cost-effective film dressing, which requalifies the polyurethane film as an ideal dressing material for split-thickness skin graft donor sites. PMID:19571740

  8. An analysis of systematic reviews undertaken on standard advanced wound dressings in the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Horkan, L; Stansfield, G; Miller, M

    2009-07-01

    Many systematic reviews have found insufficient evidence to support claims that modern dressings promote healing, or that one particular modern dressing is more effective than another. This paper evaluates why this might be the case. PMID:19827483

  9. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hung Jung

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  10. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices is analyzed using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The general focusing lattices are allowed to include quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, solenoidal, and dipole components, as well as variation of beam energy and torsion of the fiducial orbit. The scalar envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the scalar envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation. The phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or an U(2) element. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the CS invariant, transfer matrix, and Twiss functions all have their counterparts in the generalized theory with remarkably similar expressions. The gauge group of the generalized theory is analyzed. If the gauge freedom is fixed with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space quantum mechanics and optics has been recently realized. It is shown that the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice are uniquely determined by the generalized phase advance. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory developed enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to significantly simplify the theoretical and numerical analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study the coupled dynamics of high-intensity charged particle beams and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Computer Modeling Studies to Assess Whether a Prophylactic Dressing Reduces the Risk for Deep Tissue Injury in the Heels of Supine Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ayelet; Gefen, Amit

    2016-04-01

    Heels are susceptible to pressure ulcer (PU) development. Some evidence suggests dressings may provide mechanical cushioning, reduce friction with support, and lower localized internal tissue loading, which together may minimize the risk for heel ulcers (HUs). To examine the effect of dressing application on pressure ulcer prevention, 20 computer simulations were performed. Volumetric exposure of soft tissues to effective and shear strains and stresses, with and without a multilayered foam dressing, were assessed, with the extent of tissue exposure considered as measures of the theoretical risk for PUs. The simulations, conducted using the finite element method, provided the mechanical strain and stress magnitudes and distributions in the weight-bearing tissues of the heel, which were visualized and analyzed post-hoc for comparing diabetic to healthy tissue loads with/without prophylactic dressings and at different foot (plantar flexion) postures. The volumetric exposure of the soft tissues of the heel to elevated strains and stresses was considerably reduced by the presence of the dressing, whether diabetic or nondiabetic tissue conditions existed, and for the entire range of the simulated plantar flexion positions. Further, greater plantar flexion, which occurs with elevation of the head of the bed, reduced the volumetric exposure of subcutaneous fat to increased effective strains and stresses, again, particularly when the dressing was on. Specifically, peak (maximum of raw data) effective strains in the soft tissues of the heel decreased by 14.8% and 13.5% with the use of the dressing for healthy persons and persons with diabetes, respectively. Additionally, volumetric exposures of the soft tissues to large effective strains, defined as exposures to >50% strain, decreased substantially, by at least a factor of 2, with the angle of plantar flexion and with respect to a neutral foot posture. Volumetric exposures to midrange (less than 50%) strains were more mildly

  12. Dissipationless electron transport in photon-dressed nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kibis, O V

    2011-09-01

    It is shown that the electron coupling to photons in field-dressed nanostructures can result in the ground electron-photon state with a nonzero electric current. Since the current is associated with the ground state, it flows without the Joule heating of the nanostructure and is nondissipative. Such a dissipationless electron transport can be realized in strongly coupled electron-photon systems with the broken time-reversal symmetry--particularly, in quantum rings and chiral nanostructures dressed by circularly polarized photons. PMID:21981519

  13. Nevirapine-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

    PubMed

    Gill, Shaman; Sagar, Amitabh; Shankar, S; Nair, Velu

    2013-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, dapsone, and antiretroviral agents such as abacavir and nevirapine. We describe a rare case of nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome that was successfully treated with oral steroids. PMID:24014920

  14. Dressed-atom description of the bichromatic force

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Metcalf, Harold

    2004-12-01

    We develop a dressed-atom picture of the bichromatic force in two standing waves using a Floquet approach. It is based on previous work, but the approach allows for an interpretation of the velocity range of the force. It is limited to two-level atoms and one dimension, and the Floquet frequency is the beat between the two bichromatic optical fields. The force is mediated by Landau-Zener transitions between the dressed states of the Floquet Hamiltonian. Related topics have been addressed before in the literature, but not applied to this particular case.

  15. The DQ and DQΦ electronic structure diabatization methods: Validation for general applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Chad E.; Parker, Kelsey; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2016-05-01

    We recently proposed the dipole-quadrupole (DQ) method for transforming adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using matrix elements of the dipole and quadrupole operators, and we applied the method to 3-state diabatizations of LiH and phenol. Here we extend the method to also include the electrostatic potential, and we call the resulting method the DQΦ method, which denotes the dipole-quadrupole-electrostatic-potential diabatization method. The electrostatic potential provides extra flexibility, and the goal of the present work is to test and illustrate the robustness of the methods for producing diabatic potential energy curves that tend to the adiabatic curves away from crossings and avoided crossings and are smooth in regions of crossings and avoided crossings. We illustrate the generality of the methods by an application to LiH with four states and by two-state diabatizations of HCl, (H2)2, O3, and the reaction Li + HF → LiF + H. We find that—if enough states are included—the DQ method does not have a significant dependence on the parameter weighting the quadrupole moment, and a geometry-independent value of 10 a0-2 is adequate in all cases tested. We also find that the addition of the electrostatic potential improves the diabatic potentials in some cases and provides an additional property useful for increasing the generality of the method for diabatization.

  16. A general method for decomposing the causes of socioeconomic inequality in health.

    PubMed

    Heckley, Gawain; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Kjellsson, Gustav

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a general decomposition method applicable to all forms of bivariate rank dependent indices of socioeconomic inequality in health, including the concentration index. The technique is based on recentered influence function regression and requires only the application of OLS to a transformed variable with similar interpretation. Our method requires few identifying assumptions to yield valid estimates in most common empirical applications, unlike current methods favoured in the literature. Using the Swedish Twin Registry and a within twin pair fixed effects identification strategy, our new method finds no evidence of a causal effect of education on income-related health inequality. PMID:27137844

  17. An Efficient Method for Noisy Cell Image Segmentation Using Generalized α-Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, Samy; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Michaelis, Bernd; Sayed, Usama

    In 1953, a functional extension by A. Rènyi to generalize traditional Shannon's entropy known as α-entropies was proposed. The functionalities of α-entropies share the major properties of Shannon's entropy. Moreover, these entropies can be easily estimated using a kernel estimate. This makes their use by many researchers in computer vision community highly appealing . In this paper, an efficient and fast entropic method for noisy cell image segmentation is presented. The method utilizes generalized α-entropy to measure the maximum structural information of image and to locate the optimal threshold desired by segmentation. To speed up the proposed method, computations are carried out on 1D histograms of image. Experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and much more tolerant to noise than other state-of-the-art segmentation techniques.

  18. A Generalized Simplest Equation Method and Its Application to the Boussinesq-Burgers Equation

    PubMed Central

    Sudao, Bilige; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized simplest equation method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In the method, we chose a solution expression with a variable coefficient and a variable coefficient ordinary differential auxiliary equation. This method can yield a Bäcklund transformation between NLEEs and a related constraint equation. By dealing with the constraint equation, we can derive infinite number of exact solutions for NLEEs. These solutions include the traveling wave solutions, non-traveling wave solutions, multi-soliton solutions, rational solutions, and other types of solutions. As applications, we obtained wide classes of exact solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equation by using the generalized simplest equation method. PMID:25973605

  19. A Generalized Weizsacker-Williams Method Applied to Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahern, Sean C.; Poyser, William J.; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new "Generalized" Weizsacker-Williams method (GWWM) is used to calculate approximate cross sections for relativistic peripheral proton-proton collisions. Instead of a mass less photon mediator, the method allows for the mediator to have mass for short range interactions. This method generalizes the Weizsacker-Williams method (WWM) from Coulomb interactions to GWWM for strong interactions. An elastic proton-proton cross section is calculated using GWWM with experimental data for the elastic p+p interaction, where the mass p+ is now the mediator. The resulting calculated cross sections is compared to existing data for the elastic proton-proton interaction. A good approximate fit is found between the data and the calculation.

  20. First-order method of zoom lens design by means of generalized parameters.

    PubMed

    Khorokhorov, Alexei M; Piskunov, Dmitry E; Shirankov, Alexander F

    2016-08-01

    A method of paraxial zoom lens design is proposed that makes it possible to determine the optical powers and component movements of a zoom lens with the required zoom ratio. The method is based on the theory of generalized parameters, which can be used to analyze a zoom system by varying only one parameter. All possible zoom lenses with two movable components are considered for an object at infinity. PMID:27505652

  1. Soliton dynamics in optical fibers using the generalized traveling-wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, Niurka R.; Mertens, Franz G.; Efimov, Anatoly; Bishop, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    The generalized traveling wave method (GTWM) is applied to the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with general perturbations in order to obtain the equations of motion for an ansatz with six collective coordinates, namely the soliton position, the amplitude, the inverse of the soliton width, the velocity, the chirp, and the phase. The advantage of the new ansatz is that it yields three pairs of canonically conjugated coordinates and momenta that all are well-behaved. The new ansatz is applied to model the dynamics of a soliton in a dispersion-shifted optical fiber described by the generalized NLS, including dissipation, higher-order dispersion, Raman scattering, and self-steepening perturbations. It is shown that the GTWM is equivalent to the modified method of moments, which considers the time variation of the norm, the first and the second moment of the norm, the momentum, the first moment of the momentum, and the energy for the perturbed NLS equation.

  2. Quotient-difference type generalizations of the power method and their analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Ford, William F.

    1989-01-01

    The recursion relations that were proposed by W. F. Ford and A. Sidi (Appl. Numer. Math, 4 (1988), pp. 477-489) for implementing vector extrapolation methods are used for devising generalizations of the power method for linear operators. These generalizations are shown to produce approximations to largest eigenvalues of a linear operator under certain conditions. They are similar in form to the quotient-difference algorithm and share similar convergence properties with the latter. These convergence properties also resemble those obtained for the basic LR and QR algorithms. Finally, it is shown that the convergence rate produced by one fo these generalizations is twice as fast for normal operators as it is for nonnormal operators.

  3. Similarities between Students Receiving Dress Code Violations and Discipline Referrals at Newport Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Nikki

    2007-01-01

    Background: Looking at dress code violations and demographics surrounding kids breaking the rules. Purpose: To see if there is a connection between dress code violations and discipline referrals. Setting: Jr. High School; Study Sample: Students with dress code violations for one week; Intervention: N/A; Research Design: Correlational; and Control…

  4. Cleavage in a Tank Top: Bodily Prohibition and the Discourses of School Dress Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    In this article I explore the gendered assumptions in the new generation of dress codes that have swept through North American schools in response to how girls are dressing these days. Through a feminist poststructural examination of a particular case in Langley, British Columbia, I locate three contradictory discourses in one school's dress code…

  5. "Who Wore the Pants?" Dress, Gender, and Power, 1850-1914.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a study of historical documents focusing on the complex relationship between dress, gender, and power in North America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Examines social rules governing dress and appearance, providing examples of how people dressed to comply with social expectations. Loosely based on a Smithsonian…

  6. A General and Flexible Approach to Estimating the Social Relations Model Using Bayesian Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Kenny, David A.; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The social relations model (SRM) is a conceptual, methodological, and analytical approach that is widely used to examine dyadic behaviors and interpersonal perception within groups. This article introduces a general and flexible approach to estimating the parameters of the SRM that is based on Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo…

  7. General Education in Health Science-Focused Institutions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of general education curricula at baccalaureate colleges of health science in relationship to Bergquist's Career-Based Model of curriculum. Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach, the model was tested by examining whether the curricula were both prescriptive and specific.…

  8. 20 CFR 404.240 - Old-start method-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....240 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Old-Start Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.240 Old-start method—general. If you had all or substantially all your social...

  9. 18 CFR 385.403 - Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). 385.403 Section 385.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... correct when made is now incorrect in any material respect. (3) A participant may be required...

  10. Investigation of Flight Test Methods for measuring the performance of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, G.; Bridges, P.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of methods for measuring the performance of general aviation airplanes was conducted using relatively simple instrumentation currently available and data extraction techniques established from efforts in other disciplines. The possibilities of improving flight test data by use of improved modern instrumentation and digital data recording and data analysis were considered.

  11. The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabalevskii, Dmitrii

    1988-01-01

    Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)

  12. 29 CFR 4281.13 - Benefit valuation methods-in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit valuation methods-in general. 4281.13 Section 4281... MASS WITHDRAWAL Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.13 Benefit valuation methods—in... sponsor shall value benefits as of the valuation date by— (a) Using the interest assumptions described...

  13. Reversing adhesion with light: a general method for functionalized bead release from cells.

    PubMed

    Goulet-Hanssens, Alexis; Magdesian, Margaret H; Lopez-Ayon, G Monserratt; Grutter, Peter; Barrett, Christopher J

    2016-07-19

    Coated beads retain great importance in the study of cell adhesion and intracellular communication; we present a generally applicable method permitting spatiotemporal control of bead adhesion from cells. Herein we demonstrate in vitro release of a poly-d-lysine (PDL) layer from anionic polystyrene beads, allowing complete bead release from rat cortical neurons post-adhesion. PMID:27165466

  14. Abundant Exact Traveling Wave Solutions of Generalized Bretherton Equation via Improved (G'/G)-Expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Akbar, M.; Norhashidah, Hj. Mohd. Ali; E. M. E., Zayed

    2012-02-01

    In this article, we construct abundant exact traveling wave solutions involving free parameters to the generalized Bretherton equation via the improved (G'/G)-expansion method. The traveling wave solutions are presented in terms of the trigonometric, the hyperbolic, and rational functions. When the parameters take special values, the solitary waves are derived from the traveling waves.

  15. Reasoning Maps: A Generally Applicable Method for Characterizing Hypothesis-Testing Behaviour. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a generally applicable method for characterizing subjects' hypothesis-testing behaviour based on a synthesis that extends on previous work. Beginning with a transcript of subjects' speech and videotape of their actions, a Reasoning Map is created that depicts the flow of their hypotheses, tests, predictions, results, and…

  16. Comparison of safety and efficacy of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution on wound bed preparation in patients with wound gape

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Mangala B.; Murthy, Bhasker K.; Bhave, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Indian papaya or Carica papaya is known to have de-sloughing and wound-healing properties due to the presence of protease enzymes. The present study was done to compare the efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution for preparation of wound bed in patients of postoperative wound gape. Materials and Methods: A randomized, open-labeled interventional study was carried out over a period of 8 months at a tertiary care hospital on post-caesarean section patients with wound gape. The efficacy parameters studied were duration of time required to induce development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization. Safety parameters studied were adverse effects reported by patients and development of hypersensitivity reaction. Results: A total of 64 patients were enrolled, of which 32 patients received hydrogen peroxide dressing and 31 patients received papaya dressing (one patient withdrew after randomization). Time required to induce the development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization were 6.2 ± 1.6 days vs 2.5 ± 0.5 days and 19.2 ± 5.8 days vs 12.92 ± 4.6 days in papaya and hydrogen peroxide dressing groups, respectively. Both primary efficacy parameters were significantly shorter in papaya dressing group. The incidence of adverse effects like local irritation and itching were comparable in both groups and the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Papaya dressing is more efficacious and equally safe as compared to hydrogen peroxide dressing when used for wound bed preparation in patients with postoperative wound gape. PMID:23248412

  17. The effect of inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose (Rosa damascena) essence on the pain intensity after dressing in patients with burns: A clinical randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Harorani, Mehdi; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Moradkhani, Shirin; Falahinia, Golam Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is one of the common problems encountered by patients with burns, which increases after each dressing. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose essence on the pain of patients with burns that is caused after dressing. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with second- and third-degree burn wounds. The baseline pain of the patients was assessed 30 min before they entered into the dressing room on the first and second days of intervention. The patients in the experimental group inhaled five drops of damask rose essence 40% in distilled water, while those in the control group inhaled five drops of distilled water as placebo. The pain intensity was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale at 15 and 30 min after the patients exited from the dressing room. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 18) using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: There was significant difference between the mean of pain intensity before and after intervention at 15 and 30 min after dressing (P < 0.001). Moreover, there was significant difference in reduction of pain intensity before and after aromatherapy in the experimental group (P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant reduction in severity of pain after dressing in the experimental group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose could be effective for relieving the pain caused after dressing in patients with burns. Therefore, it could be suggested as a complementary therapy in burn patients for pain relief. PMID:27186201

  18. Numerical study of a multigrid method with four smoothing methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, S.; Wesseling, P.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a linear multigrid method using four smoothing methods, called SCGS (Symmetrical Coupled GauBeta-Seidel), CLGS (Collective Line GauBeta-Seidel), SILU (Scalar ILU), and CILU (Collective ILU), is investigated for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general coordinates, in association with Galerkin coarse grid approximation. Robustness and efficiency are measured and compared by application to test problems. The numerical results show that CILU is the most robust, SILU the least, with CLGS and SCGS in between. CLGS is the best in efficiency, SCGS and CILU follow, and SILU is the worst.

  19. Chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite sponge dressing containing asiaticoside for wound healing and angiogenesis promotion in chronic wound.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Yodkhum, Kotchamon; Charoenteeraboon, Juree; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    There are many factors that delay healing in chronic wounds including lowering level of growth factors and increasing exudate level comprising high amount of tissue destructive enzymes. Asiaticoside possesses interesting wound healing and angiogenic activities that are employed to stimulate tissue regeneration in wound healing application. This study attempted to develop chitosan-aluminum monostearate (Alst) composite sponge containing asiaticoside for use as an absorbent medical dressing in chronic wound. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used to enhance homogeneity of asiaticoside in the polymer composite matrix. The sponge dressings were prepared by lyophilization and dehydrothermal treatment (DHT). Functional group interaction, crystallinity, and morphology of the prepared sponges were investigated using FT-IR, PXRD, and SEM, respectively. Physicochemical properties, porosity, hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and mechanical property, were evaluated. Wound dressing properties, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), fluid absorbency, oxygen permeation (OP), and bio-adhesive property, were investigated. In vitro asiaticoside release study was conducted using immersion method. Cytotoxicity was studied in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) and normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK). Angiogenic activity of asiaticoside was evaluated using chick-chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. FT-IR and PXRD results revealed the amidation after DHT to enhance the crystallinity of the prepared sponges. The prepared sponges had high porosity comprising high Alst-loaded amount that exhibited more compact structure. Alst enhanced hydrophobicity therefore it reduced the fluid absorption and WVTR together with bio-adhesion of the prepared sponge dressings. Porosity of all sponges was more than 85% therefore resulting in their high OP. Enhancing hydrophobicity of the material by Alst and more homogeneity caused by NMP eventually retarded the asiaticoside release for 7 days. The

  20. A survey of the effective factors in students' adherence to university dress code policy, using the theory of reasoned action

    PubMed Central

    KAVEH, MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN; MORADI, LEILA; HESAMPOUR, MARYAM; HASAN ZADEH, JAFAR

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing the determinants of behavior plays a major role in identification and application of effective strategies for encouraging individuals to follow the intended pattern of behavior. The present study aimed to analyze the university students’ behaviors regarding the amenability to dress code, using the theory of reasoned action (TRA). Methods In this cross sectional study, 472 students were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by specialists. Besides, its reliability was confirmed by conducting a pilot study revealing Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.93 for attitude, 0.83 for subjective norms, 0.94 for behavioral intention and 0.77 for behavior. The data were entered into the SPSS statistical software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney, correlation and regression analysis). Results Based on the students’ self-reports, conformity of clothes to the university’s dress code was below the expected level in 28.87% of the female students and 28.55% of the male ones. The mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, and behavioral intention to comply with dress code policy were 28.78±10.08, 28.51±8.25 and 11.12±3.84, respectively. The students of different colleges were different from each other concerning TRA constructs. Yet, subjective norms played a more critical role in explaining the variance of dress code behavior among the students. Conclusion Theory of reasoned action explained the students’ dress code behaviors relatively well. The study results suggest paying attention to appropriate approaches in educational, cultural activities, including promotion of student-teacher communication. PMID:26269790

  1. Gas Leak from Vinyl Taped Stainless Steel Dressing Jars

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Hayes

    1999-03-01

    The leak rates of nitrogen gas from stainless steel dressing jars taped with 2 inch vinyl tape were measured. These results were used to calculate hydrogen leak rates from the same jars. The calculations show that the maximum concentration of hydrogen buildup in this type of container configuration will beat least 3 orders of magnitude below the lower explosion limit for hydrogen in air.

  2. Parents' Opinions of the Uniform Student Dress Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Helen; Ogletree, Earl

    The attitudes of parents toward a uniform student dress code were surveyed at a Chicago (Illinois) public school. Subjects were 15 Black parents (10 females and 5 males) and 15 Hispanic American parents (10 females and 5 males) who answered a questionnaire sent home with their children. The questionnaire examined attitudes toward designer clothing…

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Standardized Dress Code and Minority Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if a statistically significant variance exists in African American and Hispanic students' attendance and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test scores in mathematics before and after the implementation of a standardized dress code. For almost two decades supporters and opponents of public school…

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE BEDROOM 1 DRESSING AREA. SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE BEDROOM 1 DRESSING AREA. SHOWING THE WINDOW WITH TRANSOM LIFT, AND SLIDING CLOSET DOORS. NOTE THE SMALL CLOSET DOORS NEAR THE CEILING. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dressing rooms and other facilities. 108.9 Section 108.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  6. Sanctions Connected to Dress Code Violations in Secondary School Handbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates sanctions for dress code violations in secondary school handbooks. Sanctions, or consequences for breaking rules, vary along seven interrelated dimensions: source, formality, retribution, obtrusiveness, magnitude, severity, and pervasiveness. A content analysis of handbooks from 155 public secondary schools…

  7. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  8. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dressing rooms and other facilities. 108.9 Section 108.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  9. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dressing rooms and other facilities. 108.9 Section 108.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  10. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dressing rooms and other facilities. 108.9 Section 108.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  11. Dressed to Present: Ratings of Classroom Presentations Vary with Attire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Kempen, Laura; Klemm, Kayla; Senn, Rebecca; Wysocki, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of formality of dress on ratings of classroom presentations. Participants (N = 65, 66% women) from a Midwestern university in the United States rated three female students giving a presentation designed for a health psychology class in one of four outfits: casual, party, business casual, or business formal.…

  12. The Red Dress: Getting to the Heart of Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Red Dress: Getting to the Heart of Women's Health Past Issues / Winter 2007 ... Johnson (far right). Photo courtesy NIH/NHLBI For the fifth consecutive year, The Heart Truth — a national ...

  13. Moving beyond Dance, Dress, and Dining in Multicultural Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy, Ozlem; Sanghera, Raj; Parmar, Geetu; Parhar, Nisha; Nosyk, Lianne; Anderson, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The mainstream curriculum is extremely efficient in furthering a neoliberal multicultural discourse, what is described as the dance, dress, and dining, or heroes and holidays, or Taco Tuesday approaches to diversity. Given this, doing anything else is an ongoing challenge. This paper shares details of a government-university-school collaboration…

  14. Absorption and swelling characteristics of silver (I) antimicrobial wound dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC), we have previously developed antimicrobial silver-sodium-carboxymethylated (CM)-...

  15. A General Method for Growing Two-Dimensional Crystals of Organic Semiconductors by "Solution Epitaxy".

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunhui; He, Ping; Liu, Jie; Cui, Ajuan; Dong, Huanli; Zhen, Yonggang; Chen, Wei; Hu, Wenping

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals of organic semiconductors (2DCOS) have attracted attention for large-area and low-cost flexible optoelectronics. However, growing large 2DCOS in controllable ways and transferring them onto technologically important substrates, remain key challenges. Herein we report a facile, general, and effective method to grow 2DCOS up to centimeter size which can be transferred to any substrate efficiently. The method named "solution epitaxy" involves two steps. The first is to self-assemble micrometer-sized 2DCOS on water surface. The second is epitaxial growth of them into millimeter or centimeter sized 2DCOS with thickness of several molecular layers. The general applicability of this method for the growth of 2DCOS is demonstrated by nine organic semiconductors with different molecular structures. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on the 2DCOS demonstrated high performance, confirming the high quality of the 2DCOS. PMID:27237452

  16. General design method for three-dimensional potential flow fields. 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanitz, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A general design method was developed for steady, three dimensional, potential, incompressible or subsonic-compressible flow. In this design method, the flow field, including the shape of its boundary, was determined for arbitrarily specified, continuous distributions of velocity as a function of arc length along the boundary streamlines. The method applied to the design of both internal and external flow fields, including, in both cases, fields with planar symmetry. The analytic problems associated with stagnation points, closure of bodies in external flow fields, and prediction of turning angles in three dimensional ducts were reviewed.

  17. A general method for determining the functional role of a muscle.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J G

    1985-11-01

    This paper presents a general classification method for determining the functional role of any muscle, and a procedure for determining the sensitivity of that role to small changes in system parameters. The classification method is based on the premise that the system model, when acted upon solely by the muscle of interest, will depart from any initial rest configuration in such a way as to decrease the muscle's length. This method is particularly useful for multiple-joint muscles, and is illustrated by examining a slider-crank mechanism and straight line muscle model to determine the functional role of the hamstrings during a constrained leg flexion motion. PMID:4079362

  18. A generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire neuron model with fast implementation method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Lilin; Adjouadi, Malek

    2014-08-01

    This study introduces a new Generalized Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (GLIF) neuron model with variable leaking resistor and bias current in order to reproduce accurately the membrane voltage dynamics of a biological neuron. The accuracy of this model is ensured by adjusting its parameters to the statistical properties of the Hodgkin-Huxley model outputs; while the speed is enhanced by introducing a Generalized Exponential Moving Average method that converts the parameterized kernel functions into pre-calculated lookup tables based on an analytic solution of the dynamic equations of the GLIF model. PMID:24875788

  19. Generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method in coherent medium theory for quantum transport simulation of disordered nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi

    2016-07-01

    Electron transport properties of nanoelectronics can be significantly influenced by the inevitable and randomly distributed impurities/defects. For theoretical simulation of disordered nanoscale electronics, one is interested in both the configurationally averaged transport property and its statistical fluctuation that tells device-to-device variability induced by disorder. However, due to the lack of an effective method to do disorder averaging under the nonequilibrium condition, the important effects of disorders on electron transport remain largely unexplored or poorly understood. In this work, we report a general formalism of Green's function based nonequilibrium effective medium theory to calculate the disordered nanoelectronics. In this method, based on a generalized coherent potential approximation for the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function, we developed a generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method to calculate the average of a two-Keldysh-Green's-function correlator. We obtain nine nonequilibrium vertex correction terms, as a complete family, to express the average of any two-Green's-function correlator and find they can be solved by a set of linear equations. As an important result, the averaged nonequilibrium density matrix, averaged current, disorder-induced current fluctuation, and averaged shot noise, which involve different two-Green's-function correlators, can all be derived and computed in an effective and unified way. To test the general applicability of this method, we applied it to compute the transmission coefficient and its fluctuation with a square-lattice tight-binding model and compared with the exact results and other previously proposed approximations. Our results show very good agreement with the exact results for a wide range of disorder concentrations and energies. In addition, to incorporate with density functional theory to realize first-principles quantum transport simulation, we have also derived a general form of

  20. Generalized average of signals (GAS) - a new method for denoising and phase detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, J.; Kolinsky, P.; Strunc, J.; Valenta, J.

    2007-12-01

    A novel method called Generalized Average of Signals (GAS) was developed and tested during the last two years (Málek et al., in press). This method is designed for processing of seismograms from dense seismic arrays and is convenient mainly for denoising and weak phase detection. The main idea of the GAS method is based on non-linear stacking of seismograms in frequency domain, which considerably improves signal-to-noise ratio of coherent seismograms. Several synthetic tests of the GAS method are presented and the results are compared with the PWS method of Schimell and Paulssen (1997). Moreover, examples of application on real data are presented. These examples were chosen to show a broad applicability of the method in experiments of different scales. The first one shows identification of S-waves on seismograms from shallow seismic. The second one concerns identification of converted waves from local earthquakes registered at the WEBNET local network in western Bohemia. Finally, the third one depicts identification of PKIKP onsets on seismograms of teleseismic earthquakes. Schimmel, M., Paulssen H. (1997): Noise reduction and detection of weak, coherent signals through phase- weighted stacks. Geophys. J. Int. 130, 497-505. Málek J., Kolínský P., Strunc J. and Valenta J. (2007): Generalized average of signals (GAS) - a new method for detection of very weak waves in seismograms. Acta Geodyn. et Geomater., in press.

  1. Quantum control of dressed state population for Li2 molecules by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhan, Wei-Shen; Wang, Shuo; Zai, Jing-Bo; Dang, Hai-Ping

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the Autler-Townes splitting in photoelectron spectra of \\text{L}{{\\text{i}}2} molecules steered by ultrashort laser pulses using the time-dependent wave-packet method. Structure of the Autler-Townes splitting was presented to analyze the information of a selective population of the dressed states. It was found that population transfer process, structure of photoelectron spectrum and pattern of Autler-Townes splitting can be controlled by adjusting the intensity, wavelength and delay time of laser pulses.

  2. Use of dressing with human fibrin and thrombin during resection of a right atrial angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bochenek, Maciej; Kapelak, Bogusław; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Urbańczyk, Małgorzata; Sadowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare and are usually detected at an advanced stage of disease. Their location and infiltration often hinder surgical resection. Tissue sarcomas, especially angiosarcomas, are composed of irregular and delicate vascular tissue. The resection of such tumors from the heart is associated with a high risk of life-threatening bleeding that cannot be stopped with traditional surgical methods. We present a case report of the application of a dressing containing human fibrin and thrombin in order to prevent bleeding during the partial resection of advanced cardiac angiosarcoma in a 40-year-old patient. PMID:26336498

  3. A generalized DGS method for studying the deformation field around a crack tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Ran; Cheng, Heming

    2016-04-01

    A generalized method for calculating the stress intensity factor from angular deflection of light rays is proposed. The method is based on 2D digital image correlation (DIC) to measure angular deflection of light rays, however, when a specimen is subjected to loading, deformation measurement from DIC is not perfect because of the existence of small in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the test sample surface that occurred after loading. These disadvantages will lead to errors in the measured angular deflections and fracture parameters. The influence of unavoidable in-plane and out-of-plane motions is discussed, and a generalized method to eliminate them to show the pure stress gradient of the crack tip of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is demonstrated. At the same time, the fracture parameter of stress intensity was calculated. The experimental angular deflection of light rays was compared with the theoretical angular deflection predicted by generalized model using data points in an array around the crack tip region. To show the potential and efficacy of the method, K values were obtained from experimental data during tests conducted in a PMMA three-point-bend specimen. Results show an excellent level of agreement with K values predicted from FEM, highlighting the potential of the proposed methodology.

  4. Overlapping domain decomposition preconditioners for the generalized Davidson method for the eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Stathopoulos, A.; Fischer, C.F.; Saad, Y.

    1994-12-31

    The solution of the large, sparse, symmetric eigenvalue problem, Ax = {lambda}x, is central to many scientific applications. Among many iterative methods that attempt to solve this problem, the Lanczos and the Generalized Davidson (GD) are the most widely used methods. The Lanczos method builds an orthogonal basis for the Krylov subspace, from which the required eigenvectors are approximated through a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure. Each Lanczos iteration is economical to compute but the number of iterations may grow significantly for difficult problems. The GD method can be considered a preconditioned version of Lanczos. In each step the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is solved and explicit orthogonalization of the preconditioned residual ((M {minus} {lambda}I){sup {minus}1}(A {minus} {lambda}I)x) is performed. Therefore, the GD method attempts to improve convergence and robustness at the expense of a more complicated step.

  5. Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Alchalabi, R.M.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.

  6. Comparison of up-scaling methods in poroelasticity and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2003-12-13

    Four methods of up-scaling coupled equations at the microscale to equations valid at the mesoscale and/or macroscale for fluid-saturated and partially saturated porous media will be discussed, compared, and contrasted. The four methods are: (1) effective medium theory, (2) mixture theory, (3) two-scale and multiscale homogenization, and (4) volume averaging. All these methods have advantages for some applications and disadvantages for others. For example, effective medium theory, mixture theory, and homogenization methods can all give formulas for coefficients in the up-scaled equations, whereas volume averaging methods give the form of the up-scaled equations but generally must be supplemented with physical arguments and/or data in order to determine the coefficients. Homogenization theory requires a great deal of mathematical insight from the user in order to choose appropriate scalings for use in the resulting power-law expansions, while volume averaging requires more physical insight to motivate the steps needed to find coefficients. Homogenization often is performed on periodic models, while volume averaging does not require any assumption of periodicity and can therefore be related very directly to laboratory and/or field measurements. Validity of the homogenization process is often limited to specific ranges of frequency - in order to justify the scaling hypotheses that must be made - and therefore cannot be used easily over wide ranges of frequency. However, volume averaging methods can quite easily be used for wide band data analysis. So, we learn from these comparisons that a researcher in the theory of poroelasticity and its generalizations needs to be conversant with two or more of these methods to solve problems generally.

  7. Generalizing Observational Study Results: Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys

    PubMed Central

    DuGoff, Eva H; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data SourcesSimulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study DesignUsing simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95 percent confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal FindingsIn general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. ConclusionsPropensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

  8. Generalization of Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference Method for Heat Exchanger Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utamura, Motoaki; Nikitin, Konstantin; Kato, Yasuyoshi

    A generalized mean temperature difference (GMTD) method for heat exchangers is proposed. In the analysis of the performance of heat exchangers logarithmic temperature difference (LMTD) method has been widely used. This method, however, limits its application to those heating media with constant physical property. In turn GMTD method allows analysis with physical property distributed in an entire heat exchanger. Temperature profiles of the heat exchanger taken as function of heat load in place of axial position, mean temperature difference is evaluated numerically. It is mathematically demonstrated that LMTD method is an extremity of the GMTD method in the case of constant physical property. The GMTD method is applied to a hot water supplier with supercritical carbon dioxide as a heating media which is attracting attention as energy saving tactics. The hot water supplier operates under the condition of pseudo critical point of carbon dioxide where specific heat behaves anomaly. Incorporating GMTD method averaged overall heat transfer coefficient and subsequently formula of local Nusselt number are successfully derived for microchannel heat exchanger while formal application of LMTD method is found to give poor results i.e. two times less value with a larger error. This proves the validity of GMTD method.

  9. A new volume conservation enforcement method for PLIC reconstruction in general convex grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J.; Hernández, J.; Gómez, P.; Faura, F.

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study is made of methods for resolving the volume conservation enforcement problem in the PLIC reconstruction of an interface in general 3D convex grids. Different procedures to bracket the solution when solving the problem using previous standard methods are analyzed in detail. A new interpolation bracketing procedure and an improved analytical method to find the interface plane constant are proposed. These techniques are combined in a new method to enforce volume conservation, which does not require the sequential polyhedra truncation operations typically used in standard methods. The new methods have been implemented into existing geometrical routines described in López and Hernández [15], which are further improved by using more efficient formulae to compute areas and volumes of general convex 2 and 3D polytopes. Different tests using regular and irregular cell geometries are carried out to demonstrate the robustness and substantial improvement in computational efficiency of the proposed techniques, which increase the computation speed of the mentioned routines by up to 3 times for the 3D problems considered in this work.

  10. Developing a preliminary ‘never event’ list for general practice using consensus-building methods

    PubMed Central

    de Wet, Carl; O’Donnell, Catherine; Bowie, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘never event’ concept has been implemented in many acute hospital settings to help prevent serious patient safety incidents. Benefits include increasing awareness of highly important patient safety risks among the healthcare workforce, promoting proactive implementation of preventive measures, and facilitating incident reporting. Aim To develop a preliminary list of never events for general practice. Design and setting Application of a range of consensus-building methods in Scottish and UK general practices. Method A total of 345 general practice team members suggested potential never events. Next, ‘informed’ staff (n =15) developed criteria for defining never events and applied the criteria to create a list of candidate never events. Finally, UK primary care patient safety ‘experts’ (n = 17) reviewed, refined, and validated a preliminary list via a modified Delphi group and by completing a content validity index exercise. Results There were 721 written suggestions received as potential never events. Thematic categorisation reduced this to 38. Five criteria specific to general practice were developed and applied to produce 11 candidate never events. The expert group endorsed a preliminary list of 10 items with a content validity index (CVI) score of >80%. Conclusion A preliminary list of never events was developed for general practice through practitioner experience and consensus-building methods. This is an important first step to determine the potential value of the never event concept in this setting. It is now intended to undertake further testing of this preliminary list to assess its acceptability, feasibility, and potential usefulness as a safety improvement intervention. PMID:24567655

  11. The Application of Modern Dressings to Buruli Ulcers: Results from a Pilot Implementation Project in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, K Mohammad; van der Werf, Tjip S; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2016-07-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a tropical, infectious skin disease. The resulting ulcer can take a long time to heal, and a high standard of wound care is essential. Currently, the only dressing used for BU wound care is gauze, and its removal causes pain and bleeding. We performed a pilot implementation project using HydroTac(®) (HARTMANN, Heidenheim, Germany), a modern dressing combining foam with a hydrogel component. For future BU treatment, we recommend to use a more absorbent dressing than the HydroTac dressing used in the current project. However, we show that modern dressings can be applied to BUs and that HydroTac dressings yield clean, healing wounds, and prevent the pain and bleeding associated with gauze dressings. Wound care is a vital but to date neglected aspect of BU management. PMID:27162271

  12. Histological and bacteriological studies of burn wounds treated with boiled potato peel dressings.

    PubMed

    Keswani, M H; Vartak, A M; Patil, A; Davies, J W

    1990-04-01

    Histological and clinical studies have been made on comparable burn wounds covered with either boiled potato peels affixed to gauze bandages or gauze dressings alone; both dressings were applied over a thin layer of 5 per cent silver sulphadiazine. Compared with treatment with plain gauze dressings, the application of the potato peel dressing reduced or eliminated dessication, permitted the survival of superficial skin cells and hastened epithelial regeneration. Bacteriological studies showed that the potato peels had no intrinsic antibacterial activity, the wounds beneath both dressings showing either no growth or, on most occasions, the same bacterial species. The easy availability of potato peels and gauze bandages on to which they can be affixed, the simplicity of the preparation of this dressing, the ease of sterilization and its low cost of production make this the dressing of choice for burn wounds in our developing country. PMID:2350410

  13. General analytic methods for solving coupled transport equations: From cosmology to beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a general method to analytically solve transport equations during a phase transition without making approximations based on the assumption that any transport coefficient is large. Using a cosmic phase transition in the minimal supersymmetric standard model as a pedagogical example, we derive the solutions to a set of 3 transport equations derived under the assumption of supergauge equilibrium and the diffusion approximation. The result is then rederived efficiently using a technique we present involving a parametrized ansatz which turns the process of deriving a solution into an almost elementary problem. We then show how both the derivation and the parametrized ansatz technique can be generalized to solve an arbitrary number of transport equations. Finally we derive a perturbative series that relaxes the usual approximation that inactivates vacuum-expectation-value dependent relaxation and C P -violating source terms at the bubble wall and through the symmetric phase. Our analytical methods are able to reproduce a numerical calculation in the literature.

  14. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Multicriteria Decision-Making Method Based on Generalized Prioritized Aggregation Operator

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-ting; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs). A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach. PMID:25258729

  15. Stability of the puncture method with a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Witek, Helvi; Hilditch, David; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2011-05-15

    The puncture method for dealing with black holes in the numerical simulation of vacuum spacetimes is remarkably successful when combined with the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of the Einstein equations. We examine a generalized class of formulations modeled along the lines of the Laguna-Shoemaker system and including BSSN as a special case. The formulation is a two parameter generalization of the choice of variables used in standard BSSN evolutions. Numerical stability of the standard finite difference methods is proven for the formulation in the linear regime around flat space, a special case of which is the numerical stability of BSSN. Numerical evolutions are presented and compared with a standard BSSN implementation. Surprisingly, a significant portion of the parameter space yields (long-term) stable simulations, including the standard BSSN formulation as a special case. Furthermore, nonstandard parameter choices typically result in smoother behavior of the evolution variables close to the puncture.

  16. Generalized Carrier-Based PWM Method for a 12-Switch Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganah, Kennedy Adinbo; Ojo, Olorunfemi

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a generalized carrier-based pulse-width modulation (CBPWM) method for a 12-switch converter feeding three independent loads. The converter topology is part of the (3N + 3)-switch converter family where N is the number of outputs (N = 3 for this special case). Its more famous sibling is the 9-switch converter which is gaining considerable interest from researchers because of its reduced-switch count architecture. The structure and limitations of the converter are elaborated; its modulation method applicable to both equal and different frequency (and/or amplitude) operations is formulated. The generalized neutral voltages for the converter is derived for the first time and used as the offset voltages required by this type of topology to decouple its three outputs. The proposed algorithm is validated by both theoretical simulations and experimental results.

  17. Facile and General Method for Synthesis of Sugar Coated Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Katti, Kavita K.; Kattumuri, Vijaya; Bhaskaran, Sharanya; Katti, Kattesh V.; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2009-01-01

    This letter describes a general method for the preparation of carbohydrate coated gold nanoparticles. The generality of this method has been demonstrated by surface coating AuNPs with the following sugars: glucose (monosaccharide); sucrose, maltose, or lactose (disaccharides); raffinose (trisaccharide); and starch (polysaccharide). The non-toxic, water-soluble phosphino aminoacid P(CH2NHCH(CH3-)COOH)3, THPAL, has been used as a reducing agent in this process. The sizes of sugar coated AuNPs that have been generated in this study are: 30 ± 8 nm (Glucose), 10 ± 6 nm (sucrose), 8 ± 2 nm (maltose), 3 ± 1 nm (lactose), 6 ± 2 nm (raffinose), and 39 ± 9 nm (starch). PMID:20011668

  18. Assessment of management in general practice: validation of a practice visit method.

    PubMed Central

    van den Hombergh, P; Grol, R; van den Hoogen, H J; van den Bosch, W J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practice management (PM) in general practice is as yet ill-defined; a systematic description of its domain, as well as a valid method to assess it, are necessary for research and assessment. AIM: To develop and validate a method to assess PM of general practitioners (GPs) and practices. METHOD: Relevant and potentially discriminating indicators were selected from a systematic framework of 2410 elements of PM to be used in an assessment method (VIP = visit instrument PM). The method was first tested in a pilot study and, after revision, was evaluated in order to select discriminating indicators and to determine validity of dimensions (factor and reliability analysis, linear regression). RESULTS: One hundred and ten GPs were assessed with the practice visit method using 249 indicators; 208 of these discriminated sufficiently at practice level or at GP level. Factor analysis resulted in 34 dimensions and in a taxonomy of PM. Dimensions and indicators showed marked variation between GPs and practices. Training practices scored higher on five dimensions; single-handed and dispensing practices scored lower on delegated tasks, but higher on accessibility and availability. CONCLUSION: A visit method to assess PM has been developed and its validity studied systematically. The taxonomy and dimensions of PM were in line with other classifications. Selection of a balanced number of useful and relevant indicators was nevertheless difficult. The dimensions could discriminate between groups of GPs and practices, establishing the value of the method for assessment. The VIP method could be an important contribution to the introduction of continuous quality improvement in the profession. PMID:10198481

  19. A General Method for Multimetallic Platinum Alloy Nanowires as Highly Active and Stable Oxygen Reduction Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Yao, Jianlin; Guo, Jun; Lu, Gang; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-25

    An unconventional class of high-performance Pt alloy multimetallic nanowires (NWs) is produced by a general method. The obtained PtNi NWs exhibit amazingly specific and mass oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities with improvement factors of 51.1 and 34.6 over commercial Pt/C catalysts, respectively, and are also stable in ORR conditions, making them among the most efficient electrocatalysts for ORR. PMID:26459261

  20. A Proposal of Partial Model Matching Method for Continuous-Time Generalized Minimum Variance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Jyun-Ichi; Doi, Masayoshi; Mori, Yasuchika

    The proposed method can improve the response for the servo type Continuous-time Generalized Minimum Variance Control (CGMVC). The conventional CGMVC, which is tuned due to the controlled input weighting of the cost function, cannot freely adjust the response in the case of the servo type. This study proposes a new servo CGMVC of tuning the output weighting of the cost function. The proposed CGMVC is applied by the Partial Model Matching (PMM) method. The CGMVC with PMM and tuning the output weighting can improve both the response of tracking the reference signal and the load-disturbance rejection.

  1. A general few-projection method for tomographic reconstruction of samples consisting of several distinct materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Glenn R.; Thomas, C. David L.; Paganin, David M.; Gureyev, Timur E.; Clement, John G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for tomographic reconstruction of objects containing several distinct materials, which is capable of accurately reconstructing a sample from vastly fewer angular projections than required by conventional algorithms. The algorithm is more general than many previous discrete tomography methods, as: (i) a priori knowledge of the exact number of materials is not required; (ii) the linear attenuation coefficient of each constituent material may assume a small range of a priori unknown values. We present reconstructions from an experimental x-ray computed tomography scan of cortical bone acquired at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

  2. A general few-projection method for tomographic reconstruction of samples consisting of several distinct materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Glenn R.; Thomas, C. David L.; Clement, John G.; Paganin, David M.; Gureyev, Timur E.

    2010-01-11

    We present a method for tomographic reconstruction of objects containing several distinct materials, which is capable of accurately reconstructing a sample from vastly fewer angular projections than required by conventional algorithms. The algorithm is more general than many previous discrete tomography methods, as: (i) a priori knowledge of the exact number of materials is not required; (ii) the linear attenuation coefficient of each constituent material may assume a small range of a priori unknown values. We present reconstructions from an experimental x-ray computed tomography scan of cortical bone acquired at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

  3. A higher order panel method for general analysis and design applications in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. T.; Rubbert, P. E.; Ehlers, F. E.

    1976-01-01

    A higher-order panel method is described for numerical solution of boundary-value problems relating to steady inviscid irrotational incompressible subsonic fluid flow in a domain. Both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are treated; two types of auxiliary conditions are used to remove the degrees of freedom that arise from specifying only the derivative of the perturbation velocity potential. Four general network types and two expansions of the induced potential kernel are employed in the numerical solution. Some results are presented which illustrate the modeling options and numerical characteristics of the method.

  4. The use of Lanczos's method to solve the large generalized symmetric definite eigenvalue problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mark T.; Patrick, Merrell L.

    1989-01-01

    The generalized eigenvalue problem, Kx = Lambda Mx, is of significant practical importance, especially in structural enginering where it arises as the vibration and buckling problem. A new algorithm, LANZ, based on Lanczos's method is developed. LANZ uses a technique called dynamic shifting to improve the efficiency and reliability of the Lanczos algorithm. A new algorithm for solving the tridiagonal matrices that arise when using Lanczos's method is described. A modification of Parlett and Scott's selective orthogonalization algorithm is proposed. Results from an implementation of LANZ on a Convex C-220 show it to be superior to a subspace iteration code.

  5. Factors associated with suicide method among psychiatric patients in a general hospital in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Ahn, Myung Hee; Na, Riji; Kim, Seon-Ok; Yoon, Jin Sang; Park, Jun-Hyuk; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-12-30

    This study aims to highlight the factors associated with suicide method among psychiatric patients in a general hospital in Korea. In a sample of 467 suicides by patients who had received mental health care in a general hospital in Korea, the relationship between suicide method and time of death as well as clinical characteristics, including psychiatric adiagnosis, was examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. Compared with the general population, psychiatric patients, regardless of disorder, committed suicide by jumping from heights more often than by hanging (OR=2.35-8.64). In particular, patients with psychotic disorders and female patients were more likely to use jumping from a height than hanging to kill themselves (OR=2.98 and 1.83, respectively). Patients were more likely to use suicide methods other than hanging (e.g., OR=6.7 for jumping, 5.3 for drowning, and 2.7 for self-poisoning) between midnight and dawn. Possible suicide-prevention strategies suggested by this study include limiting access to or fencing off tall structures in close proximity to psychiatric institutions and residential care homes. At night, limiting access to or instituting heightened supervision of tall structures is specifically indicated. PMID:24055162

  6. Dressings for venous leg ulcers: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, E Andrea; Michaels, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence of effectiveness of dressings applied to venous leg ulcers. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Hand searches of journals and searches of electronic databases, conference proceedings, and bibliographies up to April 2006; contacts with dressing manufacturers for unpublished studies. Studies reviewed All randomised controlled trials that evaluated dressings applied to venous leg ulcers were eligible for inclusion. Data from eligible studies were extracted and summarised independently by two reviewers using a data extraction sheet. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two reviewers. Results The search strategy identified 254 studies; 42 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Hydrocolloids were no more effective than simple low adherent dressings used beneath compression (eight trials; relative risk for healing with hydrocolloid 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.28). For other comparisons, insufficient evidence was available to allow firm conclusions to be drawn. None of the dressing comparisons showed evidence that a particular class of dressing healed more ulcers. Some differences existed between dressings in terms of subjective outcome measures and ulcer healing rates. The results were not affected by the size or quality of trials or the unit of randomisation. Insufficient data were available to allow conclusions to be drawn about the relative cost effectiveness of different dressings. Conclusions The type of dressing applied beneath compression was not shown to affect ulcer healing. The results of the meta-analysis showed that applying hydrocolloid dressings beneath compression produced no benefit in terms of ulcer healing compared with applying simple low adherent dressings. No conclusive recommendations can be made as to which type of dressing is most cost effective. Decisions on which dressing to apply should be based on the local costs of dressings and the preferences of the

  7. Angular spectrum method with compact space-bandwidth: generalization and full-field accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kozacki, Tomasz; Falaggis, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    A recent Letter [Opt. Lett.40, 3420 (2015)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.40.003420] reported a modified angular spectrum method that uses a sampling scheme based on a compact space-bandwidth product representation. That technique is useful for focusing and defocusing propagation cases and is generalized here for the case of propagation between two defocus planes. The proposed method employs paraxial spherical phase factors and modified propagation kernels to reduce the size of the numerical space-bandwidth product needed for wave field calculations. A Wigner distribution analysis is carried out in order to ensure high accuracy of the calculations in the entire computational domain. This is achieved by analyzing the evolution of the generalized space-bandwidth product when passing through the propagation algorithm for various space-frequency constraints. The results allow the derivations of sampling criteria, and, despite this, also show that a small amount of space/frequency zero padding significantly extends the capability of the recently reported modified angular spectrum method. Simulations validate the high accuracy of that method and verify a computational and memory gain of more than two orders of magnitude when comparing this technique with the conventional angular spectrum method. PMID:27409185

  8. A comparison of generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods with and without momentum flip

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmatskaya, Elena; Bou-Rabee, Nawaf; Reich, Sebastian

    2009-04-01

    The generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method combines Metropolis corrected constant energy simulations with a partial random refreshment step in the particle momenta. The standard detailed balance condition requires that momenta are negated upon rejection of a molecular dynamics proposal step. The implication is a trajectory reversal upon rejection, which is undesirable when interpreting GHMC as thermostated molecular dynamics. We show that a modified detailed balance condition can be used to implement GHMC without momentum flips. The same modification can be applied to the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method. Numerical results indicate that GHMC/GSHMC implementations with momentum flip display a favorable behavior in terms of sampling efficiency, i.e., the traditional GHMC/GSHMC implementations with momentum flip got the advantage of a higher acceptance rate and faster decorrelation of Monte Carlo samples. The difference is more pronounced for GHMC. We also numerically investigate the behavior of the GHMC method as a Langevin-type thermostat. We find that the GHMC method without momentum flip interferes less with the underlying stochastic molecular dynamics in terms of autocorrelation functions and it to be preferred over the GHMC method with momentum flip. The same finding applies to GSHMC.

  9. A Dictionary Learning Method with Total Generalized Variation for MRI Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hongyang; Wei, Jingbo; Wang, Yuhao; Deng, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing images from their noisy and incomplete measurements is always a challenge especially for medical MR image with important details and features. This work proposes a novel dictionary learning model that integrates two sparse regularization methods: the total generalized variation (TGV) approach and adaptive dictionary learning (DL). In the proposed method, the TGV selectively regularizes different image regions at different levels to avoid oil painting artifacts largely. At the same time, the dictionary learning adaptively represents the image features sparsely and effectively recovers details of images. The proposed model is solved by variable splitting technique and the alternating direction method of multiplier. Extensive simulation experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method consistently recovers MR images efficiently and outperforms the current state-of-the-art approaches in terms of higher PSNR and lower HFEN values. PMID:27110235

  10. Steady and Unsteady Numerical Solution of Generalized Newtonian Fluids Flow by Runge-Kutta method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keslerová, R.; Kozel, K.; Prokop, V.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper the laminar viscous incompressible flow for generalized Newtonian (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) fluids is considered. The governing system of equations is the system of Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation. The steady and unsteady numerical solution for this system is computed by finite volume method combined with an artificial compressibility method. For time discretization the explicit multistage Runge-Kutta numerical scheme is considered. Steady state solution is achieved for t→∞ using steady boundary conditions and followed by steady residual behavior. The dual time-stepping method is considered for unsteady computation. The high artificial compressibility coefficient is used in the artificial compressibility method applied in the dual time τ. The steady and unsteady numerical results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian (shear thickening and shear thinning) fluids flow in the branching channel are presented.

  11. A Dictionary Learning Method with Total Generalized Variation for MRI Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyang; Wei, Jingbo; Liu, Qiegen; Wang, Yuhao; Deng, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing images from their noisy and incomplete measurements is always a challenge especially for medical MR image with important details and features. This work proposes a novel dictionary learning model that integrates two sparse regularization methods: the total generalized variation (TGV) approach and adaptive dictionary learning (DL). In the proposed method, the TGV selectively regularizes different image regions at different levels to avoid oil painting artifacts largely. At the same time, the dictionary learning adaptively represents the image features sparsely and effectively recovers details of images. The proposed model is solved by variable splitting technique and the alternating direction method of multiplier. Extensive simulation experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method consistently recovers MR images efficiently and outperforms the current state-of-the-art approaches in terms of higher PSNR and lower HFEN values. PMID:27110235

  12. Reasoning maps: a generally applicable method for characterizing hypothesis-testing behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Brian

    This paper presents a generally applicable method for characterizing subjects' hypothesis-testing behaviour based on a synthesis that extends on previous work. Beginning with a transcript of subjects' speech and videotape of their actions, a Reasoning Map is created that depicts the flow of their hypotheses, tests, predictions, results, and conclusions. The methods are described and then applied to a group of three undergraduate biology students testing hypothesis in an inquiry-based laboratory exercise, the Red and White Yeast Lab. Analysis of hypothesis-testing behaviour via Reasoning Maps reveals most of the features explored in previous studies in a unified context. In addition, Reasoning Maps allow analysis of higher-order patterns in hypothesis testing that are not possible using existing methods. We have designed these methods so that they will provide a common language for analysing and understanding hypothesis testing that will allow global comparisons of behaviour.

  13. Critical review and hydrologic application of threshold detection methods for the generalized Pareto (GP) distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamalakis, Antonios; Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of extreme rainfall from data constitutes one of the most important issues in statistical hydrology, as it is associated with the design of hydraulic structures and flood water management. To that extent, based on asymptotic arguments from Extreme Excess (EE) theory, several studies have focused on developing new, or improving existing methods to fit a generalized Pareto (GP) distribution model to rainfall excesses above a properly selected threshold u. The latter is generally determined using various approaches, such as non-parametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data, graphical methods where one studies the dependence of GP distribution parameters (or related metrics) on the threshold level u, and Goodness of Fit (GoF) metrics that, for a certain level of significance, locate the lowest threshold u that a GP distribution model is applicable. In this work, we review representative methods for GP threshold detection, discuss fundamental differences in their theoretical bases, and apply them to 1714 daily rainfall records from the NOAA-NCDC open-access database, with more than 110 years of data. We find that non-parametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data are generally not reliable, while methods that are based on asymptotic properties of the upper distribution tail lead to unrealistically high threshold and shape parameter estimates. The latter is justified by theoretical arguments, and it is especially the case in rainfall applications, where the shape parameter of the GP distribution is low; i.e. on the order of 0.1 ÷ 0.2. Better performance is demonstrated by graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on pre-asymptotic properties of the GP distribution. For daily rainfall, we find that GP threshold estimates range between 2÷12 mm/d with a mean value of 6.5 mm/d, while the existence of quantization in the

  14. Aggregation work at polydisperse micellization: ideal solution and "dressed micelle" models comparing to molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Burov, S V; Shchekin, A K

    2010-12-28

    General thermodynamic relations for the work of polydisperse micelle formation in the model of ideal solution of molecular aggregates in nonionic surfactant solution and the model of "dressed micelles" in ionic solution have been considered. In particular, the dependence of the aggregation work on the total concentration of nonionic surfactant has been analyzed. The analogous dependence for the work of formation of ionic aggregates has been examined with regard to existence of two variables of a state of an ionic aggregate, the aggregation numbers of surface active ions and counterions. To verify the thermodynamic models, the molecular dynamics simulations of micellization in nonionic and ionic surfactant solutions at two total surfactant concentrations have been performed. It was shown that for nonionic surfactants, even at relatively high total surfactant concentrations, the shape and behavior of the work of polydisperse micelle formation found within the model of the ideal solution at different total surfactant concentrations agrees fairly well with the numerical experiment. For ionic surfactant solutions, the numerical results indicate a strong screening of ionic aggregates by the bound counterions. This fact as well as independence of the coefficient in the law of mass action for ionic aggregates on total surfactant concentration and predictable behavior of the "waterfall" lines of surfaces of the aggregation work upholds the model of "dressed" ionic aggregates. PMID:21197978

  15. Quark-gluon vertex dressing and meson masses beyond ladder-rainbow truncation

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Tandy, Peter C.

    2007-04-15

    We include a generalized infinite class of quark-gluon vertex dressing diagrams in a study of how dynamics beyond the ladder-rainbow truncation influences the Bethe-Salpeter description of light-quark pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The diagrammatic specification of the vertex is mapped into a corresponding specification of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel, which preserves chiral symmetry. This study adopts the algebraic format afforded by the simple interaction kernel used in previous work on this topic. The new feature of the present work is that in every diagram summed for the vertex and the corresponding Bethe-Salpeter kernel, each quark-gluon vertex is required to be the self-consistent vertex solution. We also adopt from previous work the effective accounting for the role of the explicitly non-Abelian three-gluon coupling in a global manner through one parameter determined from recent lattice-QCD data for the vertex. Within the current model, the more consistent dressed vertex limits the ladder-rainbow truncation error for vector mesons to be never more than 10% as the current quark mass is varied from the u/d region to the b region.

  16. T-matrix method for electromagnetic scattering by a general anisotropic particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia Jie; Han, Yi Ping; Wu, Zhe Feng; Han, Lu

    2015-09-01

    A general T-matrix solution for electromagnetic or light scattering by an anisotropic particle with an arbitrary permittivity tensor is constructed based on the extended boundary condition method (EBCM). By using the inverse Fourier transform, a system of quasi-spherical vector wave functions (qSVWFs) are obtained for an expansion representation of electromagnetic fields inside a general anisotropic medium. Special cases for gyroelectric anisotropic medium, biaxial anisotropic medium as well as uniaxial anisotropic medium are discussed. By virtue of the obtained series of qSVWFs, T-matrix formula are constructed to find solutions for characterizing electromagnetic or light scattering from an arbitrary shaped homogeneous anisotropic particle, and a home-made FORTRAN program is written. To validate the presented theoretical treatments as well as the home-made program, numerical results concerning radar cross section (RCS) or differential scattering cross sections (DSCSs) for various parameters are calculated by using the present method and are compared with those computed using other methods. Very good agreements are achieved, which partially confirms the correctness of the theoretical derivations and home-made program. Some new numerical results are also presented to analyze the influences of anisotropy components in permittivity tensor upon the scattering properties, which also provide a reference data for other methods.

  17. An efficient and general numerical method to compute steady uniform vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo; Williamson, Charles H. K.

    2011-07-01

    Steady uniform vortices are widely used to represent high Reynolds number flows, yet their efficient computation still presents some challenges. Existing Newton iteration methods become inefficient as the vortices develop fine-scale features; in addition, these methods cannot, in general, find solutions with specified Casimir invariants. On the other hand, available relaxation approaches are computationally inexpensive, but can fail to converge to a solution. In this paper, we overcome these limitations by introducing a new discretization, based on an inverse-velocity map, which radically increases the efficiency of Newton iteration methods. In addition, we introduce a procedure to prescribe Casimirs and remove the degeneracies in the steady vorticity equation, thus ensuring convergence for general vortex configurations. We illustrate our methodology by considering several unbounded flows involving one or two vortices. Our method enables the computation, for the first time, of steady vortices that do not exhibit any geometric symmetry. In addition, we discover that, as the limiting vortex state for each flow is approached, each family of solutions traces a clockwise spiral in a bifurcation plot consisting of a velocity-impulse diagram. By the recently introduced "IVI diagram" stability approach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 044504], each turn of this spiral is associated with a loss of stability for the steady flows. Such spiral structure is suggested to be a universal feature of steady, uniform-vorticity flows.

  18. Calibration independent generalized cavity method for microwave characterization of powdered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhishek Kumar; Azizurrahaman; Akhtar, Mohammad Jaleel

    2015-06-01

    A generalized cavity method relaxing the major assumptions of conventional cavity perturbation technique is presented for characterization of the powdered sample in the microwave frequency range. The unified method, which is based on the inverse optimization technique, eliminates the complexity of measurement caused due to the existence of sample holder and produces an accurate result. In this paper, an attractive numerical calibration approach is proposed in lieu of the practical calibration technique which usually requires either a set of standards or a number of reference samples. The sample holder especially made of borosilicate glass is designed to contain the powdered samples, and the X-band rectangular cavity is fabricated. For verification of the proposed technique, the pulverized alumina and polyethylene oxide with various packing fractions are measured using the fabricated cavity and the vector network analyzer. The dielectric constant of these samples is extracted using the proposed unified approach which is found to be in good agreement with the theoretical data obtained by Landau-Lifshitz and Looyenga model. The accuracy of the proposed generalized cavity method for powdered samples is found to be better than the conventional resonator methods available in the literature.

  19. Calibration independent generalized cavity method for microwave characterization of powdered materials.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhishek Kumar; Azizurrahaman; Akhtar, Mohammad Jaleel

    2015-06-01

    A generalized cavity method relaxing the major assumptions of conventional cavity perturbation technique is presented for characterization of the powdered sample in the microwave frequency range. The unified method, which is based on the inverse optimization technique, eliminates the complexity of measurement caused due to the existence of sample holder and produces an accurate result. In this paper, an attractive numerical calibration approach is proposed in lieu of the practical calibration technique which usually requires either a set of standards or a number of reference samples. The sample holder especially made of borosilicate glass is designed to contain the powdered samples, and the X-band rectangular cavity is fabricated. For verification of the proposed technique, the pulverized alumina and polyethylene oxide with various packing fractions are measured using the fabricated cavity and the vector network analyzer. The dielectric constant of these samples is extracted using the proposed unified approach which is found to be in good agreement with the theoretical data obtained by Landau-Lifshitz and Looyenga model. The accuracy of the proposed generalized cavity method for powdered samples is found to be better than the conventional resonator methods available in the literature. PMID:26144529

  20. A general method for molecular modeling of nucleation from the melt.

    PubMed

    Santiso, Erik E; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2015-11-01

    Crystallization is one of the fundamental phase transition processes, and it is also important practically, for example, in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Despite its importance, however, our basic understanding of crystallization, and especially crystal nucleation, at the molecular level is still incomplete. In this work, we present a general molecular simulation approach that can be used to investigate the nucleation of crystals from a subcooled liquid. Our method combines a previously proposed general method to construct structure-based order parameters [E. E. Santiso and B. L. Trout, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064109 (2011)] with the string method in collective variables [L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] to obtain a minimum free energy path connecting the liquid and solid basins. We then use Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [E. Vanden-Eijnden and M. Venturoli, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194101 (2009); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589-2594 (2009)] to obtain the free energy profile along the path and the nucleation kinetics. We illustrate the application of this method to the nucleation of Benzene-I crystals from the melt, and compare the results to those previously found using transition path sampling [M. Shah et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 10400-10412 (2011)]. PMID:26547160

  1. Generalization of the cavity method for adiabatic evolution of Gibbs states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdeborová, Lenka; Krzakala, Florent

    2010-06-01

    Mean-field glassy systems have a complicated energy landscape and an enormous number of different Gibbs states. In this paper, we introduce a generalization of the cavity method in order to describe the adiabatic evolution of these glassy Gibbs states as an external parameter, such as the temperature, is tuned. We give a general derivation of the method and describe in details the solution of the resulting equations for the fully connected p -spin model, the XOR-satisfiability (SAT) problem and the antiferromagnetic Potts glass (coloring problem). As direct results of the states following method we present a study of very slow Monte Carlo annealings, the demonstration of the presence of temperature chaos in these systems and the identification of an easy/hard transition for simulated annealing in constraint optimization problems. We also discuss the relation between our approach and the Franz-Parisi potential, as well as with the reconstruction problem on trees in computer science. A mapping between the states following method and the physics on the Nishimori line is also presented.

  2. A general method for molecular modeling of nucleation from the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiso, Erik E.; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2015-11-01

    Crystallization is one of the fundamental phase transition processes, and it is also important practically, for example, in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Despite its importance, however, our basic understanding of crystallization, and especially crystal nucleation, at the molecular level is still incomplete. In this work, we present a general molecular simulation approach that can be used to investigate the nucleation of crystals from a subcooled liquid. Our method combines a previously proposed general method to construct structure-based order parameters [E. E. Santiso and B. L. Trout, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064109 (2011)] with the string method in collective variables [L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] to obtain a minimum free energy path connecting the liquid and solid basins. We then use Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [E. Vanden-Eijnden and M. Venturoli, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194101 (2009); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589-2594 (2009)] to obtain the free energy profile along the path and the nucleation kinetics. We illustrate the application of this method to the nucleation of Benzene-I crystals from the melt, and compare the results to those previously found using transition path sampling [M. Shah et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 10400-10412 (2011)].

  3. Moment-equation methods for calculating neoclassical transport coefficients in general toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Nishimura, S.

    2008-04-15

    A detailed comparison is made between moment-equation methods presented by H. Sugama and S. Nishimura [Phys. Plasmas 9, 4637 (2002)] and by M. Taguchi [Phys. Fluids B 4, 3638 (1992)] for calculating neoclassical transport coefficients in general toroidal plasmas including nonsymmetric systems. It is shown that these methods can be derived from the drift kinetic equation with the same collision model used for correctly taking account of collisional momentum conservation. In both methods, the Laguerre polynomials of the energy variable are employed to expand the guiding-center distribution function and to obtain the moment equations, by which the radial neoclassical transport fluxes and the parallel flows are related to the thermodynamic forces. The methods are given here in the forms applicable for an arbitrary truncation number of the Laguerre-polynomial expansion so that their accuracies can be improved by increasing the truncation number. Differences between results from the two methods appear when the Laguerre-polynomial expansion is truncated up to a finite order because different weight functions are used in them to derive the moment equations. At each order of the truncation, the neoclassical transport coefficients obtained from the Sugama-Nishimura method show the Onsager symmetry and satisfy the ambipolar-diffusion condition intrinsically for symmetric systems. Also, numerical examples are given to show how the transport coefficients converge with the truncation number increased for the two methods.

  4. Computer-generated virtual reality to control pain and anxiety in pediatric and adult burn patients during wound dressing changes.

    PubMed

    van Twillert, Björn; Bremer, Marco; Faber, Albertus W

    2007-01-01

    Changing daily wound dressings provokes a substantial amount of pain in patients with severe burn wounds. Pharmacological analgesics alone often are inadequate to solve this problem. This study explored whether immersive virtual reality (VR) can reduce the procedural pain and anxiety during an entire wound care session and compared VR to the effects of standard care and other distraction methods. Nineteen inpatients ages 8 to 65 years (mean, 30 years) with a mean TBSA of 7.1% (range, 0.5-21.5%) were studied using a within-subject design. Within 1 week of admission, standard care (no distraction), VR, or another self-chosen distraction method was administered during the wound dressing change. Each patient received the normal analgesic regimen. Pain was measured with visual analog thermometer scores, and anxiety was measured with the state-version of the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory. After comparing different distraction methods, only VR and television showed significant pain reductions during wound dressing changes. The effects of VR were superior, but not statistical significant, to that of television. Thirteen of 19 patients reported clinically meaningful (33% or greater) reductions in pain during VR distraction. No side effects were reported. No correlations were found between the reduction in pain ratings and patient variables like age, sex, duration of hospital stay, or percentage of (deep) burns. There was no significant reduction of anxiety ratings. PMID:17667488

  5. Simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in food dressing by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunzhou; Mei, Yong; Chen, Lin

    2006-06-01

    A facile headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure using 85 microm polyacrylate (PA) fiber is presented for the simultaneous determination of preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acids) in food dressing, including Thousand Island Dressing, HellMANN'S Salad Dressing and Tomato Ketchup, by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The method presented preserves the advantages typical of HS-SPME such as simplicity, low intensity of labor, low cost and solvent free. The main factors affecting the HS-SPME process, such as extraction temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, the acidity and salt concentration of the solution, were optimized. Limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 2.00 microg/L for sorbic acid and 1.22 microg/L for benzoic acid. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quintuplicate analyses at three concentration levels of 0.10, 2.0 and 20 mg/L ranged between 3.86 and 14.8%. The method also showed good linearity n a range from 0.02 to 40 mg/L with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9986 for sorbic acid and 0.9994 for benzoic acid. Recoveries for the two analytes in all the samples tested ranged from 83.44 to 113.2%. Practical applicability was demonstrated through the simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in the three complex samples. PMID:16650850

  6. Development of a generalized perturbation theory method for sensitivity analysis using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perfetti, Christopher M.; Rearden, Bradley T.

    2016-03-01

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools of the ORNL SCALE nuclear modeling and simulation code system that have been developed over the last decade have proven indispensable for numerous application and design studies for nuclear criticality safety and reactor physics. SCALE contains tools for analyzing the uncertainty in the eigenvalue of critical systems, but cannot quantify uncertainty in important neutronic parameters such as multigroup cross sections, fuel fission rates, activation rates, and neutron fluence rates with realistic three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. A more complete understanding of the sources of uncertainty in these design-limiting parameters could lead to improvements in processmore » optimization, reactor safety, and help inform regulators when setting operational safety margins. A novel approach for calculating eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients, known as the CLUTCH method, was recently explored as academic research and has been found to accurately and rapidly calculate sensitivity coefficients in criticality safety applications. The work presented here describes a new method, known as the GEAR-MC method, which extends the CLUTCH theory for calculating eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients to enable sensitivity coefficient calculations and uncertainty analysis for a generalized set of neutronic responses using high-fidelity continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations. Here, several criticality safety systems were examined to demonstrate proof of principle for the GEAR-MC method, and GEAR-MC was seen to produce response sensitivity coefficients that agreed well with reference direct perturbation sensitivity coefficients.« less

  7. A generally adoptable radiotracing method for tracking carbon nanotubes in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoyong; Yang, Shengtao; Nie, Haiyu; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yuanfang

    2008-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) mediated drug delivery systems have currently aroused a great deal of interest. Such delivery systems for drugs, proteins and genes have been preliminarily studied using cellular and animal models. For the further study of the pharmacokinetics and related biological behaviours of CNTs in vivo, a fast and convenient tracing method is particularly demanded. In this paper, we developed a generally adoptable tracing method for the biodistribution study of functionalized CNTs in vivo. Taurine covalently functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (tau-MWNTs) and Tween-80 wrapped MWNTs (Tween-MWNTs) were labelled with 125I, and then their distribution in mice was determined. It is interesting that Tween-80 can reduce the RES uptake of MWNTs remarkably. The resulting distribution of 125I-tau-MWNTs was very consistent with that using 14C-taurine-MWNTs as the CNTs tracer, which means the easy 125I labelling method is reliable and effective.

  8. A general theoretical method for star pointing with the coelostat of the Meudon solar tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, R.

    1980-06-01

    A general method for pointing in any direction with the coelostat of the Meudon solar tower is presented. It is based on the solution of the complete set of equations which relates the astronomical co-ordinates of the direction (or of the star) with the mechanical and geometrical parameters defining the position and movements of the mirrors necessary for tracking the set direction during its diurnal movement. The set of equations allows the verification of the empirical abacus obtained earlier by Miguel (1975). This method may be easily extended to any other case than multiple reflexion in a mirror system (i.e. solar energy array of mirrors); in addition it avoids the complicated system of matrix transformations of the classical methods.

  9. A General Method for Extracting Individual Coupling Constants from Crowded (1)H NMR Spectra.

    PubMed

    Sinnaeve, Davy; Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A

    2016-01-18

    Couplings between protons, whether scalar or dipolar, provide a wealth of structural information. Unfortunately, the high number of (1)H-(1)H couplings gives rise to complex multiplets and severe overlap in crowded spectra, greatly complicating their measurement. Many different methods exist for disentangling couplings, but none approaches optimum resolution. Here, we present a general new 2D J-resolved method, PSYCHEDELIC, in which all homonuclear couplings are suppressed in F2, and only the couplings to chosen spins appear, as simple doublets, in F1. This approaches the theoretical limit for resolving (1)H-(1)H couplings, with close to natural linewidths and with only chemical shifts in F2. With the same high sensitivity and spectral purity as the parent PSYCHE pure shift experiment, PSYCHEDELIC offers a robust method for chemists seeking to exploit couplings for structural, conformational, or stereochemical analyses. PMID:26636773

  10. A Meta-heuristic Approach for Variants of VRP in Terms of Generalized Saving Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    Global logistic design is becoming a keen interest to provide an essential infrastructure associated with modern societal provision. For examples, we can designate green and/or robust logistics in transportation systems, smart grids in electricity utilization systems, and qualified service in delivery systems, and so on. As a key technology for such deployments, we engaged in practical vehicle routing problem on a basis of the conventional saving method. This paper extends such idea and gives a general framework available for various real-world applications. It can cover not only delivery problems but also two kind of pick-up problems, i.e., straight and drop-by routings. Moreover, multi-depot problem is considered by a hybrid approach with graph algorithm and its solution method is realized in a hierarchical manner. Numerical experiments have been taken place to validate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. State-space-split method for some generalized Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Guo-Kang; Iu, Vai Pan

    2012-06-01

    The state-space-split method for solving the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations in high dimensions is extended to solving the generalized Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations in high dimensions for stochastic dynamical systems with a polynomial type of nonlinearity and excited by Poissonian white noise. The probabilistic solution of the motion of the stretched Euler-Bernoulli beam with cubic nonlinearity and excited by uniformly distributed Poissonian white noise is analyzed with the presented solution procedure. The numerical analysis shows that the results obtained with the state-space-split method together with the exponential polynomial closure method are close to those obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation when the relative value of the basic system relaxation time and the mean arrival time of the Poissonian impulse is in some limited range.

  12. Preparation of silver-chitosan nanocomposites and coating on bandage for antibacterial wound dressing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilowati, Endang; Maryani, Ashadi

    2016-02-01

    Bandage is a medical device that is essential for wound dressing. To improve the performance of the bandage, it has been coated by silver-chitosan nanocomposites (Ag/Chit) with pad-dry-cure method. The nanocomposites were performed by chemical reduction method at room temperature using glucose as reducing agent, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as accelerator reagent, silver nitrate (AgNO3) as metal precursor and chitosan as stabilizing agent. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption band of silver nanoparticles was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The bandage coated Ag/Chit nanocomposites (B-Ag/Chit) were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, antibacterial activity of the bandage toward Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) were also studied. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the appearance of LSPR absorption peak at 412.2 - 423.2 nm. Coating of nanocomposite cause increasing rigidity of bandage and decreasing on crystallinity. The bandages of B-Ag/Chit demonstrated good activity against both Gram positive (S. aureus) and Gram negative (E.Coli). Thus the bandages have a potential to be used for antibacterial wound dressing application.

  13. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Klinkajon, Wimonwan; Supaphol, Pitt

    2014-08-01

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu(2+)) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu(2+) sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu(2+) sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu(2+) ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu(2+) ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings. PMID:25029588

  14. Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Burdorf, A.; Vermeulen, R.; Veulemans, H.; Kromhout, H.; Hartog, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative merits of job specific questionnaires and various alternative assessment methods of occupational exposures often used in general population studies. METHODS: Subjects were participants in a hospital based case-control study of risk factors for male infertility. Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an external job exposure matrix (JEM), and a population specific JEM were compared with passive diffuse dosimeter results and measurements in urine. Urine samples from the end of the shift were analysed for metabolites of toluene, xylene, several glycol ethers, trichloroethylene, and chromium. Passive dosimeter date, metabolites of specific solvents, and urinary chromium concentrations were available for 89, 267, and 156 subjects, respectively. The alternative methods and measurements in urine were compared by means of the Cohen's kappa statistic and by computing the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of the alternative methods against measurements in urine. RESULTS: Passive dosimeter results indicated that exposure classifications with job specific questionnaire information could discriminate between high and low exposures. The kappa coefficients were < 0.4, so agreement between the various methods and measurements in urine was poor. Sensitivity of the methods ranged from 0.21 to 0.85, whereas specificity ranged from 0.34 to 0.94. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.19 to 0.58, with the highest values for job specific questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the implementation of job specific questionnaires in a general population study might be worth the extra expense it entails, bearing in mind the paramount importance of avoiding false positive exposure estimates when exposure prevalence is low.   PMID:10448321

  15. A generalized genetic random field method for the genetic association analysis of sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; He, Zihuai; Zhang, Min; Zhan, Xiaowei; Wei, Changshuai; Elston, Robert C; Lu, Qing

    2014-04-01

    With the advance of high-throughput sequencing technologies, it has become feasible to investigate the influence of the entire spectrum of sequencing variations on complex human diseases. Although association studies utilizing the new sequencing technologies hold great promise to unravel novel genetic variants, especially rare genetic variants that contribute to human diseases, the statistical analysis of high-dimensional sequencing data remains a challenge. Advanced analytical methods are in great need to facilitate high-dimensional sequencing data analyses. In this article, we propose a generalized genetic random field (GGRF) method for association analyses of sequencing data. Like other similarity-based methods (e.g., SIMreg and SKAT), the new method has the advantages of avoiding the need to specify thresholds for rare variants and allowing for testing multiple variants acting in different directions and magnitude of effects. The method is built on the generalized estimating equation framework and thus accommodates a variety of disease phenotypes (e.g., quantitative and binary phenotypes). Moreover, it has a nice asymptotic property, and can be applied to small-scale sequencing data without need for small-sample adjustment. Through simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed GGRF attains an improved or comparable power over a commonly used method, SKAT, under various disease scenarios, especially when rare variants play a significant role in disease etiology. We further illustrate GGRF with an application to a real dataset from the Dallas Heart Study. By using GGRF, we were able to detect the association of two candidate genes, ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4, with serum triglyceride. PMID:24482034

  16. Development of a general method for obtaining the geometry of microfluidic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Razavi, Mohammad Sayed Salimpour, M. R.; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2014-01-15

    In the present study, a general method for geometry of fluidic networks is developed with emphasis on pressure-driven flows in the microfluidic applications. The design method is based on general features of network's geometry such as cross-sectional area and length of channels. Also, the method is applicable to various cross-sectional shapes such as circular, rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal cross sections. Using constructal theory, the flow resistance, energy loss and performance of the network are optimized. Also, by this method, practical design strategies for the fabrication of microfluidic networks can be improved. The design method enables rapid prediction of fluid flow in the complex network of channels and is very useful for improving proper miniaturization and integration of microfluidic networks. Minimization of flow resistance of the network of channels leads to universal constants for consecutive cross-sectional areas and lengths. For a Y-shaped network, the optimal ratios of consecutive cross-section areas (A{sub i+1}/A{sub i}) and lengths (L{sub i+1}/L{sub i}) are obtained as A{sub i+1}/A{sub i} = 2{sup −2/3} and L{sub i+1}/L{sub i} = 2{sup −1/3}, respectively. It is shown that energy loss in the network is proportional to the volume of network. It is also seen when the number of channels is increased both the hydraulic resistance and the volume occupied by the network are increased in a similar manner. Furthermore, the method offers that fabrication of multi-depth and multi-width microchannels should be considered as an integral part of designing procedures. Finally, numerical simulations for the fluid flow in the network have been performed and results show very good agreement with analytic results.

  17. GENERAL TWO-POINT METHOD FOR DETERMINING VELOCITY IN OPEN CHANNEL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.

    1988-01-01

    The generally accepted procedure is to average velocity measurements at 0. 2D and 0. 8D, measured vertically from the water surface,or alternatively to measure velocity at a position equal to 0. 6D, where D is the total depth of flow. In some situations, one may wish to measure at depths other than 0. 2D and 0. 8D. For instance, a temporary stream gage may be continuously monitoring velocity with two probes located at fixed vertical positions. As the total depth changes, the relative measurement position changes. This paper presents a general two-point method that can be used to determine the depth-averaged velocity when measurements at two arbitrary but known depths are available.

  18. A method of smooth bivariate interpolation for data given on a generalized curvilinear grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zingg, David W.; Yarrow, Maurice

    1992-01-01

    A method of locally bicubic interpolation is presented for data given at the nodes of a two-dimensional generalized curvilinear grid. The physical domain is transformed to a computational domain in which the grid is uniform and rectangular by a generalized curvilinear coordinate transformation. The metrics of the transformation are obtained by finite differences in the computational domain. Metric derivatives are determined by repeated application of the chain rule for partial differentiation. Given the metrics and the metric derivatives, the partial derivatives required to determine a locally bicubic interpolant can be estimated at each data point using finite differences in the computational domain. A bilinear transformation is used to analytically transform the individual quadrilateral cells in the physical domain into unit squares, thus allowing the use of simple formulas for bicubic interpolation.

  19. Control of electronic transport in graphene by electromagnetic dressing.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, K; Kibis, O V; Morina, S; Shelykh, I A

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated theoretically that the renormalization of the electron energy spectrum near the Dirac point of graphene by a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field) drastically depends on polarization of the field. Namely, linear polarization results in an anisotropic gapless energy spectrum, whereas circular polarization leads to an isotropic gapped one. As a consequence, the stationary (dc) electronic transport in graphene strongly depends on parameters of the dressing field: A circularly polarized field monotonically decreases the isotropic conductivity of graphene, whereas a linearly polarized one results in both giant anisotropy of conductivity (which can reach thousands of percents) and the oscillating behavior of the conductivity as a function of the field intensity. Since the predicted phenomena can be observed in a graphene layer irradiated by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the elaborated theory opens a substantially new way to control electronic properties of graphene with light. PMID:26838371

  20. How to perform a tracheostomy dressing and inner cannula change.

    PubMed

    Credland, Nicola

    2016-03-23

    Rationale and key points Proactive tracheostomy management increases patient safety and reduces adverse events. ▶ A cleaning regimen performed every four hours reduces the risk of a blocked tracheostomy cannula, complete tube occlusion and respiratory arrest. ▶ Sterile tracheostomy dressings allow secretions from the stoma to be absorbed and prevent pressure damage from the tracheostomy tube. ▶ Regular dressing changes and skin inspection permit timely identification of inflammatory processes and skin excoriation, enabling prompt treatment to be instigated. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding tracheostomy management. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27008151