Science.gov

Sample records for generalized dressing method

  1. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  2. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. Three-state selective population of dressed states via generalized spectral phase-step modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Bayer, Tim; Baumert, Thomas; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2010-05-15

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study of selective population of dressed states (SPODS) in a three-level system. Control is exerted by shaped intense femtosecond laser pulses generated by a generalized spectral phase-step modulation function. We show that both control parameters (i.e., the phase-step amplitude and position) can be used to switch population among each three dressed states with high selectivity. The dynamics of the system, and hence the resulting photoelectron signal is studied theoretically by analyzing the time evolution of the adiabatic dressed-state energies and populations.

  4. A variational method for the calculation of dynamic polarizabilities and two-photon transition moments - The dressed molecule approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    The solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation of the molecule + radiation field system is analyzed. A quantized radiation field is used. The relationship between the oscillatory wave function and the dressed state wave function is established, the oscillatory wave function being the solution if the radiation field is turned on at t = 0 and the dressed state being the stationary solution satisfying the boundary condition only if the field is present at t = negative infinity. In general, the oscillatory wave function can be expressed using a complete set of dressed states. However, in the presence of a nonresonant radiation field, the system is well represented by a single dressed state. Molecular properties such as dynamic polarizabilities and two-photon transition moments can be deduced from the dressed state wave function instead of the oscillatory wave function as in previous methods. Because of its stationary character, the dressed state is more amenable to approximate calculations. A CI method is developed for this purpose. The CI matrix is simple in form and can be readily constructed using existing computer codes. The present method can also be adapted to calculate other optical properties.

  5. Noncommutative Extension of \\bar{\\partial}-Dressing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Wadati, Miki

    2003-06-01

    The \\bar{\\partial}-dressing method is extended to noncommutative space-time. It is shown that a noncommutative soliton equation and its Lax operators can be represented in the forms of Moyal product, the operator (functional of creation-annihilation operators) and the kernel function of the operator in coherent state representation (CSR). Noncommutative KP (ncKP) equation is taken as an example to illustrate how to solve a noncommutative soliton equation. It is found that the induced soliton equation in the CSR is different from the matrix KP equation usually considered in articles, but is a new soliton equation of integral operator. It is shown that the solutions of a noncommutative soliton equation (both multi-lump and multi-line solitons) can be reduced to solving a set of c-number linear differential equations.

  6. Dressing method for the vector sine-Gordon equation and its soliton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Papamikos, Georgios; Wang, Jing Ping

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we develop the dressing method to study the exact solutions for the vector sine-Gordon equation. The explicit formulas for one kink and one breather are derived. The method can be used to construct multi-soliton solutions. Two soliton interactions are also studied. The formulas for position shift of the kink and position and phase shifts of the breather are given. These quantities only depend on the pole positions of the dressing matrices.

  7. Wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Lionelli, Gerald T; Lawrence, W Thomas

    2003-06-01

    There are currently hundreds of dressings on the market to aid in wound management. Before selecting a dressing for a particular wound, a practitioner must assess carefully the needs of the wound to understand which dressing would provide maximal benefit. Frequently, there is not one clear best choice, and it is crucial that the pros and cons of each dressing modality be understood. This article has provided a framework to assist in dressing assessment. PMID:12822729

  8. [Evaluation of the influence of sterilization method on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose wound dressing].

    PubMed

    Muselík, Jan; Wojnarová, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Sopuch, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose, especially its sodium salt, is a versatile pharmaceutical excipient. From a therapeutic point of view, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of modern wound dressings to allow moist wound healing. Wound dressings must be sterile and stable throughout their shelf life and have to be able to withstand different temperature conditions. At the present time, a number of sterilization methods are available. In the case of polymeric materials, the selected sterilization process must not induce any changes in the polymer structure, such as polymer chains cleavage, changes in cross-linking, etc. This paper evaluates the influence of different sterilization methods (γ-radiation, β-radiation, ethylene oxide) on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose and the results of long-term and accelerated stability testing. Evaluation of samples was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. The obtained results showed that ethylene oxide sterilization was the least aggressive variant of the sterilization methods tested. When the γ-radiation sterilization was used, the changes in the size of the carboxymethyl cellulose molecule occurred. In the course of accelerated and long term stability studies, no further degradation changes were observed, and thus sterilized samples are suitable for long term storage. PMID:23822575

  9. Development and application of methods for the determination of silver in polymeric dressings used for the care of burns.

    PubMed

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Fenzi, Federica; Guerriero, Paolo; Cairns, Warren R L

    2013-10-15

    Open vessel and microwave digestion methods have been developed for the determination of total silver in six commercial dressing used for the treatment of skin burns. An extraction method using TMAH has also been developed to determine the amount of silver present in the exudates found on the surface after dressing removal so an estimation of the patient dose can be made. All microwave methods had a quantitative recovery, whereas the open vessel had recoveries that ranged from 80 to 100%. The silver concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using an external calibration. In the absence of suitable reference materials, isotope dilution analysis was applied to validate the accuracy of results obtained by external calibration. All the products had a total Ag content that agreed with the values declared by the producer, which ranged from 10 to 0.2% Ag by weight. One of the methods was applied to the indirect determination of Ag released in vivo by Acticoat™ Flex 3, a dressing composed of silver nanoparticles on a polymer net. Silver levels were determined in used dressings after application to patients with partial thickness skin burns. A maximum of 62% of the silver was found to have been released onto the patient where hemopurulent exudate occurred, indicating that the dressing was virtually exhausted after 3 days of use. We conclude that the Ag released into the patient's tissues is closely correlated with the local severity of the wound. PMID:24054566

  10. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815

  11. Wound Healing and the Dressing*

    PubMed Central

    Scales, John T.

    1963-01-01

    The evolution of surgical dressings is traced from 1600 b.c. to a.d. 1944. The availability of an increasing variety of man-made fibres and films from 1944 onwards has stimulated work on wound dressings, and some of the more important contributions, both clinical and experimental, are discussed. The functions of a wound dressing and the properties which the ideal wound dressing should possess are given. The necessity for both histological and clinical evaluation of wound dressings in animals and in man is stressed. Wound dressings are the most commonly used therapeutic agents, but there is no means whereby their performance can be assessed. An attempt should be made either nationally or internationally to establish a standard method of assessing the performance of wound dressings. For this it is necessary to have an internationally agreed standard dressing which could be used as a reference or control dressing in all animal and human work. The only animal with skin morphologically similar to that of man is the domestic pig. Three types of wounds could be used: (1) partial-thickness wounds; (2) full-thickness excisions; and (3) third-degree burns. The development of standard techniques for the assessment of the efficiency of wound dressings would be of considerable benefit to the research worker, the medical profession, the patient, and the surgical dressings industry. PMID:13976490

  12. [DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Adamcová, Monika; Šturdík, Igor; Koller, Tomáš; Payer, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is severe drug-induced allergic-type reaction which occurs few days to weeks after taking a drug in a predisposed patient. Organ damage, eosinophilia and skin rash are typical at presentation. Corticotherapy is often necessary in severe cases. In this report we describe a case of 56-year old female with fever, elevated liver tests and skin rash. DRESS syndrome was diagnosed and allopurinol was indentified as a causative drug. Due to possible fatal outcome, DRESS syndrome should be considered in a differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with similar signs and symptoms. PMID:27250614

  13. A Change of Traditional Method of Treatment of Partial Thickness Burn with Hydrofibre Dressings.

    PubMed

    Mitura, Kryspin; Osłowska, Jolanta; Mitura, Alicja

    2015-02-01

    Nearly 1% of population is affected with burn trauma annually. Among patients seeking advanced medical care almost 8% require hospital stay. Most burns are superficial and do not cause full thickness damage to the skin. Standard topical treatment of burn wounds with creams and ointments requires frequent dressings' changes. The healing process is long and expensive. The technological revolution, as occurred in the last decade in the field of dressing care allows us to introduce the use of advanced material solutions. Modern materials allow to shorten the treatment time, reduce the expenses and diminish the patient discomfort leading to good outcome. The study presented a case of four patients treated due to the partial thickness burn wound. Hydrofiber dressing with silver ions were introduced in the treatment. We observed good short and long term results. PMID:26146101

  14. Two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via the {partial_derivative}-dressing method: New exactly solvable potentials, wave functions, and their physical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.

    2010-09-15

    The classes of exactly solvable multiline soliton potentials and corresponding wave functions of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via {partial_derivative}-dressing method are constructed and their physical interpretation is discussed.

  15. Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2005-10-01

    The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

  16. Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2006-02-01

    The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, environmental monitoring, and verification of treaties and agreements. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include beta-gamma, gamma-gamma and beta-gamma-gamma, into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for verifying the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

  17. [Debridement dressings].

    PubMed

    Faure, Christine; Meaume, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    For any wound, necrosis is an obstacle to the formation of granulation tissue and creates an environment which is particularly favourable to the proliferation of bacteria. Mechanical debridement, carried out by a doctor or nurse, or surgical debridement, is usually necessary. It is completed by autolytic debridement using technical dressings. Among the many modern dressings designed on the principle of the moist healing environment, some are more adapted to the debridement phase and are recommended by the French National Authority for Health. PMID:26763564

  18. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  19. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  20. Designing tragacanth gum based sterile hydrogel by radiation method for use in drug delivery and wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2016-07-01

    Present article discusses synthesis and characterization of the sterile and pure hydrogel wound dressings which were prepared through radiation method by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), tragacanth gum (TG) and sodium alginate (SA). The polymer films were characterized by SEM, Cryo-SEM, FTIR, solid state C(13) NMR and XRD, TGA, and DSC. Some important biological properties such as O2 permeability, water vapor transmission rate, microbial permeability, haemolysis, thrombogenic behavior, antioxidant activity, bio-adhesion and mechanical properties were also studied. The hydrogel film showed thrombogenicity (82.43±1.54%), haemolysis (0.83±0.09%), oxygen permeability (6.433±0.058mg/L) and water vapor permeability (197.39±25.34g/m(2)/day). Hydrogel films were found biocompatible and impermeable to microbes. The release of antibiotic drug moxifloxacin occurred through non-Fickian mechanism and release profile was best fitted in Hixson-Crowell model for drug release. Overall, these results indicate the suitability of these hydrogels in wound dressing applications. PMID:27020943

  1. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25680964

  2. Generalized high order compact methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub

    2010-09-01

    The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.

  3. A cost and clinical effectiveness analysis among moist wound healing dressings versus traditional methods in home care patients with pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Kalemikerakis, Ioannis; Saridi, Maria; Papageorgiou, Manto; Kalokerinou, Athena

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was a cost and clinical effectiveness analysis between moist wound healing dressings and gauze in a homecare set up for the treatment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers up to complete healing. In addition, we assessed the overall economic burden on the Healthcare System. Treatment method for each patient was chosen randomly by using sealed opaque envelopes. The authors monitored the healing progress and recorded treatment costs without interfering with the treatment process. The healing progress was estimated by using surface measurement transparent films. To estimate treatment costs, the authors took into account labor costs, cost of dressings, as well the cost of other materials such as cleansing gauzes, normal saline, syringes, examination gloves, antiseptics and adhesive tape. The patient group under treatment with moist wound healing dressings consisted of 27 men and 20 women aged 75.1 ± 8,6 and had an average ulcer surface of 43.5 ± 30.70 cm(2) ; the patient group under treatment with gauze comprised 25 men and 23 women aged 77.02 ± 8.02 and had an average ulcer surface 41.52 ± 29.41 cm(2) (p = 0.25, 95% CI, Student's t test). The average healing time for the moist wound healing dressings group' was 85.56 ± 52.09 days, while 121.4 ± 52.21 days for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The dressing change frequency per patient was reduced in the "moist wound healing dressings group," 49.5 ± 29.61, compared with a dressing change frequency per patient of 222.6 ± 101.86 for the "gauze group" (p = 0.0001, 95% CI, Student's t test). The use of moist wound healing dressings had a lower total treatment cost of 1,351 € per patient compared with, the use of gauzes (3,888 €). PMID:27037729

  4. A Comparative Study of Colostrum Dressing Versus Conventional Dressing in Deep Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Ashok Y.; Gupta, Vaibhav; Pednekar, Akshay S.; Mahna, Abhishek; Patankar, Ritvij; Shaikh, Ashar; Nagur, Basavraj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Deep wounds are extending deeper, across deep fascia into muscles or deeper structures. Understanding of nutrition, immunology, psychological issues, the physiology and the metabolic interactions require for optimal treatment of deep wounds. Wound dressing plays one of the important roles in wound healing. Newer type of wound dressings - Biological dressings like colostrum powder, collagen granules create the physiological interface between the wound surface and environment which is impermeable to bacteria. Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of colostrum dressing and conventional dressing in deep wounds. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from all patients with deep wounds (stage II-IV), admitted during the period of April 2013 to March 2014, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Less number of dressings, short healing time, rapid healing and decrease pain seen in colostrum dressing group compared to conventional dressing group. Conclusion: Colostrum powder dressings are safe, promoter of wound healing, more patient compliance in terms of less pain, less number of dressing required. This treatment though found to be more expensive than conventional dressings; results indicate that colostrum powder dressings may be used as an adjunct in management of deep wound. PMID:26023589

  5. Recent advances on the development of wound dressings for diabetic foot ulcer treatment--a review.

    PubMed

    Moura, Liane I F; Dias, Ana M A; Carvalho, Eugénia; de Sousa, Hermínio C

    2013-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a chronic, non-healing complication of diabetes that lead to high hospital costs and, in extreme cases, to amputation. Diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the main factors that hinder diabetic wound repair. DFUs represent a current and important challenge in the development of novel and efficient wound dressings. In general, an ideal wound dressing should provide a moist wound environment, offer protection from secondary infections, remove wound exudate and promote tissue regeneration. However, no existing dressing fulfills all the requirements associated with DFU treatment and the choice of the correct dressing depends on the wound type and stage, injury extension, patient condition and the tissues involved. Currently, there are different types of commercially available wound dressings that can be used for DFU treatment which differ on their application modes, materials, shape and on the methods employed for production. Dressing materials can include natural, modified and synthetic polymers, as well as their mixtures or combinations, processed in the form of films, foams, hydrocolloids and hydrogels. Moreover, wound dressings may be employed as medicated systems, through the delivery of healing enhancers and therapeutic substances (drugs, growth factors, peptides, stem cells and/or other bioactive substances). This work reviews the state of the art and the most recent advances in the development of wound dressings for DFU treatment. Special emphasis is given to systems employing new polymeric biomaterials, and to the latest and innovative therapeutic strategies and delivery approaches. PMID:23542233

  6. Lasers without inversion: Interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states

    SciTech Connect

    Imamoglu, A.; Harris, S.E.

    1989-12-15

    We describe the use of a coupling electromagnetic field to provide a general method of producing inversion-free laser systems. The interference between dressed states produces a zero in absorption while allowing gains of the order of that of the uncoupled system.

  7. Dressed qubits in nuclear spin baths

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Lianao

    2010-04-15

    We present a method to encode a dressed qubit into the product state of an electron spin localized in a quantum dot and its surrounding nuclear spins via a dressing transformation. In this scheme, the hyperfine coupling and a portion of a nuclear dipole-dipole interaction become logic gates, while they are the sources of decoherence in electron-spin qubit proposals. We discuss errors and corrections for the dressed qubits. Interestingly, the effective Hamiltonian of nuclear spins is equivalent to a pairing Hamiltonian, which provides the microscopic mechanism to protect dressed qubits against decoherence.

  8. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound dressing. (a) Identification. An occlusive wound dressing is a nonresorbable, sterile or non-sterile...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to...

  18. DRESS Syndrome Presents as Leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tonekaboni, Seyed Hasan; Jafari, Narjes; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome, which reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, presenting by generalized skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, and internal organ involvement. Herein a 21-month old male infant with DRESS and Encephalopathy syndrome is presented who complicated after phenobarbital usage that persisted due to phenytoin cream usage. The case received phenobarbital after a seizure disorder presented as "status epilepticus". He developed drug eruption, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, increased liver enzymes, encephalopathy and progressive loss of consciousness with extensive hyperintense white matter lesions in brain MRI. After discontinuation of phenobarbital and phenytoin, all symptoms were resolved, while brain MRI became normal after two months. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case that developed leukoencephalopathy along with DRESS syndrome. PMID:27411428

  19. Wound dressings for primary and revision total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhry, Madhav

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing post-surgical complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is of great importance, and application of an appropriate wound dressing is necessary. Since no dressing encompasses all the parameters required for ideal wound healing, a comparison of the available dressing types can assist the surgeon to choose the best dressing after TJA. Methods Studies evaluating postoperative wound dressings after TJA were reviewed in order to assess the outcomes, complications and costs associated with dressing types. Results Traditional cotton dressings have a high ability to absorb exudate. However, they dry out sooner and there is a risk of pain and additional trauma during dressing changes. Although vapor permeable dressings allow transmission of moisture, but they have low absorptive capacity and require frequent changes even with moderately exudating wounds. On the other hand, hydrofiber and hydrocolloid dressings have high absorptive capacity and permeability, and can cope with exudate production. They are changed less often and have low blistering rates, which may reduce surgical site infection (SSI). Although the unit cost associated with advanced dressings is much higher than the traditional dressings, the decreased rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the cost associated with treating PJI more than compensate for it. Conclusions Choice of dressing type after TJA should depend upon permeability, absorptive capacity, documented rate of SSI and cost effectiveness with its use, apart from a surgeon’s past clinical experience and familiarity. PMID:26605314

  20. Seizure and Psychosocial Outcomes of Childhood and Juvenile Onset Generalized Epilepsies: Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, or Well-Dressed Wolf?

    PubMed

    Nickels, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Studies of generalized electroclinical syndromes can provide guidance regarding long-term seizure, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes. Childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone are electroclinical syndromes typically associated with normal intellect and good response to antiseizure medications. However, studies have demonstrated significantly poorer psychosocial outcomes than expected for these syndromes, regardless of seizure control. Potential causes for this include underlying abnormalities in social skills, social stigma, and underlying abnormalities in brain development and maturation. PMID:26316843

  1. [Modern wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

  2. [Improper use of dressings].

    PubMed

    Candas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Neither nurses nor doctors receive initial training in wounds and the use of dressings. They are however required in their daily practice to provide this type of care. Advances in wound healing techniques and the appearance of "modern" dressings offer a wide range of solutions to caregivers. Professionals must acquire skills in this area and make the best possible use of the dressings at their disposal to optimise the controlled wound healing. PMID:26763571

  3. Fournier's Gangrene: Conventional Dressings versus Dressings with Dakin's Solution

    PubMed Central

    Altunoluk, Bülent; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Eren, Mustafa; Benlioglu, Can; Kankilic, Nazim; Baykan, Halit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Fournier's gangrene is a fulminant and destructive inflammation of the scrotum, penis, and perineum. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different approaches to wound management after aggressive surgical debridement. Methods. Data from 14 patients with Fournier's gangrene were retrospectively collected (2005–2011). Once the patients were stabilized following surgery, they were treated with either daily antiseptic (povidone iodine) dressings (group I, n = 6) or dressings with dakin's solution (sodium hypochloride) (group II, n = 8). Results. The mean age of the patients was 68.2 ± 7.8 (55–75) years in group I and 66.9 ± 10.2 (51–79) years in group II. Length of hospital stay was 13 ± 3.5 (7–16) days in group I and 8.9 ± 3.0 (4–12) days in group II (P < 0.05). The number and rate of mortality was 1/6 (16.7%) in group I, and 1/8 (12.5%) in group II. Conclusions. The hospitalization time can be reduced with the use of dakin's solution for the dressings in the treatment of FG. Also, dressings with dakin's solution seems to have favorable effects on morbidity and mortality. Consequently dakin's solution may alter the treatment of this disastrous disease by reducing cost, morbidity and mortality. PMID:22567424

  4. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  5. [Healing "booster" dressings].

    PubMed

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Téot, Luc; Meaume, Sylvie

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between the dressing and the wound is vital to clinical effectiveness. The more-or-less standard wound-surface coverings have been replaced with initial dressings, referred to as modern dressings, which contain an oily and sticky compound. They provide a moist medium by applying the basic mechanistic principles (liquid absorption and release). Other types of products and techniques modify the behaviour of wound cells by acting directly through irritation, biochemical stimulation or genetic modification of the cells, which accelerates the healing process. PMID:22003786

  6. Wound dressings - a review.

    PubMed

    Dhivya, Selvaraj; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Santhini, Elango

    2015-12-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process which requires suitable environment to promote healing process. With the advancement in technology, more than 3000 products have been developed to treat different types of wounds by targeting various aspects of healing process. The present review traces the history of dressings from its earliest inception to the current status and also discusses the advantage and limitations of the dressing materials. PMID:26615539

  7. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children’s Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kyla P.; Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1). Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students’ knowledge attribution and learning preferences. PMID:26636980

  8. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490 Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing....

  9. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490 Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing....

  10. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... To change your dressings, you will need: Sterile gloves Cleaning solution A special sponge A special patch, ... paper towel. Put on a pair of clean gloves. Gently peel off the old dressing and Biopatch. ...

  11. Prototype Development of a Responsive Emotive Sensing System (DRESS) to aid older persons with dementia to dress independently

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Burleson, Winslow; Lozano, Cecil; Ravishankar, Vijay; Mahoney, Edward Leo

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior research has critiqued the lack of attention to the stressors associated with dementia related dressing issues, stigmatizing patient clothing, and wearable technology challenges. This paper describes the conceptual development and feasibility testing of an innovative ‘smart dresser’ context aware affective system (DRESS) to enable dressing by people with moderate memory loss through individualized audio and visual task prompting in real time. Methods Mixed method feasibility study involving qualitative focus groups with 25 Alzheimer’s family caregivers experiencing dressing difficulties to iteratively inform system design and a quantitative usability trial with 10 healthy subjects in a controlled laboratory setting to assess validity of technical operations. Results Caregivers voiced the need for tangible dressing assistance to reduce their frustration from time spent in repetitive cueing and power struggles over dressing. They contributed 6 changes that influenced the prototype development, most notably adding a dresser top iPad to mimic a familiar ‘TV screen’ for the audio and visual cueing. DRESS demonstrated promising overall functionality, however the validity of identification of dressing status ranged from 0% for the correct pants dressing to 100% for all shirts dressing scenarios. Adjustments were made to the detection components of the system raising the accuracy of detection of all acted dressing scenarios for pants from 50% to 82%. Conclusions Findings demonstrate family caregiver acceptability of the proposed system, the successful interoperability of the built system’s components, and the system’s ability to interpret correct and incorrect dressing actions in controlled laboratory simulations. Future research will advance the system to the alpha stage and subsequent testing with end users in real world settings. PMID:26321895

  12. Patients' perspectives on how doctors dress.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, S; Hocken, D B

    2010-01-01

    Infection in hospitals is a serious problem. Attempting to address the spread of infection, many UK National Health Service trusts have adopted a 'bare-below-the-elbows' and tie-less dress-code policy. This followed publication of Department of Health guidelines on staff uniforms in September 2007. Although the potential for colonisation of clothing with pathogens has been investigated, patients' opinions on dress-code and policy change have not. This survey of 75 patients in Great Western Hospital, Swindon, UK, used questionnaires to address this. The survey showed that, although patients did feel that doctors' dress was important, neckties and white coats were not expected. Moreover, surgical scrubs were considered acceptable forms of attire. Problems of identifying doctors and determining their grade were repeatedly raised. Patients were generally unaware of the new dress-code, and few knew anything of its relationship to infection control. This work demonstrates that more 'traditional' dress is not expected. Given the problems of identification and perception of surgical scrubs as suitable, their introduction as a 'uniform for doctors' should be considered. Furthermore, work needs to be done to advertise policy change and increase patient awareness of infection control. PMID:19914743

  13. Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.G.

    2007-11-04

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  14. Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.

    2008-02-01

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  15. Extending optical filaments using auxiliary dress beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew; Heinrich, Matthias; Kolesik, Miroslav; Christodoulides, Demetrios

    2015-05-01

    Dressed optical filaments offer a way to greatly protract an optical filament’s natural length while at the same time mitigating nonlinear losses and unwanted multifilamentation effects. In this article, we first theoretically reexamine the quasi-linear propagation dynamics of a standard Gaussian-ring wavefront and then proceed to explore several optical dress beam arrangements of equal-energy. The purpose of this study is to numerically simulate configurations which more economically utilize the finite amount of energy available for filament prolongation. In general, we find that parameters such as beam width and inward radial chirp, when adjusted in unison, play an important role in extending a filament whereas the spatial distribution of power in the optical dress only affects the characteristic intensity fluctuations seen during refocusing cycles.

  16. Dresses Make the Girl: Gender and Identity from "The Hundred Dresses" to "10,000 Dresses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulders, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a close reading of two works, Eleanor Estes' "The Hundred Dresses" (1944) and Marcus Ewert's "10,000 Dresses" (2008), that feature in current anti-bullying campaigns. Starting with "The Hundred Dresses," this essay examines how Estes' use of the school story not only exposes the social dynamics of…

  17. Assessment for the mean value total dressing method: Comparison with coupled cluster including triples methods for BF, NO + , CN + , C2, BeO, NH3, CH2, H2O, BH, HF, SiH2, Li2, LiNa, LiBe + , NeH + , and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cuesta, I.; Sánchez-Marín, J.; Sánchez de Merás, A.; Amor, N. Ben

    1997-10-01

    Limited previous experience with the mean value total dressing (MVTD) method had shown that MVTD energies for closed shell systems are generally better than CCSD(T) ones compared to FCI. The method, previously published as total dressing 2'(td-2'), is based on the single reference intermediate Hamiltonian theory. It is not a CC method but deals in a great part with the same physical effects that CC methods that incorporate amplitudes of triples such as CCSDT or its CCSDT-1n approaches. A number of test calculations comparing to diverse CC methods, as well as FCI and experiment when available, have been performed. The tests concern equilibrium energies in NH3 and CH2, equilibrium energies and distances in some diatomics (BF, NO+, CN+, C2, BeO), different bond breaking situations (H2O, BH, HF, SiH2) and spectroscopic properties of different bonding conditions (Li2, LiNa, LiBe+, NeH+, and O3). The results are in general closer to the full CCSDT ones in the equilibrium regions and close to CCSDT-1 along most dissociation curves. A few exceptions to this rule are analyzed with the help of an approach to MVTD that does not take into account the effects of linked quadriexcitations. Such analysis suggests the interest of improving the treatment of effects of linked triples in the MVTD model. The separate contributions of linked and unlinked triples and quadruples are also analyzed for some of the above diatomics representing different behaviors of bond breaking. The interest of such analysis is illustrated in the NeH+ molecule. The MVTD results show, in general, a high quality, provided that the nature of the correlation problem does not become largely multiconfigurational, as occurs in multiple bond dissociation or in the asymmetric stretching of ozone.

  18. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  19. Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.

  20. An Inexpensive Bismuth-Petrolatum Dressing for Treatment of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, Kathleen; Nguyen, Khoa; Galvez, Michael G.; Legrand, Anais; Davis, Christopher; McGoldrick, Rory; Long, Chao; Pham, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xeroform remains the current standard for treating superficial partial-thickness burns but can be prohibitively expensive in developing countries with prevalent burn injuries. This study (1) describes the production of an alternative low-cost dressing and (2) compares the alternative dressing and Xeroform using the metrics of cost-effectiveness, antimicrobial activity, and biocompatibility in vitro, and wound healing in vivo. Methods: To produce the alternative dressing, 3% bismuth tribromophenate powder was combined with petroleum jelly by hand and applied to Kerlix gauze. To assess cost-effectiveness, the unit costs of Xeroform and components of the alternative dressing were compared. To assess antimicrobial properties, the dressings were placed on agar plated with Escherichia coli and the Kirby-Bauer assay performed. To assess biocompatibility, the dressings were incubated with human dermal fibroblasts and cells stained with methylene blue. To assess in vivo wound healing, dressings were applied to excisional wounds on rats and the rate of re-epithelialization calculated. Results: The alternative dressing costs 34% of the least expensive brand of Xeroform. Antimicrobial assays showed that both dressings had similar bacteriostatic effects. Biocompatibility assays showed that there was no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the cytotoxicity of Xeroform, alternative dressing, and Kerlix gauze. Finally, the in vivo healing model showed no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in mean re-epithelialization time between Xeroform (13.0 ± 1.6 days) and alternative dressing (13.5 ± 1.0 days). Conclusions: Xeroform is biocompatible, reduces infection, and enhances healing of burn wounds by preventing desiccation and mechanical trauma. Handmade petrolatum gauze may be a low-cost replacement for Xeroform. Future studies will focus on clinical trials in burn units. PMID:27482485

  1. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strength, dressed lumber or similar building products may be secured in accordance with the general... apply to the transportation of bundles of dressed lumber, packaged lumber, building products such...

  2. Improvement of ensemble reliability with a new dressing kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuguang; Bishop, Craig H.

    2005-04-01

    A new method of combining dynamical and statistical ensembles for the purpose of improving ensemble reliability for underdispersive ensembles is introduced. The method involves adding independent sets of N random four-dimensional 'dressing' perturbations to each of the K members of a dynamical ensemble forecast to obtain an N × K dressed ensemble. The new method mathematically constrains the stochastic process used to generate the statistical dressing perturbations so that it removes seasonally averaged errors in the second moment measures for originally underdispersive ensembles. A random-number generator experiment and an experiment with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) ensemble generation scheme show that the previously proposed 'bestmember' dressing method fails to reliably predict the second moment of the distribution of forecast errors, whereas the new dressing method reliably predicts this second moment. After being dressed with the second moment constraint method, the ETKF ensemble is more skilful than the undressed ensemble. The ETKF ensemble postprocessed with the new dressing method is applied for probabilistic forecasts of cooling degree-days (CDD) for Boston. It is shown that the new kernel's ability to account for temporally correlated forecast errors results in ensemble forecasts of CDDs with reliable spread, whereas the best-member method leads to an underdispersive ensemble of CDD forecasts.

  3. DRESS syndrome in ophthalmic patients.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Jacqueline Martins de; Nascimento, Heloisa; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime before symptoms developed. We were unable to identify the causal drug owing to the large number of medications concurrently administered. The second case presented with DRESS syndrome symptoms during ocular toxoplasmosis treatment. In this case, a clearer association with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine was observed. As a result of the regular prescription of pharmacological agents associated with DRESS syndrome, ophthalmologists should be aware of the potentially serious complications of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27463633

  4. On the order of general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-09-01

    General linear (GL) methods are numerical algorithms used to solve ODEs. The standard order conditions analysis involves the GL matrix itself and a starting procedure; however, a finishing method (F) is required to extract the actual ODE solution. The standard order analysis and stability are sufficient for the convergence of any GL method. Nonetheless, using a simple GL scheme, we show that the order definition may be too restrictive. Specifically, the order for GL methods with low order intermediate components may be underestimated. In this note we explore the order conditions for GL schemes and propose a new definition for characterizing the order of GL methods, which is focused on the final result--the outcome of F--and can provide more effective algebraic order conditions.

  5. Hilbert's axiomatic method and Carnap's general axiomatics.

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper compares the axiomatic method of David Hilbert and his school with Rudolf Carnap's general axiomatics that was developed in the late 1920s, and that influenced his understanding of logic of science throughout the 1930s, when his logical pluralism developed. The distinct perspectives become visible most clearly in how Richard Baldus, along the lines of Hilbert, and Carnap and Friedrich Bachmann analyzed the axiom system of Hilbert's Foundations of Geometry—the paradigmatic example for the axiomatization of science. Whereas Hilbert's axiomatic method started from a local analysis of individual axiom systems in which the foundations of mathematics as a whole entered only when establishing the system's consistency, Carnap and his Vienna Circle colleague Hans Hahn instead advocated a global analysis of axiom systems in general. A primary goal was to evade, or formalize ex post, mathematicians' 'material' talk about axiom systems for such talk was held to be error-prone and susceptible to metaphysics. PMID:26386526

  6. Dressed spin of polarized 3He in a cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P.-H.; Esler, A. M.; Peng, J. C.; Beck, D. H.; Chandler, D. E.; Clayton, S.; Hu, B.-Z.; Ngan, S. Y.; Sham, C. H.; So, L. H.; Williamson, S.; Yoder, J.

    2011-08-01

    We report a measurement of the modification of the effective precession frequency of polarized 3He atoms in response to a dressing field in a room-temperature cell. The 3He atoms were polarized using the metastability spin-exchange method. An oscillating dressing field was then applied perpendicular to the constant magnetic field. Modification of the 3He effective precession frequency was observed over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field. The observed effects are compared with calculations based on quantum optics formalism.

  7. Dressed spin of polarized {sup 3}He in a cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.-H.; Esler, A. M.; Peng, J. C.; Beck, D. H.; Chandler, D. E.; Clayton, S.; Williamson, S.; Yoder, J.; Hu, B.-Z.; Ngan, S. Y.; Sham, C. H.; So, L. H.

    2011-08-15

    We report a measurement of the modification of the effective precession frequency of polarized {sup 3}He atoms in response to a dressing field in a room-temperature cell. The {sup 3}He atoms were polarized using the metastability spin-exchange method. An oscillating dressing field was then applied perpendicular to the constant magnetic field. Modification of the {sup 3}He effective precession frequency was observed over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field. The observed effects are compared with calculations based on quantum optics formalism.

  8. A general method to determine twinning elements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779

  9. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  10. Hori method for generalized canonical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Fernandes, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, some special features on the canonical version of Hori method, when it is applied to generalized canonical systems (systems of differential equations described by a Hamiltonian function linear in the momenta), are presented. Two different procedures, based on a new approach for the integration theory recently presented for the canonical version, are proposed for determining the new Hamiltonian and the generating function for systems whose differential equations for the coordinates describe a periodic system with one fast phase. These procedures are equivalent and they are directly related to the canonical transformations defined by the general solution of the integrable kernel of the Hamiltonian. They provide the same near-identity transformation for the coordinates obtained through the non-canonical version of Hori method. It is also shown that these procedures are connected to the classic averaging principle through a canonical transformation. As examples, asymptotic solutions of a non-linear oscillations problem and of the elliptic perturbed problem are discussed.

  11. DRESS syndrome with autoimmune hepatitis from strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    di Meo, Nicola; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Crocè, Lory; Tiribelli, Claudio; Trevisan, Giusto

    2016-05-01

    Strontium ranelate, which is used for postmenopausal osteoporosis, has been associated with drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, a severe, acute, potentially fatal, multisystem adverse drug reaction characterized by skin rash, fever, hematological abnormalities, and lymphadenopathy with involvement of several internal organs. We report the case of a woman who developed DRESS syndrome with a generalized maculopapular rash, eosinophilia, dyspnea, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with liver damage 3 weeks after administration of strontium ranelate for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Approximately 6 months after total remission of cutaneous symptoms, the patient developed autoimmune hepatitis. This case confirms that strontium ranelate should be considered as a possible factor in the etiopathology of DRESS syndrome as well as in the subsequent development of autoimmune hepatitis. The possibility of developing autoimmune hepatitis as a part of DRESS syndrome related to strontium ranelate use can occur months after the acute episode. PMID:27274555

  12. [Design of a Special Shaped Foam Dressing Based on Anatomy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunming; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Siyu; Zhang, Keping; Zheng, Kun

    2015-07-01

    As the dressings currently used in clinic settings unflat shape in general, they can't be fitted completely on occiput, heel, elbow, knee and other body parts unflat. This paper developed one kind of foam dressing of special shape based on local anatomy. The foam dressing is waterproof and air permeable, it can cover the wound closely enough to prevent bacteria from invasion and infection. With a saturated absorption ratio of 1: 8 or higher, it can keep the wound clean and moisture by absorbing large amounts of wound inflammatory secretions and is almost completely permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Assuring safety and effect meanwhile, it has better outcomes than common dressings in the same application settings. PMID:26665946

  13. Novel Asymmetric Wettable AgNPs/Chitosan Wound Dressing: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Donghui; Lu, Zhong; Yang, Hao; Gao, Jingting; Chen, Rong

    2016-02-17

    A novel silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/chitosan composite dressing with asymmetric wettability surfaces was successfully prepared via a simple two-step method for biomedical applications as wound healing materials. First, AgNPs were assembled into the chitosan sponge which was prepared by lyophilization process. Then one side of the sponge was modified by a thin layer of stearic acid. The incorporation of AgNPs into chitosan dressing could enhance the antibacterial activity against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The asymmetric surface modification endows the dressing with both highly hydrophobic property and inherent hydrophilic nature of chitosan. The hydrophobic surface of the dressing shows waterproof and antiadhesion for contaminant properties, whereas the hydrophilic surface preserves its water-absorbing capability and efficiently inhibits the growth of bacteria. Furthermore, the AgNPs/chitosan composite dressing displays improved moisture retention and blood clotting ability compared to the unmodified dressings. Cytocompatibility test evaluated in vitro and in a wound infection model illustrates the nontoxic nature of the composite dressing. More importantly, the in vivo wound healing model evaluation in mice reveals that the asymmetric AgNPs/chitosan dressing promotes the wound healing and accelerates the reepithelialization and collagen deposition. The silver accumulation in mice body treated by the composite dressing is far lower than that of the clinically used Acasin nanosilver dressing treated mice. This work indicates the huge potential of the novel AgNPs/chitosan wound dressing with asymmetrical wettability for clinical use. PMID:26800283

  14. Generalized HPC method for the Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardazzi, A.; Lugni, C.; Antuono, M.; Graziani, G.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and innovative numerical algorithm based on the use of Harmonic Polynomials on each Cell of the computational domain (HPC method) has been recently proposed by Shao and Faltinsen (2014) [1], to solve Boundary Value Problem governed by the Laplace equation. Here, we extend the HPC method for the solution of non-homogeneous elliptic boundary value problems. The homogeneous solution, i.e. the Laplace equation, is represented through a polynomial function with harmonic polynomials while the particular solution of the Poisson equation is provided by a bi-quadratic function. This scheme has been called generalized HPC method. The present algorithm, accurate up to the 4th order, proved to be efficient, i.e. easy to be implemented and with a low computational effort, for the solution of two-dimensional elliptic boundary value problems. Furthermore, it provides an analytical representation of the solution within each computational stencil, which allows its coupling with existing numerical algorithms within an efficient domain-decomposition strategy or within an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm.

  15. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878... Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. (a) Identification. A hydrogel wound dressing is a sterile or non-sterile device intended to cover a wound, to absorb wound exudate, to control bleeding or...

  20. Dressed soliton in quantum dusty pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Roy, Kaushik

    2009-11-15

    Nonlinear propagation of a quantum ion-acoustic dressed soliton is studied in a dusty pair-ion plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived using reductive perturbation technique. A higher order inhomogeneous differential equation is obtained for the higher order correction. The expression for a dressed soliton is calculated using a renormalization method. The expressions for higher order correction are determined using a series solution technique developed by Chatterjee et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 072102 (2009)].

  1. Treecode-based generalized Born method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenli; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Haizhao

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge-charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  2. [Dressing and wound care pain].

    PubMed

    Chin, Yen-Fan

    2006-12-01

    Wound care is an important step for promoting wound healing. Nevertheless it is also a major source of pain for patients with wounds. The results of a survey showed that not only burn patients but also non-burn ones suffered from wound care pain which occurred in inpatients and outpatients. One of the significant factors causing wound care pain was that the dressing adhered to the wound bed. Although some agencies claimed that particular dressings with low adhesion can result in painless removal, the actual effects needed to be verified. Results of clinical trials revealed that for relieving wound care pain of certain kinds of wound, it was recommended to use particular dressings, such as banana leaf dressing, boiled potato peel bandage, Acticoat, Mepital or Mefix. PMID:17160873

  3. Teacher Dress Codes in Employee Handbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey

    2010-01-01

    This study used role theory to analyze dress codes for teachers to discern what dress items expressed role embracement and role distance. Inductive content analysis of teacher dress codes in 103 U.S. K-12 school handbooks revealed three categories of dress: (a) conventional dress (mentioned in 97.1% of the dress codes); (b) casual dress (mentioned…

  4. Comparative evaluation of silver-containing antimicrobial dressings and drugs.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Joseph J; Shafii, Susan M; Ko, Francis; Donate, Guillermo; Wright, Terry E; Mannari, Rudolph J; Payne, Wyatt G; Smith, David J; Robson, Martin C

    2007-06-01

    Wound dressings containing silver as antimicrobial agents are available in various forms and formulations; however, little is understood concerning their comparative efficacy as antimicrobial agents. Eight commercially available silver-containing dressings, Acticoat 7, Acticoat Moisture Control, Acticoat Absorbent, Silvercel, Aquacel Ag, Contreet F, Urgotol SSD and Actisorb, were tested to determine their comparative antimicrobial effectiveness in vitro and compared against three commercially available topical antimicrobial creams, a non treatment control, and a topical silver-containing antimicrobial gel, Silvasorb. Zone of inhibition and quantitative testing was performed by standard methods using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed all silver dressings and topical antimicrobials displayed antimicrobial activity. Silver-containing dressings with the highest concentrations of silver exhibited the strongest bacterial inhibitive properties. Concreet F and the Acticoat dressings tended to have greater antimicrobial activity than did the others. Topical antimicrobial creams, including silver sulfadiazine, Sulfamylon and gentamicin sulfate, and the topical antimicrobial gel Silvasorb exhibited superior bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties, essentially eliminating all bacterial growth at 24 hours. Silver-containing dressings are likely to provide a barrier to and treatment for infection; however, their bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties are inferior to commonly used topical antimicrobial agents. PMID:17651227

  5. School Dress Code Law in the 90's: "Tinkering" with Fashion and Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    Dress codes directed at gang attire present school officials with the dilemma of ensuring the safety of the students in a school environment versus the First Amendment rights of students to express themselves. A review of some of the court decisions limited to freedom of expression and general dress code cases serves as a foundation from which to…

  6. A Graduated Guidance Procedure for Teaching Self-Dressing Skills to Multihandicpped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Lori A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a graduated guidance procedure for increasing independence in dressing was examined in a multiple baseline analysis across behaviors with two multihandicapped children (ages nine and five). Results showed both children learned dressing skills with generalization of training to similar garments and maintenance of skills and 18…

  7. A prospective comparison of a new, synthetic donor site dressing versus an impregnated gauze dressing.

    PubMed

    Hickerson, W L; Kealey, G P; Smith, D J; Thomson, P D

    1994-01-01

    Three institutions enrolled 38 patients who required bilateral skin graft donor sites into a safety and efficacy study of a new synthetic donor site dressing. Bilateral donor sites were randomized to receive either a new, synthetic donor site dressing or an impregnated gauze dressing. Wounds were assessed by time to healing, pain, and patient preference. Synthetic dressing wounds were treated 7.9 days compared with 10.2 days for gauze dressing wounds (p < 0.001), and synthetic dressing wounds were more completely epithelialized. Visual analogue pain analysis revealed significantly less donor site pain with synthetic dressing (2.94) versus gauze dressing (4.64) (p < 0.001). Synthetic dressing had fewer treatment-related adverse experiences than gauze dressing (2 vs 7) and was judged by recipients to be superior to gauze dressing in comfort, pain relief, cosmetic appeal, ease of ambulation, and overall acceptance. PMID:7929519

  8. Relationship between dressing and motor function in stroke patients: a study with partial correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to elucidate which motor functions are most or more important for dressing performance before and after rehabilitation. [Subjects] Seventy-nine first episode stroke patients in a hospital convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Methods] The relationships between motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs, unaffected side function, trunk function, balance, cognitive function, and independence level in dressing were examined at admission and discharge using partial correlation analysis. [Results] Independence level of dressing correlated with motor function of the affected upper limb and balance at admission, but correlated only with balance at discharge. [Conclusion] Balance function was strongly associated with level of dressing independence. The effect of gross motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs on the level of independence in dressing may thus be smaller than originally expected. Enhanced balance ability can be important for learning single-handed actions of self-dressing during rehabilitation. PMID:26834349

  9. Relationship between dressing and motor function in stroke patients: a study with partial correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to elucidate which motor functions are most or more important for dressing performance before and after rehabilitation. [Subjects] Seventy-nine first episode stroke patients in a hospital convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Methods] The relationships between motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs, unaffected side function, trunk function, balance, cognitive function, and independence level in dressing were examined at admission and discharge using partial correlation analysis. [Results] Independence level of dressing correlated with motor function of the affected upper limb and balance at admission, but correlated only with balance at discharge. [Conclusion] Balance function was strongly associated with level of dressing independence. The effect of gross motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs on the level of independence in dressing may thus be smaller than originally expected. Enhanced balance ability can be important for learning single-handed actions of self-dressing during rehabilitation. PMID:26834349

  10. Cytotoxicity of silver dressings on diabetic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shi-Bo; Yoon, Won-Young; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Cui, Zheng-Jun; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2013-06-01

    A large number of silver-based dressings are commonly used in the management of chronic wounds that are at risk of infection, including diabetic foot ulcers. However, there are still controversies regarding the toxicity of silver dressings on wound healing. The purpose of this study was to objectively test the cytotoxicity of silver dressings on human diabetic fibroblasts. Human diabetic fibroblasts were obtained from the foot skin of four diabetic foot ulcer patients and cultured. The effect of five silver-containing dressing products (Aquacel Ag, Acticoat*Absorbent, Medifoam Ag, Biatain Ag and PolyMem Ag) and their comparable silver-free dressing products on morphology, proliferation and collagen synthesis of the cultured human diabetic fibroblasts were compared in vitro. In addition, extracts of each dressing were tested in order to examine the effect of other chemical components found in the dressings on cytotoxicity. The diabetic fibroblasts cultured with each silver-free dressing adopted the typical dendritic and fusiform shape. On the other hand, the diabetic fibroblasts did not adopt this typical morphology when treated with the different silver dressings. All silver dressings tested in the study reduced the viability of the diabetic fibroblasts and collagen synthesis by 54-70 and 48-68%, respectively, when compared to silver-free dressings. Silver dressings significantly changed the cell morphology and decreased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis of diabetic fibroblasts. Therefore, silver dressings should be used with caution when treating diabetic wounds. PMID:22533495

  11. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440.132 General..., removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to surface mines, any area...

  12. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440.132 General..., removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to surface mines, any area...

  13. Modified wound dressing with phyto-nanostructured coating to prevent staphylococcal and pseudomonal biofilm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ficai, Anton; Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Maganu, Maria; Lazǎr, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports a newly fabricated nanophyto-modified wound dressing with microbicidal and anti-adherence properties. Nanofluid-based magnetite doped with eugenol or limonene was used to fabricate modified wound dressings. Nanostructure coated materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR. For the quantitative measurement of biofilm-embedded microbial cells, a culture-based method for viable cell count was used. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to staphylococcal and pseudomonal colonization and biofilm formation compared to the uncoated controls. The functionalized surfaces for wound dressing seems to be a very useful tool for the prevention of wound microbial contamination on viable tissues.

  14. Wound dressings: selecting the most appropriate type.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Karen C; Powers, Jennifer Gloeckner

    2013-12-01

    Appropriate wound dressing selection is guided by an understanding of wound dressing properties and an ability to match the level of drainage and depth of a wound. Wounds should be assessed for necrosis and infection, which need to be addressed prior to selecting an ideal dressing. Moisture-retentive dressings include films, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, alginates, and hydrofibers and are useful in a variety of clinical settings. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressings can be useful in wounds that are superficially infected or are at higher risk for infection. For refractory wounds that need more growth stimulation, tissue-engineered dressings have become a viable option in the past few decades, especially those that have been approved for burns, venous ulcers, and diabetic ulcers. As wounds heal, the ideal dressing type may change, depending on the amount of exudate and depth of the wound; thus success in wound dressing selection hinges on recognition of the changing healing environment. PMID:24062083

  15. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  16. Speeding up Adiabatic Quantum State Transfer by Using Dressed States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksic, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Hugo; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-06-01

    We develop new pulse schemes to significantly speed up adiabatic state transfer protocols. Our general strategy involves adding corrections to an initial control Hamiltonian that harness nonadiabatic transitions. These corrections define a set of dressed states that the system follows exactly during the state transfer. We apply this approach to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage protocols and show that a suitable choice of dressed states allows one to design fast protocols that do not require additional couplings, while simultaneously minimizing the occupancy of the "intermediate" level.

  17. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  19. Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)

  20. Redressing Cross-Dressed Shakespeare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Thomas L.; Pesta, Duke

    2003-01-01

    Gender critics obsess over the boy actors who played female roles on the Elizabethan stage. But, in their far-fetched interpretation of Shakespearean drama as a spectacle of cross dressing, these new historicists lose sight of a fundamental principle of theater. Thomas Martin and Duke Pesta argue that with their prurient chatter of "the…

  1. Dress Codes and Gang Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1996-01-01

    Concern with school violence and efforts to reduce gang visibility at school have led to controversy about students' constitutional rights to freedom of expression. This document outlines legal precedents and offers guidelines for developing a sound school policy on dress codes. It answers the following questions: (1) Are gang clothing and symbols…

  2. A Dressing Solution for Burn Wounds: Antibacterial and Low-Adherent Wound Dressings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Tianyun

    Considering the infection and second trauma caused by dressing changes, development of antibacterial and low-adherent wound dressings is urgently needed. Silver ion is a widely used antimicrobial agent, but its cytotoxicity remains a problem. In this study, low-adherent PAM (polyacrylamide) hydrogel incorporated with less toxic AgNP (silver nanoparticle), was immobilized onto PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) substrates by an IPN (interpenetrating polymer network) method. The modified PET is effectively antibacterial and the surface is significantly less adherent than untreated PET. However, silver-resistant bacteria become a potential problem. Thus, ionic 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) analogues containing either a quaternary ammonium moiety or a phosphonate functional group were designed and synthesized. The DMH analogues were converted to antibacterial N-chloramine counterparts through chlorination to serve as potential alternatives to AgNP. The N-chloramine with a structural cation exhibited distinctly enhanced antibacterial functions both in solution and after immobilization on fabrics.

  3. Adaptive multiscale model reduction with Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Eric; Efendiev, Yalchin; Hou, Thomas Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss a general multiscale model reduction framework based on multiscale finite element methods. We give a brief overview of related multiscale methods. Due to page limitations, the overview focuses on a few related methods and is not intended to be comprehensive. We present a general adaptive multiscale model reduction framework, the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. Besides the method's basic outline, we discuss some important ingredients needed for the method's success. We also discuss several applications. The proposed method allows performing local model reduction in the presence of high contrast and no scale separation.

  4. The design, characteristics, and application of polyurethane dressings using the electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampeerapappun, Piyaporn

    In general, a dressing is used to protect and help heal wounds. There are several types of dressings on the market such as hydrocolloid, hydrogel, and medicated dressings. One technique for making a dressing is electrospinning, which is a very simple procedure used to produce fibers. Due to much smaller fiber-diameters than produced with the conventional technique, the fibers from electrospinning have unique properties: high porosity and high surface areas, which are advantageous for wound healing. In this research, the fibers were electrospun using polyurethane, TecophilicRTM or TecoflexRTM, with various additives. First, multilayer transdermal electrospun dressings, four and five-layers, were developed that allowed for the controlled release of nitric oxide (NO) from a NO2 -/ascorbic acid system encapsulated in polymer nanofibers. The amount of NO released from each wound dressing was investigated. Both the four and five-layer dressings were tested for morphology of fibers, water absorption, nitrite distribution, NO release profile after sterilization by gamma radiation, and stability. In the case of the four-layer transdermal dressing, the dressing was tested in diabetic, periodontal, and cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Furthermore, the color change of dressing was investigated. TecophilicRTM was also spun with an antimicrobial agent, which was added to the TecophilicRTM solution to electrospin an antimicrobial dressing. The morphology of fibers was tested using an optical microscope and the water absorption, uniformity, and percent extraction of dressing were also determined. In addition, the efficiency of the antimicrobial agent in the dressing was determined according to SN 195920-1994 and ASTM 2149-01. Another NO-releasing dressing was developed employing the NO donor molecules, sodium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Na) and calcium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Ca), which were electrospun with TecophilicRTM. The NO

  5. A Polytomous Extension of the Generalized Distance Discriminating Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jianan; Xin, Tao; Zhang, Shumei; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a generalized distance discriminating method for test with polytomous response (GDD-P). The new method is the polytomous extension of an item response theory (IRT)-based cognitive diagnostic method, which can identify examinees' ideal response patterns (IRPs) based on a generalized distance index. The similarities…

  6. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  7. Nitrofurantoin: cause of DRESS syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Barreto, Paulo; Leão, Ricardo R; Ribeiro, José Vaz

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common pathological entity among elderly patients. The widespread use of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs has gained many opponents mainly due to the increasing drug resistance observed. Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used antibacterial drug because it has low side effects and a good antiurinary bacterial profile. However, in this paper, we present a case of a nitrofurantoin-induced DRESS (drug reaction/rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome in a 77-year-old woman. During UTI treatment, the patient developed an acute skin rash which spread all over the body and a considerable decrease in urine volume. At the emergency department, we found her developing eosinophilic pneumonia, anaemia and renal impairment that we relate to nitrofurantoin administration. To our knowledge, this is the second published case report which evokes nitrofurantoin as a possible cause of DRESS syndrome. PMID:23661654

  8. A model for quantitative evaluation of skin damage at adhesive wound dressing removal.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hajime; Ahmatjan, Niyaz; Ida, Yukiko; Imai, Ryutaro; Wanatabe, Katsueki

    2013-06-01

    The removal of adhesive wound dressings from the wound surface involves a risk of damaging the intact stratum corneum and regenerating epithelium. Pain associated with the removal of wound dressings is a major issue for patients and medical personnel. Recently, wound dressings coated with a silicone adhesive have been developed to reduce such skin damage and pain on removal and they have received good evaluation in various clinical settings. However, there is neither a standard method to quantify whether or not the integrity of the stratum corneum and regenerating epithelium is retained or if both structures are damaged by the removal of wound dressings, nor are there standardised values with which to assess skin damage. We applied six different types of adhesive wound dressing on plain copy paper printed with black ink by a laser printer, removed the dressings, examined the adhesive-coated surface of the wound dressings using a high-power videoscope, and examined the stripped areas. Wound dressings coated with a silicone adhesive showed significantly less detachment of the stratum corneum and regenerating epithelium, followed by those coated with polyurethane, hydrocolloid, and acrylic adhesives. The assessment method utilised in this study revealed distinct differences between wound dressing types, but less variation in the evaluation outcome of each type. This assessment method may be useful for the evaluation of adhesive wound dressings, particularly during product development. However, further studies will be needed to examine the effectiveness of this assessment method in the clinical setting because the adherent properties of polyurethane and hydrocolloid adhesives may be altered by the absorption of water from the skin. PMID:22533468

  9. A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.

  10. Avoided-Level-Crossing Spectroscopy with Dressed Matter Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, Andre; Holthaus, Martin

    2008-12-12

    We devise a method for probing resonances of macroscopic matter waves in shaken optical lattices by monitoring their response to slow parameter changes, and show that such resonances can be disabled by particular choices of the driving amplitude. The theoretical analysis of this scheme reveals far-reaching analogies between dressed atoms and time periodically forced matter waves.

  11. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...” (Uranium) is measured by the procedure discussed in 40 CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440... the extraction, removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to...

  12. 40 CFR 440.132 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...” (Uranium) is measured by the procedure discussed in 40 CFR 141.25(b)(2), or an equivalent method. ... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions and Definitions § 440... the extraction, removal, or recovery of metal ore is being conducted, except, with respect to...

  13. A Comparison of the Efficacy and Cost of Different Venous Leg Ulcer Dressings: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed M. Asim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simple nonadherent dressings with other more expensive dressing types in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Location. The leg ulcer clinic at the University Hospital of South Manchester. Subjects and Methods. The healing rates of twelve leg ulcer patients treated with simple nonadherent dressings (e.g., NA Ultra) were compared with an equal number of patients treated with modern dressings to determine differences in healing rates and cost. Main Outcome Measures. Rate of healing as determined by reduction in ulcer area over a specified period of time and total cost of dressing per patient. Results. Simple nonadherent dressings had a mean healing rate of 0.353 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.319) compared with a mean of 0.415 cm2/week (standard deviation ± 0.383) for more expensive dressings. This resulted in a one-tailed p value of 0.251 and a two-tailed p value of 0.508. Multiple regression analysis gave a significance F of 0.8134. Conclusion. The results indicate that the difference in healing rate between simple and modern dressings is not statistically significant. Therefore, the cost of dressing type should be an important factor influencing dressing selection. PMID:25954532

  14. A comparison of the efficacy and cost of different venous leg ulcer dressings: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed M Asim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simple nonadherent dressings with other more expensive dressing types in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Location. The leg ulcer clinic at the University Hospital of South Manchester. Subjects and Methods. The healing rates of twelve leg ulcer patients treated with simple nonadherent dressings (e.g., NA Ultra) were compared with an equal number of patients treated with modern dressings to determine differences in healing rates and cost. Main Outcome Measures. Rate of healing as determined by reduction in ulcer area over a specified period of time and total cost of dressing per patient. Results. Simple nonadherent dressings had a mean healing rate of 0.353 cm(2)/week (standard deviation ± 0.319) compared with a mean of 0.415 cm(2)/week (standard deviation ± 0.383) for more expensive dressings. This resulted in a one-tailed p value of 0.251 and a two-tailed p value of 0.508. Multiple regression analysis gave a significance F of 0.8134. Conclusion. The results indicate that the difference in healing rate between simple and modern dressings is not statistically significant. Therefore, the cost of dressing type should be an important factor influencing dressing selection. PMID:25954532

  15. A silver-coated antimicrobial barrier dressing used postoperatively on meshed autografts: a dressing comparison study.

    PubMed

    Silver, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Symanthia W; Halerz, Marcia M; Conrad, Peggie; Supple, Kathy G; Gamelli, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to optimize the management of freshly grafted burn wounds, a silver-coated, low-adherence dressing, Acticoat (Smith & Nephew Inc., Largo, FL), was compared with 5% sulfamylon-soaked Exu-Dry burn wound dressings. Twenty subjects admitted to the Loyola University Medical Center were randomized to either Acticoat dressings or 5% sulfamylon-soaked burn wound dressings. Dressings were applied immediately after grafting in the operating room. Acticoat dressings were left in place for 3 days and then changed every 3 days thereafter. Sulfamylon-soaked dressings were changed at 48 hours and then every day. Subjects continued to have dressing changes on a twice-daily basis to wounds that were not grafted managed. Subjects were assessed for graft take, time to wound healing, and the number of dressings required until healing. Hospital charges and labor costs were retrospectively tabulated, yielding an expense estimate for each group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, %TBSA, %TBSA of the grafted test sites, graft take, time to graft healing, or infectious complications. The median number of dressing changes to the test site was significantly less in the Acticoat group (P < .05). The average expense per dressing change was not significantly different between the two groups; however, the average total expense per patient was significantly lower for the Acticoat group because of the reduced number of dressing changes. Acticoat and 5% sulfamylon-soaked burn wound dressings were equivalent with respect to wound healing and infectious complications. The use of Acticoat was found to be a safe alternative to the use of 5% sulfamylon as a postsurgical dressing in this group of subjects. Because of the reduced number of dressing changes, the use of Acticoat was a less expensive alternative to 5% sulfamylon dressing changes in this study. PMID:17667837

  16. An improved generalized Newton method for absolute value equations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard absolute value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490

  17. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-01-01

    Four different methods of teaching--cooperative learning, class discussions, concept maps, and lectures--were integrated into a freshman-level general chemistry course to compare students' levels of participation. Findings support the idea that multiple modes of learning foster the metacognitive skills necessary for mastering general chemistry.…

  18. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MOUSE: GENERAL APPROACH AND METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse effects of chemicals on the lymphoreticular system have generated considerable toxicological interest. In the series of papers, the effects of selected environmentally relevant compounds are reported. The first paper describes the methods and general approach used in ...

  19. Hadronic Structure from Perturbative Dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz

    2005-09-01

    Perturbative dressing of a valence quark in QCD produces the internal structure of an extended object, the so-called Valon. The valon structure is universal and independent of the hosting hadron. Polarized and unpolarized proton and pion structure functions are calculated in the valon representation. One finds that although all the available data on g1p,n,d are easily reproduced, a sizable orbital angular momentum associated with the partonic structure of the valon is required in order to have a spin 1/2 valon.

  20. Clinical Curative Effect of Mesalt Combined with Mepilex Dressing in Postoperative Infection of Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenjun; Xiong, Zhonghua; Wu, Jiayu; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Inguinal hernia is a common surgical disease. Tension-free hernioplasty is currently commonly used for its treatment, with multiple advantages such as simple surgical method, low recurrence rate, and ability to be performed in primary care hospitals, but the risk of incision infection still exists. Mild infection can be cured by local washing, dressing, and systemic antibiotics. If the infection is severe, the wound may not heal after removing the patch, and secondary suturing is needed. Material/Methods A total of 60 patients with postoperative infection after tension-free repair of inguinal hernia were randomly divided into control (n=30) and treatment (n=30) groups. Patients in the treatment group received Mesalt combined with Mepilex for dressing while the patients in the control group received conventional gauze for dressing. Pain degree, wound healing time, and dressing times were observed. Results The clinical therapeutic effect in the treatment group was significantly better than in the control group. The treatment group exhibited significantly less pain when patients receive dressing, shorter wounds healing time (15±3.5 vs. 30±5.0), and less dressing frequency (10±2.1 vs. 20±2.4). Conclusions Mesalt combined with Mepilex can effectively improve postoperative infection after inguinal hernia treatment, obviously reducing pain, shorting wound healing time, and decreasing dressing frequency. It can be widely used in clinical practice. PMID:25854191

  1. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D R; Goode, P S; LaMaster, K; Tennyson, T

    1998-10-01

    Aloe vera has been used for centuries as a topical treatment for various conditions and as a cathartic. An amorphous hydrogel dressing derived from the aloe plant (Carrasyn Gel Wound Dressing, Carrington Laboratories, Inc., Irving, TX) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of Stages I through IV pressure ulcers. To evaluate effectiveness of this treatment, 30 patients were randomized to receive either daily topical application of the hydrogel study dressing (acemannan hydrogel wound dressing) or a moist saline gauze dressing. Complete healing of the study ulcer occurred in 19 of 30 subjects (63%) during the 10-week observation period. No difference was observed in complete healing between the experimental and the control groups (odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.16, 5.2). This study indicates that the acemannan hydrogel dressing is as effective as, but is not superior to, a moist saline gauze wound dressing for the management of pressure ulcers. PMID:10326343

  2. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them. PMID:26061489

  3. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  4. A generalization of the method of harmonic balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is provided for generalizing the method of harmonic balance to obtain higher-order approximations to the periodic solutions of differential equations for two systems, one a conservative system and the other nonconservative. The procedure is currently being applied to investigate the possible solution behaviors of singular, nonlinear oscillators, where the usual perturbation methods do not work.

  5. Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, E. R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Austin, D. R.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S. E. E.; Siegel, T.; Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V.; Miseikis, L.; Strüber, C. S.; Chipperfield, L.; Marangos, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the vectorial response of strongly dressed helium atoms probed by an attosecond pulse train (APT) polarised either parallel or perpendicular to the dressing field polarisation. The transient absorption is probed as a function of delay between the APT and the linearly polarised 800 nm field of peak intensity 1.3× {10}14 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The APT spans the photon energy range 16–42 eV, covering the first ionisation energy of helium (24.59 eV). With parallel polarised dressing and probing fields, we observe modulations with periods of one half and one quarter of the dressing field period. When the polarisation of the dressing field is altered from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the APT polarisation we observe a large suppression in the modulation depth of the above ionisation threshold absorption. In addition to this we present the intensity dependence of the harmonic modulation depth as a function of delay between the dressing and probe fields, with dressing field peak intensities ranging from 2 × 1012 to 2 × 1014 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. We compare our experimental results with a full-dimensional solution of the single-atom time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation obtained using the recently developed abinitio TD B-spline ADC method and find good qualitative agreement for the above threshold harmonics.

  6. Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Biesaga, Magdalena; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces. Material/Methods Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors. Results All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around. Conclusions Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used. PMID:26264209

  7. Dressing wear time after breast reconstruction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the major risk variables for surgical site infection is wound management. Understanding infection risk factors for breast operations is essential in order to develop infection-prevention strategies and improve surgical outcomes. The aim of this trial is to assess the influence of dressing wear time on surgical site infection rates and skin colonization. Patients’ perception at self-assessment will also be analyzed. Methods/Design This is a two-arm randomized controlled trial. Two hundred breast cancer patients undergoing immediate or delayed breast reconstruction will be prospectively enrolled. Patients will be randomly allocated to group I (dressing removed on postoperative day one) or group II (dressing removed on postoperative day six). Surgical site infections will be defined by standard criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Skin colonization will be assessed by culture of samples collected at predefined time points. Patients will score dressing wear time with regard to safety, comfort and convenience. Discussion The evidence to support dressing standards for breast surgery wounds is empiric and scarce. CDC recommends protecting, with a sterile dressing for 24 to 48 hours postoperatively, a primarily closed incision, but there is no recommendation to cover this kind of incision beyond 48 hours, or on the appropriate time to shower or bathe with an uncovered incision. The results of the ongoing trial may support standard recommendations regarding dressing wear time after breast reconstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: http://NCT01148823. PMID:23432779

  8. A robust general phase retrieval method for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yan, A.; Liu, H.

    2013-01-01

    From medical imaging perspective the robustness of a phase retrieval method is of critical importance. In this presentation we compare the robustness of two general phase retrieval methods, namely the transport of intensity equation inversion (TIE-inversion) method and the attenuation partition based (AP-based) method. We showed that the TIE-inversion method, regardless if being assisted with the Tikhonov regularization, failed to retrieve the phase maps in two experimental studies. The failure exposes this method’s weakness as being unstable against the noise. In contrast, the sample phase maps are retrieved successfully by using the AP-based method. The stark performance differences of the two methods are rooted in their different techniques dealing with the singularity problem. This comparison shows that the robust AP-based phase retrieval method will be superior to the TIE-inversion method for medical imaging applications where radiation doses are stringently limited. PMID:23894250

  9. DSE inspired model for the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Mezrag, C.; Moutarde, H.; Roberts, C. D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.; Sabatié, F.

    2015-07-01

    We sketch here an approach to the computation of genaralised parton distributions (GPDs), based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL) truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, Hvπ(x,ξ,t). Our analysis focuses on the case of zero skewness, ξ = 0, and underlines that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hvπ(x,0,t), expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hvπ(x,0,t) and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, , which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pion's dressed-quark structure at an hadronic scale.

  10. On a New Numerical Method for Solving General Variational Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bnouhachem, Abdellah; Noor, Muhammad Aslam; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Sheng, Zhaohan

    In this paper, we suggest and analyze a new extragradient method for solving the general variational inequalities involving two operators. We also prove the global convergence of the proposed modified method under certain mild conditions. We used a self-adaptive technique to adjust parameter ρ at each iteration. It is proved theoretically that the lower-bound of the progress obtained by the proposed method is greater than that by the extragradient method. An example is given to illustrate the efficiency and its comparison with the extragradient method. Since the general variational inequalities include the classical variational inequalities and complementarity problems as special cases, our results obtained in this paper continue to hold for these problems. Results obtained in this paper may be viewed as an improvement and refinement of the previously known results in this field.

  11. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  12. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2-4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  13. General Methods for Quantifying Uncertainty in Discharge Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Tim; Kiang, Julie; Mason, Robert, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Developing a general operational method for quantifying uncertainty in streamflow measurements has proven to be a difficult task. The Interpolated Variance Estimator (IVE), which can be applied to situations where sampling involves multiple verticals, has been shown to perform reasonably well at characterizing the nonsystematic errors associated with both irregular channel geometry and pulsating velocities. It is not obvious, however, how to generalize the procedure, or in fact find any alternative procedure, that can take advantage of the continuous current profiling associated with more sophisticated ADCP instruments. Developing a uniform and consistent operational method remains a tall and important order.

  14. An error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Philsu; Kim, Junghan; Jung, WonKyu; Bu, Sunyoung

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we develop an error embedded method based on generalized Chebyshev polynomials for solving stiff initial value problems. The solution and the error at each integration step are calculated by generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two consecutive degrees having overlapping zeros, which enables us to minimize overall computational costs. Further the errors at each integration step are embedded in the algorithm itself. In terms of concrete convergence and stability analysis, the constructed algorithm turns out to have the 6th order convergence and an almost L-stability. We assess the proposed method with several numerical results, showing that it uses larger time step sizes and is numerically more efficient.

  15. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Open Wound Treatment vs Occlusive Dressings in Elective Surgical Cases with Respect to Surgical Site Infections

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Anmol; Sidhu, D S

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical wounds heal by primary intention in all the elective and emergency surgical procedures. Current practice is to place dressing over the closed wound before the patient leaves the sterile environment of the operating theatre. Dressing is a material applied to protect a wound and favour its healing. However, to leave wound open in direct contact to environment following any procedure by just applying some ointment on it, the so called open wound treatment is still controversial one. In the present study we have compared open wound treatment vs occlusive dressings in elective surgical cases with respect to surgical site infections. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted on 100 patients admitted for elective general surgery after taking written informed consent. Patients were divided randomly in to two equal groups each comprising of 50 patients. In Group A, patients had occlusive dressing till removal of stitches and in Group B, patients wounds were kept exposed to environment after the surgical procedure. Results In present study we observed total 7% of postoperative wounds were infected of all the clean and clean contaminated wounds we studied. In Group A, patients had occlusive dressing and these patients had 8% infection rate whereas in Group B patients, wounds were kept exposed to environment and these patients had 6% infection rate. Conclusion It is hereby concluded that in the elective surgical cases there is no harm in leaving the wounds open postoperatively. This method not only helps in arresting the infective pathology at a lesser stage but also saves surgeon’s time and patient’s money. PMID:26266164

  16. Wound dressings, does it matter and why?

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, Marjolein Birgitte; van Montfrans, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Compression therapy and treating venous insufficiency is the standard of care for venous leg ulcers. The need for debridement on healing venous leg ulcers is still debated. Dressings are often used under compression bandages to promote faster healing and prevent adherence of the bandage to the ulcer. A wide range of dressings is available, including modern dressings with different kinds of biological activity. Microbial burden is believed to underlie delayed healing, but the exact role of microbiofilm in wound healing is uncertain. Before choosing a specific wound dressing, four main functions should be considered: (1) cleaning, (2) absorbing, (3) regulating or (4) the necessity of adding medication. There is no clear evidence to support the use of one dressing over another, as demonstrated by many Cochrane review studies. In addition, the prescriber should enquire about contact allergies that may also develop during wound treatment. It is shown that early intervention and early investment may reduce the cost of treatment. The choice of wound dressings should be guided by cost, ease of application and patient and physician preference and be part of the complete strategy. The role of the medical specialist is evident. Wound dressings matter as part of the optimal treatment in VLU patients. PMID:26916771

  17. Survey of methods for calculating sensitivity of general eigenproblems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of methods for sensitivity analysis of the algebraic eigenvalue problem for non-Hermitian matrices is presented. In addition, a modification of one method based on a better normalizing condition is proposed. Methods are classified as Direct or Adjoint and are evaluated for efficiency. Operation counts are presented in terms of matrix size, number of design variables and number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of interest. The effect of the sparsity of the matrix and its derivatives is also considered, and typical solution times are given. General guidelines are established for the selection of the most efficient method.

  18. The trace minimization method for the symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameh, Ahmed; Tong, Zhanye

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the trace minimization method for the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problems proposed by Sameh and Wisniewski [35] is reviewed. Convergence of an inexact trace minimization algorithm is established and a variant of the algorithm that uses expanding subspaces is introduced and compared with the block Jacobi-Davidson algorithm.

  19. Heavy meson mass-spectra by general relativistic methods (*)

    SciTech Connect

    Italiano, A.; Lattuada, M.; Maccarrone, G.D.; Recami, E.; Riggi, F.; Vinciguerra, D.

    1984-11-01

    By applying the classical methods of general relativity to elementary particles, one can get-in a natural way-the observed confinement of their constituents, avoiding any recourse to phenomenological models such as the bag model and allowing the deduction of the heavy meson (i.e., charmonium (J/psi) and bottomonium (..gamma..)) mass-spectra.

  20. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GEOPHYSICAL METHODS APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysics is the application of physical quantity measurement techniques to provide information on conditions or features beneath the earth’s surface. With the exception of borehole geophysical methods and soil probes like a cone penetrometer, these techniques are generally noninvasive with physica...

  1. Evaluation of boiled potato peel as a wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Dattatreya, R M; Nuijen, S; van Swaaij, A C; Klopper, P J

    1991-08-01

    In a series of experiments full thickness skin defects in 68 rats were covered with dressings made of boiled potato peels according to the method developed in Bombay. The wounds closed within 14 days and histologically complete repair of epidermis was found. The cork layer of the potato peel prevents dehydration of the wound and protects against exogenous agents. Experiments with homogenates revealed that a complete structure of the peel is necessary. Steroidal glycosides may have contributed to the favourable results. PMID:1930669

  2. Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632

  3. Comparison of three different dressings for partial thickness burns in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the paediatric population, pain and distress associated with burn injuries during wound care procedures remain a constant challenge. Although silver dressings are the gold standard for burn care in Australasia, very few high-level trials have been conducted that compare silver dressings to determine which will provide the best level of care clinically. Therefore, for paediatric patients in particular, identifying silver dressings that are associated with lower levels of pain and rapid wound re-epithelialisation is imperative. This study will determine whether there is a difference in time to re-epithelialisation and pain and distress experienced during wound care procedures among Acticoat™, Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ and Mepilex Ag™ dressings for acute, paediatric partial thickness burns. Methods/Design Children aged 0 to 15 years with an acute partial thickness (superficial partial to deep partial thickness inclusive) burn injury and a burn total body surface area of ≤10% will be eligible for the trial. Patients will be randomised to one of the three dressing groups: (1) Acticoat™ or (2) Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ or (3) Mepilex Ag™. A minimum of 28 participants will be recruited for each treatment group. Primary measures of pain, distress and healing will be repeated at each dressing change until complete wound re-epithelialisation occurs or skin grafting is required. Additional data collected will include infection status at each dressing change, physical function, scar outcome and scar management requirements, cost effectiveness of each dressing and staff perspectives of the dressings. Discussion The results of this study will determine the effects of three commonly used silver and silicone burn dressing combinations on the rate of wound re-epithelialisation and pain experienced during dressing procedures in acute, paediatric partial thickness burn injuries. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  4. Modified wound dressing with phyto-nanostructured coating to prevent staphylococcal and pseudomonal biofilm development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a newly fabricated nanophyto-modified wound dressing with microbicidal and anti-adherence properties. Nanofluid-based magnetite doped with eugenol or limonene was used to fabricate modified wound dressings. Nanostructure coated materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR. For the quantitative measurement of biofilm-embedded microbial cells, a culture-based method for viable cell count was used. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to staphylococcal and pseudomonal colonization and biofilm formation compared to the uncoated controls. The functionalized surfaces for wound dressing seems to be a very useful tool for the prevention of wound microbial contamination on viable tissues. PMID:23272823

  5. Dressed Zeno effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Ge, Guo-Qin; Feng, Shun-Bin

    2014-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum Zeno effect in a driven superconducting charge qubit strongly and ultrastrongly coupled to a transmission line resonator. Using the dressed-state approach, we predict the different dynamics behaviors of the dressed qubit subjected to two opposite projection measurements. We show that, for very frequent measurements, the survival probability of the initial state is of exponential form and the Zeno time of the dressed qubit can be several orders of magnitude longer than that of the bare qubit. For slowly repeated measurements, the detuning of the driving field has significant impact on the measurement dynamics, and by choosing appropriate parameters for the dressed qubit, the Zeno effect can occur in the nonresonant coupling case. Such a Zeno effect is excluded from a usual two-level system.

  6. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features ... chap 16. Read More Compartment syndrome Leg or foot amputation Peripheral artery disease - legs Type 1 diabetes ...

  7. General Characterization Methods for Photoelectrochemical Cells for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinjian; Cai, Lili; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Xiaolin; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-10-12

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a very promising technology that converts water into clean hydrogen fuel and oxygen by using solar light. However, the characterization methods for PEC cells are diverse and a systematic introduction to characterization methods for PEC cells has rarely been attempted. Unlike most other review articles that focus mainly on the material used for the working electrodes of PEC cells, this review introduces general characterization methods for PEC cells, including their basic configurations and methods for characterizing their performance under various conditions, regardless of the materials used. Detailed experimental operation procedures with theoretical information are provided for each characterization method. The PEC research area is rapidly expanding and more researchers are beginning to devote themselves to related work. Therefore, the content of this Minireview can provide entry-level knowledge to beginners in the area of PEC, which might accelerate progress in this area. PMID:26365789

  8. [Neutral and impregnated dressings and products].

    PubMed

    Nicodème, Marguerite; Rollot, Florence; Fromantin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Dressings without active ingredients are adapted to each stage of healing, depending on their degree of moisture, their absorption capacity and their non-traumatic character. Impregnated and mechanical dressings are also available. They are indicated for preventing or treating a symptom or a complication, or for "boosting" healing, in the form of a sequential treatment. Understanding their composition enables their indications to be better targeted thereby improving the efficacy of the overall wound management. PMID:26763565

  9. Sensitivity analysis and approximation methods for general eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, D. V.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Optimization of dynamic systems involving complex non-hermitian matrices is often computationally expensive. Major contributors to the computational expense are the sensitivity analysis and reanalysis of a modified design. The present work seeks to alleviate this computational burden by identifying efficient sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis methods. For the algebraic eigenvalue problem involving non-hermitian matrices, algorithms for sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis are classified, compared and evaluated for efficiency and accuracy. Proper eigenvector normalization is discussed. An improved method for calculating derivatives of eigenvectors is proposed based on a more rational normalization condition and taking advantage of matrix sparsity. Important numerical aspects of this method are also discussed. To alleviate the problem of reanalysis, various approximation methods for eigenvalues are proposed and evaluated. Linear and quadratic approximations are based directly on the Taylor series. Several approximation methods are developed based on the generalized Rayleigh quotient for the eigenvalue problem. Approximation methods based on trace theorem give high accuracy without needing any derivatives. Operation counts for the computation of the approximations are given. General recommendations are made for the selection of appropriate approximation technique as a function of the matrix size, number of design variables, number of eigenvalues of interest and the number of design points at which approximation is sought.

  10. Ghee and honey dressing for infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, Tehemton E

    2011-08-01

    Ghee and honey has been advocated and used as dressing for infected wounds by Sushruta (600BC) and since 1991 in four Mumbai Hospitals. The gratifying results observed with the dressing have prompted this study which aims to establish its efficacy in five recalcitrant subset of chronic infected wounds over a three year period 2006-2009. A standardized ghee and honey dressing was used to treat: a) Eight cases of fungating malignant lesions. b) Thirteen chronic venous ulcers. c) Twenty nine diabetic foot ulcers. d) Eleven of infected ventral hernia mesh hernioplasty. e) Eleven patient with post-cesarean wound dehiscence. The dressing markedly reduced the foul odour and discharge, significantly improving the quality of life in malignant lesions. The results were equivocal in cases of venous ulcers. The results were uniformly good in the last three groups. In view of our results, as also result of innumerable Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) reported on honey dressing for infected wounds, there is substantial evidence that ghee and honey dressing has at least comparable results to other modes of treatment. The easy availability and low cost of this treatment makes it significant in developing countries. Further trials seem warranted. PMID:22851841

  11. Using absorbable chitosan hemostatic sponges as a promising surgical dressing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Sun, Yongfu; Nie, Jingyi; Lu, Wentao; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yin, Hongping; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2015-04-01

    As absorbable hemostatic dressings, chitosan with a deacetylation degree of 40% (CS-40) and 73% (CS-73) have been fabricated into sponges via a modified method. The hemostatic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties were evaluated through in vivo assays. In a hepatic hemorrhage model, the chitosan sponges, with excellent blood compatibility, achieved less blood loss than the gelation sponge (GS). In addition, CS-40 showed better hemostatic capability and biodegradability than CS-73. After implantation, a histological analysis indicated that CS-40 exhibited the best biodegradability, tissue regeneration and least tissue adhesion. By contrasting CS-40 and CS-73, the deacetylation degree is confirmed to be a key factor for the hemostatic effect, biodegradability, biocompatibility and tissue regeneration. Our overall results demonstrated the potential application of CS-40 for use in absorbable hemostatic dressings. PMID:25661881

  12. Generalization of the time-dependent numerical renormalization group method to finite temperatures and general pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, H. T. M.; Costi, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    The time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TDNRG) method [Anders et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 196801 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.196801] offers the prospect of investigating in a nonperturbative manner the time dependence of local observables of interacting quantum impurity models at all time scales following a quantum quench. Here, we present a generalization of this method to arbitrary finite temperature by making use of the full density matrix approach [Weichselbaum et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 076402 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.076402]. We show that all terms in the projected full density matrix ρi →f=ρ+++ρ--+ρ+-+ρ-+ appearing in the time evolution of a local observable may be evaluated in closed form at finite temperature, with ρ+-=ρ-+=0. The expression for ρ-- is shown to be finite at finite temperature, becoming negligible only in the limit of vanishing temperatures. We prove that this approach recovers the short-time limit for the expectation value of a local observable exactly at arbitrary temperatures. In contrast, the corresponding long-time limit is recovered exactly only for a continuous bath, i.e., when the logarithmic discretization parameter Λ →1+. Since the numerical renormalization group approach breaks down in this limit, and calculations have to be carried out at Λ >1, the long-time behavior following an arbitrary quantum quench has a finite error, which poses an obstacle for the method, e.g., in its application to the scattering-states numerical renormalization group method for describing steady-state nonequilibrium transport through correlated impurities [Anders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 066804 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.066804]. We suggest a way to overcome this problem by noting that the time dependence, in general, and the long-time limit, in particular, become increasingly more accurate on reducing the size of the quantum quench. This suggests an improved generalized TDNRG approach in which the system is time

  13. General finite state machine reasoning method for digital forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Guoyin

    2008-04-01

    Digital forensics investigator faces the challenge of reliability of forensic conclusions. Formal automatic analysis method is helpful to deal with the challenge. The finite state machine analysis method tries to determine all possible sequences of events that could have happened in a digital system during an incident. Its basic idea is to model the target system using a finite state machine and then explore its all possible states on the condition of available evidence. Timed mealy finite state machine is introduced to model the target system, and the formalization of system running process and evidence is presented to match the system running with possible source evidence automatically. Based on Gladyshev's basic reasoning method, general reasoning algorithms with multi strategies are developed to find the possible real scenarios. Case study and experimental results show that our method is feasible and adaptable to possible cases and takes a further step to practical formal reasoning for digital forensics.

  14. Randomized Comparison of Dry Dressings Versus Hydrogel in Management of Radiation-Induced Moist Desquamation

    SciTech Connect

    Macmillan, Maureen S. . E-mail: m.macmillan@napier.ac.uk; Wells, Mary; MacBride, Sheila; Raab, Gillian M.; Munro, Alastair; MacDougall, Hugh

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a randomized controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effect of a hydrogel or dry dressing on the time to healing of moist desquamation after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck, breast, or anorectal areas. Methods and Materials: A total of 357 patients were randomized before radiotherapy to receive simple dry dressings (Tricotex) or a hydrogel (Intrasite), with Tricotex as a secondary dressing. Patients were instructed to use their dressings from the onset of moist desquamation, if it occurred. Results: Of the 357 patients, 100 (28%) developed moist desquamation. The time to healing was significantly prolonged (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.99), in patients assigned to gel dressings. No evidence was found that gel dressings had a significant impact on subjectively reported skin symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study have not supported the routine use of hydrogels in the care of patients with moist desquamation and suggests that the healing times are prolonged, without any improvement in patient comfort.

  15. Choosing a Wound Dressing Based on Common Wound Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Ganary; Damstetter, Elizabeth; Phillips, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds are a major healthcare burden.The practitioner should have an appropriate understanding of both the etiology of the wound as well as the optimal type of dressings to use. Fundamental wound characteristics may be used to guide the practitioner's choice of dressings. The identification of optimal dressings to use for a particular wound type is an important element in facilitating wound healing. Recent Advances: Researchers have sought to design wound dressings that aim to optimize each stage in the healing process. In addition, dressings have been designed to target and kill infection-causing bacteria, with the incorporation of antimicrobial agents. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are frequently dynamic in presentation, and the numerous wound dressings available make dressing selection challenging for the practitioner. Choosing the correct dressing decreases time to healing, provides cost-effective care, and improves patient quality of life. Future Directions: Research into the mechanisms of wound healing has enhanced our ability to heal chronic wounds at a faster rate through the use of moisture-retentive dressings. Newer dressings are incorporating the use of nanotechnology by incorporating miniature electrical sensors into the dressing. These dressings are engineered to detect changes in a wound environment and alert the patient or practitioner by altering the color of the dressing or sending a message to a smartphone. Additional investigations are underway that incorporate biologic material such as stem cells into dressings. PMID:26858913

  16. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  17. On-machine precision preparation and dressing of ball-headed diamond wheel for the grinding of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Ziang; Yu, Bo; Peng, Hui; Fang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    In the grinding of high quality fused silica parts with complex surface or structure using ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel with small diameter, the existing dressing methods are not suitable to dress the ball-headed diamond wheel precisely due to that they are either on-line in process dressing which may causes collision problem or without consideration for the effects of the tool setting error and electrode wear. An on-machine precision preparation and dressing method is proposed for ball-headed diamond wheel based on electrical discharge machining. By using this method the cylindrical diamond wheel with small diameter is manufactured to hemispherical-headed form. The obtained ball-headed diamond wheel is dressed after several grinding passes to recover geometrical accuracy and sharpness which is lost due to the wheel wear. A tool setting method based on high precision optical system is presented to reduce the wheel center setting error and dimension error. The effect of electrode tool wear is investigated by electrical dressing experiments, and the electrode tool wear compensation model is established based on the experimental results which show that the value of wear ratio coefficient K' tends to be constant with the increasing of the feed length of electrode and the mean value of K' is 0.156. Grinding experiments of fused silica are carried out on a test bench to evaluate the performance of the preparation and dressing method. The experimental results show that the surface roughness of the finished workpiece is 0.03 μm. The effect of the grinding parameter and dressing frequency on the surface roughness is investigated based on the measurement results of the surface roughness. This research provides an on-machine preparation and dressing method for ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel used in the grinding of fused silica, which provides a solution to the tool setting method and the effect of electrode tool wear.

  18. Generalized slave-particle method for extended Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a set of generalized slave-particle models for extended Hubbard models that treat localized electronic correlations using slave-boson decompositions. Our models automatically include two slave-particle methods of recent interest, the slave-rotor and slave-spin methods, as well as a ladder of new intermediate models where one can choose which of the electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., spin or orbital labels) are treated as correlated degrees of freedom by the slave bosons. In addition, our method removes the aberrant behavior of the slave-rotor model, where it systematically overestimates the importance of electronic correlation effects for weak interaction strength, by removing the contribution of unphysical states from the bosonic Hilbert space. The flexibility of our formalism permits one to separate and isolate the effect of correlations on the key degrees of freedom.

  19. General method for quantifying base adducts in specific mammalian genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.C.; Morton, A.G.; Bohr, V.A.; Sancar, A.

    1988-06-01

    A general method has been developed to measure the formation and removal of DNA adducts in defined sequences of mammalian genomes. Adducted genomic DNA is digested with an appropriate restriction enzyme, treated with Escherichia coli UvrABC excision nuclease (ABC excinuclease), subjected to alkaline gel electrophoresis, and probed for specific sequences by Southern hybridization. The ABC excinuclease incises DNA containing bulky adducts and thus reduces the intensity of the full-length fragments in Southern hybridization in proportion to the number of adducts present in the probed sequence. This method is similar to that developed by Bohr et al. for quantifying pyrimidine dimers by using T4 endonuclease V. Because of the wide substrate range of ABC exinuclease, however, our method can be used to quantify a large variety of DNA adducts in specific genomic sequences.

  20. Bio-Conjugated Polycaprolactone Membranes: A Novel Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Teo, Erin Yiling; Jing, Lim; Koh, Yun Pei; Qian, Tan Si; Wen, Feng; Lee, James Wai Kit; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Yap, Yan Lin; Lee, Hanjing; Lee, Chuen Neng; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Lim, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid creates an ideal environment for wound healing. Hyaluronic acid maintains a moist wound environment and accelerates the in-growth of granulation tissue. Polycaprolactone has excellent mechanical strength, limits inflammation and is biocompatible. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of bio-conjugated polycaprolactone membranes (BPM) as a wound dressing. Methods 16 New Zealand white rabbits were sedated and local anaesthesia was administered. Two 3.0×3.0 cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of each rabbit, between the lowest rib and the pelvic bone. The wounds were dressed with either BPM (n=12) or Mepitel (n=12) (control), a polyamide-silicon wound dressing. These were evaluated macroscopically on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days for granulation, re-epithelialization, infection, and wound size, and histologically for epidermal and dermal regeneration. Results Both groups showed a comparable extent of granulation and re-epithelialization. No signs of infection were observed. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in wound size between the two groups. BPM (n=6): 8.33 cm2, 4.90 cm2, 3.12 cm2, 1.84 cm2; Mepitel (n=6): 10.29 cm2, 5.53 cm2, 3.63 cm2, 2.02 cm2; at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days. The extents of epidermal and dermal regeneration were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions BPM is comparable to Mepitel as a safe and efficacious wound dressing. PMID:25396174

  1. Ovine-Based Collagen Matrix Dressing: Next-Generation Collagen Dressing for Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Gregory; Liden, Brock; Schultz, Gregory; Yang, Qingping; Gibson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MMP) reduction along with inherent aspects of an extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing can bring about improved wound healing outcomes and shorter treatment duration. Initial reports of clinical effectiveness of a new ovine-based collagen extracellular matrix (CECM) dressing demonstrate benefits in chronic wound healing. Recent Advances: CECM dressings are processed differently than oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen dressings. CECM dressings consist primarily of collagens I and III arranged as native fibers that retain the three-dimensional architecture present in tissue ECM. As such, ovine-based ECM dressings represent a new generation of collagen dressings capable of impacting a broad spectrum of MMP excess known to be present in chronic wounds. Critical Issues: While MMPs are essential in normal healing, elevated presence of MMPs has been linked to wound failure. Collagen has been shown to reduce levels of MMPs, acting as a sacrificial substrate for excessive proteases in a chronic wound. Preserving collagen dressings in a more native state enhances bioactivity in terms of the ability to affect the chronic wound environment. Clinical observation and assessment may not be sufficient to identify a wound with elevated protease activity that can break down ECM, affect wound fibroblasts, and impair growth factor response. Future Directions: Collagen dressings that target broad-spectrum excessive MMP levels and can be applied early in the course of care may positively impact healing rates in difficult wounds. Next-generation collagen dressings offer broader MMP reduction capacity while providing a provisional dermal matrix or ECM. PMID:26858910

  2. A general method for unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Platzer, Max F.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a general method for calculating unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades is described. It is based on the numerical solution of the boundary-layer equations for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows. A novel procedure has been developed to account for the movement of the stagnation point caused by blade-passing wakes and has been applied to the stagnation region of three model flows with results which confirm its validity for laminar flows. It has also been applied to an experimental arrangement in which the average Nusselt number has been reported for turbulent flows and the results show considerable promise.

  3. The effectiveness of hydrocolloid dressings versus other dressings in the healing of pressure ulcers in adults and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Pott, Franciele Soares; Meier, Marineli Joaquim; Stocco, Janislei Giseli Dorociak; Crozeta, Karla; Ribas, Janyne Dayane

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrocolloids in the healing of pressure ulcers in adult and older adult patients. Method systematic review with meta-analysis, based on the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook. The search was undertaken in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Cochrane Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science and the Scientific Electronic Library Online. Results 646 primary studies were identified, 69 were evaluated and nine were selected, referring to the use of the hydrocolloid dressing in healing; of these, four studies allowed meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the hydrocolloid group and the foams group (p value=0.84; Odds Ratio 1.06, CI 95% 0.61-1.86). A slight superiority of the polyurethane dressings was observed in relation to the hydrocolloid dressings. Conclusion the evidence is not sufficient to affirm whether the efficacy of hydrocolloid dressings is superior to that of other dressings. It is suggested that clinical randomized trials be undertaken so as to ascertain the efficacy of this intervention in the healing of pressure ulcers, in relation to other treatments. PMID:25029065

  4. Neutron electric dipole moment and dressed spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ping-Han

    The neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment has played a unique role in examining the violation of fundamental symmetries and understanding the nature of electroweak and strong interaction. A non-zero neutron EDM is one of direct evidence for CP and T violation and has the potential to reveal the origin of CP violation and to explore physics beyond the Standard Model. A new neutron EDM experiment will be built to improve a factor of 100 by using a novel technique of ultra-cold neutrons(UCN) in superfluid 4He at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the experiment, 3He in the measurement cell will be used as a neutron spin analyzer and a comagnetometer. The absorption between UCN and 3He atoms will emit scintillation light in the superfluid 4He depending on the angle between nuclear spins of two particles. Consequently, the neutron precession frequency can be derived by the scintillation light amplitude. Furthermore, the 3He precession frequency can be measured by the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). A dressed-spin technique will also be applied to measure the small precession frequency change due to a non-zero neutron EDM. The dressed-spin technique is used to modify the effective precession frequencies of neutrons and 3He atoms to make them equal by applying an oscillatory field (dressing field) that is perpendicular to the static magnetic field. The phenomenon of the dressed spin for 3He in a cell should be demonstrated before the proposed neutron EDM experiment. A successful measurement over a broad range of the amplitude and frequency of the dressing field was done at the University of Illinois. The observed effects can be explained by using quantum optics formalism. The formalism is diagonalized to solve the solution and confirms the data. In addition, the application of the dressed-spin technique was investigated. The modulation and the feedback loop technique should be considered with

  5. [A generalized chemical-kinetic method for modeling gene networks].

    PubMed

    Likhoshvaĭ, V A; Matushkin, Iu G; Ratushnyĭ, A V; Anan'ko, E A; Ignat'eva, E V; Podkolodnaia, O A

    2001-01-01

    Development of methods for mathematical simulation of biological systems and building specific simulations is an important trend of bioinformatics development. Here we describe the method of generalized chemokinetic simulation generating flexible and adequate simulations of various biological systems. Adequate simulations of complex nonlinear gene networks--control system of cholesterol by synthesis in the cell and erythrocyte differentiation and maturation--are given as the examples. The simulations were expressed in terms of unit processes--biochemical reactions. Optimal sets of parameters were determined and the systems were numerically simulated under various conditions. The simulations allow us to study possible functional conditions of these gene networks, calculate consequences of mutations, and define optimal strategies for their correction including therapeutic ones. Graphical user interface for these simulations is available at http://wwwmgs.bionet.nsc.ru/systems/MGL/GeneNet/. PMID:11771132

  6. Tripless control method for general-purpose inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, N.; Ueda, A. . Hitachi Research Lab.); Nandoh, K.; Ibori, S. )

    1992-09-01

    In this paper a new control method is described. This method prevents general-purpose inverters without current regulators from tripping easily, i.e., to be tripless no matter how their load is varied, and enables motors to rotate stably at high frequencies. This control is performed using only current sensors and is a combination of PWM control and torque control. This approach for PWM control changes an asynchronized mode to a synchronized mode when the modulation ratio becomes more than one. This enables the carrier wave frequency to be continuously varied with the inverter frequency. As a result, motors can rotate stably over a wide frequency range. The torque control uses a real and reactive component detector, magnetic flux compensator, slip compensator, and current limit controller.

  7. Predict octane numbers using a generalized interaction method

    SciTech Connect

    Twu, C.H.; Coon, J.E.

    1996-02-01

    An interaction-based correlation using a new approach can be used to predict research and motor octane numbers of gasoline blends. An ultimately detailed analysis of the gasoline cut is not necessary. This correlation can describe blending behavior over the entire composition range of gasoline cuts. The component-oriented interaction approach is general and will accurately predict, without performing additional blending studies, blending behavior for new gasoline cuts. The proposed correlation fits the data quite closely for blends of many gasoline cuts. The regression gives realistic values for binary interaction parameters between components. A unique set of binary interaction parameters was found for the equation for predicting octane number of any gasoline blend. The binary interaction parameters between components contained in gasoline cuts have been converted to binary interaction parameters between gasoline cuts through a general equation to simplify the calculations. Because of the proposed method`s accuracy, optimum allocation of components among gasoline grades can be obtained and predicted values can be used for quality control of the octane number of marketed gasolines.

  8. Generalized Hartree-Fock method for electron-atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L.

    1997-09-01

    In the widely used Hartree-Fock procedure for atomic structure calculations, trial functions in the form of linear combinations of Slater determinants are constructed and the Rayleigh-Ritz minimum principle is applied to determine the best in that class. A generalization of this approach, applicable to low-energy electron-atom scattering, is developed here. The method is based on a unique decomposition of the scattering wave function into open- and closed-channel components, so chosen that an approximation to the closed-channel component may be obtained by adopting it as a trial function in a minimum principle, whose rigor can be maintained even when the target wave functions are imprecisely known. Given a closed-channel trial function, the full scattering function may be determined from the solution of an effective one-body Schr{umlt o}dinger equation. Alternatively, in a generalized Hartree-Fock approach, the minimum principle leads to coupled integrodifferential equations to be satisfied by the basis functions appearing in a Slater-determinant representation of the closed-channel wave function; it also provides a procedure for optimizing the choice of nonlinear parameters in a variational determination of these basis functions. Inclusion of additional Slater determinants in the closed-channel trial function allows for systematic improvement of that function, as well as the calculated scattering parameters, with the possibility of spurious singularities avoided. Electron-electron correlations can be important in accounting for long-range forces and resonances. These correlation effects can be included explicitly by suitable choice of one component of the closed-channel wave function; the remaining component may then be determined by the generalized Hartree-Fock procedure. As a simple test, the method is applied to s-wave scattering of positrons by hydrogen. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.

    2011-01-01

    The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  10. Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I.

    1995-12-31

    The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.

  11. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: A general method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan

    2014-03-07

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ{sub 9−40}, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  12. Morphofunctional evaluation of the effect of collagen-1-based dressing on skin regeneration after burn trauma in mice of two genetic strains.

    PubMed

    Kolokolchikova, E G; Zhirkova, E A; Golovatenko-Abramov, P K; Platonov, E S; Botcharova, V S; Khvatov, V B

    2010-07-01

    Morphofunctional evaluation of the effect of biological dressing with collagen-1 on healing of 3A degree burn wound in outbred and mutant Hr(hr)/Hr(hr)(hairless) mice was carried out by the histological method and optic radioautography. A pronounced stimulatory effect of the dressing on skin regeneration in mice was demonstrated. According to radioautography data, early dressing of the burn wounds in Hr(hr)/Hr(hr)mice led to active proliferation of epithelial cells in dermal cyst and vascular endotheliocytes. The possible mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of collagen-based dressing on wound healing are discussed. PMID:21113480

  13. Flutter and Divergence Analysis using the Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    The Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method (GAAM) is applied to the analysis of three well-studied checkcases: restrained and unrestrained airfoil models, and a wing model. An eigenvalue iteration procedure is used for converging upon roots of the complex stability matrix. For the airfoil models, exact root loci are given which clearly illustrate the nature of the flutter and divergence instabilities. The singularities involved are enumerated, including an additional pole at the origin for the unrestrained airfoil case and the emergence of an additional pole on the positive real axis at the divergence speed for the restrained airfoil case. Inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new, exact results are discussed and resolved. The generalization of a Doublet Lattice Method computer code is described and the code is applied to the calculation of root loci for the wing model for incompressible and for subsonic flow conditions. The error introduced in the reduction of the singular integral equation underlying the unsteady lifting surface theory to a linear algebraic equation is discussed. Acknowledging this inherent error, the solutions of the algebraic equation by GAAM are termed 'exact.' The singularities of the problem are discussed and exponential series approximations used in the evaluation of the kernel function shown to introduce a dense collection of poles and zeroes on the negative real axis. Again, inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new 'exact' results are discussed and resolved. In all cases, aeroelastic flutter and divergence speeds and frequencies are in good agreement with published results. The GAAM solution procedure allows complete control over Mach number, velocity, density, and complex frequency. Thus all points on the computed root loci can be matched-point, consistent solutions without recourse to complex mode tracking logic or dataset interpolation, as in the k and p

  14. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kiet A. E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Day, Paul N.

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  15. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kiet A; Pachter, Ruth; Day, Paul N

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes. PMID:24985612

  16. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. [in celestial mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A. H.; Tapley, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence Duffing's equation, the van der Pol equation and the oscillator with quadratic damping problem are solved using each method.

  17. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S; Tomaselli, Nancy L

    2014-08-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to "ideal" as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the "ideal" dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  18. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S.; Tomaselli, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to “ideal” as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the “ideal” dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  19. Primary prevention in general practice – views of German general practitioners: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policy efforts focus on a reorientation of health care systems towards primary prevention. To guide such efforts, we analyzed the role of primary prevention in general practice and general practitioners’ (GPs) attitudes toward primary prevention. Methods Mixed-method study including a cross-sectional survey of all community-based GPs and focus groups in a sample of GPs who collaborated with the Institute of General Practice in Berlin, Germany in 2011. Of 1168 GPs 474 returned the mail survey. Fifteen GPs participated in focus group discussions. Survey and interview guidelines were developed and tested to assess and discuss beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding primary prevention. Results Most respondents considered primary prevention within their realm of responsibility (70%). Primary prevention, especially physical activity, healthy eating, and smoking cessation, was part of the GPs’ health care recommendations if they thought it was indicated. Still a quarter of survey respondents discussed reduction of alcohol consumption with their patients infrequently even when they thought it was indicated. Similarly 18% claimed that they discuss smoking cessation only sometimes. The focus groups revealed that GPs were concerned about the detrimental effects an uninvited health behavior suggestion could have on patients and were hesitant to take on the role of “health policing”. GPs saw primary prevention as the responsibility of multiple actors in a network of societal and municipal institutions. Conclusions The mixed-method study showed that primary prevention approaches such as lifestyle counseling is not well established in primary care. GPs used a selective approach to offer preventive advice based upon indication. GPs had a strong sense that a universal prevention approach carried the potential to destroy a good patient-physician relationship. Other approaches to public health may be warranted such as a multisectoral approach to population

  20. A general moment expansion method for stochastic kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ale, Angelique; Kirk, Paul; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Moment approximation methods are gaining increasing attention for their use in the approximation of the stochastic kinetics of chemical reaction systems. In this paper we derive a general moment expansion method for any type of propensities and which allows expansion up to any number of moments. For some chemical reaction systems, more than two moments are necessary to describe the dynamic properties of the system, which the linear noise approximation is unable to provide. Moreover, also for systems for which the mean does not have a strong dependence on higher order moments, moment approximation methods give information about higher order moments of the underlying probability distribution. We demonstrate the method using a dimerisation reaction, Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a model of an oscillating p53 system. We show that for the dimerisation reaction and Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics system higher order moments have limited influence on the estimation of the mean, while for the p53 system, the solution for the mean can require several moments to converge to the average obtained from many stochastic simulations. We also find that agreement between lower order moments does not guarantee that higher moments will agree. Compared to stochastic simulations, our approach is numerically highly efficient at capturing the behaviour of stochastic systems in terms of the average and higher moments, and we provide expressions for the computational cost for different system sizes and orders of approximation. We show how the moment expansion method can be employed to efficiently quantify parameter sensitivity. Finally we investigate the effects of using too few moments on parameter estimation, and provide guidance on how to estimate if the distribution can be accurately approximated using only a few moments.

  1. A General Method of Empirical Q-matrix Validation.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Chiu, Chia-Yi

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to unidimensional item response models that postulate a single underlying proficiency, cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) posit multiple, discrete skills or attributes, thus allowing CDMs to provide a finer-grained assessment of examinees' test performance. A common component of CDMs for specifying the attributes required for each item is the Q-matrix. Although construction of Q-matrix is typically performed by domain experts, it nonetheless, to a large extent, remains a subjective process, and misspecifications in the Q-matrix, if left unchecked, can have important practical implications. To address this concern, this paper proposes a discrimination index that can be used with a wide class of CDM subsumed by the generalized deterministic input, noisy "and" gate model to empirically validate the Q-matrix specifications by identifying and replacing misspecified entries in the Q-matrix. The rationale for using the index as the basis for a proposed validation method is provided in the form of mathematical proofs to several relevant lemmas and a theorem. The feasibility of the proposed method was examined using simulated data generated under various conditions. The proposed method is illustrated using fraction subtraction data. PMID:25943366

  2. The Exoplanet Census: A General Method Applied to Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-01

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R ⊕, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is ~0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R ⊕. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of ~3 R ⊕ planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  3. Extended generalized Lagrangian multipliers for magnetohydrodynamics using adaptive multiresolution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Margarete O.; Gomes, Anna Karina F.; Mendes, Odim; Schneider, Kai

    2013-10-01

    We present a new adaptive multiresoltion method for the numerical simulation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The governing equations, i.e., the compressible Euler equations coupled with the Maxwell equations are discretized using a finite volume scheme on a two-dimensional Cartesian mesh. Adaptivity in space is obtained via multiresolution analysis, which allows the reliable introduction of a locally refined mesh while controlling the error. The explicit time discretization uses a compact Runge-Kutta method for local time stepping and an embedded Runge-Kutta scheme for automatic time step control. An extended generalized Lagrangian multiplier approach with the mixed hyperbolic-parabolic correction type is used to control the incompressibility of the magnetic field. Applications to a two-dimensional problem illustrate the properties of the method. Memory savings and numerical divergences of the magnetic field are reported and the accuracy of the adaptive computations is assessed by comparing with the available exact solution. This work was supported by the contract SiCoMHD (ANR-Blanc 2011-045).

  4. THE EXOPLANET CENSUS: A GENERAL METHOD APPLIED TO KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-20

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R{sub Circled-Plus }, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is {approx}0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of {approx}3 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  5. An efficient iterative method for the generalized Stokes problem

    SciTech Connect

    Sameh, A.; Sarin, V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an efficient iterative scheme for the generalized Stokes problem, which arises frequently in the simulation of time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow. The general form of the linear system is where A = {alpha}M + vT is an n x n symmetric positive definite matrix, in which M is the mass matrix, T is the discrete Laplace operator, {alpha} and {nu} are positive constants proportional to the inverses of the time-step {Delta}t and the Reynolds number Re respectively, and B is the discrete gradient operator of size n x k (k < n). Even though the matrix A is symmetric and positive definite, the system is indefinite due to the incompressibility constraint (B{sup T}u = 0). This causes difficulties both for iterative methods and commonly used preconditioners. Moreover, depending on the ratio {alpha}/{nu}, A behaves like the mass matrix M at one extreme and the Laplace operator T at the other, thus complicating the issue of preconditioning.

  6. Novel Methods for Communicating Plasma Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Merali, Aliya; Wissel, S. A.; Delooper, John

    2012-10-01

    The broader implications of Plasma Science remains an elusive topic that the general public rarely discusses, regardless of their relevance to energy, the environment, and technology. Recently, we have looked beyond print media for methods to reach large numbers of people in creative and informative ways. These have included video, art, images, and music. For example, our submission to the ``What is a Flame?'' contest was ranked in the top 15 out of 800 submissions. Images of plasmas have won 3 out of 5 of the Princeton University ``Art of Science'' competitions. We use a plasma speaker to teach students of all ages about sound generation and plasma physics. We report on the details of each of these and future videos and animations under development.

  7. Burn injuries in children and the use of biological dressings.

    PubMed

    Hartstein, Bonnie; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-08-01

    Burns represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In this article, a case discussion will serve as a platform for discussing the evaluation and treatment of burns in children. Use of various burn dressings such as hydrocolloids, polyurethane films, hydrogels, biosynthetic skin dressing, and biological dressings will be discussed. PMID:23925256

  8. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 57.14203 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14203 - Application of belt dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of belt dressing. 56.14203 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14203 Application of belt dressing. Belt dressings shall not be applied manually while belts are in motion unless a pressurized-type applicator...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hemostatic agent and dressing. (a) Identification. An absorbable hemostatic agent or dressing is a...

  19. Rationale for Student Dress Codes: A Review of School Handbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Workman, Jane E.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    Through dress codes, schools establish rules governing student appearance. This study examined stated rationales for dress and appearance codes in secondary school handbooks; 182 handbooks were received. Of 150 handbooks containing a rationale, 117 related dress and appearance regulations to students' right to a non-disruptive educational…

  20. Podiatry evaluation of a chitosan gelling fibre dressing in diabetic foot ulceration.

    PubMed

    Walker, Angela

    2016-06-23

    The purpose of this small evaluation on five patients presenting to community podiatry services in Birmingham with foot ulceration was to explore common problems associated with diabetes and other high-risk conditions and illustrate the clinical effectiveness and experience of using a chitosan absorbent gelling fibre dressing (KytoCel®, Aspen Medical). Each of these case studies bought their individual complex issues and complications that affected the healing process. General wound care involved debridement, if required, dressings, pressure redistribution addressing footwear needs, systemic antibiotics where required, and shared care with the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in secondary care where appropriate. PMID:27345085

  1. General flow field analysis methods for helicopter rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C. Gordon; Bliss, Donald B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work in the analysis of rotor flow fields for aeroacoustic applications involved the preliminary development of an efficient and accurate Lagrangian simulation of the unsteady vorticity field in the vicinity of helicopter main rotor that could analyze a limited class of rotor/wake interactions. The capabilities of this analysis have subsequently been considerably enhanced to allow it to serve as the foundation for a general analysis of the rotor/wake interaction noise. This paper presents the details of these enhancements, which focus on the expansion of the reconstruction approach developed previously to handle arbitrary vortex wake interactions within three-dimensional regions located near or within the rotor disk. Also, the development of nearfield velocity corrections appropriate for the analysis of such interactions is described, as is a preliminary study of methods for using the new high-resolution flow field analysis for noise predictions. The results show that by employing this novel flow field reconstruction technique it is possible to employ full-span free wake analyses with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustic applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to traditional methods.

  2. A generalized inversion method: Simultaneous source localization and environmental inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Knobles, David P.

    2002-05-01

    The problem of localizing and tracking a source in the shallow ocean is often complicated by uncertainty in the environmental parameters. Likewise, the estimates of environmental parameters in the shallow ocean obtained by inversion methods can be degraded by incorrect information about the source location. To overcome both these common obstacles-environmental mismatch in matched field processing and incorrect source location in geoacoustic inversions-a generalized inversion scheme is developed that includes both source and environmental parameters as unknowns in the inversion. The new technique called systematic decoupling using rotated coordinates (SDRC) expands the original idea of rotated coordinates [M. D. Collins and L. Fishman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1637-1644 (1995)] by using multiple sets of coherent broadband rotated coordinates, each corresponding to a different set of bounds, to systematically decouple the unknowns in a series of simulated annealing inversions. The results of applying the SDRC inversion method to data from the Area Characterization Test II experiment performed on the New Jersey continental shelf are presented. [Work supported by ONR.

  3. Generalized method of eigenoscillations for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Castro Neto, Antonio; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the ``probe'') and a material surface (the ``sample'') is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances (eigenoscillations), corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe, as well as the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several axisymmetric particle shapes (spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped). For spheroids an efficient numerical method is proposed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. The method is applied to modeling near-field spectroscopy studies of various materials. For highly resonant materials such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene) a rich structure of the simulated signal is found, including multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves. These features have a strong dependence on physical parameters, e.g., the probe shape. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide the dependence is weaker, and the spheroid model is generally applicable.

  4. A Dressed Spin Qubit in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Arne; Kalra, Rachpon; Dehollain, Juan; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha; Mohiyaddin, Fahd; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei; Jamieson, David; McCallum, Jeff; Dzurak, Andrew; Morello, Andrea

    Coherent dressing of a quantum two-level system has been demonstrated on a variety of systems, including atoms, self-assembled quantum dots, and superconducting quantum bits, and can be demonstrated by measuring Rabi oscillations, or a Mollow triplet in the spectrum. It can be used to gain access to a new quantum system with improved properties - a different and tunable level splitting, faster and easier control, and longer coherence times. In our work we investigate the properties of the dressed, donor-bound electron spin in silicon, and probe its potential for the use as quantum bit in scalable architectures. Here, the two dressed spin-polariton levels constitute the quantum bit. The dressed qubit can be coherently driven with an oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating electric field, by frequency modulating the driving field, or by a simple detuning pulse. We measure coherence times of T2* = 2.4 ms and T2 = 9 ms (Hahn echo), one order of magnitude longer than those of the undressed qubit. This research was funded by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (Project Number CE110001027) and the US Army Research Office (W911NF-13-1-0024).

  5. Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-11-01

    We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0){yields}{infinity}, w(0){yields}-{infinity} such that u(0)+w(0){yields}-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0){yields}-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,{lambda}), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,{lambda})=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV{sup -1}. We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80{sup 4} lattice at {beta}=5.7 we obtain F{sub R}(0,{mu}=1.5 GeV){approx_equal}2.2.

  6. Student Dress Policies. ERIC Digest, Number 117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Lynne

    Educators and the public are divided over the value of implementing school-uniform policies in the public schools. This digest examines arguments for and against school-uniform policies, identifies legal considerations, and offers guidelines for implementing policies on student dress. Most parents have responded favorably to uniform policies,…

  7. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and the…

  8. Business Dress for Women Corporate Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study designed (1) to determine any underlying considerations governing the perceptions of professional people as to the appropriateness of specific types of garment styles for female business dress and (2) to determine if a difference exists in the perceptions of appropriateness of garment styles by sex. (CT)

  9. Swellability of Silver (I) Antimicrobial Wound Dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center, we have developed antimicrobial silver- CM-cotton print cloth from CM-Printcloth with l...

  10. Dress: Images of America. Elementary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary school (grades 2-6) unit which traces the history of dress in America over the last century. Using authentic visuals including posters, paintings, advertising, documentary photography, movies, cartoons,…

  11. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  12. Clinical Efficacy Test of Polyester Containing Herbal Extract Dressings in Burn Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Muangman, Pornprom; Praditsuktavorn, Banjerd; Chinaroonchai, Kusuma; Chuntrasakul, Chomchark

    2016-09-01

    Technological advancement has assisted in developing various availabilities of wound products that help in not only in healing and preventing infection but also in providing patients' comfort and pain reduction during application. However, most of advanced wound healing products in Thailand were imported at high costs to patients. Nowadays, there are increased numbers of local researches of herbs that could provide healing environment for successful wound care. Herbal wound products are currently being introduced as alternatives to those imported dressings. The aim of this study was to report the clinical efficacy of using polyester containing herbal extract dressings in healing of second-degree burns. The volunteers were divided by simply randomized method into the study group of patient using polyester containing herbal extract dressing and the control group of patients treating with dressings that are commercially available and common use. The standard treatment protocols were performed at every 3 days of dressing change. Comparative evaluation consisted of time of healing, length of hospital stays, pain analog score assessment, percentage of infection, and descriptive notification of unfavorable clinical symptoms or signs or side effects. PMID:27440796

  13. Surgical Adhesive Drape (IO-ban) as Postoperative Surgical Site Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Hasan R; Snyder, Rita; McGowan, Jason E; Jha, Ribhu T; Nair, Mani N

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective chart analysis. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the senior author’s (MNN) experience applying a widely available surgical drape as a postoperative sterile surgical site dressing for both cranial and spinal procedures. Summary of Background Data: Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important complication of spine surgery that can result in significant morbidity. There is wide variation in wound care management in practice, including dressing type. Given the known bactericidal properties of the surgical drape, there may be a benefit of continuing its use immediately postoperatively. Methods: All of the senior author’s cases from September 2014 through September 2015 were reviewed. These were contrasted to the previous year prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as a postoperative dressing. Results: Only one surgical case out of 157 operative interventions (35 cranial, 124 spinal) required operative debridement due to infection. From September 2013 to September 2014, prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as dressing, the author had five infections out of 143 operations (46 cranial, 97 spinal) requiring intervention. Conclusion: The implementation of a sterile surgical drape as a closed postoperative surgical site dressing has led to a decrease in surgical site infections. The technique is simple and widely available, and should be considered for use to diminish surgical site infections. PMID:26798570

  14. The Lutterloh Dress Patterns: An Unexpected Application of Polar Co-Ordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Lutterloh method of making dress patterns, which was developed in Germany in the 1930s. The underlying principle involves the modification of basic designs and it is claimed that it provides better fits for women of different sizes and shapes than do other commercially available patterns. The method is…

  15. Confinement and hadron-hadron interactions by general relativistic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    By postulating covariance of physical laws under global dilations, one can describe gravitational and strong interactions in a unified way. Namely, in terms of the new discrete dilational degree of freedom, our cosmos and hadrons can be regarded as finite, similar systems. And a discrete hierarchy of finite ``universes'' may be defined, which are governed by fields with strengths inversally proportional to their radii; in each universe an Equivalence Principle holds, so that the relevant field can be there geometrized. Scaled-down Einstein equations -with cosmological term- are assumed to hold inside hadrons (= strong micro-cosmoses); and they yield in a natural way classical confinement, as well as ``asymptotic freedom'', of the hadron constituents. In other words, the association of strong micro-universes of Friedmann type with hadrons (i.e., applying the methods of General Relativity to subnuclear particle physics) allows avoiding recourse to phenomenological models such as the Bag Model. Inside hadrons we have to deal with a tensorial field (= strong gravity), and hadron constituents are supposed to exchange spin-2 ``gluons''. Our approach allows us also to write down a tensorial, bi-scale field theory of hadron-hadron interactions, based on modified Einstein-type equations here proposed for strong interactions in our space. We obtain in particular: (i) the correct Yukawa behaviour of the strong scalar potential at the static limit and for r>~l fm; (ii) the value of hadron radii. As a byproduct, we derive a whole ``numerology'', connecting our gravitational cosmos with the strong micro-cosmoses (hadrons), such that it does imply no variation of G with the epoch. Finally, since a structute of the ``micro-universe'' type seems to be characteristic even of leptons, a hope for the future is including also weak interactions in our classical unification of the fundamental forces.

  16. Residual-driven online generalized multiscale finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin; Leung, Wing Tat

    2015-12-01

    The construction of local reduced-order models via multiscale basis functions has been an area of active research. In this paper, we propose online multiscale basis functions which are constructed using the offline space and the current residual. Online multiscale basis functions are constructed adaptively in some selected regions based on our error indicators. We derive an error estimator which shows that one needs to have an offline space with certain properties to guarantee that additional online multiscale basis function will decrease the error. This error decrease is independent of physical parameters, such as the contrast and multiple scales in the problem. The offline spaces are constructed using Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods (GMsFEM). We show that if one chooses a sufficient number of offline basis functions, one can guarantee that additional online multiscale basis functions will reduce the error independent of contrast. We note that the construction of online basis functions is motivated by the fact that the offline space construction does not take into account distant effects. Using the residual information, we can incorporate the distant information provided the offline approximation satisfies certain properties. In the paper, theoretical and numerical results are presented. Our numerical results show that if the offline space is sufficiently large (in terms of the dimension) such that the coarse space contains all multiscale spectral basis functions that correspond to small eigenvalues, then the error reduction by adding online multiscale basis function is independent of the contrast. We discuss various ways computing online multiscale basis functions which include a use of small dimensional offline spaces.

  17. Compressive and rarefactive dressed solitons in plasma with nonthermal electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Zahran, M. A.; Elwakil, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The study of dressed solitary ion waves in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma composed warm fluid of ion, nonthermal distributed positrons and electrons are discussed. Concerning nonlinear ion acoustic waves, a reductive perturbation method is applied to obtain the KdV equation in terms of first order potential. Our results exemplify that, if soliton amplitude enlarged, the shape of the wave sidetrack from KdV equation. In order to improve the soliton shape, the perturbed KdV equation is suggest. In particular, the effects of nonthermal positrons and ionic temperature on the electrostatic dressed rarefactive and compressive soliton structures are discussed.

  18. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  19. A real decoupled method and free interface component mode synthesis methods for generally damped systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huan; Wang, Tao; Chen, Guoping; Sun, Dongyang; Sun, Rujie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new transformation method. In contrast to most existing mode transformation methods in which the first-order state-space equation of the damped vibration system is transformed into a decoupled form with complex coefficient matrices, using the decoupled method presented in this paper, the equation of the damped system can be decomposed into a decoupled equation with real coefficient matrices. Two new free interface component mode synthesis methods are also presented. The equivalent full-mode matrix of the damped structure is used to capture the effects of the higher-order modes. Additionally, this work modifies the compatibility conditions at the junctions that are employed in most of the previous component mode synthesis methods for generally damped systems. The first component mode synthesis method is performed in complex space, whereas the second method can be applied in real space. Because the coefficient matrices of the coupled equation constructed by the second component mode synthesis method are all real-valued, the solution of the eigenproblem for this coupled equation can be performed in real space as well. Additionally, numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and validity of these two component mode synthesis methods.

  20. (Super-)renormalizably dressed black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Méndez-Zavaleta, Julio A.

    2015-07-01

    Black holes supported by self-interacting conformal scalar fields can be considered as renormalizably dressed since the conformal potential is nothing but the top power-counting renormalizable self-interaction in the relevant dimension. On the other hand, potentials defined by powers which are lower than the conformal one are also phenomenologically relevant since they are in fact super-renormalizable. In this work we provide a new map that allows one to build black holes dressed with all the (super-)renormalizable contributions starting from known conformal seeds. We explicitly construct several new examples of these solutions in dimensions D =3 and D =4 , including not only stationary configurations but also time-dependent ones.

  1. Inductively guided circuits for ultracold dressed atoms.

    PubMed

    Sinuco-León, German A; Burrows, Kathryn A; Arnold, Aidan S; Garraway, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in optics, atomic physics and material science has paved the way to study quantum effects in ultracold atomic alkali gases confined to non-trivial geometries. Multiply connected traps for cold atoms can be prepared by combining inhomogeneous distributions of DC and radio-frequency electromagnetic fields with optical fields that require complex systems for frequency control and stabilization. Here we propose a flexible and robust scheme that creates closed quasi-one-dimensional guides for ultracold atoms through the 'dressing' of hyperfine sublevels of the atomic ground state, where the dressing field is spatially modulated by inductive effects over a micro-engineered conducting loop. Remarkably, for commonly used atomic species (for example, (7)Li and (87)Rb), the guide operation relies entirely on controlling static and low-frequency fields in the regimes of radio-frequency and microwave frequencies. This novel trapping scheme can be implemented with current technology for micro-fabrication and electronic control. PMID:25348163

  2. Root-cubing and general root-powering methods for finding the zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical analysis technique generalizes a root squaring and root cubing method into a general root powering method. The introduction of partitioned polynomials into this general root powering method simplifies the coding of the polynomial transformations into input data suitable for processing by computer. The method includes analytic functions.

  3. Normal saline wound dressing--is it really normal?

    PubMed

    Lim, J K; Saliba, L; Smith, M J; McTavish, J; Raine, C; Curtin, P

    2000-01-01

    Gauze swabs soaked in normal saline are frequently used as dressing on open wounds. Their exact mechanism of action is not known. This study was designed to assess the hypothesis that normal saline dressings act in part as an osmotic dressing. Ten patients had skin ulcers (n = 10) dressed with normal saline soaked sponges. Acting as controls (n = 10) identical sponges were placed upon intact skin. The sponge fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations were serially assayed to test our hypothesis. In the control group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations increased with time as a result of evaporation, altering it from an isotonic to a hypertonic dressing. However, in the ulcer group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the sponge fluid remained relatively isotonic with time. This result is statistically significant (P< 0.05). We postulate that, as a result of evaporation, the sponge dressing increases its tonicity. This draws fluid from the wound into the dressing so that a dynamic equilibrium occurs and the sponge dressing regains isotonicity. The dressing remains functional provided that the wound fluid is absorbed freely from the wound. This process is terminated when either the dressing completely absorbs the wound fluid or the dressing dries out. The latter often occurs prematurely in a contaminated wound or in a wound where exudate forms a non-permeable barrier which prevents osmosis and allows the remaining water in the dressing to evaporate completely. This correlates with the observation in clinical practice that for maximum efficacy the dressing should be changed regularly. PMID:10657448

  4. Generalized methods and solvers for noise removal from piecewise constant signals. II. New methods

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2011-01-01

    Removing noise from signals which are piecewise constant (PWC) is a challenging signal processing problem that arises in many practical scientific and engineering contexts. In the first paper (part I) of this series of two, we presented background theory building on results from the image processing community to show that the majority of these algorithms, and more proposed in the wider literature, are each associated with a special case of a generalized functional, that, when minimized, solves the PWC denoising problem. It shows how the minimizer can be obtained by a range of computational solver algorithms. In this second paper (part II), using this understanding developed in part I, we introduce several novel PWC denoising methods, which, for example, combine the global behaviour of mean shift clustering with the local smoothing of total variation diffusion, and show example solver algorithms for these new methods. Comparisons between these methods are performed on synthetic and real signals, revealing that our new methods have a useful role to play. Finally, overlaps between the generalized methods of these two papers and others such as wavelet shrinkage, hidden Markov models, and piecewise smooth filtering are touched on. PMID:22003313

  5. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Fabbri, Alessandro; Martínez, Cristián; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space-time with a negative cosmological constant in (2 + 1)-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress-energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space-time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak) cosmic censorship.

  6. Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in

  7. DRESS syndrome: à propos de trois observations

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi, Wafa; Souissi, Jihed; Chelli, Jihène; Larbi, Fatma; Zantour, Baha; Habib Sfar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome d'hypersensibilité médicamenteuse ou Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) est une toxidermie rare mais sévère. Nous rapportons trois observations de DRESS syndromes secondaires à la prise de carbamazipine dans deux cas et de salazopyrine dans un cas. Le délai moyen entre la prise médicamenteuse et la survenue du DRESS syndrome était de six semaines. Le médicament incriminé était arrêté d'une façon définitive dans tous les cas. Une corticothérapie par voie générale était instaurée chez tous les patients devant l'atteinte hépatique sévère. L’évolution était favorable avec disparation des lésions cutanées et normalisation du bilan hépatique. Le diagnostic du syndrome DRESS doit être évoqué devant un tableau associant une éruption fébrile et des signes systémiques faisant suite à une prise médicamenteuse. La précocité du diagnostic est fondamentale pour l'arrêt définitif des médicaments suspects. Le traitement n'est pas bien codifié mais repose actuellement sur la corticothérapie générale. PMID:25810802

  8. Dressed active particles in spherical crystals.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhenwei

    2016-08-17

    We investigate the dynamics of an active particle in two-dimensional spherical crystals, which provide an ideal environment to illustrate the interplay between active particles and crystallographic defects. A moving active particle is observed to be surrounded by localized topological defects, becoming a dressed active particle. Such a physical picture characterizes both the lattice distortion around the moving particle and the healing of the distorted lattice in its trajectory. We find that the dynamical behaviors of an active particle in both random and ballistic motions uniformly conform to this featured scenario, whether the particle is initially a defect or not. We further observe that the defect pattern around a dressed ballistic active particle randomly oscillates between two well-defined wing-like defect motifs regardless of its speed. The established physical picture of dressed active particles in this work partially deciphers the complexity of the intriguing nonequilibrium behaviors in active crystals, and opens the promising possibility of introducing the activity to engineer defects, which has strong connections with the design of materials. PMID:27491597

  9. Iterative methods for elliptic finite element equations on general meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.; Choudhury, Shenaz

    1986-01-01

    Iterative methods for arbitrary mesh discretizations of elliptic partial differential equations are surveyed. The methods discussed are preconditioned conjugate gradients, algebraic multigrid, deflated conjugate gradients, an element-by-element techniques, and domain decomposition. Computational results are included.

  10. Real-time hydrologic probability forecasting using ensemble dressing, with application to river Rhine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkade, Jan; Brown, James; Reggiani, Paolo; Weerts, Albrecht

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologic forecasts are affected by inherent uncertainties. These originate from multiple sources including atmospheric forcing, hydrologic model schematisation and its parameters, and observations used in the forecasting process. Hydrologic streamflow forecasts are often produced using ensemble forcing predictions without additional hydrologic post-processing. As a result, the streamflow ensembles can be underdispersive or overconfident because the estimated predictive distribution does not take into account hydrologic uncertainties. Under the assumption that the meteorological ensemble forecasts is unbiased, "ensemble dressing" constitutes a promising method for estimating combined forcing and hydrologic uncertainties. Hydrologic uncertainties are estimated from the joint distribution of streamflow simulations and observations, whereby simulations are produced using observed meteorological forcings. Each of the predicted streamflow ensemble members is then dressed using these estimates of hydrologic uncertainties. From the dressed ensembles, the combined predictive uncertainty distribution, i.e. the probability forecast is determined. The present paper describes a study for river Rhine where ensemble dressing is applied at multiple forecasting locations. Hydrologic uncertainties are characterised using the Hydrologic Uncertainty Processor. Streamflow ensembles are produced by routing the 5 member ECMWF reforecast ensembles of precipitation and temperature through a conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model. The ensemble members are used to create conditional estimates of hydrologic uncertainty. The posterior predictive distribution is produced by averaging probability distributions of each of the dressed ensemble members. From a record of approx. 2,900 hindcasts, a number of verification metrics is determined. These include correlation coefficient, relative mean error, the Brier skill score, the continuous ranked probability skill score, and the relative operating

  11. CHLORHEXIDINE-IMPREGNATED DRESSING FOR PREVENTION OF CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION: A META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nasia; O’Horo, John C.; Ghufran, Aiman; Bearden, Allison; Didier, Maria Eugenia; Chateau, Dan; Maki, Dennis G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and effective methods for their prevention are needed. Objective To assess the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter-related colonization and CRBSI using meta-analysis. Data Sources Multiple computerized database searches supplemented by manual searches including relevant conference proceedings. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing compared with conventional dressings for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI. Data Extraction Data were extracted on patient and catheter characteristics and outcomes. Data Synthesis Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and I2. Subgroup analyses were used to explore heterogeneity. Results Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Use of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing resulted in a reduced incidence of CRBSI (random effects RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42–0.79, P=0.002). The incidence of catheter colonization was also markedly reduced in the chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing group (random effects RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.39–0.67, P< 0.001). There was significant benefit for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI, including arterial catheters used for hemodynamic monitoring. Other than in low birth weight infants, adverse effects were rare and minor. Conclusions Our analysis shows that a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing is beneficial in preventing catheter colonization and, more importantly, CRBSI and warrants routine use in patients at high risk of CRBSI and CVC or arterial catheter colonization in ICUs. PMID:24674924

  12. Economic impact of Tegaderm chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) dressing in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Thokala, Praveen; Arrowsmith, Martin; Poku, Edith; Martyn-St James, Marissa; Anderson, Jeff; Foster, Steve; Elliott, Tom; Whitehouse, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the economic impact of a TegadermTM chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) gel dressing compared with a standard intravenous (i.v.) dressing (defined as non-antimicrobial transparent film dressing), used for insertion site care of short-term central venous and arterial catheters (intravascular catheters) in adult critical care patients using a cost-consequence model populated with data from published sources. Material and Methods: A decision analytical cost-consequence model was developed which assigned each patient with an indwelling intravascular catheter and a standard dressing, a baseline risk of associated dermatitis, local infection at the catheter insertion site and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), estimated from published secondary sources. The risks of these events for patients with a Tegaderm CHG were estimated by applying the effectiveness parameters from the clinical review to the baseline risks. Costs were accrued through costs of intervention (i.e. Tegaderm CHG or standard intravenous dressing) and hospital treatment costs depended on whether the patients had local dermatitis, local infection or CRBSI. Total costs were estimated as mean values of 10,000 probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) runs. Results: Tegaderm CHG resulted in an average cost-saving of £77 per patient in an intensive care unit. Tegaderm CHG also has a 98.5% probability of being cost-saving compared to standard i.v. dressings. Conclusions: The analyses suggest that Tegaderm CHG is a cost-saving strategy to reduce CRBSI and the results were robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:27582899

  13. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. For the purposes of regulations promulgated...

  14. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130.12 Section 130.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General methods for water capacity and...

  15. A General Simulation Method for Multiple Bodies in Proximate Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of unsteady aerodynamic simulation for an arbitrary number of independent bodies flying in close proximity are considered. A novel method to efficiently detect collision contact points is described. A method to compute body trajectories in response to aerodynamic loads, applied loads, and inter-body collisions is also given. The physical correctness of the methods are verified by comparison to a set of analytic solutions. The methods, combined with a Navier-Stokes solver, are used to demonstrate the possibility of predicting the unsteady aerodynamics and flight trajectories of moving bodies that involve rigid-body collisions.

  16. Evaluation of Stimulus Preference Assessment Methods with General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2009-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the ability of three stimulus preference assessments to identify effective reinforcers for general education students. Four students from Grades K through 5 and their teachers participated. A student nomination, teacher nomination, and ongoing (daily) stimulus preference assessment were evaluated. The results…

  17. Precise Method for Investigation of Lissajous Generalized Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers--a horizontal and a vertical--cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate…

  18. Physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel films for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Okajima, Maiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2016-08-01

    The thin hydrogel films consisting of water-swollen polymer networks can potentially be applied for biomedical fields. Recently, natural polysaccharides have great attentions to be developed as wound healing and protection. In the present study, we newly prepared and characterized a physically crosslinked-hydrogel film composed of a novel megamolecular polysaccharide sacran for wound dressing application. We successfully fabricated a physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel film by a solvent-casting method. The thickness of a sacran hydrogel film was lower than that of a sodium alginate (Na-alginate) film. Importantly, the swollen ratio of a sacran hydrogel film in water at 24h was 19-fold, compared to initial weight. Meanwhile, a Na-alginate hydrogel film was completely broken apart after rehydration. Moreover, a sacran hydrogel film did not show any cytotoxicity on NIH3T3 cells, a murine fibroblast cell line. The in vivo skin hydration study revealed that a sacran hydrogel film significantly increased the moisture content on hairless mice skin and considerably improved wound healing ability, compared to control (non-treated), probably due to not only the moisturing effect but also the anti-inflammatory effect of sacran. These results suggest that sacran has the potential properties as a basic biomaterial in a hydrogel film for wound dressing application. PMID:27151668

  19. Extending the alias Monte Carlo sampling method to general distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.L.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Smidt, R.K. )

    1991-01-07

    The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The local treatment and available dressings designed for chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Skórkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Szopa, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The great diversity of wounds and the broad range of available dressings complicate the selection of proper chronic wound treatment. Choosing the right treatment is the essential step in the healing process. In this review, we focus on chronic nonhealing ulcers, which are a critical problem in clinical practice, and current knowledge about persistent wound care. Here, we present the objectives of local treatment with description of several types of dressings and their ingredients, features, indications, and contraindications. These include hydrocolloid, alginate, hydrogel, and dextranomer dressings; polyurethane foam and membrane dressings; semipermeable polyurethane membrane dressings; and TenderWet (Hartmann, Rock Hill, SC) and flax dressings. There is also a brief section on the use of other alternative wound-healing accelerators, such as platelet-rich plasma and light-emitting diode therapy. PMID:21982060

  1. Dressings Combined with Injection of Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Alireza; Talaee, Rezvan; Rahshenas, Makan; Khamesipour, Ali; Mehryan, Pedram; Tehrani, Sepideh; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected infectious disease and a major health problem in several developing countries. Despite some reasonable explanation for their potential benefits, there is only trace evidence regarding the role of dressings in the treatment of CL. Methods This randomized, assessor-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in an endemic area for CL caused by Leishmania major in Iran to assess the efficacy of administration of weekly intralesional meglumine antimoniate (i.l.MA) either alone or combined with application of a silver or a non-silver polyester dressing on their lesions for 6 weeks. After screening of 241 patients with CL lesions, 83 eligible patients with 158 lesions were randomly allocated in three arms of the study. Eligibility criteria included parasitologically confirmed CL, age of 12 to 60 years; willingness to participate, duration of lesion<3 months, number of lesions<5, largest ulcer diameter<5 cm. Pregnant or lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome was absolute risk reduction (ARR) based on the proportion of complete healing, which was defined as more than 75% reduction in the size of the lesion compared with baseline in each group at the termination of treatment and 1 month later. Findings ARR (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was 5.98% (−7.07% to 20.25%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −0.23% (−13.53% to 14.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −6.21%(−18.28% to 6.52%) after 6 weeks of treatment. ARR (95% CI) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was −2.22% (−22.12% to 18.10%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 3.64% (−15.36% to 22.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 5.86% (−12.86% to 24.31%) 1 month later. Conclusion It could not be demonstrated that the efficacy of i

  2. Exact Solutions for The Generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov Equation with Variable Coefficients Using The Generalized (G'/G)-expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Elsayed M. E.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud A. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this article, the generalized G'/G-expansion method using a generalized wave transformation is applied to find exact traveling wave solutions of the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients. As a result, hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational function solutions with parameters are obtained. When these parameters are taken special values, the solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solution. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be applied to many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  3. Propensity-matched analysis of the gap between capacity and actual performance of dressing in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Sone, Toshimasa; Midorikawa, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Bumsuk, Lee; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Dressing is an activity of daily living for which stroke patients often show discrepancies between capacity and actual performance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical function and unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients that reduce their level of actual performance despite having the capacity for dressing independently. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 60 first-time stroke patients judged by occupational therapists as able to dress independently. The patients were divided into two groups according to their FIM(®) instrument scores for dressing the upper and lower body: an independent group with both scores ≥6 and an assistance group with one or both scores ≤5. After adjusting for confounding factors through propensity score matching, the groups were compared by using Stroke Impairment Assessment Set items, the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function of both upper limbs, and the Berg balance scale. [Results] The assistance group had a significantly lower score for the Berg balance scale than the independent dressing group (31.0 ± 12.3 vs. 47.8 ± 7.4). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggested that the balance function has an effect on the discrepancy between dressing capacity and performance. PMID:27390439

  4. Propensity-matched analysis of the gap between capacity and actual performance of dressing in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Sone, Toshimasa; Midorikawa, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Bumsuk, Lee; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Dressing is an activity of daily living for which stroke patients often show discrepancies between capacity and actual performance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical function and unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients that reduce their level of actual performance despite having the capacity for dressing independently. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 60 first-time stroke patients judged by occupational therapists as able to dress independently. The patients were divided into two groups according to their FIM® instrument scores for dressing the upper and lower body: an independent group with both scores ≥6 and an assistance group with one or both scores ≤5. After adjusting for confounding factors through propensity score matching, the groups were compared by using Stroke Impairment Assessment Set items, the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function of both upper limbs, and the Berg balance scale. [Results] The assistance group had a significantly lower score for the Berg balance scale than the independent dressing group (31.0 ± 12.3 vs. 47.8 ± 7.4). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggested that the balance function has an effect on the discrepancy between dressing capacity and performance. PMID:27390439

  5. 26 CFR 1.446-1 - General rule for methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General rule for methods of accounting. 1.446-1 Section 1.446-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Methods of Accounting § 1.446-1 General rule for methods of accounting. (a) General rule. (1)...

  6. 26 CFR 1.446-1 - General rule for methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General rule for methods of accounting. 1.446-1 Section 1.446-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Methods of Accounting § 1.446-1 General rule for methods of accounting. (a) General rule. (1)...

  7. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale). Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s) that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such patients. Thus, we aim to

  8. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:18693424

  9. The role of dressings in the prevention of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie

    2016-08-11

    Pressure ulceration is a significant global healthcare problem and represents a considerable burden on healthcare resources. Within the literature an increasing number of studies have examined the role prophylactic dressings play in redistributing pressure and helping to protect the skin from the effects of friction and shear. The use of dressings to prevent pressure ulcers may be considered a controversial issue, as previous opinion has been that dressings do not reduce the effects of pressure. This article will critically evaluate the literature to examine the role dressings play in the prevention of pressure ulceration. PMID:27523773

  10. Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, Y.; Galvis, J.; Lazarov, R.; Moon, M.; Sarkis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the “mass” matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples.