Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok Kumar (Inventor); Bailey, John W. (Inventor); Schallhorn, Paul Alan (Inventor); Steadman, Todd E. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A general purpose program implemented on a computer analyzes steady state and transient flow in a complex fluid network, modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal force. A preprocessor provides for the inter- active development of a fluid network simulation having nodes and branches. Mass, energy, and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes, and momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. Contained herein are subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 12 fluids, and a number of different source options are provided for model- ing momentum sources or sinks in the branches. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. Application and verification of this invention are provided through an example problem, which demonstrates that the predictions of the present invention compare most reasonably with test data.
Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Kishan
2011-01-01
This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Leclair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul
2011-01-01
GFSSP stands for Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. It is a general-purpose computer program to compute pressure, temperature and flow distribution in a flow network. GFSSP calculates pressure, temperature, and concentrations at nodes and calculates flow rates through branches. It was primarily developed to analyze Internal Flow Analysis of a Turbopump Transient Flow Analysis of a Propulsion System. GFSSP development started in 1994 with an objective to provide a generalized and easy to use flow analysis tool for thermo-fluid systems.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, A.; Schallhorn, P. A.
2013-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermo-fluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids, and 24 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 25 demonstrated example problems.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) - Version 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; LeClair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul
2015-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, flow control valves and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermo-fluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids, and 24 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. Users can introduce new physics, non-linear and time-dependent boundary conditions through user-subroutine.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 5.0-Educational
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.
2011-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the point, drag and click method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids and 21 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 12 demonstrated example problems.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, R.; Schallhorn, P. A.
2016-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. Two thermodynamic property programs (GASP/WASP and GASPAK) provide required thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 36 fluids: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutene, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and air. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. The users can also supply property tables for fluids that are not in the library. Twenty-four different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include pipe flow, flow through a restriction, noncircular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct
A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd
1998-01-01
This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiSalvo, Roberto; Deaconu, Stelu; Majumdar, Alok
2006-01-01
One of the goals of this program was to develop the experimental and analytical/computational tools required to predict the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through the various system components of a propulsion system: pipes, valves, pumps etc. To achieve this goal we selected to augment the capabilities of NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) software. GFSSP is a general-purpose computer program designed to calculate steady state and transient pressure and flow distributions in a complex fluid network. While the current version of the GFSSP code is able to handle various systems components the implicit assumption in the code is that the fluids in the system are Newtonian. To extend the capability of the code to non-Newtonian fluids, such as silica gelled fuels and oxidizers, modifications to the momentum equations of the code have been performed. We have successfully implemented in GFSSP flow equations for fluids with power law behavior. The implementation of the power law fluid behavior into the GFSSP code depends on knowledge of the two fluid coefficients, n and K. The determination of these parameters for the silica gels used in this program was performed experimentally. The n and K parameters for silica water gels were determined experimentally at CFDRC's Special Projects Laboratory, with a constant shear rate capillary viscometer. Batches of 8:1 (by weight) water-silica gel were mixed using CFDRC s 10-gallon gelled propellant mixer. Prior to testing the gel was allowed to rest in the rheometer tank for at least twelve hours to ensure that the delicate structure of the gel had sufficient time to reform. During the tests silica gel was pressure fed and discharged through stainless steel pipes ranging from 1", to 36", in length and three diameters; 0.0237", 0.032", and 0.047". The data collected in these tests included pressure at tube entrance and volumetric flowrate. From these data the uncorrected shear rate, shear stress, residence time
Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baird, R. S.
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.
Appplication of a general fluid mechanics program to NTP system modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Stacey K.
1993-01-01
An effort is currently underway at NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an accurate model for predicting nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system performance. The objective of the effort is to develop several levels of computer programs which vary in detail and complexity according to user's needs. The current focus is on the Level 1 steady-state, parametric system model. This system model will combine a general fluid mechanics program, SAFSIM, with the ability to analyze turbines, pumps, nozzles, and reactor physics. SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow SIMulator) is a FORTRAN computer program that simulates integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM has the versatility to allow simulation of almost any system, including a nuclear reactor system. The focus of this paper is the validation of SAFSIM's capabilities as a base computational engine for a nuclear thermal propulsion system model. Validation is being accomplished by modeling of a nuclear engine test using SAFSIM and comparing the results to known experimental data. For this study, the NRX/EST test was chosen; it was the first of the tests to demonstrate the integration of all system components (including the turbopump) and it utilized the hot bleed cycle. This paper present a comparison of analytical results with experimental system performance in terms of state points, mass flow rates, wall temperatures, and specific impulse. In addition, the methodology used in the validation efforts will be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok
2013-01-01
The purpose of the paper is to present the analytical capability developed to model no vent chill and fill of cryogenic tank to support CPST (Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer) program. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) was adapted to simulate charge-holdvent method of Tank Chilldown. GFSSP models were developed to simulate chilldown of LH2 tank in K-site Test Facility and numerical predictions were compared with test data. The report also describes the modeling technique of simulating the chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line and GFSSP models were developed to simulate the chilldown of a long transfer line and compared with test data.
A Novel Approach for Modeling Chemical Reaction in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sozen, Mehmet; Majumdar, Alok
2002-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a computer code developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for analyzing steady state and transient flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The code, which performs system level simulation, can handle compressible and incompressible flows as well as phase change and mixture thermodynamics. Thermodynamic and thermophysical property programs, GASP, WASP and GASPAK provide the necessary data for fluids such as helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, water, a hydrogen, isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, several refrigerants, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program which was developed out of need for an easy to use system level simulation tool for complex flow networks, has been used for the following purposes to name a few: Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Secondary Flow Circuits, Axial Thrust Balance of the Fastrac Engine Turbopump, Pressurized Propellant Feed System for the Propulsion Test Article at Stennis Space Center, X-34 Main Propulsion System, X-33 Reaction Control System and Thermal Protection System, and International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System design. There has been an increasing demand for implementing a combustion simulation capability into GFSSP in order to increase its system level simulation capability of a liquid rocket propulsion system starting from the propellant tanks up to the thruster nozzle for spacecraft as well as launch vehicles. The present work was undertaken for addressing this need. The chemical equilibrium equations derived from the second law of thermodynamics and the energy conservation equation derived from the first law of thermodynamics are solved simultaneously by a Newton-Raphson method. The numerical scheme was implemented as a User
General Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Secondary Flows in Turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok K.; Van Hoosier, Katherine P.
1995-01-01
The complexity and variety of turbomachinery flow circuits created a need for a general fluid system simulation program for test data anomaly resolution as well as design review. The objective of the paper is to present a computer program that has been developed to support Marshall Space Flight Center's turbomachinery internal flow analysis efforts. The computer program solves for the mass. energy and species conservation equation at each node and flow rate equation at each branch of the network by a novel numerical procedure which is a combination of both Newton-Ralphson and successive substitution method and uses a thermodynamic property program for computing real gas properties. A generalized, robust, modular, and 'user-friendly' computer program has been developed to model internal flow rates, pressures, temperatures, concentrations of gas mixtures and axial thrusts. The program can be used for any network for compressible and incompressible flows, choked flow, change of phase and gaseous mixturecs. The code has been validated by comparing the predictions with Space Shuttle Main Engine test data.
Spinning fluids in general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.
1982-01-01
General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; Hedayat, A.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the experience of the authors in using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) in teaching Design of Thermal Systems class at University of Alabama in Huntsville. GFSSP is a finite volume based thermo-fluid system network analysis code, developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and is extensively used in NASA, Department of Defense, and aerospace industries for propulsion system design, analysis, and performance evaluation. The educational version of GFSSP is freely available to all US higher education institutions. The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the utilization of this user-friendly code for the thermal systems design and fluid engineering courses and to encourage the instructors to utilize the code for the class assignments as well as senior design projects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.
2011-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the point, drag and click method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids and 21 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 12 demonstrated example problems. This supplement gives the input and output data files for the examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; Hedayat, A.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the experience of the authors in using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) in teaching Design of Thermal Systems class at University of Alabama in Huntsville. GFSSP is a finite volume based thermo-fluid system network analysis code, developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and is extensively used in NASA, Department of Defense, and aerospace industries for propulsion system design, analysis, and performance evaluation. The educational version of GFSSP is freely available to all US higher education institutions. The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the utilization of this user-friendly code for the thermal systems design and fluid engineering courses and to encourage the instructors to utilize the code for the class assignments as well as senior design projects. The need for a generalized computer program for thermofluid analysis in a flow network has been felt for a long time in aerospace industries. Designers of thermofluid systems often need to know pressures, temperatures, flow rates, concentrations, and heat transfer rates at different parts of a flow circuit for steady state or transient conditions. Such applications occur in propulsion systems for tank pressurization, internal flow analysis of rocket engine turbopumps, chilldown of cryogenic tanks and transfer lines, and many other applications of gas-liquid systems involving fluid transients and conjugate heat and mass transfer. Computer resource requirements to perform time-dependent, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of such systems are prohibitive and therefore are not practical. Available commercial codes are generally suitable for steady state, single-phase incompressible flow. Because of the proprietary nature of such codes, it is not possible to extend their capability to satisfy the above-mentioned needs. Therefore, the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP1) has been developed at NASA
Interfacing the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program with the SINDA/G Thermal Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schallhorn, Paul; Palmiter, Christopher; Farmer, Jeffery; Lycans, Randall; Tiller, Bruce
2000-01-01
A general purpose, one dimensional fluid flow code has been interfaced with the thermal analysis program SINDA/G. The flow code, GFSSP, is capable of analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The flow code is capable of modeling several physical phenomena including compressibility effects, phase changes, body forces (such as gravity and centrifugal) and mixture thermodynamics for multiple species. The addition of GFSSP to SINDA/G provides a significant improvement in convective heat transfer modeling for SINDA/G. The interface development was conducted in two phases. This paper describes the first (which allows for steady and quasi-steady - unsteady solid, steady fluid - conjugate heat transfer modeling). The second (full transient conjugate heat transfer modeling) phase of the interface development will be addressed in a later paper. Phase 1 development has been benchmarked to an analytical solution with excellent agreement. Additional test cases for each development phase demonstrate desired features of the interface. The results of the benchmark case, three additional test cases and a practical application are presented herein.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-06-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.
General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-03-12
SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.
Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.
1993-01-01
A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.
Multiphase fluid characterization system
Sinha, Dipen N.
2014-09-02
A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, José P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2009-07-01
Previous theorems concerning Weyl type systems, including Majumdar-Papapetrou systems, are generalized in two ways, namely, we take these theorems into d spacetime dimensions (d≥4), and we also consider the very interesting Weyl-Guilfoyle systems, i.e., general relativistic charged fluids with nonzero pressure. In particular within the Newton-Coulomb theory of charged gravitating fluids, a theorem by Bonnor (1980) in three-dimensional space is generalized to arbitrary (d-1)>3 space dimensions. Then, we prove a new theorem for charged gravitating fluid systems in which we find the condition that the charge density and the matter density should obey. Within general relativity coupled to charged dust fluids, a theorem by De and Raychaudhuri (1968) in four-dimensional spacetime is rendered into arbitrary d>4 dimensions. Then a theorem, new in d=4 and d>4 dimensions, for Weyl-Guilfoyle systems, is stated and proved, in which we find the condition that the charge density, the matter density, the pressure, and the electromagnetic energy density should obey. This theorem comprises, in particular cases, a theorem by Gautreau and Hoffman (1973) and results in four dimensions by Guilfoyle (1999). Upon connection of an interior charged solution to an exterior Tangherlini solution (i.e., a Reissner-Nordström solution in d dimensions), one is able to give a general definition for gravitational mass for this kind of relativistic systems and find a mass relation with several quantities of the interior solution. It is also shown that for sources of finite extent the mass is identical to the Tolman mass.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.
1998-01-01
An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huggett, Daniel J.; Majumdar, Alok
2013-01-01
Cryogenic propellants are readily heated when used. This poses a problem for rocket engine efficiency and effective boot-strapping of the engine, as seen in the "hot" LOX (Liquid Oxygen) problem on the S-1 stage of the Saturn vehicle. In order to remedy this issue, cryogenic fluids were found to be sub-cooled by injection of a warm non-condensing gas. Experimental results show that the mechanism behind the sub-cooling is evaporative cooling. It has been shown that a sub-cooled temperature difference of approximately 13 deg F below saturation temperature [1]. The phenomenon of sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants by a non-condensing gas is not readily available with the General Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) [2]. GFSSP is a thermal-fluid program used to analyze a wide variety of systems that are directly impacted by thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. In order to model this phenomenon, additional capabilities had to be added to GFSSP in the form of a FORTRAN coded sub-routine to calculate the temperature of the sub-cooled fluid. Once this was accomplished, the sub-routine was implemented to a GFSSP model that was created to replicate an experiment that was conducted to validate the GFSSP results.
Intravenous Fluid Generation System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John
2013-01-01
The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in
Fluid management system technology discipline
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Symons, E. Patrick
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on fluid management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer; fluid handling; and components and instrumentation.
General anesthesia in horses on fluid and electrolyte therapy.
Snyder, Lindsey B C; Wendt-Hornickle, Erin
2013-04-01
The purpose of this article is to update the community of veterinarians performing general anesthesia in horses on fluid therapy. The rationale behind intraoperative fluid therapy, fluid dynamics, and various fluid options (crystalloids, hypertonic saline, colloids) is discussed. Additionally, electrolytes (calcium, potassium, and sodium) are included in the discussion in relation to general anesthesia and intraoperative fluid management. PMID:23498051
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš
2016-03-01
This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.
Taking Fluid Mechanics to the General Public
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyon, Etienne; Guyon, Marie Yvonne
2014-01-01
Fluid flow phenomena are omnipresent; they can be observed and described in many locations and circumstances. However, in most cases, their presence does not stimulate an interest in science. We consider successively domains of activities in which the presence of fluid flow phenomena can be used: natural sites, industrial ones, sporting events, artistic creations and presentations, the production of images and books, science museums, cultural centers, and also popular mass media. The last section is devoted to outreach activities that can be practiced within the educational system.
A Generalized Fluid Formulation for Turbomachinery Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merkle, Charles L.; Sankaran, Venkateswaran; Dorney, Daniel J.; Sondak, Douglas L.
2003-01-01
A generalized formulation of the equations of motion of an arbitrary fluid are developed for the purpose of defining a common iterative algorithm for computational procedures. The method makes use of the equations of motion in conservation form with separate pseudo-time derivatives used for defining the numerical flux for a Riemann solver and the convergence algorithm. The partial differential equations are complemented by an thermodynamic and caloric equations of state of a complexity necessary for describing the fluid. Representative solutions with a new code based on this general equation formulation are provided for three turbomachinery problems. The first uses air as a working fluid while the second uses gaseous oxygen in a regime in which real gas effects are of little importance. These nearly perfect gas computations provide a basis for comparing with existing perfect gas code computations. The third case is for the flow of liquid oxygen through a turbine where real gas effects are significant. Vortex shedding predictions with the LOX formulations reduce the discrepancy between perfect gas computations and experiment by approximately an order of magnitude, thereby verifying the real gas formulation as well as providing an effective case where its capabilities are necessary.
A systems approach to theoretical fluid mechanics: Fundamentals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anyiwo, J. C.
1978-01-01
A preliminary application of the underlying principles of the investigator's general system theory to the description and analyses of the fluid flow system is presented. An attempt is made to establish practical models, or elements of the general fluid flow system from the point of view of the general system theory fundamental principles. Results obtained are applied to a simple experimental fluid flow system, as test case, with particular emphasis on the understanding of fluid flow instability, transition and turbulence.
Hamiltonian formalism for perfect fluids in general relativity
Demaret, J.; Moncrief, V.
1980-05-15
Schutz's Hamiltonian theory of a relativistic perfect fluid, based on the velocity-potential version of classical perfect fluid hydrodynamics as formulated by Seliger and Whitham, is used to derive, in the framework of the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM) method, a general partially reduced Hamiltonian for relativistic systems filled with a perfect fluid. The time coordinate is chosen, as in Lund's treatment of collapsing balls of dust, as minus the only velocity potential different from zero in the case of an irrotational and isentropic fluid. A ''semi-Dirac'' method can be applied to quantize astrophysical and cosmological models in the framework of this partially reduced formalism. If one chooses Taub's adapted comoving coordinate system, it is possible to derive a fully reduced ADM Hamiltonian, which is equal to minus the total baryon number of the fluid, generalizing a result previously obtained by Moncrief in the more particular framework of Taub's variational principle, valid for self-gravitating barotropic relativistic perfect fluids. An unconstrained Hamiltonian density is then explicitly derived for a fluid obeying the equation of state p=(gamma-1)rho (1 < or = ..gamma.. < or = 2), which can adequately describe the phases of very high density attained in a catastrophic collapse or during the early stages of the Universe. This Hamiltonian density, shown to be equivalent to Moncrief's in the particular case of an isentropic fluid, can be simplified for fluid-filled class-A diagonal Bianchi-type cosmological models and appears as a suitable starting point for the study of the canonical quantization of these models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammond, J. C.
1975-01-01
Development of a fluid infusion system was undertaken in response to a need for an intravenous infusion device operable under conditions of zero-g. The initial design approach, pursued in the construction of the first breadboard instrument, was to regulate the pressure of the motive gas to produce a similar regulated pressure in the infusion liquid. This scheme was not workable because of the varying bag contact area, and a major design iteration was made. A floating sensor plate in the center of the bag pressure plate was made to operate a pressure regulator built into the bellows assembly, effectively making liquid pressure the directly controlled variable. Other design changes were made as experience was gained with the breadboard. Extensive performance tests were conducted on both the breadboard and the prototype device; accurately regulated flows from 6 m1/min to 100 m1/min were achieved. All system functions were shown to operate satisfactorily.
Houck, Edward D.
1994-01-01
An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.
Houck, E.D.
1994-10-11
An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.
Houck, E.D.
1993-12-31
This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.
Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad
2006-06-06
A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.
Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System
Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.
2003-10-21
A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.
Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system
Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.
2002-10-08
A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.
Hydrocarbon fluid, ejector refrigeration system
Kowalski, G.J.; Foster, A.R.
1993-08-31
A refrigeration system is described comprising: a vapor ejector cycle including a working fluid having a property such that entropy of the working fluid when in a saturated vapor state decreases as pressure decreases, the vapor ejector cycle comprising: a condenser located on a common fluid flow path; a diverter located downstream from the condenser for diverting the working fluid into a primary fluid flow path and a secondary fluid flow path parallel to the primary fluid flow path; an evaporator located on the secondary fluid flow path; an expansion device located on the secondary fluid flow path upstream of the evaporator; a boiler located on the primary fluid flow path parallel to the evaporator for boiling the working fluid, the boiler comprising an axially extending core region having a substantially constant cross sectional area and a porous capillary region surrounding the core region, the core region extending a length sufficient to produce a near sonic velocity saturated vapor; and an ejector having an outlet in fluid communication with the inlet of the condenser and an inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the evaporator and the outlet of the boiler and in which the flows of the working fluid from the evaporator and the boiler are mixed and the pressure of the working fluid is increased to at least the pressure of the condenser, the ejector inlet, located downstream from the axially extending core region, including a primary nozzle located sufficiently close to the outlet of the boiler to minimize a pressure drop between the boiler and the primary nozzle, the primary nozzle of the ejector including a converging section having an included angle and length preselected to receive the working fluid from the boiler as a near sonic velocity saturated vapor.
Bernoulli theorem generalized to rheologically complex viscous fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brutyan, M. A.; Krapivskii, P. L.
1992-08-01
The Bernoulli theorem is generalized to two-dimensional and axisymmetric micropolar incompressible fluid flows. It is shown that the approach developed is also applicable to magnetohydrodynamic flows of a viscous Newtonian fluid.
Oil well fluid processing system
Cobb, J.R.
1988-10-25
This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.
Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.
Fluid management systems technology summaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.
1974-01-01
A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.
Large scale cryogenic fluid systems testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
NASA Lewis Research Center's Cryogenic Fluid Systems Branch (CFSB) within the Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) has the ultimate goal of enabling the long term storage and in-space fueling/resupply operations for spacecraft and reusable vehicles in support of space exploration. Using analytical modeling, ground based testing, and on-orbit experimentation, the CFSB is studying three primary categories of fluid technology: storage, supply, and transfer. The CFSB is also investigating fluid handling, advanced instrumentation, and tank structures and materials. Ground based testing of large-scale systems is done using liquid hydrogen as a test fluid at the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility (K-site) at Lewis' Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. A general overview of tests involving liquid transfer, thermal control, pressure control, and pressurization is given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schallhorn, Paul; Majumdar, Alok; Tiller, Bruce
2001-01-01
A general purpose, one dimensional fluid flow code is currently being interfaced with the thermal analysis program SINDA/G. The flow code, GFSSP, is capable of analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The flow code is capable of modeling several physical phenomena including compressibility effects, phase changes, body forces (such as gravity and centrifugal) and mixture thermodynamics for multiple species. The addition of GFSSP to SINDA/G provides a significant improvement in convective heat transfer modeling for SINDA/G. The interface development is conducted in multiple phases. This paper describes the first phase of the interface which allows for steady and quasisteady (unsteady solid, steady fluid) conjugate heat transfer modeling.
Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system
Brieger, Emmet F.
2001-01-01
A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.
Generalized reynolds number for non-newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madlener, K.; Frey, B.; Ciezki, H. K.
2009-09-01
An extended version of the generalized Reynolds number was derived to characterize the duct flow of non-Newtonian gelled fluids of the Herschel-Bulkley-Extended (HBE) type. This number allows also estimating the transition from laminar to turbulent flow conditions. An experimental investigation was conducted with a capillary rheometer for several non-Newtonian gelled fluids to evaluate the introduced HBE-generalized Reynolds number Regen HBE. A good correlation between the experimental results and the theory could be found for laminar flow conditions. For one of the examined gelled fuels, the necessary high Reynolds numbers could be realized so that the transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow regime could be measured. Because of its general description, the HBE-generalized Reynolds number can also be applied to Newtonian liquids as well as to non-Newtonian fluids of the Herschel-Bulkley (HB), Ostwald-de-Waele (power-law, PL), and Bingham type.
On generalized Volterra systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.
2015-01-01
We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.
Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia
Saraghi, Mana
2015-01-01
Intravenous fluids are administered in virtually every parenteral sedation and general anesthetic. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements, and the clinical rationale for the use of various crystalloid and colloid solutions. In the setting of elective dental outpatient procedures with minor blood loss, isotonic balanced crystalloid solutions are the fluids of choice. Colloids, on the other hand, have no use in outpatient sedation or general anesthesia for dental or minor oral surgery procedures but may have several desirable properties in long and invasive maxillofacial surgical procedures where advanced hemodynamic monitoring may assess the adequacy of intravascular volume. PMID:26650497
Volume transport and generalized hydrodynamic equations for monatomic fluids.
Eu, Byung Chan
2008-10-01
In this paper, the effects of volume transport on the generalized hydrodynamic equations for a pure simple fluid are examined from the standpoint of statistical mechanics and, in particular, kinetic theory of fluids. First, we derive the generalized hydrodynamic equations, namely, the constitutive equations for the stress tensor and heat flux for a single-component monatomic fluid, from the generalized Boltzmann equation in the presence of volume transport. Then their linear steady-state solutions are derived and examined with regard to the effects of volume transport on them. The generalized hydrodynamic equations and linear constitutive relations obtained for nonconserved variables make it possible to assess Brenner's proposition [Physica A 349, 11 (2005); Physica A 349, 60 (2005)] for volume transport and attendant mass and volume velocities as well as the effects of volume transport on the Newtonian law of viscosity, compression/dilatation (bulk viscosity) phenomena, and Fourier's law of heat conduction. On the basis of study made, it is concluded that the notion of volume transport is sufficiently significant to retain in irreversible thermodynamics of fluids and fluid mechanics. PMID:19045107
General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mach, Patryk; Malec, Edward
2015-06-01
We formulate new general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids. They have been used to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well-known geometric dragging of frames. We derive two other general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the recently discovered dynamic antidragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids self-gravity. One can use the rotation laws to study the uniqueness and the convergence of the post-Newtonian approximations as well as the existence of the post-Newtonian limits.
Analysis of fluid/mechanical systems using EASY5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Arndt, Scott D.; Hurlbert, Eric A.
1992-01-01
This paper illustrates how the use of a general analysis package can simplify modeling and analyzing fluid/mechanical systems. One such package is EASY5, a Boeing Computer Services product. The basic transmission line equations for modeling piped fluid systems are presented, as well as methods of incorporating these equations into the EASY5 environment. The paper describes how this analysis tool has been used to model several fluid subsystems of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.
Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system
Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W
2014-11-25
A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.
On the thermodynamics of some generalized second-grade fluids
Man CS, Massoudi M
2010-01-01
The generalized second-grade fluids, which have been used for modeling the creep of ice and the flow of coal-water and coal-oil slurries, are among the simplest non-Newtonian fluid models that can describe shear-thinning/thickening and exhibit normal stress effects. In this article, we conduct thermodynamic analysis on a class of generalized second-grade fluids, one distinguishing feature of which is the existence of a constitutive function that describes frictional heating. We work within the framework of Serrin’s original formulation of neoclassical thermodynamics, where internal energy and entropy functions, if they exist for a continuous body at all, are to be derived from the classical First Law and (quantitatively reformulated) Second Law of thermodynamics for cycles. For the class of generalized second-grade fluids in question, we show from the First Law that an internal energy density u exists, and we derive the equation of energy balance; from the Second Law, we demonstrate the existence of an entropy density s and derive the Clausius–Duhem inequality that it satisfies.We obtain explicit expressions for u, s and the frictional heating , and derive thermodynamic restrictions on thematerial functions of temperature μ, α1, and α2 that appear in the constitutive relation for the Cauchy stress. For the special case of second-grade fluids, our expressions for u and s agree with those which Dunn and Fosdick [6] derived under the theoretical framework of the rational thermodynamics of Coleman and Noll.
System for connecting fluid couplings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cody, Joseph C. (Inventor); Matthews, Paul R. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A system for mating fluid transfer couplings is constructed having a male connector which is provided with a pair of opposed rollers mounted to an exterior region thereof. A male half of a fluid transfer coupling is rotatably supported in an opening in an end of the connector and is equipped with an outwardly extending forward portion. The forward portion locks into an engagement and locking region of a female half of the fluid transfer coupling, with female half being rotatably supported in a receptacle. The receptacle has an opening aligned with locking region, with this opening having a pair of concentric, annularly disposed ramps extending around an interior portion of opening. These ramps are inclined toward the interior of the receptacle and are provided with slots through which rollers of the connector pass. After the connector is inserted into the receptacle (engaging forward portion into engagement region), relative rotation between the connector and receptacle causes the rollers to traverse ramps until the rollers abut and are gripped by retainers. This axially forces the forward portion into locked, sealed engagement with the engagement region.
Further mathematical results concerning Burgers fluids and their generalizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintanilla, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.
2012-02-01
In this paper, we extend the earlier work by Quintanilla and Rajagopal (Math Methods Appl Sci 29: 2133-2147, 2006) and establish qualitative new results for a proper generalization of Burgers' original work that stems form a general thermodynamic framework. Such fluids have been used to describe the behavior of several geological materials such as asphalt and the earth's mantle as well as polymeric fluids. We study questions concerning stability, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data for the solutions of the flows of these fluids. We show that if certain conditions are not satisfied by the material moduli, the solutions could be unstable. The spatial behavior of the solutions is also analyzed.
Stationarity of extremum entropy fluid bodies in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiffrin, Joshua Seth
We consider perfect fluid bodies ("stars'') in general relativity that are axisymmetric, asymptotically flat, and that admit a maximal hypersurface. We show that configurations that extremize the total entropy at fixed ADM mass, ADM angular momentum, and total particle number are stationary with circular flow. For such stars, this establishes that thermodynamic equilibrium implies dynamic equilibrium.
Stationarity of extremum entropy fluid bodies in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiffrin, Joshua S.
2015-09-01
We consider perfect fluid bodies (‘stars’) in general relativity that are axisymmetric, asymptotically flat, and that admit a maximal hypersurface. We show that configurations that extremize the total entropy at fixed ADM mass, ADM angular momentum, and total particle number are stationary with circular flow. For such stars, this establishes that thermodynamic equilibrium implies dynamic equilibrium.
Spinning fluids in general relativity. II - Self-consistent formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, John R.; Smalley, Larry, L.; Krisch, Jean P.
1987-01-01
Methods used earlier to derive the equations of motion for a spinning fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory are specialized to the case of general relativity. The main idea is to include the spin as a thermodynamic variable in the theory.
Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.
Safety drain system for fluid reservoir
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.
Fluid/gravity correspondence for general non-rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaoning; Ling, Yi; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Chengyong
2013-07-01
In this paper, we investigate the fluid/gravity correspondence in spacetime with general non-rotating weakly isolated horizon. With the help of a Petrov-like boundary condition and large mean curvature limit, we show that the dual hydrodynamical system is described by a generalized forced incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. Specially, for stationary black holes or those spacetime with some asymptotically stationary conditions, such a system reduces to a standard forced Navier-Stokes system.
Thermal fluids in low temperature systems. Part 2
Lynde, P.G.; Yonkers, E.D.
1996-02-01
This article focuses on the lifeblood of these systems, the thermal transfer fluid itself. Low-temperature heat-transfer fluids are used to condition engine fluids, test chambers, cooling fluids, or a combination of these in environmental test facilities. To meet the specific test criteria, these fluids may be required to maintain pumpability and function with thermal efficiency at temperatures as low as {minus}120 F. This article presents information related to heat-transfer fluids used in low-temperature cooling applications. Three general groups of fluids are discussed: water-based antifreezes (ethylene and propylene glycol solutions); chlorinated solvents (methylene chloride and trichloroethylene); organic and synthetic coolants (diethylbenzene, two forms of dimethylpolysiloxane, heavy naphtha hydrotreated, and citrus terpene).
Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor
Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.
1994-11-22
A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.
Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor
Lau, Louis K.; Alper, Naum I.
1994-01-01
A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.
Space station integrated propulsion and fluid system study: Fluid systems configuration databook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, L.; Bicknell, B.; Bergman, D.; Wilson, S.
1987-01-01
This databook contains fluid system requirements and system descriptions for Space Station program elements including the United States and International modules, integrated fluid systems, attached payloads, fluid servicers and vehicle accommodation facilities. Separate sections are devoted to each of the program elements and include a discussion of the overall system requirements, specific fluid systems requirements and systems descriptions. The systems descriptions contain configurations, fluid inventory data and component lists. In addition, a list of information sources is referenced at the end of each section.
Capacitive system detects and locates fluid leaks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Electronic monitoring system automatically detects and locates minute leaks in seams of large fluid storage tanks and pipelines covered with thermal insulation. The system uses a capacitive tape-sensing element that is adhesively bonded over seams where fluid leaks are likely to occur.
Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-06-20
FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less
Interfacing a General Purpose Fluid Network Flow Program with the SINDA/G Thermal Analysis Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schallhorn, Paul; Popok, Daniel
1999-01-01
A general purpose, one dimensional fluid flow code is currently being interfaced with the thermal analysis program Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Gaski (SINDA/G). The flow code, Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), is capable of analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The flow code is capable of modeling several physical phenomena including compressibility effects, phase changes, body forces (such as gravity and centrifugal) and mixture thermodynamics for multiple species. The addition of GFSSP to SINDA/G provides a significant improvement in convective heat transfer modeling for SINDA/G. The interface development is conducted in multiple phases. This paper describes the first phase of the interface which allows for steady and quasi-steady (unsteady solid, steady fluid) conjugate heat transfer modeling.
GVS - GENERAL VISUALIZATION SYSTEM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, S. R.
1994-01-01
The primary purpose of GVS (General Visualization System) is to support scientific visualization of data output by the panel method PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on the Silicon Graphics Iris computer. GVS allows the user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. Additionally, geometries can be color shaded according to phenomena such as pressure coefficient or velocity. Screen objects can be interactively translated and/or rotated to permit easy viewing. Keyframe animation is also available for studying unsteady cases. The purpose of scientific visualization is to allow the investigator to gain insight into the phenomena they are examining, therefore GVS emphasizes analysis, not artistic quality. GVS uses existing IRIX 4.0 image processing tools to allow for conversion of SGI RGB files to other formats. GVS is a self-contained program which contains all the necessary interfaces to control interaction with PMARC data. This includes 1) the GVS Tool Box, which supports color histogram analysis, lighting control, rendering control, animation, and positioning, 2) GVS on-line help, which allows the user to access control elements and get information about each control simultaneously, and 3) a limited set of basic GVS data conversion filters, which allows for the display of data requiring simpler data formats. Specialized controls for handling PMARC data include animation and wakes, and visualization of off-body scan volumes. GVS is written in C-language for use on SGI Iris series computers running IRIX. It requires 28Mb of RAM for execution. Two separate hardcopy documents are available for GVS. The basic document price for ARC-13361 includes only the GVS User's Manual, which outlines major features of the program and provides a tutorial on using GVS with PMARC_12 data. Programmers interested in modifying GVS for use with data in formats other than PMARC_12 format may purchase a copy of the draft GVS 3.1 Software Maintenance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Li-Fu; Liu, Zong-Min; Guo, Qing-Yong
2009-03-01
The fluid-solid coupling theory, an interdisciplinary science between hydrodynamics and solid mechanics, is an important tool for response analysis and direct design of structures in naval architecture and ocean engineering. By applying the corresponding relations between generalized forces and generalized displacements, convolutions were performed between the basic equations of elasto-dynamics in the primary space and corresponding virtual quantities. The results were integrated and then added algebraically. In light of the fact that body forces and surface forces are both follower forces, the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle with two kinds of variables for an initial value problem is established in non-conservative systems. Using the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle to deal with the fluid-solid coupling problem and to analyze the dynamic response of structures, a method for using two kinds of variables simultaneously for calculation of force and displacement was derived.
Fluid permeability measurement system and method
Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John
2008-02-05
A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koseff, J. R.
1991-04-01
A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heatings and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular, our overall goals are as follows: (1) develop more general stability and scaling criteria for the destabilization of doubly-stratified systems, (2) further study the variation of flow structure and scales with Rayleigh ratio and lateral heating ratio, (3) further delineate the mechanisms governing convective layer formation and merging, (4) study the mixing processes within the convective layers and across interfaces, and estimate the heat and mass fluxes in such a system, (5) quantify the effects of turbulence and coherent structures (due to a wind-driven surface shear) on a doubly stratified system, and (6) study the interaction between surface shear and side-wall heating destabilization mechanisms.
Generalized Newtonian fluid flow through fibrous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mierzwiczak, Magdalena; Kołodziej, Jan Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof
2016-06-01
The numerical calculations of the velocity field and the component of transverse permeability in the filtration equation for steady, incompressible flow of the generalized Newtonian fluid through the assemblages of cylindrical fibers are presented in this paper. The fibers are arranged regularly in arrays. Flow is transverse with respect to the fibers. The non-linear governing equation in the repeated element of the array is solved using iteration method. At each iteration step the method of fundamental solutions and the method of particular solutions are used. The bundle of fibers is treated as a porous media and on the base of velocity field the permeability coefficients are calculated as a function of porosity.
Rotating-fluid experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geisler, J. E.; Pitcher, E. J.; Malone, R. C.
1983-01-01
In order to determine features of rotating fluid flow that are dependent on the geometry, rotating annulus-type experiments are carried out with a numerical model in spherical coordinates. Rather than constructing and testing a model expressly for this purpose, it is found expedient to modify an existing general circulation model of the atmosphere by removing the model physics and replacing the lower boundary with a uniform surface. A regime diagram derived from these model experiments is presented; its major features are interpreted and contrasted with the major features of rotating annulus regime diagrams. Within the wave regime, a narrow region is found where one or two zonal wave numbers are dominant. The results reveal no upper symmetric regime; wave activity at low rotation rates is thought to be maintained by barotropic rather than baroclinic processes.
Surface cleanliness of fluid systems, specification for
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
This specification establishes surface cleanliness levels, test methods, cleaning and packaging requirements, and protection and inspection procedures for determining surface cleanliness. These surfaces pertain to aerospace parts, components, assemblies, subsystems, and systems in contact with any fluid medium.
A new fluid scheme for weakly collisional plasmas: 1. General theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiuderi, C.; Pietrini, P.; Torricelli-Ciamponi, G.
2011-04-01
We present a new approach to the study of two-fluid hydrodynamics of weakly collisional plasma systems, such as those frequently encountered in the astrophysical context. Our starting point is the novel procedure developed in past years by Chen, Rao, and Spiegel (CRS) for the fluid description of semicollisional neutral monoatomic gases. The new system of fluid equations that include viscous and conductive effects has been successfully tested. However, the extension of such a procedure to plasmas is not a straightforward one. We have to deal with (at least) two components, with vastly different values of the masses, and the nature of collisions between charged particles is substantially different from the neutral particle case. We perform a preliminary careful examination of the basic requirements of the CRS method and identify the conditions under which an extension of such method is indeed possible. We then derive the system of fluid equations appropriate to the description of a weakly collisional two-component plasma in the new scheme and discuss the differences with respect to the more familiar Navier-Stokes approach. This paper is therefore of a general theoretical nature. However, we also point out that solar wind is a good testing ground for the newly derived system of fluid equations. This application will be the subject of a subsequent paper.
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to prevent the loss...
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...
Numerical Modeling of Fluid Transient in Cryogenic Fluid Network of Rocket Propulsion System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Flachbart, Robin
2003-01-01
Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicles propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shut down. For ground safety reasons, many spacecrafts are launched with the propellant lines dry. These lines are often evacuated by the time the spacecraft reaches orbit. When the propellant isolation valve opens during propulsion system activation, propellant rushes into lines creating a pressure surge. During propellant system shutdown, a pressure surge is created due to sudden closure of a valve. During both activation and shutdown, pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. The method of characteristics is the most widely used method of calculating fluid transients in pipeline [ 1,2]. The method of characteristics, however, has limited applications in calculating flow distribution in complex flow circuits with phase change, heat transfer and rotational effects. A robust cryogenic propulsion system analyzer must have the capability to handle phase change, heat transfer, chemical reaction, rotational effects and fluid transients in conjunction with subsystem flow model for pumps, valves and various pipe fittings. In recent years, such a task has been undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center with the development of the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which is based on finite volume method in fluid network [3]. GFSSP has been extensively verified and validated by comparing its predictions with test data and other numerical methods for various applications such as internal flow of turbo-pump [4], propellant tank pressurization [5,6], chilldown of cryogenic transfer line [7] and squeeze film damper rotordynamics [8]. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the applicability of the finite volume method to predict fluid transient in cryogenic flow
Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.
Control system for fluid heated steam generator
Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.
1985-01-01
A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.
Control system for fluid heated steam generator
Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.
1984-05-29
A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reardon, John E.; Violett, Duane L., Jr.
1991-01-01
The AFAS Database System was developed to provide the basic structure of a comprehensive database system for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Structures and Dynamics Laboratory Aerophysics Division. The system is intended to handle all of the Aerophysics Division Test Facilities as well as data from other sources. The system was written for the DEC VAX family of computers in FORTRAN-77 and utilizes the VMS indexed file system and screen management routines. Various aspects of the system are covered, including a description of the user interface, lists of all code structure elements, descriptions of the file structures, a description of the security system operation, a detailed description of the data retrieval tasks, a description of the session log, and a description of the archival system.
Finite element analysis of fluid-filled elastic piping systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everstine, G. C.; Marcus, M. S.; Quezon, A. J.
1983-01-01
Two finite element procedures are described for predicting the dynamic response of general 3-D fluid-filled elastic piping systems. The first approach, a low frequency procedure, models each straight pipe or elbow as a sequence of beams. The contained fluid is modeled as a separate coincident sequence axial members (rods) which are tied to the pipe in the lateral direction. The model includes the pipe hoop strain correction to the fluid sound speed and the flexibility factor correction to the elbow flexibility. The second modeling approach, an intermediate frequency procedure, follows generally the original Zienkiewicz-Newton scheme for coupled fluid-structure problems except that the velocity potential is used as the fundamental fluid unknown to symmetrize the coefficient matrices. From comparisons of the beam model predictions to both experimental data and the 3-D model, the beam model is validated for frequencies up to about two-thirds of the lowest fluid-filled labor pipe mode. Accurate elbow flexibility factors are seen to be crucial for effective beam modeling of piping systems.
Filling of orbital fluid management systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merino, F.; Blatt, M. H.; Thies, N. C.
1978-01-01
A study was performed with three objectives: (1) analyze fluid management system fill under orbital conditions; (2) determine what experimentation is needed; and (3) develop an experimental program. The fluid management system was a 1.06m (41.7 in) diameter pressure vessel with screen channel device. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of helium and autogenous pressurization systems was considered. Analyses showed that fluid management system fill will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The key to a successful fill with cryogens is in devising techniques for filling without vent liquid, and removing trapped vapor from the screen device at tank fill completion. This will be accomplished with prechill, fill, and vapor condensation processes. Refill will require a vent and purge process, to dilute the residual helium, prior to introducing liquid. Neither prechill, chill, nor purge processes will be required for earth storables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Lydon, M.
1988-01-01
Commonality and integration of propulsion and fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements are being evaluated. The Space Station elements consist of the core station, which includes habitation and laboratory modules, nodes, airlocks, and trusswork; and associated vehicles, platforms, experiments, and payloads. The program is being performed as two discrete tasks. Task 1 investigated the components of the Space Station architecture to determine the feasibility and practicality of commonality and integration among the various propulsion elements. This task was completed. Task 2 is examining integration and commonality among fluid systems which were identified by the Phase B Space Station contractors as being part of the initial operating capability (IOC) and growth Space Station architectures. Requirements and descriptions for reference fluid systems were compiled from Space Station documentation and other sources. The fluid systems being examined are: an experiment gas supply system, an oxygen/hydrogen supply system, an integrated water system, the integrated nitrogen system, and the integrated waste fluids system. Definitions and descriptions of alternate systems were developed, along with analyses and discussions of their benefits and detriments. This databook includes fluid systems descriptions, requirements, schematic diagrams, component lists, and discussions of the fluid systems. In addition, cost comparison are used in some cases to determine the optimum system for a specific task.
Dong, S.
2015-02-15
We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N−1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N−1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2(N−1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir–de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.
Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel
2008-04-01
Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging
Steady and Unsteady Numerical Solution of Generalized Newtonian Fluids Flow by Runge-Kutta method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keslerová, R.; Kozel, K.; Prokop, V.
2010-09-01
In this paper the laminar viscous incompressible flow for generalized Newtonian (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) fluids is considered. The governing system of equations is the system of Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation. The steady and unsteady numerical solution for this system is computed by finite volume method combined with an artificial compressibility method. For time discretization the explicit multistage Runge-Kutta numerical scheme is considered. Steady state solution is achieved for t→∞ using steady boundary conditions and followed by steady residual behavior. The dual time-stepping method is considered for unsteady computation. The high artificial compressibility coefficient is used in the artificial compressibility method applied in the dual time τ. The steady and unsteady numerical results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian (shear thickening and shear thinning) fluids flow in the branching channel are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sochi, Taha
2015-05-01
We continue our investigation to the use of the variational method to derive flow relations for generalized Newtonian fluids in confined geometries. While in the previous investigations we used the straight circular tube geometry with eight fluid rheological models to demonstrate and establish the variational method, the focus here is on the plane long thin slit geometry using those eight rheological models, namely: Newtonian, power law, Ree-Eyring, Carreau, Cross, Casson, Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. We demonstrate how the variational principle based on minimizing the total stress in the flow conduit can be used to derive analytical expressions, which are previously derived by other methods, or used in conjunction with numerical procedures to obtain numerical solutions which are virtually identical to the solutions obtained previously from well established methods of fluid dynamics. In this regard, we use the method of Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch- Mooney-Schofield (WRMS), with our adaptation from the circular pipe geometry to the long thin slit geometry, to derive analytical formulae for the eight types of fluid where these derived formulae are used for comparison and validation of the variational formulae and numerical solutions. Although some examples may be of little value, the optimization principle which the variational method is based upon has a significant theoretical value as it reveals the tendency of the flow system to assume a configuration that minimizes the total stress. Our proposal also offers a new methodology to tackle common problems in fluid dynamics and rheology.
Relativistic model of anisotropic charged fluid sphere in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pant, Neeraj; Pradhan, N.; Bansal, Rajeev K.
2016-01-01
In this present paper, we present a class of static, spherically symmetric charged anisotropic fluid models of super dense stars in isotropic coordinates by considering a particular type of metric potential, a specific choice of electric field intensity E and pressure anisotropy factor Δ which involve parameters K (charge) and α (anisotropy) respectively. The solutions so obtained are utilized to construct the models for super-dense stars like neutron stars and strange quark stars. Our solutions are well behaved within the following ranges of different constant parameters. In the absence of pressure anisotropy and charge present model reduces to the isotropic model Pant et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. 330:353-359, 2010). Our solution is well behaved in all respects for all values of X lying in the range 0< X ≤ 0.18, α lying in the range 0 ≤ α ≤6.6, K lying in the range 0< K ≤ 6.6 and Schwarzschild compactness parameter "u" lying in the range 0< u ≤ 0.38. Since our solution is well behaved for a wide ranges of the parameters, we can model many different types of ultra-cold compact stars like quark stars and neutron stars. We have shown that corresponding to X=0.088, α=0.6 and K=4.3 for which u=0.2054 and by assuming surface density ρb = 4.6888 × 10^{14} g/cm3 the mass and radius are found to be 1.51 M_{\\varTheta} and 10.90 km respectively. Assuming surface density ρb = 2 × 10^{14} g/cm3 the mass and radius for a neutron star candidate are found to be 2.313 M_{\\varTheta} and 16.690 km respectively. Hence we obtain masses and radii that fall in the range of what is generally expected for quark stars and neutron stars.
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your...
SINFAC - SYSTEMS IMPROVED NUMERICAL FLUIDS ANALYSIS CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costello, F. A.
1994-01-01
The Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to the April 1983 revision of SINDA, a general thermal analyzer program. The purpose of the additional routines is to allow for the modeling of active heat transfer loops. The modeler can simulate the steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different heat transfer loop components including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs and many types of valves and fittings. In addition, the program contains a property analysis routine that can be used to compute the thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. SINFAC can simulate the response to transient boundary conditions. SINFAC was first developed as a method for computing the steady-state performance of two phase systems. It was then modified using CNFRWD, SINDA's explicit time-integration scheme, to accommodate transient thermal models. However, SINFAC cannot simulate pressure drops due to time-dependent fluid acceleration, transient boil-out, or transient fill-up, except in the accumulator. SINFAC also requires the user to be familiar with SINDA. The solution procedure used by SINFAC is similar to that which an engineer would use to solve a system manually. The solution to a system requires the determination of all of the outlet conditions of each component such as the flow rate, pressure, and enthalpy. To obtain these values, the user first estimates the inlet conditions to the first component of the system, then computes the outlet conditions from the data supplied by the manufacturer of the first component. The user then estimates the temperature at the outlet of the third component and computes the corresponding flow resistance of the second component. With the flow resistance of the second component, the user computes the conditions down stream, namely the inlet conditions of the third. The computations follow for the rest of the system, back to the first component
Fluid Power Systems. Energy Technology Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This course in fluid power systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…
Unsteady flow of generalized Casson fluid with fractional derivative due to an infinite plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Ilyas; Ali Shah, Nehad; Vieru, Dumitru
2016-06-01
The Caputo time-fractional derivative is introduced in the constitutive model of a generalized Casson fluid which is moving over an infinite, oscillating flat plate. Exact solutions for the fluid velocity and shear stress are obtained using the Laplace transform method. Closed forms of solutions are written in terms of Wright functions. The obtained solutions can be easily particularized for ordinary Casson fluid, viscous fluid with fractional derivative and ordinary viscous fluid. Numerical simulations are carried out for fractional parameter and Casson fluid parameter and results are shown in graphical illustrations.
A general purpose contouring system
Evenden, Gerald Ian
1975-01-01
Three Decsystem-10 FORTRAN IV programs provide a general purpose system for contouring two-dimensional data. The system can provide both quick or final, publication quality contour maps on either interactive or offline plotting devices. Complete user documentation, with examples, and program listings are presented.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salisbury, David F.
1990-01-01
Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)
Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costello, F. A.
1990-01-01
Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to April, 1983, version of SINDA. Additional routines provide for mathematical modeling of active heat-transfer loops. Simulates steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different components of heat-transfer loops, including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs, and many types of valves and fittings. Program contains property-analysis routine used to compute thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. Source code written in FORTRAN 77.
Breaker system for high viscosity fluids
Hinkel, J.J.
1981-02-10
A tertiary amine/persulfate breaker system is disclosed which effects complete breaks of polysaccharide based water-gels or fluids in the ambient temperature range. Induction time may be controlled over wide permissible limits. The invention claims improved compositions and methods, particularly advantageously applied to the treatment and stimulation of shallow oil and gas wells (Formation temperatures from about 50 to 125/sup 0/F.).
Breaker system for high viscosity fluids
Hinkel, J. J.
1985-12-24
A tertiary amine/persulfate breaker system is disclosed which effects complete breaks of polysaccharide based water-gels or fluids in the ambient temperature range. Induction time may be controlled over wide permissible limits. The invention claims improved compositions and methods, particularly advantageously applied to the treatment and stimulation of shallow oil and gas wells (formation temperatures from about 50/sup 0/ to 125/sup 0/ F.).
Testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, A. S.; Tyler, Tony R.
1998-01-01
The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development prototype satellite servicer. The device was designed to transfer consumables from one spacecraft to another. An engineering model was built and underwent development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center. While the current AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit.
General proof of the entropy principle for self-gravitating fluid in static spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Xiongjun; Gao, Sijie
2014-08-01
We show that for any perfect fluid in a static spacetime, if the Einstein constraint equation is satisfied and the temperature of the fluid obeys Tolman's law, then the other components of Einstein's equation are implied by the assumption that the total entropy of the fluid achieves an extremum for fixed total particle number and for all variations of metric with certain boundary conditions. Conversely, one can show that the extrema of the total entropy of the fluid are implied by Einstein's equation. Compared to previous works on this issue, we do not require spherical symmetry for the spacetime. Our results suggest a general and solid connection between thermodynamics and general relativity.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3 mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67 kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3 mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7 mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. PMID:26073599
Precision Clean Hardware: Maintenance of Fluid Systems Cleanliness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharp, Sheila; Pedley, Mike; Bond, Tim; Quaglino, Joseph; Lorenz, Mary Jo; Bentz, Michael; Banta, Richard; Tolliver, Nancy; Golden, John; Levesque, Ray
2003-01-01
The ISS fluid systems are so complex that fluid system cleanliness cannot be verified at the assembly level. A "build clean / maintain clean" approach was used by all major fluid systems: Verify cleanliness at the detail and subassembly level. Maintain cleanliness during assembly.
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each carburetor deicing fluid system— (1) May not be less than the greater of— (i) That required to provide...
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each carburetor deicing fluid system— (1) May not be less than the greater of— (i) That required to provide...
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each carburetor deicing fluid system— (1) May not be less than the greater of— (i) That required to provide...
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each carburetor deicing fluid system— (1) May not be less than the greater of— (i) That required to provide...
Telerobotic on-orbit remote fluid resupply system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
The development of a telerobotic on-orbit fluid resupply demonstration system is described. A fluid transfer demonstration system was developed which functionally simulates operations required to remotely transfer fluids (liquids or gases) from a servicing spacecraft to a receiving spacecraft through the use of telerobotic manipulations. The fluid system is representative of systems used by current or planned spacecraft and propulsion stages requiring on-orbit remote resupply. The system was integrated with an existing MSFC remotely controlled manipulator arm to mate/demate couplings for demonstration and evaluation of a complete remotely operated fluid transfer system.
Kong, Feng; Chen, Zhencai; Xue, Song; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia
2015-11-01
Lower parental education impairs cognitive abilities of their offspring such as general fluid intelligence dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but the independent contribution of mother's and father's education is unknown. We used an individual difference approach to test whether mother's and father's education independently affected general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood at both the behavioral and neural level. Behaviorally, mother's but not father's education accounted for unique variance in general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood (assessed by the Raven's advanced progressive matrices). Neurally, the whole-brain correlation analysis revealed that the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial PFC was related to both mother's education and general fluid intelligence but not father's education. Furthermore, after controlling for mother's education, the association between general fluid intelligence and the rGMV in medial PFC was no longer significant, indicating that mother's education plays an important role in influencing the structure of the medial PFC associated with general fluid intelligence. Taken together, our study provides the first behavioral and neural evidence that mother's education is a more important determinant of general cognitive ability in emerging adulthood than father's education. PMID:26304026
System and method for improving performance of a fluid sensor for an internal combustion engine
Kubinski, David; Zawacki, Garry
2009-03-03
A system and method for improving sensor performance of an on-board vehicle sensor, such as an exhaust gas sensor, while sensing a predetermined substance in a fluid flowing through a pipe include a structure for extending into the pipe and having at least one inlet for receiving fluid flowing through the pipe and at least one outlet generally opposite the at least one inlet, wherein the structure redirects substantially all fluid flowing from the at least one inlet to the sensor to provide a representative sample of the fluid to the sensor before returning the fluid through the at least one outlet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefansson, A.; Keller, N. S.; Gunnarsson Robin, J.; Kjartansdottir, R.; Ono, S.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.
2014-12-01
Carbon and sulfur are among major components in geothermal systems. They are found in various oxidation state and present in solid phases and fluids (water and vapor). In order to study the reactions and mass movement within multiphase geothermal systems, we have combined geochemical fluid-fluid and fluid-rock modelling with sulfur and carbon isotope fractionation modelling and compared the results with measured carbon and sulfur isotopes in geothermal fluids (water and vapor) for selected low- and high-enthalpy geothermal systems in Iceland. In this study we have focused on δ34S for H2S in vapor and water and SO4 in water as well as δ13C for CO2 in vapor and water phases. Isotope fractionations for CO2 and H2S between vapor and liquid water, upon aqueous speciation and upon carbonate and sulfide mineral formation were revised. These were combined with reaction modelling involving closed system boiling and progressive water-rock interaction to constrain the mass movement and isotope abundance between various phases. The results indicate that for a closed system, carbon and sulfur isotope abundance is largely dependent on progressive fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction and the initial total δ34S and δ13C value of the system. Initially, upon progressive fluid rock interaction the δ34S and δ13C values for the bulk aqueous phase approach that of the host rocks. Secondary mineral formation may alter these values, the exact isotope value of the mineral and resulting aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation factor. In turn, aqueous speciation and mineral saturation depends on progressive fluid-rock interaction, fluid-fluid interaction, temperature and acid supply to the system. Depressurization boiling also results in isotope fractionation, the exact isotope value of the vapor and aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation fractor. In this way, carbon and sulfur isotopes may be used combined with
Heat pipe systems using new working fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, David F. (Inventor); Zhang, Nengli (Inventor)
2004-01-01
The performance of a heat pipe system is greatly improved by the use of a dilute aqueous solution of about 0.0005 and about 0.005 moles per liter of a long chain alcohol as the working fluid. The surface tension-temperature gradient of the long-chain alcohol solutions turns positive as the temperature exceeds a certain value, for example about 40.degree. C. for n-heptanol solutions. Consequently, the Marangoni effect does not impede, but rather aids in bubble departure from the heating surface. Thus, the bubble size at departure is substantially reduced at higher frequencies and, therefore, increases the boiling limit of heat pipes. This feature is useful in microgravity conditions. In addition to microgravity applications, the heat pipe system may be used for commercial, residential and vehicular air conditioning systems, micro heat pipes for electronic devices, refrigeration and heat exchangers, and chemistry and cryogenics.
General purpose film plotting system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcquillan, C.
1977-01-01
The general purpose film plotting system which is a plot program design to handle a majority of the data tape formats presently available under OS/360 was discussed. The convenience of this program is due to the fact that the user merely describes the format of his data set and the type of data plots he desires. It processes the input data according to the given specifications. The output is generated on a tape which yields data plots when processed by the selected plotter. A summary of each job is produced on the printer.
Quantization of Generally Covariant Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sforza, Daniel M.
2000-12-01
Finite dimensional models that mimic the constraint structure of Einstein's General Relativity are quantized in the framework of BRST and Dirac's canonical formalisms. The first system to be studied is one featuring a constraint quadratic in the momenta (the "super-Hamiltonian") and a set of constraints linear in the momenta (the "supermomentum" constraints). The starting point is to realize that the ghost contributions to the supermomentum constraint operators can be read in terms of the natural volume induced by the constraints in the orbits. This volume plays a fundamental role in the construction of the quadratic sector of the nilpotent BRST charge. It is shown that the quantum theory is invariant under scaling of the super-Hamiltonian. As long as the system has an intrinsic time, this property translates in a contribution of the potential to the kinetic term. In this aspect, the results substantially differ from other works where the scaling invariance is forced by introducing a coupling to the curvature. The contribution of the potential, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in the light of the Jacobi's principle. Then, it is shown that the obtained results can be extended to systems with extrinsic time. In this case, if the metric has a conformal temporal Killing vector and the potential exhibits a suitable behavior with respect to it, the role played by the potential in the case of intrinsic time is now played by the norm of the Killing vector. Finally, the results for the previous cases are extended to a system featuring two super-Hamiltonian constraints. This step is extremely important due to the fact that General Relativity features an infinite number of such constraints satisfying a non trivial algebra among themselves.
Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sipos, Maksim
In this thesis, I consider systems from two seemingly different fields: fluid dynamics and microbial ecology. In these systems, the unifying features are the existences of global non-equilibrium steady states. I consider generic and statistical models for transitions between these global states, and I relate the model results with experimental data. A theme of this thesis is that these rather simple, minimal models are able to capture a lot of functional detail about complex dynamical systems. In Part I, I consider the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. I find that quantitative and qualitative features of pipe flow experiments, the superexponential lifetime and the splitting of turbulent puffs, and the growth rate of turbulent slugs, can all be explained by a coarse-grained, phenomenological model in the directed percolation universality class. To relate this critical phenomena approach closer to the fluid dynamics, I consider the transition to turbulence in the Burgers equation, a simplified model for Navier-Stokes equations. Via a transformation to a model of directed polymers in a random medium, I find that the transition to Burgers turbulence may also be in the directed percolation universality class. This evidence implies that the turbulent-to-laminar transition is statistical in nature and does not depend on details of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow. In Part II, I consider the disparate subject of microbial ecology where the complex interactions within microbial ecosystems produce observable patterns in microbe abundance, diversity and genotype. In order to be able to study these patterns, I develop a bioinformatics pipeline to multiply align and quickly cluster large microbial metagenomics datasets. I also develop a novel metric that quantifies the degree of interactions underlying the assembly of a microbial ecosystem, particularly the transition between neutral (random) and niche (deterministic) assembly. I apply this
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids.
Hansen, J S
2013-09-01
This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave-vector-independent relaxation is also observed for highly packed systems. The transverse and longitudinal spin modes have, to a good approximation, identical relaxation, indicating that the longitudinal and transverse spin viscosities have same value. The relaxation is also shown to be isomorphic invariant. Finally, the effect of the coupling in the zero frequency and wave-vector limit is quantified by a characteristic length scale; if the system dimension is comparable to this length the coupling must be included into the fluid dynamical description. It is found that the length scale is independent of moment of inertia but dependent on the state point. PMID:24125208
A flexible micro fluid transport system featuring magnetorheological elastomer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz
2016-02-01
This study presents a flexible magnetically-actuated micro fluid transport system utilizing an isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Theoretical modeling and analysis of this system is presented for a two-dimensional model. This fluid transport system can propel the fluid by applying a fluctuating magnetic field on the MRE. The magneto-fluid-structure interaction analysis is employed to determine movement of the solid domain and the velocity of the fluid under a controllable magnetic field. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the behavior of this system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.
Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems
Bell, Charles R.
1995-09-15
Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved is very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.
Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems
Bell, C.R.
1994-09-01
Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved in very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.
An intelligent data acquisition system for fluid mechanics research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantwell, E. R.; Zilliac, G.; Fukunishi, Y.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a novel data acquisition system for use with wind-tunnel probe-based measurements, which incorporates a degree of specific fluid dynamics knowledge into a simple expert system-like control program. The concept was developed with a rudimentary expert system coupled to a probe positioning mechanism operating in a small-scale research wind tunnel. The software consisted of two basic elements, a general-purpose data acquisition system and the rulebased control element to take and analyze data and supplying decisions as to where to measure, how many data points to take, and when to stop. The system was validated in an experiment involving a vortical flow field, showing that it was possible to increase the resolution of the experiment or, alternatively, reduce the total number of data points required, to achieve parity with the results of most conventional data acquisition approaches.
Fluid flow systems analysis to save energy
Parekh, P.S.
1999-07-01
Industrial processes use rotating equipment (e.g.; pump, fan, blower, centrifugal compressor, positive displacement compressor) and pipe (or duct) to move fluid from point A to B, with many processes using electric motors as the prime mover. Most of the systems in the industry are over-designed to meet a peak load demand which might occur over a small fraction of the time or to satisfy a higher pressure demanded by a much smaller user in the same process. The system over-design will result in a selection of larger but inefficient rotating equipment and electric motor system. A careful life cycle cost and economic evaluation must be undertaken to ensure that the process audit, reengineering and equipment selections are not impacting the industrial process goals, but result in a least optimal cost over the life of the project. The paper will define, discuss, and present various process systems in chemical, hydrocarbon and pulp and paper industries. It will discuss the interactive impact of the changes in the mechanical system configuration and the changes in the process variables to better redesign the system and reduce the cost of operation. it will also present a check list of energy conservation measures (ECM) or opportunities. Such ECMs will be related to hydraulics, system components, process modifications, and system efficiency. Two or three case studies will be presented focusing on various conservation measures that improve electrical operating efficiency of a distillation column system. An incremental cost and payback analysis will be presented to assist the investment in process optimization and energy savings' measures.
Mantle fluids in the San Andreas fault system, California
Kennedy, B.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Evans, William C.; Ellwood, A.; DePaolo, D.J.; Thordsen, J.; Ambats, G.; Mariner, R.H.
1997-01-01
Fluids associated with the San Andreas and companion faults n central and south-central California have high 3He/4He ratios. The lack of correlation between helium isotopes and fluid chemistry or local geology requires that fluids enter the fault system from the mantle. Mantle fluids passing through the ductile lower crust must enter the brittle fault zone at or near lithostatic pressures; estimates of fluid flux based on helium isotopes suggest that they may thus contribute directly to fault-weakening high-fluid pressures at seismogenic depths.
Mantle fluids in the San Andreas fault system, California
Kennedy, B.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Evans, W.C.
1997-11-14
Fluids associated with the San Andreas and companion faults in central and south-central California have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios. The lack of correlation between helium isotopes and fluid chemistry or local geology requires that fluids enter the fault system from the mantle. Mantle fluids passing through the ductile lower crust must enter the brittle fault zone at or near lithostatic pressures; estimates of fluid flux based on helium isotopes suggest that they may thus contribute directly to fault-weakening high-fluid pressures at seismogenic depths. 31 refs., 4 figs.
Method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system is provided. A first response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) not in contact with a fluid of interest. A second response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) fully immersed in the fluid of interest. Using the first and second responses, a plurality of expected responses of the system's sensor(s) is (are) generated for a corresponding plurality of levels of immersion of the sensor(s) in the fluid of interest.
System and Method for Wirelessly Determining Fluid Volume
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system and method are provided for determining the volume of a fluid in container. Sensors are positioned at distinct locations in a container of a fluid. Each sensor is sensitive to an interface defined by the top surface of the fluid. Interfaces associated with at least three of the sensors are determined and used to find the volume of the fluid in the container in a geometric process.
Network Flow Simulation of Fluid Transients in Rocket Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Hamill, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Majumdar, Alok
2011-01-01
Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicle propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shutdown. The pressure rise due to sudden opening and closing of valves of propulsion feed lines can cause serious damage during activation and shutdown of propulsion systems. During activation (valve opening) and shutdown (valve closing), pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. In the current work, a network flow simulation software (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) based on Finite Volume Method has been used to predict the pressure surges in the feed line due to both valve closing and valve opening using two separate geometrical configurations. The valve opening pressure surge results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and the numerical results compared very well within reasonable accuracy (< 5%) for a wide range of inlet-to-initial pressure ratios. A Fast Fourier Transform is preformed on the pressure oscillations to predict the various modal frequencies of the pressure wave. The shutdown problem, i.e. valve closing problem, the simulation results are compared with the results of Method of Characteristics. Most rocket engines experience a longitudinal acceleration, known as "pogo" during the later stage of engine burn. In the shutdown example problem, an accumulator has been used in the feed system to demonstrate the "pogo" mitigation effects in the feed system of propellant. The simulation results using GFSSP compared very well with the results of Method of Characteristics.
On Exact Solutions for Oscillatory Flows in a Generalized Burgers Fluid with Slip Condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, Tasawar; Najam, Saher; Sajid, Muhammad; Ayub, Muhammad; Mesloub, Said
2010-05-01
An analysis is performed for the slip effects on the exact solutions of flows in a generalized Burgers fluid. The flow modelling is based upon the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nature of the fluid and modified Darcy law in a porous space. Two illustrative examples of oscillatory flows are considered. The results obtained are compared with several limiting cases. It has been shown here that the derived results hold for all values of frequencies including the resonant frequency.
High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers
Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D
2014-10-14
An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.
Tracing Injection Fluids in Engineered Geothermal Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, P. E.; Leecaster, K.; Mella, M.; Ayling, B.; Bartl, M. H.
2011-12-01
The reinjection of produced fluids is crucial to the effective management of geothermal reservoirs, since it provides a mechanism for maintaining reservoir pressures while allowing for the disposal of a toxic byproduct. Tracers are essential to the proper location of injection wells since they are the only known tool for reliably characterizing the flow patterns of recirculated fluids. If injection wells are placed too close to production wells, then reinjected fluids do not have sufficient residence time to extract heat from the reservoir and premature thermal breakthrough results. If injection wells are placed too far away, then the reservoir risks unacceptable pressure loss. Several thermally stable compounds from a family of very detectable fluorescent organic compounds (the naphthalene sulfonates) were characterized and found to be effective for use as geothermal tracers. Through batch-autoclave reactions, their Arrhenius pseudo-first-order decay-rate constants were determined. An analytical method was developed that allows for the laboratory determination of concentrations in the low parts-per-trillion range. Field experiments in numerous geothermal reservoirs throughout the world have confirmed the laboratory findings. Whereas conservative tracers such as the naphthalene sulfonates are effective tools for indicating interwell flow patterns and for measuring reservoir pore volumes, 'reactive' tracers can be used to constrain fracture surface area, which is the effective area for heat extraction. This is especially important for engineered geothermal system (EGS) wells, since reactive tracers can be used to measure fracture surface area immediately after drilling and while the well stimulation equipment is still on site. The reactive properties of these tracers that can be exploited to constrain fracture surface area are reversible sorption, contrasting diffusivity, and thermal decay. Laboratory batch- and flow-reactor experiments in combination with numerical
Studies of complexity in fluid systems
Nagel, Sidney R.
2000-06-12
This is the final report of Grant DE-FG02-92ER25119, ''Studies of Complexity in Fluids'', we have investigated turbulence, flow in granular materials, singularities in evolution of fluid surfaces and selective withdrawal fluid flows. We have studied numerical methods for dealing with complex phenomena, and done simulations on the formation of river networks. We have also studied contact-line deposition that occurs in a drying drop.
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...
Fluid design studies of integrated modular engine system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frankenfield, Bruce; Carek, Jerry
1993-01-01
A study was performed to develop a fluid system design and show the feasibility of constructing an integrated modular engine (IME) configuration, using an expander cycle engine. The primary design goal of the IME configuration was to improve the propulsion system reliability. The IME fluid system was designed as a single fault tolerant system, while minimizing the required fluid components. This study addresses the design of the high pressure manifolds, turbopumps and thrust chambers for the IME configuration. A physical layout drawing was made, which located each of the fluid system components, manifolds and thrust chambers. Finally, a comparison was made between the fluid system designs of an IME system and a non-network (clustered) engine system.
Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification
Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik
2015-12-22
Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.
Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus
Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis
2009-02-24
A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.
Fluid thrust control system. [for liquid propellant rocket engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, W. L.; Jansen, H. B.; Lehmann, E. N. (Inventor)
1968-01-01
A pure fluid thrust control system is described for a pump-fed, regeneratively cooled liquid propellant rocket engine. A proportional fluid amplifier and a bistable fluid amplifier control overshoot in the starting of the engine and take it to a predetermined thrust. An ejector type pump is provided in the line between the liquid hydrogen rocket nozzle heat exchanger and the turbine driving the fuel pump to aid in bringing the fluid at this point back into the regular system when it is not bypassed. The thrust control system is intended to function in environments too severe for mechanical controls.
Nagy, P.B.; Nayfeh, A.H.
1995-09-25
The surface stiffness of a fluid-saturated porous solid is defined as the ratio between a small change in capillary pressure and the average displacement of the boundary due to the resulting rise or fall of the fluid level in the pore channels. When the surface pores are structurally open, the surface stiffness is entirely due to the stiffness of the microscopic fluid membranes extended by capillary forces over the surface pores. Due to interfacial tension between the immiscible wetting fluid in the pores and nonwetting fluid (air) above the surface, essentially closed-pore boundary conditions can prevail at the interface. It has recently been shown that the surface stiffness of a porous material containing cylindrical pores can be calculated simply as the surface tension of the saturating fluid divided by the static permeability of the porous solid [P. B. Nagy, Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 60}, 2735 (1992)]. In this letter, we show that the same simple relationship can be generalized for the surface stiffness of fluid-saturated porous media containing parallel prismatic pore channels of any number, size, or shape. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system.
Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang
2015-01-01
Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ(7)Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ(7)Liquartz-fluid = -8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R(2) = 0.98; 175 °C-340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ(7)Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ(7)Li range from -0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175-340 °C. This δ(7)Li range, together with Li-O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process. PMID:26347051
Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang
2015-09-01
Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ7Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ7Liquartz-fluid = -8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R2 = 0.98 175 °C-340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ7Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ7Li range from -0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175-340 °C. This δ7Li range, together with Li-O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process.
Multidimensional Plasma Sheath Modeling Using The Three Fluid Plasma Model in General Geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilly, Robert; Shumlak, Uri
2012-10-01
There has been renewed interest in the use of plasma actuators for high speed flow control applications. In the plasma actuator, current is driven through the surrounding weakly ionized plasma to impart control moments on the hypersonic vehicle. This expanded general geometry study employs the three-fluid (electrons, ions,neutrals) plasma model as it allows the capture of electron inertial effects, as well as energy and momentum transfer between the charged and neutral species. Previous investigations have typically assumed an electrostatic electric field. This work includes the full electrodynamics in general geometries. Past work utilizing the research code WARPX (Washington Approximate Riemann Problem) employed cartesian grids. In this work, the problem is expanded to general geometries with the euler fluid equations employing Braginskii closure. In addition, WARPX general geometry grids are generated from Cubit or CAD files. Comparisons are made against AFRL magnetized plasma actuator experiments.
Inspection Time Correlates with General Speed of Processing but Not with Fluid Ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burns, Nicholas R.; Nettelbeck, Ted; Cooper, Christopher J.
1999-01-01
Administered marker tests for 5 of the constructs described in the Gf-Gc theory (fluid ability-crystallized ability) of cognitive abilities to 64 adults who also completed inspection time estimation. Results were consistent with the proposition that general intelligence depends exclusively or substantially on speed of processing. (SLD)
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1995-03-01
Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.
Development of a computational aero/fluids analysis system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, P. B.
1987-01-01
The Computational Aero/Fluids Analysis System (AFAS) provides the analytical capability to perform state-of-the-art computational analyses in two difficult fluid dynamics disciplines associated with the Space Shuttle program. This system provides the analysis tools and techniques for rapidly and efficiently accessing, analyzing, and reformulating the large and expanding external aerodynamic data base while also providing tools for complex fluid flow analyses of the SSME engine components. Both of these fluid flow disciplines, external aerodynamics and internal gasdynamics, required this capability to ensure that MSFC can respond in a timely manner as problems are encountered and operational changes are made in the Space Shuttle.
Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Shepard, D.; Rossier, R.
1988-01-01
The program study was performed in two tasks: Task 1 addressed propulsion systems and Task 2 addressed all fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements, which also included propulsion and pressurant systems. Program results indicated a substantial reduction in life cycle costs through integrating the oxygen/hydrogen propulsion system with the environmental control and life support system, and through supplying nitrogen in a cryogenic gaseous supercritical or subcritical liquid state. A water sensitivity analysis showed that increasing the food water content would substantially increase the amount of water available for propulsion use and in all cases, the implementation of the BOSCH CO2 reduction process would reduce overall life cycle costs to the station and minimize risk. An investigation of fluid systems and associated requirements revealed a delicate balance between the individual propulsion and fluid systems across work packages and a strong interdependence between all other fluid systems.
System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid
Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Dzenitis, John M.; Ness, Kevin D.
2008-08-12
A dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing and/or analysis. Dispensing means moves the fluid. The dispensing means is operated by a pneumatic force. Connection means delivers the fluid to the desired location. An actuator means provides the pneumatic force to the dispensing means. Valving means transmits the pneumatic force from the actuator means to the dispensing means.
A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures
Meier, E T; Shumlak, U
2012-04-06
A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.
A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy
2016-06-01
This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.
2014-05-01
We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele-Macinnis, M.; Bodnar, R. J.; Lowell, R.; Rimstidt, J. D.
2009-05-01
Quartz is a nearly ubiquitous gangue mineral in hydrothermal mineral deposits, most often constituting the bulk of hydrothermal mineralization. The dissolution, transport and precipitation of quartz is controlled by the solubility of silica; in particular, in hot hydrothermal fluids in contact with quartz, silica saturation can generally be assumed, as rates of dissolution and precipitation are generally much faster than fluid flow rates. The solubility of silica in aqueous fluids can be used to understand the evolution of hydrothermal systems by tracing the silica distribution in these systems through time. The solubility of quartz in an aqueous fluid is dependent upon the pressure, temperature and composition (PTX) of the fluid. Silica solubility in pure water as a function of pressure and temperature is well understood. However, natural fluids contain variable amounts of dissolved ionic species, thus it is necessary to include the effects of salinity on silica solubility to accurately predict quartz distribution in hydrothermal systems. In particular, addition of NaCl results in enhanced quartz solubility over a wide range of PT conditions. Furthermore, if phase separation occurs in saline fluids, silica is preferentially partitioned into the higher salinity brine phase; if vapor is removed from the system, the bulk salinity in the system evolves towards the brine end member, and overall silica solubility is enhanced. There is abundant evidence from natural fluid inclusions for fluid immiscibility in hydrothermal ore deposits. Additionally, recent hydrothermal models that include fluid phase equilibria effects predict that phase separation may be an important control on the distribution of dissolved components in seafloor hydrothermal systems. An empirical equation describing the solubility of silica in salt-bearing hydrothermal solutions over a wide range of PTX conditions has been incorporated into a multiphase fluid flow model for seafloor hydrothermal
Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
Lambirth, Gene Richard
2011-01-11
Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.
Fluid Power Systems Maintenance and Operation. Instructor's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paule, Bob A.
Written to complement the Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulic and Basic Pneumatics guides, this curriculum guide contains materials for a seven-unit course in fluid power systems maintenance and operation. Units, which consist of one to eight lessons, cover these topics: preventive maintenance, repair machine malfunctions, overhaul/recondition hydraulic…
UAH/NASA Workshop on Fluids Experiment System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, J. (Editor); Askins, B. (Editor)
1979-01-01
The Fluids Experiment System is being developed to fit into a Spacelab rack. Papers presented at this workshop describe a variety of fluid and chemical experiments that would be of great benefit to researchers of processes in a low gravity environment.
Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography
Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan; Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Don W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.
2010-02-09
An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.
Maintenance components for Space Station long life fluid systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greene, John B., Jr.; Roebelen, George J., Jr.; Owen, James W.
1986-01-01
The Space Station elements or modules will maintain thermal conditioning by way of fluid systems. Because of the Station's 20 year minimum orbital lifetime, these fluid system designs must allow for on-orbit maintenance. This paper describes the maintenance assessment of the various Space Station thermal control system options, their components and the recommended maintenance approach for each. The design and utilization of the primary fluid isolation servicing method, the Maintainable Maintenance Disconnect Valve (MMDV) and the effects of selecting different levels for the orbital replacement unit (ORU) are also presented.
Generalized asymptotic expansions for coupled wavenumbers in fluid-filled cylindrical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunte, M. V.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sonti, Venkata R.
2010-12-01
Analytical expressions are found for the coupled wavenumbers in an infinite fluid-filled cylindrical shell using the asymptotic methods. These expressions are valid for any general circumferential order ( n). The shallow shell theory (which is more accurate at higher frequencies) is used to model the cylinder. Initially, the in vacuo shell is dealt with and asymptotic expressions are derived for the shell wavenumbers in the high- and the low-frequency regimes. Next, the fluid-filled shell is considered. Defining a relevant fluid-loading parameter μ, we find solutions for the limiting cases of small and large μ. Wherever relevant, a frequency scaling parameter along with some ingenuity is used to arrive at an elegant asymptotic expression. In all cases, Poisson's ratio ν is used as an expansion variable. The asymptotic results are compared with numerical solutions of the dispersion equation and the dispersion relation obtained by using the more general Donnell-Mushtari shell theory ( in vacuo and fluid-filled). A good match is obtained. Hence, the contribution of this work lies in the extension of the existing literature to include arbitrary circumferential orders ( n).
String-fluid transition in systems with aligned anisotropic interactions.
Brandt, P C; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E
2010-06-21
Systems with aligned anisotropic interactions between particles exhibit numerous phase transitions. A remarkable example of the fluid phase transition occurring in such systems is the formation of particle strings--the so-called "string" or "chain" fluids. We employ an approach based on the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation, which allows us to calculate structural properties of fluids with aligned anisotropic interactions. We show that the string-fluid transition can be associated with the bifurcation of the "isotropic" correlation length into two distinct scales which characterize the longitudinal and transverse order in string fluids and, hence, may be used as a fingerprint of this transition. The comparison of the proposed OZ theory with the Monte Carlo simulations reveals fairly good agreement. PMID:20572736
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.
1999-05-18
A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.
1999-01-01
A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.
Analytical and Numerical Solutions of a Generalized Hyperbolic Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Sarı, Pınar; Solmaz, Bekir
2010-03-01
The generalized hyperbolic non-Newtonian fluid model first proposed by Al-Zahrani [J. Petroleum Sci. Eng. 17, 211 (1997)] is considered. This model was successfully applied to some drilling fluids with a better performance in relating shear stress and velocity gradient compared to power-law and the Hershel-Bulkley model. Special flow geometries namely pipe flow, parallel plate flow, and flow between two rotating cylinders are treated. For the first two cases, analytical solutions of velocity profiles and discharges in the form of integrals are presented. These quantities are calculated by numerically evaluating the integrals. For the flow between two rotating cylinders, the differential equation is solved by the Runge-Kutta method combined with shooting. For all problems, the power-law approximation of the model is compared with the generalized hyperbolic model, too.
Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system
Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang
2015-01-01
Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ7Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ7Liquartz-fluid = –8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R2 = 0.98; 175 °C–340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ7Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ7Li range from −0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175–340 °C. This δ7Li range, together with Li–O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process. PMID:26347051
Considerations of a nonhomogeneous fluid in the deep groundwater flow system at Hanford
Nelson, R.W.
1988-11-01
This report presents such a general theory capable of describing the flow on nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media, theory that is a composite from several disciplines including groundwater hydrology, soil physics, civil engineering, petroleum reservoir engineering, mechanics, and mathematical physics. The report discussed the conceptual basis for considering the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids. From this conceptual basis emphasis shifts to providing complete definitions and then appropriately describing those definitions in mathematical terms. Throughout the report, the necessary assumptions are stated in detail because the limitations of any theory are best assessed through careful scrutiny of the assumptions. From the mathematical definitions with appropriate functional dependence the results and constraints needed are derived to provide the general theory necessary to describe the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media. Particular attention is given to comparing the general theory with the classical theory of flow for a homogeneous fluid. Such comparison provides significant insight to the effects of variable fluid properties on subsurface flow systems. The comparisons also indicate the importance of carefully formulating subsurface flow models within the more general theoretical framework describing the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media. 29 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.
Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, Jr., Earle D.
1995-01-01
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member and/or six member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone.
Routine disinfection of the total dialysis fluid system.
Gorke, A; Kittel, J
2002-01-01
The importance of bacteria and endotoxin free, sterile dialysis fluid for long term, high quality haemodialysis treatment is obvious and very much demanded (1,2). Dead spaces and connections between units (segments) of fluid production and delivery in elder systems are a continuous source for bacteria growth, biofilm generation and endotoxin release (3). After varying success with routine disinfection of system components showing partly fast recovery and growth of bacteria (i.e. < 48 hours) we changed to routine disinfection of the entire fluid production and distribution system. We call this'system disinfection'. We report the methods and results from observation of practice over 28 months of disinfection. The fluid system is composed of a soft water tank, reverse osmosis (double RO), RO fluid loop, central bicarbonate production and delivery system and dialysis stations with and without ultrafilter and citric-thermal disinfection before and after each haemodialysis. The system disinfection is carried out bimonthly with peracetic acid 3.5% in > 0.1% solution at a mean temperature of > 15 degrees C and at a minimum of 60 minutes of disinfection time. Samples for microbiological testing and endotoxin measurement were assessed 3-4 monthly at 7 measurement points. The tests were carried out 7 times on the 11th day (mean value [MV]) after routine system disinfection. The result was in 0.2 CFU/ml (MV) in 40 tests. The endotoxin levels (IU/L) were all < 0.25 except one at 0.325 in RO water. Endotoxin was assessed 5 times in 26 tests over 28 months. Samples were taken at 10.5 (MV) days after system disinfection. The Gel Clot or turbometric method was used. Efficient and preventive routine system disinfection of an entire dialysis fluid production and distribution system as standard in modern equipment - can support sufficient quality in dialysis fluid produced and distributed by elder and composed systems. PMID:12371736
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
Thermal buoyancy and Marangoni convection in a two fluid layered system - A numerical study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.
1990-01-01
Thermal buoyancy and surface tension driven convection is numerically investigated in a system with two, immiscible fluids. The geometry investigated, has an open cavity configuration with the lighter fluid situated on top of the heavier fluid, forming a stable layered system. The upper fluid meniscus and the interface are assumed to be flat and undeformable in the calculations. The governing equations and boundary/interface conditions are solved by a control volume based finite difference scheme for two pairs of immiscible fluids; the water-hexadecane system and a so called generic system. The steady state calculations show, that dramatically different flows are predicted when the interfacial tension effects are included or excluded from the system model. These differences are particularly appreciable in surface tension dominated flows, that are typical of microgravity situations. Complex flow patterns, with induced secondary flows are noticed in both the fluids. In general, the overall system heat transfer is found to increase with increases in the thermal buoyancy and surface tension effects, but the behavior of the system flow and thermal fields is not easy to characterize, when different combinations of these forces are considered.
Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2012-02-07
Part (CW-12-04) created at INL to work inside SharePoint. The GUI tool links slider bars and drop downs to specific inputs and output of the ModelCenter model that is executable from SharePoint. The modeler also creates in SAS, dashboards, graphs and tables that are exposed by links and SAS and ModelCenter Web Parts into the SharePoint system. The user can then log into SharePoint, move slider bars and select drop down lists to configure the model parameters, click to run the model, and then view the output results that are based on their particular input choices. The main point is that GEMS eliminates the need for a programmer to connect and create the web artifacts necessary to implement and deliver an executable model or decision aid to customers.« less
Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems
2012-02-07
-04) created at INL to work inside SharePoint. The GUI tool links slider bars and drop downs to specific inputs and output of the ModelCenter model that is executable from SharePoint. The modeler also creates in SAS, dashboards, graphs and tables that are exposed by links and SAS and ModelCenter Web Parts into the SharePoint system. The user can then log into SharePoint, move slider bars and select drop down lists to configure the model parameters, click to run the model, and then view the output results that are based on their particular input choices. The main point is that GEMS eliminates the need for a programmer to connect and create the web artifacts necessary to implement and deliver an executable model or decision aid to customers.
Denniston, Colin; Robbins, Mark O
2006-12-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the flow behavior and diffusion of miscible fluids near solid surfaces. The solid produces deviations from bulk fluid behavior that decay over a distance of the order of the fluid correlation length. Atomistic results are mapped onto two types of continuum model: Mesoscopic models that follow this decay and conventional sharp interface boundary conditions for the stress and velocity. The atomistic results, and mesoscopic models derived from them, are consistent with the conventional Marangoni stress boundary condition. However, there are deviations from the conventional Navier boundary condition that states that the slip velocity between wall and fluid is proportional to the strain rate. A general slip boundary condition is derived from the mesoscopic model that contains additional terms associated with the Marangoni stress and diffusion, and is shown to describe the atomistic simulations. The additional terms lead to strong flows when there is a concentration gradient. The potential for using this effect to make a nanomotor or pump is evaluated. PMID:17166010
Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.
Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems
McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.
1981-10-01
A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.
2011-01-01
This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.
Towards a generalized computational fluid dynamics technique for all Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walters, R. W.; Slack, D. C.; Godfrey, A. G.
1993-01-01
flux formulae. In addition, we improved the convergence rate of the implicit time integration schemes in GASP through the use of inner iteration strategies and the use of the GMRES (General Minimized Resisual) which belongs to the class of algorithms referred to as Krylov subspace iteration. Finally, we significantly improved the practical utility of GASP through the addition of mesh sequencing, a technique in which computations begin on a coarse grid and get interpolated onto successively finer grids. The fluid dynamic problems of interest to the propulsion community involve complex flow physics spanning different velocity regimes and possibly involving chemical reactions. This class of problems results in widely disparate time scales causing numerical stiffness. Even in the absence of chemical reactions, eigenvalue stiffness manifests itself at transonic and very low speed flows which can be quantified by the large condition number of the system and evidenced by slow convergence rates. This results in the need for thorough numerical analysis and subsequent implementation of sophisticated numerical techniques for these difficult yet practical problems. As a result of this work, we have been able to extend the range of applicability of compressible codes to very low speed inviscid flows (M = .001) and reacting flows.
Towards a generalized computational fluid dynamics technique for all Mach numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walters, R. W.; Slack, D. C.; Godfrey, A. G.
1993-07-01
flux formulae. In addition, we improved the convergence rate of the implicit time integration schemes in GASP through the use of inner iteration strategies and the use of the GMRES (General Minimized Resisual) which belongs to the class of algorithms referred to as Krylov subspace iteration. Finally, we significantly improved the practical utility of GASP through the addition of mesh sequencing, a technique in which computations begin on a coarse grid and get interpolated onto successively finer grids. The fluid dynamic problems of interest to the propulsion community involve complex flow physics spanning different velocity regimes and possibly involving chemical reactions. This class of problems results in widely disparate time scales causing numerical stiffness. Even in the absence of chemical reactions, eigenvalue stiffness manifests itself at transonic and very low speed flows which can be quantified by the large condition number of the system and evidenced by slow convergence rates. This results in the need for thorough numerical analysis and subsequent implementation of sophisticated numerical techniques for these difficult yet practical problems. As a result of this work, we have been able to extend the range of applicability of compressible codes to very low speed inviscid flows (M = .001) and reacting flows.
Heat-Transfer Fluids for Solar-Energy Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, J. C.
1982-01-01
43-page report investigates noncorrosive heat-transport fluids compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic solar collectors and plumbing systems. Report includes tables and figures of X-ray inspections for corrosion and schematics of solar-heat transport systems and heat rejection systems.
Exact relativistic expressions for wave refraction in a generally moving fluid.
Cavalleri, G; Tonni, E; Barbero, F
2013-04-01
The law for the refraction of a wave when the two fluids and the interface are moving with relativistic velocities is given in an exact form, at the same time correcting a first order error in a previous paper [Cavalleri and Tonni, Phys. Rev. E 57, 3478 (1998)]. The treatment is then extended to a generally moving fluid with variable refractive index, ready to be applied to the refraction of acoustic, electromagnetic, or magnetohydrodynamic waves in the atmosphere of rapidly rotating stars. In the particular case of a gas cloud receding because of the universe expansion, our result can be applied to predict observable micro- and mesolensings. The first order approximation of our exact result for the deviation due to refraction of the light coming from a further quasar has a relativistic dependence equal to the one obtained by Einsteins' linearized theory of gravitation. PMID:23679540
A Generalized Multi-Phase Framework for Modeling Cavitation in Cryogenic Fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet
2003-01-01
A generalized multi-phase formulation for cavitation in fluids operating at temperatures elevated relative to their critical temperatures is presented. The thermal effects and the accompanying property variations due to phase change are modeled rigorously. Thermal equilibrium is assumed and fluid thermodynamic properties are specified along the saturation line using the NIST-12 databank. Fundamental changes in the physical characteristics of the cavity when thermal effects become pronounced are identified; the cavity becomes more porous, the interface less distinct, and has increased entrainment when temperature variations are present. Quantitative estimates of temperature and pressure depressions in both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen were computed and compared with experimental data of Hord for hydrofoils. Excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable. Liquid nitrogen cavities were consistently found to be in thermal equilibrium while liquid hydrogen cavities exhibited small, but distinct, non-equilibrium effects.
Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.
Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L
2015-04-01
In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist. PMID:25686913
Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement System Equips Boat Owners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
While developing a measurement acquisition system to be used to retrofit aging aircraft with vehicle health monitoring capabilities, Langley Research Center developed an innovative wireless fluid-level measurement system. The NASA technology was of interest to Tidewater Sensors LLC, of Newport News, Virginia, because of its many advantages over conventional fuel management systems, including its ability to provide an accurate measurement of volume while a boat is experiencing any rocking motion due to waves or people moving about on the boat. These advantages led the company to license this novel fluid-level measurement system from NASA for marine applications.
Generalized Predictive and Neural Generalized Predictive Control of Aerospace Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelkar, Atul G.
2000-01-01
The research work presented in this thesis addresses the problem of robust control of uncertain linear and nonlinear systems using Neural network-based Generalized Predictive Control (NGPC) methodology. A brief overview of predictive control and its comparison with Linear Quadratic (LQ) control is given to emphasize advantages and drawbacks of predictive control methods. It is shown that the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) methodology overcomes the drawbacks associated with traditional LQ control as well as conventional predictive control methods. It is shown that in spite of the model-based nature of GPC it has good robustness properties being special case of receding horizon control. The conditions for choosing tuning parameters for GPC to ensure closed-loop stability are derived. A neural network-based GPC architecture is proposed for the control of linear and nonlinear uncertain systems. A methodology to account for parametric uncertainty in the system is proposed using on-line training capability of multi-layer neural network. Several simulation examples and results from real-time experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.
1993-05-01
The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.
Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.
1993-01-01
The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
Koseff, J.R.
1990-04-03
The major accomplishments of our initial research period (August 1, 1987, to March 1, 1990) are as follows; we completed construction of the experimental facility. Originally, it had been our intent to modify an existing facility in our laboratory. When this became impractical we constructed a new stand-alone facility. Modified an existing three-dimensional numerical code developed in our laboratory, SEAFLOS1, by incorporating a salinity transport equation. Developed experimental and analytical techniques, and performed both physical and numerical experiments for a wide range of initial and boundary conditions. Focused our overall research effort to answer the following four questions pertaining to the formation of convective intrusions due to lateral temperature gradients established by sidewall heating. (1) What is the internal structure of the convective intrusions as a function of the initial stratification and sidewall heating rates (2) What is the correct scaling for the initial vertical dimension of the intrusions (3) How does the merging process vary as a function of initial stratification and sidewall heating rate (4) Is the sidewall heating critical for continued propagation of the intrusions, or is it merely a trigger which releases the internal instability in the fluid
[Rh system genotyping in amniotic fluid].
Cotorruelo, C; Biondi, C; García Borrás, S; Di Mónaco, R; Martino, W; Racca, A
2001-01-01
The aim of this work was to determine the presence of the RHD gene in fetal cells obtained from amniotic fluid (AF). We studied 65 samples of AF, 11 from RhD- mothers sensitized with anti-D. The fetal origin of the DNA was confirmed with the analysis of 1 VNTR locus and 3 STR loci in DNA samples from AF and maternal blood. The RHD genotyping was performed in non contaminated samples (n = 62) using a multiplex PCR strategy that yields 3 amplification products from RhD+ phenotypes and 1 DNA fragment from RhD- phenotypes. We genotyped 54 RhD+ fetuses (8 from RhD- sensitized mothers) and 8 RhD- fetuses (3 from RhD- sensitized mothers). Fetal DNA genotyping allows the diagnosis, from a single amniocentesis, of fetuses at real risk of hemolytic disease of the newborn. When the fetus is determined to be RhD- all invasive procedures can be avoided. PMID:11265629
A new volume-of-fluid method with a constructed distance function on general structured grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhaoyuan; Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick
2012-05-01
A second-order volume-of-fluid method (VOF) is presented for interface tracking and sharp interface treatment on general structured grids. Central to the new method is a second-order distance function construction scheme on a general structured grid based on the reconstructed interface. A novel technique is developed for evaluating the interface normal vector using the distance function. With the normal vector, the interface is reconstructed from the volume fraction function via a piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) scheme on the computational domain. Several numerical tests are conducted to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the present method. In general, the new VOF method is more efficient than both the high-order level set and the coupled level set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) methods. The results from the new method are better than those from the benchmark VOF method, particularly in the under-resolved regions, and are comparable to those from the CLSVOF method. Breaking waves over a submerged bump and around a wedge-shaped bow are simulated to demonstrate the application of the new method and sharp interface treatment in a two-phase flow solver on curvilinear grids. The computational results are in good agreement with the available experimental measurements.
A First Approach to Hydrodynamics in General Relativistic Systems Using SPH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz-Pérez, J. P.; González, J. A.; Montoya, E.
2010-07-01
In this work we present the Lagrangian formulation of the general relativistic ideal fluid equations. With the help of the standard Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method we obtain a discretization of the motion equations. Having in mind that several of the most interesting astrophysical systems that we observe in the universe have been shaped by fluid dynamical processes, we want to use this method to study them. We present the first steps to implement such general relativistic SPH codes.
Analyses of ACPL thermal/fluid conditioning system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.
1976-01-01
Results of engineering analyses are reported. Initial computations were made using a modified control transfer function where the systems performance was characterized parametrically using an analytical model. The analytical model was revised to represent the latest expansion chamber fluid manifold design, and systems performance predictions were made. Parameters which were independently varied in these computations are listed. Systems predictions which were used to characterize performance are primarily transient computer plots comparing the deviation between average chamber temperature and the chamber temperature requirement. Additional computer plots were prepared. Results of parametric computations with the latest fluid manifold design are included.
Waves in general relativistic two-fluid plasma around a Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, M. Atiqur
2012-10-01
Waves propagating in the relativistic electron-positron or ions plasma are investigated in a frame of two-fluid equations using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity developed by Thorne, Price and Macdonald (TPM). The plasma is assumed to be freefalling in the radial direction toward the event horizon due to the strong gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole. The local dispersion relations for transverse and longitudinal waves have been derived, in analogy with the special relativistic formulation as explained in an earlier paper, to take account of relativistic effects due to the event horizon using WKB approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roupas, Zacharias
2015-06-01
In [1], the thermal equilibrium of static, spherically symmetric perfect fluids in General Relativity was studied. I would like to elaborate three points relevant to the results of [1]. The first point is only a clarification, summarized in theorem 1 below, of results that appear in [1]. The following two points correct the error in [1], stating that the condition for thermodynamic stability, found in [1], is referring to the microcanonical ensemble, while it was referring to the canonical one. In theorems 2 and 3, specific cases for which equivalence of dynamical and thermodynamic stability holds are specified.
ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, Rosemary S.
2015-01-01
Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.
System for recovering fluids from a horizontal wellbore
Pasini, J. III.
1980-03-25
The present invention is directed to a gas-lift system for facilitating the removal of fluid (liquid and/or gaseous) energy values from a subterranean geologic earth formation penetrated by a horizontally extending wellbore. In accordance with the present invention concentric tubing is disposed in the wellbore with the outer tubing being provided with one-way valves for admitting the fluids from the earth formation surrounding the tubing. These fluids flow into an annulus between the tubings and are expelled from the annulus by injecting a gas into the annulus between the tubes which closes the valves and flushes the liquids from the tubing by forcing the fluids through the inner tube to a surface collection point.
Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.
Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.
2002-04-23
An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.
Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.
1971-01-01
Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.
Fluid flow and chemical reaction kinetics in metamorphic systems
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M. )
1993-05-01
The treatment and effects of chemical reaction kinetics during metamorphism are developed along with the incorporation of fluid flow, diffusion, and thermal evolution. The interplay of fluid flow and surface reaction rates, the distinction between steady state and equilibrium, and the possible overstepping of metamorphic reactions are discussed using a simple analytic model. This model serves as an introduction to the second part of the paper, which develops a reaction model that solves the coupled temperature-fluid flow-chemical composition differential equations relevant to metamorphic processes. Consideration of stable isotopic evidence requires that such a kinetic model be considered for the chemical evolution of a metamorphic aureole. A general numerical scheme is discussed to handle the solution of the model. The results of this kinetic model allow us to reach several important conclusions regarding the factors controlling the chemical evolution of mineral assemblages during a metamorphic event. 41 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.
Immiscible fluid: Heat of fusion heat storage system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edie, D. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.; Mullins, J. C.
1980-01-01
Both heat and mass transfer in direct contact aqueous crystallizing systems were studied as part of a program desig- ned to evaluate the feasibility of direct contact heat transfer in phase change storage using aqueous salt system. Major research areas, discussed include (1) crystal growth velocity study on selected salts; (2) selection of salt solutions; (3) selection of immiscible fluids; (4) studies of heat transfer and system geometry; and (5) system demonstration.
Space Station Freedom external fluid utilities system design and integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhard, Dawn M.
1993-02-01
This paper presents the current Space Station Freedom External Fluid System Design, which is an integrated design of numerous criteria, such as safety, reliability, availability, manufacturability, commonality and compatibility with Extravehicular Activity (EVA). McDonnell Douglas engineers are working to meet a Critical Design Review (CDR) in 1993 and to begin production of fluid system hardware for first launch in 1996, with successive launches continuing through the decade. The fluid system design hardware, such as the 316L Stainless Steel tubing, Inconel, flexible metal hoses, tee fittings, clamping systems and quick disconnect couplings will be presented, with special emphasis on how they were selected in the early phases of the design process. Fabrication and assembly of the Space Station Freedom fluid utility system, using the Numerically Controlled (NC) tube bender and Orbital Welder will be discussed. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on-orbit assembly and maintenance techniques of this system will also be briefly explained. Recommendations which have contributed to the success of this design effort include: Consistent communications between groups. a centralized computer-aided drafting/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with Electronic Development Fixture (EDF) capability, and technical review boards to control and minimize changes to the design baseline.
LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotae, Vlad; Creanga, Ioan
2005-03-01
Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 μl/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 μl/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.
Generalized Data Management Systems--Some Perspectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minker, Jack
A Generalized Data Management System (GDMS) is a software environment provided as a tool for analysts, administrators, and programmers who are responsible for the maintenance, query and analysis of a data base to permit the manipulation of newly defined files and data with the existing programs and system. Because the GDMS technology is believed…
Building a generalized distributed system model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukkamala, Ravi
1991-01-01
A number of topics related to building a generalized distributed system model are discussed. The effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks, the measurement of effects of distributed database models on transaction availability measures, and a performance analysis of static locking in replicated distributed database systems are covered.
General Training System; GENTRAS. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. Federal Systems Div.
GENTRAS (General Training System) is a computer-based training model for the Marine Corps which makes use of a systems approach. The model defines the skill levels applicable for career growth and classifies and defines the training needed for this growth. It also provides a training cost subsystem which will provide a more efficient means of…
GPLAN: A Generalized Data Base Planning System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunamaker, J. F., Jr.; And Others
It is recognized that there is a major gap between the promises of large data bases and optimization and simulation models and their actual ability to solve real world problems. This document describes a Generalized Data Base Planning System (GPLAN), currently being developed at Purdue University, that is proposed as a system to bridge this gap. A…
General Information Processing System: (GIPSY). Application Description.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Addison, Charles H.; And Others
The application description is directed to those desiring to acquaint themselves with the characteristics of the General Information Processing System (GIPSY). It provides guidelines and aids for the preparation and use of the system, and covers such areas as: (1) Information Collection and Creation, (2) Information Retrieval, (3) Maintenance…
Generalized fictitious methods for fluid-structure interactions: Analysis and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yue; Baek, Hyoungsu; Karniadakis, George Em
2013-07-01
We present a new fictitious pressure method for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in incompressible flow by generalizing the fictitious mass and damping methods we published previously in [1]. The fictitious pressure method involves modification of the fluid solver whereas the fictitious mass and damping methods modify the structure solver. We analyze all fictitious methods for simplified problems and obtain explicit expressions for the optimal reduction factor (convergence rate index) at the FSI interface [2]. This analysis also demonstrates an apparent similarity of fictitious methods to the FSI approach based on Robin boundary conditions, which have been found to be very effective in FSI problems. We implement all methods, including the semi-implicit Robin based coupling method, in the context of spectral element discretization, which is more sensitive to temporal instabilities than low-order methods. However, the methods we present here are simple and general, and hence applicable to FSI based on any other spatial discretization. In numerical tests, we verify the selection of optimal values for the fictitious parameters for simplified problems and for vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) even at zero mass ratio ("for-ever-resonance"). We also develop an empirical a posteriori analysis for complex geometries and apply it to 3D patient-specific flexible brain arteries with aneurysms for very large deformations. We demonstrate that the fictitious pressure method enhances stability and convergence, and is comparable or better in most cases to the Robin approach or the other fictitious methods.
The fluid systems for the SLD Cherenkov ring imaging detector
Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.; Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dolinsky, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; McCulloch, M.; McShurley, D.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.J.; Peterson, H.; Ratcliff, B.; Reif, R.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Shaw, H.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Vavra, J.; Watt, R.; Weber, T.; Williams, S.H.; Baird, K.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Word, G.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Yellin, S.; Ben-David, R.; Manly, S.; Snyder, J.; Turk, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Liu, X.; Schneider, M.; Williams, D.A.; Coller, J.; Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; d`Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stockdale, I.; Wilson, R.J.
1992-10-01
We describe the design and operation of the fluid delivery, monitor and control systems for the SLD barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID). The systems deliver drift gas (C{sub 2}H{sub 6} + TMAE), radiator gas (C{sub 5}F{sub 12} + N{sub 2}) and radiator liquid (C{sub 6}F{sub 14}). Measured critical quantities such as electron lifetime in the drift gas and ultra-violet (UV) transparencies of the radiator fluids, together with the operational experience, are also reported.
Rotation of a rod system containing inertial fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, A. D.
2012-11-01
This paper considers a rod system for which it is possible to correctly formulate and solve the problem of three-dimensional motion in the physical space of an elastic pipeline area containing inertial incompressible fluid flow. The precession of the axis of an elastic pipeline along which inertial incompressible fluid flows is described, a physical phenomenon which has not been previously studied. With the use of rigid body dynamics, it was theoretically established that a three-dimensional dynamic process is possible in an open (exchanging mass with the environment) elastic-inertial rod system.
TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase fluid and heat flow
Pruess, K.
1991-05-01
TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation program for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, and unsaturated zone hydrology. A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures, facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. This report includes a detailed description of governing equations, program architecture, and user features. Enhancements in data inputs relative to TOUGH are described, and a number of sample problems are given to illustrate code applications. 46 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.
Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.
1979-01-01
The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.
Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, Jr., Earle D.
1995-01-01
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.
Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, E.D. Jr.
1995-07-11
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
Koseff, J.R.
1988-05-01
A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating, surface shear and sloping boundaries. The goals of the proposed work include: quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and formulation of numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in a new experimental facility at Stanford and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues. The formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; The interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; The formation of gravitational intrusions; and The influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. The goals of the project were as follows. Physical experiments: Construct experimental facility; Modify and fabricate instrument rakes; Develop sampling and calibration software; Develop stratification techniques; Conduct flow visualization studies; Qualify wind tunnel over a range of wind speeds. Numerical experiments: Adapt REMIXCS to handle turbulent flows; Investigate approaches for specifying wind field; Perform calculations for low wind speeds. With the exception of the wind tunnel qualification, all the tasks have already been completed and we are now conducting quantitative experiments. 2 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok K.; LeClair, Andre C.; Hedayat, Ali
2016-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model of pressurization of a cryogenic propellant tank for the Integrated Vehicle Fluid (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been running tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to develop an integrated model of the tank and the pressurization system. This paper presents an iterative algorithm for converging the interface boundary conditions between different component models of a large system model. The model results have been compared with test data.
Automatic TLI recognition system, general description
Lassahn, G.D.
1997-02-01
This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.
Control system for cheng dual-fluid cycle engine system
Cheng, D.Y.
1987-07-21
A dual-fluid heat engine is described which is operated to produce co-generated process steam having: a chamber; compressor means for introducing a first gaseous working fluid comprising air into the chamber, the compressor means having a predetermined pressure ratio (CPR); means for introducing a second liquid-vapor working fluid comprising water in the form of a vapor within the chamber at a defined water/air working fluid ratio (XMIX); means for heating the water vapor and air in the chamber at a defined specific heat input rate (SHIR); turbine means responsive to the mixture of the first and second working fluids for converting the energy associated with the mixture to mechanical energy, the temperature of the mixture entering the turbine means defining the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and having a design maximum turbine inlet temperature (TITmax); counterflow heat exchanger means for transferring residual thermal energy from the exhausted mixture of first and second working fluids to the incoming working fluid water to thereby preheat the same to water vapor prior to its introduction within the chamber; means for diverting water vapor from the chamber, if desired, for co-generated process steam; and wherein the improvement comprises: means for operating the engine under partial load conditions such that when substantially no co-generated process steam is required. The engine control path follows a locus of peak efficiency points resulting in declining TIT as the load decreases, and such that XMIX and SHIR are selected so that for a given value of TIT, XMIX is at or near XMIX peak, where XMIX peak occurs when conditions are met simultaneously.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullah, Saif; Ullah, Arshad; Iqbal, Mohsan
2015-12-01
This investigation deals with analytical solutions of thin film flow for withdrawal and drainage of an incompressible generalized Oldroyd-B fluid on a vertical cylinder under the influence of non-isothermal effects. The derived solutions are presented under series form for velocity profile, temperature distribution, volume flux, average film velocity and shear stress in both cases. These solutions satisfy both the governing equations and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The corresponding exact solutions for Newtonian fluid are also obtained as a special case of our derived solutions. Moreover, solutions for generalized Maxwell fluid and Power Law model, performing the same motion, can be obtained as limiting cases of our general solutions. The influence of pertinent parameters on the fluid motion is also underlined by graphical illustration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, G. O.; Fowlis, W. W.; Miller, T. L.
1984-01-01
Numerical methods are used to design a spherical baroclinic flow model experiment of the large scale atmosphere flow for Spacelab. The dielectric simulation of radial gravity is only dominant in a low gravity environment. Computer codes are developed to study the processes at work in crystal growing systems which are also candidates for space flight. Crystalline materials rarely achieve their potential properties because of imperfections and component concentration variations. Thermosolutal convection in the liquid melt can be the cause of these imperfections. Such convection is suppressed in a low gravity environment. Two and three dimensional finite difference codes are being used for this work. Nonuniform meshes and implicit iterative methods are used. The iterative method for steady solutions is based on time stepping but has the options of different time steps for velocity and temperature and of a time step varying smoothly with position according to specified powers of the mesh spacings. This allows for more rapid convergence. The code being developed for the crystal growth studies allows for growth of the crystal as the solid-liquid interface. The moving interface is followed using finite differences; shape variations are permitted. For convenience in applying finite differences in the solid and liquid, a time dependent coordinate transformation is used to make this interface a coordinate surface.
System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and...
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and...
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and...
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and...
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and...
Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System Fluid Dynamics Investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Medium (TCM) is the bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures are grown. With its two syringe ports, it is much like a bag used to administer intravenous fluid, except it allows gas exchange needed for life. The TCM contains cell culture medium, and when frozen cells are flown to the ISS, they are thawed and introduced to the TCM through the syringe ports. In the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI) experiment, several mixing procedures are being assessed to determine which method achieves the most uniform mixing of growing cells and culture medium.
A generalized hydrodynamic model for acoustic mode stability in viscoelastic plasma fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, B.; Haloi, A.; Karmakar, P. K.
2016-05-01
In this paper a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model to investigate acoustic-mode excitation and stability in simplified strongly coupled bi-component plasma is proposed. The goal is centered in seeing the viscoelasticity-influences on the instability properties. The dispersive and nondispersive features are methodologically explored followed by numerical illustrations. It is seen that, unlike usual plasma acoustic mode, here the mode stability is drastically modified due to the considered viscoelastic effects contributed from both the electronic and ionic fluids. For example, it is found that there exists an excitation threshold value on angular wavenumber, K ≈3 in the K-space on the Debye scale, beyond which only dispersive characteristic features prevail. Further, it is demonstrated that the viscoelastic relaxation time plays a stabilizing influential role on the wave dynamics. In contrast, it is just opposite for the effective viscoelastic relaxation effect. Consistency with the usual viscoelasticity-free situations, with and without plasma approximation taken into account, is also established and explained. It is identified and conjectured that the plasma fluid viscoelasticity acts as unavoidable dispersive agency in attributing several new characteristics to acoustic wave excitation and propagation. The analysis is also exploited to derive a quantitative glimpse on the various basic properties and dimensionless numbers of the viscoelastic plasma. Finally, extended implications of our results tentative to different cosmic, space and astrophysical situations, amid the entailed facts and faults, are highlighted together with indicated future directions.
Code System for Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-05-30
Version 00 PELE-IC is a two-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics program for the solution of incompressible flow coupled to flexible structures. The code was developed to calculate fluid-structure interactions and bubble dynamics of a pressure-suppression system following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by calculation of benchmark problems and air and steam blowdown experiments. The code is written for both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is generalmore » enough to handle a wide variety of structural shapes. The concepts of void fractions and interface orientation are used to track the movement of free surfaces, allowing great versatility in following fluid-gas interfaces both for bubble definition and water surface motion without the use of marker particles.« less
Internal fluid mechanics research on supercomputers for aerospace propulsion systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Brent A.; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Szuch, John R.
1988-01-01
The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center is combining the key elements of computational fluid dynamics, aerothermodynamic experiments, and advanced computational technology to bring internal computational fluid mechanics (ICFM) to a state of practical application for aerospace propulsion systems. The strategies used to achieve this goal are to: (1) pursue an understanding of flow physics, surface heat transfer, and combustion via analysis and fundamental experiments, (2) incorporate improved understanding of these phenomena into verified 3-D CFD codes, and (3) utilize state-of-the-art computational technology to enhance experimental and CFD research. Presented is an overview of the ICFM program in high-speed propulsion, including work in inlets, turbomachinery, and chemical reacting flows. Ongoing efforts to integrate new computer technologies, such as parallel computing and artificial intelligence, into high-speed aeropropulsion research are described.
Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems
Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong
2006-09-15
In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.
Invariant of dynamical systems: A generalized entropy
Meson, A.M.; Vericat, F. |
1996-09-01
In this work the concept of entropy of a dynamical system, as given by Kolmogorov, is generalized in the sense of Tsallis. It is shown that this entropy is an isomorphism invariant, being complete for Bernoulli schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Creativity, General Systems and the Gifted.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khatena, Joe
1979-01-01
Imagery as it relates to creative imagination, incubation, and right brain activity, and as a subsystem of the General Systems approach, is discussed in terms of gifted education. Considered are the theories of G. Land (transformation theory), J. Gowan (developmental stage theory), and J. Eccles. (SBH)
Generalized Training Devices for Avionic Systems Maintenance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, Edward L.
A research study was conducted to determine the feasibility and desirability of developing generalized training equipment for use in avionic systems maintenance training. The study consisted of a group of survey and analytic tasks to provide useful guidance to serve the needs of the Naval Aviation community in future years. The study had four…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makinde, O. D.
2014-12-01
In this paper, the steady generalized axial Couette flow of Ostwald-de Waele power law reactive fluids between concentric cylindrical pipes is investigated. It is assumed that the outer cylinder is stationary and exchanges heat with the ambient surrounding following Newton's law of cooling, while the inner cylinder with isothermal surface is set in motion in the axial direction. The model nonlinear differential equations for the momentum and energy balance are obtained and tackled numerically using the shooting method coupled with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique. The effects of various embedded thermophysical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields including skin friction, Nusselt number and thermal criticality conditions are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
General exact solution for homogeneous time-dependent self-gravitating perfect fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Hojman, Roberto
1990-01-01
A procedure to obtain the general exact solution of Einstein equations for a self-gravitating spherically symmetric static perfect fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state is applied to time-dependent Kantowski-Sachs line elements (with spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry). As in the static case, the solution is generated by an arbitrary function of the independent variable and its first derivative. To illustrate the results, the whole family of (plane-symmetric) solutions with a ``gamma-law'' equation of state is explicitly obtained in terms of simple known functions. It is also shown that, while in the static plane-symmetric line element, every metric is in one to one correspondence with a ``partner metric'' (both originated from the same generatrix function); in this case every generatrix function uniquely determines one metric.
General exact solution for homogeneous time-dependent self-gravitating perfect fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Hojman, Roberto
1988-06-01
A procedure to obtain the general exact solution of Einstein equations for a self-gravitating spherically symmetric static perfect fluid obeying an arbitrary equation of state, is applied to time dependent Kantowsky-Sachs line elements (with spherical, planar and hyperbolic symmetry). As in the static case, the solution is generated by an arbitrary function of the independent variable and its first derivative. To illustrate the results, the whole family of (plane-symmetric) solutions with a gamma-law equation of state is explicity obtained in terms of simple known functions. It is also shown that, while in the static plane-symmetric line elements, every metric is in one to one correspondence with a partner-metric (both originated from the same generatrix function), in this case every generatrix function univocally determines one metric.
Recent Updates to the CFD General Notation System (CGNS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Wedan, Bruce; Hauser, Thomas; Poinot, Marc
2012-01-01
The CFD General Notation System (CGNS) - a general, portable, and extensible standard for the storage and retrieval of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis data has been in existence for more than a decade (Version 1.0 was released in May 1998). Both structured and unstructured CFD data are covered by the standard, and CGNS can be easily extended to cover any sort of data imaginable, while retaining backward compatibility with existing CGNS data files and software. Although originally designed for CFD, it is readily extendable to any field of computational analysis. In early 2011, CGNS Version 3.1 was released, which added significant capabilities. This paper describes these recent enhancements and highlights the continued usefulness of the CGNS methodology.
Sustainable fouling management for spacecraft fluid handling systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Evan Alexander Beirne
Current technologies for microgravity fluid management utilize centripetal acceleration or capillary action to separate liquids from gases without gravity buoyancy. Centripetal acceleration hardware is prone to failure from fouling, while capillary technologies have only been utilized in favorable wetting environments, wherein the contact angle of the liquid, Qadv, a key design parameter, is reliably low. In this work, the impact of wastewater fouling on Qadv, is characterized, and the results applied to the development of a capillary static phase separator. Mean wastewater Qadv, on clean surfaces are between ≈78° and ≈89° on hydrophilic surfaces, and up to over ≈105° on hydrophobic surfaces. Small crystalline growth on the order of 10microm can lower advancing contact angles Qadv, by approximately 30°, while biofilm growth can lower them by approximately 15o. Vacuum drying of fouled surfaces increased Qadv, by about 8°, and defects greater in height than 5% of the capillary length increased Qadv, by approximately 30°. Interestingly, the promotion of wastewater fouling may even improve the performance of capillary dependent fluid management systems, and designs attempting to exploit wastewater wetting must account for highly variable wetting conditions. Reduced gravity flight tests demonstrated a static phase separator that achieved nearly 100% separation of gas from fluids with widely varying Qadv. The system uses centrifugal force to coalesce droplets via a circular path; collects bulk fluid via capillary geometries (wetting) or air drag (non-wetting); and contains bulk fluid by capillary force; while minimizing liquid carryover into the air stream by pinning edges (wetting) or tortuous path (non-wetting). Instead of attempting to prevent or reduce wastewater fouling, sustainable fluid management systems can be designed to accommodate fouling. For example, a lunar outpost water recovery system could be encouraged to foul regolith media and form
Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems
Choi, U.S. ); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1992-01-01
Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.
Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems
Choi, U.S.; France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. |
1992-07-01
Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.
A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Z. C.; Wang, J.
2012-10-01
This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment.
State-of-the-art review of computational fluid dynamics modeling for fluid-solids systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyczkowski, R. W.; Bouillard, J. X.; Ding, J.; Chang, S. L.; Burge, S. W.
1994-05-01
As the result of 15 years of research (50 staff years of effort) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), through its involvement in fluidized-bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamics, and a variety of environmental programs, has produced extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and models to predict the multiphase hydrodynamic and reactive behavior of fluid-solids motions and interactions in complex fluidized-bed reactors (FBR's) and slurry systems. This has resulted in the FLUFIX, IRF, and SLUFIX computer programs. These programs are based on fluid-solids hydrodynamic models and can predict information important to the designer of atmospheric or pressurized bubbling and circulating FBR, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and slurry units to guarantee optimum efficiency with minimum release of pollutants into the environment. This latter issue will become of paramount importance with the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1995. Solids motion is also the key to understanding erosion processes. Erosion rates in FBR's and pneumatic and slurry components are computed by ANL's EROSION code to predict the potential metal wastage of FBR walls, intervals, feed distributors, and cyclones. Only the FLUFIX and IRF codes will be reviewed in the paper together with highlights of the validations because of length limitations. It is envisioned that one day, these codes with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale, and biomass as energy sources; to retain energy security; and to remediate waste and ecological problems.
BRST analysis of general mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaparulin, D. S.; Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.
2013-12-01
We study the groups of local BRST cohomology associated to the general systems of ordinary differential equations, not necessarily Lagrangian or Hamiltonian. Starting with the involutive normal form of the equations, we explicitly compute certain cohomology groups having clear physical meaning. These include the groups of global symmetries, conservation laws and Lagrange structures. It is shown that the space of integrable Lagrange structures is naturally isomorphic to the space of weak Poisson brackets. The last fact allows one to establish a direct link between the path-integral quantization of general not necessarily variational dynamics by means of Lagrange structures and the deformation quantization of weak Poisson brackets.
Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A generalized interactive information system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C. A.; Hipkins, K. R.
1975-01-01
An interactive information system is described. It is a general purpose, free format system which offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.