Interacting Ricci dark energy in scalar Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Pasqua, Antonio; Aly, Ayman A.
2014-02-01
This paper reports a study on the cosmological application of interacting Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) density in the scalar Gauss-Bonnet framework. The interacting holographic RDE model has been employed to obtain the equation of state (EoS) in a spatially flat universe. The main results of this paper are that the reconstructed potential of scalar Gauss-Bonnet gravity for the interacting RDE model decays with the evolution of the universe. However, it is an increasing function of the scalar field . Both the strong and weak energy conditions are violated. A phantom-like behavior of the EoS parameter has been obtained. The effective EoS parameter stays below -1 but tends to -1 with the evolution of the universe. However, it cannot cross the phantom boundary. Finally, the interacting RDE model in Gauss-Bonnet gravity gives accelerated expansion of the universe.
Dark energy from Gauss-Bonnet and nonminimal couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granda, L. N.; Jimenez, D. F.
2014-12-01
We consider a scalar-tensor model of dark energy with Gauss-Bonnet and nonminimal couplings. Exact cosmological solutions were found in the absence of potential that give equations of state of dark energy consistent with current observational constraints, but with different asymptotic behaviors depending on the couplings of the model. A detailed reconstruction procedure is given for the scalar potential and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling for any given cosmological scenario. In particular we consider conditions for the existence of a variety of cosmological solutions with accelerated expansion, including quintessence, phantom, de Sitter, and Little Rip. For the case of quintessence and phantom we have found a scalar potential of the Albrecht-Skordis type, where the potential is an exponential with a polynomial factor.
Dark matter relic density in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B.
2014-12-01
The relic density of symmetric and asymmetric dark matter in a Gauss-Bonnet (GB) modified Randall-Sundrum (RS) type II braneworld cosmology is investigated. The existing study of symmetric dark matter in a GB braneworld (Okada and Okada, 2009) found that the expansion rate was reduced compared to that in standard General Relativity (GR), thereby delaying particle freeze-out and resulting in relic abundances which are suppressed by up to Script O(10-2). This is in direct contrast to the behaviour observed in RS braneworlds where the expansion rate is enhanced and the final relic abundance boosted. However, this finding that relic abundances are suppressed in a GB braneworld is based upon a highly contrived situation in which the GB era evolves directly into a standard GR era, rather than passing through a RS era as is the general situation. This collapse of the RS era requires equating the mass scale mα of the GB modification and the mass scale mσ of the brane tension. However, if the GB contribution is to be considered as the lowest order correction from string theory to the RS action, we would expect mα > mσ. We investigate the effect upon the relic abundance of choosing more realistic values for the ratio Script Rm ≡ mα/mσ and find that the relic abundance can be either enhanced or suppressed by more than two orders of magnitude. However, suppression only occurs for a small range of parameter choices and, overwhelmingly, the predominant situation is that of enhancement as we recover the usual Randall-Sundrum type behaviour in the limit Script Rm gg 1. We use the latest observational bound ΩDMh2 = 0.1187 ± 0.0017 to constrain the various model parameters and briefly discuss the implications for direct/indirect dark matter detection experiments as well as dark matter particle models.
Dark matter relic density in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology
Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B. E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au
2014-12-01
The relic density of symmetric and asymmetric dark matter in a Gauss-Bonnet (GB) modified Randall-Sundrum (RS) type II braneworld cosmology is investigated. The existing study of symmetric dark matter in a GB braneworld (Okada and Okada, 2009) found that the expansion rate was reduced compared to that in standard General Relativity (GR), thereby delaying particle freeze-out and resulting in relic abundances which are suppressed by up to O(10{sup −2}). This is in direct contrast to the behaviour observed in RS braneworlds where the expansion rate is enhanced and the final relic abundance boosted. However, this finding that relic abundances are suppressed in a GB braneworld is based upon a highly contrived situation in which the GB era evolves directly into a standard GR era, rather than passing through a RS era as is the general situation. This collapse of the RS era requires equating the mass scale m{sub α} of the GB modification and the mass scale m{sub σ} of the brane tension. However, if the GB contribution is to be considered as the lowest order correction from string theory to the RS action, we would expect m{sub α} > m{sub σ}. We investigate the effect upon the relic abundance of choosing more realistic values for the ratio R{sub m} ≡ m{sub α}/m{sub σ} and find that the relic abundance can be either enhanced or suppressed by more than two orders of magnitude. However, suppression only occurs for a small range of parameter choices and, overwhelmingly, the predominant situation is that of enhancement as we recover the usual Randall-Sundrum type behaviour in the limit R{sub m} >> 1. We use the latest observational bound Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} = 0.1187 ± 0.0017 to constrain the various model parameters and briefly discuss the implications for direct/indirect dark matter detection experiments as well as dark matter particle models.
Correspondence between entropy-corrected holographic and Gauss-Bonnet dark-energy models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Jamil, Mubasher
2010-11-01
In the present work we investigate the cosmological implications of the entropy-corrected holographic dark-energy (ECHDE) density in the Gauss-Bonnet framework. This is motivated from the loop quantum gravity corrections to the entropy-area law. Assuming the two cosmological scenarios are valid simultaneously, we show that there is a correspondence between the ECHDE scenario in flat universe and the phantom dark-energy model in the framework of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with a potential. This correspondence leads consistently to an accelerating universe.
Dark energy in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity: Late-time acceleration and the hierarchy problem
Cognola, Guido; Zerbini, Sergio; Elizalde, Emilio; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2006-04-15
Dark energy cosmology is considered in a modified Gauss-Bonnet (GB) model of gravity where an arbitrary function of the GB invariant, f(G), is added to the general relativity action. We show that a theory of this kind is endowed with a quite rich cosmological structure: it may naturally lead to an effective cosmological constant, quintessence, or phantom cosmic acceleration, with a possibility for the transition from deceleration to acceleration. It is demonstrated in the paper that this theory is perfectly viable, since it is compliant with the solar system constraints. Specific properties of f(G) gravity in a de Sitter (dS) universe, such as dS and SdS solutions, their entropy, and its explicit one-loop quantization are studied. The issue of a possible solution of the hierarchy problem in modified gravities is also addressed.
The role of Lagrange multiplier in Gauss-Bonnet dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarenko, Andrey N.
2016-04-01
We review accelerating cosmology in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint studied in [S. Capozziello, A. N. Makarenko and S. D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 87 (2013) 084037, arXiv: 1302.0093 [gr-qc], S. Capozziello, M. Francaviglia and A. N. Makarenko, Astrophys. Space Sci. 349 (2014) 603-609, arXiv: 1304.5440 [gr-qc]. Several examples of dark energy universes are presented. We can get new dark energy solutions (with additional scalar) as well as certain limits to earlier found accelerating solutions.
Generalized Misner-Sharp quasilocal mass in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Maeda, Hideki; Nozawa, Masato
2008-03-15
We investigate properties of a quasilocal mass in a higher-dimensional spacetime having symmetries corresponding to the isomertries of an (n-2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant. We assume that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant is non-negative. The quasilocal mass was recently defined by one of the authors as a counterpart of the Misner-Sharp quasilocal mass in general relativity. The quasilocal mass is found to be a quasilocal conserved charge associated with a locally conserved current constructed from the generalized Kodama vector and exhibits the unified first law corresponding to the energy-balance law. In the asymptotically flat case, it converges to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass at spacelike infinity, while it converges to the Deser-Tekin and Padilla mass at infinity in the case of asymptotically anti-de Sitter. Under the dominant energy condition, we show the monotonicity of the quasilocal mass for any k, while the positivity on an untrapped hypersurface with a regular center is shown for k=1 and for k=0 with an additional condition, where k={+-}1, 0 is the constant sectional curvature of each spatial section of equipotential surfaces. Under a special relation between coupling constants, positivity of the quasilocal mass is shown for any k without assumptions above. We also classify all the vacuum solutions by utilizing the generalized Kodama vector. Lastly, several conjectures on further generalization of the quasilocal mass in Lovelock gravity are proposed.
Generalized second law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdolmaleki, A.; Najafi, T.
2016-01-01
Modified gravity (MG) and generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics are interesting topics in the modern cosmology. In this regard, we investigate the GSL of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of modified Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity or f(G)-gravity. We consider a spatially FRW universe filled with the pressureless matter and radiation enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon with the Hawking temperature. For two viable f(G) models, we first numerically solve the set of differential equations governing the dynamics of f(G)-gravity. Then, we obtain the evolutions of the Hubble parameter, the GB curvature invariant term, the density and equation of state (EoS) parameters as well as the deceleration parameter. In addition, we check the energy conditions for both models and finally examine the validity of the GSL. For the selected f(G) models, we conclude that both models have a stable de Sitter attractor. The EoS parameters behave quite similar to those of the ΛCDM model in the radiation/matter dominated epochs, then they enter the phantom region before reaching the de Sitter attractor with ω = -1. The deceleration parameter starts from the radiation/matter dominated eras, then transits from a cosmic deceleration to acceleration and finally approaches a de Sitter regime at late times, as expected. Furthermore, the GSL is respected for both models during the standard radiation/matter dominated epochs. Thereafter when the universe becomes accelerating, the GSL is violated in some ranges of scale factor. At late times, the evolution of the GSL predicts an adiabatic behavior for the accelerated expansion of the universe.
Does the Gauss-Bonnet term stabilize wormholes?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokubu, Takafumi; Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro
2015-12-01
The effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term on the existence and dynamical stability of thin-shell wormholes as negative tension branes is studied in the arbitrary-dimensional spherically, planar and hyperbolically symmetric spacetimes. We consider radial perturbations against the shell for the solutions that have the Z2 symmetry and admit the general relativistic limit. It is shown that the Gauss-Bonnet term shrinks the parameter region that admits static wormholes. The effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term on the stability depends on the spacetime symmetry. For planar symmetric wormholes, the Gauss-Bonnet term does not affect their stability. If the coupling constant is positive but small, the Gauss-Bonnet term tends to destabilize spherically symmetric wormholes, while it stabilizes hyperbolically symmetric wormholes. The Gauss-Bonnet term can destabilize hyperbolically symmetric wormholes as a non-perturbative effect, but spherically symmetric wormholes cannot be stable.
Black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Faizal, Mir
2015-08-01
In this paper, we will generalize the Gauss-Bonnet gravity to an energy-dependent Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity, which we shall call the Gauss-Bonnet gravity's rainbow. We will also couple this theory to a Maxwell's theory. We will analyze black hole solutions in this energy-dependent Gauss-Bonnet gravity's rainbow. We will calculate the modifications to the thermodynamics of black holes in the Gauss-Bonnet's gravity's rainbow. We will demonstrate that even though the thermodynamics of the black holes get modified in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity's rainbow, the first law of thermodynamics still holds for this modified thermodynamics. We will also comment on the thermal stability of the black hole solutions in this theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.
2014-12-01
Motivated by the string corrections on the gravity and electrodynamics sides, we consider a quadratic Maxwell invariant term as a correction of the Maxwell Lagrangian to obtain exact solutions of higher dimensional topological black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We first investigate the asymptotically flat solutions and obtain conserved and thermodynamic quantities which satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also analyze thermodynamic stability of the solutions by calculating the heat capacity and the Hessian matrix. Then, we focus on horizon-flat solutions with an anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptote and produce a rotating spacetime with a suitable transformation. In addition, we calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities for asymptotically AdS black branes which satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we perform thermodynamic instability criterion to investigate the effects of nonlinear electrodynamics in canonical and grand canonical ensembles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Khurshudyan, Martiros; Aly, Ayman A.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we studied the cosmological application of the interacting Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) model in the framework of the scalar Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity model. We studied the properties of the reconstructed potential , the Strong Energy Condition (SEC), the Weak Energy Condition (WEC) and the deceleration parameter q for three different models of scale factor, i.e. the emergent, the intermediate and the logamediate one. We obtained that , for the emergent scenario, has a decreasing behavior, while, for the logamediate scenario, the potential start with an increasing behavior then, for later times, it shows a slowly decreasing behavior. Finally, for the intermediate scenario, the potential has an initial increasing behavior, then for a time of t≈1.2, it starts to decrease. We also found that both SEC and WEC are violated for all the three scale factors considered. Finally, studying the plots of q, we derived that an accelerated universe can be achieved for the three models of scale factor considered.
Radiating black hole solutions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Dominguez, Alfredo E.; Gallo, Emanuel
2006-03-15
In this paper, we find some new exact solutions to the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet equations. First, we prove a theorem which allows us to find a large family of solutions to the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in n-dimensions. This family of solutions represents dynamic black holes and contains, as particular cases, not only the recently found Vaidya-Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black hole, but also other physical solutions that we think are new, such as the Gauss-Bonnet versions of the Bonnor-Vaidya (de Sitter/anti-de Sitter) solution, a global monopole, and the Husain black holes. We also present a more general version of this theorem in which less restrictive conditions on the energy-momentum tensor are imposed. As an application of this theorem, we present the exact solution describing a black hole radiating a charged null fluid in a Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics.
Causal structures in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izumi, Keisuke
2014-08-01
We analyze causal structures in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. It is known that Gauss-Bonnet gravity potentially has superluminal propagation of gravitons due to its noncanonical kinetic terms. In a theory with superluminal modes, an analysis of causality based on null curves makes no sense, and thus, we need to analyze them in a different way. In this paper, using the method of the characteristics, we analyze the causal structure in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We have the result that, on a Killing horizon, gravitons can propagate in the null direction tangent to the Killing horizon. Therefore, a Killing horizon can be a causal edge as in the case of general relativity; i.e. a Killing horizon is the "event horizon" in the sense of causality. We also analyze causal structures on nonstationary solutions with (D-2)-dimensional maximal symmetry, including spherically symmetric and flat spaces. If the geometrical null energy condition, RABNANB≥0 for any null vector NA, is satisfied, the radial velocity of gravitons must be less than or equal to that of light. However, if the geometrical null energy condition is violated, gravitons can propagate faster than light. Hence, on an evaporating black hole where the geometrical null energy condition is expected not to hold, classical gravitons can escape from the "black hole" defined with null curves. That is, the causal structures become nontrivial. It may be one of the possible solutions for the information loss paradox of evaporating black holes.
NUT-charged black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.
2005-12-15
We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Taub-bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and obtain the general form of these solutions in d dimensions. We find that for all nonextremal NUT solutions of Einstein gravity having no curvature singularity at r=N, there exist NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that contain these solutions in the limit that the Gauss-Bonnet parameter {alpha} goes to zero. Furthermore there are no NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that yield nonextremal NUT solutions to Einstein gravity having a curvature singularity at r=N in the limit {alpha}{yields}0. Indeed, we have nonextreme NUT solutions in 2+2k dimensions with nontrivial fibration only when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP{sup 2k}. We also find that the Gauss-Bonnet gravity has extremal NUT solutions whenever the base space is a product of 2-torii with at most a two-dimensional factor space of positive curvature. Indeed, when the base space has at most one positively curved two-dimensional space as one of its factor spaces, then Gauss-Bonnet gravity admits extreme NUT solutions, even though there a curvature singularity exists at r=N. We also find that one can have bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with any base space with factor spaces of zero or positive constant curvature. The only case for which one does not have bolt solutions is in the absence of a cosmological term with zero curvature base space.
Energy conditions in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, José P.
2011-05-01
In considering alternative higher-order gravity theories, one is liable to be motivated in pursuing models consistent and inspired by several candidates of a fundamental theory of quantum gravity. Indeed, motivations from string/M theory predict that scalar field couplings with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant, G, are important in the appearance of nonsingular early time cosmologies. In this work, we discuss the viability of an interesting alternative gravitational theory, namely, modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity or f(G) gravity. We consider specific realistic forms of f(G) analyzed in the literature that account for the late-time cosmic acceleration and that have been found to cure the finite-time future singularities present in the dark energy models. We present the general inequalities imposed by the energy conditions and use the recent estimated values of the Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters to examine the viability of the above-mentioned forms of f(G) imposed by the weak energy condition.
Energy conditions in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, Jose P.
2011-05-15
In considering alternative higher-order gravity theories, one is liable to be motivated in pursuing models consistent and inspired by several candidates of a fundamental theory of quantum gravity. Indeed, motivations from string/M theory predict that scalar field couplings with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant, G, are important in the appearance of nonsingular early time cosmologies. In this work, we discuss the viability of an interesting alternative gravitational theory, namely, modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity or f(G) gravity. We consider specific realistic forms of f(G) analyzed in the literature that account for the late-time cosmic acceleration and that have been found to cure the finite-time future singularities present in the dark energy models. We present the general inequalities imposed by the energy conditions and use the recent estimated values of the Hubble, deceleration, jerk and snap parameters to examine the viability of the above-mentioned forms of f(G) imposed by the weak energy condition.
Black strings in Gauss-Bonnet theory are unstable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio; Vera, Aldo
2015-05-01
We report the existence of unstable s-wave modes for black strings in Gauss-Bonnet theory (which is quadratic in the curvature) in seven dimensions. This theory admits analytic uniform black strings that are, in the transverse section, black holes of the same Gauss-Bonnet theory in six dimensions. All the components of the perturbation can be written in terms of a single component and its derivatives. For this, we find a master equation that admits bounded solutions provided the characteristic time of the exponential growth of the perturbation is related to the wave number along the extra direction, as in general relativity. It is known that these configurations suffer from a thermal instability; therefore, the results presented here provide evidence for the Gubser-Mitra conjecture in the context of Gauss-Bonnet theory. Because of the nontriviality of the curvature of the background, all of the components of the metric perturbation appear in the linearized equations. Similar to spherical black holes, the black strings should be obtained as the short-distance limit r ≪α1 /2 of the black-string solution of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory (which is not known analytically), where α is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling.
Buchdahl's inequality in five dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Matthew
2016-07-01
The Buchdahl limit for static spherically symmetric isotropic stars is generalised to the case of five dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Our result depends on the sign of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant α . When α >0, we find, unlike in general relativity, that the bound is dependent on the stellar structure, in particular the central energy density and we find that stable stellar structures can exist arbitrarily close to the black hole horizon. Thus stable stars can exist with extra mass in this theory compared to five dimensional general relativity. For α <0 it is found that the Buchdahl bound is more restrictive than the general relativistic case.
Gauss-Bonnet gravitational baryogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-09-01
In this letter we study some variant forms of gravitational baryogenesis by using higher order terms containing the partial derivative of the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupled to the baryonic current. This scenario extends the well known theory that uses a similar coupling between the Ricci scalar and the baryonic current. One appealing feature of the scenario we study is that the predicted baryon asymmetry during a radiation domination era is non-zero. We calculate the baryon to entropy ratio for the Gauss-Bonnet term and by using the observational constraints we investigate which are the allowed forms of the R + F (G) gravity controlling the evolution. Also we briefly discuss some alternative higher order terms that can generate a non-zero baryon asymmetry, even in the conformal invariance limit.
Reheating in Gauss-Bonnet-coupled inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos
2016-07-01
We investigate the feasibility of models of inflation with a large Gauss-Bonnet coupling at late times, which have been shown to modify and prevent the end of inflation. Despite the potential of Gauss-Bonnet models in predicting favorable power spectra, capable of greatly lowering the tensor-to-scalar ratio compared to now-disfavored models of standard chaotic inflation, it is important to also understand in what context it is possible for postinflationary (p)reheating to proceed and hence recover an acceptable late-time cosmology. We argue that in the previously studied inverse power law coupling case, reheating cannot happen due to a lack of oscillatory solutions for the inflaton, and that neither instant preheating nor gravitational particle production would avoid this problem due to the persistence of the inflaton's energy density, even if it were to partially decay. Hence we proceed to define a minimal generalization of the model which can permit perturbative reheating and study the consequences of this, including heavily modified dynamics during reheating and predictions of the power spectra.
Holographic vector superconductor in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jun-Wang; Wu, Ya-Bo; Cai, Tuo; Liu, Hai-Min; Ren, Yin-Shuan; Liu, Mo-Lin
2016-02-01
In the probe limit, we numerically study the holographic p-wave superconductor phase transitions in the higher curvature theory. Concretely, we study the influences of Gauss-Bonnet parameter α on the Maxwell complex vector model (MCV) in the five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole and soliton backgrounds, respectively. In the two backgrounds, the improving Gauss-Bonnet parameter α and dimension of the vector operator Δ inhibit the vector condensate. In the black hole, the condensate quickly saturates a stable value at lower temperature. Moreover, both the stable value of condensate and the ratio ωg /Tc increase with α. In the soliton, the location of the second pole of the imaginary part increases with α, which implies that the energy of the quasiparticle excitation increases with the improving higher curvature correction. In addition, the influences of the Gauss-Bonnet correction on the MCV model are similar to the ones on the SU(2) p-wave model, which confirms that the MCV model is a generalization of the SU(2) Yang-Mills model even without the applied magnetic field to some extent.
Quasispherical gravitational collapse in 5D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Ghosh, Sushant G.; Jhingan, S.
2010-07-15
We obtain a general five-dimensional quasispherical collapsing solutions of irrotational dust in Einstein gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet combination of quadratic curvature terms. These solutions are a generalization, to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, of the five-dimensional quasispherical Szkeres like collapsing solutions in general relativity. It is found that the collapse proceeds in the same way as in the analogous spherical collapse, i.e., there exists regular initial data such that the collapse proceed to form naked singularities violating cosmic censorship conjecture. The effect of Gauss-Bonnet quadratic curvature terms on the formation and locations of the apparent horizon is deduced.
The Weyl-Cartan Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghani, Zahra; Khosravi, Nima; Shahidi, Shahab
2015-11-01
In this paper, we consider the generalized Gauss-Bonnet action in four-dimensional Weyl-Cartan spacetime. In this spacetime, the presence of a torsion tensor and Weyl vector implies that the generalized Gauss-Bonnet action will not be a total derivative in four-dimensional spacetime. It will be shown that the higher than two time derivatives can be removed from the action by choosing a suitable set of parameters. In the special case where only the trace part of the torsion remains, the model reduces to general relativity plus two vector fields, one of which is massless and the other is massive. We will then obtain the healthy region of the five-dimensional parameter space of the theory in some special cases.
Rapidly rotating neutron stars in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Mojica, Sindy; Zagermann, Marco
2016-03-01
We construct sequences of rapidly rotating neutron stars in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory, employing two equations of state for the nuclear matter. We analyze the dependence of the physical properties of these neutron stars on the Gauss-Bonnet coupling strength. For a given equation of state we determine the physically relevant domain of rapidly rotating neutron stars, which is delimited by the set of neutron stars rotating at the Kepler limit, the set of neutron stars along the secular instability line, and the set of static neutron stars. As compared to Einstein gravity, the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term decreases this domain, leading to lower values for the maximum mass as well as to smaller central densities. The quadrupole moment is decreased by the Gauss-Bonnet term for rapidly rotating neutron stars, while it is increased for slowly rotating neutron stars. The universal relation between the quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia found in general relativity appears to extend to dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory with very little dependence on the coupling strength of the Gauss-Bonnet term. The neutron stars carry a small dilaton charge.
Kerr-Gauss-Bonnet black holes: Exact analytical solution
Alexeyev, S. Popov, N.; Startseva, M.; Barrau, A. Grain, J.
2008-04-15
Gauss-Bonnet gravity provides one of the most promising frameworks for studying curvature corrections to the Einstein action in supersymmetric string theories while avoiding ghosts and keeping second-order field equations. Although Schwarzschild-type solutions for Gauss-Bonnet black holes have been known for a long time, the Kerr-Gauss-Bonnet metric was missing. A five dimensional Gauss-Bonnet solution is obtained analytically for spinning black holes, and the related thermodynamical properties are briefly outlined.
Comment on "Gauss-Bonnet inflation"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hikmawan, Getbogi; Soda, Jiro; Suroso, Agus; Zen, Freddy P.
2016-03-01
Recently, an interesting inflationary scenario, named Gauss-Bonnet inflation, was proposed by Kanti et al. [Phys. Rev. D 92, 041302 (2015); Phys. Rev. D 92, 083524 (2015)]. In the model, there is no inflaton potential, but the inflaton couples to the Guass-Bonnet term. In the case of quadratic coupling, they find inflation occurs with a graceful exit. The scenario is attractive because of the natural setup. However, we show there exists a gradient instability in the tensor perturbations in this inflationary model. We further prove the no-go theorem for Gauss-Bonnet inflation without an inflaton potential.
Scalar field evolution in Gauss-Bonnet black holes
Abdalla, E.; Konoplya, R.A.; Molina, C.
2005-10-15
It is presented a thorough analysis of scalar perturbations in the background of Gauss-Bonnet, Gauss-Bonnet-de Sitter and Gauss-Bonnet-anti-de Sitter black hole spacetimes. The perturbations are considered both in frequency and time domain. The dependence of the scalar field evolution on the values of the cosmological constant {lambda} and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling {alpha} is investigated. For Gauss-Bonnet and Gauss-Bonnet-de Sitter black holes, at asymptotically late times either power-law or exponential tails dominate, while for Gauss-Bonnet-anti-de Sitter black hole, the quasinormal modes govern the scalar field decay at all times. The power-law tails at asymptotically late times for odd-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet black holes does not depend on {alpha}, even though the black hole metric contains {alpha} as a new parameter. The corrections to quasinormal spectrum due to Gauss-Bonnet coupling is not small and should not be neglected. For the limit of near extremal value of the (positive) cosmological constant and pure de Sitter and anti-de Sitter modes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity we have found analytical expressions.
Magnetic-field effects on p-wave phase transition in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Jin, Yong-Yi; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Si-Yu; Wang, Cui
2014-07-01
In the probe limit, we study the holographic p-wave phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity via numerical and analytical methods. Concretely, we study the influences of the external magnetic field on the Maxwell complex vector model in the five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole and soliton backgrounds, respectively. For the two backgrounds, the results show that the magnetic field enhances the superconductor phase transition in the case of the lowest Landau level, while the increasing Gauss-Bonnet parameter always hinders the vector condensate. Moreover, the Maxwell complex vector model is a generalization of the SU(2) Yang-Mills model all the time. In addition, the analytical results backup the numerical results. Furthermore, this model might provide a holographic realization for the QCD vacuum instability.
Entanglement temperature with Gauss-Bonnet term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Shesansu Sekhar; Panda, Sudhakar
2015-09-01
We compute the entanglement temperature using the first law-like of thermodynamics, ΔE =Tent ΔSEE, up to Gauss-Bonnet term in the Jacobson-Myers entropy functional in any arbitrary spacetime dimension. The computation is done when the entangling region is the geometry of a slab. We also show that such a Gauss-Bonnet term, which becomes a total derivative, when the co-dimension two hypersurface is four dimensional, does not contribute to the finite term in the entanglement entropy. We observe that the Weyl-squared term does not contribute to the entanglement entropy. It is important to note that the calculations are performed when the entangling region is very small and the energy is calculated using the normal Hamiltonian.
Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio
2016-06-01
The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = ‑1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.
Gauss-Bonnet black holes with nonconstant curvature horizons
Maeda, Hideki
2010-06-15
We investigate static and dynamical n({>=}6)-dimensional black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity of which horizons have the isometries of an (n-2)-dimensional Einstein space with a condition on its Weyl tensor originally given by Dotti and Gleiser. Defining a generalized Misner-Sharp quasilocal mass that satisfies the unified first law, we show that most of the properties of the quasilocal mass and the trapping horizon are shared with the case with horizons of constant curvature. It is shown that the Dotti-Gleiser solution is the unique vacuum solution if the warp factor on the (n-2)-dimensional Einstein space is nonconstant. The quasilocal mass becomes constant for the Dotti-Gleiser black hole and satisfies the first law of the black-hole thermodynamics with its Wald entropy. In the non-negative curvature case with positive Gauss-Bonnet constant and zero cosmological constant, it is shown that the Dotti-Gleiser black hole is thermodynamically unstable. Even if it becomes locally stable for the nonzero cosmological constant, it cannot be globally stable for the positive cosmological constant.
Higgs inflation in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Wang, Shao-Jiang
2015-09-01
The measured masses of the Higgs boson and top quark indicate that the effective potential of the standard model either develops an unstable electroweak vacuum or stands stable all the way up to the Planck scale. In the latter case in which the top quark mass is about 2 σ below its present central value, the Higgs boson can be the inflaton with the help of a large nonminimal coupling to curvature in four dimensions. We propose a scenario in which the Higgs boson can be the inflaton in a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet braneworld model to solve both the unitarity and stability problems which usually plague Higgs inflation. We find that in order for Higgs inflation to happen successfully in the Gauss-Bonnet regime, the extra dimension scale must appear roughly in the range between the TeV scale and the instability scale of standard model. At the tree level, our model can give rise to a naturally small nonminimal coupling ξ ˜O (1 ) for the Higgs quartic coupling λ ˜O (0.1 ) if the extra dimension scale lies at the TeV scale. At the loop level, the inflationary predictions at the tree level are preserved. Our model can be confronted with future experiments and observations from both particle physics and cosmology.
Strong gravitational lensing with Gauss-Bonnet correction
Sadeghi, J.; Vaez, H. E-mail: h.vaez@umz.ac.ir
2014-06-01
In this paper we investigate the strong gravitational lensing in a five dimensional background with Gauss-Bonnet gravity, so that in 4-dimensions the Gauss-Bonnet correction disappears. By considering the logarithmic term for deflection angle, we obtain the deflection angle α-circumflex and corresponding parameters ā and b-bar . Finally, we estimate some properties of relativistic images such as θ{sub ∞}, s and r{sub m}.
Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.; Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Eleftheria
2007-10-15
We extend the covariant analysis of the brane cosmological evolution in order to take into account, apart from a general matter content and an induced-gravity term on the brane, a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. The gravitational effect of the bulk matter on the brane evolution can be described in terms of the total bulk mass as measured by a bulk observer at the location of the brane. This mass appears in the effective Friedmann equation through a term characterized as generalized dark radiation that induces mirage effects in the evolution. We discuss the normal and self-accelerating branches of the combined system. We also derive the Raychaudhuri equation that can be used in order to determine if the cosmological evolution is accelerating.
Conformal mass in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jatkar, Dileep P.; Kofinas, Georgios; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2015-05-01
In this paper, we show that the physical information given by conserved charges for asymptotically AdS spacetimes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity is encoded in the electric part of the Weyl tensor. This result generalizes the conformal mass definition by Ashtekar-Magnon-Das (AMD) to a gravity theory with a Gauss-Bonnet term. This proof makes use of the Noether charges obtained from an action renormalized by the addition of counterterms which depend on the extrinsic curvature (Kounterterms). If the asymptotic fall-off behavior of the Weyl tensor is same as the one considered in the AMD method, then the Kounterterm charges and the AMD charges agree in any dimension.
Asymptotically (anti)-de Sitter solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity without a cosmological constant
Dehghani, M.H.
2004-09-15
In this paper I show that one can have asymptotically de Sitter, anti-de Sitter (AdS), and flat solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity without a cosmological constant term in field equations. First, I introduce static solutions whose three surfaces at fixed r and t have constant positive (k=1), negative (k=-1), or zero (k=0) curvature. I show that for k={+-}1 one can have asymptotically de Sitter, AdS, and flat spacetimes, while for the case of k=0, one has only asymptotically AdS solutions. Some of these solutions present naked singularities, while some others are black hole or topological black hole solutions. I also find that the geometrical mass of these five-dimensional spacetimes is m+2{alpha}|k|, which is different from the geometrical mass m of the solutions of Einstein gravity. This feature occurs only for the five-dimensional solutions, and is not repeated for the solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity in higher dimensions. Second, I add angular momentum to the static solutions with k=0, and introduce the asymptotically AdS charged rotating solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Finally, I introduce a class of solutions which yields an asymptotically AdS spacetime with a longitudinal magnetic field, which presents a naked singularity, and generalize it to the case of magnetic rotating solutions with two rotation parameters.
Exact solutions in a scalar-tensor model of dark energy
Granda, L.N.; Loaiza, E. E-mail: edwin.loaiza@correounivalle.edu.co
2012-09-01
We consider a model of scalar field with non minimal kinetic and Gauss Bonnet couplings as a source of dark energy. Based on asymptotic limits of the generalized Friedmann equation, we impose restrictions on the kinetic an Gauss-Bonnet couplings. This restrictions considerable simplify the equations, allowing for exact solutions unifying early time matter dominance with transitions to late time quintessence and phantom phases. The stability of the solutions in absence of matter has been studied.
Braneworld dynamics in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Maeda, Hideki; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri
2007-11-15
We discuss the cosmological evolution of a braneworld in five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Our discussion allows the fifth (bulk) dimension to be spacelike as well as timelike. The resulting equations of motion have the form of a cubic equation in the (H{sup 2},({rho}+{sigma}){sup 2}) plane, where {sigma} is the brane tension and {rho} is the matter density. This allows us to conduct a comprehensive pictorial analysis of cosmological evolution for the Gauss-Bonnet brane. The many interesting properties of this braneworld include the possibility of accelerated expansion at late times. For a finite region in parameter space the accelerated expansion can be phantomlike so that w<-1. At late times, this branch approaches de Sitter space (w=-1) and avoids the big-rip singularities usually present in phantom models. For a timelike extra dimension the Gauss-Bonnet brane can bounce and avoid the initial singularity.
N+1 formalism in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Torii, Takashi; Shinkai, Hisa-aki
2008-10-15
Towards the investigation of the full dynamics in a higher-dimensional and/or a stringy gravitational model, we present the basic equations of the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory. We show the (N+1)-dimensional version of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition including Gauss-Bonnet terms, which shall be the standard approach to treat the space-time as a Cauchy problem. Because of the quasilinear property of the Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we find that the evolution equations can be in a treatable form in numerics. We also show the conformally transformed constraint equations for constructing the initial data. We discuss how the constraints can be simplified by tuning the powers of conformal factors. Our equations can be used both for timelike and spacelike foliations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavluchenko, Sergey A.
2016-07-01
In this paper we perform a systematic study of vacuum spatially flat anisotropic [(3 +D )+1 ]-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet cosmological models. We consider models that topologically are the product of two flat isotropic submanifolds with different scale factors. One of these submanifolds is three dimensional and represents our 3D space and the other is D dimensional and represents extra dimensions. We consider no Ansatz on the scale factors, which makes our results quite general. With both Einstein-Hilbert and Gauss-Bonnet contributions in play and with the symmetry involved, the cases with D =1 , D =2 , D =3 , and D ≥4 have different dynamics due to the different structures of the equations of motion. We analytically analyze equations of motion in all cases and describe all possible regimes. It appears that the only regimes with nonsingular future asymptotes are the Kasner regime in general relativity and exponential regimes. As of the past asymptotes, for a smooth transition only the Kasner regime in Gauss-Bonnet is an option. With this at hand, we are down to only two viable regimes: the "pure" Kasner regime [transition from a high-energy (Gauss-Bonnet) to a low-energy (general relativity) Kasner regime] and a transition from a high-energy Kasner regime to an anisotropic exponential solution. It appears that these regimes take place for different signs of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling α : the "pure" Kasner regime occurs for α >0 at low D and α <0 for high D ; the anisotropic exponential regime is reached only for α >0 . So if we restrain ourselves with α >0 solutions (which would be the case, say, if we identify α with inverse string tension in heterotic string theory), the only late-time regimes are Kasner for D =1 , 2 and anisotropic exponential for D ≥2 . Also, low-energy Kasner regimes [a (t )∝tp] have expansion rates for (3 +1 )-dimensional subspace ("our Universe") ranging from p =0.5 (D =1 ) to p =1 /√{3 }≈0.577 (D →∞ ), which
Late cosmic acceleration in a vector-Gauss-Bonnet gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveros, A.; Solis, Enzo L.; Acero, Mario A.
2016-12-01
In this work, we study a general vector-tensor model of dark energy (DE) with a Gauss-Bonnet term coupled to a vector field and without explicit potential terms. Considering a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) type universe and a vector field without spatial components, the cosmological evolution is analyzed from the field equations of this model considering two sets of parameters. In this context, we have shown that it is possible to obtain an accelerated expansion phase of the universe since the equation state parameter w satisfies the restriction - 1 < w < -1/3 (for suitable values of model parameters). Further, analytical expressions for the Hubble parameter H, equation state parameter w and the invariant scalar ϕ are obtained. We also find that the square of the speed of sound is negative for all values of redshift, therefore, the model presented here shows a sign of instability under small perturbations. We finally perform an analysis using H(z) observational data and we find that for the free parameter ξ in the interval (-23.9,-3.46) × 10-5, at 99.73% C.L. (and fixing η = -1 and ω = 1/4), the model has a good fit to the data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozari, Kourosh; Rashidi, Narges
2016-06-01
We study a nonminimal derivative inflationary model in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. To have a complete treatment of the model, we consider a general form of the nonminimal derivative function and also the Gauss-Bonnet coupling term. By following the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism, expanding the action up to the third order in the perturbations and using the correlation functions, we study the perturbation and its non-Gaussian feature in details. We also study the consistency relation that gets modified in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the action. We compare the results of our consideration in confrontation with Planck2015 observational data and find some constraints on the model's parameters. Our treatment shows that this model in some ranges of the parameters is consistent with the observational data. Also, in some ranges of model's parameters, the model predicts blue-tilted power spectrum. Finally, we show that nonminimal derivative model in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term has capability to have large non-Gaussianity.
Thermodynamics of Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton Lifshitz black branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehghani, M. H.; Sheykhi, A.
2015-09-01
We explore an effective supergravity action in the presence of a massless gauge field which contains a Gauss-Bonnet term as well as a dilaton field. We construct a new class of black brane solutions of this theory with a Lifshitz asymptotic by fixing the parameters of the model such that the asymptotic Lifshitz behavior can be supported. Then we construct the well-defined finite action through the use of the counterterm method. We also obtain two independent constants along the radial coordinate by combining the equations of motion. Calculations of these two constants at infinity through the use of the large-r behavior of the metric functions show that our solution respects the no-hair theorem. Furthermore, we combine these two constants in order to get a constant C which is proportional to the energy of the black brane. We calculate this constant at the horizon in terms of the temperature and entropy and at large-r in terms of the geometrical mass. By calculating the value of the energy density through the use of the counterterm method, we obtain the relation between the energy density, the temperature, and the entropy. This relation is the generalization of the well-known Smarr formula for AdS black holes. Finally, we study the thermal stability of our black brane solution and show that it is stable under thermal perturbations.
Black Hole Thermodynamic Products in Einstein Gauss Bonnet Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Ritabrata
2016-07-01
By now, there are many hints from string theory that collective excitations of solitonic objects can be described by effective low energy theories. The entropy of general rotating black holes in five dimensions may be interpreted as an indication that, it derives from two independent microscopic contributions and each of these may be attributed to a gas of strings. In the present work, we consider a charged black hole in five dimensional Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity. In spite of presenting the thermodynamic quantities' product as summation/ subtraction of two independent integers, our motive is to check whether the product of the same quantity for event horizon and Cauchy horizon is free of mass, i.e., global, or not. We derive the thermodynamic products of characteristic parameters to mark which are global. We further interpret the stability of the black holes by computing the specific heat for both horizons. Stable and unstable phases of horizons are pointed out. The phase transitions with respect to the charge in nature of specific heat are also observed. All these calculation might be helpful to understand the microscopic nature of such black holes.
Accelerated expansion of the Universe in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Dehghani, M.H.
2004-09-15
We show that in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with negative Gauss-Bonnet coefficient and without a cosmological constant, one can explain the acceleration of the expanding Universe. We first introduce a solution of the Gauss-Bonnet gravity with negative Gauss-Bonnet coefficient and no cosmological constant term in an empty (n+1)-dimensional bulk. This solution can generate a de Sitter spacetime with curvature n(n+1)/{l_brace}(n-2)(n-3) vertical bar {alpha} vertical bar {r_brace}. We show that an (n-1)-dimensional brane embedded in this bulk can have an expanding feature with acceleration. We also considered a four-dimensional brane world in a five-dimensional empty space with zero cosmological constant and obtain the modified Friedmann equations. The solution of these modified equations in matter-dominated era presents an expanding Universe with negative deceleration and positive jerk which is consistent with the recent cosmological data. We also find that for this solution, the 'n' th derivative of the scale factor with respect to time can be expressed only in terms of Hubble and deceleration parameters.
Phantom-like behavior of a DGP-inspired Scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Nozari, Kourosh; Azizi, Tahereh; Setare, M.R. E-mail: t.azizi@umz.ac.ir
2009-10-01
We study the phantom-like behavior of a DGP-inspired braneworld scenario where curvature correction on the brane is taken into account. We include a possible modification of the induced gravity on the brane by incorporating higher order curvature terms of Gauss-Bonnet type. We investigate the cosmological implications of the model and we show that the normal branch of the scenario self-accelerates in this modified scenario without introducing any dark energy component. Also, a phantom-like behavior can be realized in this model without introducing any phantom field that suffers from serious difficulties such as violation of the null energy condition.
Observational limits on Gauss-Bonnet and Randall-Sundrum gravities
Alexeyev, S. O. Rannu, K. A.; Dyadina, P. I.; Latosh, B. N.; Turyshev, S. G.
2015-06-15
We discuss the possibilities of experimental search for the new physics predicted by the Gauss-Bonnet and the Randall-Sundrum theories of gravity. The effective four-dimensional spherically symmetrical solutions of these theories are analyzed. We consider these solutions in the weak-field limit and in the process of the primordial black hole evaporation. We show that the predictions of the discussed models are the same as of general relativity. Hence, current experiments are not applicable for such search, and therefore different methods of observation and higher accuracy are required.
Universal slow fall-off to the unique AdS infinity in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Maeda, Hideki
2008-08-15
In this paper, the following two propositions are proven under the dominant energy condition for the matter field in the higher-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant {lambda}. First, for {lambda}{<=}0 and {alpha}{>=}0 without a fine-tuning to give a unique anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum, where {alpha} is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant, vanishing generalized Misner-Sharp mass is equivalent to the maximally symmetric spacetime. Under the fine-tuning, it is equivalent to the vacuum class I spacetime. Second, under the fine-tuning with {alpha}>0, the asymptotically AdS spacetime in the higher-dimensional Henneaux-Teitelboim sense is only a special class of the vacuum class I spacetime. This means the universal slow fall-off to the unique AdS infinity in the presence of physically reasonable matter.
Static and symmetric wormholes respecting energy conditions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Maeda, Hideki; Nozawa, Masato
2008-07-15
Properties of n({>=}5)-dimensional static wormhole solutions are investigated in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with or without a cosmological constant {lambda}. We assume that the spacetime has symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n-2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space with the sectional curvature k={+-}1, 0. It is also assumed that the metric is at least C{sup 2} and the (n-2)-dimensional maximally symmetric subspace is compact. Depending on the existence or absence of the general relativistic limit {alpha}{yields}0, solutions are classified into general relativistic (GR) and non-GR branches, respectively, where {alpha} is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant. We show that a wormhole throat respecting the dominant energy condition coincides with a branch surface in the GR branch, otherwise the null energy condition is violated there. In the non-GR branch, it is shown that there is no wormhole solution for k{alpha}{>=}0. For the matter field with zero tangential pressure, it is also shown in the non-GR branch with k{alpha}<0 and {lambda}{<=}0 that the dominant energy condition holds at the wormhole throat if the radius of the throat satisfies some inequality. In the vacuum case, a fine-tuning of the coupling constants is shown to be necessary and the radius of a wormhole throat is fixed. Explicit wormhole solutions respecting the energy conditions in the whole spacetime are obtained in the vacuum and dust cases with k=-1 and {alpha}>0.
Early-time cosmological solutions in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanti, Panagiota; Gannouji, Radouane; Dadhich, Naresh
2015-10-01
In this work, we consider a generalized gravitational theory that contains the Einstein term, a scalar field, and the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. We focus on the early-universe dynamics, and demonstrate that a simple choice of the coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term and a simplifying assumption regarding the role of the Ricci scalar can lead to new, analytical, elegant solutions with interesting characteristics. We first argue, and demonstrate in the context of two different models, that the presence of the Ricci scalar in the theory at early times (when the curvature is strong) does not affect the actual cosmological solutions. By considering therefore a pure scalar-GB theory with a quadratic coupling function we derive a plethora of interesting, analytic solutions: for a negative coupling parameter, we obtain inflationary, de Sitter-type solutions or expanding solutions with a de Sitter phase in their past and a natural exit mechanism at later times; for a positive coupling function, we find instead singularity-free solutions with no big bang singularity. We show that the aforementioned solutions arise only for this particular choice of coupling function, a result that may hint at some fundamental role that this coupling function may hold in the context of an ultimate theory.
Crossing of the phantom divide using tachyon-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Sadeghi, J.; Banijamali, A.; Milani, F.; Setare, M. R.
2009-06-15
In this paper we consider two models. First, we study tachyon-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and obtain the condition of the equation of state crossing -1. Second, we discuss the modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the tachyon field and show the condition of {omega} crossing -1. Also, we plot figures for {omega} numerically in special potential and coupling function.
Gauss-Bonnet Brane World Gravity with a Scalar Field
Davis, Stephen C.
2004-11-17
The effective four-dimensional, linearised gravity of a brane world model with one extra dimension and a single brane is analysed. The model includes higher order curvature terms (such as the Gauss-Bonnet term) and a conformally coupled scalar field. Large and small distance gravitational laws are derived. In contrast to the corresponding Einstein gravity models, it is possible to obtain solutions with localised gravity which are compatible with observations. Solutions with non-standard large distance Newtonian potentials are also described.
Critical behavior of charged black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Panahiyan, Shahram; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Faizal, Mir; Momennia, Mehrab
2016-07-01
Following an earlier study regarding Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell black holes in the presence of gravity's rainbow [S. H. Hendi and M. Faizal, Phys. Rev. D 92, 044027 (2015)], in this paper, we consider all constants as energy dependent ones. The geometrical and thermodynamical properties of this generalization is studied and the validation of the first law of thermodynamics is examined. Next, through the use of proportionality between the cosmological constant and the thermodynamical pressure, van der Waals-like behavior of these black holes in extended phase space is investigated. An interesting critical behavior for sets of rainbow functions in this case is reported. Also, the critical behavior of uncharged and charged solutions is analyzed and it is shown that the generalization to a charged case puts an energy dependent restriction on values of different parameters.
Holographic superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Born-Infeld electrodynamics
Jing Jiliang; Wang Liancheng; Pan Qiyuan; Chen Songbai
2011-03-15
We investigate the holographic superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We find that the Gauss-Bonnet constant, the model parameters, and the Born-Infeld coupling parameter will affect the formation of the scalar hair, the transition point of the phase transition from the second order to the first order, and the relation connecting the gap frequency in conductivity with the critical temperature. The combination of Gauss-Bonnet gravity and the Born-Infeld electrodynamics provides richer physics in the phase transition and the condensation of the scalar hair.
Topological black holes in pure Gauss-Bonnet gravity and phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aránguiz, Ligeia; Kuang, Xiao-Mei; Miskovic, Olivera
2016-03-01
We study charged, static, topological black holes in pure Gauss-Bonnet gravity in asymptotically AdS space. As in general relativity, the theory possesses a unique nondegenerate AdS vacuum. It also admits charged black hole solutions which asymptotically behave as the Reissner-Nordström AdS black hole. We discuss black hole thermodynamics of these black holes. Then we study phase transitions in a dual quantum field theory in four dimensions, with the Stückelberg scalar field as an order parameter. We find in the probe limit that the black hole can develop hair below some critical temperature, which suggests a phase transition. Depending on the scalar coupling constants, the phase transition can be first or second order. Analysis of the free energy reveals that, comparing the two solutions, the hairy state is energetically favorable, thus a phase transition will occur in a dual field theory.
Slowly-Rotating Black Hole Solution in Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayzenberg, Dimitry; Yunes, Nicolas
2015-04-01
We present a stationary and axisymmetric black hole solution in Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity to quadratic order in the ratio of the spin angular momentum to the black hole mass squared. This solution introduces new corrections to previously found nonspinning and linear-in-spin solutions. The location of the event horizon and the ergosphere are modified, as well as the quadrupole moment. The new solution is of Petrov type I, although lower order in spin solutions are of Petrov type D. There are no closed timelike curves or spacetime regions that violate causality outside of the event horizon in the new solution. We calculate the modifications to the binding energy, Kepler's third law, and properties of the innermost stable circular orbit. These modifications are important for determining how the electromagnetic properties of accretion disks around supermassive black holes are changed from those expected in general relativity.
Thermodynamics of Taub-NUT/bolt-AdS black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Khodam-Mohammadi, A.; Monshizadeh, M.
2009-02-15
We give a review of the existence of Taub-NUT/bolt solutions in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the parameter {alpha} in six dimensions. Although the spacetime with base space S{sup 2}xS{sup 2} has a curvature singularity at r=N, which does not admit NUT solutions, we may proceed with the same computations as in the CP{sup 2} case. The investigation of thermodynamics of NUT/bolt solutions in six dimensions is carried out. We compute the finite action, mass, entropy, and temperature of the black hole. Then the validity of the first law of thermodynamics is demonstrated. It is shown that in NUT solutions all thermodynamic quantities for both base spaces are related to each other by substituting {alpha}{sup CP{sup k}}=[(k+1)/k]{alpha}{sup S{sup 2}}{sup xS{sup 2}}{sup x...S{sub k}{sup 2}}. So, no further information is given by investigating NUT solutions in the S{sup 2}xS{sup 2} case. This relation is not true for bolt solutions. A generalization of the thermodynamics of black holes to arbitrary even dimensions is made using a new method based on the Gibbs-Duhem relation and Gibbs free energy for NUT solutions. According to this method, the finite action in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet is obtained by considering the generalized finite action in Einstein gravity with an additional term as a function of {alpha}. Stability analysis is done by investigating the heat capacity and entropy in the allowed range of {alpha}, {lambda}, and N. For NUT solutions in d dimensions, there exists a stable phase at a narrow range of {alpha}. In six-dimensional bolt solutions, the metric is completely stable for B=S{sup 2}xS{sup 2} and is completely unstable for the B=CP{sup 2} case.
Axial quasinormal modes of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis; González-Romero, Luis Manuel; Kunz, Jutta; Mojica, Sindy; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2016-01-01
We investigate axial quasinormal modes of realistic neutron stars in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton gravity. We consider eight realistic equations of state containing nuclear, hyperonic, and hybrid matter. We focus on the fundamental curvature mode and compare the results with those of pure Einstein theory. We observe that the frequency of the modes is increased by the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton, while the impact on the damping time is typically smaller. Interestingly, we obtain that universal relations valid in pure Einstein theory still hold for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton gravity, and we propose a method to use these phenomenological relations to constrain the value of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling.
Higgs inflation with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the Jordan frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Bruck, Carsten; Longden, Chris
2016-03-01
We consider an extension of Higgs inflation in which the Higgs field is coupled to the Gauss-Bonnet term. Working solely in the Jordan frame, we first recover the standard predictions of field inflation without a Gauss-Bonnet term. We then calculate the power spectra for scalar and tensor perturbations in the presence of a coupling to a Gauss-Bonnet term. We show that generically the predictions of Higgs inflation are robust and the contributions to the power spectra coming from the Gauss-Bonnet term are negligible. We find, however, that the end of inflation can be strongly modified and that we hence expect the details of (p)reheating to be significantly altered, leading to some concerns over the feasibility of the model which require further investigation.
Holographic Schwinger effect in a confining background with Gauss-Bonnet corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shao-Jun; Abdalla, E.
2016-05-01
We study the effect of higher-derivative terms on holographic Schwinger effect by introducing the Gauss-Bonnet term in the gravity sector. Anti-de Sitter soliton background is considered which is dual to confining phase of the boundary field theory. By calculating the potential between the produced pair, we find that larger Gauss-Bonnet factor λ makes the pair lighter. We apply numerical method to calculate the production rate for various cases. The results show that the Gauss-Bonnet term enhances the production rate. The critical behaviors near the two critical values of the electric field are also investigated, and it is found that the two critical indexes are not affected by the Gauss-Bonnet term and thus suggests a possible universality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahabandu, C.; Suranyi, P.; Vaz, C.; Wijewardhana, L. C.
2006-02-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of static black objects such as black holes, black strings and their generalizations to D dimensions (“black branes”) in a gravitational theory containing the four-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet term in the action, with D-4 dimensions compactified torus. The entropies of black holes and black branes are compared to obtain information on the stability of these objects and to find their phase diagrams. We demonstrate the existence of a critical mass, which depends on the scale of the compactified dimensions, below which the black hole entropy dominates over the entropy of the black membrane.
P-T phase diagram of a holographic s+p model from Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zeng, Hui
2015-10-01
In this paper, we study the holographic s+p model in 5-dimensional bulk gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet term. We work in the probe limit and give the Δ-T phase diagrams at three different values of the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient to show the effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term. We also construct the P-T phase diagrams for the holographic system using two different definitions of the pressure and compare the results.
Vainshtein mechanism in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and Galileon aether
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gannouji, Radouane; Sami, M.
2012-01-01
We derive field equations of Gauss-Bonnet gravity in four dimensions after dimensional reduction of the action and demonstrate that in this scenario the Vainshtein mechanism operates in the flat spherically symmetric background. We show that inside this Vainshtein sphere the fifth force is negligibly small compared to the gravitational force. We also investigate the stability of the spherically symmetric solution, and clarify the vocabulary used in the literature about the hyperbolicity of the equation and the ghost-Laplacian stability conditions. We find superluminal behavior of the perturbation of the field in the radial direction. However, because of the presence of the nonlinear terms, the structure of the space-time is modified and as a result the field does not propagate in the Minkowski metric but rather in an “aether” composed of the scalar field π(r). We thereby demonstrate that the superluminal behavior does not create time paradoxes thanks to the absence of causal closed curves. We also derive the stability conditions for a Friedmann universe in context with scalar and tensor perturbations and we study the cosmology of the model.
Charged black hole solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.; Panah, B. Eslam
2016-01-01
Motivated by high interest in the close relation between string theory and black hole solutions, in this paper, we take into account the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Lagrangian in the context of massive gravity. We examine the possibility of black hole in this regard, and discuss the types of horizons. Next, we calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics. In addition, we investigate the stability of these black holes in context of canonical ensemble. We show that number, type and place of phase transition points may be significantly affected by different parameters. Next, by considering cosmological constant as thermodynamical pressure, we will extend phase space and calculate critical values. Then, we construct thermodynamical spacetime by considering mass as thermodynamical potential. We study geometrical thermodynamics of these black holes in context of heat capacity and extended phase space. We show that studying heat capacity, geometrical thermodynamics and critical behavior in extended phase space lead to consistent results. Finally, we will employ a new method for obtaining critical values and show that the results of this method are consistent with those of other methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Yue, Rui-Hong
2014-10-01
Using the generalized formalism of Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji we investigate the spontaneous excitation of a static atom interacting with electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations outside an Einstein Gauss-Bonnet black hole in d-dimensions. It shows that spontaneous excitation does not occur in a Boulware vacuum, while exists in an Unruh vacuum and Hartle-Hawking vacuum. As to the total rate of change of the atomic energy, it does not receive the contribution from the coupling constant of the Gauss-Bonnet term at spatial infinity only the dimensional parameter has the contribution to it. Near the event horizon, both the coupling constant and the dimension p contribute to the total rate of change of the atomic energy in all three kinds of vacuum. We discuss the contribution of the coupling constant and dimensional factor to the results in three different kinds of spacetime lastly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.; Momennia, M.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we consider quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction to the Maxwell theory and study thermodynamic behavior of the black holes in Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravities. We consider cosmological constant as a thermodynamic pressure to extend phase space. Next, we obtain critical values in case of variation of nonlinearity and Gauss-Bonnet parameters. Although the general thermodynamical behavior of the black hole solutions is the same as usual Van der Waals system, we show that in special case of the nonlinear electromagnetic field, there will be a turning point for the phase diagrams and usual Van der Waals is not observed. This theory of nonlinear electromagnetic field provides two critical horizon radii. We show that this unusual behavior of phase diagrams is due to existence of second critical horizon radius. It will be pointed out that the power of the gravity and nonlinearity of the matter field modify the critical values. We generalize the study by considering the effects of dimensionality on critical values and make comparisons between our models with their special sub-classes. In addition, we examine the possibility of the existence of the reentrant phase transitions through two different methods.
Gauss-bonnet black holes and possibilities for their experimental search
Alexeyev, S. O. Rannu, K. A.
2012-03-15
Corollaries of gravity models with second-order curvature corrections in the form of a Gauss-Bonnet term and possibilities (or impossibilities) for their experimental search or observations are discussed. The full version of the four-dimensional Schwarzschild-Gauss-Bonnet black hole solution and the constraint on the possible minimal black hole mass following from this model are considered. Using our solution as a model for the final stages of Hawking evaporation of black holes with a low initial mass (up to 10{sup 15} g) whose lifetime is comparable to that of our Universe, we have revealed differences in the patterns of evaporation: we have obtained high values of the emitted energy and showed the impossibility of an experimental search for primordial black holes by their evaporation products. Scenarios for the evaporation of Gauss-Bonnet black holes in multidimensional gravity models and possibilities for their experimental search are also discussed.
Horizons of radiating black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Ghosh, S. G.; Deshkar, D. W.
2008-02-15
A Vaidya-based model of a radiating black hole is studied in a 5-dimensional Einstein gravity with Gauss-Bonnet contribution of quadratic curvature terms. The structure and locations of the apparent and event horizons of the radiating black hole are determined.
Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations in modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.
2015-11-01
Based on a stringy inspired Gauss-Bonnet (GB) modification of classical gravity, we constructed a model for neutron stars. We derived the modified forms of Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for a generic function of f(G) gravity. The hydrostatic equations remained unchanged but the dynamical equations for metric functions are modified due to the effects of GB term.
Area functional relation for 5D-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2016-08-01
We present area (or entropy) functional relation for multi-horizons five dimensional (5D) Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole. It has been observed by exact and explicit calculation that some complicated function of two or three horizons area is mass-independent whereas the entropy product relation is not mass-independent. We also study the local thermodynamic stability of this black hole. The phase transition occurs at certain condition. Smarr mass formula and first law of thermodynamics have been derived. This mass-independent relation suggests they could turn out to be an universal quantity and further helps us to understanding the nature of black hole entropy (both interior and exterior) at the microscopic level. In the "Appendix", we have derived the thermodynamic products for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet black hole with vanishing cosmological constant.
Stability of anti-de sitter space in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity.
Deppe, Nils; Kolly, Allison; Frey, Andrew; Kunstatter, Gabor
2015-02-20
Recently it has been argued that in Einstein gravity anti-de Sitter spacetime is unstable against the formation of black holes for a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. We examine the effects of including a Gauss-Bonnet term. In five dimensions, spherically symmetric Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity has two key features: Choptuik scaling exhibits a radius gap, and the mass function goes to a finite value as the horizon radius vanishes. These suggest that black holes will not form dynamically if the total mass-energy content of the spacetime is too small, thereby restoring the stability of anti-de Sitter spacetime in this context. We support this claim with numerical simulations and uncover a rich structure in horizon radii and formation times as a function of perturbation amplitude. PMID:25763946
Extremal dyonic black holes in D=4 Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Orlov, Dmitry G.
2008-11-15
We investigate extremal dyon black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with higher curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. In the same theory without the Gauss-Bonnet term the extremal dyon solutions exist only for discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant a. We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term acts as a dyon hair tonic enlarging the allowed values of a to continuous domains in the plane (a,q{sub m}) where q{sub m} is the magnetic charge. In the limit of the vanishing curvature coupling (a large magnetic charge) the dyon solutions obtained tend to the Reissner-Nordstroem solution but not to the extremal dyons of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. Both solutions have the same dependence of the horizon radius in terms of charges. The entropy of new dyonic black holes interpolates between the Bekenstein-Hawking value in the limit of the large magnetic charge (equivalent to the vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling) and twice this value for the vanishing magnetic charge. Although an expression for the entropy can be obtained analytically using purely local near-horizon solutions, its interpretation as the black hole entropy is legitimate only once the global black hole solution is known to exist, and we obtain numerically the corresponding conditions on the parameters. Thus, a purely local analysis is insufficient to fully understand the entropy of the curvature-corrected black holes. We also find dyon solutions which are not asymptotically flat, but approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. They describe magnetic black holes on the electric linear dilaton background.
Extremal dyonic black holes in D=4 Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.; Orlov, Dmitry G.
2008-11-01
We investigate extremal dyon black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with higher curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. In the same theory without the Gauss-Bonnet term the extremal dyon solutions exist only for discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant a. We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term acts as a dyon hair tonic enlarging the allowed values of a to continuous domains in the plane (a,qm) where qm is the magnetic charge. In the limit of the vanishing curvature coupling (a large magnetic charge) the dyon solutions obtained tend to the Reissner-Nordström solution but not to the extremal dyons of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. Both solutions have the same dependence of the horizon radius in terms of charges. The entropy of new dyonic black holes interpolates between the Bekenstein-Hawking value in the limit of the large magnetic charge (equivalent to the vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling) and twice this value for the vanishing magnetic charge. Although an expression for the entropy can be obtained analytically using purely local near-horizon solutions, its interpretation as the black hole entropy is legitimate only once the global black hole solution is known to exist, and we obtain numerically the corresponding conditions on the parameters. Thus, a purely local analysis is insufficient to fully understand the entropy of the curvature-corrected black holes. We also find dyon solutions which are not asymptotically flat, but approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. They describe magnetic black holes on the electric linear dilaton background.
Taub-NUT/bolt black holes in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity
Dehghani, M.H.; Hendi, S. H.
2006-04-15
We present a class of higher-dimensional solutions to Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell equations in 2k+2 dimensions with a U(1) fibration over a 2k-dimensional base space B. These solutions depend on two extra parameters, other than the mass and the Newman-Unti-Tamburino charge, which are the electric charge q and the electric potential at infinity V. We find that the form of metric is sensitive to geometry of the base space, while the form of electromagnetic field is independent of B. We investigate the existence of Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino/bolt solutions and find that in addition to the two conditions of uncharged Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions, there exist two other conditions. These two extra conditions come from the regularity of vector potential at r=N and the fact that the horizon at r=N should be the outer horizon of the black hole. We find that for all nonextremal Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions of Einstein gravity having no curvature singularity at r=N, there exist Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity. Indeed, we have nonextreme Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions in 2+2k dimensions only when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP{sup 2k}. We also find that the Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity has extremal Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions whenever the base space is a product of 2-torii with at most a 2-dimensional factor space of positive curvature, even though there a curvature singularity exists at r=N. We also find that one can have bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity with any base space. The only case for which one does not have black hole solutions is in the absence of a cosmological term with zero curvature base space.
Hydrodynamics with conserved current via AdS/CFT correspondence in the Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Hu Yapeng; Sun Peng; Zhang Jianhui
2011-06-15
Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the hydrodynamics with conserved current from the dual Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. After constructing the perturbative solution to the first order based on the boosted black brane solution in the bulk Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we extract the stress tensor and conserved current of the dual conformal fluid on its boundary, and also find the effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term on the dual conformal fluid. Our results show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can affect the parameters such as the shear viscosity {eta}, entropy density s, thermal conductivity {kappa} and electrical conductivity {sigma}. However, it does not affect the so-called Wiedemann-Franz law which relates {kappa} to {sigma}, while it affects the ratio {eta}/s. In addition, another interesting result is that {eta}/s can also be affected by the bulk Maxwell field in our case, which is consistent with some previous results predicted through the Kubo formula. Moreover, the anomalous magnetic and vortical effects by adding the Chern-Simons term are also considered in our case in the Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity.
Analytical and numerical study of Gauss-Bonnet holographic superconductors with Power-Maxwell field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, Ahmad; Salahi, Hamid Reza; Montakhab, Afshin
2016-04-01
We provide an analytical as well as a numerical study of the holographic s-wave superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Power-Maxwell electrodynamics. We limit our study to the case where scalar and gauge fields do not have an effect on the background metric. We use a variational method, based on Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem for our analytical study, as well as a numerical shooting method in order to compare with our analytical results. Interestingly enough, we observe that unlike Born-Infeld-like nonlinear electrodynamics which decrease the critical temperature compared to the linear Maxwell field, the Power-Maxwell electrodynamics is able to increase the critical temperature of the holographic superconductors in the sublinear regime. We find that requiring the finite value for the gauge field on the asymptotic boundary r → ∞, restricts the power parameter, q, of the Power-Maxwell field to be in the range 1 /2 < q < ( d - 1) /2. Our study indicates that it is quite possible to make condensation easier as q decreases in its allowed range. We also find that for all values of q, the condensation can be affected by the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient α. However, the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term makes the transition slightly harder. Finally, we obtain an analytic expression for the order parameter and thus obtain the associated critical exponent near the phase transition. We find that the critical exponent has its universal value of β = 1 /2 regardless of the parameters q, α as well as dimension d, consistent with mean-field values obtained in previous studies.
Black holes with scalar hair in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brihaye, Y.; Ducobu, L.
2016-05-01
The Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in five dimensions is extended by scalar fields and the corresponding equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear differential equations. A large family of regular solutions of these equations is shown to exist. Generically, these solutions are spinning black holes with scalar hairs. They can be characterized (but not uniquely) by an horizon and an angular velocity on this horizon. Taking particular limits, the black holes approach boson star or become extremal, in any case the limiting configurations remain hairy.
Hydrodynamics dual to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity: all-order gradient resummation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Yanyan; Lublinsky, Michael; Sharon, Amir
2015-06-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics dual to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in asymptotic AdS5 space is under study. To linear order in the amplitude of the fluid velocity and temperature, we derive the fluid's stress-energy tensor via an all-order resummation of the derivative terms. Each order is accompanied by new transport coefficients, which all together could be compactly absorbed into two functions of momenta, referred to as viscosity functions. Via inverse Fourier transform, these viscosities appear as memory functions in the constitutive relation between components of the stress-energy tensor.
Kink-antikink, trapping bags and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Giovannini, Massimo
2006-10-15
Five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity, with one warped extra-dimension, allows classes of solutions where two scalar fields combine either in a kink-antikink system or in a trapping-bag configuration. While the kink-antikink system can be interpreted as a pair of gravitating domain walls with opposite topological charges, the trapping-bag solution consists of a domain wall supplemented by a nontopological defect. In both classes of solutions, for large absolute values of the bulk coordinate (i.e. far from the core of the defects), the geometry is given by five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.
Five-dimensional black strings in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Takahiro
2005-04-15
We consider black-string-type solutions in five-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Numerically constructed solutions under static, axially symmetric and translationally invariant metric ansatz are presented. The solutions are specified by two asymptotic charges: mass of a black string and a scalar charge associated with the radion part of the metric. Regular black string solutions are found if and only if the two charges satisfy a fine-tuned relation, and otherwise the spacetime develops a singular event horizon or a naked singularity. We can also generate bubble solutions from the black strings by using a double Wick rotation.
Black hole initial data in Gauss-Bonnet gravity: Momentarily static case
Yoshino, Hirotaka
2011-05-15
We study the method for generating the initial data of black hole systems in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The initial data are assumed to be momentarily static and conformally flat. Although the equation for the conformal factor is highly nonlinear, it is successfully solved by numerical relaxation for one-black-hole and two-black-hole systems. The common apparent horizon is studied in the two-black-hole initial data, and the result suggests that the Penrose inequalities are satisfied in this system. This is the first step for simulating black hole collisions in higher-curvature theories.
Some exact solutions with torsion in 5D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Canfora, F.; Giacomini, A.; Willison, S.
2007-08-15
Exact solutions with torsion in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity are derived. These solutions have a cross product structure of two constant curvature manifolds. The equations of motion give a relation for the coupling constants of the theory in order to have solutions with nontrivial torsion. This relation is not the Chern-Simons combination. One of the solutions has an AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 3} structure and is so the purely gravitational analogue of the Bertotti-Robinson space-time where the torsion can be seen as the dual of the covariantly constant electromagnetic field.
Uniqueness of the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern formula (after Gilkey-Park-Sekigawa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro, Alberto; Navarro, José
2016-03-01
On an oriented Riemannian manifold, the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern formula establishes that the Pfaffian of the metric represents, in de Rham cohomology, the Euler class of the tangent bundle. Hence, if the underlying manifold is compact, the integral of the Pfaffian is a topological invariant; namely, the Euler characteristic of the manifold. In this paper we refine a classical result, originally due to Gilkey, that characterizes this formula as the only (non-trivial) integral of a differential invariant that is independent of the underlying metric. To this end, we use some computations regarding dimensional identities of the curvature due to Gilkey-Park-Sekigawa (Gilkey, 2012; Navarro and Navarro, 2014).
5D radiating black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, S. G.
2011-10-01
We derive nonstatic spherically symmetric solutions of a null fluid, in five dimension (5D), to Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) equations with the coupling of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) combination of quadratic curvature terms, namely, 5D EYMGB radiating black hole solution. It is shown that, in the limit, we can recover known radiating black hole solutions. The spherically symmetric known 5D static black hole solutions are also retrieved. The effect of the GB term and Yang-Mills (YM) gauge charge on the structure and location of horizons, of the 5D radiating black hole, is also discussed.
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor
2009-04-15
It is generally accepted that Einstein's theory will get some as yet unknown corrections, possibly large in the strong-field regime. An ideal place to look for these modifications is in the vicinities of compact objects such as black holes. Here, we study dilatonic black holes, which arise in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet couplings and one-loop corrected four-dimensional effective theory of heterotic superstrings at low energies. These are interesting objects as a prototype for alternative, yet well-behaved gravity theories: they evade the 'no-hair' theorem of general relativity but were proven to be stable against radial perturbations. We investigate the viability of these black holes as astrophysical objects and try to provide some means to distinguish them from black holes in general relativity. We start by extending previous works and establishing the stability of these black holes against axial perturbations. We then look for solutions of the field equations describing slowly rotating black holes and study geodesic motion around this geometry. Depending on the values of mass, dilaton charge, and angular momentum of the solution, one can have differences in the innermost-stable-circular-orbit location and orbital frequency, relative to black holes in general relativity. In the most favorable cases, the difference amounts to a few percent. Given the current state-of-the-art, we discuss the difficulty of distinguishing the correct theory of gravity from electromagnetic observations or even with gravitational-wave detectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiong-Ying; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren
2014-06-01
We employ the simple analytic method and the variational method of the Strum-Liouville (S-L) eigenvalue problem to analytically study the holographic superconductor phase transition in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics in the probe limit, respectively. We find that the scalar hair formation at low temperatures is indeed affected by the Gauss-Bonnet as well as the BI coupling parameters, but also by the scalar field mass and the spacetime dimensional. Our analytic result has been found in agreement with the numerical results.
Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.; Amirabi, Z.
2010-05-15
Recently in [Phys. Rev. D 76, 087502 (2007) and Phys. Rev. D 77, 089903 (2008)] a thin-shell wormhole has been introduced in five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet gravity which was supported by normal matter. We wish to consider this solution and investigate its stability. Our analysis shows that for the Gauss-Bonnet parameter {alpha}<0, stability regions form for a narrow band of finely tuned mass and charge. For the case {alpha}>0, we iterate once more that no stable, normal matter thin-shell wormhole exists.
Quasinormal modes and a new instability of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black holes in the de Sitter world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuyubamba, M. A.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.
2016-05-01
Analysis of time-domain profiles for gravitational perturbations shows that Gauss-Bonnet black holes in a de Sitter world possess a new kind of dynamical instability which does not take place for asymptotically flat Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black holes. The new instability is in the gravitational perturbations of the scalar type and is due to the nonvanishing cosmological constant. Analysis of the quasinormal spectrum in the stability sector shows that although the scalar type of gravitational perturbations alone does not obey Hod's conjectural bound, connecting the damping rate and the Hawking temperature, the vector and tensor types (and thereby the gravitational spectrum as a whole) do obey it.
Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet traversable wormholes satisfying the weak energy condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Zangeneh, Mahdi Kord; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2015-04-01
In this paper, we explore higher-dimensional asymptotically flat wormhole geometries in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity and investigate the effects of the GB term, by considering a specific radial-dependent redshift function and by imposing a particular equation of state. This work is motivated by previous assumptions that wormhole solutions were not possible for the k =1 and α <0 case, where k is the sectional curvature of an (n -2 )-dimensional maximally symmetric space, and α is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant. However, we emphasize that this discussion is purely based on a nontrivial assumption that is only valid at the wormhole throat, and cannot be extended to the entire radial-coordinate range. In this work, we provide a counterexample to this claim, and find for the first time specific solutions that satisfy the weak energy condition throughout the entire spacetime, for k =1 and α <0 . In addition to this, we also present other wormhole solutions which alleviate the violation of the weak energy condition in the vicinity of the wormhole throat.
Thermodynamics of rotating solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity and the counterterm method
Dehghani, M. H.; Bordbar, G. H.; Shamirzaie, M.
2006-09-15
By a suitable transformation, we present the (n+1)-dimensional charged rotating solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a complete set of allowed rotation parameters which are real in the whole spacetime. We show that these charged rotating solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes, or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. Using the surface terms that make the action well defined for Gauss-Bonnet gravity and the counterterm method for eliminating the divergences in action, we compute finite action of the solutions. We compute the conserved and thermodynamical quantities through the use of free energy and the counterterm method, and find that the two methods give the same results. We also find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity and the determinant of Hessian matrix of mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that the system is thermally stable. This is commensurate with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black objects with zero curvature horizon.
Topological black holes for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a nonminimal scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Moisés Bravo; Hassaïne, Mokhtar
2013-11-01
We consider the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a negative cosmological constant together with a source given by a scalar field nonminimally coupled in arbitrary dimension D. For a certain election of the cosmological and Gauss-Bonnet coupling constants, we derive two classes of AdS black hole solutions whose horizon is planar. The first family of black holes obtained for a particular value of the nonminimal coupling parameter only depends on a constant M, and the scalar field vanishes as M=0. The second class of solutions corresponds to a two-parametric (with constants M and A) black hole stealth configuration, which is a nontrivial scalar field with a black hole metric such that both sides (gravity and matter parts) of the Einstein equations vanish. In this case, in the vanishing M, the solution reduces to a stealth scalar field on the pure AdS metric. We note that the existence of these two classes of solutions is indicative of the particular choice of the coupling constants, and they cannot be promoted to spherical or hyperboloid black hole solutions in a standard fashion. In the last part, we add to the original action some exact (D-1) forms coupled to the scalar field. The direct benefit of introducing such extra fields is to obtain black hole solutions with a planar horizon for an arbitrary value of the nonminimal coupling parameter.
Is there a relation between the 2D Causal Set action and the Lorentzian Gauss-Bonnet theorem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.
2011-07-01
We investigate the relation between the two dimensional Causal Set action, Script S, and the Lorentzian Gauss-Bonnet theorem (LGBT). We give compelling reasons why the answer to the title's question is no. In support of this point of view we calculate the causal set inspired action of causal intervals in some two dimensional spacetimes: Minkowski, the flat cylinder and the flat trousers.
Thick braneworlds and the Gibbons-Kallosh-Linde no-go theorem in the Gauss-Bonnet framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, M.; Hoff da Silva, J. M.; da Rocha, Roldão
2015-04-01
The sum rules related to thick braneworlds are constructed in order to encompass Gauss-Bonnet terms. The generation of thick branes is hence proposed in a periodic extra dimension scenario, which circumvents the Gibbons-Kallosh-Linde no-go theorem in this context.
Black hole solutions in string theory with Gauss-Bonnet curvature correction
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Sasagawa, Yukinori
2009-11-15
We present the black hole solutions and analyze their properties in the superstring effective field theory with the Gauss-Bonnet curvature correction terms. We find qualitative differences in our results from those obtained in the truncated model in the Einstein frame. The main difference in our model from the truncated one is that the existence of a turning point in the mass-area curve, the mass-entropy curve, and the mass-temperature curve in five and higher dimensions, where we expect a change of stability. We also find a mass gap in our model, where there is no black hole solution. In five dimensions, there exists a maximum black hole temperature and the temperature vanishes at the minimum mass, which is not found in the truncated model.
Emergent universe supported by chiral cosmological fields in 5D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chervon, S. V.; Maharaj, S. D.; Beesham, Aroonkumar; Kubasov, A. S.
2014-07-01
We propose the application of the chiral cosmological model (CCM) for the Einstein--Gauss--Bonnet (EGB) theory of gravitation with the aim of finding new models of the Emergent Universe (EmU) scenario. We analysed the EmU supported by two chiral cosmological fields for a spatially flat universe, while we have used three chiral fields when we investigated open and closed universes. To prove the validity of the EmU scenario we fixed the scale factor and found the exact solution by decomposition of EGB equations and solving the chiral field dynamics equation. To this end, we suggested the decomposition of the EGB equations in such a way that the first chiral field is responsible for the Einstein part of the model, while the second field, together with kinetic interaction term, is connected with the Gauss--Bonnet part of the theory. We proved that both fields are phantom ones under this decomposition, and that the model has a solution if the kinetic interaction between the fields equals a constant. We have presented the exact solution in terms of cosmic time. This was done for a spatially flat universe. In the case of open and closed universes we introduced the third chiral field (canonical for closed and phantom for open universe) which is responsible for the EGB and curvature parts. The solution of the third field equation is obtained in quadratures. Thus we have proved that the CCM is able to support EmU scenario in EGB gravity for spatially flat, open and closed universes.
Stability of Gauss-Bonnet black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time against scalar field condensation
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2011-10-15
We study the stability of static, hyperbolic Gauss-Bonnet black holes in (4+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time against the formation of scalar hair. Close to extremality the black holes possess a near-horizon topology of AdS{sub 2}xH{sup 3} such that within a certain range of the scalar field mass one would expect that they become unstable to the condensation of an uncharged scalar field. We confirm this numerically and observe that there exists a family of hairy black hole solutions labeled by the number of nodes of the scalar field function. We construct explicit examples of solutions with a scalar field that possesses zero nodes, one node, and two nodes, respectively, and show that the solutions with nodes persist in the limit of Einstein gravity, i.e. for vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We observe that the interval of the mass for which scalar field condensation appears decreases with increasing Gauss-Bonnet coupling and/or with increasing node number.
Constraints on modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity during big bang nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusakabe, Motohiko; Koh, Seoktae; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki
2016-02-01
Modified gravity is considered to be one of the possible explanations of the accelerated expansions of the present and the early universe. We study the effects of modified gravity on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). If the effects of modified gravity are significant during the BBN epoch, they should be observed as changes of primordial light element abundances. We assume a f (G ) term with the Gauss-Bonnet term G , during the BBN epoch. A power-law relation of d f /d G ∝tp where t is the cosmic time was assumed for the function f (G ) as an example case. We solve time evolutions of physical variables during BBN in the f (G ) gravity model numerically, and we analyzed the calculated results. It is found that a proper solution for the cosmic expansion rate can be lost in some parameter region. In addition, we show that calculated results of primordial light element abundances can be significantly different from observational data. Especially, observational limits on the primordial D abundance leads to the strongest constraint on the f (G ) gravity. We then derive constraints on parameters of the f (G ) gravity taking into account the existence of the solution of expansion rate and final light element abundances.
Maeda, Hideki
2006-05-15
We give a model of the higher-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a dust cloud including the perturbative effects of quantum gravity. The n({>=}5)-dimensional action with the Gauss-Bonnet term for gravity is considered and a simple formulation of the basic equations is given for the spacetime M{approx_equal}M{sup 2}xK{sup n-2} with a perfect fluid and a cosmological constant. This is a generalization of the Misner-Sharp formalism of the four-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime with a perfect fluid in general relativity. The whole picture and the final fate of the gravitational collapse of a dust cloud differ greatly between the cases with n=5 and n{>=}6. There are two families of solutions, which we call plus-branch and the minus-branch solutions. A plus-branch solution can be attached to the outside vacuum region which is asymptotically anti-de Sitter in spite of the absence of a cosmological constant. Bounce inevitably occurs in the plus-branch solution for n{>=}6, and consequently singularities cannot be formed. Since there is no trapped surface in the plus-branch solution, the singularity formed in the case of n=5 must be naked. On the other hand, a minus-branch solution can be attached to the outside asymptotically flat vacuum region. We show that naked singularities are massless for n{>=}6, while massive naked singularities are possible for n=5. In the homogeneous collapse represented by the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution, the singularity formed is spacelike for n{>=}6, while it is ingoing-null for n=5. In the inhomogeneous collapse with smooth initial data, the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis holds for n{>=}10 and for n=9 depending on the parameters in the initial data, while a naked singularity is always formed for 5{<=}n{<=}8. These naked singularities can be globally naked when the initial surface radius of the dust cloud is fine-tuned, and then the weak cosmic censorship hypothesis is violated.
Gauss-Bonnet assisted braneworld inflation in light of BICEP2 and Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neupane, Ishwaree P.
2014-12-01
Motivated by the idea that quantum gravity corrections usually suppress the power of the scalar primordial spectrum (E-mode) more than the power of the tensor primordial spectrum (B-mode), in this paper we construct a concrete gravitational theory in five-dimensions for which V (ϕ )∝ϕn -type inflation (n ≥1 ) generates an appropriate tensor-to-scalar ratio that may be compatible with the BICEP2 and Planck data together. The true nature of gravity is five-dimensional and described by the action S =∫d5x √{|g | }M3(-6 λ M2+R +α M-2R2) where M is the five-dimensional Planck mass and R2=R2-4 Ra bRa b+Ra b c dRa b c d is the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. The five-dimensional "bulk" spacetime is anti-de Sitter (λ <0 ) for which inflation ends naturally. The effects of R2 term on the magnitudes of scalar and tensor fluctuations and spectral indices are shown to be important at the energy scale of inflation. For GB-assisted m2ϕ2-inflation, inflationary constraints from BICEP2 and Planck, such as, ns≃0.9603 (±0.0073 ), r =0.16 (+0.06 -0.05 ) and V*1 /4≳1.5 ×1 016 GeV are all satisfied for (-λ α )≃(3 -300 )×1 0-5.
Tze, Chia-Hsiung . Dept. of Physics)
1989-01-01
By way of the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem, we present a higher dimensional extension of Polyakov's regularization of Wilson loops of point solitons. Spacetime paths of extended objects become hyper-ribbons with self-linking, twisting and writhing numbers. specifically we discuss the exotic spin and statistical phase entanglements of geometric n-membrane solitons of D-dimensional KP{sub 1} {sigma}-models with an added Hopf-Chern-Simons term where (n, D, K) = (0, 3, C), (2, 7, H), (6, 15, {Omega}). They are uniquely linked to the complex and quaternion and octonion division algebras. 22 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mišković, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2011-01-01
Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.
Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2011-01-15
Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maitra, Ushoshi; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sengupta, Soumitra
2016-02-01
In the usual 5-dimensional Randall-Sundrum scenario with warped geometry of the extra compact dimension, the Goldberger-Wise mechanism for stabilisation of the radius of compactification can lead to a scalar field called the radion. The radion can have implications in TeV-scale physics, which can be especially noticeable if its vacuum expectation value (vev) is not far above a TeV. However a large mass of the first graviton excitation, which seems to be suggested by recent search limit, tends to make the radion vev, far too large in the minimal model. We show that this is not the case if a Gauss-Bonnet term, containing higher powers of the curvature, is present in the 5-dimensional action. As a result, a radion with vev in the range 1.7-4.0 TeV can be consistent with the first graviton excitation mass well above the bound set by LHC experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivashchuk, V. D.
2016-08-01
A (n+1)-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet term and a cosmological constant term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted, the solutions with an exponential dependence of the scale factors, a_i ˜ exp { ( v^i t) }, i =1, dots , n , are analyzed for n > 3. We study the stability of the solutions with non-static volume factor, i.e. if K(v) = sum _{k = 1}n v^k ≠ 0. We prove that under a certain restriction R imposed solutions with K(v) > 0 are stable, while solutions with K(v) < 0 are unstable. Certain examples of stable solutions are presented. We show that the solutions with v^1 = v^2 =v^3 = H > 0 and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant are stable if the restriction R is obeyed.
Graviton time delay and a speed limit for small black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papallo, Giuseppe; Reall, Harvey S.
2015-11-01
Camanho, Edelstein, Maldacena and Zhiboedov have shown that gravitons can experience a negative Shapiro time delay, i.e. a time advance, in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. They studied gravitons propagating in singular "shock-wave" geometries. We study this effect for gravitons propagating in smooth black hole spacetimes. For a small enough black hole, we find that gravitons of appropriate polarisation, and small impact parameter, can experience time advance. Such gravitons can also exhibit a deflection angle less than π, characteristic of a repulsive short-distance gravitational interaction. We discuss problems with the suggestion that the time advance can be used to build a "time machine". In particular, we argue that a small black hole cannot be boosted to a speed arbitrarily close to the speed of light, as would be required in such a construction.
Modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the Lagrange multiplier constraint as mimetic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2015-09-01
In this paper we propose and extensively study mimetic f({G}) modified gravity models, with various scenarios of cosmological evolution, with or without extra matter fluids. The easiest formulation is based on the use of the Lagrange multiplier constraint. In certain versions of this theory, it is possible to realize accelerated expansion of the Universe or even unified evolution, which includes inflation with dark energy, and at the same time in the same theoretical framework, dark matter is described by the theory. This is achieved by the re-parametrization of the metric tensor, which introduces a new degree of freedom in the cosmological equations and leads to the appearance of the mimetic ‘dark matter’ component. In the context of the mimetic f({G}) theory, we also provide some quite general reconstruction schemes, which enable us to find which f({G}) gravity generates a specific cosmological evolution. In addition, we also provide the general reconstruction technique for the Lagrange multiplier f({G}) gravity. All our results are accompanied by illustrative examples, with special emphasis on bouncing cosmologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Shirsendu; Lala, Arindam
2015-03-01
In this paper we have studied the onset of holographic s-wave condensate in the (4 + 1) dimensional planar Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole background with several non-linear corrections to the gauge field. In the probe limit, performing explicit analytic computations, with and without magnetic field, we found that these higher order corrections indeed affect various quantities characterizing the holographic superconductors. Also, performing a comparative study of the two non-linear electrodynamics it has been shown that the exponential electrodynamics has stronger effects on the formation of the scalar hair. We observe that our results agree well with those obtained numerically (Zhao et al., 2013).
Generalized gravitational entropy without replica symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camps, Joan; Kelly, William R.
2015-03-01
We explore several extensions of the generalized entropy construction of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, including a formulation that does not rely on preserving replica symmetry in the bulk. We show that an appropriately general ansatz for the analytically continued replica metric gives us the flexibility needed to solve the gravitational field equations beyond general relativity. As an application of this observation we study EinsteinGauss-Bonnet gravity with a small Gauss-Bonnet coupling and derive the condition that the holographic entanglement entropy must be evaluated on a surface which extremizes the Jacobson-Myers entropy. We find that in both general relativity and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity replica symmetry breaking terms are permitted by the field equations, suggesting that they do not generically vanish.
String inspired explanation for the superacceleration of our Universe
Sheykhi, Ahmad; Wang, Bin; Riazi, Nematollah
2007-06-15
We investigate the effect of the bulk content in the general Gauss-Bonnet braneworld on the evolution of the Universe. We find that the Gauss-Bonnet term and the combination of the dark radiation and the matter content of the bulk play a crucial role in the Universe's evolution. We show that our model can describe the superacceleration of our Universe with the equation of state of the effective dark energy in agreement with observations.
Correspondence between Generalized Dark Energy and Scalar Field Dark Energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maity, Sayani; Debnath, Ujjal
2015-07-01
In this work, we have considered non-flat FRW universe filled with dark matter (with non-zero pressure) and generalized dark energy (GDE) as motivated by the work of Sharif et al. (Mod. Phys. Lett. A 28, 1350180, 2013). Also the dark matter and the dark energy are considered to be interacting. The energy density, pressure and the EoS of the GDE have been calculated for the interacting scenario. For stability analysis of this model, we have also analyzed the sign of square speed of sound. Next we investigate the correspondence between GDE and different other candidates of dark energies such as DBI-essence, tachyonic field, hessenc and electromagnetic field. Also we have reconstructed the potential functions and the scalar fields in this scenario.
BOOK REVIEW Dark Energy: Theory and Observations Dark Energy: Theory and Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraoni, Valerio
2011-02-01
The 1998 discovery of what seems an acceleration of the cosmic expansion was made using type Ia supernovae and was later confirmed by other cosmological observations. It has made a huge impact on cosmology, prompting theoreticians to explain the observations and introducing the concept of dark energy into modern physics. A vast literature on dark energy and its alternatives has appeared since then, and this is the first comprehensive book devoted to the subject. This book is addressed to an advanced audience comprising graduate students and researchers in cosmology. Although it contains forty four fully solved problems and the first three chapters are rather introductory, they do not constitute a self-consistent course in cosmology and this book assumes graduate level knowledge of cosmology and general relativity. The fourth chapter focuses on observations, while the rest of this book addresses various classes of models proposed, including the cosmological constant, quintessence, k-essence, phantom energy, coupled dark energy, etc. The title of this book should not induce the reader into believing that only dark energy models are addressed—the authors devote two chapters to discussing conceptually very different approaches alternative to dark energy, including ƒ(R) and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, braneworld and void models, and the backreaction of inhomogeneities on the cosmic dynamics. Two chapters contain a general discussion of non-linear cosmological perturbations and statistical methods widely applicable in cosmology. The final chapter outlines future perspectives and the most likely lines of observational research on dark energy in the future. Overall, this book is carefully drafted, well presented, and does a good job of organizing the information available in the vast literature. The reader is pointed to the essential references and guided in a balanced way through the various proposals aimied at explaining the cosmological observations. Not all classes of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Saugata; Saha, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Subenoy
2015-04-01
The present work deals with a detailed study of universal thermodynamics in different modified gravity theories. The validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) and thermodynamical equilibrium (TE) of the Universe bounded by a horizon (apparent/event) in f(R) -gravity, Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, RS-II brane scenario and DGP brane model has been investigated. In the perspective of recent observational evidences, the matter in the Universe is chosen as interacting holographic dark energy model. The entropy on the horizons is evaluated from the validity of the unified first law and as a result there is a correction (in integral form) to the usual Bekenstein entropy. The other thermodynamical parameter namely temperature on the horizon is chosen as the recently introduced corrected Hawking temperature. The above thermodynamical analysis is done for homogeneous and isotropic flat FLRW model of the Universe. The restrictions for the validity of GSLT and the TE are presented in tabular form for each gravity theory. Finally, due to complicated expressions, the validity of GSLT and TE are also examined from graphical representation, using three Planck data sets.
Generalized models of unification of dark matter and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čaplar, Neven; Štefančić, Hrvoje
2013-01-01
A model of unification of dark matter and dark energy based on the modeling of the speed of sound as a function of the parameter of the equation of state is introduced. It is found that the model in which the speed of sound depends on the power of the parameter of the equation of state, cs2=α(-w)γ, contains the generalized Chaplygin gas models as its subclass. An effective scalar field description of the model is obtained in a parametric form which in some cases can be translated into a closed form solution for the scalar field potential. A constraint on model parameters is obtained using the observational data on the Hubble parameter at different redshifts.
Simple implementation of general dark energy models
Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Pearson, Jonathan A. E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk
2014-03-01
We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data.
Generalized Vaidya spacetime in Lovelock gravity and thermodynamics on the apparent horizon
Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Hu Yapeng; Kim, Sang Pyo
2008-12-15
We present a kind of generalized Vaidya solutions in a generic Lovelock gravity. This solution generalizes the simple case in Gauss-Bonnet gravity reported recently by some authors. We study the thermodynamics of apparent horizon in this generalized Vaidya spacetime. Treating those terms except for the Einstein tensor as an effective energy-momentum tensor in the gravitational field equations, and using the unified first law in Einstein gravity theory, we obtain an entropy expression for the apparent horizon. We also obtain an energy expression of this spacetime, which coincides with the generalized Misner-Sharp energy proposed by Maeda and Nozawa in Lovelock gravity.
Black hole hair in generalized scalar-tensor gravity.
Sotiriou, Thomas P; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-06-27
The most general action for a scalar field coupled to gravity that leads to second-order field equations for both the metric and the scalar--Horndeski's theory--is considered, with the extra assumption that the scalar satisfies shift symmetry. We show that in such theories, the scalar field is forced to have a nontrivial configuration in black hole spacetimes, unless one carefully tunes away a linear coupling with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Hence, black holes for generic theories in this class will have hair. This contradicts a recent no-hair theorem which seems to have overlooked the presence of this coupling. PMID:25014801
Constraints on generalized dark energy from recent observations
Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Tomo
2007-06-15
Effects of a generalized dark energy fluid are investigated on cosmic density fluctuations such as a cosmic microwave background. As a general dark energy fluid, we take into consideration the possibility of the anisotropic stress for dark energy, which has not been discussed much in the literature. We comprehensively study its effects on the evolution of density fluctuations along with that of the nonadiabatic pressure fluctuation of dark energy, then give constraints on such a generalized dark energy from current observations. We show that, though we cannot find any stringent limits on the anisotropic stress or the nonadiabatic pressure fluctuation themselves, the constraints on the equation of state of dark energy can be affected in some cases by the nature of dark energy fluctuation characterized by these properties. This may have important implications in the strategy to study the nature of dark energy.
Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Som, S.; Sil, A.
2014-08-01
Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.
Generalized ghost dark energy in Horava-Lifshitz cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, Bharat; Ansari, M.
2015-12-01
Purpose of this paper is to study generalized quantum chromodynamics ghost dark energy (GDE) in the frame work of Horava-Lifshitz cosmology. Considering interacting and non-interacting scenario of GDE with dark matter in a spatially non-flat universe, we investigate the cosmological implications of this model in detail. We obtain equation of state parameter, deceleration parameter and the evolution of dark energy density to explain the expansion of the universe. Also, we show that the results we calculate have a good compatibility with previous work and restore it in limiting case. Further, we investigate validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics in this scenario. Finally, we find out a cosmological application of our work by evaluating a relation for the equation of state of dark energy for law redshifts.
Cosmology of a holographic induced gravity model with curvature effects
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufiq
2011-10-15
We present a holographic model of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. We concentrate on the solution that generalizes the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch. It is well known that this branch cannot describe the late-time acceleration of the universe even with the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Here, we show that this branch in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet curvature effect and a holographic dark energy with the Hubble scale as the infrared cutoff can describe the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is worthwhile to stress that such an energy density component cannot do the same job on the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch (without Gauss-Bonnet modifications) nor in a standard four-dimensional relativistic model. The acceleration on the brane is also presented as being induced through an effective dark energy which corresponds to a balance between the holographic one and geometrical effects encoded through the Hubble parameter.
Interacting Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in Non-isotropic Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barati, F.
2016-04-01
In this work, the generalized Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) ghost model of dark energy in the framework of Einstein gravity is investigated. At first, the non-interacting generalized ghost dark energy in a Bianchi type I (BI) background is discussed. Then the equation of state parameter, ω D = p D / ρ D , the deceleration parameter, and the evolution equation of the generalized ghost dark energy are obtained. It was found that, in this case, ω D cannot cross the phantom line (ω D >-1) and eventually the universe approaches a de-Sitter phase of expansion (ω D →-1). Then, this investigation was extended to the interacting ghost dark energy in a non-isotropic universe. It was found that the equation of state parameter of the interacting generalized ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line (ω D <-1) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably. It was considered a specific model which permits the standard continuity equation in this theory. Besides ΩΛ and Ω m in standard Einstein cosmology, another density parameter, Ω σ , is expected by the anisotropy. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW universe accommodating the present acceleration.
General analysis of dark radiation in sequestered string models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco
2015-12-01
We perform a general analysis of axionic dark radiation produced from the decay of the lightest modulus in the sequestered LARGE Volume Scenario. We discuss several cases depending on the form of the Kähler metric for visible sector matter fields and the mechanism responsible for achieving a de Sitter vacuum. The leading decay channels which determine dark radiation predictions are to hidden sector axions, visible sector Higgses and SUSY scalars depending on their mass. We show that in most of the parameter space of split SUSY-like models squarks and sleptons are heavier than the lightest modulus. Hence dark radiation predictions previously obtained for MSSM-like cases hold more generally also for split SUSY-like cases since the decay channel to SUSY scalars is kinematically forbidden. However the inclusion of string loop corrections to the Kähler potential gives rise to a parameter space region where the decay channel to SUSY scalars opens up, leading to a significant reduction of dark radiation production. In this case, the simplest model with a shift-symmetric Higgs sector can suppress the excess of dark radiation Δ N eff to values as small as 0 .14, in perfect agreement with current experimental bounds. Depending on the exact mass of the SUSY scalars all values in the range 0 .14 ≲ Δ N eff ≲ 1 .6 are allowed. Interestingly dark radiation overproduction can be avoided also in the absence of a Giudice-Masiero coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de-Santiago, Josue; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.
2011-03-01
We study a unification model for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation with a single scalar field with noncanonical kinetic term. In this model, the kinetic term of the Lagrangian accounts for the dark matter and dark energy, and at early epochs, a quadratic potential accounts for slow roll inflation. The present work is an extension to the work by Bose and Majumdar [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 103517 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.79.103517] with a more general kinetic term that was proposed by Chimento in Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 69, 123517 (2004).10.1103/PhysRevD.69.123517 We demonstrate that the model is viable at the background and linear perturbation levels.
Generalized Misner-Sharp energy in f(R) gravity
Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Hu Yapeng
2009-11-15
We study generalized Misner-Sharp energy in f(R) gravity in a spherically symmetric space-time. We find that unlike the cases of Einstein gravity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, the existence of the generalized Misner-Sharp energy depends on a constraint condition in the f(R) gravity. When the constraint condition is satisfied, one can define a generalized Misner-Sharp energy, but it cannot always be written in an explicit quasilocal form. However, such a form can be obtained in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and for static spherically symmetric solutions with constant scalar curvature. In the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, the generalized Misner-Sharp energy is nothing but the total matter energy inside a sphere with radius r, which acts as the boundary of a finite region under consideration. The case of scalar-tensor gravity is also briefly discussed.
Cosmography of Interacting Generalized QCD Ghost Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malekjani, Mohammad
2013-12-01
Exploring the accelerated expansion of the universe, we investigate the generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) model from the statefinder diagnostic analysis in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. First, we calculate the cosmological evolution and statefinder trajectories for noninteracting case and then extend this work by considering the interaction between dark matter and dark energy components. We show that in the noninteracting case the phantom line cannot be crossed and also the evolutionary trajectories of model in s - r plane cannot be discriminated. It has been shown that the present location of model in s - r plane would be close to observational value for negative values of the model parameter. In the presence of interaction between dark matter and dark energy, the phantom regime is achieved, the accelerated phase of expansion occurs sooner compared with the noninteracting case. The GGDE model is also discussed from the viewpoint of perturbation theory by calculating the adiabatic sound speed of the model. Finally, unlike the noninteracting case, the evolutionary trajectories in s - r plane can be discriminated in the interacting model. Like the noninteracting model, in the interacting case the present location of GGDE model is closer to observational value for negative values of the model parameter.
Park, Chan-Gyung; Hwang, Jai-chan; Park, Jaehong; Noh, Hyerim
2010-03-15
We study a generalized version of Chaplygin gas as unified model of dark matter and dark energy. Using realistic theoretical models and the currently available observational data from the age of the universe, the expansion history based on the type Ia supernovae, the matter power spectrum, the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy power spectra, and the perturbation growth factor we put the unified model under observational test. As the model has only two free parameters in the flat Friedmann background [{Lambda}CDM (cold dark matter) model has only one free parameter] we show that the model is already tightly constrained by currently available observations. The only parameter space extremely close to the {Lambda}CDM model is allowed in this unified model.
Extensive investigation of the generalized dark matter model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopp, Michael; Skordis, Constantinos; Thomas, Dan B.
2016-08-01
The cold dark matter (CDM) model, wherein the dark matter is treated as a pressureless perfect fluid, provides a good fit to galactic and cosmological data. With the advent of precision cosmology, it should be asked whether this simplest model needs to be extended, and whether doing so could improve our understanding of the properties of dark matter. One established parametrization for generalizing the CDM fluid is the generalized dark matter (GDM) model, in which dark matter is an imperfect fluid with pressure and shear viscosity that fulfill certain postulated closure equations. We investigate these closure equations and the three new parametric functions they contain: the background equation of state w , the speed of sound cs2 and the viscosity cvis2. Taking these functions to be constant parameters, we analyze an exact solution of the perturbed Einstein equations in a flat GDM-dominated universe and discuss the main effects of the three parameters on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our analysis suggests that the CMB alone is not able to distinguish between the GDM sound speed and viscosity parameters, but that other observables, such as the matter power spectrum, are required to break this degeneracy. In order to elucidate further the meaning of the GDM closure equations, we also consider other descriptions of imperfect fluids that have a nonperturbative definition and relate these to the GDM model. In particular, we consider scalar fields, an effective field theory (EFT) of fluids, an EFT of large-scale structure, nonequilibrium thermodynamics and tightly coupled fluids. These descriptions could be used to extend the GDM model into the nonlinear regime of structure formation, which is necessary if the wealth of data available on those scales is to be employed in constraining the model. We also derive the initial conditions for adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations in the presence of GDM and standard cosmological fluids and provide the result in a
Quartet-metric general relativity: scalar graviton, dark matter, and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirogov, Yury F.
2016-04-01
General relativity extended through a dynamical scalar quartet is proposed as a theory of the scalar-vector-tensor gravity, generically describing the unified gravitational dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE). The implementation in the weak-field limit of the Higgs mechanism for the extended gravity, with a redefinition of metric field, is exposed in a generally covariant form. Under a natural restriction on the parameters, the redefined theory possesses in the linearized approximation a residual transverse-diffeomorphism invariance, and consistently comprises the massless tensor graviton and a massive scalar one as a DM particle. The number of adjustable parameters in the full nonlinear theory and a partial decoupling of the latter from its weak-field limit noticeably extend the perspectives for the unified description of the gravity DM and DE in the various phenomena at the different scales.
N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark solitons of the coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishnu Priya, N.; Senthilvelan, M.
2016-07-01
We construct N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark soliton solutions of an integrable two coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (CGNLS) equation for arbitrary values of system parameters. These solutions are more general than the reported one. While the bright-bright solitons are captured in the focusing regime of CGNLS equation, the dark-dark soliton solutions are identified in the defocusing regime. We present N-bright-bright solitons in the Gram determinant forms and prove that these determinant forms satisfy the Hirota bilinear equations.
Some Bianchi type generalized ghost piligrim dark energy models in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santhi, M. Vijaya; Aditya, Y.; Rao, V. U. M.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we consider Bianchi type-III, V and VI0 space-times filled with generalized ghost pilgrim dark energy (GGPDE) in general relativity. Here we assume the anisotropic distribution of GGPDE by introducing skewness parameters. To get deterministic solutions, we consider the scale factor a(t)=(tnet)^{ 1/k}, so called hybrid expansion, which yields a time dependent deceleration parameter, and exhibits a transition of the Universe from early decelerated phase to the recent accelerating phase. To describe the behavior of the obtained models we construct equation of state (ω_{Λ}), squared sound speed (vs2) parameters and ω_{Λ}-dot{ω }_{Λ}, r-s planes. It is worth mentioning here that the analysis of evolution parameters supports the concept of pilgrim dark energy (PDE). Also, these models remain stable for PDE parameter β =-0.5. Moreover, the cosmological planes correspond to Λ CDM limit as well as different well-known dark energy models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, En-Kun; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Jin-Ling; Duan, Peng-Fei
2015-11-01
Generalized second law of thermodynamics in the Bianchi Type I universe with the generalized holographic Ricci dark energy model is studied in this paper. The behavior of dark energy's equation of state parameter indicates that it is matter-like in the early time of the universe but phantom-like in the future. By analysing the evolution of the deviations of state parameter and the total pressure of the universe, we find that for an anisotropic Bianchi Type I universe, it transits from a high anisotropy stage to a more homogeneous stage in the near past. Using the normal entropy given by Gibbs' law of thermodynamics, it is proved that the generalized second law of thermodynamics does not always satisfied throughout the history of the universe when we assume the universe is enclosed by the generalized Ricci scalar radius R_{gr}. It becomes invalid in the near past to the future, and the formation of the galaxies will be helpful in explaining such phenomenon, for that the galaxies's formation is an entropy increase process. The negative change rate of the horizon entropy and internal entropy occur in different period indicates that the influences of galaxies formation is wiped from internal to the universe's horizon.
General Coordinate Transformations as the Origins of Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodgers, Vincent G. J.; Yasuda, Takeshi
In this note we demonstrate that the algebra associated with coordinate transformations might contain the origins of a scalar field that can behave as an inflaton and/or a source for dark energy. We will call this particular scalar field the diffeomorphism scalar field. In one dimension, the algebra of coordinate transformations is the Virasoro algebra while the algebra of gauge transformations is the Kac-Moody algebra. An interesting representation of these algebras corresponds to certain field theories that have meaning in any dimension. In particular, the so-called Kac-Moody sector corresponds to Yang-Mills theories and the Virasoro sector corresponds to the diffeomorphism field theory that contains the scalar field and a rank-two symmetric, traceless tensor. We will focus on the contributions of the diffeomorphism scalar field to cosmology. We show that this scalar field can, qualitatively, act as a phantom dark energy, an inflaton, a dark matter source, and the cosmological constant Λ.
Generalized halo independent comparison of direct dark matter detection data
Nobile, Eugenio Del; Gelmini, Graciela; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu
2013-10-01
We extend the halo-independent method to compare direct dark matter detection data, so far used only for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions, to any type of interaction. As an example we apply the method to magnetic moment interactions.
General Astrophysics with TPF: Not Just Dark Energy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuchner, Marc
2006-01-01
Besides searching for Earth-LIke Planets, TPF can study Jupiters, Neptunes, and all sorts of exotic planets. It can image debris-disks, YSO disks, AGN disks, maybe even AGB disks. And you are probably aware that a large optical space telescope like TPF-C or TPF-O can be a fantastic tool for studying the equation of state of the Dark Energy. I will review some of the future science of TPF-C, TPF-I and TPF-O, focusing on the applications of TPF to the study of objects in our Galaxy: especially circumstellar disks and planets other than exo-Earths.
Interacting varying ghost dark energy models in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, Martiros; Khurshudyan, Amalya; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2015-06-01
Motivated by recent developments in Cosmology we would like to consider an extension of the Ghost DE which we will name as varying Ghost DE. Ghost DE like other models was introduced recently as a possible way to explain accelerated expansion of the Universe. For the phenomenological origin of the varying Ghost dark energy in our Universe we can suggest an existence of some unknown dynamics between the Ghost Dark energy and a fluid which evaporated completely making sense of the proposed effect. Moreover, we assume that this was in the epochs and scales which are unreachable by present-day experiments, like in very early Universe. In this study we will investigate the model for cosmological validity. We will apply observational and causality constraints to illuminate physically correct behavior of the model from the phenomenological one. We saw that an interaction between the varying Ghost DE and cold DM (CDM) also provides a solution to the cosmological coincidence problem. And we found that the Ghost DE behaves as a fluid-like matter in early Universe.
Cosmological evolution of generalized ghost pilgrim dark energy in f(T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Nazir, Kanwal
2015-12-01
We explore the phenomenon that phantom-like dark energy prevents the formation of black holes by assuming the generalized ghost version of pilgrim dark energy in the background of generalized teleparallel gravity. In this scenario, we construct f(T) model for explaining the evolutionary behavior of equation of state parameter, ω_{\\varLambda}-ω'_{\\varLambda} and r-s planes. We discuss these cosmological parameters graphically by taking different values of redshift parameter and pilgrim dark energy parameter. It is found that the equation of state parameter shows phantom like behavior while ω_{\\varLambda}-ω'_{\\varLambda} plane possesses thawing region for some particular values of pilgrim dark energy parameter. The statefinder parameters in r-s plane indicate the behavior of quintessence and phantom models. Finally, we discuss the first and second laws of thermodynamics and investigate the behavior of entropy production term.
Effects of f(G) gravity on the dynamics of self-gravitating fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat
2016-08-01
We study the dynamics of self-gravitating fluids bounded by spherically symmetric surface in the background of f ( G) gravity. The link between physical and geometrical variables, such as anisotropy, density inhomogeneity, dissipation, the Weyl tensor, expansion scalar, shear tensor and modified (Gauss-Bonnet) curvature terms, is given. We also investigate some particular fluid models according to various dynamical conditions. It is found that our results are consistent with general relativity for constant f ( G) model (regular distribution of dark energy in the universe). Any other choice of the model leads to irregular distribution of dark energy and deviates from general relativity.
Cosmological General Relativity with Scale Factor and Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Firmin J.
2014-11-01
In this paper the four-dimensional (4-D) space-velocity Cosmological General Relativity of Carmeli is developed by a general solution of the Einstein field equations. The Tolman metric is applied in the form where g μν is the metric tensor. We use comoving coordinates x α = ( x 0, x 1, x 2, x 3) = ( τv, r, θ, ϕ), where τ is the Hubble-Carmeli time constant, v is the universe expansion velocity and r, θ and ϕ are the spatial coordinates. We assume that μ and R are each functions of the coordinates τv and r. The vacuum mass density ρ Λ is defined in terms of a cosmological constant Λ, where the Carmeli gravitational coupling constant κ = 8 πG/ c 2 τ 2, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. This allows the definitions of the effective mass density and effective pressure where ρ is the mass density and p is the pressure. Then the energy-momentum tensor where u μ = (1,0,0,0) is the 4-velocity. The Einstein field equations are taken in the form where R μν is the Ricci tensor, κ = 8 πG/ c 2 τ 2 is Carmeli's gravitation constant, where G is Newton's constant and the trace T = g αβ T αβ . By solving the field equations (6) a space-velocity cosmology is obtained analogous to the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time cosmology. We choose an equation of state such that with an evolving state parameter where R v = R v ( v) is the scale factor and w 0 and w a are constants. Carmeli's 4-D space-velocity cosmology is derived as a special case.
Dynamical horizon entropy and equilibrium thermodynamics of generalized gravity theories
Wu Shaofeng; Ge Xianhui; Yang Guohong; Zhang Pengming
2010-02-15
We study the relation between the thermodynamics and field equations of generalized gravity theories on the dynamical trapping horizon with sphere symmetry. We assume the entropy of a dynamical horizon as the Noether charge associated with the Kodama vector and point out that it satisfies the second law when a Gibbs equation holds. We generalize two kinds of Gibbs equations to Gauss-Bonnet gravity on any trapping horizon. Based on the quasilocal gravitational energy found recently for f(R) gravity and scalar-tensor gravity in some special cases, we also build up the Gibbs equations, where the nonequilibrium entropy production, which is usually invoked to balance the energy conservation, is just absorbed into the modified Wald entropy in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with slowly varying horizon. Moreover, the equilibrium thermodynamic identity remains valid for f(R) gravity in a static spacetime. Our work provides an alternative treatment to reinterpret the nonequilibrium correction and supports the idea that the horizon thermodynamics is universal for generalized gravity theories.
Gauss-Bonnet cosmology unifying late and early-time acceleration eras with intermediate eras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-07-01
In this paper we demonstrate that with vacuum F(G) gravity it is possible to describe the unification of late and early-time acceleration eras with the radiation and matter domination era. The Hubble rate of the unified evolution contains two mild singularities, so called Type IV singularities, and the evolution itself has some appealing features, such as the existence of a deceleration-acceleration transition at late times. We also address quantitatively a fundamental question related to modified gravity models description of cosmological evolution: Is it possible for all modified gravity descriptions of our Universe evolution, to produce a nearly scale invariant spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations? As we demonstrate, the answer for the F(G) description is no, since the resulting power spectrum is not scale invariant, in contrast to the F(R) description studied in the literature. Therefore, although the cosmological evolution can be realized in the context of vacuum F(G) gravity, the evolution is not compatible with the observational data, in contrast to the F(R) gravity description of the same cosmological evolution.
Dark soliton pair of ultracold Fermi gases for a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation model.
Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Shuyu; Zhang, Yongsheng
2016-07-01
We present the theoretical investigation of dark soliton pair solutions for one-dimensional as well as three-dimensional generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GGPE) which models the ultracold Fermi gas during Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensates crossover. Without introducing any integrability constraint and via the self-similar approach, the three-dimensional solution of GGPE is derived based on the one-dimensional dark soliton pair solution, which is obtained through a modified F-expansion method combined with a coupled modulus-phase transformation technique. We discovered the oscillatory behavior of the dark soliton pair from the theoretical results obtained for the three-dimensional case. The calculated period agrees very well with the corresponding reported experimental result [Weller et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 130401 (2008)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.130401], demonstrating the applicability of the theoretical treatment presented in this work. PMID:27575141
Dark soliton pair of ultracold Fermi gases for a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Shuyu; Zhang, Yongsheng
2016-07-01
We present the theoretical investigation of dark soliton pair solutions for one-dimensional as well as three-dimensional generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GGPE) which models the ultracold Fermi gas during Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensates crossover. Without introducing any integrability constraint and via the self-similar approach, the three-dimensional solution of GGPE is derived based on the one-dimensional dark soliton pair solution, which is obtained through a modified F -expansion method combined with a coupled modulus-phase transformation technique. We discovered the oscillatory behavior of the dark soliton pair from the theoretical results obtained for the three-dimensional case. The calculated period agrees very well with the corresponding reported experimental result [Weller et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 130401 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.130401], demonstrating the applicability of the theoretical treatment presented in this work.
Dark-matter distributions around massive black holes: A general relativistic analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghian, Laleh; Ferrer, Francesc; Will, Clifford M.
2013-09-01
The cold dark matter at the center of a galaxy will be redistributed by the presence of a massive black hole. The redistribution may be determined using an approach pioneered by Gondolo and Silk: begin with a model distribution function for the dark matter, and “grow” the black hole adiabatically, holding the adiabatic invariants of the motion constant. Unlike the approach of Gondolo and Silk, which adopted Newtonian theory together with ad hoc correction factors to mimic general relativistic effects, we carry out the calculation fully relativistically, using the exact Schwarzschild geometry of the black hole. We find that the density of dark matter generically vanishes at r=2RS, not 4RS as found by Gondolo and Silk, where RS is the Schwarzschild radius, and that the spike very close to the black hole reaches significantly higher densities. We apply the relativistic adiabatic growth framework to obtain the final dark-matter density for both cored and cusped initial distributions. Besides the implications of these results for indirect detection estimates, we show that the gravitational effects of such a dark-matter spike are significantly smaller than the relativistic effects of the black hole, including frame dragging and quadrupolar effects, for stars orbiting close to the black hole that might be candidates for testing the black-hole no-hair theorems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Rahul; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Debnath, Ujjal
2012-02-01
This work is motivated by the work of Kim et al. (Mod. Phys. Lett. A 23:3049, 2008), which considered the equation of state parameter for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle coexisting with dark matter without interaction. In this work, we have considered the same dark energy interacting with dark matter in emergent, intermediate and logamediate scenarios of the universe. Also, we have investigated the statefinder, kerk and lerk parameters in all three scenarios under this interaction. The energy density and pressure for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle have been calculated and their behaviors have been investigated. The evolution of the equation of state parameter has been analyzed in the interacting and non-interacting situations in all the three scenarios. The graphical analysis shows that the dark energy behaves like quintessence era for logamediate expansion and phantom era for emergent and intermediate expansions of the universe.
Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de
2012-04-01
We study in this paper the scenario where the dark matter is constituted by Majorana particles which couple to a light Standard Model fermion and an extra scalar via a Yukawa coupling. In this scenario, the annihilation rate into the light fermions with the mediation of the scalar particle is strongly suppressed by the mass of the fermion. Nevertheless, the helicity suppression is lifted by the associated emission of a gauge boson, yielding annihilation rates which could be large enough to allow the indirect detection of the dark matter particles. We perform a general analysis of this scenario, calculating the annihilation cross section of the processes χχ→f f-bar V when the dark matter particle is a SU(2){sub L} singlet or doublet, f is a lepton or a quark, and V is a photon, a weak gauge boson or a gluon. We point out that the annihilation rate is particularly enhanced when the dark matter particle is degenerate in mass to the intermediate scalar particle, which is a scenario barely constrained by collider searches of exotic charged or colored particles. Lastly, we derive upper limits on the relevant cross sections from the non-observation of an excess in the cosmic antiproton-to-proton ratio measured by PAMELA.
Flat rotation curve without dark matter: the generalized Newton's law of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbab, A. I.
2015-02-01
We have shown that flat rotation curve in the framework of the generalized Newton's law of gravitation need not require dark matter. The generalized Newton's force gives rise to logarithmic potential energy at large distances from the center of the galaxy. The effect of the gravitomagnetic force is to induce the constant velocity pattern observed in flat rotation curve at very large distances from the center of the galaxy. Dynamical matter arising from moving stars far away from the center of the galaxy is shown to provide a great part to the total mass of the galaxy.
The sensitivity of BAO dark energy constraints to general isocurvature perturbations
Kasanda, S. Muya; Zunckel, C.; Moodley, K.; Bassett, B.A.; Okouma, P. E-mail: caroline.zunckel@gmail.com E-mail: bruce.a.bassett@gmail.com
2012-07-01
Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) surveys will be a leading method for addressing the dark energy challenge in the next decade. We explore in detail the effect of allowing for small amplitude admixtures of general isocurvature perturbations in addition to the dominant adiabatic mode. We find that non-adiabatic initial conditions leave the sound speed unchanged but instead excite different harmonics. These harmonics couple differently to Silk damping, altering the form and evolution of acoustic waves in the baryon-photon fluid prior to decoupling. This modifies not only the scale on which the sound waves imprint onto the baryon distribution, which is used as the standard ruler in BAO surveys, but also the shape, width and height of the BAO peak. We discuss these effects in detail and show how more general initial conditions impact our interpretation of cosmological data in dark energy studies. We find that the inclusion of these additional isocurvature modes leads to a decrease in the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (FoM) by 46% i.e., FoM{sub ISO} = 0.54 × FoM{sub AD} and 53% for the BOSS and ADEPT experiments respectively when considered in conjunction with PLANK data. We also show that the incorrect assumption of adiabaticity has the potential to bias our estimates of the dark energy parameters by 2.7σ (2.2σ) for a single correlated isocurvature mode (CDM isocurvature), and up to 4.9σ (5.7σ) for three correlated isocurvature modes in the case of the BOSS (ADEPT) experiment. We find that the use of the large scale structure data in conjunction with CMB data improves our ability to measure the contributions of different modes to the initial conditions by as much as 95% for certain modes in the fully correlated case.
Screening the fifth force in the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories
Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp
2013-08-01
We study how the Vainshtein mechanism operates in the most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order equations of motion. The field equations of motion, which can be also applicable to most of other screening scenarios proposed in literature, are generally derived in a spherically symmetric space-time with a matter source. In the presence of a field coupling to the Ricci scalar, we clarify conditions under which the Vainshtein mechanism is at work in a weak gravitational background. We also obtain the solutions of the field equation inside a spherically symmetric body and show how they can be connected to exterior solutions that accommodate the Vainshtein mechanism. We apply our general results to a number of concrete models such as the covariant/extended Galileons and the DBI Galileons with Gauss-Bonnet and other terms. In these models the fifth force can be suppressed to be compatible with solar-system constraints, provided that non-linear field kinetic terms coupled to the Einstein tensor do not dominate over other non-linear field self-interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slatyer, Tracy R.
2016-01-01
Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by Planck provide a sensitive probe of dark matter annihilation during the cosmic dark ages, and specifically constrain the annihilation parameter feff⟨σ v ⟩/mχ. Using new results (paper II) for the ionization produced by particles injected at arbitrary energies, we calculate and provide feff values for photons and e+e- pairs injected at keV-TeV energies; the feff value for any dark matter model can be obtained straightforwardly by weighting these results by the spectrum of annihilation products. This result allows the sensitive and robust constraints on dark matter annihilation presented by the Planck collaboration to be applied to arbitrary dark matter models with s -wave annihilation. We demonstrate the validity of this approach using principal component analysis. As an example, we integrate over the spectrum of annihilation products for a range of Standard Model final states to determine the CMB bounds on these models as a function of dark matter mass, and demonstrate that the new limits generically exclude models proposed to explain the observed high-energy rise in the cosmic ray positron fraction. We make our results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon.
Analysis on a general class of holographic type dark energy models
Huang, Zhuo-Peng; Wu, Yue-Liang E-mail: ylwu@itp.ac.cn
2012-07-01
We present a detail analysis on a general class of holographic type dark energy models characterized by the length scale L = 1/a{sup n}(t)∫{sub 0}{sup t}dt' a{sup m}(t'). We show that n ≥ 0 is required by the recent cosmic accelerated expansion of universe. In the early universe dominated by the constituent with constant equation of state w{sub m}, we have w{sub de} ≅ −1−2n/3 for n ≥ 0 and m < 0, and w{sub de} ≅ −(2/3)(n−m)+w{sub m} for n > m ≥ 0. The models with n > m ≥ 0 become single-parameter models like the ΛCDM model due to the analytic feature Ω{sub de} ≅ d{sup 2}/4(2m+3w{sub m}+3){sup 2}a{sup 2(n−m)} at radiation- and matter-dominated epoch. Whereas the cases n = m ≥ 0 should be abandoned as the dark energy cannot dominate the universe forever and there might be too large fraction of dark energy in early universe, and the cases m > n ≥ 0 are forbidden by the self-consistent requirement Ω{sub de} << 1 in the early universe. Thus a detailed study on the single-parameter models corresponding to cases n > m ≥ 0 is carried out by using recent observations. The best-fit analysis indicates that the conformal-age-like models with n = m+1, i.e. L∝1/Ha in early universe, are more favored and also the models with smaller n for the given n−m are found to fit the observations better. The equation of state of the dark energy in models with n = m+1 > 0 transits from w{sub de} < −1 during inflation to w{sub de} > −1 in radiation- and matter-dominated epoch, and then back to w{sub de} < −1 eventually. The best-fit result of the case (n = 0, m = −1) which is so-called ηHDE model proposed in (Huang 2012) is the most favorable model and compatible with the ΛCDM model.
Generalized ghost pilgrim dark energy in F(T,TG) cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Nazir, Kanwal
2016-07-01
This paper is devoted to study the generalized ghost pilgrim dark energy (PDE) model in F(T,TG) gravity with flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. In this scenario, we reconstruct F(T,TG) models and evaluate the corresponding equation of state (EoS) parameter for different choices of the scale factors. We assume power-law scale factor, scale factor for unification of two phases, intermediate and bouncing scale factor. We study the behavior of reconstructed models and EoS parameters graphically. It is found that all the reconstructed models show decreasing behavior for PDE parameter u = ‑2. On the other hand, the EoS parameter indicates transition from dust-like matter to phantom era for all choices of the scale factor except intermediate for which this is less than ‑ 1. We conclude that all the results are in agreement with PDE phenomenon.
Black hole hair in generalized scalar-tensor gravity: An explicit example
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-12-01
In a recent paper we showed that in shift-symmetric Horndeski theory the scalar field is forced to obtain a nontrivial configuration in black hole spacetimes, unless a linear coupling with the Gauss-Bonnet invariant is tuned away. As a result, black holes generically have hair in this theory. In this companion paper, we first review our argument and discuss it in more detail. We then present actual black hole solutions in the simplest case of a theory with the linear scalar-Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We generate exact solutions numerically for a wide range of values of the coupling and also construct analytic solutions perturbatively in the small-coupling limit. Comparison of the two types of solutions indicates that nonlinear effects that are not captured by the perturbative solution lead to a finite area, as opposed to a central, singularity. Remarkably, black holes have a minimum size, controlled by the length scale associated with the scalar-Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We also compute some phenomenological observables for the numerical solution for a wide range of values of the scalar-Gauss-Bonnet coupling. Deviations from the Schwarzschild geometry are generically very small.
Generalized dark-bright vector soliton solution to the mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manikandan, N.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Aravinthan, K.
2014-08-01
We have constructed a dark-bright N-soliton solution with 4N+3 real parameters for the physically interesting system of mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Using this as well as an asymptotic analysis we have investigated the interaction between dark-bright vector solitons. Each colliding dark-bright one-soliton at the asymptotic limits includes more coupling parameters not only in the polarization vector but also in the amplitude part. Our present solution generalizes the dark-bright soliton in the literature with parametric constraints. By exploiting the role of such coupling parameters we are able to control certain interaction effects, namely beating, breathing, bouncing, attraction, jumping, etc., without affecting other soliton parameters. Particularly, the results of the interactions between the bound state dark-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes under certain parametric choices. A similar kind of effect was also observed experimentally in the BECs. We have also characterized the solutions with complicated structure and nonobvious wrinkle to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation. It is interesting to identify that the polarization vector of the dark-bright one-soliton evolves on a spherical surface instead of a hyperboloid surface as in the bright-bright case of the mixed coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations.
Extended ΛCDM: generalized non-minimal coupling for dark matter fluids
Bettoni, Dario; Liberati, Stefano
2011-11-01
In this paper we discuss a class of models that address the issue of explaining the gravitational dynamics at the galactic scale starting from a geometric point of view. Instead of claiming the existence of some hidden coupling between dark matter and baryons, or abandoning the existence of dark matter itself, we consider the possibility that dark matter and gravity have some non trivial interaction able to modify the dynamics at astrophysical scales. This interaction is implemented assuming that dark matter gets non-minimally coupled with gravity at suitably small scales and late times. After showing the predictions of the model in the Newtonian limit we also discuss the possible origin of it non-minimal coupling. This investigation seems to suggest that phenomenological mechanisms envisaged for the dark matter dynamics, such as the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter halos, could be connected to this class of models.
General relativistic, nonstandard model for the dark sector of the Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.
2015-01-01
We present a general relativistic version of the self-gravitating fluid model for the dark sector of the Universe (darkon fluid) introduced in Stichel and Zakrzewski (Phys Rev D 80:083513, 2009) and extended and reviewed in Stichel and Zakrzewski (Entropy 15:559, 2013). This model contains no free parameters in its Lagrangian. The resulting energy-momentum tensor is dustlike with a nontrivial energy flow. In an approximation valid at sub-Hubble scales we find that the present-day cosmic acceleration is not attributed to any kind of negative pressure but it is due to a dynamically determined negative energy density. This property turns out to be equivalent to a time-dependent spatial curvature. The obtained cosmological equations, at sub-Hubble scales, agree with those of the nonrelativistic model but they are given a new physical interpretation. Furthermore, we have derived the self-consistent equation to be satisfied by the nonrelativistic gravitational potential produced by a galactic halo in our model from a weak-field limit of a generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing M(T2) to Asymmetric Event Topologies
Konar, Partha; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.
2012-04-03
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem M{sub T2} variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different 'children' particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint M{sub T2(max)} of the M{sub T2} distribution now gives the mass {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}) of the parent particles as a function of two input children masses {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)} and {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}. We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses M{sub c}{sup (a)} and M{sub c}{sup (b)}. First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum PUTM the corresponding function {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}, P{sub UTM}) is independent of P{sub UTM} at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 'kink' is now generalized to a 'ridge' on the 2-dimensional surface {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}). As we show in several examples, quite often there is a special point along that ridge which marks the true values of the children masses. Our results allow collider experiments to probe a multi-component dark matter sector directly and without any theoretical prejudice.
Phenomenology of dark energy: general features of large-scale perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pèrenon, Louis; Piazza, Federico; Marinoni, Christian; Hui, Lam
2015-11-01
We present a systematic exploration of dark energy and modified gravity models containing a single scalar field non-minimally coupled to the metric. Even though the parameter space is large, by exploiting an effective field theory (EFT) formulation and by imposing simple physical constraints such as stability conditions and (sub-)luminal propagation of perturbations, we arrive at a number of generic predictions. (1) The linear growth rate of matter density fluctuations is generally suppressed compared to ΛCDM at intermediate redshifts (0.5 lesssim z lesssim 1), despite the introduction of an attractive long-range scalar force. This is due to the fact that, in self-accelerating models, the background gravitational coupling weakens at intermediate redshifts, over-compensating the effect of the attractive scalar force. (2) At higher redshifts, the opposite happens; we identify a period of super-growth when the linear growth rate is larger than that predicted by ΛCDM. (3) The gravitational slip parameter η—the ratio of the space part of the metric perturbation to the time part—is bounded from above. For Brans-Dicke-type theories η is at most unity. For more general theories, η can exceed unity at intermediate redshifts, but not more than about 1.5 if, at the same time, the linear growth rate is to be compatible with current observational constraints. We caution against phenomenological parametrization of data that do not correspond to predictions from viable physical theories. We advocate the EFT approach as a way to constrain new physics from future large-scale-structure data.
On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, Martiros
2016-07-01
In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe (according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropriate results from Om and Om3 analysis and organize a closer look to the models via the statefinder hierarchy analysis, too. In this way we study mainly impact of the interaction on the dynamics of the background of our universe (within specific forms of interaction). To complete the cosmographic analysis, the present day values of the statefinder parameters (r,s) and (ω^'_{de}, ω_{de}) has been estimated for all cases and the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated. Our study showed that theoretical results from considered phenomenological models are consistent with the available observational data and symmetries.
Coarticulation in Catalan Dark ["l"] and the Alveolar Trill: General Implications for Sound Change
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Recasens, Daniel
2013-01-01
Coarticulation data for Catalan reveal that, while being less sensitive to vowel effects at the consonant period, the alveolar trill [r] exerts more prominent effects than [dark "l"] on both adjacent [a] and [i]. This coarticulatory pattern may be related to strict manner demands on the production of the trill. Both consonants also differ…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linder, Eric
2008-02-01
Dark energy is the name given to the unknown physics causing the current acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Whether dark energy is truly a new component of energy density or an extension of gravitational physics beyond general relativity is not yet known. From: Mattia Galiazzo Address: mattia.galiazzo@univie.ac.at Database: ast
Dark energy homogeneity in general relativity: Are we applying it correctly?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duniya, Didam G. A.
2016-04-01
Thus far, there does not appear to be an agreed (or adequate) definition of homogeneous dark energy (DE). This paper seeks to define a valid, adequate homogeneity condition for DE. Firstly, it is shown that as long as w_x ≠ -1, DE must have perturbations. It is then argued, independent of w_x, that a correct definition of homogeneous DE is one whose density perturbation vanishes in comoving gauge: and hence, in the DE rest frame. Using phenomenological DE, the consequence of this approach is then investigated in the observed galaxy power spectrum—with the power spectrum being normalized on small scales, at the present epoch z=0. It is found that for high magnification bias, relativistic corrections in the galaxy power spectrum are able to distinguish the concordance model from both a homogeneous DE and a clustering DE—on super-horizon scales.
General solution for quantitative dark-field contrast imaging with grating interferometers
Strobl, M.
2014-01-01
Grating interferometer based imaging with X-rays and neutrons has proven to hold huge potential for applications in key research fields conveying biology and medicine as well as engineering and magnetism, respectively. The thereby amenable dark-field imaging modality implied the promise to access structural information beyond reach of direct spatial resolution. However, only here a yet missing approach is reported that finally allows exploiting this outstanding potential for non-destructive materials characterizations. It enables to obtain quantitative structural small angle scattering information combined with up to 3-dimensional spatial image resolution even at lab based x-ray or at neutron sources. The implied two orders of magnitude efficiency gain as compared to currently available techniques in this regime paves the way for unprecedented structural investigations of complex sample systems of interest for material science in a vast range of fields. PMID:25430623
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ezquiaga, Jose María; García-Bellido, Juan; Zumalacárregui, Miguel
2016-07-01
We use a description based on differential forms to systematically explore the space of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Within this formalism, we propose a basis for the scalar sector at the lowest order in derivatives of the field and in any number of dimensions. This minimal basis is used to construct a finite and closed set of Lagrangians describing general scalar-tensor theories invariant under local Lorentz transformations in a pseudo-Riemannian manifold, which contains ten physically distinct elements in four spacetime dimensions. Subsequently, we compute their corresponding equations of motion and find which combinations are at most second order in derivatives in four as well as an arbitrary number of dimensions. By studying the possible exact forms (total derivatives) and algebraic relations between the basis components, we discover that there are only four Lagrangian combinations producing second-order equations, which can be associated with Horndeski's theory. In this process, we identify a new second-order Lagrangian, named kinetic Gauss-Bonnet, that was not previously considered in the literature. However, we show that its dynamics is already contained in Horndeski's theory. Finally, we provide a full classification of the relations between different second-order theories. This allows us to clarify, for instance, the connection between different covariantizations of Galileons theory. In conclusion, our formulation affords great computational simplicity with a systematic structure. As a first step, we focus on theories with second-order equations of motion. However, this new formalism aims to facilitate advances towards unveiling the most general scalar-tensor theories.
Observational bounds on modified gravity models
De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia; Wang Yun
2008-01-15
Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.
Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es
2009-07-01
The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.
Challenging the presence of scalar charge and dipolar radiation in binary pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.; Yunes, Nicolás
2016-01-01
Corrections to general relativity that introduce long-ranged scalar fields which are nonminimally coupled to curvature typically predict that neutron stars possess a nontrivial scalar field profile anchored to the star. An observer far from a star is most sensitive to the spherically symmetric piece of this profile that decays linearly with the inverse of the distance to the source, the so-called scalar monopole charge, which is related to the emission of dipolar radiation from compact binary systems. The presence of dipolar radiation has the potential to rule out or very strongly constrain extended theories of gravity. These facts may lead people to believe that gravitational theories that introduce long-ranged scalar fields have already been constrained strongly from binary pulsar observations. Here we challenge this "lore" by investigating the decoupling limit of Gauss-Bonnet gravity as an example, in which the scalar field couples linearly to the Gauss-Bonnet density in the action. We prove a theorem that neutron stars in this theory cannot possess a scalar charge, due to the topological nature of the Gauss-Bonnet density. Thus Gauss-Bonnet gravity evades the strong binary pulsar constraints on dipole radiation. We discuss the astrophysical systems which will yield the best constraints on Gauss-Bonnet gravity and related quadratic gravity theories. To achieve this we compute the scalar charge in quadratic gravity theories by performing explicit analytic and numerical matching calculations for slowly rotating neutron stars. In generic quadratic gravity theories, either neutron star-binary or neutron star-black hole systems can be used to constrain the theory, but because of the vanishing charge, Gauss-Bonnet gravity evades the neutron star-binary constraints. However, in contrast to neutron stars, black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity do anchor scalar charge, because of the difference in topology. The best constraints on Gauss-Bonnet gravity will thus come from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Karimkhani, Elahe; Solà, Joan
2015-12-01
We determine the Hubble expansion and the general cosmic perturbation equations for a general system consisting of self-conserved matter, ρm, and self-conserved dark energy (DE), ρD. While at the background level the two components are non-interacting, they do interact at the perturbations level. We show that the coupled system of matter and DE perturbations can be transformed into a single, third order, matter perturbation equation, which reduces to the (derivative of the) standard one in the case that the DE is just a cosmological constant. As a nontrivial application we analyze a class of dynamical models whose DE density ρD(H) consists of a constant term, C0, and a series of powers of the Hubble rate. These models were previously analyzed from the point of view of dynamical vacuum models, but here we treat them as self-conserved DE models with a dynamical equation of state. We fit them to the wealth of expansion history and linear structure formation data and compare their fit quality with that of the concordance ΛCDM model. Those with C0=0 include the so-called ``entropic-force'' and ``QCD-ghost'' DE models, as well as the pure linear model ρD~H, all of which appear strongly disfavored. The models with C0≠0 , in contrast, emerge as promising dynamical DE candidates whose phenomenological performance is highly competitive with the rigid Λ-term inherent to the ΛCDM.
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.
2005-12-15
We study the general properties of a spherically symmetric body described through the generalized Chaplygin equation of state. We conclude that such an object, dubbed generalized Chaplygin dark star, should exist within the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model of unification of dark energy and dark matter, and derive expressions for its size and expansion velocity. A criteria for the survival of the perturbations in the GCG background that give origin to the dark star are developed, and its main features are analyzed.
QCD ghost reconstruction of f(G) gravity and its thermodynamic consequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Surajit
2016-07-01
In the present study we have presented a reconstruction scheme for f(G) gravity, where G represents Gauss-Bonnet invariant and we have chosen the scale factor in power-law form. It should be mentioned that f(G) gravity is not ``ad hoc" but comes out from the problem of non-local gravity theories. The works of Capozziello et al. (2013, 2014) need to be mentioned in this context. Capozziello et al. (2013) studied the Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraints in view to recover realistic dark energy behaviors and could recover the so-called Little Rip cosmology. Capozziello et al. (2014) built several solutions for F(R) + F(G) gravity with matter, but without Lagrange multipliers. In the present work, considering a flat FRW universe, we have considered a correspondence between f(G) gravity and QCD ghost dark energy. After getting a reconstructed solution for f(G) we have plotted f(G) against G, where it is apparent that f(G)→ 0 as G→ 0, which is one of the sufficient conditions for a realistic model. We have plotted the effective equation of state parameter for n>1 and observed that w_{eff}≥ -1 i.e. it behaves like quintessence. For n≈ 2, w_{eff} is reaching -1 at late stage of the universe. However, it is not crossing the phantom boundary. Subsequently, considering dynamical apparent horizon as the enveloping horizon of the universe we have derived expression for the time derivative of total entropy dot{S}_{total} and we have observed that dot{S}_{total}>0 throughout the evolution of the universe. This indicated validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics under this reconstruction of f(G) gravity. References: Capozziello, S., Francaviglia, M., Makarenko, A. N.: Astrophys. Space Sci., 603 (2014) Capozziello, S., Makarenko, A. N., Odintsov, S. D.: Phys. Rev. D, 87 084037 (2013)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2012-10-01
The 28th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union in Beijing was an effective and enjoyable forum for presenting and discussing research, including the announcement of measures to preserve dark skies, rationalize definitions and units of measurement and a new focus on outreach for the IAU itself. The IAU GA saw the launch of a joint UNESCO-IAU project to bring the world's astronomical heritage to a wider audience.
Holanda, R.F.L.; Lima, J.A.S.; Cunha, J.V.; Marassi, L. E-mail: jvcunha@ufpa.br E-mail: limajas@astro.iag.usp.br
2012-02-01
In accelerating dark energy models, the estimates of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters may depend on the matter content (Ω{sub M}), the curvature (Ω{sub K}) and the equation of state parameter (ω). In this article, by using a sample of 25 angular diameter distances of galaxy clusters described by the elliptical β model obtained through the SZE/X-ray technique, we constrain H{sub 0} in the framework of a general ΛCDM model (arbitrary curvature) and a flat XCDM model with a constant equation of state parameter ω = p{sub x}/ρ{sub x}. In order to avoid the use of priors in the cosmological parameters, we apply a joint analysis involving the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the CMB Shift Parameter signature. By taking into account the statistical and systematic errors of the SZE/X-ray technique we obtain for nonflat ΛCDM model H{sub 0} = 74{sup +5.0}{sub −4.0} km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}(1σ) whereas for a flat universe with constant equation of state parameter we find H{sub 0} = 72{sup +5.5}{sub −4.0} km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}(1σ). By assuming that galaxy clusters are described by a spherical β model these results change to H{sub 0} = 62{sup +8.0}{sub −7.0} and H{sub 0} = 59{sup +9.0}{sub −6.0} km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}(1σ), respectively. The results from elliptical description are in good agreement with independent studies from the Hubble Space Telescope key project and recent estimates based on the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, thereby suggesting that the combination of these three independent phenomena provides an interesting method to constrain the Hubble constant. As an extra bonus, the adoption of the elliptical description is revealed to be a quite realistic assumption. Finally, by comparing these results with a recent determination for a flat ΛCDM model using only the SZE/X-ray technique and BAO, we see that the geometry has a very weak
Carroll, Sean
2006-11-13
General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.
Professor Sean Carroll
2010-01-08
General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.
The darkness of spin-0 dark radiation
Marsh, M.C. David
2015-01-01
We show that the scattering of a general spin-0 sector of dark radiation off the pre-recombination thermal plasma results in undetectably small spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew
2013-05-24
We point out that current constraints on dark matter imply only that the majority of dark matter is cold and collisionless. A subdominant fraction of dark matter could have much stronger interactions. In particular, it could interact in a manner that dissipates energy, thereby cooling into a rotationally supported disk, much as baryons do. We call this proposed new dark matter component double-disk dark matter (DDDM). We argue that DDDM could constitute a fraction of all matter roughly as large as the fraction in baryons, and that it could be detected through its gravitational effects on the motion of stars in galaxies, for example. Furthermore, if DDDM can annihilate to gamma rays, it would give rise to an indirect detection signal distributed across the sky that differs dramatically from that predicted for ordinary dark matter. DDDM and more general partially interacting dark matter scenarios provide a large unexplored space of testable new physics ideas. PMID:23745856
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weston, Anthony
2014-01-01
Environmentalism's wider and wilder possibilities today appear as regions of seeming darkness that bracket or frame acceptable environmental thinking. One of these barely-mentionable darknesses is outer space--the cosmos. Another is the inner and chthonic powers of the land and natural beings generally. This essay aims to bring these two kinds of…
Felice, Antonio De; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp
2012-02-01
In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, we derive the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with scalar, tensor, and vector perturbations in the presence of two perfect fluids on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. Our general results are useful for the construction of theoretically consistent models of dark energy. We apply our formulas to extended Galileon models in which a tracker solution with an equation of state smaller than -1 is present. We clarify the allowed parameter space in which the ghosts and Laplacian instabilities are absent and we numerically confirm that such models are indeed cosmologically viable.
The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.
Spergel, David N
2015-03-01
A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. PMID:25745164
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2006-08-01
The unifying approach to early-time and late-time universe based on phantom cosmology is proposed. We consider gravity-scalar system which contains usual potential and scalar coupling function in front of kinetic term. As a result, the possibility of phantom-non-phantom transition appears in such a way that universe could have effectively phantom equation of state at early time as well as at late time. In fact, the oscillating universe may have several phantom and non-phantom phases. Role in each of two phase and can be absorbed into the redefinition of the scalar field. Right on the transition point, however, the factor cannot be absorbed into the redefinition and play the role to connect two phases smoothly. Holographic dark energy where infrared cutoff is identified with combination of FRW parameters: Hubble constant, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant and universe life-time (if finite). Depending on the specific choice of the model the number of interesting effects occur: the possibility to solve the coincidence problem, crossing of phantom divide and unification of early-time inflationary and late-time accelerating phantom universe. The bound for holographic entropy which decreases in phantom era is also discussed.
Joseph Silk
2010-01-08
One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.
Joseph Silk
2009-09-23
One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.
Composite millicharged dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouvaris, Chris
2013-07-01
We study a composite millicharged dark matter model. The dark matter is in the form of pionlike objects emerging from a higher scale QCD-like theory. We present two distinct possibilities with interesting phenomenological consequences based on the choice of the parameters. In the first one, the dark matter is produced nonthermally, and it could potentially account for the 130 GeV Fermi photon line via decays of the “dark pions.” We estimate the self-interaction cross section, which might play an important role both in changing the dark matter halo profile at the center of the galaxy and in making the dark matter warmer. In the second version the dark matter is produced via the freeze-in mechanism. Finally we impose all possible astrophysical, cosmological and experimental constraints. We study in detail generic constraints on millicharged dark matter that can arise from anomalous isotope searches of different elements and we show why constraints based on direct searches from underground detectors are not generally valid.
Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk
2012-06-01
We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steigman, Gary
The observational evidence for dark matter in the universe is reviewed. Constraints on the baryon density from primordial nucleosynthesis are presented and compared to the dynamical estimates of the mass on various scales. Baryons can account for the observed luminous mass as well as some, perhaps most, of the 'observed' dark mass. However if, as inflation/naturalness suggest, the total density of the universe is equal to the critical density, then nonbaryonic dark matter is required. The assets and liabilities of, as well as the candidates for, hot and cold dark matter are outlined. At present, there is no completely satisfactory candidate for nonbaryonic dark matter.
Marston, P L; Kaduchak, G
1994-07-20
Oblate drops of water can produce caustics where, unlike a simple Airy caustic, more than two rays merge. We extend previous treatments of generalized primary rainbows based on catastrophe optics [Opt. Lett. 10, 588 (1985); Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 438, 397 (1992)] to rays having (p - 1) = 2 to 5 internal reflections. The analysis is for a horizontally illuminated ellipsoid with a vertical symmetry axis. Aspect ratios causing a vanishing of the vertical curvature at the equator for the outgoing wave front are found from generalized ray tracing. In response to infinitesimal deformation, the axial caustic of real glory rays unfolds producing cusps. Laboratory observations with laser illumination demonstrate that cusps resulting from rays with five internal reflections extend into Alexander's dark band when the drop's aspect ratio is near 1.08. The evolution of this p = 6 scattering pattern as cusps meet the quinary rainbow is suggestive of an E(6) catastrophe. For ellipsoids of varying aspect ratio and refractive index N, there is an organizing singularity associated with an exceptionally flat outgoing wave front from spheres with N = p. PMID:20935841
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubinski, John Joseph
The dark halos arising in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmology are simulated to investigate the relationship between the structure and kinematics of dark halos and galaxies. Realistic cosmological initial conditions and tidal field boundary conditions are used in N-body simulations of the collapse of density peaks to form dark halos. The core radii of dark halos are no greater than the softening radius, rs = 1.4 kpc. The density profiles can be fit with an analytical Hernquist (1990) profile with an effective power law which varies between -1 in the center to -4 at large radii. The rotation curves of dark halos resemble the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies in the observed range, 1.5 approximately less than r approximately less than 30 kpc. The halos are strongly triaxial and very flat with (c/a) = 0.50 and (b/a) = 0.71. The distribution of ellipticities for dark halos reaches a maximum at epsilon = 0.5 in contrast to the distribution for elliptical galaxies which peaks at epsilon = 0.2 suggesting that ellipticals are much rounder than dark halos. Dark halos are generally flatter than their progenitor density peaks. The final shape and orientation of a dark halo are largely determined by tidal torquing and are sensitive to changes in the strength and orientation of a tidal field. Dark halos are pressure supported objects with negligible rotational support as indicated by the mean dimensionless spin, lamda = 0.042 +/- 0.024. The angular momentum vector tends to align with the true minor axis of dark halos. Elliptical galaxies have a similar behavior implied by the observation of the tendency for alignment of the rotation vector and the apparent minor axis. The origin of this behavior may be traced to the tendency for tidal torques to misalign with the major axis of a density peak. Tidal torques are found to isotropize the velocity ellipsoids of dark halos at large radii, contrary to the expectation of radially anisotropic velocity ellipsoids in cold collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Knox
2011-10-01
The goal of the Guard Dark program is to collect WFC3/IR dark current data prior to each visit in two of the Multi-Cycle Treasury {MCT} programs in Cycle 19. By scheduling a dark current observation between the last pre-MCT observation and the first MCT visit, we will be able to measure any residual persistent signal resulting from the former which may affect the latter.
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2009-09-15
Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Shi-Dong; Harko, Tiberiu
2015-04-01
Based on the analogy with superconductor physics we consider a scalar-vector-tensor gravitational model, in which the dark energy action is described by a gauge invariant electromagnetic type functional. By assuming that the ground state of the dark energy is in a form of a condensate with the U(1) symmetry spontaneously broken, the gauge invariant electromagnetic dark energy can be described in terms of the combination of a vector and of a scalar field (corresponding to the Goldstone boson), respectively. The gravitational field equations are obtained by also assuming the possibility of a nonminimal coupling between the cosmological mass current and the superconducting dark energy. The cosmological implications of the dark energy model are investigated for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker homogeneous and isotropic geometry for two particular choices of the electromagnetic type potential, corresponding to a pure electric type field, and to a pure magnetic field, respectively. The time evolutions of the scale factor, matter energy density and deceleration parameter are obtained for both cases, and it is shown that in the presence of the superconducting dark energy the Universe ends its evolution in an exponentially accelerating vacuum de Sitter state. By using the formalism of the irreversible thermodynamic processes for open systems we interpret the generalized conservation equations in the superconducting dark energy model as describing matter creation. The particle production rates, the creation pressure and the entropy evolution are explicitly obtained.
On dark energy isocurvature perturbation
Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin; Li, Mingzhe E-mail: limz@nju.edu.cn
2011-06-01
Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data.
Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.
2008-07-02
One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter.
Alternatives to dark matter and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannheim, Philip D.
2006-04-01
We review the underpinnings of the standard Newton Einstein theory of gravity, and identify where it could possibly go wrong. In particular, we discuss the logical independence from each other of the general covariance principle, the equivalence principle and the Einstein equations, and discuss how to constrain the matter energy momentum tensor which serves as the source of gravity. We identify the a priori assumption of the validity of standard gravity on all distance scales as the root cause of the dark matter and dark energy problems, and discuss how the freedom currently present in gravitational theory can enable us to construct candidate alternatives to the standard theory in which the dark matter and dark energy problems could then be resolved. We identify three generic aspects of these alternate approaches: that it is a universal acceleration scale which determines when a luminous Newtonian expectation is to fail to fit data, that there is a global cosmological effect on local galactic motions which can replace galactic dark matter, and that to solve the cosmological constant problem it is not necessary to quench the cosmological constant itself, but only the amount by which it gravitates.
Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation
Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo E-mail: enfmarti@cern.ch E-mail: redondo@mppmu.mpg.de
2012-07-01
Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum.
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D
2016-01-22
We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model. PMID:26849584
Dark matter and dark radiation
Ackerman, Lotty; Buckley, Matthew R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc
2009-01-15
We explore the feasibility and astrophysical consequences of a new long-range U(1) gauge field ('dark electromagnetism') that couples only to dark matter, not to the standard model. The dark matter consists of an equal number of positive and negative charges under the new force, but annihilations are suppressed if the dark-matter mass is sufficiently high and the dark fine-structure constant {alpha}-circumflex is sufficiently small. The correct relic abundance can be obtained if the dark matter also couples to the conventional weak interactions, and we verify that this is consistent with particle-physics constraints. The primary limit on {alpha}-circumflex comes from the demand that the dark matter be effectively collisionless in galactic dynamics, which implies {alpha}-circumflex < or approx. 10{sup -3} for TeV-scale dark matter. These values are easily compatible with constraints from structure formation and primordial nucleosynthesis. We raise the prospect of interesting new plasma effects in dark-matter dynamics, which remain to be explored.
Thermodynamics of dark energy interacting with dark matter and radiation
Jamil, Mubasher; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M. R.
2010-01-15
We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics, in the cosmological scenario where dark energy interacts with both dark matter and radiation. Calculating separately the entropy variation for each fluid component and for the apparent horizon itself, we show that the generalized second law is always and generally valid, independently of the specific interaction form, of the fluids equation-of-state parameters and of the background geometry.
Nearly Supersymmetric Dark Atoms
Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Jankowiak, Martin; Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.
2011-01-01
Theories of dark matter that support bound states are an intriguing possibility for the identity of the missing mass of the Universe. This article proposes a class of models of supersymmetric composite dark matter where the interactions with the Standard Model communicate supersymmetry breaking to the dark sector. In these models, supersymmetry breaking can be treated as a perturbation on the spectrum of bound states. Using a general formalism, the spectrum with leading supersymmetry effects is computed without specifying the details of the binding dynamics. The interactions of the composite states with the Standard Model are computed, and several benchmarkmore » models are described. General features of nonrelativistic supersymmetric bound states are emphasized.« less
Nearly Supersymmetric Dark Atoms
Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Jankowiak, Martin; Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP
2011-08-12
Theories of dark matter that support bound states are an intriguing possibility for the identity of the missing mass of the Universe. This article proposes a class of models of supersymmetric composite dark matter where the interactions with the Standard Model communicate supersymmetry breaking to the dark sector. In these models supersymmetry breaking can be treated as a perturbation on the spectrum of bound states. Using a general formalism, the spectrum with leading supersymmetry effects is computed without specifying the details of the binding dynamics. The interactions of the composite states with the Standard Model are computed and several benchmark models are described. General features of non-relativistic supersymmetric bound states are emphasized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahcall, Neta A.
2015-10-01
Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter-a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations-from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology-a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)-fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.
Bahcall, Neta A
2015-10-01
Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091
Bahcall, Neta A.
2015-01-01
Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lincoln, Don
2013-01-01
It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Moniz, Paulo Vargas; Tavakoli, Yaser E-mail: tavakoli@ubi.pt
2010-04-01
An induced gravity brane-world model is considered herein. A Gauss-Bonnet term is provided for the bulk, whereas phantom matter is present on the brane. It is shown that a combination of infra-red and ultra-violet modifications to general relativity replaces a big rip singularity: A sudden singularity emerges instead. Using current observational data, we also determine a range of values for the cosmic time corresponding to the sudden singularity occurrence.
Slagter, R. J.
2010-06-23
We present a cosmic string solution in Einstein-Yang-Mills Gauss-Bonnet theory on a warped 5 dimensional space-time conform the Randall-Sundrum-2 theory. In a simplipied model, we find an exact solutions with exponential decreasing or periodic warp function. In a more general setting, where the metric- and Yang-Mills components depend on both scales and one of the YM components resides in the bulk, we find a time dependent numerical solution.
Constraint-Free Theories of Gravitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estabrook, Frank B.; Robinson, R. Steve; Wahlquist, Hugo D.
1998-01-01
Lovelock actions (more precisely, extended Gauss-Bonnet forms) when varied as Cartan forms on subspaces of higher dimensional flat Riemannian manifolds, generate well set, causal exterior differential systems. In particular, the Einstein- Hilbert action 4-form, varied on a 4 dimensional subspace of E(sub 10) yields a well set generalized theory of gravity having no constraints. Rcci-flat solutions are selected by initial conditions on a bounding 3-space.
Karami, K.
2010-01-01
Author of ref. 1, M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023), by redefining the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon as the system's IR cut-off for an interacting holographic dark energy model in a non-flat universe, showed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the deceleration parameter. His paper includes an erroneous calculation of the entropy of the cold dark matter. Also there are some missing terms and some misprints in the equations of his paper. Here we present that his conclusion is not true and the generalized second law is violated for the present time independently of the deceleration parameter.
Modified Actions for Gravity: Theory and Phenomenology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.
2007-10-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of gravitational theories which can be seen as modifications or generalisations of General Relativity. The motivation for considering such theories, stemming from Cosmology, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics is thoroughly discussed (cosmological problems, dark energy and dark matter problems, the lack of success so far in obtaining a successful formulation for Quantum Gravity). The basic principles which a gravitational theory should follow, and their geometrical interpretation, are analysed in a broad perspective which highlights the basic assumptions of General Relativity and suggests possible modifications which might be made. A number of such possible modifications are presented, focusing on certain specific classes of theories: scalar-tensor theories, metric f(R) theories, Palatini f(R) theories, metric-affine f(R) theories and Gauss--Bonnet theories. The characteristics of these theories are fully explored and attention is payed to issues of dynamical equivalence between them. Also, cosmological phenomenology within the realm of each of the theories is discussed and it is shown that they can potentially address the well-known cosmological problems. A number of viability criteria are presented: cosmological observations, Solar System tests, stability criteria, existence of exact solutions for common vacuum or matter configurations etc. Finally, future perspectives in the field of modified gravity are discussed and the possibility for going beyond a trial-and-error approach to modified gravity is explored.
Solar System Test for Alternative Gravity Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bustos, Richard
2015-04-01
Over the past year I've worked with Dr. Biswas and Dr.Brans from Loyola University, on different aspects of General relativity. More recently we have been focusing on particle and photon orbits in Schwarzschild-like metric which is relevant to understand observations such as photon deflection and perihelion precession of Mercury. These observations can be used to test alternative gravity theories, such as f(R) Theories. Such solar system tests have proved extremely useful to constrain alternative theories of gravity, such as f(R) theories that try to solve the dark energy problem. While so far most theorists have focused on the simplest f(R) type of modification of gravity to realize the phase of late time cosmic speed-up that we are observing, there are several other viable candidates. In particular, many ``effective'' approaches to gravity gives rise to f(R,G) type of modifications, where G is the Gauss Bonnet term. Accordingly, we are currently trying to understand how solar system tests can constrain this more general class of f(R,G) dark energy models. In my talk I will present our progress in this direction. NSF Grant
Scalar graviton as dark matter
Pirogov, Yu. F.
2015-06-15
The basics of the theory of unimodular bimode gravity built on the principles of unimodular gauge invariance/relativity and general covariance are exposed. Besides the massless tensor graviton of General Relativity, the theory includes an (almost) massless scalar graviton treated as the gravitational dark matter. A spherically symmetric vacuum solution describing the coherent scalar-graviton field for the soft-core dark halos, with the asymptotically flat rotation curves, is demonstrated as an example.
Do neutrinos contribute to total dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manihar Singh, Koijam; Mahanta, K. L.
2016-02-01
From a critical study of our present universe it is found that dark energy, and of course, dark matter are there in the universe from the beginning of its evolution manifesting in one form or the other. The different forms contained in our model are found to be generalized Chaplygin gas, quintessence and phantom energy; of course, the generalized Chaplygin gas can explain the origin of dark energy as well as dark matter in our universe simultaneously. However the more beauty in our study is that there is high possibility of the energy produced from the neutrinos might contribute to the dark energy prevalent in this universe.
Chakraborty, Sushmita; Nandy, Sudipta; Barthakur, Abhijit
2015-02-01
We investigate coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLSEs) with variable coefficients and gain. The coupled NLSE is a model equation for optical soliton propagation and their interaction in a multimode fiber medium or in a fiber array. By using Hirota's bilinear method, we obtain the bright-bright, dark-bright combinations of a one-soliton solution (1SS) and two-soliton solutions (2SS) for an n-coupled NLSE with variable coefficients and gain. Crucial properties of two-soliton (dark-bright pair) interactions, such as elastic and inelastic interactions and the dynamics of soliton bound states, are studied using asymptotic analysis and graphical analysis. We show that a bright 2-soliton, in addition to elastic interactions, also exhibits multiple inelastic interactions. A dark 2-soliton, on the other hand, exhibits only elastic interactions. We also observe a breatherlike structure of a bright 2-soliton, a feature that become prominent with gain and disappears as the amplitude acquires a minimum value, and after that the solitons remain parallel. The dark 2-soliton, however, remains parallel irrespective of the gain. The results found by us might be useful for applications in soliton control, a fiber amplifier, all optical switching, and optical computing. PMID:25768629
Statistical modeling of the fluid dual to Boulware-Deser black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, J. L.; Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2016-07-01
In this work we study the statistical and thermodynamic properties of the horizon fluid corresponding to the Boulware-Deser (BD) black hole of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Using mean field theory, we show explicitly that the BD fluid exhibits the coexistence of two phases, a BEC (Bose Einstein Condensate) and a noncondensed phase corresponding to the Einstein term and the Gauss-Bonnet term in the gravity action, respectively. In the fluid description, the high-energy corrections associated to Gauss-Bonnet gravity are modeled as excitations of the fluid medium. We provide statistical modeling of the excited part of the fluid and explicitly show that it is characterized by a generalized dispersion relation which in D =6 dimensions corresponds to a nonrelativistic fluid. We also shed light on the ambiguity found in the literature regarding the expression of the entropy of the horizon fluid. We provide a general prescription to obtain the entropy and show that it is indeed given by Wald entropy.
Variable G Corrections to Statefinder Parameters of Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Mubasher
2010-11-01
Motivated by several observational and theoretical developments concerning the variability of Newton’s gravitational constant with time G( t), we calculate the varying G correction to the statefinder parameters for four models of dark energy namely interacting dark energy holographic dark energy, new-agegraphic dark energy and generalized Chaplygin gas.
Thermodynamics of interacting holographic dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arevalo, Fabiola; Cifuentes, Paulo; Peña, Francisco
2016-01-01
The thermodynamics of a scheme of dark matter-dark energy interaction is studied considering a holographic model for the dark energy in a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background. We obtain a total entropy rate for a general horizon and we study the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics for a cosmological interaction as a free function. Additionally, we discuss two horizons related to the Ricci and Ricci-like model and its effect on an interacting system.
Gurwich, Ilya
2010-06-23
1 construct a general description for neutrino dark energy models, that do not require exotic particles or strange couplings. With the help of the above, this class of models is reduced to a single function with several constraints. It is shown that these models lead to some concrete predictions that can be verified (or disproved) within the next decade, using results from PLANK, EUCLID and JDEM.
Peebles, P James E
2015-10-01
The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526
Peebles, P. James E.
2015-01-01
The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.
2015-07-30
We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto
2016-04-01
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.
2016-01-22
We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUTmore » or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.« less
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel
2016-01-22
Here, we describe a general scenario, dubbed “inflatable dark matter,” in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levelsmore » without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.« less
Unified cosmic history in modified gravity: From F(R) theory to Lorentz non-invariant models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nojiri, Shin'Ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2011-08-01
The classical generalization of general relativity is considered as the gravitational alternative for a unified description of the early-time inflation with late-time cosmic acceleration. The structure and cosmological properties of a number of modified theories, including traditional F(R) and Hořava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity, scalar-tensor theory, string-inspired and Gauss-Bonnet theory, non-local gravity, non-minimally coupled models, and power-counting renormalizable covariant gravity are discussed. Different representations of and relations between such theories are investigated. It is shown that some versions of the above theories may be consistent with local tests and may provide a qualitatively reasonable unified description of inflation with the dark energy epoch. The cosmological reconstruction of different modified gravities is provided in great detail. It is demonstrated that eventually any given universe evolution may be reconstructed for the theories under consideration, and the explicit reconstruction is applied to an accelerating spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. Special attention is paid to Lagrange multiplier constrained and conventional F(R) gravities, for latter F(R) theory, the effective ΛCDM era and phantom divide crossing acceleration are obtained. The occurrences of the Big Rip and other finite-time future singularities in modified gravity are reviewed along with their solutions via the addition of higher-derivative gravitational invariants.
Analysis of dark matter and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yongquan, Han
2016-05-01
As the law of unity of opposites of the Philosophy tells us, the bright material exists, the dark matter also exists. Dark matter and dark energy should allow the law of unity of opposites. The Common attributes of the matter is radiation, then common attributes of dark matter must be absorb radiation. Only the rotation speed is lower than the speed of light radiation, can the matter radiate, since the speed of the matter is lower than the speed of light, so the matter is radiate; The rotate speed of the dark matter is faster than the light , so the dark matter doesn't radiate, it absorbs radiation. The energy that the dark matter absorb radiation produced (affect the measurement of time and space distribution of variations) is dark energy, so the dark matter produce dark energy only when it absorbs radiation. Dark matter does not radiate, two dark matters does not exist inevitably forces, and also no dark energy. Called the space-time ripples, the gravitational wave is bent radiation, radiation particles should be graviton, graviton is mainly refers to the radiation particles whose wavelength is small. Dark matter, dark energy also confirms the existence of the law of symmetry.
Dark matter and global symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.
2016-09-01
General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O (1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime.
Composite strongly interacting dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cline, James M.; Liu, Zuowei; Moore, Guy D.; Xue, Wei
2014-07-01
It has been suggested that cold dark matter (CDM) has difficulties in explaining tentative evidence for noncuspy halo profiles in small galaxies, and the low velocity dispersions observed in the largest Milky Way satellites ("too-big-to-fail" problem). Strongly self-interacting dark matter has been noted as a robust solution to these problems. The elastic cross sections required are much larger than predicted by generic CDM models, but could naturally be of the right size if dark matter is composite. We explore in a general way the constraints on models where strongly interacting CDM is in the form of dark "atoms" or "molecules," or bound states of a confining gauge interaction ("hadrons"). These constraints include considerations of relic density, direct detection, big bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background, and LHC data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew
2013-09-01
Based on observational tests of large scale structure and constraints on halo structure, dark matter is generally taken to be cold and essentially collisionless. On the other hand, given the large number of particles and forces in the visible world, a more complex dark sector could be a reasonable or even likely possibility. This hypothesis leads to testable consequences, perhaps portending the discovery of a rich hidden world neighboring our own. We consider a scenario that readily satisfies current bounds that we call Partially Interacting Dark Matter (PIDM). This scenario contains self-interacting dark matter, but it is not the dominant component. Even if PIDM contains only a fraction of the net dark matter density, comparable to the baryonic fraction, the subdominant component’s interactions can lead to interesting and potentially observable consequences. Our primary focus will be the special case of Double-Disk Dark Matter (DDDM), in which self-interactions allow the dark matter to lose enough energy to lead to dynamics similar to those in the baryonic sector. We explore a simple model in which DDDM can cool efficiently and form a disk within galaxies, and we evaluate some of the possible observational signatures. The most prominent signal of such a scenario could be an enhanced indirect detection signature with a distinctive spatial distribution. Even though subdominant, the enhanced density at the center of the galaxy and possibly throughout the plane of the galaxy (depending on precise alignment) can lead to large boost factors, and could even explain a signature as large as the 130 GeV Fermi line. Such scenarios also predict additional dark radiation degrees of freedom that could soon be detectable and would influence the interpretation of future data, such as that from Planck and from the Gaia satellite. We consider this to be the first step toward exploring a rich array of new possibilities for dark matter dynamics.
Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories
Catena, Riccardo
2015-07-20
We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF{sub 4}, CS{sub 2} and {sup 3}He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cembranos, J. A. R.; Dobado, A.; Maroto, A. L.
Extra-dimensional theories contain additional degrees of freedom related to the geometry of the extra space which can be interpreted as new particles. Such theories allow to reformulate most of the fundamental problems of physics from a completely different point of view. In this essay, we concentrate on the brane fluctuations which are present in brane-worlds, and how such oscillations of the own space-time geometry along curved extra dimensions can help to resolve the Universe missing mass problem. The energy scales involved in these models are low compared to the Planck scale, and this means that some of the brane fluctuations distinctive signals could be detected in future colliders and in direct or indirect dark matter searches.
Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland
2010-01-08
Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapone, Domenico
In this paper we review a part of the approaches that have been considered to explain the extraordinary discovery of the late time acceleration of the Universe. We discuss the arguments that have led physicists and astronomers to accept dark energy as the current preferable candidate to explain the acceleration. We highlight the problems and the attempts to overcome the difficulties related to such a component. We also consider alternative theories capable of explaining the acceleration of the Universe, such as modification of gravity. We compare the two approaches and point out the observational consequences, reaching the sad but foresightful conclusion that we will not be able to distinguish between a Universe filled by dark energy or a Universe where gravity is different from General Relativity. We review the present observations and discuss the future experiments that will help us to learn more about our Universe. This is not intended to be a complete list of all the dark energy models but this paper should be seen as a review on the phenomena responsible for the acceleration. Moreover, in a landscape of hardly compelling theories, it is an important task to build simple measurable parameters useful for future experiments that will help us to understand more about the evolution of the Universe.
Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun
2009-10-15
Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.
Chapline, G
2005-03-08
Event horizons and closed time-like curves cannot exist in the real world for the simple reason that they are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. Following ideas originated by Robert Laughlin, Pawel Mazur, Emil Mottola, David Santiago, and the speaker it is now possible to describe in some detail what happens physically when one approaches and crosses a region of space-time where classical general relativity predicts there should be an infinite red shift surface. This quantum critical physics provides a new perspective on a variety of enigmatic astrophysical phenomena including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, positron emission, and dark matter.
Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction
Jamil, Mubasher; Farooq, M. Umar E-mail: mufarooq@yahoo.com
2010-03-01
The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Employing this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy.
Constraining dark energy fluctuations with supernova correlations
Blomqvist, Michael; Enander, Jonas; Mörtsell, Edvard E-mail: enander@fysik.su.se
2010-10-01
We investigate constraints on dark energy fluctuations using type Ia supernovae. If dark energy is not in the form of a cosmological constant, that is if the equation of state w≠−1, we expect not only temporal, but also spatial variations in the energy density. Such fluctuations would cause local variations in the universal expansion rate and directional dependences in the redshift-distance relation. We present a scheme for relating a power spectrum of dark energy fluctuations to an angular covariance function of standard candle magnitude fluctuations. The predictions for a phenomenological model of dark energy fluctuations are compared to observational data in the form of the measured angular covariance of Hubble diagram magnitude residuals for type Ia supernovae in the Union2 compilation. The observational result is consistent with zero dark energy fluctuations. However, due to the limitations in statistics, current data still allow for quite general dark energy fluctuations as long as they are in the linear regime.
Beyond vanilla dark matter: New channels in the multifaceted search for dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaylali, David E.
Though we are extremely confident that non-baryonic dark matter exists in our universe, very little is known about its fundamental nature or its relationship with the Standard Model. Guided by theoretical motivations, a desire for generality in our experimental strategies, and a certain amount of hopeful optimism, we have established a basic framework and set of assumptions about the dark sector which we are now actively testing. After years of probing the parameter spaces of these vanilla dark-matter scenarios, through a variety of different search channels, a conclusive direct (non-gravitational) discovery of dark matter eludes us. This very well may suggest that our first-order expectations of the dark sector are too simplistic. This work describes two ways in which we can expand the experimental reach of vanilla dark-matter scenarios while maintaining the model-independent generality which is at this point still warranted. One way in which this is done is to consider coupling structures between the SM and the dark sector other than the two canonical types --- scalar and axial-vector --- leading to spin dependent and independent interactions at direct-detection experiments. The second way we generalize the vanilla scenarios is to consider multi-component dark sectors. We find that both of these generalizations lead to new and interesting phenomenology, and provide a richer complementarity structure between the different experimental probes we are using to search for dark matter.
Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue
2016-04-01
A model of the dark sector where O (few GeV ) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V , mV≪mχ, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ , such as 0-+ and 1-- states, ηD and ϒD, is an important search channel. We show that e+e-→ηD+V or ϒD+γ production at B factories for αD>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via ηD→2 V →2 (l+l-) and ϒD→3 V →3 (l+l-) (l =e ,μ ,π ). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e+e-→χ χ ¯+n V , resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter.
Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States.
An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue
2016-04-15
A model of the dark sector where O(few GeV) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V, m_{V}≪m_{χ}, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ, such as 0^{-+} and 1^{--} states, η_{D} and ϒ_{D}, is an important search channel. We show that e^{+}e^{-}→η_{D}+V or ϒ_{D}+γ production at B factories for α_{D}>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via η_{D}→2V→2(l^{+}l^{-}) and ϒ_{D}→3V→3(l^{+}l^{-}) (l=e,μ,π). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e^{+}e^{-}→χχ[over ¯]+nV, resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter. PMID:27127956
Description of dark energy and dark matter by vector fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meierovich, Boris E.
A simple Lagrangian (with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term) turned out an adequate tool for oscopic description of dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Space-like and time-like massive vector fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four-parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the Universe. In particular, the singular "big bang" turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with accelerated expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions (in the absence of vector fields). The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows analyzing the main properties of the dark sector analytically, avoiding unnecessary model assumptions.
Light dark matter and dark radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heo, Jae Ho; Kim, C. S.
2016-03-01
Light ( M ≤ 20 MeV) dark-matter particles freeze out after neutrino decoupling. If the dark-matter particle couples to a neutrino or an electromagnetic plasma, the late time entropy production from dark-matter annihilation can change the neutrino-to-photon temperature ratio, and equally the effective number of neutrinos N eff. We study the non-equilibrium effects of dark-matter annihilation on the N eff and the effects by using a thermal equilibrium approximation. Both results are constrained with Planck observations. We demonstrate that the lower bounds of the dark-matter mass and the possibilities of the existence of additional radiation particles are more strongly constrained for dark-matter annihilation process in non-equilibrium.
Thermodynamical description of the ghost dark energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honarvaryan, M.; Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.
2015-04-01
In this paper, we point out thermodynamical description of ghost dark energy (GDE) and its generalization to the early universe. Thereinafter, we find expressions for the entropy changes of these dark energy (DE) candidates. In addition, considering thermal fluctuations, thermodynamics of the DE component interacting with a dark matter (DM) sector is addressed. We will also find the effects of considering the coincidence problem on the mutual interaction between the dark sectors, and thus the equation of state parameter of DE. Finally, we derive a relation between the mutual interaction of the dark components of the universe, accelerated with the either GDE or its generalization, and the thermodynamic fluctuations.
Natural supersymmetric minimal dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbrichesi, Marco; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-03-01
We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of S U (2 )L) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric, and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are nonsupersymmetric. Nonvanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level, and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV—a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.
How clustering dark energy affects matter perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrabi, A.; Basilakos, S.; Pace, F.
2015-09-01
The rate of structure formation in the Universe is different in homogeneous and clustered dark energy models. The degree of dark energy clustering depends on the magnitude of its effective sound speed c2_eff and for c2_eff=0 dark energy clusters in a similar fashion to dark matter while for c2_eff=1 it stays (approximately) homogeneous. In this paper we consider two distinct equations of state for the dark energy component, wd = const and w_d=w_0+w_1(z/1+z) with c2_eff as a free parameter and we try to constrain the dark energy effective sound speed using current available data including Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background shift parameter (Planck and WMAP), Hubble parameter, big bang nucleosynthesis and the growth rate of structures fσ8(z). At first we derive the most general form of the equations governing dark matter and dark energy clustering under the assumption that c2_eff=const. Finally, performing an overall likelihood analysis we find that the likelihood function peaks at c2_eff=0; however, the dark energy sound speed is degenerate with respect to the cosmological parameters, namely Ωm and wd.
Arcadi, Giorgio; Mambrini, Yann; Richard, Francois
2015-03-11
We propose to generalize the extensions of the Standard Model where the Z boson serves as a mediator between the Standard Model sector and the dark sector χ. We show that, like in the Higgs portal case, the combined constraints from the recent direct searches restrict severely the nature of the coupling of the dark matter to the Z boson and set a limit m{sub χ}≳200 GeV (except in a very narrow region around the Z-pole region). Using complementarity between spin dependent, spin independent and FERMI limits, we predict the nature of this coupling, more specifically the axial/vectorial ratio that respects a thermal dark matter coupled through a Z-portal while not being excluded by the current observations. We also show that the next generation of experiments of the type LZ or XENON1T will test Z-portal scenario for dark matter mass up to 2 TeV. The condition of a thermal dark matter naturally predicts the spin-dependent scattering cross section on the neutron to be σ{sub χn}{sup SD}≃10{sup −40} cm{sup 2}, which then becomes a clear prediction of the model and a signature testable in the near future experiments.
Dark degeneracy and interacting cosmic components
Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.
2011-10-15
We study some properties of the dark degeneracy, which is the fact that what we measure in gravitational experiments is the energy-momentum tensor of the total dark sector, and any split into components (as in dark matter and dark energy) is arbitrary. In fact, just one dark fluid is necessary to obtain exactly the same cosmological and astrophysical phenomenology as the {Lambda}CDM model. We work explicitly the first-order perturbation theory and show that beyond the linear order the dark degeneracy is preserved under some general assumptions. Then we construct the dark fluid from a collection of interacting fluids. Finally, we try to break the degeneracy with a general class of couplings to baryonic matter. Nonetheless, we show that these interactions can also be understood in the context of the {Lambda}CDM model as between dark matter and baryons. For this last investigation we choose two independent parametrizations for the interactions, one inspired by electromagnetism and the other by chameleon theories. Then, we constrain them with a joint analysis of CMB and supernovae observational data.
Kumar, Jason
2014-06-24
We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolos, Laura; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen
2015-12-01
We investigate compact objects formed by dark matter admixed with ordinary matter made of neutron-star matter and white-dwarf material. We consider non-self annihilating dark matter with an equation of state given by an interacting Fermi gas. We find new stable solutions, dark compact planets, with Earth-like masses and radii from a few Km to few hundred Km for weakly interacting dark matter which are stabilized by the mutual presence of dark matter and compact star matter. For the strongly interacting dark matter case, we obtain dark compact planets with Jupiter-like masses and radii of few hundred Km. These objects could be detected by observing exoplanets with unusually small radii. Moreover, we find that the recently observed 2 M⊙ pulsars set limits on the amount of dark matter inside neutron stars which is, at most, 1 0-6 M⊙ .
DarkSide search for dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; De Vincenzi, M.; De Haas, E.; Derbin, A.; Di Pietro, G.; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.
2013-11-01
The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori
2016-08-01
An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U (1 ) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, S U (N ) , and a U (1 ) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling of the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g -2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e+e- collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e+e- collision—the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson—would provide strong evidence for the model.