#### Sample records for generalized probability calculus

1. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

2015-10-01

A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

2. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

DOE PAGESBeta

Wang, Yi -Nan

2015-07-22

We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

3. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

Wang, Yi-Nan

2015-07-01

We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups and SO(5 , 5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d = 9 , 7 , 6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincaré lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Finally we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

4. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

SciTech Connect

Wang, Yi -Nan

2015-07-22

We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

5. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

2015-06-01

In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

6. Generalized Laplace Transforms and Extended Heaviside Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deakin, Michael A. B.

2008-01-01

An extended Heaviside calculus proposed by Peraire in a recent paper is similar to a generalization of the Laplace transform proposed by the present author. This similarity will be illustrated by analysis of an example supplied by Peraire.

7. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

PubMed

Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

2015-08-01

Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

8. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus

PubMed Central

Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

2015-01-01

Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

9. On the origins of generalized fractional calculus

Kiryakova, Virginia

2015-11-01

In Fractional Calculus (FC), as in the (classical) Calculus, the notions of derivatives and integrals (of first, second, etc. or arbitrary, incl. non-integer order) are basic and co-related. One of the most frequent approach in FC is to define first the Riemann-Liouville (R-L) integral of fractional order, and then by means of suitable integer-order differentiation operation applied over it (or under its sign) a fractional derivative is defined - in the R-L sense (or in Caputo sense). The first mentioned (R-L type) is closer to the theoretical studies in analysis, but has some shortages - from the point of view of interpretation of the initial conditions for Cauchy problems for fractional differential equations (stated also by means of fractional order derivatives/ integrals), and also for the analysts' confusion that such a derivative of a constant is not zero in general. The Caputo (C-) derivative, arising first in geophysical studies, helps to overcome these problems and to describe models of applied problems with physically consistent initial conditions. The operators of the Generalized Fractional Calculus - GFC (integrals and derivatives) are based on commuting m-tuple (m = 1, 2, 3, …) compositions of operators of the classical FC with power weights (the so-called Erdélyi-Kober operators), but represented in compact and explicit form by means of integral, integro-differential (R-L type) or differential-integral (C-type) operators, where the kernels are special functions of most general hypergeometric kind. The foundations of this theory are given in Kiryakova 18. In this survey we present the genesis of the definitions of the GFC - the generalized fractional integrals and derivatives (of fractional multi-order) of R-L type and Caputo type, analyze their properties and applications. Their special cases are all the known operators of classical FC, their generalizations introduced by other authors, the hyper-Bessel differential operators of higher integer

10. Initialization, conceptualization, and application in the generalized (fractional) calculus.

PubMed

Lorenzo, Carl F; Hartley, Tom T

2007-01-01

This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions. PMID:19583533

11. Intitialization, Conceptualization, and Application in the Generalized Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

1998-01-01

This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions.

12. Generalized Functions for the Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

1999-01-01

Previous papers have used two important functions for the solution of fractional order differential equations, the Mittag-Leffler functionE(sub q)[at(exp q)](1903a, 1903b, 1905), and the F-function F(sub q)[a,t] of Hartley & Lorenzo (1998). These functions provided direct solution and important understanding for the fundamental linear fractional order differential equation and for the related initial value problem (Hartley and Lorenzo, 1999). This paper examines related functions and their Laplace transforms. Presented for consideration are two generalized functions, the R-function and the G-function, useful in analysis and as a basis for computation in the fractional calculus. The R-function is unique in that it contains all of the derivatives and integrals of the F-function. The R-function also returns itself on qth order differ-integration. An example application of the R-function is provided. A further generalization of the R-function, called the G-function brings in the effects of repeated and partially repeated fractional poles.

13. Fractional Calculus of the Generalized Mittag-Leffler Type Function

PubMed Central

Kumar, Sunil

2014-01-01

We introduce and study a new function called R-function, which is an extension of the generalized Mittag-Leffler function. We derive the relations that exist between the R-function and Saigo fractional calculus operators. Some results derived by Samko et al. (1993), Kilbas (2005), Kilbas and Saigo (1995), and Sharma and Jain (2009) are special cases of the main results derived in this paper.

14. Optimal Strategy in the "Price Is Right" Showcase Showdown: A Module for Students of Calculus and Probability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swenson, Daniel

2015-01-01

We walk through a module intended for undergraduates in mathematics, with the focus of finding the best strategies for competing in the Showcase Showdown on the game show "The Price Is Right." Students should have completed one semester of calculus, as well as some probability. We also give numerous suggestions for further questions that…

15. Probability tree algorithm for general diffusion processes

Ingber, Lester; Chen, Colleen; Mondescu, Radu Paul; Muzzall, David; Renedo, Marco

2001-11-01

Motivated by path-integral numerical solutions of diffusion processes, PATHINT, we present a tree algorithm, PATHTREE, which permits extremely fast accurate computation of probability distributions of a large class of general nonlinear diffusion processes.

16. Non-signalling Theories and Generalized Probability

Tylec, Tomasz I.; Kuś, Marek; Krajczok, Jacek

2016-04-01

We provide mathematically rigorous justification of using term probability in connection to the so called non-signalling theories, known also as Popescu's and Rohrlich's box worlds. No only do we prove correctness of these models (in the sense that they describe composite system of two independent subsystems) but we obtain new properties of non-signalling boxes and expose new tools for further investigation. Moreover, it allows strightforward generalization to more complicated systems.

17. Non-signalling Theories and Generalized Probability

Tylec, Tomasz I.; Kuś, Marek; Krajczok, Jacek

2016-09-01

We provide mathematically rigorous justification of using term probability in connection to the so called non-signalling theories, known also as Popescu's and Rohrlich's box worlds. No only do we prove correctness of these models (in the sense that they describe composite system of two independent subsystems) but we obtain new properties of non-signalling boxes and expose new tools for further investigation. Moreover, it allows strightforward generalization to more complicated systems.

18. Invariant color calculus and generalized Balitsky-Kovchegov hierarchy

Popov, Alexey V.

2009-01-01

We derive generalization of the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation for a dipole, which consists of a parton and an antiparton of arbitrary charge. At first, we develop one method of indexless transformation of color expressions. The method is based on an evaluation of the Casimir operator on a tensor product. From the Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner equation, we derive the evolution equation for a single parton and prove gluon Reggeization in an arbitrary color channel. We show that there is a color duplication of such Regge poles. Higher t-channel color exchange has its own Regge pole, which residue is proportional to the quadratic Casimir. Taking a fundamental representation, we derive the usual BK equation and shed new light on the meaning of linear and nonlinear terms. Finally, we discuss a linearized version of the generalized BK equation.

19. Tensor hierarchy and generalized Cartan calculus in SL(3) × SL(2) exceptional field theory

Hohm, Olaf; Wang, Yi-Nan

2015-04-01

We construct exceptional field theory for the duality group SL(3) × SL(2). The theory is defined on a space with 8 external' coordinates and 6 internal' coordinates in the (3, 2) fundamental representation, leading to a 14-dimensional generalized spacetime. The bosonic theory is uniquely determined by gauge invariance under generalized external and internal diffeomorphisms. The latter invariance can be made manifest by introducing higher form gauge fields and a so-called tensor hierarchy, which we systematically develop to much higher degree than in previous studies. To this end we introduce a novel Cartan-like tensor calculus based on a covariant nil-potent differential, generalizing the exterior derivative of conventional differential geometry. The theory encodes the full D = 11 or type IIB supergravity, respectively.

20. Generalized Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Separate Families of Hypotheses

PubMed Central

Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang

2014-01-01

In this paper, we consider the problem of testing two separate families of hypotheses via a generalization of the sequential probability ratio test. In particular, the generalized likelihood ratio statistic is considered and the stopping rule is the first boundary crossing of the generalized likelihood ratio statistic. We show that this sequential test is asymptotically optimal in the sense that it achieves asymptotically the shortest expected sample size as the maximal type I and type II error probabilities tend to zero.

1. Reduced and Generalized Stokes Resolvent Equations in Asymptotically Flat Layers, Part II: H∞-Calculus

Abels, Helmut

2005-05-01

We study the generalized Stokes equations in asymptotically flat layers, which can be considered as compact perturbations of an infinite (flat) layer Ω _0 = mathbb{R}^{n - 1} × ( - 1,1). Besides standard non-slip boundary conditions, we consider a mixture of slip and non-slip boundary conditions on the upper and lower boundary, respectively. In this second part, we use pseudodifferential operator techniques to construct a parametrix to the reduced Stokes equations, which solves the system in Lq-Sobolev spaces, 1 < q < ∞, modulo terms which get arbitrary small for large resolvent parameters λ. This parametrix can be analyzed to prove the existence of a bounded H∞-calculus of the (reduced) Stokes operator.

2. Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics

SciTech Connect

Hellmann, Frank; Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo

2007-04-15

We discuss the definition of quantum probability in the context of 'timeless' general-relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we study the probability of sequences of events, or multievent probability. In conventional quantum mechanics this can be obtained by means of the 'wave function collapse' algorithm. We first point out certain difficulties of some natural definitions of multievent probability, including the conditional probability widely considered in the literature. We then observe that multievent probability can be reduced to single-event probability, by taking into account the quantum nature of the measuring apparatus. In fact, by exploiting the von-Neumann freedom of moving the quantum/classical boundary, one can always trade a sequence of noncommuting quantum measurements at different times, with an ensemble of simultaneous commuting measurements on the joint system+apparatus system. This observation permits a formulation of quantum theory based only on single-event probability, where the results of the wave function collapse algorithm can nevertheless be recovered. The discussion also bears on the nature of the quantum collapse.

3. Spinors: A Mathematica package for doing spinor calculus in General Relativity

Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso García-Parrado; Martín-García, José M.

2012-10-01

The Spinors software is a Mathematica package which implements 2-component spinor calculus as devised by Penrose for General Relativity in dimension 3+1. The Spinors software is part of the xAct system, which is a collection of Mathematica packages to do tensor analysis by computer. In this paper we give a thorough description of Spinors and present practical examples of use. Program summary Program title: Spinors Catalogue identifier: AEMQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 117039 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 300404 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Any computer running Mathematica 7.0 or higher. Operating system: Any operating system compatible with Mathematica 7.0 or higher. RAM: 94Mb in Mathematica 8.0. Classification: 1.5. External routines: Mathematica packages xCore, xPerm and xTensor which are part of the xAct system. These can be obtained at http://www.xact.es. Nature of problem: Manipulation and simplification of spinor expressions in General Relativity. Solution method: Adaptation of the tensor functionality of the xAct system for the specific situation of spinor calculus in four dimensional Lorentzian geometry. Restrictions: The software only works on 4-dimensional Lorentzian space-times with metric of signature (1, -1, -1, -1). There is no direct support for Dirac spinors. Unusual features: Easy rules to transform tensor expressions into spinor ones and back. Seamless integration of abstract index manipulation of spinor expressions with component computations. Running time: Under one second to handle and canonicalize standard spinorial expressions with a few dozen indices. (These expressions arise naturally

4. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

5. Probability and Relative Frequency

Drieschner, Michael

2016-01-01

The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the prediction interpretation' of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The "ladder"-structure of the probability calculus is analyzed. The expectation of the relative frequency is shown to be equal to the predicted relative frequency. Probability is shown to be the most general empirically testable prediction.

6. Generalizing Swendsen-Wang to sampling arbitrary posterior probabilities.

PubMed

2005-08-01

Many vision tasks can be formulated as graph partition problems that minimize energy functions. For such problems, the Gibbs sampler provides a general solution but is very slow, while other methods, such as Ncut and graph cuts are computationally effective but only work for specific energy forms and are not generally applicable. In this paper, we present a new inference algorithm that generalizes the Swendsen-Wang method to arbitrary probabilities defined on graph partitions. We begin by computing graph edge weights, based on local image features. Then, the algorithm iterates two steps. 1) Graph clustering: It forms connected components by cutting the edges probabilistically based on their weights. 2) Graph relabeling: It selects one connected component and flips probabilistically, the coloring of all vertices in the component simultaneously. Thus, it realizes the split, merge, and regrouping of a "chunk" of the graph, in contrast to Gibbs sampler that flips a single vertex. We prove that this algorithm simulates ergodic and reversible Markov chain jumps in the space of graph partitions and is applicable to arbitrary posterior probabilities or energy functions defined on graphs. We demonstrate the algorithm on two typical problems in computer vision--image segmentation and stereo vision. Experimentally, we show that it is 100-400 times faster in CPU time than the classical Gibbs sampler and 20-40 times faster then the DDMCMC segmentation algorithm. For stereo, we compare performance with graph cuts and belief propagation. We also show that our algorithm can automatically infer generative models and obtain satisfactory results (better than the graphic cuts or belief propagation) in the same amount of time. PMID:16119263

7. An infinite-dimensional calculus for generalized connections on hypercubic lattices

SciTech Connect

Mendes, R. Vilela

2011-05-15

A space for gauge theories is defined, using projective limits as subsets of Cartesian products of homomorphisms from a lattice on the structure group. In this space, non-interacting and interacting measures are defined as well as functions and operators. From projective limits of test functions and distributions on products of compact groups, a projective gauge triplet is obtained, which provides a framework for the infinite-dimensional calculus in gauge theories. The gauge measure behavior on non-generic strata is also obtained.

8. Rewriting Calculus: Foundations and Applications

Cirstea, Horatiu

2000-11-01

This thesis is devoted to the study of a calculus that describes the application of conditional rewriting rules and the obtained results at the same level of representation. We introduce the rewriting calculus, also called the rho-calculus, which generalizes the first order term rewriting and lambda-calculus, and makes possible the representation of the non-determinism. In our approach the abstraction operator as well as the application operator are objects of calculus. The result of a reduction in the rewriting calculus is either an empty set representing the application failure, or a singleton representing a deterministic result, or a set having several elements representing a not-deterministic choice of results. In this thesis we concentrate on the properties of the rewriting calculus where a syntactic matching is used in order to bind the variables to their current values. We define evaluation strategies ensuring the confluence of the calculus and we show that these strategies become trivial for restrictions of the general rewriting calculus to simpler calculi like the lambda-calculus. The rewriting calculus is not terminating in the untyped case but the strong normalization is obtained for the simply typed calculus. In the rewriting calculus extended with an operator allowing to test the application failure we define terms representing innermost and outermost normalizations with respect to a set of rewriting rules. By using these terms, we obtain a natural and concise description of the conditional rewriting. Finally, starting from the representation of the conditional rewriting rules, we show how the rewriting calculus can be used to give a semantics to ELAN, a language based on the application of rewriting rules controlled by strategies.

9. A Logical Process Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

14. Geometric calculus: a new computational tool for Riemannian geometry

SciTech Connect

Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, P.

1988-05-01

We compare geometric calculus applied to Riemannian geometry with Cartan's exterior calculus method. The correspondence between the two methods is clearly established. The results obtained by a package written in an algebraic language and doing general manipulations on multivectors are compared. We see that the geometric calculus is as powerful as exterior calculus.

15. A generalization of the functional calculus of observables and notion of joint measurability to the case of non-commuting observables

DeJonghe, Richard; Frey, Kimberly; Imbo, Tom

2015-04-01

For any pair of bounded observables A and B with pure point spectra, we construct an associated ‘joint observable’ which gives rise to a notion of a joint (projective) measurement of A and B, and which conforms to the intuition that one can measure non-commuting observables simultaneously, provided one is willing to give up arbitrary precision. As an application, we show how our notion of a joint observable naturally allows for a construction of a ‘functional calculus,’ so that for any pair of observables A and B as above, and any (Borel measurable) function f :{{{R}}2}\\to {R}, a new ‘generalized observable’ f(A,B) is obtained. Moreover, we show that this new functional calculus has some rather remarkable properties.

16. Dynamic Visualizations of Calculus Ideas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embse, Charles Vonder

2001-01-01

Presents three fundamental ideas of calculus and explains using the coordinate plane geometrically. Uses Cabri Geometry II to show how computer geometry systems can facilitate student understanding of general conic objects and its dynamic algebraic equations. (KHR)

17. Humanizing Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cirillo, Michelle

2007-01-01

In this article, the author explores the history and the mathematics used by Newton and Leibniz in their invention of calculus. The exploration of this topic is intended to show students that mathematics is a human invention. Suggestions are made to help teachers incorporate the mathematics and the history into their own lessons. (Contains 3…

18. Flipping Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

2013-01-01

In this paper we discuss flipping pedagogy and how it can transform the teaching and learning of calculus by applying pedagogical practices that are steeped in our understanding of how students learn most effectively. In particular, we describe the results of an exploratory study we conducted to examine the benefits and challenges of flipping a…

19. The Use of a PDP-11/20 Computer in a Non-Calculus General Physics Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yu, David U. L.

Computer-assisted instruction supplements traditional methods in a non-calculus physics course offered at Seattle Pacific College. Thirty-five science majors enrolled in the first quarter and 32 continued in the second term. The hardware for the course consists of a PDP-11/20 computer and eight teletype terminals; additional peripheral equipment…

20. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

PubMed

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

1. Testicular calculus: A rare case

PubMed Central

Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

2015-01-01

ABSTRACT Background: Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease. PMID:26200556

2. Height probabilities in the Abelian sandpile model on the generalized finite Bethe lattice

Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuji

2013-08-01

In this paper, we study the sandpile model on the generalized finite Bethe lattice with a particular boundary condition. Using a combinatorial method, we give the exact expressions for all single-site probabilities and some two-site joint probabilities. As a by-product, we prove that the height probabilities of bulk vertices are all the same for the Bethe lattice with certain given boundary condition, which was found from numerical evidence by Grassberger and Manna ["Some more sandpiles," J. Phys. (France) 51, 1077-1098 (1990)], 10.1051/jphys:0199000510110107700 but without a proof.

3. Lattice Duality: The Origin of Probability and Entropy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knuth, Kevin H.

2004-01-01

Bayesian probability theory is an inference calculus, which originates from a generalization of inclusion on the Boolean lattice of logical assertions to a degree of inclusion represented by a real number. Dual to this lattice is the distributive lattice of questions constructed from the ordered set of down-sets of assertions, which forms the foundation of the calculus of inquiry-a generalization of information theory. In this paper we introduce this novel perspective on these spaces in which machine learning is performed and discuss the relationship between these results and several proposed generalizations of information theory in the literature.

4. H∞ filtering of Markov jump linear systems with general transition probabilities and output quantization.

PubMed

Shen, Mouquan; Park, Ju H

2016-07-01

This paper addresses the H∞ filtering of continuous Markov jump linear systems with general transition probabilities and output quantization. S-procedure is employed to handle the adverse influence of the quantization and a new approach is developed to conquer the nonlinearity induced by uncertain and unknown transition probabilities. Then, sufficient conditions are presented to ensure the filtering error system to be stochastically stable with the prescribed performance requirement. Without specified structure imposed on introduced slack variables, a flexible filter design method is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by a numerical example. PMID:27129765

5. A Generalized Cosmological Reduced Void Probability Distribution Function and Levy Index

Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Andrew, K.; Baxley, J.; Smailhodzic, A.; Bolen, B.; Gary, J.; Taylor, L.; Barnaby, D.

2009-01-01

We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the DEEP2 survey and numerical runs of the Gadget II code to analyze the distribution of cosmological voids in the universe similar to the model proposed by Mekjian.1 The general form of the Void Probability Function focuses on a scaling model inspired from percolation theory that gives an analytical form for the distribution function. For large redshifts the early universe was smooth and the probability function has a simple mathematical form that mimics the two point correlation results leading to a Zipf's Law probability distribution indicating an ever decreasing probability of larger and larger voids, we determine the Zipf form of the scaling power law for void frequency. As various large scale galactic structures emerge in a given simulation a number of relatively empty regions are isolated and characterized as voids based upon number counts in the associated volume. The number density of these regions is such that the universe has a large scale "sponge-like” appearance with voids of all scales permeating the field of observation, hinting at the existence of an underlying scaling law. For these data sets we examine the range of critical void probability function parameters that give rise to the best fit to the numerical and observational data. The resulting void probability functions are then used to determine the Levy index and the Fisher critical exponent within the context of a grand canonical ensemble analysis viewed as a percolation effect. We wish to thank the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium for providing the NASA grant funding this research 1. Aram Z. Mekjian , Generalized statistical models of voids and hierarchical structure in cosmology, The Astrophysical Journal, 655: 1-10, 2007, arXiv:0712.1217

6. Generalized information (entanglement) entropies depending on the probability (density matrix), (modified gravity)

Obregón, Octavio; Cabo Bizet, Nana Geraldine

2016-03-01

Generalized information (entanglement) entropy(ies) that depend only on the probability (the density matrix) will be exhibited. It will be shown that these generalized information entropy(ies) are obtained by means of the superstatistics proposal and they correspond to generalized entanglement entropy(ies) that are at the same time a consequence of generalizing the Replica trick. Following the entropic force formulation, these generalized entropy(ies) provide a modified Newtońs law of gravitation. We discuss the difficulties to get an associated theory of gravity. Moreover, our results show corrections to the von Neumann entropy S0 that are larger than the usual UV ones and also than the corrections to the length dependent AdS3 entropy which result comparable to the UV ones. The correction terms due to the new entropy would modify the Ryu-Takayanagi identification between the CFT and the gravitational AdS3 entropies.

7. Estimation of capture probabilities using generalized estimating equations and mixed effects approaches

PubMed Central

Akanda, Md Abdus Salam; Alpizar-Jara, Russell

2014-01-01

Modeling individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities has been one of the most challenging tasks in capture–recapture studies. Heterogeneity in capture probabilities can be modeled as a function of individual covariates, but correlation structure among capture occasions should be taking into account. A proposed generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) approaches can be used to estimate capture probabilities and population size for capture–recapture closed population models. An example is used for an illustrative application and for comparison with currently used methodology. A simulation study is also conducted to show the performance of the estimation procedures. Our simulation results show that the proposed quasi-likelihood based on GEE approach provides lower SE than partial likelihood based on either generalized linear models (GLM) or GLMM approaches for estimating population size in a closed capture–recapture experiment. Estimator performance is good if a large proportion of individuals are captured. For cases where only a small proportion of individuals are captured, the estimates become unstable, but the GEE approach outperforms the other methods. PMID:24772290

8. Characterization of Weak Convergence of Probability-Valued Solutions of General One-Dimensional Kinetic Equations

Perversi, Eleonora; Regazzini, Eugenio

2015-05-01

For a general inelastic Kac-like equation recently proposed, this paper studies the long-time behaviour of its probability-valued solution. In particular, the paper provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the initial datum in order that the corresponding solution converges to equilibrium. The proofs rest on the general CLT for independent summands applied to a suitable Skorokhod representation of the original solution evaluated at an increasing and divergent sequence of times. It turns out that, roughly speaking, the initial datum must belong to the standard domain of attraction of a stable law, while the equilibrium is presentable as a mixture of stable laws.

9. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 35-37: Reflection and Refraction; Electric Fields and Potentials from Continuous Charge Distributions; and Maxwell's Predictions].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

15. Giant urethral calculus

PubMed Central

Kotkar, Kunal; Thakkar, Ravi; Songra, MC

2011-01-01

Primary urethral calculus is rarely seen and is usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or diverticulum. We present a case of giant urethral calculus secondary to a urethral stricture in a man. The patient was treated with calculus extraction with end to end urethroplasty. PMID:24950400

16. Convexity of Ruin Probability and Optimal Dividend Strategies for a General Lévy Process

PubMed Central

Yin, Chuancun; Yuen, Kam Chuen; Shen, Ying

2015-01-01

We consider the optimal dividends problem for a company whose cash reserves follow a general Lévy process with certain positive jumps and arbitrary negative jumps. The objective is to find a policy which maximizes the expected discounted dividends until the time of ruin. Under appropriate conditions, we use some recent results in the theory of potential analysis of subordinators to obtain the convexity properties of probability of ruin. We present conditions under which the optimal dividend strategy, among all admissible ones, takes the form of a barrier strategy. PMID:26351655

17. Questions Revisited: A Close Examination of Calculus of Inference and Inquiry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knuth, Kevin H.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

In this paper I examine more closely the way in which probability theory, the calculus of inference, is derived from the Boolean lattice structure of logical assertions ordered by implication. I demonstrate how the duality between the logical conjunction and disjunction in Boolean algebra is lost when deriving the probability calculus. In addition, I look more closely at the other lattice identities to verify that they are satisfied by the probability calculus. Last, I look towards developing the calculus of inquiry demonstrating that there is a sum and product rule for the relevance measure as well as a Bayes theorem. Current difficulties in deriving the complete inquiry calculus will also be discussed.

18. GENERAL A Hierarchy of Compatibility and Comeasurability Levels in Quantum Logics with Unique Conditional Probabilities

Gerd, Niestegge

2010-12-01

In the quantum mechanical Hilbert space formalism, the probabilistic interpretation is a later ad-hoc add-on, more or less enforced by the experimental evidence, but not motivated by the mathematical model itself. A model involving a clear probabilistic interpretation from the very beginning is provided by the quantum logics with unique conditional probabilities. It includes the projection lattices in von Neumann algebras and here probability conditionalization becomes identical with the state transition of the Lüders-von Neumann measurement process. This motivates the definition of a hierarchy of five compatibility and comeasurability levels in the abstract setting of the quantum logics with unique conditional probabilities. Their meanings are: the absence of quantum interference or influence, the existence of a joint distribution, simultaneous measurability, and the independence of the final state after two successive measurements from the sequential order of these two measurements. A further level means that two elements of the quantum logic (events) belong to the same Boolean subalgebra. In the general case, the five compatibility and comeasurability levels appear to differ, but they all coincide in the common Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics, in von Neumann algebras, and in some other cases.

19. Non-classical conditional probability and the quantum no-cloning theorem

Niestegge, Gerd

2015-09-01

The quantum mechanical no-cloning theorem for pure states is generalized and transfered to the quantum logics with a conditional probability calculus in a rather abstract, though simple and basic fashion without relying on a tensor product construction or finite dimension as required in other generalizations.

20. Comparison of disjunctive kriging to generalized probability kriging in application to the estimation of simulated and real data

SciTech Connect

Carr, J.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Mao, Nai-hsien )

1992-01-01

Disjunctive kriging has been compared previously to multigaussian kriging and indicator cokriging for estimation of cumulative distribution functions; it has yet to be compared extensively to probability kriging. Herein, disjunctive kriging and generalized probability kriging are applied to one real and one simulated data set and compared for estimation of the cumulative distribution functions. Generalized probability kriging is an extension, based on generalized cokriging theory, of simple probability kriging for the estimation of the indicator and uniform transforms at each cutoff, Z{sub k}. The disjunctive kriging and the generalized probability kriging give similar results for simulated data of normal distribution, but differ considerably for real data set with non-normal distribution.

1. Fractal calculus involving gauge function

Golmankhaneh, Alireza K.; Baleanu, Dumitru

2016-08-01

Henstock-Kurzweil integral or gauge integral is the generalization of the Riemann integral. The functions which are not integrable because of singularity in the senses of Lebesgue or Riemann are gauge integrable. In this manuscript, we have generalized Fα-calculus using the gauge integral method for the integrating of the functions on fractal set subset of real-line where they have singularities. The suggested new method leads to the wider class of functions on the fractal subset of real-line that are *Fα-integrable. Using gauge function we define *Fα-derivative of functions their Fα-derivative is not exist. The reported results can be used for generalizing the fundamental theorem of Fα-calculus.

2. A phenomenological calculus of Wiener description space.

PubMed

Richardson, I W; Louie, A H

2007-10-01

The phenomenological calculus is a categorical example of Robert Rosen's modeling relation. This paper is an alligation of the phenomenological calculus and generalized harmonic analysis, another categorical example. Our epistemological exploration continues into the realm of Wiener description space, in which constitutive parameters are extended from vectors to vector-valued functions of a real variable. Inherent in the phenomenology are fundamental representations of time and nearness to equilibrium. PMID:17955459

3. Influence of gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of LiClO4-gelatin solid polymer electrolytes: Modelling anomalous diffusion through generalized calculus

Basu, Tania; Tarafdar, Sujata

2016-08-01

Solid polymer electrolytes with gelatin as host polymer are subjected to gamma irradiation with dose varying from 0 to 100 kGy. Two sets of samples are studied, one with and one without addition of lithium perchlorate as ionic salt. The effect of varying plasticizer content, salt fraction and radiation dose on the impedance is measured. The dc (direct current) ion-conductivity is determined from impedance spectroscopy results. It is shown that relative to the unirradiated sample, the room temperature dc ion-conductivity decreases in general on irradiation, by an order of magnitude. However on comparing results for the irradiated samples, a dose of 60 kGy is seen to produce the highest ion-conductivity. Considering the variation of all parameters, the highest dc-conductivity of 6.06x10-2 S/m is obtained for the un-irradiated sample at room temperature, with 12.5 wt% LiClO4 and 35.71 wt% of glycerol as plasticizer. The samples are characterized in addition by XRD, SEM and FTIR respectively. Cyclic voltametry is performed for the confirmation of the electrolytic performance for pristine and gamma irradiated samples. To understand the experimental results, a model incorporating normal, as well as anomalous diffusion has been applied. Generalized calculus is used to model the anomalous diffusion. It is shown that this model successfully reproduces the experimental frequency dependence of the complex impedance for samples subjected to varying gamma dose. The physical interpretation of the model parameters and their variation with sample composition and irradiation dose is discussed.

4. SAR amplitude probability density function estimation based on a generalized Gaussian model.

PubMed

Moser, Gabriele; Zerubia, Josiane; Serpico, Sebastiano B

2006-06-01

In the context of remotely sensed data analysis, an important problem is the development of accurate models for the statistics of the pixel intensities. Focusing on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, this modeling process turns out to be a crucial task, for instance, for classification or for denoising purposes. In this paper, an innovative parametric estimation methodology for SAR amplitude data is proposed that adopts a generalized Gaussian (GG) model for the complex SAR backscattered signal. A closed-form expression for the corresponding amplitude probability density function (PDF) is derived and a specific parameter estimation algorithm is developed in order to deal with the proposed model. Specifically, the recently proposed "method-of-log-cumulants" (MoLC) is applied, which stems from the adoption of the Mellin transform (instead of the usual Fourier transform) in the computation of characteristic functions and from the corresponding generalization of the concepts of moment and cumulant. For the developed GG-based amplitude model, the resulting MoLC estimates turn out to be numerically feasible and are also analytically proved to be consistent. The proposed parametric approach was validated by using several real ERS-1, XSAR, E-SAR, and NASA/JPL airborne SAR images, and the experimental results prove that the method models the amplitude PDF better than several previously proposed parametric models for backscattering phenomena. PMID:16764268

5. A giant ureteric calculus

PubMed Central

Rathod, Rajiv; Bansal, Prashant; Gutta, Srinivas

2013-01-01

Ureteric stones are usually small and symptomatic. We present a case of a 35-year old female who presented with minimally symptomatic right distal ureteric calculus with proximal hydroureteronephrosis. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and a giant ureteric calculus measuring 11 cm Χ 1.5 cm, weighing 40 g was retrieved. PMID:24082453

6. Teaching the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2012-01-01

Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…

7. Initialized Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

2000-01-01

This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

8. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

2002-01-01

The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

9. A giant ureteric calculus.

PubMed

Rathod, Rajiv; Bansal, Prashant; Gutta, Srinivas

2013-07-01

Ureteric stones are usually small and symptomatic. We present a case of a 35-year old female who presented with minimally symptomatic right distal ureteric calculus with proximal hydroureteronephrosis. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and a giant ureteric calculus measuring 11 cm Χ 1.5 cm, weighing 40 g was retrieved. PMID:24082453

10. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2014-09-01

An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

11. Schubert calculus and singularity theory

Gorbounov, Vassily; Petrov, Victor

2012-02-01

Schubert calculus has been in the intersection of several fast developing areas of mathematics for a long time. Originally invented as the description of the cohomology of homogeneous spaces, it has to be redesigned when applied to other generalized cohomology theories such as the equivariant, the quantum cohomology, K-theory, and cobordism. All this cohomology theories are different deformations of the ordinary cohomology. In this note, we show that there is, in some sense, the universal deformation of Schubert calculus which produces the above mentioned by specialization of the appropriate parameters. We build on the work of Lerche Vafa and Warner. The main conjecture these authors made was that the classical cohomology of a Hermitian symmetric homogeneous manifold is a Jacobi ring of an appropriate potential. We extend this conjecture and provide a simple proof. Namely, we show that the cohomology of the Hermitian symmetric space is a Jacobi ring of a certain potential and the equivariant and the quantum cohomology and the K-theory is a Jacobi ring of a particular deformation of this potential. This suggests to study the most general deformations of the Frobenius algebra of cohomology of these manifolds by considering the versal deformation of the appropriate potential. The structure of the Jacobi ring of such potential is a subject of well developed singularity theory. This gives a potentially new way to look at the classical, the equivariant, the quantum and other flavors of Schubert calculus.

12. Hermeneutic operative calculus

Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Isawasan, Pradeep; Mohanan, Vasuky

2014-07-01

The predicate calculus used currently by mathematical logic in computer science, philosophy and linguistic was found to be too restrictive and inadequate for describing the grammar of natural and artificial language. Therefore many higher order logics have been developed to overcome the limitation of predicate calculus. In this paper a new representation of logic using mathematical principles has been developed for the natural language called Hermeneutic Operative Calculus. This Hermeneutic Operative Calculus is a new language interpretive calculus developed to account for the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of natural language and allows removing the restrictions of any particular natural language in the semantic field its map out. The logic of Hermeneutic Operative Calculus capable of represent the syntactic and semantic of factual information of a natural language precisely in any language. The logic of this Hermeneutic Operative Calculus has two different forms of operations called object and meta-operations. The object operation allow for listing the various objects, picturing the various propositions and so forth. The meta-operation would specify what cannot be specified by the object operation like semantical stances of a proposition. The basic operative processes of linguistics and cognitive logic will be mathematically conceptualized and elaborated in this paper.

13. Stochastic calculus in physics

SciTech Connect

Fox, R.F.

1987-03-01

The relationship of Ito-Stratonovich stochastic calculus to studies of weakly colored noise is explained. A functional calculus approach is used to obtain an effective Fokker-Planck equation for the weakly colored noise regime. In a smooth limit, this representation produces the Stratonovich version of the Ito-Stratonovich calculus for white noise. It also provides an approach to steady state behavior for strongly colored noise. Numerical simulation algorithms are explored, and a novel suggestion is made for efficient and accurate simulation of white noise equations.

14. EMPIRICAL GENERAL POPULATION ASSESSMENT OF THE HORVITZ-THOMPSON ESTIMATOR UNDER VARIABLE PROBABILITY SAMPLING

EPA Science Inventory

The variance and two estimators of variance of the Horvitz-Thompson estimator were studied under randomized, variable probability systematic sampling. hree bivariate distributions, representing the populations, were investigated empirically, with each distribution studied for thr...

15. Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.

2013-01-01

Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…

16. Disappearing renal calculus

PubMed Central

Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

2013-01-01

We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging. PMID:23580676

17. On the error probability of general tree and trellis codes with applications to sequential decoding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johannesson, R.

1973-01-01

An upper bound on the average error probability for maximum-likelihood decoding of the ensemble of random binary tree codes is derived and shown to be independent of the length of the tree. An upper bound on the average error probability for maximum-likelihood decoding of the ensemble of random L-branch binary trellis codes of rate R = 1/n is derived which separates the effects of the tail length T and the memory length M of the code. It is shown that the bound is independent of the length L of the information sequence. This implication is investigated by computer simulations of sequential decoding utilizing the stack algorithm. These simulations confirm the implication and further suggest an empirical formula for the true undetected decoding error probability with sequential decoding.

18. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

SciTech Connect

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2008-11-15

The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

19. Generalizations and Extensions of the Probability of Superiority Effect Size Estimator

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ruscio, John; Gera, Benjamin Lee

2013-01-01

Researchers are strongly encouraged to accompany the results of statistical tests with appropriate estimates of effect size. For 2-group comparisons, a probability-based effect size estimator ("A") has many appealing properties (e.g., it is easy to understand, robust to violations of parametric assumptions, insensitive to outliers). We review…

20. Describing Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Relations Using Conditional Probabilities and the General Operant Contingency Space: A Preliminary Investigation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eckert, Tanya L.; Martens, Brian K.; DiGennaro, Florence D.

2005-01-01

Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) recordings are often used in school settings as part of a functional assessment. A number of limitations are associated with A-B-C recordings, and a novel approach for describing data from A-B-C recordings is to compute conditional probabilities that can be graphed in the general operant contingency space to…

1. Discrete Quantum Gravity in the Regge Calculus Formalism

SciTech Connect

Khatsymovsky, V.M.

2005-09-01

We discuss an approach to the discrete quantum gravity in the Regge calculus formalism that was developed in a number of our papers. The Regge calculus is general relativity for a subclass of general Riemannian manifolds called piecewise flat manifolds. The Regge calculus deals with a discrete set of variables, triangulation lengths, and contains continuous general relativity as a special limiting case where the lengths tend to zero. In our approach, the quantum length expectations are nonzero and of the order of the Plank scale, 10{sup -33} cm, implying a discrete spacetime structure on these scales.

2. A concise formula for generalized two-qubit Hilbert-Schmidt separability probabilities

Slater, Paul B.

2013-11-01

We report major advances in the research program initiated in ‘Moment-based evidence for simple rational-valued Hilbert-Schmidt generic 2 × 2 separability probabilities’ (Slater and Dunkl 2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 095305). A highly succinct separability probability function P(α) is put forth, yielding for generic (nine-dimensional) two-rebit systems, P(\\frac{1}{2}) = \\frac{29}{64}, (15-dimensional) two-qubit systems, P(1) = \\frac{8}{33} and (27-dimensional) two-quater(nionic)bit systems, P(2)=\\frac{26}{323}. This particular form of P(α) was obtained by Qing-Hu Hou by applying Zeilberger's algorithm (‘creative telescoping’) to a fully equivalent—but considerably more complicated—expression containing six 7F6 hypergeometric functions (all with argument \\frac{27}{64} =(\\frac{3}{4})^3). That hypergeometric form itself had been obtained using systematic, high-accuracy probability-distribution-reconstruction computations. These employed 7501 determinantal moments of partially transposed 4 × 4 density matrices, parameterized by \\alpha = \\frac{1}{2}, 1, \\frac{3}{2}, 2,\\ldots ,32. From these computations, exact rational-valued separability probabilities were discernible. The (integral/half-integral) sequences of 32 rational values then served as input to the Mathematica FindSequenceFunction command, from which the initially obtained hypergeometric form of P(α) emerged.

3. PROBABILITY ESTIMATES OF THE CAPACITIES OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND SELECTED PHYSICAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS. FINAL REPORT.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SMITH, GARY R.

THE CAPACITY OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND AND RETAIN GENERALIZATIONS RELATED TO SIMPLE MACHINES, ELECTRICAL ENERGY, AND HEAT ENERGY WAS INVESTIGATED. A STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE OF APPROXIMATELY 1,200 FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADE PUPILS WAS SELECTED FROM THE METROPOLITAN DETROIT AREA. GENERALIZATIONS FOR THE THREE PHYSICAL SCIENCE AREAS…

4. Putting Differentials Back into Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corrine A.

2010-01-01

We argue that the use of differentials in introductory calculus courses is useful and provides a unifying theme, leading to a coherent view of the calculus. Along the way, we meet several interpretations of differentials, some better than others.

5. Null-strut calculus. I. Kinematics

SciTech Connect

Kheyfets, A.; LaFave, N.J.; Miller, W.A. )

1990-06-15

This paper describes the kinematics of null-strut calculus---a 3+1 Regge calculus approach to general relativity. We show how to model the geometry of spacetime with simplicial spacelike three-geometries (TET's) linked to earlier'' and later'' momentumlike lattice surfaces (TET{sup *}) entirely by light rays or null struts.'' These three-layered lattice spacetime geometries are defined and analyzed using combinatorial formulas for the structure of polytopes. The following paper in this series describes how these three-layered spacetime lattices are used to model spacetimes in full conformity with Einstein's theory of gravity.

6. Discovering a Geometric Volume Relationship in Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morriss, Patrick

1998-01-01

Outlines the discovery of an advanced calculus class based on the generalization of the relationship between the volume of a right circular cone and the volume of a right cylinder with same height and base radius while studying solids of revolution. Relates the course of discovery and concludes with plans to use it to try to generate the same…

7. Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras

SciTech Connect

Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.

1993-12-09

A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the Cartan Calculus.

8. Using Discovery in the Calculus Class

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shilgalis, Thomas W.

1975-01-01

This article shows how two discoverable theorems from elementary calculus can be presented to students in a manner that assists them in making the generalizations themselves. The theorems are the mean value theorems for derivatives and for integrals. A conjecture is suggested by pictures and then refined. (Author/KM)

9. A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors

Penneys, David

2013-05-01

We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

10. The History of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harding, Simon; Scott, Paul

2004-01-01

Calculus is a mathematical concept that is fundamental to how we understand the world around us. Whether it is in the world of technology, finance, astronomy, sociology, medicine, calculus in one form or another can be found. This brief article describes the origins of calculus in Greece, further developments by Newton and Leibniz, and the…

11. Spin Foam and Regge Calculus

Gionti, S. J. Gabriele

2013-01-01

Recent results in Local Regge Calculus are confronted with Spin Foam Formalism. Introducing Barrett-Crane Quantization in Local Regge Calculus makes it possible to associate a unique Spin jh with an hinge h, fulfilling one of the requirements of Spin Foam definition. It is shown that inter-twiner terms of Spin Foam can follow from the closure constraint in Local Regge Calculus.

12. Fractional-calculus diffusion equation

PubMed Central

2010-01-01

Background Sequel to the work on the quantization of nonconservative systems using fractional calculus and quantization of a system with Brownian motion, which aims to consider the dissipation effects in quantum-mechanical description of microscale systems. Results The canonical quantization of a system represented classically by one-dimensional Fick's law, and the diffusion equation is carried out according to the Dirac method. A suitable Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian, describing the diffusive system, are constructed and the Hamiltonian is transformed to Schrodinger's equation which is solved. An application regarding implementation of the developed mathematical method to the analysis of diffusion, osmosis, which is a biological application of the diffusion process, is carried out. Schrödinger's equation is solved. Conclusions The plot of the probability function represents clearly the dissipative and drift forces and hence the osmosis, which agrees totally with the macro-scale view, or the classical-version osmosis. PMID:20492677

13. Differences in negativity bias probably underlie variation in attitudes toward change generally, not political ideology specifically.

PubMed

Ludeke, Steven G; DeYoung, Colin G

2014-06-01

Many of the characteristics cited in Hibbing et al.'s account are ineffective predictors of economic conservatism. However, these same characteristics are often associated with differences not only in social conservatism but also in religiousness and authoritarianism. Hibbing et al. may have offered a useful explanation of traditionalism and attitudes toward change across domains rather than of general political attitudes. PMID:24970442

14. Stochastic assessment of Phien generalized reservoir storage-yield-probability models using global runoff data records

2015-10-01

This study has carried out an assessment of Phien generalised storage-yield-probability (S-Y-P) models using recorded runoff data of six global rivers that were carefully selected such that they satisfy the criteria specified for the models. Using stochastic hydrology, 2000 replicates of the historic records were generated and used to drive the sequent peak algorithm (SPA) for estimating capacity of hypothetical reservoirs at the respective sites. The resulting ensembles of reservoir capacity estimates were then analysed to determine the mean, standard deviation and quantiles, which were then compared with corresponding estimates produced by the Phien models. The results showed that Phien models produced a mix of significant under- and over-predictions of the mean and standard deviation of capacity, with the under-prediction situations occurring as the level of development reduces. On the other hand, consistent over-prediction was obtained for full regulation for all the rivers analysed. The biases in the reservoir capacity quantiles were equally high, implying that the limitations of the Phien models affect the entire distribution function of reservoir capacity. Due to very high values of these errors, it is recommended that the Phien relationships should be avoided for reservoir planning.

15. The general theory of relativity - Why 'It is probably the most beautiful of all existing theories'

Chandrasekhar, S.

1984-03-01

An attempt is made to objectively evaluate the frequent judgment of Einstein's general theory of relativity, by such distinguished physicists as Pauli (1921), Dirac, Born, and Rutherford, as 'beautiful' and 'a work of art'. The criteria applied are that of Francis Bacon ('There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportions') and that of Heisenberg ('Beauty is the proper conformity of the parts to one another and to the whole'). The strangeness in the proportions of the theory of general relativity consists in its relating, through juxtaposition, the concepts of space and time and those of matter and motion; these had previously been considered entirely independent. The criterion of 'conformity' is illustrated through the directness with which the theory allows the description of black holes.

16. Tangent Lines without Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rabin, Jeffrey M.

2008-01-01

This article presents a problem that can help high school students develop the concept of instantaneous velocity and connect it with the slope of a tangent line to the graph of position versus time. It also gives a method for determining the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial function at any point without using calculus. (Contains 1 figure.)

17. From Calculating to Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steckroth, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-01

For nearly three decades, during which the author taught everything from basic algebra to advanced placement calculus, the author thought of himself as a secondary school mathematics teacher. The notion of teaching elementary school math never appealed to him because of its simplicity. The author stresses that anyone could teach children to count,…

18. Doing Without Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fletcher, T. J.

1971-01-01

Non-traditional methods of presenting and solving calculus problems in high school mathematics classes are presented. All problems deal with the principle that the maximum product of two numbers whose sum is constant is obtained if the numbers are equal (i.e., the arithmetic mean of n numbers is greater than or equal to the geometric mean). (JG)

19. Calculus and Sailing.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Palmaccio, Richard J.

1982-01-01

A method of using vector analysis is presented that is an application of calculus that helps to find the best angle for tacking a boat into the wind. While the discussion is theoretical, it is seen as a good illustration of mathematical investigation of a given situation. (MP)

20. A Galerkin-based formulation of the probability density evolution method for general stochastic finite element systems

2016-05-01

The present paper proposes a Galerkin finite element projection scheme for the solution of the partial differential equations (pde's) involved in the probability density evolution method, for the linear and nonlinear static analysis of stochastic systems. According to the principle of preservation of probability, the probability density evolution of a stochastic system is expressed by its corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) stochastic partial differential equation. Direct integration of the FP equation is feasible only for simple systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, due to analytical and/or numerical intractability. However, rewriting the FP equation conditioned to the random event description, a generalized density evolution equation (GDEE) can be obtained, which can be reduced to a one dimensional pde. Two Galerkin finite element method schemes are proposed for the numerical solution of the resulting pde's, namely a time-marching discontinuous Galerkin scheme and the StreamlineUpwind/Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. In addition, a reformulation of the classical GDEE is proposed, which implements the principle of probability preservation in space instead of time, making this approach suitable for the stochastic analysis of finite element systems. The advantages of the FE Galerkin methods and in particular the SUPG over finite difference schemes, like the modified Lax-Wendroff, which is the most frequently used method for the solution of the GDEE, are illustrated with numerical examples and explored further.

1. A general formula for computing maximum proportion correct scores in various psychophysical paradigms with arbitrary probability distributions of stimulus observations.

PubMed

Dai, Huanping; Micheyl, Christophe

2015-05-01

Proportion correct (Pc) is a fundamental measure of task performance in psychophysics. The maximum Pc score that can be achieved by an optimal (maximum-likelihood) observer in a given task is of both theoretical and practical importance, because it sets an upper limit on human performance. Within the framework of signal detection theory, analytical solutions for computing the maximum Pc score have been established for several common experimental paradigms under the assumption of Gaussian additive internal noise. However, as the scope of applications of psychophysical signal detection theory expands, the need is growing for psychophysicists to compute maximum Pc scores for situations involving non-Gaussian (internal or stimulus-induced) noise. In this article, we provide a general formula for computing the maximum Pc in various psychophysical experimental paradigms for arbitrary probability distributions of sensory activity. Moreover, easy-to-use MATLAB code implementing the formula is provided. Practical applications of the formula are illustrated, and its accuracy is evaluated, for two paradigms and two types of probability distributions (uniform and Gaussian). The results demonstrate that Pc scores computed using the formula remain accurate even for continuous probability distributions, as long as the conversion from continuous probability density functions to discrete probability mass functions is supported by a sufficiently high sampling resolution. We hope that the exposition in this article, and the freely available MATLAB code, facilitates calculations of maximum performance for a wider range of experimental situations, as well as explorations of the impact of different assumptions concerning internal-noise distributions on maximum performance in psychophysical experiments. PMID:25724517

2. Finite-dimensional calculus

Feinsilver, Philip; Schott, René

2009-09-01

We discuss topics related to finite-dimensional calculus in the context of finite-dimensional quantum mechanics. The truncated Heisenberg-Weyl algebra is called a TAA algebra after Tekin, Aydin and Arik who formulated it in terms of orthofermions. It is shown how to use a matrix approach to implement analytic representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in univariate and multivariate settings. We provide examples for the univariate case. Krawtchouk polynomials are presented in detail, including a review of Krawtchouk polynomials that illustrates some curious properties of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as well as presenting an approach to computing Krawtchouk expansions. From a mathematical perspective, we are providing indications as to how to implement infinite terms Rota's 'finite operator calculus'.

3. A giant vesical calculus.

PubMed

Rahman, M; Uddin, A; Das, G C; Akanda, N I

2007-07-01

Massive or giant vesical calculus is a rare entity in the recent urological practice. Males are affected more than the females. Vesical calculi are usually secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. These patients present with recurrent urinary tract infection, haematuria or with retention of urine. We report a young male patient who presented with defaecatory problems along with other urinary symptoms. The patient having an average built, non diabetic but hypertensive. The stone could be palpated by physical examination. His urea levels were within normal limits but urine examination shows infection. USG reveals bilateral hydronephrosis with multiple stones in both kidneys along with a giant vesical calculus. After controlling urinary infection and hypertention he underwent an open cystolithotomy. During operation digital rectal help was needed to remove the stone as it was adherent with bladder mucosa. Post operative period was uneventful. His urinary output was quite normal and had no defaecatory problems. Patient left the hospital 10 days after operation. PMID:17917633

4. Boolean integral calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne

1988-01-01

The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.

5. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

SciTech Connect

Smith, D.L.

1988-12-01

Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

6. Inquiry Calculus and Information Theory

Center, Julian L.

2009-12-01

We consider the relationship between information theory and a calculus of inquiries. We show how an inquiry calculus can be constructed using lattice theory, and how the inquiry calculus relates to information theory. The key idea is to identify both inquiries and variables with partitions of the state space. We also show an approach to extending information theory that deals with the problem of negative entropies on questions that do not correspond to partitions.

7. Three-plus-one formulation of Regge calculus

SciTech Connect

Piran, T.; Williams, R.M.

1986-03-15

Following the work of Lund and Regge for homogeneous spaces, we construct the action for Regge calculus in its three-plus-one form for general space-times. This is achieved in two ways: a first-order formalism and a second-order formalism. We describe the Regge-calculus analogue of solving the initial-value equations using conformal transformations. The second-order formalism is used to study the time development of two simple model universes.

8. Astrophysical Applications of Fractional Calculus

Stanislavsky, Aleksander A.

The paradigm of fractional calculus occupies an important place for the macroscopic description of subdiffusion. Its advance in theoretical astrophysics is expected to be very attractive too. In this report we discuss a recent development of the idea to some astrophysical problems. One of them is connected with a random migration of bright points associated with magnetic fields at the solar photosphere. The transport of the bright points has subdiffusive features that require the fractional generalization of the Leighton's model. Another problem is related to the angular distribution of radio beams, being propagated through a medium with random inhomogeneities. The peculiarity of this medium is that radio beams are trapped because of random wave localization. This idea can be useful for the diagnostics of interplanetary and interstellar turbulent media.

9. Conditional Independence in Applied Probability.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pfeiffer, Paul E.

This material assumes the user has the background provided by a good undergraduate course in applied probability. It is felt that introductory courses in calculus, linear algebra, and perhaps some differential equations should provide the requisite experience and proficiency with mathematical concepts, notation, and argument. The document is…

10. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 3.

PubMed

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

11. Early Vector Calculus: A Path through Multivariable Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Robert L.

2013-01-01

The divergence theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem appear near the end of calculus texts. These are important results, but many instructors struggle to reach them. We describe a pathway through a standard calculus text that allows instructors to emphasize these theorems. (Contains 2 figures.)

12. A new boson calculus for SU(3)

SciTech Connect

Prakash, J.S.; Sharatchandra, H.S.

1997-09-01

It is shown that the Gelfand-Weyl pattern for SU(3) can be uniquely expressed in terms of four non-negative and one positive or negative free integers. This provides an optimal, albeit non-linear, boson calculus for SU(3) in terms of four harmonic oscillators and one planar rotor. (By optimal it is meant that every irreducible representation is obtained once and once only.) Our techniques can be generalized to other groups. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

13. Trait Mindfulness, Reasons For Living and General Symptom Severity as Predictors of Suicide Probability in Males with Substance Abuse or Dependence

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate suicide probability in Iranian males with substance abuse or dependence disorder and to investigate the predictors of suicide probability based on trait mindfulness, reasons for living and severity of general psychiatric symptoms. Method: Participants were 324 individuals with substance abuse or dependence in an outpatient setting and prison. Reasons for living questionnaire, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Suicide probability Scale were used as instruments. Sample was selected based on convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. Results: The life-time prevalence of suicide attempt in the outpatient setting was35% and it was 42% in the prison setting. Suicide probability in the prison setting was significantly higher than in the outpatient setting (p<0.001). The severity of general symptom strongly correlated with suicide probability. Trait mindfulness, not reasons for living beliefs, had a mediating effect in the relationship between the severity of general symptoms and suicide probability. Fear of social disapproval, survival and coping beliefs and child-related concerns significantly predicted suicide probability (p<0.001). Discussion: It could be suggested that trait mindfulness was more effective in preventing suicide probability than beliefs about reasons for living in individuals with substance abuse or dependence disorders. The severity of general symptom should be regarded as an important risk factor of suicide probability. PMID:26005482

14. The Calculus of a Vase

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scherger, Nicole

2012-01-01

Of the most universal applications in integral calculus are those involved with finding volumes of solids of revolution. These profound problems are typically taught with traditional approaches of the disk and shell methods, after which most calculus curriculums will additionally cover arc length and surfaces of revolution. Even in these visibly…

15. The Basic Principle of Calculus?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hardy, Michael

2011-01-01

A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

16. Calculus in the Middle School?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

2010-01-01

This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

17. Two cosmological solutions of Regge calculus

SciTech Connect

Lewis, S.M.

1982-01-15

Two cosmological solutions of Regge calculus are presented which correspond to the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and the Kasner solutions of general relativity. By taking advantage of the symmetries that are present, I am able to show explicitly that a limit of Regge calculus does yield Einstein's equations for these cases. The method of averaging these equations when taking limits is important, especially for the Kasner model. I display the leading error term that arises from keeping the Regge equations in discrete form rather than using their continuum limit. In particular, this work shows that for the ''Reggeized'' Friedmann model the minimum volume is a velocity-dominated singularity as in the continuum Friedmann model. However, unlike the latter, the Regge version has a nonzero minimum volume.

18. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

2007-01-01

Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

19. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hathaway, Richard J.

2008-01-01

An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

20. Stochastic Calculus and Differential Equations for Physics and Finance

McCauley, Joseph L.

2013-02-01

1. Random variables and probability distributions; 2. Martingales, Markov, and nonstationarity; 3. Stochastic calculus; 4. Ito processes and Fokker-Planck equations; 5. Selfsimilar Ito processes; 6. Fractional Brownian motion; 7. Kolmogorov's PDEs and Chapman-Kolmogorov; 8. Non Markov Ito processes; 9. Black-Scholes, martingales, and Feynman-Katz; 10. Stochastic calculus with martingales; 11. Statistical physics and finance, a brief history of both; 12. Introduction to new financial economics; 13. Statistical ensembles and time series analysis; 14. Econometrics; 15. Semimartingales; References; Index.

1. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 2.

PubMed

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

2. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moseley, L. Jeneva

2014-01-01

This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

3. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

PubMed Central

Bello, A.; Maitama, H. Y.; Mbibu, N. H.; Kalayi, G. D.; Ahmed, A.

2010-01-01

Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and bladder outlet obstruction. The clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the giant prostatic urethral calculus are reviewed. PMID:22091328

4. 76 FR 63570 - Agency Procedure Following the Submission of Probable Cause Briefs by the Office of General Counsel

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2011-10-13

..., 76 FR 34986 (June 15, 2011). Once the Probable Cause Brief is received by a respondent, the... Hearing) before the Commission. See Procedural Rules for Probable Cause Hearings, 72 FR 64919 (Nov. 19... Election Campaign Act of 1971, as amended (FECA). DATES: Effective October 28, 2011. FOR...

5. Generalized probability model for calculation of interference to the Deep Space Network due to circularly Earth-orbiting satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ruggier, C. J.

1992-01-01

The probability of exceeding interference power levels and the duration of interference at the Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna is calculated parametrically when the state vector of an Earth-orbiting satellite over the DSN station view area is not known. A conditional probability distribution function is derived, transformed, and then convolved with the interference signal uncertainties to yield the probability distribution of interference at any given instant during the orbiter's mission period. The analysis is applicable to orbiting satellites having circular orbits with known altitude and inclination angle.

6. In favor of general probability distributions: lateral prefrontal and insular cortices respond to stimulus inherent, but irrelevant differences.

PubMed

Mestres-Missé, Anna; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert; Kotz, Sonja A

2016-04-01

A key aspect of optimal behavior is the ability to predict what will come next. To achieve this, we must have a fairly good idea of the probability of occurrence of possible outcomes. This is based both on prior knowledge about a particular or similar situation and on immediately relevant new information. One question that arises is: when considering converging prior probability and external evidence, is the most probable outcome selected or does the brain represent degrees of uncertainty, even highly improbable ones? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study explored these possibilities by contrasting words that differ in their probability of occurrence, namely, unbalanced ambiguous words and unambiguous words. Unbalanced ambiguous words have a strong frequency-based bias towards one meaning, while unambiguous words have only one meaning. The current results reveal larger activation in lateral prefrontal and insular cortices in response to dominant ambiguous compared to unambiguous words even when prior and contextual information biases one interpretation only. These results suggest a probability distribution, whereby all outcomes and their associated probabilities of occurrence-even if very low-are represented and maintained. PMID:25523107

7. Riemann equations'' in bidifferential calculus

Chvartatskyi, O.; Müller-Hoissen, F.; Stoilov, N.

2015-10-01

We consider equations that formally resemble a matrix Riemann (or Hopf) equation in the framework of bidifferential calculus. With different choices of a first-order bidifferential calculus, we obtain a variety of equations, including a semi-discrete and a fully discrete version of the matrix Riemann equation. A corresponding universal solution-generating method then either yields a (continuous or discrete) Cole-Hopf transformation, or leaves us with the problem of solving Riemann equations (hence an application of the hodograph method). If the bidifferential calculus extends to second order, solutions of a system of "Riemann equations" are also solutions of an equation that arises, on the universal level of bidifferential calculus, as an integrability condition. Depending on the choice of bidifferential calculus, the latter can represent a number of prominent integrable equations, like self-dual Yang-Mills, as well as matrix versions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice, Hirota's bilinear difference equation, (2+1)-dimensional Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, and Davey-Stewartson equations. For all of them, a recent (non-isospectral) binary Darboux transformation result in bidifferential calculus applies, which can be specialized to generate solutions of the associated "Riemann equations." For the latter, we clarify the relation between these specialized binary Darboux transformations and the aforementioned solution-generating method. From (arbitrary size) matrix versions of the "Riemann equations" associated with an integrable equation, possessing a bidifferential calculus formulation, multi-soliton-type solutions of the latter can be generated. This includes "breaking" multi-soliton-type solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills and the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation, which are parametrized by solutions of Riemann equations.

8. Equation of motion using fractional calculus

SciTech Connect

Kihong, Kwon.

1991-01-01

One-dimensional motion of a particle was studied using fractional calculus, which is the differentiation and the integration of arbitrary order. By fractional differentiation, equation of motion could be written in compact form. Fractional parameters were numerically calculated by using the known solutions of general relativistic free fall motion. Also, from the approximate forms for fractional parameters, the physical meanings were found. The fractional parameters depended on the proper time, the mass of gravitating body, and the initial radial coordinate of the particle.

9. A Comprehensive Probability Project for the Upper Division One-Semester Probability Course Using Yahtzee

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilson, Jason; Lawman, Joshua; Murphy, Rachael; Nelson, Marissa

2011-01-01

This article describes a probability project used in an upper division, one-semester probability course with third-semester calculus and linear algebra prerequisites. The student learning outcome focused on developing the skills necessary for approaching project-sized math/stat application problems. These skills include appropriately defining…

10. Backpropagation and ordered derivatives in the time scales calculus.

PubMed

Seiffertt, John; Wunsch, Donald C

2010-08-01

Backpropagation is the most widely used neural network learning technique. It is based on the mathematical notion of an ordered derivative. In this paper, we present a formulation of ordered derivatives and the backpropagation training algorithm using the important emerging area of mathematics known as the time scales calculus. This calculus, with its potential for application to a wide variety of inter-disciplinary problems, is becoming a key area of mathematics. It is capable of unifying continuous and discrete analysis within one coherent theoretical framework. Using this calculus, we present here a generalization of backpropagation which is appropriate for cases beyond the specifically continuous or discrete. We develop a new multivariate chain rule of this calculus, define ordered derivatives on time scales, prove a key theorem about them, and derive the backpropagation weight update equations for a feedforward multilayer neural network architecture. By drawing together the time scales calculus and the area of neural network learning, we present the first connection of two major fields of research. PMID:20615808

11. Investigation of students' reasoning regarding heat, work, and the first law of thermodynamics in an introductory calculus-based general physics course

Meltzer, David E.

2004-11-01

Students in an introductory university physics course were found to share many substantial difficulties related to learning fundamental topics in thermal physics. Responses to written questions by 653 students in three separate courses were consistent with the results of detailed individual interviews with 32 students in a fourth course. Although most students seemed to acquire a reasonable grasp of the state-function concept, it was found that there was a widespread and persistent tendency to improperly over-generalize this concept to apply to both work and heat. A large majority of interviewed students thought that net work done or net heat absorbed by a system undergoing a cyclic process must be zero, and only 20% or fewer were able to make effective use of the first law of thermodynamics even after instruction. Students' difficulties seemed to stem in part from the fact that heat, work, and internal energy share the same units. The results were consistent with those of previously published studies of students in the U.S. and Europe, but portray a pervasiveness of confusion regarding process-dependent quantities that has been previously unreported. Significant enhancements of current standard instruction may be required for students to master basic thermodynamic concepts.

12. A Discrete Approach to the Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gordon, Sheldon P.

1979-01-01

The calculus of finite differences and finite sums is used to create a context in which the computer can be incorporated into calculus courses. Analyses of the experimental implementations are included. (MP)

13. The development and nature of problem-solving among first-semester calculus students

Dawkins, Paul Christian; Mendoza Epperson, James A.

2014-08-01

This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate this blended instruction as a local representative of the US calculus reform movements that helped foster it. These reform movements tended to emphasize problem-solving as well as multiple mathematical registers and quantitative modelling. Our statistical analysis reveals the influence of the blended traditional/reform calculus instruction on students' ability to solve calculus-related, non-routine problems through repeated measures over the semester. The calculus instruction in this study significantly improved students' performance on non-routine problems, though performance improved more regarding strategies and accuracy than it did for drawing conclusions and providing justifications. We identified problem-solving behaviours that characterized top performance or attrition in the course. Top-performing students displayed greater algebraic proficiency, calculus skills, and more general heuristics than their peers, but overused algebraic techniques even when they proved cumbersome or inappropriate. Students who subsequently withdrew from calculus often lacked algebraic fluency and understanding of the graphical register. The majority of participants, when given a choice, relied upon less sophisticated trial-and-error approaches in the numerical register and rarely used the graphical register, contrary to the goals of US calculus reform. We provide explanations for these patterns in students' problem-solving performance in view of both their preparation for university calculus and the courses' assessment structure, which preferentially rewarded algebraic reasoning. While instruction improved students' problem

14. A Tutorial Review on Fractal Spacetime and Fractional Calculus

He, Ji-Huan

2014-11-01

This tutorial review of fractal-Cantorian spacetime and fractional calculus begins with Leibniz's notation for derivative without limits which can be generalized to discontinuous media like fractal derivative and q-derivative of quantum calculus. Fractal spacetime is used to elucidate some basic properties of fractal which is the foundation of fractional calculus, and El Naschie's mass-energy equation for the dark energy. The variational iteration method is used to introduce the definition of fractional derivatives. Fractal derivative is explained geometrically and q-derivative is motivated by quantum mechanics. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g., the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method, the exp-function method, the fractional complex transform, and Yang-Laplace transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given.

15. Making Implicit Multivariable Calculus Representations Explicit: A Clinical Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGee, Daniel; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Martinez-Planell, Rafael

2015-01-01

Reviewing numerous textbooks, we found that in both differential and integral calculus textbooks the authors commonly assume that: (i) students can generalize associations between representations in two dimensions to associations between representations of the same mathematical concept in three dimensions on their own; and (ii) explicit…

16. Geometric Demonstration of the Fundamental Theorems of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2010-01-01

After the monumental discovery of the fundamental theorems of the calculus nearly 350 years ago, it became possible to answer extremely complex questions regarding the natural world. Here, a straightforward yet profound demonstration, employing geometrically symmetric functions, describes the validity of the general power rules for integration and…

17. Calculus-Based Physics Exploratory Study. Summary Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, Aurora.

Generally, the levels of participation and achievement of females in science do not match those of male learners. This report describes the formation and study of an all-female section of calculus-based physics for the purpose of providing an environment that might enhance the participation and achievement of females in the physical sciences so…

18. On Probability Domains III

Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin

2015-12-01

Domains of generalized probability have been introduced in order to provide a general construction of random events, observables and states. It is based on the notion of a cogenerator and the properties of product. We continue our previous study and show how some other quantum structures fit our categorical approach. We discuss how various epireflections implicitly used in the classical probability theory are related to the transition to fuzzy probability theory and describe the latter probability theory as a genuine categorical extension of the former. We show that the IF-probability can be studied via the fuzzy probability theory. We outline a "tensor modification" of the fuzzy probability theory.

19. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ferguson, Sarah

2016-01-01

Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

20. Investigating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson, Heather L.

2010-01-01

The fundamental theorem of calculus, in its simplified complexity, connects differential and integral calculus. The power of the theorem comes not merely from recognizing it as a mathematical fact but from using it as a systematic tool. As a high school calculus teacher, the author developed and taught lessons on this fundamental theorem that were…

1. The Power of Investigative Calculus Projects

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perrin, John Robert; Quinn, Robert J.

2008-01-01

This article describes investigative calculus projects in which students explore a question or problem of their own construction. Three exemplary pieces of student work are showcased. Investigative calculus projects are an excellent way to foster student understanding and interest in calculus. (Contains 4 figures.)

2. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

Takata, Ken

2010-10-01

College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

3. Calculus with a quaternionic variable

Schwartz, Charles

2009-01-01

Most of theoretical physics is based on the mathematics of functions of a real or a complex variable; yet we frequently are drawn in trying to extend our reach to include quaternions. The noncommutativity of the quaternion algebra poses obstacles for the usual manipulations of calculus, but we show in this paper how many of those obstacles can be overcome. The surprising result is that the first order term in the expansion of F(x +δ) is a compact formula involving both F'(x) and [F(x )-F(x∗)]/(x -x∗). This advance in the differential calculus for quaternionic variables also leads us to some progress in studying integration.

4. Equal prior probabilities: can one do any better?

PubMed

Biedermann, A; Taroni, F; Garbolino, P

2007-10-25

This paper discusses recommendations concerning the use of prior probabilities that underlie recent, but in no way novel, proposals of presenting scientific evidence in terms of posterior probabilities, in the context sometimes referred to as the 'full Bayes' approach'. A chief issue of this procedure is a proposal that--given the unavailability of case-specific circumstantial information--scientists should consider the prior probabilities of the propositions under which scientific evidence is evaluated as equal. The discussion presented here draws the reader's attention to the fact that the philosophical foundations of such a recommendation (in particular, attempted justifications through the Principle of Maximum Entropy (PME)) are far more controversial than what is actually admitted by the advocates for their use in the theory and practice of forensic science. Invoking only basic assumptions and the mathematical rules of probability calculus, the authors of this paper propose an argument that shows that there can be other more feasible and defensible strategies for eliciting reasonable prior probabilities. It is solely demanded that the reasoner is willing to make up his mind seriously on certain standard issues of fairly general criminal cases, such as evidential relevance or the probability of a suspect's guilt. However, because these issues intimately pertain to the responsibility of the trier of the fact, it is argued here that scientists' attempts to define appropriate prior probabilities should continue to be considered as untenable for the need. PMID:17267153

5. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

2015-05-01

We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

6. Reading the World with Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verzosa, Debbie

2015-01-01

It is now increasingly recognized that mathematics is not a neutral value-free subject. Rather, mathematics can challenge students' taken-for-granted realities and promote action. This article describes two issues, namely deforestation and income inequality. These were specifically chosen because they can be related to a range of calculus concepts…

7. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kaplan, Samuel R.

2015-01-01

Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

8. Calculus Student Understanding of Continuity

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wangle, Jayleen Lillian

2013-01-01

Continuity is a central concept in calculus. Yet very few students seem to understand the nature of continuity. The research described was conducted in two stages. Students were asked questions in multiple choice and true/false format regarding function, limit and continuity. These results were used to identify participants as strong, weak or…

9. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Takata, Ken

2010-01-01

College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

10. The Pendulum and the Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sworder, Steven C.

A pair of experiments, appropriate for the lower division fourth semester calculus or differential equations course, are presented. The second order differential equation representing the equation of motion of a simple pendulum is derived. The period of oscillation for a particular pendulum can be predicted from the solution to this equation. As a…

11. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

2013-01-01

Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

12. Constructivized Calculus in College Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawrence, Barbara Ann

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study is to present some of the classical concepts, definitions, and theorems of calculus from the constructivists' point of view in the spirit of the philosophies of L.E.J. Brouwer and Errett Bishop. This presentation will compare the classical statements to the constructivized statements. The method focuses on giving…

13. A "Model" Multivariable Calculus Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beckmann, Charlene E.; Schlicker, Steven J.

1999-01-01

Describes a rich, investigative approach to multivariable calculus. Introduces a project in which students construct physical models of surfaces that represent real-life applications of their choice. The models, along with student-selected datasets, serve as vehicles to study most of the concepts of the course from both continuous and discrete…

14. Mathematical Features of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2010-01-01

The fundamental theorems of the calculus describe the relationships between derivatives and integrals of functions. The value of any function at a particular location is the definite derivative of its integral and the definite integral of its derivative. Thus, any value is the magnitude of the slope of the tangent of its integral at that position,…

15. The impact of taking a college pre-calculus course on students' college calculus performance

2014-11-01

Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and four-year colleges continues to grow, and these courses are well-populated with students who already took pre-calculus in high school. We examine student performance in college calculus, using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of taking college pre-calculus or not, in a national US sample of 5507 students at 132 institutions. We find that students who take college pre-calculus do not earn higher calculus grades.

16. Regge calculus: applications to classical and quantum gravity

SciTech Connect

Lewis, S.M.

1983-01-01

Regge calculus is a simplicial approximation to general relativity which preserves many topological and geometrical properties of the exact theory. After discussing the foundations of this technique and deriving some basic identities, specific solutions to Regge calculus are analyzed. In particular, the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model is shown. This particular model is used in the discussion of the initial value problem for Regge calculus. An Arnowitt-Deser-Misner type of 3 + 1 decomposition is possible only under very special circumstances; solutions with a non-spatially constant lapse can not generally be decomposed. The flat FRW model is also used to compute the accuracy of this approximation method developed by Regge. A three-dimensional toy model of quantum gravity is discussed that was originally formulated by Ponzano and Regge. A more thorough calculation is performed that takes into account additional terms. The renormalization properties of this model are shown. Finally, speculations are made on the interaction of the geometry, topology and quantum effects using Regge calculus, which, because of its simplicial nature, makes these effects more amenable to calculation and intuition.

17. Factors Associated with Success in College Calculus II

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rosasco, Margaret E.

2013-01-01

Students are entering college having earned credit for college Calculus 1 based on their scores on the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus AB exam. Despite being granted credit for college Calculus 1, it is unclear whether these students are adequately prepared for college Calculus 2. College calculus classes are often taught…

18. The probabilities of unique events.

PubMed

Khemlani, Sangeet S; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

2012-01-01

Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

19. The Probabilities of Unique Events

PubMed Central

Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

2012-01-01

Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

20. Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Butler, Ricky W.

2004-01-01

The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safety-critical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht's classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.

1. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

PubMed Central

MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

2014-01-01

Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

2. Tempered fractional calculus

Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

2015-07-01

Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

3. Tempered fractional calculus

SciTech Connect

Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

2015-07-15

Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

4. Variational calculus on Banach spaces

SciTech Connect

Uglanov, A V

2000-10-31

The problem of variational calculus is considered in a (variable) subdomain of a Banach space. Analogues of the basic principles of the finite-dimensional theory are derived: the main formula for variations of a functional, necessary conditions of an extremum, Noether's theorem. All the results obtained are dimension-invariant and become the classical ones in the finite-dimensional setting. The main tool of the analysis is the theory of surface integration in Banach spaces.

5. Complete staghorn calculus in polycystic kidney disease: infection is still the cause

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

Background Kidney stones in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are common, regarded as the consequence of the combination of anatomic abnormality and metabolic risk factors. However, complete staghorn calculus is rare in polycystic kidney disease and predicts a gloomy prognosis of kidney. For general population, recent data showed metabolic factors were the dominant causes for staghorn calculus, but for polycystic kidney disease patients, the cause for staghorn calculus remained elusive. Case presentation We report a case of complete staghorm calculus in a polycystic kidney disease patient induced by repeatedly urinary tract infections. This 37-year-old autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease female with positive family history was admitted in this hospital for repeatedly upper urinary tract infection for 3 years. CT scan revealed the existence of a complete staghorn calculus in her right kidney, while there was no kidney stone 3 years before, and the urinary stone component analysis showed the composition of calculus was magnesium ammonium phosphate. Conclusion UTI is an important complication for polycystic kidney disease and will facilitate the formation of staghorn calculi. As staghorn calculi are associated with kidney fibrosis and high long-term renal deterioration rate, prompt control of urinary tract infection in polycystic kidney disease patient will be beneficial in preventing staghorn calculus formation. PMID:24070202

6. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

SciTech Connect

Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

1987-01-01

We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics.

7. General aptitude and the assumption of truth in deductively rational reasoning about probable but false antecedent to consequent relations.

PubMed

Schroyens, Walter; Fleerackers, Lieve; Maes, Sunile

2010-01-01

Two experiments (N(1) = 117 and N(2) = 245) on reasoning with knowledge-rich conditionals showed a main effect of logical validity, which was due to the negative effect of counter-examples being smaller for valid than for invalid arguments. These findings support the thesis that some people tend to inhibit background inconsistent with the hypothetical truth of the premises, while others tend to abandon the implicit truth-assumption when they have factual evidence to the contrary. Findings show that adhering to the truth-assumption in the face of conflicting evidence to the contrary requires an investment of time and effort which people with a higher general aptitude are more likely to do. PMID:21228921

8. General aptitude and the assumption of truth in deductively rational reasoning about probable but false antecedent to consequent relations

PubMed Central

Schroyens, Walter; Fleerackers, Lieve; Maes, Sunile

2010-01-01

Two experiments (N1 = 117 and N2 = 245) on reasoning with knowledge-rich conditionals showed a main effect of logical validity, which was due to the negative effect of counter-examples being smaller for valid than for invalid arguments. These findings support the thesis that some people tend to inhibit background inconsistent with the hypothetical truth of the premises, while others tend to abandon the implicit truth-assumption when they have factual evidence to the contrary. Findings show that adhering to the truth-assumption in the face of conflicting evidence to the contrary requires an investment of time and effort which people with a higher general aptitude are more likely to do. PMID:21228921

9. An Introduction to Lagrangian Differential Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schremmer, Francesca; Schremmer, Alain

1990-01-01

Illustrates how Lagrange's approach applies to the differential calculus of polynomial functions when approximations are obtained. Discusses how to obtain polynomial approximations in other cases. (YP)

10. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

SciTech Connect

J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

2013-03-12

We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

11. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

2014-01-01

We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

12. Generalized method for probability-based peptide and protein identification from tandem mass spectrometry data and sequence database searching.

PubMed

Ramos-Fernández, Antonio; Paradela, Alberto; Navajas, Rosana; Albar, Juan Pablo

2008-09-01

Tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics is currently in great demand of computational methods that facilitate the elimination of likely false positives in peptide and protein identification. In the last few years, a number of new peptide identification programs have been described, but scores or other significance measures reported by these programs cannot always be directly translated into an easy to interpret error rate measurement such as the false discovery rate. In this work we used generalized lambda distributions to model frequency distributions of database search scores computed by MASCOT, X!TANDEM with k-score plug-in, OMSSA, and InsPecT. From these distributions, we could successfully estimate p values and false discovery rates with high accuracy. From the set of peptide assignments reported by any of these engines, we also defined a generic protein scoring scheme that enabled accurate estimation of protein-level p values by simulation of random score distributions that was also found to yield good estimates of protein-level false discovery rate. The performance of these methods was evaluated by searching four freely available data sets ranging from 40,000 to 285,000 MS/MS spectra. PMID:18515861

13. R-Function Relationships for Application in the Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

2000-01-01

The F-function, and its generalization the R-function, are of fundamental importance in the fractional calculus. It has been shown that the solution of the fundamental linear fractional differential equation may be expressed in terms of these functions. These functions serve as generalizations of the exponential function in the solution of fractional differential equations. Because of this central role in the fractional calculus, this paper explores various intrarelationships of the R-function, which will be useful in further analysis. Relationships of the R-function to the common exponential function, e(t), and its fractional derivatives are shown. From the relationships developed, some important approximations are observed. Further, the inverse relationships of the exponential function, el, in terms of the R-function are developed. Also, some approximations for the R-function are developed.

14. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

PubMed Central

Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

2016-01-01

Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

15. Study on bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis.

PubMed

Wan, Tien-Chun; Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

2009-12-01

The purpose of the study was to investigate bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis obtained as valuable by-products from animals used for meat production. The results showed that the components of natural Calculus Bovis were rich in bilirubin and biliverdin and had higher content of essential amino acids. The major amino acids of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis were identified as glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and those for natural Calculus Bovis were found to be glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, and arginine. The methionine and cysteine contents of precursors for glutathione in natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The mineral contents of zinc, iron and manganese of natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The major bile acids in both products were cholic acid and dehydrocholic acid, respectively. The chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid content of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis was significantly higher than that of natural Calculus Bovis. PMID:20163661

16. Calculus: An Active Approach with Projects.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hilbert, Steve; And Others

Ithaca College, in New York, has developed and tested a projects-based first-year calculus course over the last 3 years which uses the graphs of functions and physical phenomena to illustrate and motivate the major concepts of calculus and to introduce students to mathematical modeling. The course curriculum is designed to: (1) emphasize on the…

17. Calculus and Success in a Business School

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kim, Dong-gook; Garcia, Fernando; Dey, Ishita

2012-01-01

Many business schools or colleges require calculus as a prerequisite for certain classes or for continuing to upper division courses. While there are many studies investigating the relationship between performance in calculus and performance in a single course, such as economics, statistics, and finance, there are very few studies investigating…

18. Aspects of Calculus for Preservice Teachers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fothergill, Lee

2011-01-01

The purpose of this study was to compare the perspectives of faculty members who had experience teaching undergraduate calculus and preservice teachers who had recently completed student teaching in regards to a first semester undergraduate calculus course. An online survey was created and sent to recent student teachers and college mathematics…

19. Raise Test Scores: Integrate Biology and Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lukens, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Sheryl

This paper presents the results of research that compared the academic achievement of high school students enrolled in an integrated Advanced Placement Biology/Advanced Placement Calculus course with students enrolled in traditional Advanced Placement Biology and Advanced Placement Calculus courses. Study subjects included high school students…

20. [Pharmacological action of cultured calculus bovis].

PubMed

Yuan, H

1991-02-01

By means of comparative pharmacological study, the main pharmacodynamics and toxicity of cultured calculus bovis and natural calculus bovis were compared under the same conditions. The results show that both drugs possess sedative, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, cardiotonic and hypotensive effects, the strength of effect and toxicity being similar. PMID:1872960

1. Areas and Volumes in Pre-Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

2008-01-01

This article suggests the introduction of the concepts of areas bounded by plane curves and the volumes of solids of revolution in Pre-calculus. It builds on the basic knowledge that students bring to a pre-calculus class, derives a few more formulas, and gives examples of some problems on plane areas and the volumes of solids of revolution that…

2. A Snapshot of the Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weathers, Tony D.; Latterell, Carmen M.

2003-01-01

Essentially a focus group to discuss textbook related issues, a meeting of calculus instructors from a wide variety of environments was convened and sponsored by McGraw Hill to provide feedback on the current state of the calculus classroom. This paper provides a description of the group's discussions.

3. Top-Down Calculus: A Concise Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williamson, S. Gill

This textbook was designed for a first course in differential and integral calculus, and is directed toward students in engineering, the sciences, mathematics, and computer science. Its major goal is to bring students to a level of technical competence and intuitive understanding of calculus that is adequate for applying the subject to real world…

4. Educating about Sustainability while Enhancing Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pfaff, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

We give an overview of why it is important to include sustainability in mathematics classes and provide specific examples of how to do this for a calculus class. We illustrate that when students use "Excel" to fit curves to real data, fundamentally important questions about sustainability become calculus questions about those curves. (Contains 5…

5. Can We Learn Calculus from a Jerk?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kenyon, Paula L.; Bardzell, Michael J.

2001-01-01

Summarizes an interdisciplinary undergraduate research project involving experimental physics and calculus and illustrates how mathematics was used to finesse incomplete experimental information and maximize physical quantity known as jerk. Describes how calculus can be applied in the "real world" where functions are not always given by nice…

6. Some Calculus Affordances of a Graphics Calculator

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian

2008-01-01

Calculus at the secondary school level has traditionally represented the peak of school mathematics in Australia, and has been available only to the most capable students. Until recently, many calculus curricula have focused on developing standard techniques, such as those concerned with differentiation and integration, with an emphasis on…

7. Imagine Yourself in This Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bryan, Luajean

2007-01-01

The efforts to attract students to precalculus, trigonometry, and calculus classes became more successful at the author's school when projects-based classes were offered. Data collection from an untethered hot air balloon flight for calculus students was planned to maximize enrollment. The data were analyzed numerically, graphically, and…

8. Improving student learning in calculus through applications

Young, C. Y.; Georgiopoulos, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Geiger, C. L.; Dagley-Falls, M. A.; Islas, A. L.; Ramsey, P. J.; Lancey, P. M.; Straney, R. A.; Forde, D. S.; Bradbury, E. E.

2011-07-01

Nationally only 40% of the incoming freshmen Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors are successful in earning a STEM degree. The University of Central Florida (UCF) EXCEL programme is a National Science Foundation funded STEM Talent Expansion Programme whose goal is to increase the number of UCF STEM graduates. One of the key requirements for STEM majors is a strong foundation in Calculus. To improve student learning in calculus, the EXCEL programme developed two special courses at the freshman level called Applications of Calculus I (Apps I) and Applications of Calculus II (Apps II). Apps I and II are one-credit classes that are co-requisites for Calculus I and II. These classes are teams taught by science and engineering professors whose goal is to demonstrate to students where the calculus topics they are learning appear in upper level science and engineering classes as well as how faculty use calculus in their STEM research programmes. This article outlines the process used in producing the educational materials for the Apps I and II courses, and it also discusses the assessment results pertaining to this specific EXCEL activity. Pre- and post-tests conducted with experimental and control groups indicate significant improvement in student learning in Calculus II as a direct result of the application courses.

9. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

2013-01-01

In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

10. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

2015-01-01

The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

11. Plotting Pots: Archaeological Exercises in Introductory Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meier, John; Thorme, Trisha

1997-01-01

Outlines a pair of projects used in introductory calculus that are inspired by techniques archaeologists use in the analysis of pottery. These real-world application problems appeal to students who are not necessarily interested in the standard application of calculus. (Author/DDR)

12. Formal Modeling of Multi-Agent Systems using the Pi-Calculus and Epistemic Logic

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rorie, Toinette; Esterline, Albert

1998-01-01

Multi-agent systems have become important recently in computer science, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). We allow a broad sense of agent, but require at least that an agent has some measure of autonomy and interacts with other agents via some kind of agent communication language. We are concerned in this paper with formal modeling of multi-agent systems, with emphasis on communication. We propose for this purpose to use the pi-calculus, an extension of the process algebra CCS. Although the literature on the pi-calculus refers to agents, the term is used there in the sense of a process in general. It is our contention, however, that viewing agents in the AI sense as agents in the pi-calculus sense affords significant formal insight. One formalism that has been applied to agents in the AI sense is epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge. The success of epistemic logic in computer science in general has come in large part from its ability to handle concepts of knowledge that apply to groups. We maintain that the pi-calculus affords a natural yet rigorous means by which groups that are significant to epistemic logic may be identified, encapsulated, structured into hierarchies, and restructured in a principled way. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the pi-calculus; Section 3 takes a scenario from the classical paper on agent-oriented programming [Sh93] and translates it into a very simple subset of the n-calculus; Section 4 then shows how more sophisticated features of the pi-calculus may bc brought into play; Section 5 discusses how the pi-calculus may be used to define groups for epistemic logic; and Section 6 is the conclusion.

13. Fractional calculus in hydrologic modeling: A numerical perspective

PubMed Central

Benson, David A.; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Revielle, Jordan

2013-01-01

Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as handy extensions of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Lévy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Lévy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus. PMID:23524449

14. Fractional calculus in hydrologic modeling: A numerical perspective.

PubMed

Benson, David A; Meerschaert, Mark M; Revielle, Jordan

2013-01-01

Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as handy extensions of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Lévy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Lévy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus. PMID:23524449

15. Separation of noncommutative differential calculus on quantum Minkowski space

SciTech Connect

Bachmaier, Fabian; Blohmann, Christian

2006-02-15

Noncommutative differential calculus on quantum Minkowski space is not separated with respect to the standard generators, in the sense that partial derivatives of functions of a single generator can depend on all other generators. It is shown that this problem can be overcome by a separation of variables. We study the action of the universal L-matrix, appearing in the coproduct of partial derivatives, on generators. Powers of the resulting quantum Minkowski algebra valued matrices are calculated. This leads to a nonlinear coordinate transformation which essentially separates the calculus. A compact formula for general derivatives is obtained in form of a chain rule with partial Jackson derivatives. It is applied to the massive quantum Klein-Gordon equation by reducing it to an ordinary q-difference equation. The rest state solution can be expressed in terms of a product of q-exponential functions in the separated variables.

16. Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises

Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.

2016-02-01

We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.

17. Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective

SciTech Connect

David A. Benson; Mark M. Meerschaert; Jordan Revielle

2012-01-01

Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.

18. Computer-Oriented Calculus Courses Using Finite Differences.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gordon, Sheldon P.

The so-called discrete approach in calculus instruction involves introducing topics from the calculus of finite differences and finite sums, both for motivation and as useful tools for applications of the calculus. In particular, it provides an ideal setting in which to incorporate computers into calculus courses. This approach has been…

19. Why Probability?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weatherly, Myra S.

1984-01-01

Instruction in mathematical probability to enhance higher levels of critical and creative thinking with gifted students is described. Among thinking skills developed by such an approach are analysis, synthesis, evaluation, fluency, and complexity. (CL)

20. The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2014-01-01

Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…

1. Motivation and Study Habits of College Calculus Students: Does Studying Calculus in High School Make a Difference?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gibson, Megan

2013-01-01

Due in part to the growing popularity of the Advanced Placement program, an increasingly large percentage of entering college students are enrolling in calculus courses having already taken calculus in high school. Many students do not score high enough on the AP calculus examination to place out of Calculus I, and many do not take the…

2. Adapting machine learning techniques to censored time-to-event health record data: A general-purpose approach using inverse probability of censoring weighting.

PubMed

Vock, David M; Wolfson, Julian; Bandyopadhyay, Sunayan; Adomavicius, Gediminas; Johnson, Paul E; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; O'Connor, Patrick J

2016-06-01

3. Teaching calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

2010-12-01

This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to Wolfram|Alpha in our differential and integral calculus labs, together with the positive results from our experience. We also discuss the current limitations of Wolfram|Alpha, including a discussion on why we still use a CAS for our multivariate calculus labs.

4. Recursive sequences in first-year calculus

Krainer, Thomas

2016-02-01

This article provides ready-to-use supplementary material on recursive sequences for a second-semester calculus class. It equips first-year calculus students with a basic methodical procedure based on which they can conduct a rigorous convergence or divergence analysis of many simple recursive sequences on their own without the need to invoke inductive arguments as is typically required in calculus textbooks. The sequences that are accessible to this kind of analysis are predominantly (eventually) monotonic, but also certain recursive sequences that alternate around their limit point as they converge can be considered.

5. A critical review of second law costing methods - II; Calculus procedures

SciTech Connect

Gaggioli, R.A. ); ElSayed, Y.M. )

1989-03-01

This article completes the review of the development and state of engineering economic applications of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The authors began with a historical review, followed by a brief discussion of the relevant cost accounting concepts and, in turn, general descriptions of the different exergy costing methods which are in existence. Then, the various algebraic techniques of exergy costing were analyzed and critiqued, generally by considering successive publications developing and/or based on a technique. This paper is devoted primarily to calculus methods. The algebraic and calculus techniques relate to each other, and those relationships are developed here. Furthermore, general concepts, discussion and conclusions which are relevant to both algebraic and calculus methods are presented, along with suggestions regarding further research.

6. Vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space and its applications to fractal media

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2015-02-01

We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for the case of non-integer dimensional space. The first and second orders operations such as gradient, divergence, the scalar and vector Laplace operators for non-integer dimensional space are defined. For simplification we consider scalar and vector fields that are independent of angles. We formulate a generalization of vector calculus for rotationally covariant scalar and vector functions. This generalization allows us to describe fractal media and materials in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. As examples of application of the suggested calculus, we consider elasticity of fractal materials (fractal hollow ball and fractal cylindrical pipe with pressure inside and outside), steady distribution of heat in fractal media, electric field of fractal charged cylinder. We solve the correspondent equations for non-integer dimensional space models.

7. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rowe, Geoffrey

2010-01-01

An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.

8. HIV rates and risk behaviors are low in the general population of males in South India, but high in alcohol venues: results from 2 probability surveys

PubMed Central

Go, Vivian F.; Solomon, Suniti; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sripaipan, Teerada; Murugavel, K G.; Latkin, Carl; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Celentano, David D.

2010-01-01

Background As the HIV epidemic continues to expand in India, empirical data are needed to determine the course of the epidemic for high-risk and the general population. Methods Two probability surveys were conducted in Chennai slums among a household sample of males and alcohol venue patrons ("wine shops") to compare HIV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence and to identify STD behavioral risk factors. Results The wine shop sample (n=654) had higher rates of HIV and prevalent STDs (HIV, HSV-II, syphilis, gonorrhea or chlamydia) compared to the household sample (n = 685) (3·4% versus 1·2%: p-value = 0·007 and 21·6% versus 11·8%: p-value = <0·0001, respectively). High-risk behaviors in the household sample was rare (<4%), but 69·6% of wine shop patrons had >2 partners, 58·4% had unprotected sex with a casual partner and 54·1% had exchanged sex for money in the past 3 months. A multivariate model found that older age, ever-married, ever tested for HIV, and having unprotected sex in the past 3 months was associated with STD prevalence in wine shop patrons. Conclusions Prevalent HIV and STDs, and sexual risk behaviors are relatively low among the general population of men. We found that men who frequent alcohol venues practice high risk behaviors and have high rates of STDs, including HIV, and may play an important role in expanding the Indian epidemic. PMID:18077840

9. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

PubMed Central

Yu, Li; Zheng, Jun

2013-01-01

Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS). Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor. PMID:24228019

10. Null-strut calculus. II. Dynamics

SciTech Connect

Kheyfets, A.; LaFave, N.J.; Miller, W.A. )

1990-06-15

In this paper, we continue from the preceding paper to develop a fully functional Regge calculus geometrodynamic algorithm from the null-strut-calculus construction. The developments discussed include (a) the identification of the Regge calculus analogue of the constraint and evolution equations on the null-strut lattice, (b) a description of the Minkowski solid geometry for the simplicial blocks of the null-strut lattice, (c) a description of the evolution algorithm for the geometrodynamic scheme and an analysis of its consistency, and (d) a presentation of the dynamical degrees of freedom for a simplicial hypersurface and the description of an initial-value prescription. To demonstrate qualitatively this new approach to geometrodynamics, we present the most simple application of null-strut calculus that we know of---the Friedmann cosmology using the three-boundary of a 600-cell simplicial polytope to model the simplicial hypersurface.

11. Applying Change of Variable to Calculus Problems

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

2011-01-01

This article describes the technique of introducing a new variable in some calculus problems to help students master the skills of integration and evaluation of limits. This technique is algorithmic and easy to apply.

12. Calculus in Elementary School: An Example of ICT-Based Curriculum Transformation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fluck, Andrew; Ranmuthugala, Dev; Chin, Chris; Penesis, Irene

2012-01-01

Integral calculus is generally regarded as a fundamental but advanced aspect of mathematics, and it is not generally studied until students are aged about fifteen or older. Understanding the transformative potential of information and communication technology, this project undertook an investigation in four Australian schools to train students…

13. Fractional Calculus Model of Electrical Impedance Applied to Human Skin

PubMed Central

Vosika, Zoran B.; Lazovic, Goran M.; Misevic, Gradimir N.; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B.

2013-01-01

Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

14. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

PubMed

Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

2013-01-01

Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

15. A Posteriori Transit Probabilities

Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott

2013-08-01

Given the radial velocity (RV) detection of an unseen companion, it is often of interest to estimate the probability that the companion also transits the primary star. Typically, one assumes a uniform distribution for the cosine of the inclination angle i of the companion's orbit. This yields the familiar estimate for the prior transit probability of ~Rlowast/a, given the primary radius Rlowast and orbital semimajor axis a, and assuming small companions and a circular orbit. However, the posterior transit probability depends not only on the prior probability distribution of i but also on the prior probability distribution of the companion mass Mc, given a measurement of the product of the two (the minimum mass Mc sin i) from an RV signal. In general, the posterior can be larger or smaller than the prior transit probability. We derive analytic expressions for the posterior transit probability assuming a power-law form for the distribution of true masses, dΓ/dMcvpropMcα, for integer values -3 <= α <= 3. We show that for low transit probabilities, these probabilities reduce to a constant multiplicative factor fα of the corresponding prior transit probability, where fα in general depends on α and an assumed upper limit on the true mass. The prior and posterior probabilities are equal for α = -1. The posterior transit probability is ~1.5 times larger than the prior for α = -3 and is ~4/π times larger for α = -2, but is less than the prior for α>=0, and can be arbitrarily small for α > 1. We also calculate the posterior transit probability in different mass regimes for two physically-motivated mass distributions of companions around Sun-like stars. We find that for Jupiter-mass planets, the posterior transit probability is roughly equal to the prior probability, whereas the posterior is likely higher for Super-Earths and Neptunes (10 M⊕ - 30 M⊕) and Super-Jupiters (3 MJup - 10 MJup), owing to the predicted steep rise in the mass function toward smaller

16. The efficacy of selective calculus ablation at 400 nm: comparison to conventional calculus removal methods

Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf; Romanos, Georgios; Rechmann, Peter

A desired outcome of scaling and root planing is the complete removal of calculus and infected root tissue and preservation of healthy cementum for rapid healing of periodontal tissues. Conventional periodontal treatments for calculus removal, such as hand instrument scaling and ultrasonic scaling, often deeply scrape the surface of the underlying hard tissue and may leave behind a smear layer. Pulsed lasers emitting at violet wavelengths (specifically, 380 to 400 nm) are a potential alternative treatment since they can selectively ablate dental calculus without ablating pristine hard tissue (i.e., enamel, cementum, and dentin). In this study, light and scanning electron microscopy are used to compare and contrast the efficacy of in vitro calculus removal for several conventional periodontal treatments (hand instruments, ultrasonic scaler, and Er:YAG laser) to calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire (λ = 400 nm). After calculus removal, enamel and cementum surfaces are investigated for calculus debris and damage to the underlying hard tissue surface. Compared to the smear layer, grooves, and unintentional hard tissue removal typically found using these conventional treatments, calculus removal using the 400-nm laser is complete and selective without any removal of pristine dental hard tissue. Based on these results, selective ablation from the 400-nm laser appears to produce a root surface that would be more suitable for successful healing of periodontal tissues.

17. 27% Probable: Estimating Whether or Not Large Numbers Are Prime.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bosse, Michael J.

2001-01-01

This brief investigation exemplifies such considerations by relating concepts from number theory, set theory, probability, logic, and calculus. Satisfying the call for students to acquire skills in estimation, the following technique allows one to "immediately estimate" whether or not a number is prime. (MM)

18. Mechanistic explanation of integral calculus

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2015-04-01

The anatomic features of filaments, drawn through graphs of an integral F(x) and its derivative f(x), clarify why integrals automatically calculate area swept out by derivatives. Each miniscule elevation change dF on an integral, as a linear measure, equals the magnitude of square area of a corresponding vertical filament through its derivative. The sum of all dF increments combine to produce a range ΔF on the integral that equals the exact summed area swept out by the derivative over that domain. The sum of filament areas is symbolized ∫f(x)dx, where dx is the width of any filament and f(x) is the ordinal value of the derivative and thus, the intrinsic slope of the integral point dF/dx. dx displacement widths, and corresponding dF displacement heights, along the integral are not uniform and are determined by the intrinsic slope of the function at each point. Among many methods that demonstrate why integrals calculate area traced out by derivatives, this presents the physical meaning of differentials dx and dF, and how the variation in each along an integral curve explicitly computes area at any point traced by the derivative. This area is the filament width dx times its height, the ordinal value of the derivative function f(x), which is the tangent slope dF/dx on the integral. This explains thoroughly but succinctly the precise mechanism of integral calculus.

19. Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes.

PubMed

van Loveren, Cor; Duckworth, Ralph M

2013-01-01

In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high affinity for tooth mineral. Due to this affinity, crystal growth may be hindered (anti-calculus) and chromophores be displaced (whitening). Besides these common ingredients, both types of toothpaste may contain agents specifically aimed at each condition. Clinical studies have shown that these active ingredients can be successfully formulated in fluoride toothpastes to give significant reductions in supragingival calculus and stain formation and facilitate their removal. Some of the ingredients are formulated in toothpastes that additionally contain anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis ingredients, making these toothpastes (together with the fluoride) truly multi-functional. The development of these products is not straightforward because of interaction between formulation components and because the active ingredients must maintain their beneficial characteristics during the shelf life of the paste. Neither a therapeutic benefit (in terms of less gingivitis or less caries) nor a societal benefit (in terms of less treatment demand) has been demonstrated as a result of the anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes. PMID:23817060

20. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

PubMed

Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

2015-02-01

Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. PMID:25476244

1. Component analysis and growth process of nasopharyngeal calculus as revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

PubMed

Ogawa, T; Shibata, A; Maeda, Y; Uno, Y; Okano, M; Nishizaki, K; Ohsaki, K

2003-06-01

A quite rare case of nasopharyngeal calculus in a woman in her twenties associated with the nasal discharge of pseudomonas infection was reported. As the substance was irregularly large in size, we extracted it partially by piecemeal resection using forceps and also by cracking technique using the holmium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser, under saline irrigation and stereotactic microscopic navigator (SMN) system under endoscopic observation. The substance was firmly fixed to the pharyngeal tonsil bed. The final extract was a small piece of singly folded bandage, which is probably the focal background for calculus formation. In a cross section of calculus specimen removed during surgery, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis revealed that a) signal ratio of methylene group (organic substance) to amide I (protein) was 21.6% at the nasal cavity side, gradually decreased toward nasal mucous membrane showing approximate 50%, b) signal ratio of amide I to P04(3-) (inorganic substance) ranged between 17.7% and 26.7% at the different sites and inside the calculus, the protein content was approximate 1/5 of the inorganic substance, and c) signal ratio of the methylene group to amide I at the nasal cavity site showed that their contents were almost equal. The quantity of the organic substance was estimated at approximate 1/2 quantity of the protein at both the central part and the part contacted with the mucous membrane. From these results, it seems that throughout the course of calculus growth, both inorganic substance and protein remain almost constant inside the calculus, while organic substance is released from the internal part of the calculus being probably formed at an early stage. PMID:12899453

2. Metaplectic Representation, Conley-Zehnder Index, and Weyl Calculus on Phase Space

de Gosson, Maurice

We define and study a metaplectically covariant class of pseudo-differential operators acting on functions on symplectic space and generalizing a modified form of the usual Weyl calculus. This construction requires a precise calculation of the twisted Weyl symbol of a class of generators of the metaplectic group and the use of a Conley-Zehnder type index for symplectic paths, defined without restrictions on the endpoint. Our calculus is related to the usual Weyl calculus using a family of isometries of L2(ℝn) on closed subspaces of L2(ℝ2n) and to an irreducible representation of the Heisenberg algebra distinct from the usual Schrödinger representation.

3. Singular optimal control and the identically non-regular problem in the calculus of variations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Menon, P. K. A.; Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.

1985-01-01

A small but interesting class of optimal control problems featuring a scalar control appearing linearly is equivalent to the class of identically nonregular problems in the Calculus of Variations. It is shown that a condition due to Mancill (1950) is equivalent to the generalized Legendre-Clebsch condition for this narrow class of problems.

4. The giant calculus within the prostatic urethra.

PubMed

Demir, Omer; Kefi, Aykut; Cahangirov, Asif; Cihan, Ahmet; Obuz, Funda; Esen, Adil Ahmet; Celebi, Ilhan

2011-08-01

The giant calculus within the prostatic urethra is a rare clinical entity in the young population. Most of the calculi within the urethra migrate from the urinary bladder and obliterate the urethra. These stones are often composed of calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate. The decision of treatment strategy is affected by the size, shape and position of the calculus and by the status of the urethra. If the stone is large and immovable, it may be extracted via the perineal or the suprapubic approach. In most cases, the giant calculi were extracted via the transvesical approach and external urethrotomy. Our case is the biggest prostatic calculus, known in the literature so far, which was treated endoscopically by the combination of laser and the pneumatic lithotriptor. PMID:21188583

5. A cross-national study of calculus

Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

2015-05-01

The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan students showed a larger gain and normalized gain, and hence narrowed the gap. ECNU's superior performance was especially striking on the subset of problems requiring only a pre-calculus background. On those, Michigan's post-test scores were below ECNU's pre-test scores and, indeed, ECNU's higher performance on both the overall pre-test and overall post-test is attributable to its success on these problems.

6. LOOP CALCULUS AND BELIEF PROPAGATION FOR Q-ARY ALPHABET: LOOP TOWER

SciTech Connect

2007-01-10

Loop calculus introduced in [1], [2] constitutes a new theoretical tool that explicitly expresses symbol Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) solution of a general statistical inference problem via a solution of the Belief Propagation (BP) equations. This finding brought a new significance to the BP concept, which in the past was thought of as just a loop-free approximation. In this paper they continue a discussion of the Loop Calculus, partitioning the results into three Sections. In Section 1 they introduce a new formulation of the Loop Calculus in terms of a set of transformations (gauges) that keeping the partition function of the problem invariant. The full expression contains two terms referred to as the 'ground state' and 'excited states' contributions. The BP equations are interpreted as a special (BP) gauge fixing condition that emerges as a special orthogonality constraint between the ground state and excited states, which also selects loop contributions as the only surviving ones among the excited states. In Section 2 they demonstrate how the invariant interpretation of the Loop Calculus, introduced in Section 1, allows a natural extension to the case of a general q-ary alphabet, this is achieved via a loop tower sequential construction. The ground level in the tower is exactly equivalent to assigning one color (out of q available) to the 'ground state' and considering all 'excited' states colored in the remaining (q-1) colors, according to the loop calculus rule. Sequentially, the second level in the tower corresponds to selecting a loop from the previous step, colored in (q-1) colors, and repeating the same ground vs excited states splitting procedure into one and (q-2) colors respectively. The construction proceeds till the full (q-1)-levels deep loop tower (and the corresponding contributions to the partition function) are established. In Section 3 they discuss an ultimate relation between the loop calculus and the Bethe-Free energy variational approach of [3].

7. Early Diagnosis of a Large Vesical Calculus Complicating Pregnancy

PubMed Central

Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Venkatesan, Sankarapandian; Benjamin, Santosh Joseph

2013-01-01

Vesical calculus-complicating pregnancy is rare. This is a case report of a large vesical calculus-complicating pregnancy. The early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management of the large vesical calculus prevented complications like recurrent urinary tract infections and obstructed labor. It enabled the mother to have an uneventful vaginal delivery. PMID:24479053

8. Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy for Giant Ureteric Calculus: A Case Report.

PubMed

Magdum, Prasad V; Nerli, Rajendra B; Devaraju, Shishir; Hiremath, Murigendra B

2015-09-01

We present a case of a 21 year old male who presented with symptomatic right upper ureteric calculus measuring 5 cm × 1.5 cm fulfilling the criteria to be named as giant ureteric calculus. Laparoscopic right ureterolithotomy was performed and the giant ureteric calculus was retrieved. PMID:26793529

9. Science 101: How Do We Use Calculus in Science?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Bill

2014-01-01

How is calculus used in science? That might seem like an odd question to answer in a magazine intended primarily for elementary school teachers. After all, how much calculus gets used in elementary science? Here the author guesses that quite a few readers of this column do not know a whole lot about calculus and have not taken a course in…

10. A Historical Perspective on Teaching and Learning Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doorman, Michiel; van Maanen, Jan

2008-01-01

Calculus is one of those topics in mathematics where the algorithmic manipulation of symbols is easier than understanding the underlying concepts. Around 1680 Leibniz invented a symbol system for calculus that codifies and simplifies the essential elements of reasoning. The calculus of Leibniz brings within the reach of an ordinary student…

11. A Transition Course from Advanced Placement to College Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucas, Timothy A.; Spivey, Joseph

2011-01-01

In the Spring of 2007, a group of highly motivated mathematics graduate students conducted a review of Duke's Calculus curriculum. They focused on two main problems. The first problem is the result of a very positive trend: a growing number of students are earning AP credit for Calculus I in high school. However, this results in Calculus II…

12. Improving Calculus II and III through the Redistribution of Topics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

George, C. Yousuf; Koetz, Matt; Lewis, Heather A.

2016-01-01

Three years ago our mathematics department rearranged the topics in second and third semester calculus, moving multivariable calculus to the second semester and series to the third semester. This paper describes the new arrangement of topics, and how it could be adapted to calculus curricula at different schools. It also explains the benefits we…

13. Connes' calculus for the quantum double suspension

Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Guin, Satyajit

2015-02-01

Given a spectral triple (A, H, D) Connes associated a canonical differential graded algebra ΩD• (A) . However, so far this has been computed for very few special cases. We identify suitable hypotheses on a spectral triple that helps one to compute the associated Connes' calculus for its quantum double suspension. This allows one to compute ΩD• for spectral triples obtained by iterated quantum double suspension of the spectral triple associated with a first order differential operator on a compact smooth manifold. This gives the first systematic computation of Connes' calculus for a large family of spectral triples.

14. Pattern classification using fuzzy relational calculus.

PubMed

Ray, K S; Dinda, T K

2003-01-01

Our aim is to design a pattern classifier using fuzzy relational calculus (FRC) which was initially proposed by Pedrycz (1990). In the course of doing so, we first consider a particular interpretation of the multidimensional fuzzy implication (MFI) to represent our knowledge about the training data set. Subsequently, we introduce the notion of a fuzzy pattern vector to represent a population of training patterns in the pattern space and to denote the antecedent part of the said particular interpretation of the MFI. We introduce a new approach to the computation of the derivative of the fuzzy max-function and min-function using the concept of a generalized function. During the construction of the classifier based on FRC, we use fuzzy linguistic statements (or fuzzy membership function to represent the linguistic statement) to represent the values of features (e.g., feature F/sub 1/ is small and F/sub 2/ is big) for a population of patterns. Note that the construction of the classifier essentially depends on the estimate of a fuzzy relation /spl Rfr/ between the input (fuzzy set) and output (fuzzy set) of the classifier. Once the classifier is constructed, the nonfuzzy features of a pattern can be classified. At the time of classification of the nonfuzzy features of the testpatterns, we use the concept of fuzzy masking to fuzzify the nonfuzzy feature values of the testpatterns. The performance of the proposed scheme is tested on synthetic data. Finally, we use the proposed scheme for the vowel classification problem of an Indian language. PMID:18238152

15. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

PubMed Central

Kamath, Deepa G.; Umesh Nayak, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus. PMID:24526823

16. The Development of Newtonian Calculus in Britain, 1700-1800

Guicciardini, Niccoló

2003-11-01

Introduction; Overture: Newton's published work on the calculus of fluxions; Part I. The Early Period: 1. The diffusion of the calculus (1700-1730); 2. Developments in the calculus of fluxions (1714-1733); 3. The controversy on the foundations of the calculus (1734-1742); Part II. The Middle Period: 4. The textbooks on fluxions (1736-1758); 5. Some applications of the calculus (1740-1743); 6. The analytic art (1755-1785); Part III. The Reform: 7. Scotland (1785-1809); 8. The Military Schools (1773-1819); 9. Cambridge and Dublin (1790-1820); 10. Tables; Endnotes; Bibliography; Index.

17. A probability theory for non-equilibrium gravitational systems

Peñarrubia, Jorge

2015-08-01

This paper uses dynamical invariants to describe the evolution of collisionless systems subject to time-dependent gravitational forces without resorting to maximum-entropy probabilities. We show that collisionless relaxation can be viewed as a special type of diffusion process in the integral-of-motion space. In time-varying potentials with a fixed spatial symmetry the diffusion coefficients are closely related to virial quantities, such as the specific moment of inertia, the virial factor and the mean kinetic and potential energy of microcanonical particle ensembles. The non-equilibrium distribution function is found by convolving the initial distribution function with the Green function that solves Einstein's equation for freely diffusing particles. Such a convolution also yields a natural solution to the Fokker-Planck equations in the energy space. Our mathematical formalism can be generalized to potentials with a time-varying symmetry, where diffusion extends over multiple dimensions of the integral-of-motion space. The new probability theory is in many ways analogous to stochastic calculus, with two significant differences: (i) the equations of motion that govern the trajectories of particles are fully deterministic, and (ii) the diffusion coefficients can be derived self-consistently from microcanonical phase-space averages without relying on ergodicity assumptions. For illustration we follow the cold collapse of N-body models in a time-dependent logarithmic potential. Comparison between the analytical and numerical results shows excellent agreement in regions where the potential evolution does not depart too strongly from the adiabatic regime.

18. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

2010-01-01

This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

19. Exposing Calculus Students to Advanced Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Griffiths, Barry J.; Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

2014-01-01

To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in…

20. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bolt, Mike

2010-01-01

Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

1. Discrete quantum gravity; The Regge calculus approach

SciTech Connect

Williams, J.W. )

1992-06-01

After a brief introduction to Regge calculus, some examples of its application is quantum gravity are described in this paper. In particular, the earliest such application, by Ponzano and Regge, is discussed in some detail and it is shown how this leads naturally to current work on invariants of three-manifolds.

2. I Teach Economics, Not Algebra and Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hey, John D.

2005-01-01

Most people learn to drive without knowing how the engine works. In a similar vein, the author believes that students can learn economics without knowing the algebra and calculus underlying the results. If instructors follow the philosophy of other economics courses in using graphs to illustrate the results, and draw the graphs accurately, then…

3. Maple Graphing Tools for Calculus III

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cook, Darwyn

2006-01-01

For those instructors lacking artistic skills, teaching 3-dimensional calculus can be a challenge. Although some instructors spend a great deal of time working on their illustrations, trying to get them just right, students nevertheless often have a difficult time understanding some of them. To address this problem, the author has written a series…

4. Using the Microcomputer to Enhance Calculus Teaching.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clayton, Debbie; And Others

1990-01-01

Discusses differences between computer-enhanced learning (CEL) and computer-aided learning (CAL), and describes a microcomputer-based graph-plotting program called Capgraph that was developed for use in a college calculus course. Results of a course evaluation are presented; student attitudes are described; and future considerations are discussed.…

5. Flipping a Calculus Class: One Instructor's Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Palmer, Katrina

2015-01-01

This paper describes one instructor's experiences during a year of flipping four calculus classes. The first exploration attempts to understand student expectations of a math class and their preference towards a flipped classroom. The second examines success of students from a flipped classroom, and the last investigates relationships with student…

6. Areas and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vajiac, A.; Vajiac, B.

2008-01-01

We present a concise, yet self-contained module for teaching the notion of area and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for different groups of students. This module contains two different levels of rigour, depending on the class it used for. It also incorporates a technological component. (Contains 6 figures.)

7. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

2012-01-01

In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

8. Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Michael D.

2011-01-01

The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…

9. Some Factors Effected Student's Calculus Learning Outcome

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rajagukguk, Wamington

2016-01-01

The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…

10. Instructional Guide for Calculus, Secondary Mathematics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

The purpose of this instructional guide is to assist teachers of calculus in the organization and presentation of the course content to best meet the needs of the student. The behaviors expected of the student have been organized into eleven units. These units include the topics recommended for those students preparing for the CEEB advanced…

11. Using Matlab in a Multivariable Calculus Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schlatter, Mark D.

The benefits of high-level mathematics packages such as Matlab include both a computer algebra system and the ability to provide students with concrete visual examples. This paper discusses how both capabilities of Matlab were used in a multivariate calculus class. Graphical user interfaces which display three-dimensional surfaces, contour plots,…

12. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

2015-01-01

Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

13. Beliefs about Proof in Collegiate Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raman, Manya

The broad aim of this research is to characterize the views of proof held by college calculus students and their two types of teachers mathematics graduate students and professors. The analysis is based on an examination of the ways in which people in all three groups produce and evaluate different types of solutions to a proof-based problem from…

14. A TENTATIVE GUIDE, DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BRANT, VINCENT; GERARDI, WILLIAM

THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO GO BEYOND THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AS DESIGNED BY THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD. THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM CONSISTS OF A 1-YEAR COURSE COMBINING ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND CALCULUS. PRESUPPOSED HERE ARE--A SEMESTER COURSE IN ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND A THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF…

15. Boolean integral calculus for digital systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.

1985-01-01

The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.

16. Are Homeschoolers Prepared for College Calculus?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2015-01-01

Homeschooling in the United States has grown considerably over the past several decades. This article presents findings from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) survey, a national study of 10,492 students enrolled in tertiary calculus, including 190 students who reported homeschooling for a majority of their high…

17. Characteristics of subgingival calculus detection by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

Tung, Oi-Hong; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin; Chen, How-Foo

2011-06-01

Subgingival calculus has been recognized as a major cause of periodontitis, which is one of the main chronic infectious diseases of oral cavities and a principal cause of tooth loss in humans. Bacteria deposited in subgingival calculus or plaque cause gingival inflammation, function deterioration, and then periodontitis. However, subgingival calculus within the periodontal pocket is a complicated and potentially delicate structure to be detected with current dental armamentaria, namely dental x-rays and dental probes. Consequently, complete removal of subgingival calculus remains a challenge to periodontal therapies. In this study, the detection of subgingival calculus employing a multiphoton autofluorescence imaging method was characterized in comparison with a one-photon confocal fluorescence imaging technique. Feasibility of such a system was studied based on fluorescence response of gingiva, healthy teeth, and calculus with and without gingiva covered. The multiphoton fluorescence technology perceived the tissue-covered subgingival calculus that cannot be observed by the one-photon confocal fluorescence method.

18. Relationship between fractional calculus and fractional Fourier transform

Zhang, Yanshan; Zhang, Feng; Lu, Mingfeng

2015-09-01

The fractional calculus (FC) deals with integrals and derivatives of arbitrary (i.e., non-integer) order, and shares its origins with classical integral and differential calculus. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT), which has been found having many applications in optics and other areas, is a generalization of the usual Fourier transform. The FC and the FRFT are two of the most interesting and useful fractional areas. In recent years, it appears many papers on the FC and FRFT, however, few of them discuss the connection of the two fractional areas. We study their relationship. The relational expression between them is deduced. The expectation of interdisciplinary cross fertilization is our motivation. For example, we can use the properties of the FC (non-locality, etc.) to solve the problem which is difficult to be solved by the FRFT in optical engineering; we can also through the physical meaning of the FRFT optical implementation to explain the physical meaning of the FC. The FC and FRFT approaches can be transposed each other in the two fractional areas. It makes that the success of the fractional methodology is unquestionable with a lot of applications, namely in nonlinear and complex system dynamics and image processing.

19. Verifying Anonymous Credential Systems in Applied Pi Calculus

Li, Xiangxi; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Yuxin

Anonymous credentials are widely used to certify properties of a credential owner or to support the owner to demand valuable services, while hiding the user's identity at the same time. A credential system (a.k.a. pseudonym system) usually consists of multiple interactive procedures between users and organizations, including generating pseudonyms, issuing credentials and verifying credentials, which are required to meet various security properties. We propose a general symbolic model (based on the applied pi calculus) for anonymous credential systems and give formal definitions of a few important security properties, including pseudonym and credential unforgeability, credential safety, pseudonym untraceability. We specialize the general formalization and apply it to the verification of a concrete anonymous credential system proposed by Camenisch and Lysyanskaya. The analysis is done automatically with the tool ProVerif and several security properties have been verified.

20. Fractal Physiology and the Fractional Calculus: A Perspective

PubMed Central

West, Bruce J.

2010-01-01

This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

1. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective.

PubMed

West, Bruce J

2010-01-01

This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

2. Application of unified array calculus to connect 4-D spacetime sensing with string theory and relativity

Rauhala, U. A.

2013-12-01

Array algebra of photogrammetry and geodesy unified multi-linear matrix and tensor operators in an expansion of Gaussian adjustment calculus to general matrix inverses and solutions of inverse problems to find all, or some optimal, parametric solutions that satisfy the available observables. By-products in expanding array and tensor calculus to handle redundant observables resulted in general theories of estimation in mathematical statistics and fast transform technology of signal processing. Their applications in gravity modeling and system automation of multi-ray digital image and terrain matching evolved into fast multi-nonlinear differential and integral array calculus. Work since 1980's also uncovered closed-form inverse Taylor and least squares Newton-Raphson-Gauss perturbation solutions of nonlinear systems of equations. Fast nonlinear integral matching of array wavelets enabled an expansion of the bundle adjustment to 4-D stereo imaging and range sensing where real-time stereo sequence and waveform phase matching enabled data-to-info conversion and compression on-board advanced sensors. The resulting unified array calculus of spacetime sensing is applicable in virtually any math and engineering science, including recent work in spacetime physics. The paper focuses on geometric spacetime reconstruction from its image projections inspired by unified relativity and string theories. The collinear imaging equations of active object space shutter of special relativity are expanded to 4-D Lorentz transform. However, regular passive imaging and shutter inside the sensor expands the law of special relativity by a quantum geometric explanation of 4-D photogrammetry. The collinear imaging equations provide common sense explanations to the 10 (and 26) dimensional hyperspace concepts of a purely geometric string theory. The 11-D geometric M-theory is interpreted as a bundle adjustment of spacetime images using 2-D or 5-D membrane observables of image, string and

3. Attendance and attainment in a Calculus course

Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

2013-10-01

In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75% of the classes) is much higher than the pass rate of students attending fewer classes. We use a logistic model to investigate whether this correlation is significant. We will argue why we believe that this correlation between attendance and attainment is causal, i.e. why it is necessary for most students to attend classes in order to (improve their chances to) pass the exam.

4. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

2015-12-01

Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.

5. Getzler symbol calculus and deformation quantization

Mesa, Camilo

2013-11-01

In this paper we give a construction of Fedosov quantization incorporating the odd variables and an analogous formula to Getzler's pseudodifferential calculus composition formula is obtained. A Fedosov type connection is constructed on the bundle of Weyl tensor Clifford algebras over the cotangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold. The quantum algebra associated with this connection is used to define a deformation of the exterior algebra of Riemannian manifolds.

6. The Malliavin calculus and hypoelliptic differential operators

Bell, Denis

2015-03-01

This article is intended as an introduction to Malliavin's stochastic calculus of variations and his probabilistic approach to hypoellipticity. Topics covered include an elementary derivation of the basic integration by parts formulae, a proof of the probabilistic version of Hörmander's theorem as envisioned by Malliavin and completed by Kusuoka and Stroock, and an extension of Hörmander's theorem valid for operators with degeneracy of exponential type due to the author and S. Mohammed.

7. Nonnumeric Computer Applications to Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoutemyer, David R.

1983-01-01

Described are computer program packages requiring little or no knowledge of computer programing for college algebra, calculus, and abstract algebra. Widely available computer algebra systems are listed. (MNS)

8. Improved radiographic visualization of calculus in distal ureter.

PubMed

Amar, A D

1979-10-01

Roentgenographic visualization of a calculus in the distal ureter is often made difficult by gas or bowel contents in the region of the pelvis. Filling the bladder with sterile water raises the bladder dome and displaces the bowel upward. Any calculus in the lower 4 to 5 cm. of the distal ureter is then clearly demonstrated on roentgenograms taken against the water-filled bladder instead of against the bowel filled with gas and feces. This maneuver also aids in differentiation of a calculus in the distal ureter from a phlebolith in the bladder wall, and has improved visualization of distal ureteral calculus in 50 patients during the last six years. PMID:494477

9. Dental calculus image based on optical coherence tomography

Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Chia-Wei

2011-03-01

In this study, the dental calculus was characterized and imaged by means of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT). The refractive indices of enamel, dentin, cementum and calculus were measured as 1.625+/-0.024, 1.534+/-0.029, 1.570+/-0.021 and 1.896+/-0.085, respectively. The dental calculus lead strong scattering property and thus the region can be identified under enamel with SSOCT imaging. An extracted human tooth with calculus was covered by gingiva tissue as in vitro sample for SSOCT imaging.

10. Sensitivity analysis using computer calculus: A nuclear waste isolation application

SciTech Connect

Oblow, E.M.; Pin, F.G.; Wright, R.Q.

1986-09-01

An automated procedure for performing large-scale sensitivity studies based on the use of computer calculus is presented. The procedure is embodied in a FORTRAN precompiler called GRESS, which automatically processes computer models adding derivative-taking capabilities to the normal calculated results. The theory and applicability of the GRESS codes are described and tested against a major geohydrological modeling problem. The SWENT nuclear waste repository modeling code is used as the basis for these studies. Results for a test problem involving groundwater flow in the vicinity of the Richton Salt Dome are discussed in detail. Sensitivity results are compared with analytical, perturbation, and alternate sensitivity approaches to the problem. Five-place accuracy in these sensitivity results is verified for all cases in which the effects of nonlinearities are made sufficiently small. Conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of GRESS in the problem studied and for more general large-scale modeling sensitivity studies.

11. Relativistic differential-difference momentum operators and noncommutative differential calculus

SciTech Connect

Mir-Kasimov, R. M.

2013-09-15

The relativistic kinetic momentum operators are introduced in the framework of the Quantum Mechanics (QM) in the Relativistic Configuration Space (RCS). These operators correspond to the half of the non-Euclidean distance in the Lobachevsky momentum space. In terms of kinetic momentum operators the relativistic kinetic energy is separated as the independent term of the total Hamiltonian. This relativistic kinetic energy term is not distinguishing in form from its nonrelativistic counterpart. The role of the plane wave (wave function of the motion with definite value of momentum and energy) plays the generating function for the matrix elements of the unitary irreps of Lorentz group (generalized Jacobi polynomials). The kinetic momentum operators are the interior derivatives in the framework of the noncommutative differential calculus over the commutative algebra generated by the coordinate functions over the RCS.

12. Flows and stochastic Taylor series in Itô calculus

Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Malham, Simon J. A.; Patras, Frédéric; Wiese, Anke

2015-12-01

For general stochastic systems driven by continuous semimartingales an explicit formula for the logarithm of the Itô flow map is given. The computation relies on the lift to quasi-shuffle algebras of formulas involving products of Itô integrals of semimartingales. Whereas the Chen-Strichartz formula computing the logarithm of the Stratonovich flow map is classically expanded as a formal sum indexed by permutations, the analogous formula in Itô calculus is naturally indexed by surjections. This reflects the change of algebraic background involved in the transition between the two integration theories. Lastly, we extend our formula for the quasi-shuffle Chen-Strichartz series for the logarithm of the flow map to the non-commutative case. For linear matrix-valued SDEs driven by arbitrary semimartingales we obtain a similar formula.

13. Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus

Lischewski, Andree

2015-01-01

We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.

14. Applications of the formal variational calculus to the equations of fluid dynamics

SciTech Connect

Verosky, J.M.

1985-01-01

The Formal Variational Calculus is applied to the equations of fluid dynamics. In particular, it is shown that the equations for one-dimensional isentropic compressible flow have infinitely many higher order symmetries and a first-order conservation law. The notion of a generalized fluid equation is introduced and is shown that the incompressible fluid equations inherit their Hamiltonian structure from the compressible ones. Finally, the behavior of certain Hamiltonian structures under a change in dependent variables is examined.

15. A Case of Migrating "Saf-T-Coil" Presenting With a Vesicovaginal Fistula and Vesicovaginal Calculus.

PubMed

2016-07-01

Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are reliable method for contraception. Although, they are generally regarded as safe, serious consequences may occur in case of uterine perforation or intravesical migration. We present a rare case of a 74 year old lady with a forgotten IUD for 42 years resulting in intravesical migration, formation of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) without uterine perforation, complete urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and a large vesicovaginal calculus. PMID:27335782

16. An Evaluative Calculus Project: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy to the Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karaali, Gizem

2011-01-01

In education theory, Bloom's taxonomy is a well-known paradigm to describe domains of learning and levels of competency. In this article I propose a calculus capstone project that is meant to utilize the sixth and arguably the highest level in the cognitive domain, according to Bloom et al.: evaluation. Although one may assume that mathematics is…

17. A Concepts for Calculus Intervention: Measuring Student Attitudes toward Mathematics and Achievement in Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pilgrim, Mary E.

2010-01-01

Data indicate that about 40 percent of students initially enrolled in MATH 160: Calculus for Physical Scientists I finish the course with a grade of D or F, dropped, or withdrew from the course (Reinholz, 2009). The high failure rate let to an intervention course (MATH 180) for students at risk of failing MATH 160. At-risk students were…

18. Improving Student Success in Calculus I Using a Co-Requisite Calculus I Lab

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vestal, Sharon Schaffer; Brandenburger, Thomas; Furth, Alfred

2015-01-01

This paper describes how one university mathematics department was able to improve student success in Calculus I by requiring a co-requisite lab for certain groups of students. The groups of students required to take the co-requisite lab were identified by analyzing student data, including Math ACT scores, ACT Compass Trigonometry scores, and…

19. Undergraduate Course and Curriculum Development Program and Calculus and the Bridge to Calculus Program: 1993 Awards.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Undergraduate Education.

The Undergraduate Course and Curriculum Development Program of the National Science Foundation supports the development of courses in all disciplines to improve the quality of undergraduate courses and curricula in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The purpose of the program in Curriculum Development in Mathematics: Calculus and…

20. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

2012-01-01

We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

1. Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

2015-01-01

The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

2. Modelling the landing of a plane in a calculus lab

Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, José A.

2012-10-01

We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics.

3. Improving Student Success in Calculus at Seattle University

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carter, J. D.; Helliwell, D.; Henrich, Allison; Principe, M.; Sloughter, J. M.

2016-01-01

Finding ways to improve student success in calculus is a critically important step on the path to supporting students who are pursuing degrees in STEM fields. Far too many students fail calculus 1 and are pushed to drop their majors in technical fields. One way of addressing this issue is by following a program that was pioneered at University of…

4. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France.

PubMed

Huynh, Hong T T; Nkamga, Vanessa D; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

2016-01-01

Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14(th) to 19(th) centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus. PMID:27166431

5. An Exploration of Definition and Procedural Fluency in Integral Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grundmeier, Todd A.; Hansen, Jennifer; Sousa, Emily

2006-01-01

A survey was administered to calculus students who had previously been exposed to a course on integral calculus. The purpose of the survey was to explore students' understanding of the definition of a definite integral, their abilities to evaluate definite integrals, and their graphical interpretations of definite integrals. The analysis of…

6. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects for Improving Calculus Readiness

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kay, Robin; Kletskin, Ilona

2010-01-01

Pre-calculus concepts such as working with functions and solving equations are essential for students to explore limits, rates of change, and integrals. Yet many students have a weak understanding of these key concepts which impedes performance in their first year university Calculus course. A series of online learning objects was developed to…

7. Visualization and Students' Performance in Technology-Based Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Galindo, Enrique

The relationship between college students' preferred mode of processing mathematical information--visual or nonvisual--and their performance in calculus classes with and without technology was investigated. Students elected one of three different versions of an introductory differential calculus course: using graphing calculators, using the…

8. Discovering and Experiencing the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rosenthal, Bill

1992-01-01

Offers calculus students and teachers the opportunity to motivate and discover the first Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) in an experimental, experiential, inductive, intuitive, vernacular-based manner. Starting from the observation that a distance traveled at a constant speed corresponds to the area inside a rectangle, the FTC is discovered,…

9. Calculus, Part 2, Student's Text, Unit No. 67. Revised Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beck, A.; And Others

This is part two of a three-part SMSG calculus text for high school students. One of the goals of the text is to present calculus as a mathematical discipline as well as presenting its practical uses. The authors emphasize the importance of being able to interpret the concepts and theory in terms of models to which they apply. The text…

10. Reflections on Our First Calculus Undergraduate Teaching Assistant

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deshler, Jessica M.

2016-01-01

This article describes some reflections from the first Calculus I undergraduate teaching assistant in our department as she explored the various ways in which she was able to support both novice and experienced Calculus teachers and the effect of her experience on her academic and career plans.

11. Effects of Clicker Use on Calculus Students' Mathematics Anxiety

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Batchelor, John

2015-01-01

This paper reports the results of a survey study of clicker use and mathematics anxiety among students enrolled in an undergraduate calculus course during the Fall 2013 semester. Students in two large lecture sections of calculus completed surveys at the beginning and end of the course. One class used clickers, whereas the other class was taught…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marrongelle, Karen A.

2004-01-01

The present research study investigates how undergraduate students in an integrated calculus and physics class use physics to help them solve calculus problems. Using Zandieh's (2000) framework for analyzing student understanding of derivative as a starting point, this study adds detail to her "paradigmatic physical" context and begins to address…

13. Calculus: A Computer Oriented Presentation, Part 1 [and] Part 2.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stenberg, Warren; Walker, Robert J.

Parts one and two of a one-year computer-oriented calculus course (without analytic geometry) are presented. The ideas of calculus are introduced and motivated through computer (i.e., algorithmic) concepts. An introduction to computing via algorithms and a simple flow chart language allows the book to be self-contained, except that material on…

14. Using the Finite Difference Calculus to Sum Powers of Integers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zia, Lee

1991-01-01

Summing powers of integers is presented as an example of finite differences and antidifferences in discrete mathematics. The interrelation between these concepts and their analogues in differential calculus, the derivative and integral, is illustrated and can form the groundwork for students' understanding of differential and integral calculus.…

15. Interrater Agreement on Subgingival Calculus Detection Following Scaling.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pippin, David J.; Feil, Philip

1992-01-01

Two studies investigated interrater agreement among 10 clinical dental examiners who scored residual subgingival calculus after student scaling on 4,160 real and 92 manikin tooth surfaces. Interrater reliability was low. Results suggest a need in periodontics for effective examiner calibration methods and objective subgingival calculus detection…

16. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France

PubMed Central

Huynh, Hong T. T.; Nkamga, Vanessa D.; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

2016-01-01

Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14th to 19th centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus. PMID:27166431

17. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

2015-01-01

Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

18. Visual Thinking and Gender Differences in High School Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric

2012-01-01

This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…

19. Calculus Students' Early Concept Images of Tangent Lines

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

2015-01-01

This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and…

20. On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

2015-01-01

Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…

1. Experimental Design: Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

2015-01-01

The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

2. On flipping the classroom in large first year calculus courses

Jungić, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

2015-05-01

Over the course of two years, 2012--2014, we have implemented a 'flipping' the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of both instructors and students.

3. Calculus Reform and Graphing Calculators: A University View.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stick, Marvin E.

1997-01-01

Describes the results of a teacher's exploration of the effects of using graphing calculators in calculus instruction in sections other than those that are experimental. Two experimental and two traditional sections of Calculus I and II participated in the study. (DDR)

4. Calculus Instructors' and Students' Discourses on the Derivative

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Park, Jungeun

2011-01-01

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in collegiate mathematics education, especially teaching and learning calculus (e.g., Oehrtman, Carlson, & Thompson, 2008; Speer, Smith, & Horvath, 2010). Of many calculus concepts, the derivative is known as a difficult concept for students to understand because it involves various concepts such as…

5. Student Created Calculus Movies Using Computers and the TI-92.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sher, Lawrence; Wilkinson, Patricia

The Mathematics Department at Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) (New York) has been actively involved since 1988 in a serious and successful program to improve instruction, understanding, and retention for women and minority students in calculus courses. One result of this work has been students creating calculus animations using…

6. Our Experiences with Using Visualization Tools in Teaching Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kowalczyk, Robert E.; Hausknecht, Adam O.

This paper describes two uses of the software package TEMATH (Tools for Exploring Mathematics) with calculus students: (1) as a demonstration tool in the classroom to visually explore with students the many mathematical models introduced in a first year calculus course; and (2) as a part of a lab where students use a set of laboratory explorations…

7. Partial Fractions in Calculus, Number Theory, and Algebra

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yackel, C. A.; Denny, J. K.

2007-01-01

This paper explores the development of the method of partial fraction decomposition from elementary number theory through calculus to its abstraction in modern algebra. This unusual perspective makes the topic accessible and relevant to readers from high school through seasoned calculus instructors.

8. The Use of Technology and Visualization in Calculus Instruction

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samuels, Jason

2010-01-01

This study was inspired by a history of student difficulties in calculus, and innovation in response to those difficulties. The goals of the study were fourfold. First, to design a mathlet for students to explore local linearity. Second, to redesign the curriculum of first semester calculus around the use of technology, an emphasis on…

9. Calculus, Part 3, Student's Text, Unit No. 70. Revised Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beck, A.; And Others

This is part three of a three-part SMSG calculus text for high school students. One of the goals of the text is to present calculus as a mathematical discipline as well as presenting its practical uses. The authors emphasize the importance of being able to interpret the concepts and theory in terms of models to which they apply. The text…

10. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS. A TENTATIVE CURRICULUM GUIDE.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BRANT, VINCENT; GERARDI, WILLIAM

A GUIDE FOR A 1-YEAR COURSE IN DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS PREREQUISITED KNOWLEDGE IN ALGEBRA, ANALYTIC TRIGONOMETRY, AND ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS. EACH ASSIGNMENT CONTAINED BOTH NEW AND REVIEW WORK TO REINFORCE THE NEW WORK. THERE WERE ELEVEN UNITS OF STUDY USING THE FOLLOWING FOUR BOOKS--"CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY, THIRD EDITIONS," BY…

11. Transitioning from Introductory Calculus to Formal Limit Conceptions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nagle, Courtney

2013-01-01

The limit concept is a fundamental mathematical notion both for its practical applications and its importance as a prerequisite for later calculus topics. Past research suggests that limit conceptualizations promoted in introductory calculus are far removed from the formal epsilon-delta definition of limit. In this article, I provide an overview…

12. Medical therapy for calculus disease.

PubMed

Singh, Shrawan K; Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Sharma, Sumit

2011-02-01

Urolithiasis is a common problem with a high recurrence rate. Medical therapy directed to relieve agonizing pain, expulsion of stone, dissolution of uric acid and cystine stone and prevention of recurrence. NSAIDs are superior to opioids for renoureteral colic because their use doesn't induce vomiting and there is lesser requirement of rescue analgesia. In randomized trials, anticholinergics were not found to be beneficial. Alpha blockers, particularly tamsulosin, reduce pain and facilitate expulsion of stone and fragments of stone following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureterorenoscopic lithotripsy. Potassium citrate helps in chemodissolution of uric acid and cystine stones and is useful in prevention of stone recurrence in general and in those who have undergone SWL or percutaneious nephrolithotomy. Other measures for prevention of stone recurrence include fluid and dietary therapy, counteracting underlying metabolic abnormalities using suitable medications, phytotheurapeutic agents and probiotics. Once the role of nanobacteria is established in genesis of urinary stones, anti-nanobacteria therapy holds the promise of opening new horizons for prevention of urinary stones. PMID:21244607

13. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

Yaida, Sho

2016-02-01

Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

14. Algorithmic Differentiation for Calculus-based Optimization

Walther, Andrea

2010-10-01

For numerous applications, the computation and provision of exact derivative information plays an important role for optimizing the considered system but quite often also for its simulation. This presentation introduces the technique of Algorithmic Differentiation (AD), a method to compute derivatives of arbitrary order within working precision. Quite often an additional structure exploitation is indispensable for a successful coupling of these derivatives with state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. The talk will discuss two important situations where the problem-inherent structure allows a calculus-based optimization. Examples from aerodynamics and nano optics illustrate these advanced optimization approaches.

15. Heavy quarks in the jet calculus

SciTech Connect

Jones, L.M.

1983-07-01

In this paper we explore a method for treating heavy quarks such as c and b quarks within the jet calculus. These quarks are differentiated from the more common u, d, and s quarks by the requirement that the gluons never branch into heavy-quark pairs during the jet development. We compute and discuss the charmed-quark ''propagators''; the x distribution of colorless clusters containing a charmed quark, a noncharmed antiquark, and gluons; and the mass distribution of the parent partons giving rise to these colorless clusters.

16. Heisenberg algebra, umbral calculus and orthogonal polynomials

SciTech Connect

Dattoli, G.; Levi, D.; Winternitz, P.

2008-05-15

Umbral calculus can be viewed as an abstract theory of the Heisenberg commutation relation [P,M]=1. In ordinary quantum mechanics, P is the derivative and M the coordinate operator. Here, we shall realize P as a second order differential operator and M as a first order integral one. We show that this makes it possible to solve large classes of differential and integrodifferential equations and to introduce new classes of orthogonal polynomials, related to Laguerre polynomials. These polynomials are particularly well suited for describing the so-called flatenned beams in laser theory.

17. An elementary calculus method for evaluating ?

Lee, Tuo Yeong; Xiong, Yuxuan

2014-08-01

We use freshman calculus to prove that for θ ∈ (0, π) and n = 0, 1, 2, … ; in particular, we obtain a simple unified method for evaluating the following infinite series:

18. The Qualitative Trajectory Calculus on Networks

Bogaert, Peter; van de Weghe, Nico; Cohn, Anthony G.; Witlox, Frank; de Maeyer, Philippe

Moving objects are commonly handled using quantitative methods and information. However, in many cases, qualitative information can be more efficient and more meaningful than quantitative information. A lot of research has been done in generating, indexing, modelling and querying network-based moving objects, but little work has been done in building a calculus of relations between these objects in a qualitative way. In this paper, we introduce a formal definition of how to represent and reason about the relative trajectories of pairs of objects moving along a network.

19. Denoising Medical Images using Calculus of Variations

PubMed Central

Kohan, Mahdi Nakhaie; Behnam, Hamid

2011-01-01

We propose a method for medical image denoising using calculus of variations and local variance estimation by shaped windows. This method reduces any additive noise and preserves small patterns and edges of images. A pyramid structure-texture decomposition of images is used to separate noise and texture components based on local variance measures. The experimental results show that the proposed method has visual improvement as well as a better SNR, RMSE and PSNR than common medical image denoising methods. Experimental results in denoising a sample Magnetic Resonance image show that SNR, PSNR and RMSE have been improved by 19, 9 and 21 percents respectively. PMID:22606674

20. Calculus detection technologies: where do we stand now?

PubMed Central

Archana, V

2014-01-01

Epidemiological studies have implicated dental calculus as an ideal substrate for subgingival microbial colonization. Therefore, the main objective of periodontal therapy is to eliminate the microbial biofilm along with the calculus deposits from the root surface by root surface debridement. Over the past years, a large number of clinical and laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calculus removal by various methods. None of these conventional methods or devices was effective in completely eliminating all the calculus from the diseased root surfaces. In this context, a number of newer technologies have been developed to identify and selectively remove the dental calculus. Regarding this fact, the present article highlights a critical review of these devices based on published clinical and experimental data. PMID:25870667

1. Understanding Calculus beyond Computations: A Descriptive Study of the Parallel Meanings and Expectations of Teachers and Users of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ferguson, Leann J.

2012-01-01

Calculus is an important tool for building mathematical models of the world around us and is thus used in a variety of disciplines, such as physics and engineering. These disciplines rely on calculus courses to provide the mathematical foundation needed for success in their courses. Unfortunately, due to the basal conceptions of what it means to…

2. Calculus and analytic geometry. Second edition

SciTech Connect

Mizrahi, A.; Sullivan, M.

1986-01-01

This book presents the details of calculus and analytic geometry. The topics covered are: Introduction. Real Numbers. Graphing. The Straight Line. Functions and Their Graphs. Operations on Functions; Types of Functions. Composite Functions. Inverse Functions. Limits from an Intuitive Point of View. Algebraic Techniques for Finding Limits. One-Sided Limits. Continuous Functions. Limit Theorems (If Time Permits). Historical Perspectives. The Derivative. Average Rate of Change. Instantaneous Rate of Change; the Derivative. Two Interpretations of the Derivative Formulas for Finding Derivatives. Formulas for Finding Derivatives (Continued). Higher-Order Derivatives. Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions. The Chain Rule. Implicit Differentiation. Derivative of an Inverse Function; Rational Exponents. Newton's Method of Solving Equations. Functions that are not Differentiable at c., Applications of the Derivative. Related Rates. Differentials. Maxima and Minima. Rolle's Theorem; Mean Value Theorem. Increasing and Decreasing Functions; First Derivative Test. Concavity; Second Derivative Test. Limits at Infinity; Infinite Limits; Asymptotes. Applied Extrema Problems. Antiderivatives. Application to Economics (If Time Permits), The Definite Integral. Area. Evaluation of Area. The Definite Integral. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of the Definite Integral. The Indefinite Integral; Method of Substitution. Historical Perspectives. Applications of the Integral. Area. Volume of a Solid of Revolution: Disk Method. Volume of a Solid of Revolution: Shell Method. Volume by Slicing. Arc Length. Work. Liquid Pressure and Force. Average Value of a Function.

3. Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states

SciTech Connect

Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van

2011-04-15

We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.

4. A Calculus for Boxes and Traits in a Java-Like Setting

Bettini, Lorenzo; Damiani, Ferruccio; de Luca, Marco; Geilmann, Kathrin; Schäfer, Jan

The box model is a component model for the object-oriented paradigm, that defines components (the boxes) with clear encapsulation boundaries. Having well-defined boundaries is crucial in component-based software development, because it enables to argue about the interference and interaction between a component and its context. In general, boxes contain several objects and inner boxes, of which some are local to the box and cannot be accessed from other boxes and some can be accessible by other boxes. A trait is a set of methods divorced from any class hierarchy. Traits can be composed together to form classes or other traits. We present a calculus for boxes and traits. Traits are units of fine-grained reuse, whereas boxes can be seen as units of coarse-grained reuse. The calculus is equipped with an ownership type system and allows us to combine coarse- and fine-grained reuse of code by maintaining encapsulation of components.

5. Approximate inference on planar graphs using loop calculus and belief progagation

SciTech Connect

Chertkov, Michael; Gomez, Vicenc; Kappen, Hilbert

2009-01-01

We introduce novel results for approximate inference on planar graphical models using the loop calculus framework. The loop calculus (Chertkov and Chernyak, 2006b) allows to express the exact partition function Z of a graphical model as a finite sum of terms that can be evaluated once the belief propagation (BP) solution is known. In general, full summation over all correction terms is intractable. We develop an algorithm for the approach presented in Chertkov et al. (2008) which represents an efficient truncation scheme on planar graphs and a new representation of the series in terms of Pfaffians of matrices. We analyze in detail both the loop series and the Pfaffian series for models with binary variables and pairwise interactions, and show that the first term of the Pfaffian series can provide very accurate approximations. The algorithm outperforms previous truncation schemes of the loop series and is competitive with other state-of-the-art methods for approximate inference.

6. How Students Use Their Knowledge of Calculus in an Engineering Mechanics Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roddick, Cheryl Stitt

This study investigated students' conceptual and procedural understanding of calculus within the context of an engineering mechanics course. Four traditional calculus students were compared with three students from one of the calculus reform projects, Calculus & Mathematica. Task-based interviews were conducted with each participant throughout the…

7. Probability 1/e

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.

2011-01-01

Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

8. Miniature endoscopic optical coherence tomography for calculus detection.

PubMed

Kao, Meng-Chun; Lin, Chun-Li; Kung, Che-Yen; Huang, Yi-Fung; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

2015-08-20

The effective treatment of periodontitis involves the detection and removal of subgingival dental calculus. However, subgingival calculus is more difficult to detect than supragingival calculus because it is firmly attached to root surfaces within periodontal pockets. To achieve a smooth root surface, clinicians often remove excessive amounts of root structure because of decreased visibility. In addition, enamel pearl, a rare type of ectopic enamel formation on the root surface, can easily be confused with dental calculus in the subgingival environment. In this study, we developed a fiber-probe swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) technique and combined it with the quantitative measurement of an optical parameter [standard deviation (SD) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity] to differentiate subgingival calculus from sound enamel, including enamel pearl. Two-dimensional circumferential images were constructed by rotating the miniprobe (0.9 mm diameter) while acquiring image lines, and the adjacent lines in each rotation were stacked to generate a three-dimensional volume. In OCT images, compared to sound enamel and enamel pearls, dental calculus showed significant differences (P<0.001) in SD values. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curve had a high capacity (area under the curve=0.934) for discriminating between healthy regions (including enamel pearl) and dental calculus. PMID:26368780

9. Constraints from jet calculus on quark recombination

SciTech Connect

Jones, L.M.; Lassila, K.E.; Sukhatme, U.; Willen, D.

1981-02-01

Within the quantum-chromodynamic jet-calculus formalism, we deduce an equation describing recombination of quarks and antiquarks into mesons within a quark or gluon jet. This equation relates the recombination function R(x/sub 1/,x/sub 2/,x) used in current literature to the fragmentation function for producing that same meson out of the parton initiating the jet. We submit currently used recombination functions to our consistency test, taking as input mainly the u-quark fragmentation ''data'' into ..pi../sup +/ mesons. The qq-bar..--> pi.. recombination functions popular in the literature are consistent with measured fragmentation functions, but they must be supplemented by other contributions to provide the full D..pi../sup +//sub u/. We also discuss the Q/sup 2/ dependence of the resulting fragmentation functions.

10. Regge calculus models of closed lattice universes

Liu, Rex G.; Williams, Ruth M.

2016-01-01

This paper examines the behavior of closed "lattice universes" wherein masses are distributed in a regular lattice on the Cauchy surfaces of closed vacuum universes. Such universes are approximated using a form of Regge calculus originally developed by Collins and Williams to model closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes. We consider two types of lattice universes, one where all masses are identical to each other and another where one mass gets perturbed in magnitude. In the unperturbed universe, we consider the possible arrangements of the masses in the Regge Cauchy surfaces and demonstrate that the model will only be stable if each mass lies within some spherical region of convergence. We also briefly discuss the existence of Regge models that are dual to the ones we have considered. We then model a perturbed lattice universe and demonstrate that the model's evolution is well behaved, with the expansion increasing in magnitude as the perturbation is increased.

11. Probability mapping of contaminants

SciTech Connect

Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

1994-04-01

Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds).

12. Predicate calculus for an architecture of multiple neural networks

Consoli, Robert H.

1990-08-01

Future projects with neural networks will require multiple individual network components. Current efforts along these lines are ad hoc. This paper relates the neural network to a classical device and derives a multi-part architecture from that model. Further it provides a Predicate Calculus variant for describing the location and nature of the trainings and suggests Resolution Refutation as a method for determining the performance of the system as well as the location of needed trainings for specific proofs. 2. THE NEURAL NETWORK AND A CLASSICAL DEVICE Recently investigators have been making reports about architectures of multiple neural networksL234. These efforts are appearing at an early stage in neural network investigations they are characterized by architectures suggested directly by the problem space. Touretzky and Hinton suggest an architecture for processing logical statements1 the design of this architecture arises from the syntax of a restricted class of logical expressions and exhibits syntactic limitations. In similar fashion a multiple neural netword arises out of a control problem2 from the sequence learning problem3 and from the domain of machine learning. 4 But a general theory of multiple neural devices is missing. More general attempts to relate single or multiple neural networks to classical computing devices are not common although an attempt is made to relate single neural devices to a Turing machines and Sun et a!. develop a multiple neural architecture that performs pattern classification.

13. The relationship between species detection probability and local extinction probability

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alpizar-Jara, R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Rosenberry, C.S.

2004-01-01

In community-level ecological studies, generally not all species present in sampled areas are detected. Many authors have proposed the use of estimation methods that allow detection probabilities that are <1 and that are heterogeneous among species. These methods can also be used to estimate community-dynamic parameters such as species local extinction probability and turnover rates (Nichols et al. Ecol Appl 8:1213-1225; Conserv Biol 12:1390-1398). Here, we present an ad hoc approach to estimating community-level vital rates in the presence of joint heterogeneity of detection probabilities and vital rates. The method consists of partitioning the number of species into two groups using the detection frequencies and then estimating vital rates (e.g., local extinction probabilities) for each group. Estimators from each group are combined in a weighted estimator of vital rates that accounts for the effect of heterogeneity. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we computed such estimates and tested the hypothesis that detection probabilities and local extinction probabilities were negatively related. Our analyses support the hypothesis that species detection probability covaries negatively with local probability of extinction and turnover rates. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of vital parameter estimators as well as other estimators relevant to questions about heterogeneity, such as coefficient of variation of detection probabilities and proportion of species in each group. Both the weighted estimator suggested in this paper and the original unweighted estimator for local extinction probability performed fairly well and provided no basis for preferring one to the other.

14. Improving Student Success in Calculus: A Comparison of Four College Calculus Classes

Bagley, Spencer Franklin

The quality of education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is an issue of particular educational and economic importance, and Calculus I is a linchpin course in STEM major tracks. A national study is currently being conducted examining the characteristics of successful programs in college calculus (CSPCC, 2012). In work related to the CSPCC program, this study examines the effects on student outcomes of four different teaching strategies used at a single institution. The four classes were a traditional lecture, a lecture with discussion, a lecture incorporating both discussion and technology, and an inverted model. This dissertation was guided by three questions: (1) What impact do these four instructional approaches have on students' persistence, beliefs about mathematics, and conceptual and procedural achievement in calculus? (2) How do students at the local institution compare to students in the national database? And (3) How do the similarities and differences in opportunities for learning presented in the four classes contribute to the similarities and differences in student outcomes? Quantitative analysis of surveys and exams revealed few statistically significant differences in outcomes, and students in the inverted classroom often had poorer outcomes than those in other classes. Students in the technology-enhanced class scored higher on conceptual items on the final exam than those in other classes. Comparing to the national database, local students had similar switching rates but less expert-like attitudes and beliefs about mathematics than the national average. Qualitative analysis of focus group interviews, classroom observations, and student course evaluations showed that several implementation issues, some the result of pragmatic constraints, others the result of design choice, weakened affordances provided by innovative features and shrunk the differences between classes. There were substantial differences between the

15. Student understanding of calculus within physics and mathematics classrooms

Christensen, Warren; Thompson, John

2010-03-01

The earliest results in Physics Education Research demonstrated the challenges facing students in understanding the graphical interpretations of slope, derivative, and area under curves in the context of kinematics. As part of ongoing research on mathematical challenges that may underlie documented physics difficulties, we developed and administered a brief survey on single- and multivariable calculus concepts to students within physics and mathematics classrooms at both the introductory and advanced levels. Initial findings among students in multivariable calculus show that as many as one in five students encounter some type of difficulty when asked to rank the slopes at five different points along a single path. We will present further data on the extent to which students in a first semester calculus course and an introductory calculus-based physics course encounter similar challenges.

16. A Closer Look at an Advanced Placement Calculus Problem.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rudd, David

1985-01-01

Answers and justifications for an interesting problem on the Advanced Placement Calculus AB Examination are discussed. The problem provides diverse ways in which students can gain appreciation and understanding for the subject. (MNS)

17. Modified jet calculus of Bassetto, Ciafaloni and Marchesini

SciTech Connect

Jones, L.M.; Lassila, K.E.

1982-06-01

We reexamine some of the equations derived by Bassetto, Ciafaloni, and Marchesini for the various functions in their extended jet calculus, and derive an alternative set of equations based on the same concepts.

18. Ants, Tunnels, and Calculus: An Exercise in Mathematical Modeling.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winkel, Brian J.

1994-01-01

Discusses an activity which models the building of a tunnel by ants using the definitions of derivative and indefinite integral from calculus. Includes a discussion of reasonableness and interpretation of the problem. (MKR)

19. Relational Semantics for the Lambek-Grishin Calculus

Kurtonina, Natasha; Moortgat, Michael

We study ternary relational semantics for LG: a symmetric version of the Lambek calculus with interaction principles due to Grishin [10]. We obtain completeness on the basis of a Henkin-style weak filter construction.

20. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zobitz, John

2013-01-01

Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

1. A Discrete Approach to Computer-Oriented Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gordon, Sheldon P.

1979-01-01

Some of the implications and advantages of an instructional approach using results from the calculus of finite differences and finite sums, both for motivation and as tools leading to applications, are discussed. (MP)

2. A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.

1974-01-01

A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.

3. Candida dubliniensis encrustation of an obstructing upper renal tract calculus

PubMed Central

O'Kane, Dermot; Kiosoglous, Anthony; Jones, Kay

2013-01-01

We present the case of a 53-year-old man, with a history of alcohol abuse, requiring intensive care unit admission, with an obstructing right upper renal calculus and Klebsiella pneumoniae urosepsis. Ureteroscopic treatment of this obstruction displayed a small calculus within the renal pelvis completely encapsulated within a fungal bezoar. Laboratory analysis of the fungal mass found it to be Candida dubliniensis. PMID:23975908

4. Dental Calculus and the Evolution of the Human Oral Microbiome.

PubMed

Warinner, Christina

2016-07-01

Characterizing the evolution of the oral microbiome is a challenging, but increasingly feasible, task. Recently, dental calculus has been shown to preserve ancient biomolecules from the oral microbiota, host tissues and diet for tens of thousands of years. As such, it provides a unique window into the ancestral oral microbiome. This article reviews recent advancements in ancient dental calculus research and emerging insights into the evolution and ecology of the human oral microbiome. PMID:27514153

5. Using min' and max' functions in calculus teaching

Satianov, Pavel; Dagan, Miriam; Amram, Meirav

2015-08-01

In this paper, we discuss the use of the min and max functions in teaching calculus to engineering students. Our experience illustrates that such functions have great possibilities in the development of a student's analytical thinking. The types of problems we present here are not common in most instructional texts, which lead us to suggest that the paper will be interesting and useful to calculus lecturers.

6. Hermeneutics of differential calculus in eighteenth-century northern Germany.

PubMed

Blanco, Mónica

2008-01-01

This paper applies comparative textbook analysis to studying the mathematical development of differential calculus in northern German states during the eighteenth century. It begins with describing how the four textbooks analyzed presented the foundations of calculus and continues with assessing the influence each of these foundational approaches exerted on the resolution of problems, such as the determination of tangents and extreme values, and even on the choice of coordinates for both algebraic and transcendental curves. PMID:19244874

7. Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative π-Calculus

John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative π -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed π -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

8. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hall, Angela Renee

2011-01-01

This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

9. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

Kirkaldy, J. S.

1985-05-01

The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

10. Measure and probability in cosmology

Schiffrin, Joshua S.; Wald, Robert M.

2012-07-01

General relativity has a Hamiltonian formulation, which formally provides a canonical (Liouville) measure on the space of solutions. In ordinary statistical physics, the Liouville measure is used to compute probabilities of macrostates, and it would seem natural to use the similar measure arising in general relativity to compute probabilities in cosmology, such as the probability that the Universe underwent an era of inflation. Indeed, a number of authors have used the restriction of this measure to the space of homogeneous and isotropic universes with scalar field matter (minisuperspace)—namely, the Gibbons-Hawking-Stewart measure—to make arguments about the likelihood of inflation. We argue here that there are at least four major difficulties with using the measure of general relativity to make probability arguments in cosmology: (1) Equilibration does not occur on cosmological length scales. (2) Even in the minisuperspace case, the measure of phase space is infinite and the computation of probabilities depends very strongly on how the infinity is regulated. (3) The inhomogeneous degrees of freedom must be taken into account (we illustrate how) even if one is interested only in universes that are very nearly homogeneous. The measure depends upon how the infinite number of degrees of freedom are truncated, and how one defines “nearly homogeneous.” (4) In a Universe where the second law of thermodynamics holds, one cannot make use of our knowledge of the present state of the Universe to retrodict the likelihood of past conditions.

11. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy

Zhang, Jian J.; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W. J.; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

2015-12-01

Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391 mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

12. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

PubMed

Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

2015-12-01

Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser. PMID:26662067

13. Canonical linearized Regge calculus: Counting lattice gravitons with Pachner moves

Höhn, Philipp A.

2015-06-01

We afford a systematic and comprehensive account of the canonical dynamics of 4D Regge calculus perturbatively expanded to linear order around a flat background. To this end, we consider the Pachner moves which generate the most basic and general simplicial evolution scheme. The linearized regime features a vertex displacement (diffeomorphism) symmetry for which we derive an Abelian constraint algebra. This permits us to identify gauge invariant lattice "gravitons" as propagating curvature degrees of freedom. The Pachner moves admit a simple method to explicitly count the gauge and graviton degrees of freedom on an evolving triangulated hypersurface, and we clarify the distinct role of each move in the dynamics. It is shown that the 1-4 move generates four "lapse and shift" variables and four conjugate vertex displacement generators; the 2-3 move generates a graviton; the 3-2 move removes one graviton and produces the only non-trivial equation of motion; and the 4-1 move removes four lapse and shift variables and trivializes the four conjugate symmetry generators. It is further shown that the Pachner moves preserve the vertex displacement generators. These results may provide new impetus for exploring graviton dynamics' in discrete quantum gravity models.

14. Geometric constrained variational calculus I: Piecewise smooth extremals

Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

2015-05-01

A geometric setup for constrained variational calculus is presented. The analysis deals with the study of the extremals of an action functional defined on piecewise differentiable curves, subject to differentiable, non-holonomic constraints. Special attention is paid to the tensorial aspects of the theory. As far as the kinematical foundations are concerned, a fully covariant scheme is developed through the introduction of the concept of infinitesimal control. The standard classification of the extremals into normal and abnormal ones is discussed, pointing out the existence of an algebraic algorithm assigning to each admissible curve a corresponding abnormality index, related to the co-rank of a suitable linear map. Attention is then shifted to the study of the first variation of the action functional. The analysis includes a revisitation of Pontryagin's equations and of the Lagrange multipliers method, as well as a reformulation of Pontryagin's algorithm in Hamiltonian terms. The analysis is completed by a general result, concerning the existence of finite deformations with fixed endpoints.

15. Evolution and Probability.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bailey, David H.

2000-01-01

Some of the most impressive-sounding criticisms of the conventional theory of biological evolution involve probability. Presents a few examples of how probability should and should not be used in discussing evolution. (ASK)

EPA Science Inventory

The Biodegradation Probability Program (BIODEG) calculates the probability that a chemical under aerobic conditions with mixed cultures of microorganisms will biodegrade rapidly or slowly. It uses fragment constants developed using multiple linear and non-linear regressions and d...

17. Probability on a Budget.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ewbank, William A.; Ginther, John L.

2002-01-01

Describes how to use common dice numbered 1-6 for simple mathematical situations including probability. Presents a lesson using regular dice and specially marked dice to explore some of the concepts of probability. (KHR)

18. Dependent Probability Spaces

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

2008-01-01

The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

19. Searching with probabilities

SciTech Connect

Palay, A.J.

1985-01-01

This book examines how probability distributions can be used as a knowledge representation technique. It presents a mechanism that can be used to guide a selective search algorithm to solve a variety of tactical chess problems. Topics covered include probabilities and searching the B algorithm and chess probabilities - in practice, examples, results, and future work.

20. Noninvasive control of dental calculus removal: qualification of two fluorescence methods

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.

2013-02-01

The main condition of periodontitis prevention is the full calculus removal from the teeth surface. This procedure should be fulfilled without harming adjacent unaffected tooth tissues. Nevertheless the problem of sensitive and precise estimating of tooth-calculus interface exists and potential risk of hard tissue damage remains. In this work it was shown that fluorescence diagnostics during calculus removal can be successfully used for precise noninvasive detection of calculus-tooth interface. In so doing the simple implementation of this method free from the necessity of spectrometer using can be employed. Such a simple implementation of calculus detection set-up can be aggregated with the devices of calculus removing.

1. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...

2. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall...

3. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall...

4. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...

5. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...

6. Laboratory-Tutorial Activities for Teaching Probability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wittmann, Michael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.; Feeley, Roger E.

2006-01-01

We report on the development of students' ideas of probability and probability density in a University of Maine laboratory-based general education physics course called "Intuitive Quantum Physics". Students in the course are generally math phobic with unfavorable expectations about the nature of physics and their ability to do it. We describe a…

7. In All Probability, Probability is not All

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helman, Danny

2004-01-01

The national lottery is often portrayed as a game of pure chance with no room for strategy. This misperception seems to stem from the application of probability instead of expectancy considerations, and can be utilized to introduce the statistical concept of expectation.

8. Potential of shock waves to remove calculus and biofilm.

PubMed

Müller, Philipp; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Attin, Thomas; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Schmidlin, Patrick R

2011-12-01

Effective calculus and biofilm removal is essential to treat periodontitis. Sonic and ultrasonic technologies are used in several scaler applications. This was the first feasibility study to assess the potential of a shock wave device to remove calculus and biofilms and to kill bacteria. Ten extracted teeth with visible subgingival calculus were treated with either shock waves for 1 min at an energy output of 0.4 mJ/mm(2) at 3 Hz or a magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler at medium power setting for 1 min, which served as a control. Calculus was determined before and after treatment planimetrically using a custom-made software using a grey scale threshold. In a second experiment, multispecies biofilms were formed on saliva-preconditioned bovine enamel discs during 64.5 h. They were subsequently treated with shock waves or the ultrasonic scaler (N = 6/group) using identical settings. Biofilm detachment and bactericidal effects were then assessed. Limited efficiency of the shock wave therapy in terms of calculus removal was observed: only 5% of the calculus was removed as compared to 100% when ultrasound was used (P ≤ 0.0001). However, shock waves were able to significantly reduce adherent bacteria by three orders of magnitude (P ≤ 0.0001). The extent of biofilm removal by the ultrasonic device was statistically similar. Only limited bactericidal effects were observed using both methods. Within the limitations of this preliminary study, the shock wave device was not able to reliably remove calculus but had the potential to remove biofilms by three log steps. To increase the efficacy, technical improvements are still required. This novel noninvasive intervention, however, merits further investigation. PMID:20821262

9. Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.

PubMed

Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William

2004-05-01

We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non

10. Super quantum probabilities and three-slit experiments—Wright's pentagon state and the Popescu-Rohrlich box require third-order interference

Niestegge, Gerd

2014-04-01

Quantum probabilities differ from classical ones in many ways, e.g. by violating the well-known Bell and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities or another simple inequality due to R Wright. The latter has recently regained attention because of its equivalence to a novel noncontextual inequality by Klyachko et al. On the other hand, quantum probabilities still obey many limitations which need not hold in more general probabilistic theories (super quantum probabilities). Wright, Popescu and Rohrlich identified states which are included in such theories, but impossible in quantum mechanics, and they showed this using the Hilbert space formalism. Recently, Fritz et al and Cabello detected that the impossibility of these states can be derived from very general principles (local orthogonality and global exclusive disjunction, respectively) without using Hilbert space techniques. In the paper, an alternative derivation from rather different physical principles will be presented. These are a reasonable calculus of conditional probability (i.e. a model for the quantum measurement process) and the absence of third-order interference. The concept of third-order interference was introduced by Sorkin, who also recognized its impossibility in quantum mechanics.

11. Influence of the surface area approximation on plantar arch index calculus

Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Vigaru, Cosmina; Pasca, Oana

2012-09-01

The general purpose of this study was to establish some correction coefficients used in plantar index calculus. In order to compute the correction coefficients, the total area of scanned footprints was estimated using two methods. The footprints were acquired on white plan paper by means of graphite powder, and scanned at five different resolutions. One of the methods of area computing refers to counting squares of an applied grid on the image, while the other method uses a computer software to determine footprint limits and area.

12. Two-parameter asymptotics in magnetic Weyl calculus

Lein, Max

2010-12-01

This paper is concerned with small parameter asymptotics of magnetic quantum systems. In addition to a semiclassical parameter ɛ, the case of small coupling λ to the magnetic vector potential naturally occurs in this context. Magnetic Weyl calculus is adapted to incorporate both parameters, at least one of which needs to be small. Of particular interest is the expansion of the Weyl product which can be used to expand the product of operators in a small parameter, a technique which is prominent to obtain perturbation expansions. Three asymptotic expansions for the magnetic Weyl product of two Hörmander class symbols are proven as (i) ɛ ≪ 1 and λ ≪ 1, (ii) ɛ ≪ 1 and λ = 1, as well as (iii) ɛ = 1 and λ ≪ 1. Expansions (i) and (iii) are impossible to obtain with ordinary Weyl calculus. Furthermore, I relate the results derived by ordinary Weyl calculus with those obtained with magnetic Weyl calculus by one- and two-parameter expansions. To show the power and versatility of magnetic Weyl calculus, I derive the semirelativistic Pauli equation as a scaling limit from the Dirac equation up to errors of fourth order in 1/c.

13. On flipping first-semester calculus: a case study

Petrillo, Joseph

2016-05-01

High failure rates in calculus have plagued students, teachers, and administrators for decades, while science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programmes continue to suffer from low enrollments and high attrition. In an effort to affect this reality, some educators are 'flipping' (or inverting) their classrooms. By flipping, we mean administering course content outside of the classroom and replacing the traditional in-class lectures with discussion, practice, group work, and other elements of active learning. This paper presents the major results from a three-year study of a flipped, first-semester calculus course at a small, comprehensive, American university with a well-known engineering programme. The data we have collected help quantify the positive and substantial effects of our flipped calculus course on failure rates, scores on the common final exam, student opinion of calculus, teacher impact on measurable outcomes, and success in second-semester calculus. While flipping may not be suitable for every teacher, every student, and in every situation, this report provides some evidence that it may be a viable option for those seeking an alternative to the traditional lecture model.

14. Two-parameter asymptotics in magnetic Weyl calculus

SciTech Connect

Lein, Max

2010-12-15

This paper is concerned with small parameter asymptotics of magnetic quantum systems. In addition to a semiclassical parameter {epsilon}, the case of small coupling {lambda} to the magnetic vector potential naturally occurs in this context. Magnetic Weyl calculus is adapted to incorporate both parameters, at least one of which needs to be small. Of particular interest is the expansion of the Weyl product which can be used to expand the product of operators in a small parameter, a technique which is prominent to obtain perturbation expansions. Three asymptotic expansions for the magnetic Weyl product of two Hoermander class symbols are proven as (i) {epsilon}<< 1 and {lambda}<< 1, (ii) {epsilon}<< 1 and {lambda}= 1, as well as (iii) {epsilon}= 1 and {lambda}<< 1. Expansions (i) and (iii) are impossible to obtain with ordinary Weyl calculus. Furthermore, I relate the results derived by ordinary Weyl calculus with those obtained with magnetic Weyl calculus by one- and two-parameter expansions. To show the power and versatility of magnetic Weyl calculus, I derive the semirelativistic Pauli equation as a scaling limit from the Dirac equation up to errors of fourth order in 1/c.

15. Colloquium: Fractional calculus view of complexity: A tutorial

West, Bruce J.

2014-10-01

The fractional calculus has been part of the mathematics and science literature for 310 years. However, it is only in the past decade or so that it has drawn the attention of mainstream science as a way to describe the dynamics of complex phenomena with long-term memory, spatial heterogeneity, along with nonstationary and nonergodic statistics. The most recent application encompasses complex networks, which require new ways of thinking about the world. Part of the new cognition is provided by the fractional calculus description of temporal and topological complexity. Consequently, this Colloquium is not so much a tutorial on the mathematics of the fractional calculus as it is an exploration of how complex phenomena in the physical, social, and life sciences that have eluded traditional mathematical modeling become less mysterious when certain historical assumptions such as differentiability are discarded and the ordinary calculus is replaced with the fractional calculus. Exemplars considered include the fractional differential equations describing the dynamics of viscoelastic materials, turbulence, foraging, and phase transitions in complex social networks.

16. Quantum Stratonovich calculus and the quantum Wong-Zakai theorem

SciTech Connect

Gough, John

2006-11-15

We extend the Ito(bar sign)-to-Stratonovich analysis or quantum stochastic differential equations, introduced by Gardiner and Collett for emission (creation), absorption (annihilation) processes, to include scattering (conservation) processes. Working within the framework of quantum stochastic calculus, we define Stratonovich calculus as an algebraic modification of the Ito(bar sign) one and give conditions for the existence of Stratonovich time-ordered exponentials. We show that conversion formula for the coefficients has a striking resemblance to Green's function formulas from standard perturbation theory. We show that the calculus conveniently describes the Markov limit of regular open quantum dynamical systems in much the same way as in the Wong-Zakai approximation theorems of classical stochastic analysis. We extend previous limit results to multiple-dimensions with a proof that makes use of diagrammatic conventions.

17. Analysis-based arguments for abstract data type calculus.

SciTech Connect

Rouson, Damian W. I.

2008-10-01

Increasing demands on the complexity of scientific models coupled with increasing demands for their scalability are placing programming models on equal footing with the numerical methods they implement in terms of significance. A recurring theme across several major scientific software development projects involves defining abstract data types (ADTs) that closely mimic mathematical abstractions such as scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In languages that support user-defined operators and/or overloading of intrinsic operators, coupling ADTs with a set of algebraic and/or integro-differential operators results in an ADT calculus. This talk will analyze ADT calculus using three tool sets: object-oriented design metrics, computational complexity theory, and information theory. It will be demonstrated that ADT calculus leads to highly cohesive, loosely coupled abstractions with code-size-invariant data dependencies and minimal information entropy. The talk will also discuss how these results relate to software flexibility and robustness.

18. Bacteria and archaea paleomicrobiology of the dental calculus: a review.

PubMed

Huynh, H T T; Verneau, J; Levasseur, A; Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G

2016-06-01

Dental calculus, a material observed in the majority of adults worldwide, emerged as a source for correlating paleomicrobiology with human health and diet. This mini review of 48 articles on the paleomicrobiology of dental calculus over 7550 years discloses a secular core microbiota comprising nine bacterial phyla - Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, TM7, Synergistetes, Chloroflexi, Fusobacteria, Spirochetes - and one archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota; and some accessory microbiota that appear and disappear according to time frame. The diet residues and oral microbes, including bacteria, archaea, viruses and fungi, consisting of harmless organisms and pathogens associated with local and systemic infections have been found trapped in ancient dental calculus by morphological approaches, immunolabeling techniques, isotope analyses, fluorescent in situ hybridization, DNA-based approaches, and protein-based approaches. These observations led to correlation of paleomicrobiology, particularly Streptococcus mutans and archaea, with past human health and diet. PMID:26194817

19. The Very Lazy λ-Calculus and the STEC Machine

Rochel, Jan

Current implementations of non-strict functional languages rely on call-by-name reduction to implement the λ-calculus. An interesting alternative is head occurrence reduction, a reduction strategy specifically designed for the implementation of non-strict, purely functional languages. This work introduces the very lazy λ -calculus, which allows a systematic description of this approach. It is not based on regular β-reduction but a generalised rewriting rule called γ-reduction that requires fewer reductions to obtain useful results from a term. It therefore promises more efficient program execution than conventional execution models. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach, an adaptation of the Pointer Abstract Machine (PAM) is specified that implements the very lazy λ-calculus and constitutes a foundation for a new class of efficient functional language implementations.

20. Metaphor Clusters: Characterizing Instructor Metaphorical Reasoning on Limit Concepts in College Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patel, Rita Manubhai; McCombs, Paul; Zollman, Alan

2014-01-01

Novice students have difficulty with the topic of limits in calculus. We believe this is in part because of the multiple perspectives and shifting metaphors available to solve items correctly. We investigated college calculus instructors' personal concepts of limits. Based upon previous research investigating introductory calculus student…

1. Gender Differences in Classroom Participation and Achievement: An Experiment Involving Advanced Placement Calculus Classes.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subotnik, Rena F.; Strauss, Shiela M.

1995-01-01

Despite scoring lower on the mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT-M) prior to taking an advanced placement calculus course, female students (n=85) scored as well as males (n=51) on the Advanced Placement BC level calculus test. Predictors of AP scores were: first, scores on the Calculus Readiness Test; second, scores on the SAT-M; and…

2. An Analysis of College Mathematics Departments' Credit Granting Policies for Students with High School Calculus Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laurent, Theresa A.

2009-01-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate higher education mathematics departments' credit granting policies for students with high school calculus experience. The number of students taking calculus in high school has more than doubled since 1982 (NCES, 2007) and it is estimated that approximately 530,000 students took a calculus course in high…

3. The Development and Nature of Problem-Solving among First-Semester Calculus Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dawkins, Paul Christian; Epperson, James A. Mendoza

2014-01-01

This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We…

4. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mokry, Jeanette

2016-01-01

This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

5. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gordon, W. J.

1984-01-01

The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

6. The calculus of differences: Effects of a psychosocial, cultural, and pedagogical intervention in an all women's university calculus class

Steele, Diana F.; Levin, Amy K.; Blecksmith, Richard; Shahverdian, Jill

2005-10-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways in which a multi-layered women's calculus course influenced the participants' learning of mathematics. This study, conducted in a state university in the Midwestern region of the United States, revealed not only that women in this particular section of calculus were likely to select careers that involved mathematics, but that the focus on peer support, psychosocial issues such as self-confidence, and pedagogy helped the young women overcome gender barriers, as well as barriers of class, poverty, and race. In this article we provide some of the relevant quantitative statistics and relate the stories of two particular women through excerpts from interviews, student artefacts, and participant observation data. We selected these young women because they faced multiple barriers to success in Calculus I and might not have completed the course or taken additional mathematics courses without the support structures that were fundamental to the course.

7. Regge calculus models of the closed vacuum Λ -FLRW universe

Liu, Rex G.; Williams, Ruth M.

2016-01-01

The Collins-Williams Regge calculus models of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) space-times and Brewin's subdivided models are applied to closed vacuum Λ -FLRW universes. In each case, we embed the Regge Cauchy surfaces into 3-spheres in E4 and consider possible measures of Cauchy surface radius that can be derived from the embedding. Regge equations are obtained from both global variation, where entire sets of identical edges get varied simultaneously, and local variation, where each edge gets varied individually. We explore the relationship between the two sets of solutions, the conditions under which the Regge Hamiltonian constraint would be a first integral of the evolution equation, the initial value equation for each model at its moment of time symmetry, and the performance of the various models. It is revealed that local variation does not generally lead to a viable Regge model. It is also demonstrated that the various models do satisfy their respective initial value equations. Finally, it is shown that the models reproduce the correct qualitative dynamics of the space-time. Furthermore, the approximation's accuracy is highest when the universe is small but improves overall as we increase the number of tetrahedra used to construct the Regge Cauchy surface. Eventually though, all models gradually fail to keep up with the continuum FLRW model's expansion, with the models with lower numbers of tetrahedra falling away more quickly. We believe this failure to keep up is due to the finite resolution of the Regge Cauchy surfaces trying to approximate an ever expanding continuum Cauchy surface; each Regge surface has a fixed number of tetrahedra and as the surface being approximated gets larger, the resolution would degrade. Finally, we note that all Regge models end abruptly at a point when the timelike struts of the skeleton become null, though this end point appears to get delayed as the number of tetrahedra is increased.

8. Single-case probabilities

Miller, David

1991-12-01

The propensity interpretation of probability, bred by Popper in 1957 (K. R. Popper, in Observation and Interpretation in the Philosophy of Physics, S. Körner, ed. (Butterworth, London, 1957, and Dover, New York, 1962), p. 65; reprinted in Popper Selections, D. W. Miller, ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1985), p. 199) from pure frequency stock, is the only extant objectivist account that provides any proper understanding of single-case probabilities as well as of probabilities in ensembles and in the long run. In Sec. 1 of this paper I recall salient points of the frequency interpretations of von Mises and of Popper himself, and in Sec. 2 I filter out from Popper's numerous expositions of the propensity interpretation its most interesting and fertile strain. I then go on to assess it. First I defend it, in Sec. 3, against recent criticisms (P. Humphreys, Philos. Rev. 94, 557 (1985); P. Milne, Erkenntnis 25, 129 (1986)) to the effect that conditional [or relative] probabilities, unlike absolute probabilities, can only rarely be made sense of as propensities. I then challenge its predominance, in Sec. 4, by outlining a rival theory: an irreproachably objectivist theory of probability, fully applicable to the single case, that interprets physical probabilities as instantaneous frequencies.

9. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

SciTech Connect

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2014-08-15

A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.

10. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2014-08-01

A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.

11. The impact of instructor pedagogy on college calculus students' attitude toward mathematics

2015-04-01

College calculus teaches students important mathematical concepts and skills. The course also has a substantial impact on students' attitude toward mathematics, affecting their career aspirations and desires to take more mathematics. This national US study of 3103 students at 123 colleges and universities tracks changes in students' attitudes toward mathematics during a 'mainstream' calculus course while controlling for student backgrounds. The attitude measure combines students' self-ratings of their mathematics confidence, interest in, and enjoyment of mathematics. Three major kinds of instructor pedagogy, identified through the factor analysis of 61 student-reported variables, are investigated for impact on student attitude as follows: (1) instructors who employ generally accepted 'good teaching' practices (e.g. clarity in presentation and answering questions, useful homework, fair exams, help outside of class) are found to have the most positive impact, particularly with students who began with a weaker initial attitude. (2) Use of educational 'technology' (e.g. graphing calculators, for demonstrations, in homework), on average, is found to have no impact on attitudes, except when used by graduate student instructors, which negatively affects students' attitudes towards mathematics. (3) 'Ambitious teaching' (e.g. group work, word problems, 'flipped' reading, student explanations of thinking) has a small negative impact on student attitudes, while being a relatively more constructive influence only on students who already enjoyed a positive attitude toward mathematics and in classrooms with a large number of students. This study provides support for efforts to improve calculus teaching through the training of faculty and graduate students to use traditional 'good teaching' practices through professional development workshops and courses. As currently implemented, technology and ambitious pedagogical practices, while no doubt effective in certain classrooms, do

12. Flood hazard probability mapping method

Kalantari, Zahra; Lyon, Steve; Folkeson, Lennart

2015-04-01

In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. Factors such as topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs were analysed in terms of their relative importance for flood generation. The specific objective was to test the methodology using statistical methods to identify factors having a significant role on controlling flooding. A second objective was to generate an index quantifying flood probability value for each cell, based on different weighted factors, in order to provide a more accurate analysis of potential high flood hazards than can be obtained using just a single variable. The ability of indicator covariance to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. By using PCD data, realistic representations of high probability flood regions was made, despite the magnitude of rain events. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

13. Concepts and Skills in High School Calculus: An Examination of a Special Case in Japan and the United States

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judson, Thomas W.; Nishimori, Toshiyuki

2005-01-01

In this study we investigated above-average high school calculus students from Japan and the United States in order to determine any differences in their conceptual understanding of calculus and their ability to use algebra to solve traditional calculus problems. We examined and interviewed 18 Calculus BC students in the United States and 26…

14. The Difference Calculus and The NEgative Binomial Distribution

SciTech Connect

Bowman, Kimiko o; Shenton, LR

2007-01-01

In a previous paper we state the dominant term in the third central moment of the maximum likelihood estimator k of the parameter k in the negative binomial probability function where the probability generating function is (p + 1 - pt){sup -k}. A partial sum of the series {Sigma}1/(k + x){sup 3} is involved, where x is a negative binomial random variate. In expectation this sum can only be found numerically using the computer. Here we give a simple definite integral in (0,1) for the generalized case. This means that now we do have a valid expression for {radical}{beta}{sub 11}(k) and {radical}{beta}{sub 11}(p). In addition we use the finite difference operator {Delta}, and E = 1 + {Delta} to set up formulas for low order moments. Other examples of the operators are quoted relating to the orthogonal set of polynomials associated with the negative binomial probability function used as a weight function.

15. Probability with Roulette

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marshall, Jennings B.

2007-01-01

This article describes how roulette can be used to teach basic concepts of probability. Various bets are used to illustrate the computation of expected value. A betting system shows variations in patterns that often appear in random events.

16. Deriving the Regression Equation without Using Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

2004-01-01

Probably the one "new" mathematical topic that is most responsible for modernizing courses in college algebra and precalculus over the last few years is the idea of fitting a function to a set of data in the sense of a least squares fit. Whether it be simple linear regression or nonlinear regression, this topic opens the door to applying the…

17. Correlation as Probability of Common Descent.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Falk, Ruma; Well, Arnold D.

1996-01-01

One interpretation of the Pearson product-moment correlation ("r"), correlation as the probability of originating from common descent, important to the genetic measurement of inbreeding, is examined. The conditions under which "r" can be interpreted as the probability of "identity by descent" are specified, and the possibility of generalizing this…

18. Helical Tomotherapy vs. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Whole Pelvis Irradiation in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients: Dosimetric, Normal Tissue Complication Probability, and Generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose Analysis

SciTech Connect

Widesott, Lamberto; Pierelli, Alessio; Fiorino, Claudio; Lomax, Antony J.; Amichetti, Maurizio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Soukup, Martin; Schneider, Ralf; Hug, Eugen; Di Muzio, Nadia; Calandrino, Riccardo; Schwarz, Marco

2011-08-01

Purpose: To compare intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) treatment plans for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) patients. Methods and Materials: The plans of 8 patients with HRPCa treated with HT were compared with IMPT plans with two quasilateral fields set up (-100{sup o}; 100{sup o}) and optimized with the Hyperion treatment planning system. Both techniques were optimized to simultaneously deliver 74.2 Gy/Gy relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) in 28 fractions on planning target volumes (PTVs)3-4 (P + proximal seminal vesicles), 65.5 Gy/Gy(RBE) on PTV2 (distal seminal vesicles and rectum/prostate overlapping), and 51.8 Gy/Gy(RBE) to PTV1 (pelvic lymph nodes). Normal tissue calculation probability (NTCP) calculations were performed for the rectum, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was estimated for the bowel cavity, penile bulb and bladder. Results: A slightly better PTV coverage and homogeneity of target dose distribution with IMPT was found: the percentage of PTV volume receiving {>=}95% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 95%}) was on average >97% in HT and >99% in IMPT. The conformity indexes were significantly lower for protons than for photons, and there was a statistically significant reduction of the IMPT dosimetric parameters, up to 50 Gy/Gy(RBE) for the rectum and bowel and 60 Gy/Gy(RBE) for the bladder. The NTCP values for the rectum were higher in HT for all the sets of parameters, but the gain was small and in only a few cases statistically significant. Conclusions: Comparable PTV coverage was observed. Based on NTCP calculation, IMPT is expected to allow a small reduction in rectal toxicity, and a significant dosimetric gain with IMPT, both in medium-dose and in low-dose range in all OARs, was observed.

19. Launch Collision Probability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.

1999-01-01

This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.

20. Evaluating the Performance of Calculus Classes Using Operational Research Tools.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soares de Mello, Joao Carlos C. B.; Lins, Marcos P. E.; Soares de Mello, Maria Helena C.; Gomes, Eliane G.

2002-01-01

Compares the efficiency of calculus classes and evaluates two kinds of classes: traditional and others that use computational methods in teaching. Applies quantitative evaluation methods using two operational research tools, multicriteria decision aid methods (mainly using the MACBETH approach) and data development analysis. (Author/YDS)

1. Assessing Online Homework in First-Semester Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Callahan, Jason T.

2016-01-01

This paper describes and assesses the implementation of online homework in a first-semester calculus course. Comparing sections of the course before implementation to those after, we find statistically significant improvements in retention rates, measures of student engagement, and participation on homework. We do not, however, find statistically…

2. Calculus of One and More Variables with Maple

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samkova, Libuse

2012-01-01

This is a guide to using Maple in teaching fundamental calculus of one, two and three variables (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc.), also suitable for Maple beginners. It outlines one of the ways to effective use of computers in the teaching process. It scans advantages and disadvantages of using Maple in relation to students and teacher. The…

3. Contrasting Cases of Calculus Students' Understanding of Derivative Graphs

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Aspinwall, Leslie; Presmeg, Norma C.

2010-01-01

This study adds momentum to the ongoing discussion clarifying the merits of visualization and analysis in mathematical thinking. Our goal was to gain understanding of three calculus students' mental processes and images used to create meaning for derivative graphs. We contrast the thinking processes of these three students as they attempted to…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nabb, Keith

2013-01-01

In this article on introductory calculus, intriguing questions are generated that can ignite an appreciation for the subject of mathematics. These questions open doors to advanced mathematical thinking and harness many elements of research-oriented mathematics. Such questions also offer greater incentives for students to think and reflect.…

5. Flipping the Calculus Classroom: A Cost-Effective Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young, Andrea

2015-01-01

This article discusses a cost-effective approach to flipping the calculus classroom. In particular, the emphasis is on low-cost choices, both monetarily and with regards to faculty time, that make the daunting task of flipping a course manageable for a single instructor. Student feedback and overall impressions are also presented.

6. On Flipping First-Semester Calculus: A Case Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Petrillo, Joseph

2016-01-01

High failure rates in calculus have plagued students, teachers, and administrators for decades, while science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programmes continue to suffer from low enrollments and high attrition. In an effort to affect this reality, some educators are "flipping" (or inverting) their classrooms. By flipping, we…

7. Path Integrals, Fourier Transforms, and Feynman's Operational Calculus

SciTech Connect

Ahn, Byung Moo; Johnson, G. W.

1998-03-15

The disentangling process is the key to Feynman's operational calculus for noncommuting operators. The main result of his heuristic calculations deals with disentangling an exponential factor. We use the Wiener and Feynman integrals to make this disentangling (or time-ordering) mathematically rigorous in the case where the analytic functions from earlier work are replaced by Fourier transforms of complex-valued measures.

8. Dental Calculus Is Associated with Death from Heart Infarction

PubMed Central

Söder, Birgitta; Meurman, Jukka H.; Söder, Per-Östen

2014-01-01

Objectives. We studied whether the amount of dental calculus is associated with death from heart infarction in the dental infection—atherosclerosis paradigm. Materials. Participants were 1676 healthy young Swedes followed up from 1985 to 2011. At the beginning of the study all subjects underwent oral clinical examination including dental calculus registration scored with calculus index (CI). Outcome measure was cause of death classified according to WHO International Classification of Diseases. Unpaired t-test, Chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regressions were used. Results. Of the 1676 participants, 2.8% had died during follow-up. Women died at a mean age of 61.5 years and men at 61.7 years. The difference in the CI index score between the survivors versus deceased patients was significant by the year 2009 (P < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis of the relationship between death from heart infarction as a dependent variable and CI as independent variable with controlling for age, gender, dental visits, dental plaque, periodontal pockets, education, income, socioeconomic status, and pack-years of smoking, CI score appeared to be associated with 2.3 times the odds ratio for cardiac death. Conclusions. The results confirmed our study hypothesis by showing that dental calculus indeed associated statistically with cardiac death due to infarction. PMID:24511535

9. Calculus Students' Understanding of Area and Volume Units

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha

2015-01-01

Units of measure are critical in many scientific fields. While instructors often note that students struggle with units, little research has been conducted about the nature and extent of these difficulties or why they exist. We investigated calculus students' unit use in area and volume computations. Seventy-three percent of students gave…

10. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wares, Arsalan

2011-01-01

The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

11. An Investigation of Calculus Learning Using Factorial Modeling.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dick, Thomas P.; Balomenos, Richard H.

Structural covariance models that would explain the correlations observed among mathematics achievement and participation measures and related cognitive and affective variables were developed. A sample of college calculus students (N=268; 124 females and 144 males) was administered a battery of cognitive tests (including measures of spatial-visual…

12. Multivariate Limits and Continuity: A Survey of Calculus Textbooks.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thompson, Thomas M.; Wiggins, Kenneth L.

There has been much recent discussion concerning the content of the standard calculus course for students majoring in mathematics and the sciences. Some of this discussion has focused on the available textbooks. One weakness noted in some of these books involves the definitions of limit and continuity for functions of several variables. A…

13. Helping Mathematics Students Survive the Post-Calculus Transition

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cullinane, Michael J.

2011-01-01

Many mathematics students have difficulty making the transition from procedurally oriented courses such as calculus to the more conceptually oriented courses in which they subsequently enroll. What are some of the key "stumbling blocks" for students as they attempt to make this transition? How do differences in faculty expectations for students…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laverty, Rich; Povich, Timothy; Williams, Tasha

2005-01-01

Near the conclusion of their final term in the calculus sequence at The United States Military Academy, cadets are given a week long group project. At the end of the week, the project is briefed to their instructors, classmates, and superior officers. From a teaching perspective, the goal is to encapsulate as much of the course as possible in one…

15. An Experiment in "Flipped" Teaching in Freshman Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anderson, Laura; Brennan, Joseph Phillip

2015-01-01

At Binghamton, Calculus 1 is taught to over 1000 students each fall in sections of about 30-40 students, with graduate student instructors teaching most sections. Despite having small classrooms instead of lecture halls, the satisfaction and performance of students has historically been poor. We had hoped to improve student success by changing how…

16. Insights from the MAA National Study of College Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bressoud, David

2015-01-01

Over the past five years, the Mathematical Association of America, with support from the National Science Foundation, has explored the teaching of mainstream Calculus 1 at the postsecondary level, where by "mainstream" we mean those courses that can be used as part of the prerequisite stream to more advanced postsecondary mathematics. We…

17. A Measurement Activity to Encourage Exploration of Calculus Concepts

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGuffey, William

2015-01-01

This article describes an activity that incorporates measurement in order to lead students to discover and explore fundamental concepts of calculus. Students are provided with an experientially real starting point involving measurement and are encouraged to engage in mathematical discussions in a low-stakes environment. I describe the activity as…

18. Factors Affecting Mathematically Talented Females' Enrollment in High School Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reynolds, Nancy G.; Conaway, Betty J.

2003-01-01

A study involving 1,244 eighth-grade females who were high achievers in algebra, investigated characteristics of those who ended up taking calculus (n=474). Results showed differences between the two groups in mother's education, socioeconomic status, and educational aspirations. However, when applying all factors together, they did not predict…

19. An Application of Calculus: Optimum Parabolic Path Problem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atasever, Merve; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Yurtsever, Hasan Ali

2009-01-01

A practical and technological application of calculus problem is posed to motivate freshman students or junior high school students. A variable coefficient of friction is used in modelling air friction. The case in which the coefficient of friction is a decreasing function of altitude is considered. The optimum parabolic path for a flying object…

20. The Vector Calculus Gap: Mathematics (Does Not Equal) Physics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.

1999-01-01

Discusses some of the differences between the ways mathematicians and physicists view vector calculus and the gap between the way this material is traditionally taught by mathematicians and the way physicists use it. Suggests some ways to narrow the gap. (Author/ASK)

1. A Team Taught Interdisciplinary Approach To Physics and Calculus Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson, David B.

The Special Intensive Program for Scientists and Engineers (SIPSE) at Diablo Valley College in California replaces the traditional engineering calculus and physics sequences with a single sequence that combines the two subjects into an integrated whole. The project report provides an overview of SIPSE, a section that traces the project from…

2. Sharing Teaching Ideas. Giving Meaning to Volume in Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rahn, James R.

1991-01-01

Described is an activity that uses the techniques of integral calculus to determine the volume of a bundt cake. The cake is used as an example of a solid of revolution. Included are the procedures and assumptions used by students to solve this problem. (KR)

3. On the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for Fractal Sets

Bongiorno, Donatella; Corrao, Giuseppa

2015-04-01

The aim of this paper is to formulate the best version of the Fundamental theorem of Calculus for real functions on a fractal subset of the real line. In order to do that an integral of Henstock-Kurzweil type is introduced.

4. a Type of Fractal Interpolation Functions and Their Fractional Calculus

Liang, Yong-Shun; Zhang, Qi

2016-05-01

Combine Chebyshev systems with fractal interpolation, certain continuous functions have been approximated by fractal interpolation functions unanimously. Local structure of these fractal interpolation functions (FIF) has been discussed. The relationship between order of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and Box dimension of FIF has been investigated.

5. Development of Boolean calculus and its applications. [digital systems design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tapia, M. A.

1980-01-01

The development of Boolean calculus for its application to developing digital system design methodologies that would reduce system complexity, size, cost, speed, power requirements, etc., is discussed. Synthesis procedures for logic circuits are examined particularly asynchronous circuits using clock triggered flip flops.

6. Using the Pottery Wheel to Explore Topics in Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farnell, Elin; Snipes, Marie A.

2015-01-01

Students sometimes struggle with visualizing the three-dimensional solids encountered in certain integral problems in a calculus class. We present a project in which students create solids of revolution with clay on a pottery wheel and estimate the volumes of these objects using Riemann sums. In addition to giving students an opportunity for…

7. Inertial Navigation: A Bridge between Kinematics and Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2012-01-01

Those who come to Cambridge soon learn that the fastest route between Harvard and MIT is by the subway. For many students, this short ride is a quick and easy way to link physics and calculus. A simple, homemade accelerometer provides all the instrumentation necessary to produce accurate graphs of acceleration, velocity, and displacement position…

8. Designing a Telescope Mirror for Second-Semester Calculus Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marchand, Richard J.; Rogers, Robert R.; Parker, Andrew T.

2006-01-01

The purpose of this article is to present an interdisciplinary project, developed as a collaborative effort by the authors, involving the design of a telescope mirror as it was given to second semester calculus students. The goals of the project are to provide an applied setting for the topics typically covered in this type of course including the…

9. Non-Mathematics Students' Reasoning in Calculus Tasks

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jukic Matic, Ljerka

2015-01-01

This paper investigates the reasoning of first year non-mathematics students in non-routine calculus tasks. The students in this study were accustomed to imitative reasoning from their primary and secondary education. In order to move from imitative reasoning toward more creative reasoning, non-routine tasks were implemented as an explicit part of…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baxter, Judith Lee; Majumdar, Dibyen; Smith, Stephen D.

1998-01-01

Studies the later course grades of students enrolled in freshman calculus taught using traditional texts through 1994-95 and the Harvard method which was fully adopted starting in 1995-96. Reports that, in some cases, the results were indistinguishable but some statistically significant patterns were found. (Author/ASK)

11. Experimental Probability in Elementary School

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Andrew, Lane

2009-01-01

Concepts in probability can be more readily understood if students are first exposed to probability via experiment. Performing probability experiments encourages students to develop understandings of probability grounded in real events, as opposed to merely computing answers based on formulae.

12. Probability distribution of the index in gauge theory on 2d non-commutative geometry

Aoki, Hajime; Nishimura, Jun; Susaki, Yoshiaki

2007-10-01

We investigate the effects of non-commutative geometry on the topological aspects of gauge theory using a non-perturbative formulation based on the twisted reduced model. The configuration space is decomposed into topological sectors labeled by the index ν of the overlap Dirac operator satisfying the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. We study the probability distribution of ν by Monte Carlo simulation of the U(1) gauge theory on 2d non-commutative space with periodic boundary conditions. In general the distribution is asymmetric under ν mapsto -ν, reflecting the parity violation due to non-commutative geometry. In the continuum and infinite-volume limits, however, the distribution turns out to be dominated by the topologically trivial sector. This conclusion is consistent with the instanton calculus in the continuum theory. However, it is in striking contrast to the known results in the commutative case obtained from lattice simulation, where the distribution is Gaussian in a finite volume, but the width diverges in the infinite-volume limit. We also calculate the average action in each topological sector, and provide deeper understanding of the observed phenomenon.

13. Generalising Calculus Ideas from Two Dimensions to Three: How Multivariable Calculus Students Think about Domain and Range

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dorko, Allison; Weber, Eric

2014-01-01

We analysed multivariable calculus students' meanings for domain and range and their generalisation of that meaning as they reasoned about the domain and range of multivariable functions. We found that students' thinking about domain and range fell into three broad categories: input/output, independence/dependence, and/or as attached to specific…

14. Matrix approach to discrete fractional calculus II: Partial fractional differential equations

Podlubny, Igor; Chechkin, Aleksei; Skovranek, Tomas; Chen, YangQuan; Vinagre Jara, Blas M.

2009-05-01

A new method that enables easy and convenient discretization of partial differential equations with derivatives of arbitrary real order (so-called fractional derivatives) and delays is presented and illustrated on numerical solution of various types of fractional diffusion equation. The suggested method is the development of Podlubny's matrix approach [I. Podlubny, Matrix approach to discrete fractional calculus, Fractional Calculus and Applied Analysis 3 (4) (2000) 359-386]. Four examples of numerical solution of fractional diffusion equation with various combinations of time-/space-fractional derivatives (integer/integer, fractional/integer, integer/fractional, and fractional/fractional) with respect to time and to the spatial variable are provided in order to illustrate how simple and general is the suggested approach. The fifth example illustrates that the method can be equally simply used for fractional differential equations with delays. A set of MATLAB routines for the implementation of the method as well as sample code used to solve the examples have been developed.

15. Acceptance, values, and probability.

PubMed

Steel, Daniel

2015-10-01

This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

16. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

2005-01-01

As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

17. Varga: On Probability.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Varga, Tamas

This booklet resulted from a 1980 visit by the author, a Hungarian mathematics educator, to the Teachers' Center Project at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville. Included are activities and problems that make probablility concepts accessible to young children. The topics considered are: two probability games; choosing two beads; matching…

18. Application of Quantum Probability

Bohdalová, Mária; Kalina, Martin; Nánásiová, Ol'ga

2009-03-01

This is the first attempt to smooth time series using estimators with applying quantum probability with causality (non-commutative s-maps on an othomodular lattice). In this context it means that we use non-symmetric covariance matrix to construction of our estimator.

19. Univariate Probability Distributions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leemis, Lawrence M.; Luckett, Daniel J.; Powell, Austin G.; Vermeer, Peter E.

2012-01-01

We describe a web-based interactive graphic that can be used as a resource in introductory classes in mathematical statistics. This interactive graphic presents 76 common univariate distributions and gives details on (a) various features of the distribution such as the functional form of the probability density function and cumulative distribution…

20. Probability, statistics, and computational science.

PubMed

Beerenwinkel, Niko; Siebourg, Juliane

2012-01-01

In this chapter, we review basic concepts from probability theory and computational statistics that are fundamental to evolutionary genomics. We provide a very basic introduction to statistical modeling and discuss general principles, including maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Markov chains, hidden Markov models, and Bayesian network models are introduced in more detail as they occur frequently and in many variations in genomics applications. In particular, we discuss efficient inference algorithms and methods for learning these models from partially observed data. Several simple examples are given throughout the text, some of which point to models that are discussed in more detail in subsequent chapters. PMID:22407706

1. The conceptual basis of mathematics in cardiology: (II). Calculus and differential equations.

PubMed

Bates, Jason H T; Sobel, Burton E

2003-04-01

This is the second in a series of four articles developed for the readers of Coronary Artery Disease. Without language ideas cannot be articulated. What may not be so immediately obvious is that they cannot be formulated either. One of the essential languages of cardiology is mathematics. Unfortunately, medical education does not emphasize, and in fact, often neglects empowering physicians to think mathematically. Reference to statistics, conditional probability, multicompartmental modeling, algebra, calculus and transforms is common but often without provision of genuine conceptual understanding. At the University of Vermont College of Medicine, Professor Bates developed a course designed to address these deficiencies. The course covered mathematical principles pertinent to clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine and research. It focused on fundamental concepts to facilitate formulation and grasp of ideas. This series of four articles was developed to make the material available for a wider audience. The articles will be published sequentially in Coronary Artery Disease. Beginning with fundamental axioms and basic algebraic manipulations they address algebra, function and graph theory, real and complex numbers, calculus and differential equations, mathematical modeling, linear system theory and integral transforms and statistical theory. The principles and concepts they address provide the foundation needed for in-depth study of any of these topics. Perhaps of even more importance, they should empower cardiologists and cardiovascular researchers to utilize the language of mathematics in assessing the phenomena of immediate pertinence to diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapeutics. The presentations are interposed with queries (by Coronary Artery Disease abbreviated as CAD) simulating the nature of interactions that occurred during the course itself. Each article concludes with one or more examples illustrating application of the concepts covered to

2. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

3. Calculus students' early concept images of tangent lines

Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

2015-07-01

This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and use tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. We examined students' graphical illustrations and the language they used to describe tangent lines and identified six prominent categories that described students' concept images of tangent lines. Our data show that individual students often possessed multiple concept images of tangent lines, and often these multiple concept images were conflicting. Furthermore, students were usually willing to modify their concept images of tangent lines depending on the task presented to the students.

4. Situation calculus on a dense flow of time

SciTech Connect

Fusaoka, Akira

1996-12-31

In this paper, we attempt to reconstruct the situation calculus on a dense flow of time. The proposed system: ISC, which is formulated in the framework of S2S (the monoadic second-order theory of two successor functions), allows to deal with temporal properties of time duration such as the continuity of fluents. Also it incorporates an intensional feature into the situation calculus so that the inferential process itself can be represented in ISC. On the basis of this modification, we define a nonmonotonic schema called epistemological minimization which selects the preferable model with respect to the information order in the inferential process. This method of nonmonotonic reasoning is useful for a temporal explanation problem because a sequence of events is interpreted sometimes depending on the information order in the inferential process rather than the chronological order of the actual process.

SciTech Connect

J.K. Knudsen

2001-11-20

The objective of this calculation is to calculate the probability of occurrence for fuel assembly (FA) misloads (i.e., Fa placed in the wrong location) and FA damage during FA movements. The scope of this calculation is provided by the information obtained from the Framatome ANP 2001a report. The first step in this calculation is to categorize each fuel-handling events that occurred at nuclear power plants. The different categories are based on FAs being damaged or misloaded. The next step is to determine the total number of FAs involved in the event. Using the information, a probability of occurrence will be calculated for FA misload and FA damage events. This calculation is an expansion of preliminary work performed by Framatome ANP 2001a.

6. Jet calculus beyond leading order for the gluon sector

SciTech Connect

Gunion, J.F.; Kalinowski, J.

1984-04-01

We report results for the order-C/sub A/ /sup 2/..cap alpha../sub s/ /sup 2/ jet calculus three-, two-, and one-gluon distributions of the pure gluon singlet channel. Included is an independent calculation of the C/sub A/ /sup 2/ part of the gluon..-->..gluon inclusive distribution which has been a subject of controversy for several years. We confirm the results of Furmanski and Petronzio for scheme-independent observables.

7. Multiple multiresolution representation of functions and calculus for fast computation

SciTech Connect

Fann, George I; Harrison, Robert J; Hill, Judith C; Jia, Jun; Galindo, Diego A

2010-01-01

We describe the mathematical representations, data structure and the implementation of the numerical calculus of functions in the software environment multiresolution analysis environment for scientific simulations, MADNESS. In MADNESS, each smooth function is represented using an adaptive pseudo-spectral expansion using the multiwavelet basis to a arbitrary but finite precision. This is an extension of the capabilities of most of the existing net, mesh and spectral based methods where the discretization is based on a single adaptive mesh, or expansions.

8. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Burrows, R. R.

1985-01-01

Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

9. Bunny hops: using multiplicities of zeroes in calculus for graphing

Miller, David; Deshler, Jessica M.; Hansen, Ryan

2016-07-01

Students learn a lot of material in each mathematics course they take. However, they are not always able to make meaningful connections between content in successive mathematics courses. This paper reports on a technique to address a common topic in calculus I courses (intervals of increase/decrease and concave up/down) while also making use of students' pre-existing knowledge about the behaviour of functions around zeroes based on multiplicities.

10. Counterexamples on Jumarie's two basic fractional calculus formulae

Liu, Cheng-shi

2015-05-01

Jumarie proposed a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative definition and gave two basic fractional calculus formulae (u (t) v (t)) (α) =u (α) (t) v (t) + u (t)v (α) (t) and (f (u (t))) (α) = fu‧ u (α) (t) . We give two counterexamples to show that Jumarie's two formulae are not true. Respectively, all results obtained in references by using Jumarie's these two formulae are incorrect. In the end, we give the corresponding formulae.

11. A formalism for the calculus of variations with spinors

Bäckdahl, Thomas; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

2016-02-01

We develop a frame and dyad gauge-independent formalism for the calculus of variations of functionals involving spinorial objects. As a part of this formalism, we define a modified variation operator which absorbs frame and spin dyad gauge terms. This formalism is applicable to both the standard spacetime (i.e., SL(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors as well as to space (i.e., SU(2, ℂ)) 2-spinors. We compute expressions for the variations of the connection and the curvature spinors.

12. Some basic results on the sets of sequences with geometric calculus

Türkmen, Cengiz; Başar, Feyzi

2012-08-01

As an alternative to the classical calculus, Grossman and Katz [Non-Newtonian Calculus, Lee Press, Pigeon Cove, Massachusetts, 1972] introduced the non-Newtonian calculus consisting of the branches of geometric, anageometric and bigeometric calculus. Following Grossman and Katz, we construct the field C(G) of geometric complex numbers and the concept of geometric metric. Also we give the triangle and Minkowski's inequalities in the sense of geometric calculus. Later we respectively define the sets w(G), ℓ∞(G), c(G), c0(G) and ℓp(G) of all, bounded, convergent, null and p-absolutely summable sequences, in the sense of geometric calculus and show that each of the set forms a complete vector space on the field C(G).

13. [Dental calculus-inhibiting tooth pastes and mouthwashes. A review of the literature of clinical trials].

PubMed

Barbakow, F; Imfeld, T

1989-01-01

Several brands of anticalculus dentifrices and mouthrinses claim to reduce the formation of supragingival calculus. These products contain soluble pyrophosphates (with or without Gantrez), zinc citrate trihydrate or zinc chloride which reduce the amount of supragingival but not subgingival calculus after a scaling. Most of the clinical anticalculus trials ran for 3 or 6 months and the calculus reductions were assessed using the Volpe-Manhold Index. This index assesses the coronal extension of supragingival calculus. Calculus reductions varied from 9% to 50% but no plaque scores were quantitated. However, the ADA has stipulated that dentifrices claiming anticalculus effects must clearly state that the products have not therapeutic effect on periodontal diseases. Some of the placebo dentifrices used in the clinical trials also reduced the calculus scores although they are not as yet advertised as anticalculus dentifrices. PMID:2678454

14. Measure and Probability in Cosmology

Schiffrin, Joshua; Wald, Robert

2012-03-01

General relativity has a Hamiltonian formulation, which formally provides a canonical (Liouville) measure on the space of solutions. A number of authors have used the restriction of this measure to the space of homogeneous and isotropic universes with scalar field matter (minisuperspace)---namely, the Gibbons-Hawking-Stewart measure---to make arguments about the likelihood of inflation. We argue here that there are at least four major difficulties with using the measure of general relativity to make probability arguments in cosmology: (1) Equilibration does not occur on cosmological length scales. (2) Even in the minisuperspace case, the measure of phase space is infinite and the computation of probabilities depends very strongly on how the infinity is regulated. (3) The inhomogeneous degrees of freedom must be taken into account even if one is interested only in universes that are very nearly homogeneous. The measure depends upon how the infinite number of degrees of freedom are truncated, and how one defines nearly homogeneous''. (4) In a universe where the second law of thermodynamics holds, one cannot make use of our knowledge of the present state of the universe to retrodict'' the likelihood of past conditions.

15. Subgingival calculus imaging based on swept-source optical coherence tomography

Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lu, Chih-Wei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Chia-Wei

2011-07-01

We characterized and imaged dental calculus using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The refractive indices of enamel, dentin, cementum, and calculus were measured as 1.625 +/- 0.024, 1.534 +/- 0.029, 1.570 +/- 0.021, and 2.097 +/- 0.094, respectively. Dental calculus leads strong scattering properties, and thus, the region can be identified from enamel with SS-OCT imaging. An extracted human tooth with calculus is covered with gingiva tissue as an in vitro sample for tomographic imaging.

16. Presymplectic current and the inverse problem of the calculus of variations

SciTech Connect

Khavkine, Igor

2013-11-15

The inverse problem of the calculus of variations asks whether a given system of partial differential equations (PDEs) admits a variational formulation. We show that the existence of a presymplectic form in the variational bicomplex, when horizontally closed on solutions, allows us to construct a variational formulation for a subsystem of the given PDE. No constraints on the differential order or number of dependent or independent variables are assumed. The proof follows a recent observation of Bridges, Hydon, and Lawson [Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 148(01), 159–178 (2010)] and generalizes an older result of Henneaux [Ann. Phys. 140(1), 45–64 (1982)] from ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to PDEs. Uniqueness of the variational formulation is also discussed.

17. Binary Darboux Transformations in Bidifferential Calculus and Integrable Reductions of Vacuum Einstein Equations

Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

2013-02-01

We present a general solution-generating result within the bidifferential calculus approach to integrable partial differential and difference equations, based on a binary Darboux-type transformation. This is then applied to the non-autonomous chiral model, a certain reduction of which is known to appear in the case of the D-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations with D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. A large class of exact solutions is obtained, and the aforementioned reduction is implemented. This results in an alternative to the well-known Belinski-Zakharov formalism. We recover relevant examples of space-times in dimensions four (Kerr-NUT, Tomimatsu-Sato) and five (single and double Myers-Perry black holes, black saturn, bicycling black rings).

18. Measurement Uncertainty and Probability

2013-02-01

Part I. Principles: 1. Introduction; 2. Foundational ideas in measurement; 3. Components of error or uncertainty; 4. Foundational ideas in probability and statistics; 5. The randomization of systematic errors; 6. Beyond the standard confidence interval; Part II. Evaluation of Uncertainty: 7. Final preparation; 8. Evaluation using the linear approximation; 9. Evaluation without the linear approximations; 10. Uncertainty information fit for purpose; Part III. Related Topics: 11. Measurement of vectors and functions; 12. Why take part in a measurement comparison?; 13. Other philosophies; 14. An assessment of objective Bayesian methods; 15. A guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement; 16. Measurement near a limit - an insoluble problem?; References; Index.

19. Semigroups of tomographic probabilities and quantum correlations

Man'ko, V. I.

2008-08-01

Semigroups of stochastic and bistochastic matrices constructed by means of spin tomograms or tomographic probabilities and their relations to the problem of Bell's inequalities and entanglement are reviewed. The probability determining the quantum state of spins and the probability densities determining the quantum states of particles with continuous variables are considered. Entropies for semigroups of stochastic and bisctochastic matrices are studied, in view of both the Shannon information entropy and its generalization like Rényi entropy. Qubit portraits of qudit states are discussed in the connection with the problem of Bell's inequality violation for entangled states.

20. Calculus of variations in the large, existence of trajectories in a domain with boundary, and Whitney's inverted pendulum problem

Bolotin, S. V.; Kozlov, V. V.

2015-10-01

For non-autonomous Lagrangian systems we introduce the notion of a dynamically convex domain with respect to the Lagrangian. We establish the solubility of boundary-value problems in compact dynamically convex domains. If the Lagrangian is time-periodic, then such a domain contains a periodic trajectory. The proofs use the Hamilton principle and known tools of the calculus of variations in the large. Our general results are applied to Whitney's problem on the existence of motions of an inverted pendulum without falls.

1. A calculus clinical study comparing the efficacy of two commercially available dentifrices.

PubMed

Sowinski, J; Battista, G; Petrone, D M; Petrone, M E; DeVizio, W; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

2000-01-01

The objective of this double-blind clinical study, conducted in harmony with the Volpe-Manhold design for studies of dental calculus, was to compare the effect on supragingival calculus formation of a dentifrice containing pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate and a copolymer in a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica base (Test Dentifrice), to that of a commercially available calculus-inhibiting dentifrice containing tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, disodium pyrophosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate in a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica base (Positive Control Dentifrice). Adult male and female subjects from the Northern New Jersey area were entered into the study, provided a full oral prophylaxis and assigned the use of a placebo (non-calculus-inhibiting) dentifrice for eight weeks. At the completion of this initial period, subjects were assessed for baseline Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index scores, provided another full prophylaxis and stratified into two treatment groups which were balanced for age, sex and baseline calculus. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice, using a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for dental calculus were again performed after twelve weeks' use of the study dentifrices. Eighty-nine (89) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. At the three-month examination, the Test Dentifrice group exhibited a statistically significant 31.0% reduction in the mean Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index score compared to the Positive Control Dentifrice group. The results of this clinical study support the conclusion that a new calculus-inhibiting dentifrice containing pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and a copolymer in a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica base is efficacious for the control of the development of supragingival calculus, and provides a level of benefit greater than that provided by a commercially available calculus-inhibiting dentifrice containing

2. Emptiness Formation Probability

Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

2016-08-01

We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

3. Quantum probabilities as Dempster-Shafer probabilities in the lattice of subspaces

Vourdas, A.

2014-08-01

The orthocomplemented modular lattice of subspaces L[H(d)], of a quantum system with d-dimensional Hilbert space H(d), is considered. A generalized additivity relation which holds for Kolmogorov probabilities is violated by quantum probabilities in the full lattice L[H(d)] (it is only valid within the Boolean subalgebras of L[H(d)]). This suggests the use of more general (than Kolmogorov) probability theories, and here the Dempster-Shafer probability theory is adopted. An operator {{D}}(H_1, H_2), which quantifies deviations from Kolmogorov probability theory is introduced, and it is shown to be intimately related to the commutator of the projectors {{P}}(H_1), {{P}}(H_2), to the subspaces H1, H2. As an application, it is shown that the proof of the inequalities of Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt for a system of two spin 1/2 particles is valid for Kolmogorov probabilities, but it is not valid for Dempster-Shafer probabilities. The violation of these inequalities in experiments supports the interpretation of quantum probabilities as Dempster-Shafer probabilities.

4. Quantum probabilities as Dempster-Shafer probabilities in the lattice of subspaces

SciTech Connect

Vourdas, A.

2014-08-15

The orthocomplemented modular lattice of subspaces L[H(d)], of a quantum system with d-dimensional Hilbert space H(d), is considered. A generalized additivity relation which holds for Kolmogorov probabilities is violated by quantum probabilities in the full lattice L[H(d)] (it is only valid within the Boolean subalgebras of L[H(d)]). This suggests the use of more general (than Kolmogorov) probability theories, and here the Dempster-Shafer probability theory is adopted. An operator D(H{sub 1},H{sub 2}), which quantifies deviations from Kolmogorov probability theory is introduced, and it is shown to be intimately related to the commutator of the projectors P(H{sub 1}),P(H{sub 2}), to the subspaces H{sub 1}, H{sub 2}. As an application, it is shown that the proof of the inequalities of Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt for a system of two spin 1/2 particles is valid for Kolmogorov probabilities, but it is not valid for Dempster-Shafer probabilities. The violation of these inequalities in experiments supports the interpretation of quantum probabilities as Dempster-Shafer probabilities.

5. Exterior differentiation in the Regge calculus

SciTech Connect

Brewin, L.

1986-01-01

Regge manifolds are piecewise continuous manifolds constructed from a finite number of basic building blocks. On such manifolds piecewise continuous forms can be defined in a way similar to differential forms on a differentiable manifold. Regge manifolds are used extensively in the construction of space-times in numerical general relativity. In this paper a definition of exterior differentiation suitable for use on piecewise continuous forms on a Regge manifold is presented. It is shown that this definition leads to a version of Stokes' theorem and also to the usual result that d/sup 2/ = 0. This is preceded by a discussion of certain geometrical properties of the Regge manifolds. It is shown that the version of Stokes' theorem presented here coincides with the usual definition when the Regge manifold is refined, by increasing the number of cells while keeping the total volume constant, to a smooth manifold.

6. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - overview on methodology and strategy

D'Amico, G.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Binietoglou, I.; Freudenthaler, V.; Mattis, I.; Wandinger, U.; Pappalardo, G.

2015-11-01

In this paper we describe the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), a tool for the automatic analysis of lidar measurements. The development of this tool started in the framework of EARLINET-ASOS (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network - Advanced Sustainable Observation System); it was extended within ACTRIS (Aerosol, Clouds and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network), and it is continuing within ACTRIS-2. The main idea was to develop a data processing chain that allows all EARLINET stations to retrieve, in a fully automatic way, the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles starting from the raw lidar data of the lidar systems they operate. The calculus subsystem of the SCC is composed of two modules: a pre-processor module which handles the raw lidar data and corrects them for instrumental effects and an optical processing module for the retrieval of aerosol optical products from the pre-processed data. All input parameters needed to perform the lidar analysis are stored in a database to keep track of all changes which may occur for any EARLINET lidar system over the time. The two calculus modules are coordinated and synchronized by an additional module (daemon) which makes the whole analysis process fully automatic. The end user can interact with the SCC via a user-friendly web interface. All SCC modules are developed using open-source and freely available software packages. The final products retrieved by the SCC fulfill all requirements of the EARLINET quality assurance programs on both instrumental and algorithm levels. Moreover, the manpower needed to provide aerosol optical products is greatly reduced and thus the near-real-time availability of lidar data is improved. The high-quality of the SCC products is proven by the good agreement between the SCC analysis, and the corresponding independent manual retrievals. Finally, the ability of the SCC to provide high-quality aerosol optical products is demonstrated for an EARLINET intense observation

7. Using an Advanced Graphing Calculator in the Teaching and Learning of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leng, Ng Wee

2011-01-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of TI-Nspire[TM] could enhance the teaching and learning of calculus. A conceptual framework for the use of TI-Nspire[TM] for learning calculus in a mathematics classroom is proposed that describes the interactions among the students, TI-Nspire[TM], and the learning tasks, and how they lead…

8. Assessment of Peer-Led Team Learning in Calculus I: A Five-Year Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2015-01-01

This five-year study of the peer-led team learning (PLTL) paradigm examined its implementation in a Calculus I course at an all-male HBCU institution. For this study we set up a strong control group and measured the effect of PLTL in the teaching and learning of Calculus I through two points of measure: retention and success rates and learning…

9. Using Dynamic Tools to Develop an Understanding of the Fundamental Ideas of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verzosa, Debbie; Guzon, Angela Fatima; De Las Peñas, Ma. Louise Antonette N.

2014-01-01

Although dynamic geometry software has been extensively used for teaching calculus concepts, few studies have documented how these dynamic tools may be used for teaching the rigorous foundations of the calculus. In this paper, we describe lesson sequences utilizing dynamic tools for teaching the epsilon-delta definition of the limit and the…

10. Selective ablation of sub- and supragingival calculus with a frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser

Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas

1995-05-01

In a preceding trial the absorption characteristics of subgingival calculus were calculated using fluorescence emission spectroscopy (excitation laser: N2-laser, wavelength 337 nm, pulse duration 4 ns). Subgingival calculus seems to contain chromophores absorbing in the ultraviolet spectral region up to 420 nm. The aim of the actual study was the ablation of sub- and supragingival calculus using a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser (wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 100 ns, repetition rate 110 Hz). Extracted human teeth presenting sub- and supragingival calculus were irradiated perpendicular to their axis with a laser fluence of 1 Jcm-2. Using a standard application protocol calculus was irradiated at the enamel surface, at the junction between enamel and root, and at the root surface (located on dentin or on cementum). During the irradiation procedure an effective water cooling-system was engaged. For light microscopical investigations undecalcified histological sections were prepared after treatment. The histological sections revealed that a selective and total removal of calculus is possible at all locations without ablation of healthy enamel, dentin or cementum. Even low fluences provide us with a high effectiveness for the ablation of calculus. Thus, based on different absorption characteristics and ablation thresholds, engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser a fast and, even more, a selective ablation of sub- and supragingival calculus is possible without adverse side effects to the surrounding tissues. Even more, microbial dental plaque can be perfectly removed.

11. A Methodology in the Teaching Process of Calculus and Its Motivation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael

The development of calculus and science by being permanent, didactic, demands on one part an analytical, deductive study and on another an application of methods, rhochrematics, resources, within calculus, which allows to dialectically conform knowledge in its different phases and to test the results. For the purpose of this study, the motivation…

12. Analyzing Conceptual Gains in Introductory Calculus with Interactively-Engaged Teaching Styles

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thomas, Matthew

2013-01-01

This dissertation examines the relationship between an instructional style called Interactive-Engagement (IE) and gains on a measure of conceptual knowledge called the Calculus Concept Inventory (CCI). The data comes from two semesters of introductory calculus courses (Fall 2010 and Spring 2011), consisting of a total of 482 students from the…

13. Building Mathematical Maturity in Calculus: Teaching Implicit Differentiation through a Review of Functions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hare, Angela; Phillippy, Doug

2004-01-01

A program on calculus is conducted, which helps students learn about inherent differentiation through a study of mathematical functions, while simultaneously reinforcing their understanding of functional concepts. This process develops their mathematical experience in the field of calculus and in other advanced quantitative programs.

14. Preparatory Year Program Courses as Predictors of First Calculus Course Grade

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yushau, B; Omar, M. H

2007-01-01

This study investigates the effect of the preparatory year program courses on the first calculus course (Calculus I) at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The data consists of more than 2,000 bilingual Arab university students studying in the English language, tracked over seven semesters. These students represent over 70% of…

15. A Decade of Teaching "Reform Calculus" Has Been a Disaster, Critics Charge.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilson, Robin

1997-01-01

A decade after mathematicians began a crusade to make calculus more relevant to undergraduate students ("Reform Calculus"), a backlash threatens to derail the effort and divide the profession. Critics charge the movement has watered down mathematics courses, teaching only superficial use of skills. The debate is fierce and the stakes high. About…

16. Calculus structure on the Lie conformal algebra complex and the variational complex

SciTech Connect

De Sole, Alberto; Hekmati, Pedram; Kac, Victor G.

2011-05-15

We construct a calculus structure on the Lie conformal algebra cochain complex. By restricting to degree one chains, we recover the structure of a g-complex introduced in [A. De Sole and V. G. Kac, Commun. Math. Phys. 292, 667 (2009)]. A special case of this construction is the variational calculus, for which we provide explicit formulas.

17. Towards the Development of an Automated Learning Assistant for Vector Calculus: Integration over Planar Regions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yaacob, Yuzita; Wester, Michael; Steinberg, Stanly

2010-01-01

This paper presents a prototype of a computer learning assistant ILMEV (Interactive Learning-Mathematica Enhanced Vector calculus) package with the purpose of helping students to understand the theory and applications of integration in vector calculus. The main problem for students using Mathematica is to convert a textbook description of a…

18. An Excel-Aided Method for Teaching Calculus-Based Business Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Liang, Jiajuan; Martin, Linda

2008-01-01

Calculus-based business mathematics is a required quantitative course for undergraduate business students in most AACSB accredited schools or colleges of business. Many business students, however, have relatively weak mathematical background or even display math-phobia when presented with calculus problems. Because of the popularity of Excel, its…

19. Analysis of Errors and Misconceptions in the Learning of Calculus by Undergraduate Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Muzangwa, Jonatan; Chifamba, Peter

2012-01-01

This paper is going to analyse errors and misconceptions in an undergraduate course in Calculus. The study will be based on a group of 10 BEd. Mathematics students at Great Zimbabwe University. Data is gathered through use of two exercises on Calculus 1&2.The analysis of the results from the tests showed that a majority of the errors were due…

20. Fluorescence-based calculus detection using a 405-nm excitation wavelength

Brede, O.; Schelle, F.; Krueger, S.; Oehme, B.; Dehn, C.; Frentzen, M.; Braun, A.

2011-03-01

The aim of this study was to assess the difference of fluorescence signals of cement and calculus using a 405 nm excitation wavelength. A total number of 20 freshly extracted teeth was used. The light source used for this study was a blue LED with a wavelength of 405nm. For each tooth the spectra of calculus and cementum were measured separately. Fluorescence light was collimated into an optical fibre and spectrally analyzed using an echelle spectrometer (aryelle 200, Lasertechnik Berlin, Germany) with an additionally bandpass (fgb 67, Edmund Industrial Optics, Karlsruhe, Germany). From these 40 measurements the median values were calculated over the whole spectrum, leading to two different median spectra, one for calculus and one for cementum. For further statistical analysis we defined 8 areas of interest (AOI) in wavelength regions, showing remarkable differences in signal strength. In 7 AOIs the intensity of the calculus spectrum differed statistically significant from the intensity of the cementum spectrum (p < 0.05). A spectral difference could be shown between calculus and cement between 600nm and 700nm. Thus, we can conclude that fluorescence of calculus shows a significant difference to the fluorescence of cement. A differentiation over the intensity is possible as well as over the spectrum. Using a wavelength of 405nm, it is possible to distinguish between calculus and cement. These results could be used for further devices to develop a method for feedback controlled calculus removal.

1. Incorporating Inquiry-Based Learning in the Calculus Sequence: A Most Challenging Endeavour

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2009-01-01

A course in the Calculus sequence is arguably the most difficult course in which inquiry-based learning (IBL) can be achieved with any degree of success within the curriculum in part due to: (1) the plethora of majors taking Calculus to which the sequence relates to their majors in what is considered an "applied" manner; and (2) the sequence is…

2. Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Limits in Calculus: A Two-Part Constructivist Case Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2013-01-01

This case study investigated students' conceptual knowledge of limits in calculus by implementing semi-structured interviews. The constructivist learning principles of Piaget and Inhelder as well as theories of understanding by Skemp guided the study. In Phase I, a pilot study was conducted with 15 students from a Calculus III class. By using…

3. Factors Associated with Success in a Calculus Course: An Examination of Personal Variables

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ubuz, Behiye

2011-01-01

This study examined relationships between students' personal variables (gender, prior achievements, age and academic major) and their success in the first year undergraduate calculus course. The study sample consisted of 59 first year undergraduate students taking Math 154 Calculus II course. A written test about integral, sequence and series…

4. The Impact of the Calculator on the Content Validity of Advanced Placement Calculus Problems.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen Calculus II students were randomly sampled and divided into calculator (n=9) and noncalculator (n=10) groups. These students were asked to "think aloud" while solving 24 Advanced Placement calculus problems. Each student interview was videotaped, coded and analyzed for reasoning process as well as outcome. The results indicated that the…

5. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

2015-01-01

The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

6. Improving Student Learning of Calculus Topics via Modified Just-in-Time Teaching Methods

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natarajan, Rekha; Bennett, Andrew

2014-01-01

Although the use of traditional just-in-time teaching techniques has long been viewed positively by students and instructors in undergraduate calculus courses, past studies in this area have not addressed gains in student achievement with respect to specific calculus topics. This paper investigates the latter by administering modified just-in-time…

7. Calculus of continuous matrix product states

Haegeman, Jutho; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Osborne, Tobias J.; Verstraete, Frank

2013-08-01

We discuss various properties of the variational class of continuous matrix product states, a class of Ansatz states for one-dimensional quantum fields that was recently introduced as the direct continuum limit of the highly successful class of matrix product states. We discuss both attributes of the physical states, e.g., by showing in detail how to compute expectation values, as well as properties intrinsic to the representation itself, such as the gauge freedom. We consider general translation noninvariant systems made of several particle species and derive certain regularity properties that need to be satisfied by the variational parameters. We also devote a section to the translation invariant setting in the thermodynamic limit and show how continuous matrix product states possess an intrinsic ultraviolet cutoff. Finally, we introduce a new set of states, which are tangent to the original set of continuous matrix product states. For the case of matrix product states, this construction has recently proven relevant in the development of new algorithms for studying time evolution and elementary excitations of quantum spin chains. We thus lay the foundation for similar developments for one-dimensional quantum fields.

8. Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials

Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

2010-11-01

By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we analyze the polarization properties of light upon propagation through metamaterial slabs in a comprehensive manner. Based on symmetry considerations, we show that all periodic metamaterials may be divided into five different classes only. It is shown that each class differently affects the polarization of the transmitted light and sustains different eigenmodes. We show how to deduce these five classes from symmetry considerations and provide a simple algorithm that can be applied to decide to which class a given metamaterial belongs by measuring only the transmitted intensities.

9. Giant Vesical Calculus Formation as a Complication of Augmentation Cystoplasty.

PubMed

Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Ranjeet Kumar; Kapoor, Rakesh

2016-02-01

A 44-year-old female presented with the history of recurrent UTI and intermittent hematuria. She underwent augmentation ileocystoplasty for small capacity bladder 19 years back. Patient was on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) since then. Abdominal radiograph and ultrasonography showed the large vesical calculus. Open cystolithotomy was done, and a yellowish brown hard stone weighing 1025 g was removed. Chemical analysis revealed struvite stone. Postoperative period was uneventful. Regular bladder wash, lifelong surveillance and follow-up is advisable. PMID:27186046

10. Congenital bilobed gallbladder with phrygian cap presenting as calculus cholecystitis.

PubMed

Kannan, N S; Kannan, Usha; Babu, C P Ganesh

2014-08-01

The incidence of congenital bilobed gall bladder is 1 in 3000 to 4000. A Phrygian cap is a congenital abnormality of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. Preferred mode of diagnosis for Phrygian cap is cholescintigraphy and multi phase MRI, as Ultrasonography and CT are not always conclusive. The estimated prevalence of gallstone disease in India has been reported as 2% to 29%. A case of bilobed gall bladder with Phrygian cap in both the lobes and pigment gallstone in one of the lobes presenting as calculus cholecystitis is reported for its rarity and difficulty in arriving at correct preoperaive diagnosis. PMID:25302235

11. Differential calculus on quantum spaces and quantum groups

SciTech Connect

Zumino, B

1992-12-10

A review of recent developments in the quantum differential calculus. The quantum group GLq(n) is treated by considering it as a particular quantum space. Functions on SLq(n) are defined as a subclass of functions on GLq(n). The case of SOq(n) is also briefly considered. These notes cover part of a lecture given at the XIX International Conference on Group Theoretic Methods in Physics, Salamanca, Spain 1992.

12. Using Case Studies in Calculus-based Physics

Katz, Debora M.

2006-12-01

Do your students believe that the physics only works in your classroom or laboratory? Or do they see that physics underlies their everyday experience? Case studies in physics help students connect physics principles to their everyday experience. For decades, case studies have been used to teach law, medicine and biology, but they are rarely used in physics. I am working on a calculus-based physics textbook for scientists and engineers. Case studies are woven into each chapter. Stop by and get a case study to test out in your classroom. I would love to get your feedback.

13. Congenital Bilobed Gallbladder with Phrygian Cap Presenting as Calculus Cholecystitis

PubMed Central

Kannan, Usha; Babu, C.P. Ganesh

2014-01-01

The incidence of congenital bilobed gall bladder is 1 in 3000 to 4000. A Phrygian cap is a congenital abnormality of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. Preferred mode of diagnosis for Phrygian cap is cholescintigraphy and multi phase MRI, as Ultrasonography and CT are not always conclusive. The estimated prevalence of gallstone disease in India has been reported as 2% to 29%. A case of bilobed gall bladder with Phrygian cap in both the lobes and pigment gallstone in one of the lobes presenting as calculus cholecystitis is reported for its rarity and difficulty in arriving at correct preoperaive diagnosis PMID:25302235

14. Symbol calculus and zeta-function regularized determinants

SciTech Connect

Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O. Teoman

2007-11-15

In this work, we use semigroup integral to evaluate zeta-function regularized determinants. This is especially powerful for nonpositive operators such as the Dirac operator. In order to understand fully the quantum effective action, one should know not only the potential term but also the leading kinetic term. In this purpose, we use the Weyl type of symbol calculus to evaluate the determinant as a derivative expansion. The technique is applied both to a spin-0 bosonic operator and to the Dirac operator coupled to a scalar field.

15. Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials

SciTech Connect

Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

2010-11-15

By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we analyze the polarization properties of light upon propagation through metamaterial slabs in a comprehensive manner. Based on symmetry considerations, we show that all periodic metamaterials may be divided into five different classes only. It is shown that each class differently affects the polarization of the transmitted light and sustains different eigenmodes. We show how to deduce these five classes from symmetry considerations and provide a simple algorithm that can be applied to decide to which class a given metamaterial belongs by measuring only the transmitted intensities.

16. Resolution of Localized Chronic Periodontitis Associated with Longstanding Calculus Deposits

PubMed Central

Walters, John D.

2014-01-01

This report, which is based on nonstandardized serial radiographs obtained over a period of 15 years, documents a case of localized chronic periodontitis associated with progressive deposition of calculus on the distal aspect of a mandibular second molar. The site was treated by scaling and root planing, followed by a course of adjunctive systemic azithromycin. Treatment yielded favorable reductions in probing depth and clinical inflammation, leaving only few isolated sites with pockets no deeper than 4 mm. Two years after completion of active treatment, there was radiographic evidence of increased bone density distal to the second molar. PMID:24876977

17. Teaching calculus using module based on cooperative learning strategy

Arbin, Norazman; Ghani, Sazelli Abdul; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

2014-06-01

The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of a module which utilizes the cooperative learning for teaching Calculus for limit, derivative and integral. The sample consists of 50 semester 1 students from the Science Programme (AT 16) Sultan Idris Education University. A set of questions of related topics (pre and post) has been used as an instrument to collect data. The data is analyzed using inferential statistics involving the paired sample t-test and the independent t-test. The result shows that students have positive inclination towards the modulein terms of understanding.

18. Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus

Conboye, Rory; Miller, Warner A.; Ray, Shannon

2015-09-01

The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of the volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as the fractional rate of change of the normal vector.

19. Computational approach to Thornley's problem by bivariate operational calculus

Bazhlekova, E.; Dimovski, I.

2012-10-01

Thornley's problem is an initial-boundary value problem with a nonlocal boundary condition for linear onedimensional reaction-diffusion equation, used as a mathematical model of spiral phyllotaxis in botany. Applying a bivariate operational calculus we find explicit representation of the solution, containing two convolution products of special solutions and the arbitrary initial and boundary functions. We use a non-classical convolution with respect to the space variable, extending in this way the classical Duhamel principle. The special solutions involved are represented in the form of fast convergent series. Numerical examples are considered to show the application of the present technique and to analyze the character of the solution.

20. What Does It Mean for a Student to Understand the First-Year Calculus? Perspectives of 24 Experts

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sofronas, Kimberly S.; DeFranco, Thomas C.; Vinsonhaler, Charles; Gorgievski, Nicholas; Schroeder, Larissa; Hamelin, Chris

2011-01-01

This article presents the views of 24 nationally recognized authorities in the field of mathematics, and in particular the calculus, on student understanding of the first-year calculus. A framework emerged that includes four overarching end goals for understanding of the first-year calculus: (a) mastery of the fundamental concepts and-or skills of…