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Sample records for generally covariant quantum

  1. Generally covariant quantum mechanics on noncommutative configuration spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Tomas; Paschke, Mario

    2007-11-15

    We generalize the previously given algebraic version of 'Feynman's proof of Maxwell's equations' to noncommutative configuration spaces. By doing so, we also obtain an axiomatic formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics over such spaces, which, in contrast to most examples discussed in the literature, does not rely on a distinguished set of coordinates. We give a detailed account of several examples, e.g., C{sup {infinity}}(Q)xM{sub n}(C) which leads to non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories, and of noncommutative tori T{sub {theta}}{sup d}. Moreover, we examine models over the Moyal-deformed plane R{sub {theta}}{sup 2}. Assuming the conservation of electrical charges, we show that in this case the canonical uncertainty relation [x{sub k},x{sub l}]=ig{sub kl} with metric g{sub kl} is only consistent if g{sub kl} is constant.

  2. Generalized asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloning within a nonextensive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, R.; Hamici, A.-H.; Hachemane, M.; Smida, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized transformation of the optimal asymmetric 1longrightarrow 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning. This generalization is based on the deformed forms of the exponential that emerge from nonextensive statistical mechanics. In particular, two distinct definitions of the q-exponential are discussed. The case where the cloning is symmetric is also studied. In order to highlight the influence of nonextensive treatment on the perfection of clones and entanglement, the effect of the q-index has been clearly illustrated in figures depicting the fidelities in terms of the entanglement parameter θ for different values of q. Our study shows that due to the intrinsic properties of the system, the entanglement is not preserved. Thus, entanglement can be controlled by the nonextensive parameter. As an illustration, the incoherent attack on the BB84 protocol has also been considered in the economical case.

  3. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  4. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2008-01-01

    We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work on generalized covariance analysis methods. This prior work allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, allowed for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator s anchor time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  5. Spacetime states and covariant quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenberger, Michael; Rovelli, Carlo

    2002-06-01

    In its usual presentation, classical mechanics appears to give time a very special role. But it is well known that mechanics can be formulated so as to treat the time variable on the same footing as the other variables in the extended configuration space. Such covariant formulations are natural for relativistic gravitational systems, where general covariance conflicts with the notion of a preferred physical-time variable. The standard presentation of quantum mechanics, in turn, again gives time a very special role, raising well known difficulties for quantum gravity. Is there a covariant form of (canonical) quantum mechanics? We observe that the preferred role of time in quantum theory is the consequence of an idealization: that measurements are instantaneous. Canonical quantum theory can be given a covariant form by dropping this idealization. States prepared by noninstantaneous measurements are described by ``spacetime smeared states.'' The theory can be formulated in terms of these states, without making any reference to a special time variable. The quantum dynamics is expressed in terms of the propagator, an object covariantly defined on the extended configuration space.

  6. Phase-covariant quantum benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Calsamiglia, J.; Aspachs, M.; Munoz-Tapia, R.; Bagan, E.

    2009-05-15

    We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment cannot be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.

  7. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-02-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation.

  8. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.

    2002-11-01

    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs.

  9. Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.

  10. Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayak, Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.

  11. Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.

    PubMed

    Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated. PMID:27078354

  12. Quantization of Generally Covariant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sforza, Daniel M.

    2000-12-01

    Finite dimensional models that mimic the constraint structure of Einstein's General Relativity are quantized in the framework of BRST and Dirac's canonical formalisms. The first system to be studied is one featuring a constraint quadratic in the momenta (the "super-Hamiltonian") and a set of constraints linear in the momenta (the "supermomentum" constraints). The starting point is to realize that the ghost contributions to the supermomentum constraint operators can be read in terms of the natural volume induced by the constraints in the orbits. This volume plays a fundamental role in the construction of the quadratic sector of the nilpotent BRST charge. It is shown that the quantum theory is invariant under scaling of the super-Hamiltonian. As long as the system has an intrinsic time, this property translates in a contribution of the potential to the kinetic term. In this aspect, the results substantially differ from other works where the scaling invariance is forced by introducing a coupling to the curvature. The contribution of the potential, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in the light of the Jacobi's principle. Then, it is shown that the obtained results can be extended to systems with extrinsic time. In this case, if the metric has a conformal temporal Killing vector and the potential exhibits a suitable behavior with respect to it, the role played by the potential in the case of intrinsic time is now played by the norm of the Killing vector. Finally, the results for the previous cases are extended to a system featuring two super-Hamiltonian constraints. This step is extremely important due to the fact that General Relativity features an infinite number of such constraints satisfying a non trivial algebra among themselves.

  13. Bilinear covariants and spinor fields duality in quantum Clifford algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Abłamowicz, Rafał; Gonçalves, Icaro; Rocha, Roldão da

    2014-10-15

    Classification of quantum spinor fields according to quantum bilinear covariants is introduced in a context of quantum Clifford algebras on Minkowski spacetime. Once the bilinear covariants are expressed in terms of algebraic spinor fields, the duality between spinor and quantum spinor fields can be discussed. Thus, by endowing the underlying spacetime with an arbitrary bilinear form with an antisymmetric part in addition to a symmetric spacetime metric, quantum algebraic spinor fields and deformed bilinear covariants can be constructed. They are thus compared to the classical (non quantum) ones. Classes of quantum spinor fields classes are introduced and compared with Lounesto's spinor field classification. A physical interpretation of the deformed parts and the underlying Z-grading is proposed. The existence of an arbitrary bilinear form endowing the spacetime already has been explored in the literature in the context of quantum gravity [S. W. Hawking, “The unpredictability of quantum gravity,” Commun. Math. Phys. 87, 395 (1982)]. Here, it is shown further to play a prominent role in the structure of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana spinor fields, besides the most general flagpoles and flag-dipoles. We introduce a new duality between the standard and the quantum spinor fields, by showing that when Clifford algebras over vector spaces endowed with an arbitrary bilinear form are taken into account, a mixture among the classes does occur. Consequently, novel features regarding the spinor fields can be derived.

  14. Bilinear covariants and spinor fields duality in quantum Clifford algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abłamowicz, Rafał; Gonçalves, Icaro; da Rocha, Roldão

    2014-10-01

    Classification of quantum spinor fields according to quantum bilinear covariants is introduced in a context of quantum Clifford algebras on Minkowski spacetime. Once the bilinear covariants are expressed in terms of algebraic spinor fields, the duality between spinor and quantum spinor fields can be discussed. Thus, by endowing the underlying spacetime with an arbitrary bilinear form with an antisymmetric part in addition to a symmetric spacetime metric, quantum algebraic spinor fields and deformed bilinear covariants can be constructed. They are thus compared to the classical (non quantum) ones. Classes of quantum spinor fields classes are introduced and compared with Lounesto's spinor field classification. A physical interpretation of the deformed parts and the underlying {Z}-grading is proposed. The existence of an arbitrary bilinear form endowing the spacetime already has been explored in the literature in the context of quantum gravity [S. W. Hawking, "The unpredictability of quantum gravity," Commun. Math. Phys. 87, 395 (1982)]. Here, it is shown further to play a prominent role in the structure of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana spinor fields, besides the most general flagpoles and flag-dipoles. We introduce a new duality between the standard and the quantum spinor fields, by showing that when Clifford algebras over vector spaces endowed with an arbitrary bilinear form are taken into account, a mixture among the classes does occur. Consequently, novel features regarding the spinor fields can be derived.

  15. Realization of the optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2005-12-15

    In several quantum information (QI) phenomena of large technological importance the information is carried by the phase of the quantum superposition states, or qubits. The phase-covariant cloning machine (PQCM) addresses precisely the problem of optimally copying these qubits with the largest attainable 'fidelity'. We present a general scheme which realizes the 1{yields}3 phase covariant cloning process by a combination of three different QI processes: the universal cloning, the NOT gate, and the projection over the symmetric subspace of the output qubits. The experimental implementation of a PQCM for polarization encoded qubits, the first ever realized with photons, is reported.

  16. Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2008-09-15

    We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

  17. Covariant quantum mechanics applied to noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    We here report a result obtained in collaboration with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, first shown in the paper [1]. Applying the manifestly covariant formalism of quantum mechanics to the much studied Snyder spacetime [2] we show how it is trivial in every physical observables, this meaning that every measure in this spacetime gives the same results that would be obtained in the flat Minkowski spacetime.

  18. Quantum energy inequalities and local covariance II: categorical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2007-11-01

    We formulate quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) in the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory developed by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and Verch, which is based on notions taken from category theory. This leads to a new viewpoint on the QEIs, and also to the identification of a new structural property of locally covariant quantum field theory, which we call local physical equivalence. Covariant formulations of the numerical range and spectrum of locally covariant fields are given and investigated, and a new algebra of fields is identified, in which fields are treated independently of their realisation on particular spacetimes and manifestly covariant versions of the functional calculus may be formulated.

  19. Gauge covariant fermion propagator in quenched, chirally symmetric quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Dong, Z.; Munczek, H.J.

    1995-08-01

    The chirally symmetric solution of the massless, quenched, Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) for the fermion propagator in three- and four-dimensional quantum electrodynamics was obtained. The DSEs are a valuable nonperturbative tool for studying field theories. In recent years a good deal of progress was made in addressing the limitations of the DSE approach in the study of Abelian gauge theories. Key to this progress is an understanding of the role of the dressed fermion/gauge-boson vertex in ensuring gauge covariance and multiplicative renormalizability of the solution of the fermion DSE. The solutions we obtain are manifestly gauge covariant and a general gauge covariance constraint on the fermion/gauge-boson vertex is presented, which motivates a vertex Ansatz that, for the first time, both satisfies the Ward identity when the fermion self-mass is zero and ensures gauge covariance of the fermion propagator. This research facilitates gauge-invariant, nonperturbative studies of continuum quantum electrodynamics and has already been used by others in studies of the chiral phase transition.

  20. Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulas which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulas. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and the correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulas are also useful in this case. By applying the formulas, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this phenomena is broken, the area shows rapid increase which suggests the phase transition from quantum to classical area.

  1. Inflation in general covariant theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongqing; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we study inflation in the framework of the nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant λ. We find that the Friedmann-Robterson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat in such a setup. We work out explicitly the linear perturbations of the flat FRW universe without specifying to a particular gauge, and find that the perturbations are different from those obtained in general relativity, because of the presence of the high-order spatial derivative terms. Applying the general formulas to a single scalar field, we show that in the sub-horizon regions, the metric and scalar field are tightly coupled and have the same oscillating frequencies. In the super-horizon regions, the perturbations become adiabatic, and the comoving curvature perturbation is constant. We also calculate the power spectra and indices of both the scalar and tensor perturbations, and express them explicitly in terms of the slow roll parameters and the coupling constants of the high-order spatial derivative terms. In particular, we find that the perturbations, of both scalar and tensor, are almost scale-invariant, and, with some reasonable assumptions on the coupling coefficients, the spectrum index of the tensor perturbation is the same as that given in the minimum scenario in general relativity (GR), whereas the index for scalar perturbation in general depends on λ and is different from the standard GR value. The ratio of the scalar and tensor power spectra depends on the high-order spatial derivative terms, and can be different from that of GR significantly.

  2. Generalized Covariant Gyrokinetic Dynamics of Magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cremaschini, C.; Tessarotto, M.; Nicolini, P.; Beklemishev, A.

    2008-12-31

    A basic prerequisite for the investigation of relativistic astrophysical magnetoplasmas, occurring typically in the vicinity of massive stellar objects (black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, etc.), is the accurate description of single-particle covariant dynamics, based on gyrokinetic theory (Beklemishev et al., 1999-2005). Provided radiation-reaction effects are negligible, this is usually based on the assumption that both the space-time metric and the EM fields (in particular the magnetic field) are suitably prescribed and are considered independent of single-particle dynamics, while allowing for the possible presence of gravitational/EM perturbations driven by plasma collective interactions which may naturally arise in such systems. The purpose of this work is the formulation of a generalized gyrokinetic theory based on the synchronous variational principle recently pointed out (Tessarotto et al., 2007) which permits to satisfy exactly the physical realizability condition for the four-velocity. The theory here developed includes the treatment of nonlinear perturbations (gravitational and/or EM) characterized locally, i.e., in the rest frame of a test particle, by short wavelength and high frequency. Basic feature of the approach is to ensure the validity of the theory both for large and vanishing parallel electric field. It is shown that the correct treatment of EM perturbations occurring in the presence of an intense background magnetic field generally implies the appearance of appropriate four-velocity corrections, which are essential for the description of single-particle gyrokinetic dynamics.

  3. Derivation of the Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Maker, David

    2010-09-30

    From the Occam's razor optimized assumption of a geometric point we derive a new generally covariant generalization of the Dirac equation. We solve that equation in domains r>r{sub H}, r{approx_equal}r{sub H}, and r

  4. Covariance and time regained in canonical general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Kouletsis, I.

    2008-09-15

    Canonical vacuum gravity is expressed in generally covariant form in order that spacetime diffeomorphisms be represented within its equal-time phase space. In accordance with the principle of general covariance and ideas developed within history phase-space formalisms in [I. Kouletsis and K. V. Kuchar, Phys. Rev. D 65, 125026 (2002)], [K. Savvidou, Classical Quantum Gravity 18, 3611 (2001)], [K. Savvidou, Classical Quantum Gravity 21, 615 (2004)], [K. Savvidou, Classical Quantum Gravity 21, 631 (2004)], the time mapping T: M{yields}R and the space mapping X: M{yields}{sigma} that define the Dirac-Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) foliation are incorporated into the framework of the Hilbert variational principle. The resulting canonical action encompasses all individual Dirac-ADM actions, corresponding to different choices of foliating vacuum spacetimes by spacelike hypersurfaces. The equal-time phase space P=(g{sub ij},p{sup ij},Y{sup {alpha}},P{sub {alpha}}) includes the embeddings Y{sup {alpha}}: {sigma}{yields}M and their conjugate momenta P{sub {alpha}}. It is constrained by eight first-class constraints. The constraint surface C is determined by the super-Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints of vacuum gravity and the vanishing of the embedding momenta. Deformations of the time and space mappings, {delta}T and {delta}X, and spacetime diffeomorphisms, V(set-membership sign)LDiffM, induce symplectic diffeomorphisms of P. While the generator D{sub ({delta}T,{delta}X)} of deformations depends on all eight constraints, the generator D{sub V} of spacetime diffeomorphisms depends only on the embedding momentum constraints. As a result, spacetime observables, namely, dynamical variables F on P that are invariant under spacetime diffeomorphisms, (F,D{sub V})|{sub C}=0, are not necessarily invariant under the deformations of the mappings, (F,D{sub ({delta}T,{delta}X)})|{sub C}{ne}0, nor are they constants of the motion, (F,{integral}d{sup 3}xH)|{sub C}{ne}0. Dirac

  5. Estimation of the covariance matrix of macroscopic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, László; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-05-01

    For systems analogous to a linear harmonic oscillator, the simplest way to characterize the state is by a covariance matrix containing the symmetrically ordered moments of operators analogous to position and momentum. We show that using Stokes-like detectors without direct access to either position or momentum, the estimation of the covariance matrix of a macroscopic signal is still possible using interference with a classical noisy and low-intensity reference. Such a detection technique will allow one to estimate macroscopic quantum states of electromagnetic radiation without a coherent high-intensity local oscillator. It can be directly applied to estimate the covariance matrix of macroscopically bright squeezed states of light.

  6. Generally Covariant Hamiltonian Approach to the Generalized Harmonic Formulation of General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Meng

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop a generally covariant Hamiltonian approach to the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity. As en route investigations, an important class of coordinate transformations in the context of the 3 + 1 decomposition, foliation preserving transformations, is defined; transformation rules of various 3 + 1 decomposition variables under this change of coordinates are investigated; the notion of covariant time derivative under foliation preserving transformations is defined; gauge conditions of various numerical relativity formulations are rewritten in generally covariant form. The Hamiltonian formulation of the generalized harmonic system is defined in the latter part of this dissertation. With the knowledge of covariant time derivative, the Hamiltonian formulation is extended to achieve general covariance. The Hamiltonian formulation is further proved to be symmetric hyperbolic.

  7. Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Singh, Parampreet E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2009-01-15

    In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.

  8. Resilience to decoherence of the macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, Nicolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2010-09-15

    We show that the quantum states generated by universal optimal quantum cloning of a single photon represent a universal set of quantum superpositions resilient to decoherence. We adopt the Bures distance as a tool to investigate the persistence of quantum coherence of these quantum states. According to this analysis, the process of universal cloning realizes a class of quantum superpositions that exhibits a covariance property in lossy configuration over the complete set of polarization states in the Bloch sphere.

  9. Covariant generalization of cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Hoegdahl, Janne; Nurmi, Sami; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2007-01-15

    We present an approach to cosmological perturbations based on a covariant perturbative expansion between two worldlines in the real inhomogeneous universe. As an application, at an arbitrary order we define an exact scalar quantity which describes the inhomogeneities in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and which is conserved on all scales for a barotropic ideal fluid. We derive a compact form for its conservation equation at all orders and assign it a simple physical interpretation. To make a comparison with the standard perturbation theory, we develop a method to construct gauge-invariant quantities in a coordinate system at arbitrary order, which we apply to derive the form of the nth order perturbation in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and its exact evolution equation. On large scales, this provides the gauge-invariant expression for the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces and its evolution equation at any order.

  10. Galilei covariance and Einstein's equivalence principle in quantum reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S. T.; Angelo, R. M.

    2015-02-01

    The covariance of the Schrödinger equation under Galilei boosts and the compatibility of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Einstein's equivalence principle have been constrained for so long to the existence of a superselection rule which would prevent a quantum particle from being found in superposition states of different masses. In an effort to avoid this expedient, and thus allow nonrelativistic quantum mechanics to account for unstable particles, recent works have suggested that the usual Galilean transformations are inconsistent with the nonrelativistic limit implied by the Lorentz transformation. Here we approach the issue in a fundamentally different way. Using a formalism of unitary transformations and employing quantum reference frames rather than immaterial coordinate systems, we show that the Schrödinger equation, although form variant, is fully compatible with the aforementioned principles of relativity.

  11. First integrals of motion in a gauge covariant framework, Killing-Maxwell system and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, M.

    2012-10-15

    Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

  12. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  13. Generalized quantum entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.

    2011-08-01

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the Tsallis and Kaniadakis frameworks is derived using a generalization of the ordinary multinomial coefficient. This generalization is based on the respective deformed multiplication and division. We show that the two above entropies are consistent with ones arbitrarily assumed at other contexts.

  14. Vector order parameter in general relativity: Covariant equations

    SciTech Connect

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    2010-07-15

    Phase transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking and vector order parameter are considered in multidimensional theory of general relativity. Covariant equations, describing the gravitational properties of topological defects, are derived. The topological defects are classified in accordance with the symmetry of the covariant derivative of the vector order parameter. The abilities of the derived equations are demonstrated in application to the braneworld concept. New solutions of the Einstein equations with a transverse vector order parameter are presented. In the vicinity of phase transition, the solutions are found analytically.

  15. Dynamics without Time for Quantum Gravity: Covariant Hamiltonian Formalism and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation on the Space G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on , and a canonical function S on which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.

  16. Dynamics without Time for Quantum Gravity: Covariant Hamiltonian Formalism and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation on the Space G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space G of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on G, and a canonical function S on G which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.

  17. Generalized Least Squares Estimators in the Analysis of Covariance Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Michael W.

    This paper concerns situations in which a p x p covariance matrix is a function of an unknown q x 1 parameter vector y-sub-o. Notation is defined in the second section, and some algebraic results used in subsequent sections are given. Section 3 deals with asymptotic properties of generalized least squares (G.L.S.) estimators of y-sub-o. Section 4…

  18. General covariance, artificial gauge freedom and empirical equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, James Brian

    This dissertation updates the debate over the nontriviality of general covariance for Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and considers particle physics in the debate over underdetermination and empirical equivalence. Both tasks are tied to the unexplored issue of artificial gauge freedom, a valuable form of descriptive redundancy. Whereas Einstein took general covariance to characterize GTR, Kretschmann thought it merely a formal feature that any theory could have. Anderson and Friedman analyzed substantive general covariance as the lack of absolute objects, fields the same in all models. Some extant counterexamples and a new one involving the electron spinor field are resolved. However, Geroch and Giulini diagnose an absolute object in GTR itself in the metric's volume element. One might instead analyze substantive general covariance as formal general covariance achieved without hiding preferred coordinates as scalar "clock fields," recalling Einstein's early views. Theories with no metric or multiple metrics make the age of the universe meaningless or ambiguous, respectively, so the ancient and medieval debate over the eternity of the world should be recast. Particle physics provides case studies for empirical equivalence. Proca's electromagnetism with some nonzero photon mass constitutes a family of rivals to Maxwell's theory. Whereas any Proca theory can be distinguished empirically from Maxwell's, the Proca family approaches Maxwell's for small masses, yielding permanent underdetermination with only approximate empirical equivalence. The weak nuclear force also displays a smooth massless limit classically, but not after quantization, recalling the instability of empirical equivalence under change of auxiliary hypotheses. The standard electroweak theory apparently permits a photon mass term and hence underdetermination, but possible further unification might not. The question of underdetermination regarding massive gravity is unresolved. Physicists

  19. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  20. Realization of a universal and phase-covariant quantum cloning machine in separate cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Song Qingming; Ye Liu

    2011-04-15

    We present a scheme to realize a special quantum cloning machine in separate cavities. The quantum cloning machine can copy the quantum information from a photon pulse to two distant atoms. Choosing the different parameters, the method can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning and optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning.

  1. General covariant xp models and the Riemann zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Germán

    2012-02-01

    We study a general class of models whose classical Hamiltonians are given by H = U(x)p + V(x)/p, where x and p are the position and momentum of a particle moving in one dimension, and U and V are positive functions. This class includes the Hamiltonians HI = x(p + 1/p) and HII = (x + 1/x)(p + 1/p), which have been recently discussed in connection with the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We show that all these models are covariant under general coordinate transformations. This remarkable property becomes explicit in the Lagrangian formulation which describes a relativistic particle moving in a (1+1)-dimensional spacetime whose metric is constructed from the functions U and V. General covariance is maintained by quantization and we find that the spectra are closely related to the geometry of the associated spacetimes. In particular, the Hamiltonian HI corresponds to a flat spacetime, whereas its spectrum approaches the Riemann zeros on average. The latter property also holds for the model HII, whose underlying spacetime is asymptotically flat. These results suggest the existence of a Hamiltonian whose underlying spacetime encodes the prime numbers, and whose spectrum provides the Riemann zeros.

  2. Effective quantum gravity observables and locally covariant QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejzner, Kasia

    2016-03-01

    Perturbative algebraic quantum field theory (pAQFT) is a mathematically rigorous framework that allows to construct models of quantum field theories (QFTs) on a general class of Lorentzian manifolds. Recently, this idea has been applied also to perturbative quantum gravity (QG), treated as an effective theory. The difficulty was to find the right notion of observables that would in an appropriate sense be diffeomorphism invariant. In this paper, I will outline a general framework that allows to quantize theories with local symmetries (this includes infinitesimal diffeomorphism transformations) with the use of the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism. This approach has been successfully applied to effective QG in a recent paper by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and myself. In the same paper, we also proved perturbative background independence of the quantized theory, which is going to be discussed in the present work as well.

  3. Locally covariant quantum field theory and the spin-statistics connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2016-03-01

    The framework of locally covariant quantum field theory (QFT), an axiomatic approach to QFT in curved spacetime (CST), is reviewed. As a specific focus, the connection between spin and statistics is examined in this context. A new approach is given, which allows for a more operational description of theories with spin and for the derivation of a more general version of the spin-statistics connection in CSTs than previously available. This part of the text is based on [C. J. Fewster, arXiv:1503.05797.] and a forthcoming publication; the emphasis here is on the fundamental ideas and motivation.

  4. Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-03-01

    Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics.

  5. Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.

    PubMed

    Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-03-01

    Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics. PMID:25871066

  6. Local conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Sijie; Lemos, José P.

    2005-04-01

    A set of sufficient conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound given by Strominger and Thompson is as follows: Suppose that the entropy of matter can be described by an entropy current sa. Let ka be any null vector along L and s≡-kasa. Then the generalized bound can be derived from the following conditions: (i) s'≤2πTabkakb, where s'=ka∇as and Tab is the stress-energy tensor; (ii) on the initial 2-surface B, s(0)≤-1/4θ(0), where θ is the expansion of ka. We prove that condition (ii) alone can be used to divide a spacetime into two regions: The generalized entropy bound holds for all light sheets residing in the region where s<-1/4θ and fails for those in the region where s>-1/4θ. We check the validity of these conditions in FRW flat universe and a scalar field spacetime. Some apparent violations of the entropy bounds in the two spacetimes are discussed. These holographic bounds are important in the formulation of the holographic principle.

  7. General quantum key distribution in higher dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhao-Xi; Shi, Han-Duo; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Lei, Jin; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2012-01-01

    We study a general quantum key distribution protocol in higher dimension. In this protocol, quantum states in arbitrary g+1 (1≤g≤d) out of all d+1 mutually unbiased bases in a d-dimensional system can be used for the key encoding. This provides a natural generalization of the quantum key distribution in higher dimension and recovers the previously known results for g=1 and d. In our investigation, we study Eve's attack by two slightly different approaches. One is considering the optimal cloner of Eve, and the other, defined as the optimal attack, is maximizing Eve's information. We derive results for both approaches and show the deviation of the optimal cloner from the optimal attack. With our systematic investigation of the quantum key distribution protocols in higher dimension, one may balance the security gain and the implementation cost by changing the number of bases in the key encoding. As a side product, we also prove the equivalency between the optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machine and the optimal cloner for the g=d-1 quantum key distribution.

  8. The Galilean covariance of quantum mechanics in the case of external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Harvey R.; Holland, Peter R.

    1999-03-01

    Textbook treatments of the Galilean covariance of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a spinless particle seem invariably to cover the case of a free particle or one in the presence of a scalar potential. The principal objective of this paper is to examine the situation in the case of arbitrary forces, including the velocity-dependent variety resulting from a vector potential. To this end, we revisit the 1964 theorem of Jauch which purports to determine the most general form of the Hamiltonian consistent with "Galilean-invariance," and argue that the proof is less than compelling. We then show systematically that the Schrödinger equation in the case of a Jauch-type Hamiltonian is Galilean covariant, so long as the vector and scalar potentials transform in a certain way. These transformations, which to our knowledge have appeared very rarely in the literature on quantum mechanics, correspond in the case of electrodynamical forces to the "magnetic" nonrelativistic limit of Maxwell's equations in the sense of Le Bellac and Lévy-Leblond (1973). Finally, this Galilean covariant theory sheds light on Feynman's "proof" of Maxwell's equations, as reported by Dyson in 1990.

  9. Simple sufficient conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Marolf, Donald

    2003-09-01

    The generalized covariant entropy bound is the conjecture that for any null hypersurface which is generated by geodesics with nonpositive expansion starting from a spacelike 2-surface B and ending in a spacelike 2-surface B', the matter entropy on that hypersurface will not exceed one quarter of the difference in areas, in Planck units, of the two spacelike 2-surfaces. We show that this bound can be derived from the following phenomenological assumptions: (i) matter entropy can be described in terms of an entropy current sa; (ii) the gradient of the entropy current is bounded by the energy density, in the sense that |kakb∇asb|⩽2πTabkakb/ħ for any null vector ka where Tab is the stress energy tensor; and (iii) the entropy current sa vanishes on the initial 2-surface B. We also show that the generalized Bekenstein bound—the conjecture that the entropy of a weakly gravitating isolated matter system will not exceed a constant times the product of its mass and its width—can be derived from our assumptions. Though we note that any local description of entropy has intrinsic limitations, we argue that our assumptions apply in a wide regime. We closely follow the framework of an earlier derivation, but our assumptions take a simpler form, making their validity more transparent in some examples.

  10. General covariant gauge fixing for massless spin-two fields

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, F. T.; Frenkel, J.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2007-11-15

    The most general covariant gauge fixing Lagrangian is considered for a spin-two gauge theory in the context of the Faddeev-Popov procedure. In general, five parameters characterize this gauge fixing. Certain limiting values for these parameters give rise to a spin-two propagator that is either traceless or transverse, but for no values of these parameters is this propagator simultaneously traceless and transverse. Having a traceless-transverse propagator ensures that only the physical degrees of freedom associated with the tensor field propagate, and hence it is analogous to the Landau gauge in electrodynamics. To obtain such a traceless-transverse propagator, a gauge fixing Lagrangian which is not quadratic must be employed; this sort of gauge fixing Lagrangian is not encountered in the usual Faddeev-Popov procedure. It is shown that when this nonquadratic gauge fixing Lagrangian is used, two fermionic and one bosonic ghosts arise. As a simple application we discuss the energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field at finite temperature.

  11. Realizing a partial general quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices in a cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Yang Zhen; Ye Liu

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for implementing a partial general quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices coupled to a nonresonant cavity. By regulating the time parameters, our system can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning, and optimal symmetric economical phase-covariant cloning. In the scheme the cavity is only virtually excited, thus, the cavity decay is suppressed during the cloning operations.

  12. Optimal universal asymmetric covariant quantum cloning circuits for qubit entanglement manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Levente; Koniorczyk, Matyas; Adam, Peter; Janszky, Jozsef

    2010-03-15

    We consider the entanglement manipulation capabilities of the universal covariant quantum cloner or quantum processor circuit for quantum bits. We investigate its use for cloning a member of a bipartite or a genuine tripartite entangled state of quantum bits. We find that for bipartite pure entangled states a nontrivial behavior of concurrence appears, while for GHZ entangled states a possibility of the partial extraction of bipartite entanglement can be achieved.

  13. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  14. Derivation of manifestly covariant quantum models for spinning relativistic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnelius, Robert; Mårtensson, Ulf

    1990-05-01

    A method to construct manifestly covariant models for relativistic spinning particles is given. The models involve manifestly covariant internal variables leading to discrete state spaces apart from the coordinate and momentum variables. The precise form of the models are extracted from the Bargmann-Wigner conditions on the Pauli-Lubanski operator, together with some consistency conditions. Several simple models are derived and analysed, some of which are new. Also manifestly conformally invariant models for particles with arbitrary spins are derived using a condition of Bracken and Jessup.

  15. The Split Property for Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theories in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2015-12-01

    The split property expresses the way in which local regions of spacetime define subsystems of a quantum field theory. It is known to hold for general theories in Minkowski space under the hypothesis of nuclearity. Here, the split property is discussed for general locally covariant quantum field theories in arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetimes, using a spacetime deformation argument to transport the split property from one spacetime to another. It is also shown how states obeying both the split and (partial) Reeh-Schlieder properties can be constructed, providing standard split inclusions of certain local von Neumann algebras. Sufficient conditions are given for the theory to admit such states in ultrastatic spacetimes, from which the general case follows. A number of consequences are described, including the existence of local generators for global gauge transformations, and the classification of certain local von Neumann algebras. Similar arguments are applied to the distal split property and circumstances are exhibited under which distal splitting implies the full split property.

  16. Generalized parametrization dependence in quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Knorr, Benjamin; Lippoldt, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    We critically examine the gauge and field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaußian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical observables are independent of such calculational specifications, the construction of quantum gravity field theories typically relies on off-shell quantities such as β functions and generating functionals and thus face potential stability issues with regard to such generalized parametrizations. We analyze a two-parameter class of covariant gauge conditions, the role of momentum-dependent field rescalings and a class of field parametrizations. Using the product of Newton and cosmological constant as an indicator, the principle of minimum sensitivity identifies stationary points in this parametrization space which show a remarkable insensitivity to the parametrization. In the most insensitive cases, the quantized gravity system exhibits a non-Gaußian UV stable fixed point, lending further support to asymptotically safe quantum gravity. One of the stationary points facilitates an analytical determination of the quantum gravity phase diagram and features ultraviolet and infrared complete RG trajectories with a classical regime.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2008-06-01

    The open problem of constructing a consistent and experimentally tested quantum theory of the gravitational field has its place at the heart of fundamental physics. The main approaches can be roughly divided into two classes: either one seeks a unified quantum framework of all interactions or one starts with a direct quantization of general relativity. In the first class, string theory (M-theory) is the only known example. In the second class, one can make an additional methodological distinction: while covariant approaches such as path-integral quantization use the four-dimensional metric as an essential ingredient of their formalism, canonical approaches start with a foliation of spacetime into spacelike hypersurfaces in order to arrive at a Hamiltonian formulation. The present book is devoted to one of the canonical approaches—loop quantum gravity. It is named modern canonical quantum general relativity by the author because it uses connections and holonomies as central variables, which are analogous to the variables used in Yang Mills theories. In fact, the canonically conjugate variables are a holonomy of a connection and the flux of a non-Abelian electric field. This has to be contrasted with the older geometrodynamical approach in which the metric of three-dimensional space and the second fundamental form are the fundamental entities, an approach which is still actively being pursued. It is the author's ambition to present loop quantum gravity in a way in which every step is formulated in a mathematically rigorous form. In his own words: 'loop quantum gravity is an attempt to construct a mathematically rigorous, background-independent, non-perturbative quantum field theory of Lorentzian general relativity and all known matter in four spacetime dimensions, not more and not less'. The formal Leitmotiv of loop quantum gravity is background independence. Non-gravitational theories are usually quantized on a given non-dynamical background. In contrast, due to

  18. Covariation bias for ambiguous social stimuli in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Christiane; Ofer, Julia; Flor, Herta

    2004-11-01

    The authors investigated whether the negative interpretation bias in generalized social phobia (GSP) reflects and is maintained by illusory correlations. Participants were exposed to descriptions of ambiguous social events, situations involving fear-relevant animals and nature scenes that were randomly paired with negative, positive, or neutral emotional facial expressions. Prior to the experiment, the GSP participants overestimated the contingency social situations-negative outcome, whereas the controls judged negative outcomes as least likely. A posteriori, the GSP participants exhibited an illusory correlation specifically between social cues and negative outcomes. During the experiment, only the controls showed distorted outcome predictions for social situations. Hence, illusory correlations--possibly resulting from acquired associations between social cues and negative consequences--may contribute to a negative interpretation bias in GSP. PMID:15535796

  19. Pion generalized parton distributions within a fully covariant constituent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Pace, Emanuele; Romanelli, Giovanni; Salmè, Giovanni; Salmistraro, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We extend the investigation of the generalized parton distribution for a charged pion within a fully covariant constituent quark model, in two respects: (1) calculating the tensor distribution and (2) adding the treatment of the evolution, needed for achieving a meaningful comparison with both the experimental parton distribution and the lattice evaluation of the so-called generalized form factors. Distinct features of our phenomenological covariant quark model are: (1) a 4D Ansatz for the pion Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, to be used in the Mandelstam formula for matrix elements of the relevant current operators, and (2) only two parameters, namely a quark mass assumed to be m_q=~220 MeV and a free parameter fixed through the value of the pion decay constant. The possibility of increasing the dynamical content of our covariant constituent quark model is briefly discussed in the context of the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude.

  20. Implementing an ancilla-free 1{yields}M economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices in cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Longbao; Ye Liu; Zhang Wenhai

    2007-09-15

    We propose a simple scheme to realize 1{yields}M economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (EPQCM) with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits. In our scheme, multi-SQUIDs are fixed into a microwave cavity by adiabatic passage for their manipulation. Based on this model, we can realize the EPQCM with high fidelity via adiabatic quantum computation.

  1. The fermionic covariant prolongation structure of the super generalized Hirota equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaowen; Yao, Shaokui; Zhang, Chunhong; Gegenhasi

    2016-07-01

    The integrability of a super generalized Hirota equation (GHE) is investigated by means of the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We construct the su(2/1) × R(λ) prolongation structure for the super GHE and derive the corresponding Lax representation and the Bäcklund transformation. In addition, a solution of the super integrable equation is presented.

  2. The generalized quadratic covariation for fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index less than 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Litan; Liu, Junfeng; Chen, Chao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the generalized quadratic covariation of f(BH) and BH defined by $ [f(BH),BH](H)t:=\\lim_\\varepsilon\\downarrow 0}(1)/(\\varepsilon2H)\\int 0t{f(BHs+\\varepsilon) -f(BHs)}(BHs+\\varepsilon-BH_s)ds2H in probability, where f is a Borel function and BH is a fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index 0 < H < 1/2. We construct a Banach space {H} of measurable functions such that the generalized quadratic covariation exists in L2(Ω) and the Bouleau-Yor identity takes the form [f(BH),BH]t(H)=-\\int_ {R}}f(x){L}H(dx,t) provided f\\in {H}, where {L}^{H}(x, t) is the weighted local time of BH. These are also extended to the time-dependent case, and as an application we give the identity between the generalized quadratic covariation and the 4-covariation [g(BH), BH, BH, BH] when H = 1/4.

  3. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2009-05-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH =1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo=0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde, not requiring the standard method's pathology of adhoc assumptions such as gauges and counterterms, 19 free parameters (you can vary any way you want) that have confused, blocked the progress of theoretical physics for the past 30 years.

  4. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH/r=1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo =0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde.

  5. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2009-03-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH =1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo=0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde, not requiring the standard method's pathology of adhoc assumptions such as gauges and counterterms, 19 free parameters (you can vary any way you want) that have confused, blocked the progress of theoretical physics for the past 30 years.

  6. Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S.

    2006-12-15

    The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

  7. Covariant second-order perturbations in generalized two-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Tzavara, Eleftheria; Tent, Bartjan van; Mizuno, Shuntaro E-mail: Shuntaro.Mizuno@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-07-01

    We examine the covariant properties of generalized models of two-field inflation, with non-canonical kinetic terms and a possibly non-trivial field metric. We demonstrate that kinetic-term derivatives and covariant field derivatives do commute in a proper covariant framework, which was not realized before in the literature. We also define a set of generalized slow-roll parameters, using a unified notation. Within this framework, we study the most general class of models that allows for well-defined adiabatic and entropic sound speeds, which we identify as the models with parallel momentum and field velocity vectors. For these models we write the exact cubic action in terms of the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. We thus provide the tool to calculate the exact non-Gaussianity beyond slow-roll and at any scale for these generalized models. We illustrate our general results by considering their long-wavelength limit, as well as with the example of two-field DBI inflation.

  8. Correspondence between quantum and classical information: Generalized quantum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2006-04-15

    The concept of generalized quantum measurement is introduced as a transformation that sets a one-to-one correspondence between the initial states of the measured object system and final states of the object-meter system with the help of a classical informational index, unambiguously linked to a classically compatible set of quantum states. It is shown that the generalized quantum measurement concept covers all key types of quantum measurement--standard projective, entangling, fuzzy, and generalized measurements with a partial or complete destruction of initial information associated with the object. A special class of soft quantum measurements as a basic model for the fuzzy measurements widespread in physics is introduced and its information properties are studied in detail. Also, a special class of partially destructive measurements mapping all states of the Hilbert space of a finite-dimensional quantum system onto the basis states of an infinite-dimensional quantum system is considered.

  9. Four dimensional quantum gravity: The covariant path integral and quantization of the conformal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.

    1993-01-01

    After first reviewing the issue of vacuum energy (the cosmological constant problem) in the Einstein theory, the covariant path integral for gravity in four dimensions is constructed. The problem of vacuum energy requires determining the correct ground state of the quantum theory of gravity, and as such is an infrared problem, arising prior to and independently of the physics of the Planck scale. It is addressed in these lectures by studying the infrared fixed point of the low energy effective action of the conformal factor generated by the quantum trace anomaly in four dimensions. The infrared fixed point of this effective theory describes a conformally invariant phase of gravity with a vanishing effective cosmological term.

  10. Four dimensional quantum gravity: The covariant path integral and quantization of the conformal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.

    1993-03-01

    After first reviewing the issue of vacuum energy (the cosmological constant problem) in the Einstein theory, the covariant path integral for gravity in four dimensions is constructed. The problem of vacuum energy requires determining the correct ground state of the quantum theory of gravity, and as such is an infrared problem, arising prior to and independently of the physics of the Planck scale. It is addressed in these lectures by studying the infrared fixed point of the low energy effective action of the conformal factor generated by the quantum trace anomaly in four dimensions. The infrared fixed point of this effective theory describes a conformally invariant phase of gravity with a vanishing effective cosmological term.

  11. General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-06-01

    Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.

  12. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  13. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gui-Lu

    2006-05-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  14. Accelerated optimization and automated discovery with covariance matrix adaptation for experimental quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslund, Jonathan; Shir, Ofer M.; Bäck, Thomas; Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    Optimization of quantum systems by closed-loop adaptive pulse shaping offers a rich domain for the development and application of specialized evolutionary algorithms. Derandomized evolution strategies (DESs) are presented here as a robust class of optimizers for experimental quantum control. The combination of stochastic and quasi-local search embodied by these algorithms is especially amenable to the inherent topology of quantum control landscapes. Implementation of DES in the laboratory results in efficiency gains of up to ˜9 times that of the standard genetic algorithm, and thus is a promising tool for optimization of unstable or fragile systems. The statistical learning upon which these algorithms are predicated also provide the means for obtaining a control problem’s Hessian matrix with no additional experimental overhead. The forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) method is introduced to enable retrieval of the Hessian matrix, which can reveal information about the landscape’s local structure and dynamic mechanism. Exploitation of such algorithms in quantum control experiments should enhance their efficiency and provide additional fundamental insights.

  15. Accelerated optimization and automated discovery with covariance matrix adaptation for experimental quantum control

    SciTech Connect

    Roslund, Jonathan; Shir, Ofer M.; Rabitz, Herschel; Baeck, Thomas

    2009-10-15

    Optimization of quantum systems by closed-loop adaptive pulse shaping offers a rich domain for the development and application of specialized evolutionary algorithms. Derandomized evolution strategies (DESs) are presented here as a robust class of optimizers for experimental quantum control. The combination of stochastic and quasi-local search embodied by these algorithms is especially amenable to the inherent topology of quantum control landscapes. Implementation of DES in the laboratory results in efficiency gains of up to {approx}9 times that of the standard genetic algorithm, and thus is a promising tool for optimization of unstable or fragile systems. The statistical learning upon which these algorithms are predicated also provide the means for obtaining a control problem's Hessian matrix with no additional experimental overhead. The forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) method is introduced to enable retrieval of the Hessian matrix, which can reveal information about the landscape's local structure and dynamic mechanism. Exploitation of such algorithms in quantum control experiments should enhance their efficiency and provide additional fundamental insights.

  16. Nonparametric Covariate-Adjusted Association Tests Based on the Generalized Kendall’s Tau*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wensheng; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors for comorbidity is important in psychiatric research. Empirically, studies have shown that testing multiple, correlated traits simultaneously is more powerful than testing a single trait at a time in association analysis. Furthermore, for complex diseases, especially mental illnesses and behavioral disorders, the traits are often recorded in different scales such as dichotomous, ordinal and quantitative. In the absence of covariates, nonparametric association tests have been developed for multiple complex traits to study comorbidity. However, genetic studies generally contain measurements of some covariates that may affect the relationship between the risk factors of major interest (such as genes) and the outcomes. While it is relatively easy to adjust these covariates in a parametric model for quantitative traits, it is challenging for multiple complex traits with possibly different scales. In this article, we propose a nonparametric test for multiple complex traits that can adjust for covariate effects. The test aims to achieve an optimal scheme of adjustment by using a maximum statistic calculated from multiple adjusted test statistics. We derive the asymptotic null distribution of the maximum test statistic, and also propose a resampling approach, both of which can be used to assess the significance of our test. Simulations are conducted to compare the type I error and power of the nonparametric adjusted test to the unadjusted test and other existing adjusted tests. The empirical results suggest that our proposed test increases the power through adjustment for covariates when there exist environmental effects, and is more robust to model misspecifications than some existing parametric adjusted tests. We further demonstrate the advantage of our test by analyzing a data set on genetics of alcoholism. PMID:22745516

  17. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  18. Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraczewski, A.; Stobińska, M.

    2012-10-01

    Macroscopically populated quantum superpositions pose a question to what extent the macroscopic world obeys quantum mechanical laws. Recently, such superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have been demonstrated. They are of fundamental and technological interest. We present numerical methods useful for modeling of these states. Their properties are governed by a Gaussian hypergeometric function, which cannot be reduced to either elementary or easily tractable functions. We discuss the method of efficient computation of this function for half-integer parameters and a moderate value of its argument. We show how to dynamically estimate a cutoff for infinite sums involving this function performed over its parameters. Our algorithm exceeds double precision and is parallelizable. Depending on the experimental parameters it chooses one of the several ways of summation to achieve the best efficiency. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Program summary Program title: MQSVIS Catalogue identifier: AEMR_ v1_ 0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1643 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13212 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP). RAM: 200 MB for single run for 1000×1000 tile Classification: 4.15, 18. External routines: OpenMP Nature of problem: Recently, macroscopically populated quantum superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have

  19. Work Measurement as a Generalized Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-01

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P (w ). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P (w ). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  20. A general theory of quantum relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minic, Djordje; Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    2004-02-01

    The geometric form of standard quantum mechanics is compatible with the two postulates: (1) the laws of physics are invariant under the choice of experimental setup and (2) every quantum observation or event is intrinsically statistical. These postulates remain compatible within a background independent extension of quantum theory with a local intrinsic time implying the relativity of the concept of a quantum event. In this extension the space of quantum events becomes dynamical and only individual quantum events make sense observationally. At the core of such a general theory of quantum relativity is the three-way interplay between the symplectic form, the dynamical metric and non-integrable almost complex structure of the space of quantum events. Such a formulation provides a missing conceptual ingredient in the search for a background independent quantum theory of gravity and matter. The crucial new technical element in our scheme derives from a set of recent mathematical results on certain infinite-dimensional almost Kahler manifolds which replace the complex projective spaces of standard quantum mechanics.

  1. Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2015-10-01

    The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the generalized effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.

  2. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  3. Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2009-02-01

    Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.

  4. Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.

  5. Relationship Between Large-Scale Functional and Structural Covariance Networks in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Mantini, Dante; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Zhengge; Chen, Guanghui; Jiao, Qing; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The human brain can be modeled as a network, whose structure can be revealed by either anatomical or functional connectivity analyses. Little is known, so far, about the topological features of the large-scale interregional functional covariance network (FCN) in the brain. Further, the relationship between the FCN and the structural covariance network (SCN) has not been characterized yet, in the intact as well as in the diseased brain. Here, we studied 59 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic–clonic seizures and 59 healthy controls. We estimated the FCN and the SCN by measuring amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and gray matter volume (GMV), respectively, and then we conducted graph theoretical analyses. Our ALFF-based FCN and GMV-based results revealed that the normal human brain is characterized by specific topological properties such as small worldness and highly-connected hub regions. The patients had an altered overall topology compared to the controls, suggesting that epilepsy is primarily a disorder of the cerebral network organization. Further, the patients had altered nodal characteristics in the subcortical and medial temporal regions and default-mode regions, for both the FCN and SCN. Importantly, the correspondence between the FCN and SCN was significantly larger in patients than in the controls. These results support the hypothesis that the SCN reflects shared long-term trophic mechanisms within functionally synchronous systems. They can also provide crucial information for understanding the interactions between the whole-brain network organization and pathology in generalized tonic–clonic seizures. PMID:23510272

  6. Generalized Squashing Factors for Covariant Description of Magnetic Connectivity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study of magnetic connectivity in the solar corona reveals a need to generalize the field line mapping technique to arbitrary geometry of the boundaries and systems of coordinates. Indeed, the global description of the connectivity in the corona requires the use of the photospheric and solar wind boundaries. Both are closed surfaces and therefore do not admit a global regular system of coordinates. At least two overlapping regular systems of coordinates for each of the boundaries are necessary in this case to avoid spherical-pole-like singularities in the coordinates of the footpoints. This implies that the basic characteristic of magnetic connectivity-the squashing degree or factor Q of elemental flux tubes, according to Titov and coworkers-must be rewritten in covariant form. Such a covariant expression of Q is derived in this work. The derived expression is very flexible and highly efficient for describing the global magnetic connectivity in the solar corona. In addition, a general expression for a new characteristic Q1, which defines a squashing of the flux tubes in the directions perpendicular to the field lines, is determined. This new quantity makes it possible to filter out the quasi-separatrix layers whose large values of Q are caused by a projection effect at the field lines nearly touching the photosphere. Thus, the value Q1 provides a much more precise description of the volumetric properties of the magnetic field structure. The difference between Q and Q1 is illustrated by comparing their distributions for two configurations, one of which is the Titov-Demoulin model of a twisted magnetic field.

  7. Multi-atom entanglement engineering and phase-covariant quantum cloning with a single resonant interaction assisted by external driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2014-12-01

    We propose a scheme to realize multi-atom entanglement and phase-covariant quantum cloning in a short-time manner possessing the advantage of its robustness with respect to parameter fluctuations. The process is achieved by externally driving the atoms to resonantly couple to the cavity mode. Compared to other strategies, such as the adiabatic or virtual-photon techniques, it provides a method which allows the relatively fast coherent manipulation.

  8. Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r(G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8 , most of which were previously unknown.

  9. A quantum logic network for implementing optimal symmetric universal and phase-covariant telecloning of a bipartite entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanyu; Zhu, Aidong

    2008-10-01

    A quantum logic network to implement quantum telecloning is presented in this paper. The network includes two parts: the first part is used to create the telecloning channel and the second part to teleport the state. It can be used not only to implement universal telecloning for a bipartite entangled state which is completely unknown, but also to implement the phase-covariant telecloning for one that is partially known. Furthermore, the network can also be used to construct a tele-triplicator. It can easily be implemented in experiment because only single- and two-qubit operations are used in the network.

  10. Covariance estimators for generalized estimating equations (GEE) in longitudinal analysis with small samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Kong, Lan; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Lijun

    2016-05-10

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) is a general statistical method to fit marginal models for longitudinal data in biomedical studies. The variance-covariance matrix of the regression parameter coefficients is usually estimated by a robust "sandwich" variance estimator, which does not perform satisfactorily when the sample size is small. To reduce the downward bias and improve the efficiency, several modified variance estimators have been proposed for bias-correction or efficiency improvement. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on recent developments of modified variance estimators and compare their small-sample performance theoretically and numerically through simulation and real data examples. In particular, Wald tests and t-tests based on different variance estimators are used for hypothesis testing, and the guideline on appropriate sample sizes for each estimator is provided for preserving type I error in general cases based on numerical results. Moreover, we develop a user-friendly R package "geesmv" incorporating all of these variance estimators for public usage in practice. PMID:26585756

  11. Generalized Quantum Theory and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroun, Michael Anthony

    This dissertation is divided into two main topics. The first is the generalization of quantum dynamics when the Schrodinger partial differential equation is not defined even in the weak mathematical sense because the potential function itself is a distribution in the spatial variable, the same variable that is used to define the kinetic energy operator, i.e. the Laplace operator. The procedure is an extension and broadening of the distributional calculus and offers spectral results as an alternative to the only other two known methods to date, namely a) the functional calculi; and b) non-standard analysis. Furthermore, the generalizations of quantum dynamics presented within give a resolution to the time asymmetry paradox created by multi-particle quantum mechanics due to the time evolution still being unitary. A consequence is the randomization of phases needed for the fundamental justification Pauli master equation. The second topic is foundations of the quantum theory of fields. The title is phrased as ``foundations'' to emphasize that there is no claim of uniqueness but rather a proposal is put forth, which is markedly different than that of constructive or axiomatic field theory. In particular, the space of fields is defined as a space of generalized functions with involutive symmetry maps (the CPT invariance) that affect the topology of the field space. The space of quantum fields is then endowed the Frechet property and interactions change the topology in such a way as to cause some field spaces to be incompatible with others. This is seen in the consequences of the Haag theorem. Various examples and discussions are given that elucidate a new view of the quantum theory of fields and its (lack of) mathematical structure.

  12. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulfide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdel, Katharina; Spielmann, Felix M.; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur containing trace gas present in the troposphere at concentrations of around 500 ppt. Recent interest in COS by the ecosystem-physiological community has been sparked by the fact that COS co-diffuses into plant leaves pretty much the same way as carbon dioxide (CO2) does, but in contrast to CO2, COS is not known to be emitted by plants. Thus uptake of COS by vegetation has the potential to be used as a tracer for canopy gross photosynthesis, which cannot be measured directly, however represents a key term in the global carbon cycle. Since a few years, quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers (QCLAS) are commercially available with the precision, sensitivity and time response suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. While there exist a handful of published reports on EC flux measurements in the recent literature, no rigorous investigation of the applicability of QCLAS for EC COS flux measurements has been carried out so far, nor have been EC processing and QA/QC steps developed for carbon dioxide and water vapor flux measurements within FLUXNET been assessed for COS. The aim of this study is to close this knowledge gap, to discuss critical steps in the post-processing chain of COS EC flux measurements and to devise best-practice guidelines for COS EC flux data processing. To this end we collected EC COS (and CO2, H2O and CO) flux measurements above a temperate mountain grassland in Austria over the vegetation period 2015 with a commercially available QCLAS. We discuss various aspects of EC data post-processing, in particular issues with the time-lag estimation between sonic anemometer and QCLAS signals and QCLAS time series detrending, as well as QA/QC, in particular flux detection limits, random flux uncertainty, the interaction of various processing steps with common EC QA/QC filters (e.g. detrending and stationarity tests), u*-filtering, etc.

  13. Shear-free dust solution in general covariant Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldoni, O.; da Silva, M. F. A.; Chan, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have studied non stationary dust spherically symmetric spacetime, in general covariant theory [ U(1) extension] of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the minimally coupling and non-minimum coupling with matter, in the post-newtonian approximation in the infrared limit. The Newtonian prepotential \\varphi was assumed null. The aim of this work is to know if we can have the same spacetime, as we know in the General Relativity Theory (GRT), in Hořava-Lifshitz Theory (HLT) in this limit. We have shown that there is not an analogy of the dust solution in HLT with the minimally coupling, as in GRT. Using non-minimum coupling with matter, we have shown that the solution admits a process of gravitational collapse, leaving a singularity at the end. This solution has, qualitatively, the same temporal behaviour as the dust collapse in GRT. However, we have also found a second possible solution, representing a bounce behavior that is not found in GRT.

  14. Efficient exploration of pan-cancer networks by generalized covariance selection and interactive web content

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Teresia; Johansson, Patrik; Sanchez, José; Marinescu, Voichita D.; Jörnsten, Rebecka; Nelander, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Statistical network modeling techniques are increasingly important tools to analyze cancer genomics data. However, current tools and resources are not designed to work across multiple diagnoses and technical platforms, thus limiting their applicability to comprehensive pan-cancer datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). To address this, we describe a new data driven modeling method, based on generalized Sparse Inverse Covariance Selection (SICS). The method integrates genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional data from multiple cancers, to define links that are present in multiple cancers, a subset of cancers, or a single cancer. It is shown to be statistically robust and effective at detecting direct pathway links in data from TCGA. To facilitate interpretation of the results, we introduce a publicly accessible tool (cancerlandscapes.org), in which the derived networks are explored as interactive web content, linked to several pathway and pharmacological databases. To evaluate the performance of the method, we constructed a model for eight TCGA cancers, using data from 3900 patients. The model rediscovered known mechanisms and contained interesting predictions. Possible applications include prediction of regulatory relationships, comparison of network modules across multiple forms of cancer and identification of drug targets. PMID:25953855

  15. General variational principle for spherically symmetric perturbations in diffeomorphism covariant theories

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Michael D.; Wald, Robert M.

    2007-04-15

    We present a general method for the analysis of the stability of static, spherically symmetric solutions to spherically symmetric perturbations in an arbitrary diffeomorphism covariant Lagrangian field theory. Our method involves fixing the gauge and solving the linearized gravitational field equations to eliminate the metric perturbation variables in terms of the matter variables. In a wide class of cases--which include f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory of Jacobson and Mattingly, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory--the remaining perturbation equations for the matter fields are second order in time. We show how the symplectic current arising from the original Lagrangian gives rise to a symmetric bilinear form on the variables of the reduced theory. If this bilinear form is positive definite, it provides an inner product that puts the equations of motion of the reduced theory into a self-adjoint form. A variational principle can then be written down immediately, from which stability can be tested readily. We illustrate our method in the case of Einstein's equation with perfect fluid matter, thereby rederiving, in a systematic manner, Chandrasekhar's variational principle for radial oscillations of spherically symmetric stars. In a subsequent paper, we will apply our analysis to f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory.

  16. Evidence for maximal acceleration and singularity resolution in covariant loop quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2013-08-30

    A simple argument indicates that covariant loop gravity (spin foam theory) predicts a maximal acceleration and hence forbids the development of curvature singularities. This supports the results obtained for cosmology and black holes using canonical methods. PMID:24033021

  17. Generalized mutual information of quantum critical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, F. C.; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the generalized mutual information I˜n of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the Rényi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete Z (Q ) symmetries (Q -state Potts model with Q =2 ,3 ,4 and Z (Q ) parafermionic models with Q =5 ,6 ,7 ,8 and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the U (1 ) continuous symmetries (Klein-Gordon field theory, X X Z and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wave functions in two special bases. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter n that defines I˜n. For a system, with total size L and subsystem sizes ℓ and L -ℓ , the I˜n has a logarithmic leading behavior given by c/˜n4 log[L/π sin(π/ℓ L ) ] where the coefficient c˜n is linearly dependent on the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory describing the system's critical properties.

  18. Entanglement of multipartite quantum states and the generalized quantum search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Robert Michael

    2002-09-01

    In chapter 2 various parameterizations for the orbits under local unitary transformations of three-qubit pure states are analyzed. It is shown that the entanglement monotones of any multipartite pure state uniquely determine the orbit of that state. It follows that there must be an entanglement monotone for three-qubit pure states which depends on the Kempe invariant defined in [1]. A form for such an entanglement monotone is proposed. A theorem is proved that significantly reduces the number of entanglement monotones that must be looked at to find the maximal probability of transforming one multipartite state to another. In chapter 3 Grover's unstructured quantum search algorithm is generalized to use an arbitrary starting superposition and an arbitrary unitary matrix. A formula for the probability of the generalized Grover's algorithm succeeding after n iterations is derived. This formula is used to determine the optimal strategy for using the unstructured quantum search algorithm. The speedup obtained illustrates that a hybrid use of quantum computing and classical computing techniques can yield a performance that is better than either alone. The analysis is extended to the case of a society of k quantum searches acting in parallel. In chapter 4 the positive map Gamma : rho → (Trrho) - rho is introduced as a separability criterion. Any separable state is mapped by the tensor product of Gamma and the identity in to a non-negative operator, which provides a necessary condition for separability. If Gamma acts on a two-dimensional subsystem, then it is equivalent to partial transposition and therefore also sufficient for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems. Finally, a connection between this map for two qubits and complex conjugation in the "magic" basis [2] is displayed.

  19. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  20. A class of group covariant signal sets and its necessary and sufficient condition

    SciTech Connect

    Usuda, Tsuyoshi Sasaki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Shiromoto, Keisuke

    2014-12-04

    (G,χ-hat)-covariant quantum state signals, which is a generalization of the narrow sense group covariant signals, are defined. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for (G,χ-hat)-covariant signals is given and examples of the signals are shown.

  1. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobroff, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

  2. Exact Distributions of Intraclass Correlation and Cronbach's Alpha with Gaussian Data and General Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, Emily O.; Muller, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    Intraclass correlation and Cronbach's alpha are widely used to describe reliability of tests and measurements. Even with Gaussian data, exact distributions are known only for compound symmetric covariance (equal variances and equal correlations). Recently, large sample Gaussian approximations were derived for the distribution functions. New exact…

  3. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  4. A Generalized Information Theoretical Model for Quantum Secret Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chen-Ming; Li, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Ting-Ting; Li, Yong-Ming

    2016-07-01

    An information theoretical model for quantum secret sharing was introduced by H. Imai et al. (Quantum Inf. Comput. 5(1), 69-80 2005), which was analyzed by quantum information theory. In this paper, we analyze this information theoretical model using the properties of the quantum access structure. By the analysis we propose a generalized model definition for the quantum secret sharing schemes. In our model, there are more quantum access structures which can be realized by our generalized quantum secret sharing schemes than those of the previous one. In addition, we also analyse two kinds of important quantum access structures to illustrate the existence and rationality for the generalized quantum secret sharing schemes and consider the security of the scheme by simple examples.

  5. Harmonizing General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2007-04-01

    Gravitation is the common underlying texture between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. We take gravitation as the link that can make possible the marriage between these two sciences. We use here the duality of Nature for gravitation: A continuous warped space, wave-like, and a discrete quantum gas, particle-like, both coexistent and producing an equilibrium state in the Universe. The result is a static, non expanding, spherical, unlimited and finite Universe, with no cosmological constant and no dark energy. Macht's Principle is reproduced here by the convergence of the two cosmological equations of Einstein. From this a Mass Boom concept is born given by M = t, M the mass of the Universe and t its age. Also a decreasing speed of light is the consequence of the Mass Boom, c = 1/t, which explains the Supernovae Type Ia observations without the need of expansion (nor, of course, accelerated expansion). Our Mass Boom model completely wipes out the problems and paradoxes built in the Big Bang model, like the horizon, monopole, entropy, flatness, fine tuning, etc. It also eliminates the need for inflation.

  6. Several experimental realizations of symmetric phase-covariant quantum cloners of single-photon qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, Lucie; Černoch, Antonín; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Dušek, Miloslav

    2007-10-01

    We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.

  7. Several experimental realizations of symmetric phase-covariant quantum cloners of single-photon qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Soubusta, Jan; Cernoch, Antonin; Bartuskova, Lucie; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Dusek, Miloslav

    2007-10-15

    We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.

  8. Optical implementations of the optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2003-05-01

    We propose two simple implementations of the optimal symmetric 1{yields}2 phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits. The first scheme is designed for qubits encoded into polarization states of photons and it involves a mixing of two photons on an unbalanced beam splitter. This scheme is probabilistic and the cloning succeeds with the probability 1/3. In the second setup, the qubits are represented by the states of Rydberg atoms and the cloning is accomplished by the resonant interaction of the atoms with a microwave field confined in a high-Q cavity. This latter approach allows for deterministic implementation of the optimal cloning transformation.

  9. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  10. Examining a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in de Sitter space by studying “black hole radiation”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejhan, Hamed; Rahbardehghan, Surena

    2016-04-01

    Respecting that any consistent quantum field theory in curved space-time must include black hole radiation, in this paper, we examine the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler (KGB) formalism as an inevitable quantization scheme in order to follow the guideline of the covariance of minimally coupled massless scalar field and linear gravity on de Sitter (dS) background in the sense of Wightman-Gärding approach, by investigating thermodynamical aspects of black holes. The formalism is interestingly free of pathological large distance behavior. In this construction, also, no infinite term appears in the calculation of expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor (we have an automatic and covariant renormalization) which results in the vacuum energy of the free field to vanish. However, the existence of an effective potential barrier, intrinsically created by black holes gravitational field, gives a Casimir-type contribution to the vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor. On this basis, by evaluating the Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the vicinity of a nonrotating black hole event horizon through the KGB quantization, in this work, we explicitly prove that the hole produces black-body radiation which its temperature exactly coincides with the result obtained by Hawking for black hole radiation.

  11. A General Method of Selecting Quantum Channel for Bidirectional Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hong-Zi; Tian, Xiu-Lao; Hu, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Based on tensor representation and Bell basis measurement in bidirectional quantum teleportation, a criterion that can be used to judge whether a four-qubit quantum state can be regarded as quantum channel or not in bidirectional teleportation is suggested and a theoretical scheme of bidirectional teleportation via four-qubit state as the quantum channel is proposed. In accordance with this criterion we give a general method of selecting quantum channel in bidirectional teleportation, which is determined by the channel parameter matrix R in the Bell basis measurement. This general method provide a theoretical basis for quantum channel selection in bidirectional quantum teleportation experiments.

  12. A family of generalized quantum entropies: definition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Zozor, S.; Holik, F.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a quantum version of the generalized (h,φ )-entropies, introduced by Salicrú et al. for the study of classical probability distributions. We establish their basic properties and show that already known quantum entropies such as von Neumann, and quantum versions of Rényi, Tsallis, and unified entropies, constitute particular classes of the present general quantum Salicrú form. We exhibit that majorization plays a key role in explaining most of their common features. We give a characterization of the quantum (h,φ )-entropies under the action of quantum operations and study their properties for composite systems. We apply these generalized entropies to the problem of detection of quantum entanglement and introduce a discussion on possible generalized conditional entropies as well.

  13. A family of generalized quantum entropies: definition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Zozor, S.; Holik, F.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum version of the generalized (h,φ ) -entropies, introduced by Salicrú et al. for the study of classical probability distributions. We establish their basic properties and show that already known quantum entropies such as von Neumann, and quantum versions of Rényi, Tsallis, and unified entropies, constitute particular classes of the present general quantum Salicrú form. We exhibit that majorization plays a key role in explaining most of their common features. We give a characterization of the quantum (h,φ ) -entropies under the action of quantum operations and study their properties for composite systems. We apply these generalized entropies to the problem of detection of quantum entanglement and introduce a discussion on possible generalized conditional entropies as well.

  14. Hybrid quantum computing: semicloning for general database retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2005-05-01

    Quantum computing (QC) has become an important area of research in computer science because of its potential to provide more efficient algorithmic solutions to certain problems than are possible with classical computing (CC). In particular, QC is able to exploit the special properties of quantum superposition to achieve computational parallelism beyond what can be achieved with parallel CC computers. However, these special properties are not applicable for general computation. Therefore, we propose the use of "hybrid quantum computers" (HQCs) that combine both classical and quantum computing architectures in order to leverage the benefits of both. We demonstrate how an HQC can exploit quantum search to support general database operations more efficiently than is possible with CC. Our solution is based on new quantum results that are of independent significance to the field of quantum computing. More specifically, we demonstrate that the most restrictive implications of the quantum No-Cloning Theorem can be avoided through the use of semiclones.

  15. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James D.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-02-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of a generalized quantum-mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical, and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line and the glued tree of depth three to observe the behavior of the QW-to-CRW transition.

  16. Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.

  17. Manufacturing time operators: Covariance, selection criteria, and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G. C.; Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J.

    2010-07-15

    We provide the most general forms of covariant and normalized time operators and their probability densities, with applications to quantum clocks, the time of arrival, and Lyapunov quantum operators. Examples are discussed of the profusion of possible operators and their physical meaning. Criteria to define unique, optimal operators for specific cases are given.

  18. Quantum mechanical generalization of the balistic electron wind theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacina, A.

    1980-06-01

    The Fiks' quasiclassical theory of the electron wind force is quantum mechanically generalized. Within the framework of this generalization the space dependence of the electron wind force is calculated in the vicinity of an interface between two media. It is found that quantum corrections may be comparable with or even greater than corresponding quasiclassical values.

  19. Uncertainty characteristics of generalized quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2003-02-01

    The effects of any quantum measurement can be described by a collection of measurement operators {Mm} acting on the quantum state of the measured system. However, the Hilbert space formalism tends to obscure the relationship between the measurement results and the physical properties of the measured system. In this paper, a characterization of measurement operators in terms of measurement resolution and disturbance is developed. It is then possible to formulate uncertainty relations for the measurement process that are valid for arbitrary input states. The motivation of these concepts is explained from a quantum communication viewpoint. It is shown that the intuitive interpretation of uncertainty as a relation between measurement resolution and disturbance provides a valid description of measurement back action. Possible applications to quantum cryptography, quantum cloning, and teleportation are discussed.

  20. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  1. Quantum generalized Reed-Solomon codes: Unified framework for quantum maximum-distance-separable codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Xing, Li-Juan; Wang, Xin-Mei

    2008-01-01

    We construct a family of quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) codes from classical generalized Reed-Solomon codes and derive the necessary and sufficient condition under which these quantum codes exist. We also give code bounds and show how to construct them analytically. We find that existing quantum MDS codes can be unified under these codes in the sense that when a quantum MDS code exists, then a quantum code of this type with the same parameters also exists. Thus, as far as is known at present, they are the most important family of quantum MDS codes.

  2. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-03-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of generalized quantum mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases, but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line, the QW to CRW transition and transitions to genearlized QSWs that go beyond the CRW and QW. QSWs provide a new framework to the study of quantum algorithms as well as of quantum walks with environmental effects.

  3. Static electromagnetic fields and charged black holes in general covariant theory of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzou, Ahmad; Lin, Kai; Wang, Anzhong

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study electromeganetic static spacetimes in the nonrelativisitc general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity, proposed recently by Hořava and Melby-Thompson, and present all the electric static solutions, which represent the generalization of the Reissner-Nordström solution found in Einstein's general relativity (GR). The global/local structures of spacetimes in the HL theory in general are different from those given in GR, because the dispersion relations of test particles now contain high-order momentum terms, so the speeds of these particles are unbounded in the ultraviolet (UV). As a result, the conception of light-cones defined in GR becomes invalid and test particles do not follow geodesics. To study black holes in the HL theory, we adopt the geometrical optical approximations, and define a horizon as a (two-closed) surface that is free of spacetime singularities and on which massless test particles are infinitely redshifted. With such a definition, we show that some of our solutions give rise to (charged) black holes, although the radii of their horizons in general depend on the energies of the test particles.

  4. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zehui; Guo, Juan; Gao, Jiangrui

    2006-05-01

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  5. Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Dupre, M.J.

    2013-12-15

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.

  6. Covariant energy-momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstock, F. I.; Dupre, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy-momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy-momentum.

  7. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  8. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  9. Topics in Covariant Closed String Field Theory and Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Maha

    1991-01-01

    The closed string field theory based on the Witten vertex is found to be nonpolynomial in order to reproduce all tree amplitudes correctly. The interactions have a geometrical pattern of overlaps, which can be thought as the edges of a spherical polyhedron with face-perimeters equal to 2pi. At each vertex of the polyhedron there are three faces, thus all elementary interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The quantum action is constructed by substracting counterterms which cancel the overcounting of moduli space, and by adding loop vertices in such a way no possible surfaces are missed. A counterterm that gives the correct one-string one-loop amplitude is formulated. The lowest order loop vertices are analyzed in the cases of genus one and two. Also, a one-loop two -string counterterm that restores BRST invariance to the respective scattering amplitude is constructed. An attempt to understand the formulation of two -dimensional pure gravity from the discrete representation of a two-dimensional surface is made. This is considered as a toy model of string theory. A well-defined mathematical model is used. Its continuum limit cannot be naively interpreted as pure gravity because each term of the sum over surfaces is not positive definite. The model, however, could be considered as an analytic continuation of the standard matrix model formulation of gravity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  10. Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, Alexander C. R.

    2014-06-01

    A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeated-interactions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59-104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412-434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317-329, 2010). When the random-walk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.

  11. Structural Modeling of Measurement Error in Generalized Linear Models with Rasch Measures as Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…

  12. Possible universal quantum algorithms for generalized Turaev-Viro invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan

    2011-05-01

    An emergent trend in quantum computation is the topological quantum computation (TQC). Briefly, TQC results from the application of quantum computation with the aim to solve the problems of quantum topology such as topological invariants for knots and links (Jones polynomials, HOMFLY polynomials, Khovanov polynomials); topological invariants for graphs (Tutte polynomial and Bollobás-Riordan polynomial); topological invariants for 3-manifolds (Reshetiskin-Turaev, Turaev-Viro and Turaer-Viro-Ocneanu invariants) and topological invariants for 4-manifolds( Crane-Yetter invariants). In a few words, TQC is concerned with the formulation of quantum algorithms for the computation of these topological invariants in quantum topology. Given that one of the fundamental achievements of quantum topology was the discovery of strong connections between monoidal categories and 3-dimensional manifolds, in TQC is possible and necessary to exploit such connections with the purpose to formulate universal quantum algorithms for topological invariants of 3-manifolds. In the present work we make an exploration of such possibilities. Specifically we search for universal quantum algorithms for generalized Turaev-Viro invariants of 3-manifolds such as the Turaev-Viro-Ocneanu invariants, the Kashaev-Baseilhac-Benedetti invariants of 3-manifolds with links and the Geer-Kashaev-Turaev invariants of 3-manifolds with a link and a principal bundle. We also look for physical systems (three dimensional topological insulators and three-dimensional gravity) over which implement the resulting universal topological quantum algorithms.

  13. Generalized uncertainty principle in Bianchi type I quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, B.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2007-07-01

    We study a quantum Bianchi type I model in which the dynamical variables of the corresponding minisuperspace obey the generalized Heisenberg algebra. Such a generalized uncertainty principle has its origin in the existence of a minimal length suggested by quantum gravity and sting theory. We present approximate analytical solutions to the corresponding Wheeler DeWitt equation in the limit where the scale factor of the universe is small and compare the results with the standard commutative and noncommutative quantum cosmology. Similarities and differences of these solutions are also discussed.

  14. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  15. General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel

    2010-09-15

    Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.

  16. Quantum phases for a generalized harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Paul

    2008-03-01

    An effective Hamiltonian for the generalized harmonic oscillator is determined by using squeezed state wavefunctions. The equations of motion over an extended phase space are determined and then solved perturbatively for a specific choice of the oscillator parameters. These results are used to calculate the dynamic and geometric phases for the generalized oscillator with this choice of parameters.

  17. General relativistic effects in quantum interference of “clocks”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, M.; Pikovski, I.; Costa, F.; Brukner, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been each successfully tested in numerous experiments. However, the regime where both theories are jointly required to explain physical phenomena remains untested by laboratory experiments, and is also not fully understood by theory. This contribution reviews recent ideas for a new type of experiments: quantum interference of “clocks”, which aim to test novel quantum effects that arise from time dilation. “Clock” interference experiments could be realised with atoms or photons in near future laboratory experiments.

  18. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Zehui; Guo Juan; Gao Jiangrui

    2006-05-15

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  19. Generalized Limits for Single-Parameter Quantum Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Boixo, Sergio; Flammia, Steven T.; Caves, Carlton M.; Geremia, JM

    2007-03-02

    We develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multisystem interactions. For a Hamiltonian with k-system parameter-sensitive terms, the quantum limit scales as 1/N{sup k}, where N is the number of systems. These quantum limits remain valid when the Hamiltonian is augmented by any parameter-independent interaction among the systems and when adaptive measurements via parameter-independent coupling to ancillas are allowed.

  20. Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hellmann, Frank; Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the definition of quantum probability in the context of 'timeless' general-relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we study the probability of sequences of events, or multievent probability. In conventional quantum mechanics this can be obtained by means of the 'wave function collapse' algorithm. We first point out certain difficulties of some natural definitions of multievent probability, including the conditional probability widely considered in the literature. We then observe that multievent probability can be reduced to single-event probability, by taking into account the quantum nature of the measuring apparatus. In fact, by exploiting the von-Neumann freedom of moving the quantum/classical boundary, one can always trade a sequence of noncommuting quantum measurements at different times, with an ensemble of simultaneous commuting measurements on the joint system+apparatus system. This observation permits a formulation of quantum theory based only on single-event probability, where the results of the wave function collapse algorithm can nevertheless be recovered. The discussion also bears on the nature of the quantum collapse.

  1. Covariant Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2011-03-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

  2. Generalized additive models with interval-censored data and time-varying covariates: application to human immunodeficiency virus infection in hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Bacchetti, Peter; Quale, Christopher

    2002-06-01

    We describe a method for extending smooth nonparametric modeling methods to time-to-event data where the event may be known only to lie within a window of time. Maximum penalized likelihood is used to fit a discrete proportional hazards model that also models the baseline hazard, and left-truncation and time-varying covariates are accommodated. The implementation follows generalized additive modeling conventions, allowing both parametric and smooth terms and specifying the amount of smoothness in terms of the effective degrees of freedom. We illustrate the method on a well-known interval-censored data set on time of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a multicenter study of hemophiliacs. The ability to examine time-varying covariates, not available with previous methods, allows detection and modeling of nonproportional hazards and use of a time-varying covariate that fits the data better and is more plausible than a fixed alternative. PMID:12071419

  3. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholak, Torsten; Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a "coherent control interferometer" as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of "quantum delayed-choice" in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  4. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario.

    PubMed

    Scholak, Torsten; Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a "coherent control interferometer" as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of "quantum delayed-choice" in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not. PMID:25429946

  5. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Scholak, Torsten Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a “coherent control interferometer” as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of “quantum delayed-choice” in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  6. Generalized quantum gravity condensates for homogeneous geometries and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Ryan, James P.; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    We construct a generalized class of quantum gravity condensate states that allows the description of continuum homogeneous quantum geometries within the full theory. They are based on similar ideas already applied to extract effective cosmological dynamics from the group field theory formalism, and thus also from loop quantum gravity. However, they represent an improvement over the simplest condensates used in the literature, in that they are defined by an infinite superposition of graph-based states encoding in a precise way the topology of the spatial manifold. The construction is based on the definition of refinement operators on spin network states, written in a second quantized language. The construction also lends itself easily to application to the case of spherically symmetric quantum geometries.

  7. Generalized coherent states under deformed quantum mechanics with maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2013-10-01

    Following the Gazeau-Klauder approach, we construct generalized coherent states (GCS) as the quantum simulator to examine the deformed quantum mechanics, which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum. We study deformed harmonic oscillators and compute their probability distribution and entropy of states exactly. Also, a particle in an infinite potential box is studied perturbatively. In particular, unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case increases the entropy of the Planck scale quantum optical system. Furthermore, for simplicity, we obtain the modified uncertainty principle (MUP) with the perturbative treatment up to leading order. MUP turns out to increase generally. However, for certain values of γ (a parameter of GCS), it is possible that the MUP will vanish and hence will exhibit the classical characteristic. This is interpreted as the manifestation of the intrinsic high-momentum cutoff at lower momentum in a perturbative treatment. Although the GCS saturates the minimal uncertainty in a simultaneous measurement of physical position and momentum operators, thus constituting the squeezed states, complete coherency is impossible in quantum gravitational physics. The Mandel Q number is calculated, and it is shown that the statistics can be Poissonian and super-/sub-Poissonian depending on γ. The equation of motion is studied, and both Ehrenfest’s theorem and the correspondence principle are recovered. Fractional revival times are obtained through the autocorrelation, and they indicate that the superposition of a classical-like subwave packet is natural in GCS. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated (Snyder) type of deformed quantum mechanics, which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum. With the advances of quantum optics technology, it might be possible to realize some of these distinguishing quantum-gravitational features within the domain of future experiments.

  8. Generalized quantum statistics and Lie (super)algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, N. I.

    2016-03-01

    Generalized quantum statistics, such as paraboson and parafermion statistics, are characterized by triple relations which are related to Lie (super)algebras of type B. The correspondence of the Fock spaces of parabosons, parafermions as well as the Fock space of a system of parafermions and parabosons to irreducible representations of (super)algebras of type B will be pointed out. Example of generalized quantum statistics connected to the basic classical Lie superalgebra B(1|1) ≡ osp(3|2) with interesting physical properties, such as noncommutative coordinates, will be given. Therefore the article focuses on the question, addressed already in 1950 by Wigner: do the equation of motion determine the quantum mechanical commutation relation?

  9. Generalized Kronig-Penney model for ultracold atomic quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negretti, A.; Gerritsma, R.; Idziaszek, Z.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Calarco, T.

    2014-10-01

    We study the properties of a quantum particle interacting with a one-dimensional structure of equidistant scattering centers. We derive an analytical expression for the dispersion relation and for the Bloch functions in the presence of both even and odd scattering waves within the pseudopotential approximation. This generalizes the well-known solid-state physics textbook result known as the Kronig-Penney model. Our generalized model can be used to describe systems such as degenerate Fermi gases interacting with ions or with another neutral atomic species confined in an optical lattice, thus enabling the investigation of polaron or Kondo physics within a simple formalism. We focus our attention on the specific atom-ion system and compare our findings with quantum defect theory. Excellent agreement is obtained within the regime of validity of the pseudopotential approximation. This enables us to derive a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian for a degenerate quantum Bose gas in a linear chain of ions.

  10. Faddeev-Popov-ghost propagators for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2008-09-15

    The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.

  11. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  12. Experimental realization of generalized qubit measurements based on quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-yuan; Yu, Neng-kun; Kurzyński, Paweł; Xiang, Guo-yong; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental implementation of a single-qubit generalized measurement scenario, the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), based on a quantum walk model. The qubit is encoded in a single-photon polarization. The photon performs a quantum walk on an array of optical elements, where the polarization-dependent translation is performed via birefringent beam displacers and a change of the polarization is implemented with the help of wave plates. We implement: (i) trine POVM, i.e., the POVM elements uniformly distributed on an equatorial plane of the Bloch sphere; (ii) symmetric-informationally-complete (SIC) POVM; and (iii) unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal qubit states.

  13. Factorization in the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) where the commutation relation is given by [x̂,p̂] = iℏ(1 + αp̂ + βp̂2). For this algebra, we obtain the eigenfunction of the momentum operator. We also study the GUP corrected quantum particle in a box. Finally, we apply the factorization method to the harmonic oscillator in the presence of a minimal observable length and obtain the energy eigenvalues by applying the perturbation method.

  14. Generalized Jaynes-Cummings model as a quantum search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, A.

    2009-07-15

    We propose a continuous time quantum search algorithm using a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model. In this model the states of the atom are the elements among which the algorithm realizes the search, exciting resonances between the initial and the searched states. This algorithm behaves like Grover's algorithm; the optimal search time is proportional to the square root of the size of the search set and the probability to find the searched state oscillates periodically in time. In this frame, it is possible to reinterpret the usual Jaynes-Cummings model as a trivial case of the quantum search algorithm.

  15. The Nature of Covariation between Autistic Traits and Clumsiness: A Twin Study in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moruzzi, Sara; Ogliari, Anna; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    While social impairment, difficulties with communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors are central features of Autism Spectrum Disorders, physical clumsiness is a commonly co-occurring feature. In a sample of 398 twin pairs (aged 8-17 years) from the Italian Twin Registry we investigated the nature of the co-variation between a psychometric…

  16. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-09-01

    The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  17. Generalized Kraus operators and generators of quantum dynamical semigroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alazzawi, Sabina; Baumgartner, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Quantum dynamical semigroups play an important role in the description of physical processes such as diffusion, radiative decay or other non-equilibrium events. Taking strongly continuous and trace preserving semigroups into consideration, we show that, under a special criterion, the generator of such a group admits a certain generalized standard form, thereby shedding new light on known approaches in this direction. Furthermore, we illustrate our analysis in concrete examples.

  18. Quantum black hole in the generalized uncertainty principle framework

    SciTech Connect

    Bina, A.; Moslehi, A.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we study the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on canonical quantum gravity of black holes. Through the use of modified partition function that involves the effects of the GUP, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of the Schwarzschild black hole. We also calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy for the modification of the Schwarzschild black hole in the presence of the GUP.

  19. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  20. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-01

    We briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  1. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices. PMID:27188691

  2. Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632

  3. Lorentz-covariant quantum 4-potential and orbital angular momentum for the transverse confinement of matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, R.; da Paz, I. G.

    2016-08-01

    In two recent papers exact Hermite-Gaussian solutions to relativistic wave equations were obtained for both electromagnetic and particle beams. The solutions for particle beams correspond to those of the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit. Here, it will be shown that each beam particle has additional 4-momentum resulting from transverse localization compared to a free particle traveling in the same direction as the beam with the same speed. This will be referred to as the quantum 4-potential term since it will be shown to play an analogous role in relativistic Hamiltonian quantum mechanics as the Bohm potential in the nonrelativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Low-order localization effects include orbital angular momentum, Gouy phase, and beam spreading. Toward a more systematic approach for calculating localization effects at all orders, it will be shown that both the electromagnetic and quantum 4-potentials couple into the canonical 4-momentum of a particle in a similar way. This offers the prospect that traditional methods used to calculate the affect of an electromagnetic field on a particle can now be adapted to take localization effects into account. The prospects for measuring higher order quantum 4-potential related effects experimentally are also discussed alongside some questions to challenge the quantum information and quantum field theorists.

  4. The generalized second law implies a quantum singularity theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2013-08-01

    The generalized second law can be used to prove a singularity theorem, by generalizing the notion of a trapped surface to quantum situations. Like Penrose’s original singularity theorem, it implies that spacetime is null-geodesically incomplete inside black holes, and to the past of spatially infinite Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. If space is finite instead, the generalized second law requires that there only be a finite amount of entropy producing processes in the past, unless there is a reversal of the arrow of time. In asymptotically flat spacetime, the generalized second law also rules out traversable wormholes, negative masses, and other forms of faster-than-light travel between asymptotic regions, as well as closed timelike curves. Furthermore it is impossible to form baby universes which eventually become independent of the mother universe, or to restart inflation. Since the semiclassical approximation is used only in regions with low curvature, it is argued that the results may hold in full quantum gravity. The introduction describes the second law and its time-reverse, in ordinary and generalized thermodynamics, using either the fine-grained or the coarse-grained entropy. (The fine-grained version is used in all results except those relating to the arrow of time.)

  5. Autonomous quantum to classical transitions and the generalized imaging theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, John S.; Feagin, James M.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of the transition of a dynamical system from quantum to classical mechanics is of continuing interest. Practically it is of importance for the interpretation of multi-particle coincidence measurements performed at macroscopic distances from a microscopic reaction zone. Here we prove the generalized imaging theorem which shows that the spatial wave function of any multi-particle quantum system, propagating over distances and times large on an atomic scale but still microscopic, and subject to deterministic external fields and particle interactions, becomes proportional to the initial momentum wave function where the position and momentum coordinates define a classical trajectory. Currently, the quantum to classical transition is considered to occur via decoherence caused by stochastic interaction with an environment. The imaging theorem arises from unitary Schrödinger propagation and so is valid without any environmental interaction. It implies that a simultaneous measurement of both position and momentum will define a unique classical trajectory, whereas a less complete measurement of say position alone can lead to quantum interference effects.

  6. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  7. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  8. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin–Meshkov–Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  9. Instrumental variables II: instrumental variable application—in 25 variations, the physician prescribing preference generally was strong and reduced covariate imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Rassen, Jeremy A.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Glynn, Robert J.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Objective An instrumental variable (IV) is an unconfounded proxy for a study exposure that can be used to estimate a causal effect in the presence of unmeasured confounding. To provide reliably consistent estimates of effect, IVs should be both valid and reasonably strong. Physician prescribing preference (PPP) is an IV that uses variation in doctors' prescribing to predict drug treatment. As reduction in covariate imbalance may suggest increased IV validity, we sought to examine the covariate balance and instrument strength in 25 formulations of the PPP IV in two cohort studies. Study Design and Setting We applied the PPP IV to assess antipsychotic medication (APM) use and subsequent death among two cohorts of elderly patients. We varied the measurement of PPP, plus performed cohort restriction and stratification. We modeled risk differences with two-stage least square regression. First-stage partial r2 values characterized the strength of the instrument. The Mahalanobis distance summarized balance across multiple covariates. Results Partial r2 ranged from 0.028 to 0.099. PPP generally alleviated imbalances in nonpsychiatry-related patient characteristics, and the overall imbalance was reduced by an average of 36% (±40%) over the two cohorts. Conclusion In our study setting, most of the 25 formulations of the PPP IV were strong IVs and resulted in a strong reduction of imbalance in many variations. The association between strength and imbalance was mixed. PMID:19345561

  10. General monogamy property of global quantum discord and the application

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Zhao, Li-Ming; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2014-09-15

    We provide a family of general monogamy inequalities for global quantum discord (GQD), which can be considered as an extension of the usual discord monogamy inequality. It can be shown that those inequalities are satisfied under the similar condition for the holding of usual monogamy relation. We find that there is an intrinsic connection among them. Furthermore, we present a different type of monogamy inequality and prove that it holds under the condition that the bipartite GQDs do not increase when tracing out some subsystems. We also study the residual GQD based on the second type of monogamy inequality. As applications of those quantities, we investigate the GQDs and residual GQD in characterizing the quantum phase transition in the transverse field Ising model.

  11. General monogamy property of global quantum discord and the application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Zhao, Li-Ming; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2014-09-01

    We provide a family of general monogamy inequalities for global quantum discord (GQD), which can be considered as an extension of the usual discord monogamy inequality. It can be shown that those inequalities are satisfied under the similar condition for the holding of usual monogamy relation. We find that there is an intrinsic connection among them. Furthermore, we present a different type of monogamy inequality and prove that it holds under the condition that the bipartite GQDs do not increase when tracing out some subsystems. We also study the residual GQD based on the second type of monogamy inequality. As applications of those quantities, we investigate the GQDs and residual GQD in characterizing the quantum phase transition in the transverse field Ising model.

  12. Quantum Bayesianism as the basis of general theory of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-05-28

    We discuss the subjective probability interpretation of the quantum-like approach to decision making and more generally to cognition. Our aim is to adopt the subjective probability interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum Bayesianism (QBism), to serve quantum-like modelling and applications of quantum probability outside of physics. We analyse the classical and quantum probabilistic schemes of probability update, learning and decision-making and emphasize the role of Jeffrey conditioning and its quantum generalizations. Classically, this type of conditioning and corresponding probability update is based on the formula of total probability-one the basic laws of classical probability theory. PMID:27091160

  13. Covariant Closed String Coherent States

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.

  14. Covariant closed string coherent states.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops. PMID:21405564

  15. Position-dependent mass quantum Hamiltonians: general approach and duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego-Monteiro, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S.; Curado, E. M. F.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze a general family of position-dependent mass (PDM) quantum Hamiltonians which are not self-adjoint and include, as particular cases, some Hamiltonians obtained in phenomenological approaches to condensed matter physics. We build a general family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians which are quantum mechanically equivalent to the non-self-adjoint proposed ones. Inspired by the probability density of the problem, we construct an ansatz for the solutions of the family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians. We use this ansatz to map the solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equations generated by the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians into the Hilbert space of the solutions of the respective dual self-adjoint Hamiltonians. This mapping depends on both the PDM and on a function of position satisfying a condition that assures the existence of a consistent continuity equation. We identify the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians here studied with a very general family of Hamiltonians proposed in a seminal article of Harrison (1961 Phys. Rev. 123 85) to describe varying band structures in different types of metals. Therefore, we have self-adjoint Hamiltonians that correspond to the non-self-adjoint ones found in Harrison’s article.

  16. Generalized Uncertainty Relation in the Non-commutative Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ≥ {θ}/{2}, {Δ} p1 {Δ } p2 ≥ {bar{θ}}/{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ≥ {hbar _{eff}}/{2} is discussed. Four each uncertainty relation, wave functions saturating each uncertainty relation are explicitly constructed. The unitary operators relating the non-commutative position and momentum operators to the commutative position and momentum operators are also investigated. We also discuss the uncertainty relation related to the harmonic oscillator.

  17. Multiconfigurational quantum propagation with trajectory-guided generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigolo, Adriano; Viscondi, Thiago F.; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    2016-03-01

    A generalized version of the coupled coherent states method for coherent states of arbitrary Lie groups is developed. In contrast to the original formulation, which is restricted to frozen-Gaussian basis sets, the extended method is suitable for propagating quantum states of systems featuring diversified physical properties, such as spin degrees of freedom or particle indistinguishability. The approach is illustrated with simple models for interacting bosons trapped in double- and triple-well potentials, most adequately described in terms of SU(2) and SU(3) bosonic coherent states, respectively.

  18. The Cavenish Experiment, General Relativity, Nuclear Quantum Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, Ronald R.

    2008-04-01

    The Cavendish Experiment - Demonstration clearly shows the Gravitational attraction between two masses, which is a force proportional to the Newtonian mechanics. General Relativity fails the Cavendish Experiment because there is no force between two gravitating masses but instead pictures a fallacious time-space concept. GR has no definitive proofs. The very hot corona and not GR cause the bending of light near and about the Sun The Perihelion of Mercury, the 43 arc seconds is 3.8 x 10-12 of the total and is not a proof of GR. This Perihelion rotation is nothing more than another mode of Newtonian mechanics explained by Newtonian mechanics. Each orbit is an ellipse, a Newtonian function that adds together because of Newtonian functions and accounts for any movement and advancement of Mercury. Because of gravity and speed changes, clocks change, time does not change. Other proofs are not valid because they are Quantum effects or plainly Newtonian refractions. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation clearly explains the gravitational force between two gravitating masses because of alternating electromagnetic functions in nuclei of matter. Some 20 proofs and indications prove this, plainly and clearly. Any gravity theory that does not conform to the Cavendish demonstration is not a viable theory of gravity. With Nuclear Quantum Gravitation, the Forces are plainly and coherently unified.

  19. Spatial prediction of Soil Organic Carbon contents in croplands, grasslands and forests using environmental covariates and Generalized Additive Models (Southern Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Stevens, Antoine; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Providing spatially continuous Soil Organic Carbon data (SOC) is needed to support decisions regarding soil management, and inform the political debate with quantified estimates of the status and change of the soil resource. Digital Soil Mapping techniques are based on relations existing between a soil parameter (measured at different locations in space at a defined period) and relevant covariates (spatially continuous data) that are factors controlling soil formation and explaining the spatial variability of the target variable. This study aimed at apply DSM techniques to recent SOC content measurements (2005-2013) in three different landuses, i.e. cropland, grassland, and forest, in the Walloon region (Southern Belgium). For this purpose, SOC databases of two regional Soil Monitoring Networks (CARBOSOL for croplands and grasslands, and IPRFW for forests) were first harmonized, totalising about 1,220 observations. Median values of SOC content for croplands, grasslands, and forests, are respectively of 12.8, 29.0, and 43.1 g C kg-1. Then, a set of spatial layers were prepared with a resolution of 40 meters and with the same grid topology, containing environmental covariates such as, landuses, Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives, soil texture, C factor, carbon inputs by manure, and climate. Here, in addition to the three classical texture classes (clays, silt, and sand), we tested the use of clays + fine silt content (particles < 20 µm and related to stable carbon fraction) as soil covariate explaining SOC variations. For each of the three land uses (cropland, grassland and forest), a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was calibrated on two thirds of respective dataset. The remaining samples were assigned to a test set to assess model performance. A backward stepwise procedure was followed to select the relevant environmental covariates using their approximate p-values (the level of significance was set at p < 0.05). Standard errors were estimated for each of

  20. Quantum description of light propagation in generalized media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2016-02-01

    Linear quantum input-output relation based models are widely applied to describe the light propagation in a lossy medium. The details of the interaction and the associated added noise depend on whether the device is configured to operate as an amplifier or an attenuator. Using the traveling wave (TW) approach, we generalize the linear material model to simultaneously account for both the emission and absorption processes and to have point-wise defined noise field statistics and intensity dependent interaction strengths. Thus, our approach describes the quantum input-output relations of linear media with net attenuation, amplification or transparency without pre-selection of the operation point. The TW approach is then applied to investigate materials at thermal equilibrium, inverted materials, the transparency limit where losses are compensated, and the saturating amplifiers. We also apply the approach to investigate media in nonuniform states which can be e.g. consequences of a temperature gradient over the medium or a position dependent inversion of the amplifier. Furthermore, by using the generalized model we investigate devices with intensity dependent interactions and show how an initial thermal field transforms to a field having coherent statistics due to gain saturation.

  1. A general method for selecting quantum channel for bidirectional controlled state teleportation and other schemes of controlled quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a large number of protocols for bidirectional controlled state teleportation (BCST) have been proposed using n-qubit entangled states (nin {5,6,7}) as quantum channel. Here, we propose a general method of selecting multiqubit (n>4) quantum channels suitable for BCST and show that all the channels used in the existing protocols of BCST can be obtained using the proposed method. Further, it is shown that the quantum channels used in the existing protocols of BCST form only a negligibly small subset of the set of all the quantum channels that can be constructed using the proposed method to implement BCST. It is also noted that all these quantum channels are also suitable for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Following the same logic, methods for selecting quantum channels for other controlled quantum communication tasks, such as controlled bidirectional joint remote state preparation and controlled quantum dialogue, are also provided.

  2. Misunderstanding analysis of covariance.

    PubMed

    Miller, G A; Chapman, J P

    2001-02-01

    Despite numerous technical treatments in many venues, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) remains a widely misused approach to dealing with substantive group differences on potential covariates, particularly in psychopathology research. Published articles reach unfounded conclusions, and some statistics texts neglect the issue. The problem with ANCOVA in such cases is reviewed. In many cases, there is no means of achieving the superficially appealing goal of "correcting" or "controlling for" real group differences on a potential covariate. In hopes of curtailing misuse of ANCOVA and promoting appropriate use, a nontechnical discussion is provided, emphasizing a substantive confound rarely articulated in textbooks and other general presentations, to complement the mathematical critiques already available. Some alternatives are discussed for contexts in which ANCOVA is inappropriate or questionable. PMID:11261398

  3. Tensor analysis and curvature in quantum space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Namsrai, K.

    1987-03-01

    Introducing quantum space-time into physics by means of the transformation language of noncommuting coordinates gives a simple scheme of generalizing the tensor analysis. The general covariance principle for the quantum space-time case is discussed, within which one can obtain the covariant structure of basic tensor quantities and the motion equation for a particle in a gravitational field. Definitions of covariant derivatives and curvature are also generalized in the give case. It turns out that the covariant structure of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor is not preserved in quantum space-time. However, if the curvature tensor R/sub ..mu.. nu lambda chi/(z) is redetermined up to the value of the L/sup 2/ term, then its covariant structure is achieved, and it, in turn, allows them to reconstruct the Einstein equation in quantum space-time.

  4. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport—Generalized correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  5. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport—Generalized correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-04-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  6. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport--generalized correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-04-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  7. Nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in the condensed phase via the generalized quantum master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Ka, Being J.; Geva, Eitan

    2006-07-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath. In this equation, the memory kernel accounts for the influence of the bath on the system's dynamics, and the inhomogeneous term accounts for initial system-bath correlations. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating the memory kernel and inhomogeneous term for arbitrary initial state and system-bath coupling. The memory kernel and inhomogeneous term are obtained by numerically solving a single inhomogeneous Volterra equation of the second kind for each. The new approach can accommodate a very wide range of projection operators, and requires projection-free two-time correlation functions as input. An application to the case of a two-state system with diagonal coupling to an arbitrary bath is described in detail. Finally, the utility and self-consistency of the formalism are demonstrated by an explicit calculation on a spin-boson model.

  8. Subdiffusive and superdiffusive quantum transport and generalized duality

    SciTech Connect

    Sassetti, M.; Schomerus, H.; Weiss, U.

    1996-02-01

    As a generic model for transport of interacting fermions through a barrier or interstitials in a lattice, quantum Brownian motion in a periodic potential is studied. There is a duality transformation between the continuous coordinate or phase representation and the discrete momentum or charge representation for general frequency-dependent damping. Sub-Ohmic friction is mapped on super-Ohmic friction, and vice versa. The mapping is exact for arbitrary barrier height and valid at any temperature. Thus all features of the continuous model can be investigated from analytical or numerical analysis of the discrete model. Nonperturbative results for the frequency-dependent linear mobility including subdiffusive and superdiffusive behaviors are reported. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Quantum electrodynamical corrections to a magnetic dipole in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, J.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetized neutron stars are privileged places where strong electromagnetic fields as high as BQ = 4.4 × 109 T exist, giving rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). These corrections need to be included to the general relativistic (GR) description of a magnetic dipole supposed to be anchored in the neutron star. In this paper, these QED and GR perturbations to the standard flat space-time dipole are calculated to the lowest order in the fine structure constant αsf and to any order in the ratio Rs/R where R is the neutron star radius and Rs its Schwarzschild radius. Following our new 3+1 formalism developed in a previous work, we compute the multipolar non-linear corrections to this dipole and demonstrate the presence of a small dipolar ℓ = 1 and hexapolar ℓ = 3 component.

  10. Generalized energy measurements and modified transient quantum fluctuation theorems.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Venkatesh, B Prasanna; Talkner, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Determining the work which is supplied to a system by an external agent provides a crucial step in any experimental realization of transient fluctuation relations. This, however, poses a problem for quantum systems, where the standard procedure requires the projective measurement of energy at the beginning and the end of the protocol. Unfortunately, projective measurements, which are preferable from the point of view of theory, seem to be difficult to implement experimentally. We demonstrate that, when using a particular type of generalized energy measurements, the resulting work statistics is simply related to that of projective measurements. This relation between the two work statistics entails the existence of modified transient fluctuation relations. The modifications are exclusively determined by the errors incurred in the generalized energy measurements. They are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the force protocol. Particularly simple expressions for the modified Crooks relation and Jarzynski equality are found for Gaussian energy measurements. These can be obtained by a sequence of sufficiently many generalized measurements which need not be Gaussian. In accordance with the central limit theorem, this leads to an effective error reduction in the individual measurements and even yields a projective measurement in the limit of infinite repetitions. PMID:25353748

  11. General Properties of Overlap Operators in Disordered Quantum Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoi, C.

    2016-04-01

    We study short-range quantum spin systems with Gaussian disorder. We obtain quantum mechanical extensions of the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities. We discuss properties of overlap spin operators with these identities.

  12. Methodical study of nitrous oxide eddy covariance measurements using quantum cascade laser spectrometery over a Swiss forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Zeyer, K.; Zeeman, M.; Michna, P.; Zingg, A.; Buchmann, N.; Emmenegger, L.

    2007-10-01

    Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured at the Lägeren CarboEurope IP flux site over the multi-species mixed forest dominated by European beech and Norway spruce. Measurements were carried out during a four-week period in October-November 2005 during leaf senescence. Fluxes were measured with a standard ultrasonic anemometer in combination with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer that measured N2O, CO2, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 5 Hz time resolution. To distinguish insignificant fluxes from significant ones it is proposed to use a new approach based on the significance of the correlation coefficient between vertical wind speed and mixing ratio fluctuations. This procedure eliminated roughly 56% of our half-hourly fluxes. Based on the remaining, quality checked N2O fluxes we quantified the mean efflux at 0.8±0.4 μmol m-2 h-1 (mean ± standard error). Most of the contribution to the N2O flux occurred during a 6.5-h period starting 4.5 h before each precipitation event. No relation with precipitation amount could be found. Visibility data representing fog density and duration at the site indicate that wetting of the canopy may have as strong an effect on N2O effluxes as does below-ground microbial activity. It is speculated that above-ground N2O production from the senescing leaves at high moisture (fog, drizzle, onset of precipitation event) may be responsible for part of the measured flux.

  13. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  14. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism. PMID:26382378

  15. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  16. Stability, ghost, and strong coupling in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of gravity with {lambda}{ne}1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yongqing; Wang Anzhong

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate three important issues: stability, ghost, and strong coupling, in the Horava-Melby-Thompson setup of the Horava-Lifshitz theory with {lambda}{ne}1, generalized recently by da Silva. We first develop the general linear scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with arbitrary spatial curvature and find that an immediate by-product of the setup is that, in all the inflationary models described by a scalar field, the FRW universe is necessarily flat. Applying them to the case of the Minkowski background, we find that it is stable, and, similar to the case {lambda}=1, the spin-0 graviton is eliminated. The vector perturbations vanish identically in the Minkowski background. Thus, similar to general relativity, a free gravitational field in this setup is completely described by a spin-2 massless graviton, even with {lambda}{ne}1. We also study the ghost problem in the FRW background and find explicitly the ghost-free conditions. To study the strong coupling problem, we consider two different kinds of spacetimes, all with the presence of matter: one is cosmological, and the other is static. We find that the coupling becomes strong for a process with energy higher than M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 5/2} in the flat FRW background and M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 3} in a static weak gravitational field, where |c{sub {psi}|{identical_to}}|(1-{lambda})/(3{lambda}-1)|{sup 1/2}.

  17. Fractional angular momentum in noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi-Lun; Sun, Yong-Li; Wang, Qing; Long, Zheng-Wen; Jing, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics, i.e., the Chern-Simons quantum mechanics on the noncommutative plane in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm magnetic vector potentials, is studied in this paper. We focus our attention on the canonical orbital angular momentum and show that there are two different approaches to produce the fractional angular momentum in the noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics.

  18. The quantum Ising chain with a generalized defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Uwe

    1990-08-01

    The finite-size scaling properties of the quantum Ising chain with different types of generalized defects are studied. This not only means an alteration of the coupling constant as previously examined, but also an additional arbitrary transformation in the algebra of observables at one site of the chain. One can distinguish between two classes of generalized defects: on the one hand those which do not affect the finite-size integrability of the Ising chain, and on the other hand those that destroy this property. In this context, finite-size integrability is always understood as a synonym for the possibility to write the hamiltonian of the finite chain as a bilinear expression in fermionic operators by means of a Jordan-Wigner transformation. Concerning the first type of defect, an exact solution for the scaling spectrum is obtained for the most universal defect that preserves the global Z2 symmetry of the chain. It is shown that in the continuum limit this yields the same result as for one properly chosen ordinary defect, that is changing the coupling constant only, and thus the finite-size scaling spectra can be described by irreps of a shifted u(1) Kac-Moody algebra. The other type of defect is examined by means of numerical finite-size calculations. In contrast to the first case, these calculations suggest a non-continuous dependence of the scaling dimensions on the defect parameters. A conjecture for the operator content involving only one primary field of a Virasoro algebra with central charge c= {1}/{2} is given.

  19. Covariant magnetic connection hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, F.

    2016-04-01

    > In the single fluid, non-relativistic, ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description, magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved `magnetic connections' between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D magnetic connection hypersurfaces in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when .

  20. Efficient retrieval of landscape Hessian: forced optimal covariance adaptive learning.

    PubMed

    Shir, Ofer M; Roslund, Jonathan; Whitley, Darrell; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the Hessian matrix at the landscape optimum of a controlled physical observable offers valuable information about the system robustness to control noise. The Hessian can also assist in physical landscape characterization, which is of particular interest in quantum system control experiments. The recently developed landscape theoretical analysis motivated the compilation of an automated method to learn the Hessian matrix about the global optimum without derivative measurements from noisy data. The current study introduces the forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) technique for this purpose. FOCAL relies on the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) that exploits covariance information amongst the control variables by means of principal component analysis. The FOCAL technique is designed to operate with experimental optimization, generally involving continuous high-dimensional search landscapes (≳30) with large Hessian condition numbers (≳10^{4}). This paper introduces the theoretical foundations of the inverse relationship between the covariance learned by the evolution strategy and the actual Hessian matrix of the landscape. FOCAL is presented and demonstrated to retrieve the Hessian matrix with high fidelity on both model landscapes and quantum control experiments, which are observed to possess nonseparable, nonquadratic search landscapes. The recovered Hessian forms were corroborated by physical knowledge of the systems. The implications of FOCAL extend beyond the investigated studies to potentially cover other physically motivated multivariate landscapes. PMID:25019911

  1. Implementation of generalized quantum measurements for unambiguous discrimination of multiple non-orthogonal coherent states.

    PubMed

    Becerra, F E; Fan, J; Migdall, A

    2013-01-01

    Generalized quantum measurements implemented to allow for measurement outcomes termed inconclusive can perform perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states, a task which is impossible using only measurements with definitive outcomes. Here we demonstrate such generalized quantum measurements for unambiguous discrimination of four non-orthogonal coherent states and obtain their quantum mechanical description, the positive-operator valued measure. For practical realizations of this positive-operator valued measure, where noise and realistic imperfections prevent perfect unambiguous discrimination, we show that our experimental implementation outperforms any ideal standard-quantum-limited measurement performing the same non-ideal unambiguous state discrimination task for coherent states with low mean photon numbers. PMID:23774177

  2. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  3. Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-03-01

    Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.

  4. Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.

  5. Covariant Perturbation Expansion of Off-Diagonal Heat Kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Yu-Zi; Li, Wen-Du; Zhang, Ping; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Covariant perturbation expansion is an important method in quantum field theory. In this paper an expansion up to arbitrary order for off-diagonal heat kernels in flat space based on the covariant perturbation expansion is given. In literature, only diagonal heat kernels are calculated based on the covariant perturbation expansion.

  6. Solutions to Master equations of quantum Brownian motion in a general environment with external force

    SciTech Connect

    Roura, Albert; Fleming, C H; Hu, B L

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the model of a system made up of a Brownian quantum oscillator linearly coupled to an environment made up of many quantum oscillators at finite temperature. We show that the HPZ master equation for the reduced density matrix derived earlier [B.L. Hu, J.P. Paz, Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 45, 2843 (1992)] has incorrectly specified coefficients for the case of nonlocal dissipation. We rederive the QBM master equation, correctly specifying all coefficients, and determine the position uncertainty to be free of excessive cutoff sensitivity. Our coefficients and solutions are reduced entirely to contour integration for analytic spectra at arbitrary temperature, coupling strength, and cut-off. As an illustration we calculate the master equation coefficients and solve the master equation for ohmic coupling (with finite cutoff) and example supra-ohmic and sub-ohmic spectral densities. We determine the effect of an external force on the quantum oscillator and also show that our representation of the master equation and solutions naturally extends to a system of multiple oscillators bilinearly coupled to themselves and the bath in arbitrary fashion. This produces a formula for investigating the standard quantum limit which is central to addressing many theoretical issues in macroscopic quantum phenomena and experimental concerns related to low temperature precision measurements. We find that in a dissipative environment, all initial states settle down to a Gaussian density matrix whose covariance is determined by the thermal reservoir and whose mean is determined by the external force. We specify the thermal covariance for the spectral densities we explore.

  7. The incredible shrinking covariance estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, James

    2012-05-01

    Covariance estimation is a key step in many target detection algorithms. To distinguish target from background requires that the background be well-characterized. This applies to targets ranging from the precisely known chemical signatures of gaseous plumes to the wholly unspecified signals that are sought by anomaly detectors. When the background is modelled by a (global or local) Gaussian or other elliptically contoured distribution (such as Laplacian or multivariate-t), a covariance matrix must be estimated. The standard sample covariance overfits the data, and when the training sample size is small, the target detection performance suffers. Shrinkage addresses the problem of overfitting that inevitably arises when a high-dimensional model is fit from a small dataset. In place of the (overfit) sample covariance matrix, a linear combination of that covariance with a fixed matrix is employed. The fixed matrix might be the identity, the diagonal elements of the sample covariance, or some other underfit estimator. The idea is that the combination of an overfit with an underfit estimator can lead to a well-fit estimator. The coefficient that does this combining, called the shrinkage parameter, is generally estimated by some kind of cross-validation approach, but direct cross-validation can be computationally expensive. This paper extends an approach suggested by Hoffbeck and Landgrebe, and presents efficient approximations of the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOC) estimate of the shrinkage parameter used in estimating the covariance matrix from a limited sample of data.

  8. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  9. Covariant Galileon

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Esposito-Farese, G.; Vikman, A.

    2009-04-15

    We consider the recently introduced 'Galileon' field in a dynamical spacetime. When the Galileon is assumed to be minimally coupled to the metric, we underline that both field equations of the Galileon and the metric involve up to third-order derivatives. We show that a unique nonminimal coupling of the Galileon to curvature eliminates all higher derivatives in all field equations, hence yielding second-order equations, without any extra propagating degree of freedom. The resulting theory breaks the generalized 'Galilean' invariance of the original model.

  10. Eddy covariance measurements of NH3 fluxes over a natural grass land with an open-path quantum cascade laser-based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, D.; Benedict, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Prenni, A. J.; Schichtel, B. A.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    NH3 is an important component of the bio-atmospheric N cycle with implications for regional air quality, human and ecosystem health degradation, and global climate change. However, measuring NH3 flux is challenging, requiring a sensor with high sensitivity (sub-ppbv), fast response time and the capability to account for NH3 adsorption effects. In this study, we address these issues with an open-path quantum-cascade-based sensor for eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Previously, our EC NH3 sensor was deployed over a feedlot in Colorado in 2013 and 2014, and the results showed the potential of the sensor to measure NH3 emissions from agricultural sources. In the summer of 2015, the sensor was installed at a remote monitoring site in Rocky Mountain National Park to measure NH3 flux over a natural grass land. During the deployment, the precision of the sensor was about 0.15 ppbv at 10 Hz, and the detection limit of the flux was estimated to be 0.7±0.5 ng NH3/s/m2. The cospectra of the NH3 flux closely resembled those of CO2 flux and sensible heat flux measured by a LI-7500 CO2 analyzer and a CSAT3 sonic anemometer. The ogive analyses indicated that the loss of NH3 fluxes due to various damping effects was about 15%. Examining initial results from a few days of measurement, the measured NH3 fluxes appear to have a strong diurnal pattern with local emissions during afternoon, a pattern not previously reported for remote grass land. The pattern is consistent with background NH3 concentration measured by PICARRO NH3 analyzer, although summertime afternoon concentration increases at the site have previously been associated with upslope transport from urban and agricultural regions to the east. The results demonstrate the sensor's capability to measure NH3 flux in low NH3 conditions and also show that more measurements are needed to investigate spatial and temporal variability of NH3 flux.

  11. Ultraprecise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits with generalized directional couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, R.; Keil, R.; Gräfe, M.; Nolte, S.; Szameit, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present an innovative approach for ultra-precise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits. To this end, we employ generalized directional couplers that utilize a detuning of the propagation constant in optical waveguides by the overlap of adjacent waveguide modes. We demonstrate our findings in experiments with classical as well as quantum light.

  12. Direct measurement of general quantum states using strong measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Song, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The direct state measurement (DSM) based on the weak measurement has the advantage of simplicity, versatility, and directness. However, the weak measurement will introduce an unavoidable error in the reconstructed quantum state. We modify the DSM by replacing the weak coupling between the system and the pointer by a strong one, and present two procedures for measuring quantum states, one of which can give the wave function or the density matrix directly. We can also measure the Dirac distribution of a discrete system directly. Furthermore, we propose quantum circuits for realizing these procedures, and the main body of the circuits consists of Toffoli gates. By numerical simulation, we find that our scheme can eliminate the biased error effectively.

  13. Implementation of optimal phase-covariant cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2007-07-15

    The optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (PQCM) broadcasts the information associated to an input qubit into a multiqubit system, exploiting a partial a priori knowledge of the input state. This additional a priori information leads to a higher fidelity than for the universal cloning. The present article first analyzes different innovative schemes to implement the 1{yields}3 PQCM. The method is then generalized to any 1{yields}M machine for an odd value of M by a theoretical approach based on the general angular momentum formalism. Finally different experimental schemes based either on linear or nonlinear methods and valid for single photon polarization encoded qubits are discussed.

  14. General framework for quantum macroscopicity in terms of coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadin, Benjamin; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-02-01

    We propose a universal language to assess macroscopic quantumness in terms of coherence, with a set of conditions that should be satisfied by any measure of macroscopic coherence. We link the framework to the resource theory of asymmetry. We show that the quantum Fisher information gives a good measure of macroscopic coherence, enabling a rigorous justification of a previously proposed measure of macroscopicity. This picture lets us draw connections between different measures of macroscopicity and evaluate them; we show that another widely studied measure fails one of our criteria.

  15. Information, fidelity, and reversibility in general quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    We present the amount of information, fidelity, and reversibility obtained by arbitrary quantum measurements on completely unknown states. These quantities are expressed as functions of the singular values of a measurement operator corresponding to the obtained outcome. As an example, we consider a class of quantum measurements with highly degenerate singular values to discuss trade-offs among information, fidelity, and reversibility. The trade-offs are at the level of a single outcome, in the sense that the quantities pertain to each single outcome rather than the average over all possible outcomes.

  16. Generalized guidance equation for peaked quantum solitons and effective gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durt, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Bouncing oil droplets have been shown to follow de Broglie-Bohm–like trajectories and at the same time they exhibit attractive and repulsive pseudo-gravitation. We propose a model aimed at rendering account of these phenomenological observations. It inspires, in a more speculative approach, a toy model for quantum gravity.

  17. Decoherence in generalized measurement and the quantum Zeno paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Gerhard; Wallentowitz, Sascha; Toschek, Peter E.

    2014-07-01

    In the development of quantum mechanics, the evolution of a quantum system was a controversial item. The duality of unitary evolution and state reduction as proposed by John von Neumann was widely felt unsatisfactory. Among the various attempts to reconcile the two incompatible modes of dynamics, the model of decoherence has turned out rather convincing. While the debate has been going on mainly by reasoning the consequences of gedanken experiments, the technical progress has made available techniques of addressing real experiments, even on an individual quantum object. In particular, the impeded evolution of an atom under continuous or reiterated measurement, predicted long ago, has been proven. The procedure of such an experiment-as with many a more conventional one-includes sequences of alternating time intervals of preparation and detection, known as “pump-probe”, or “drive-probe” measurements. We discuss this procedure in the context of the decoherence model. The emergence of pointer states of the meter is outlined. We show compatibility of this approach with photon counting, and emphasize the importance of information transfer in the course of measurement. Qualitative conditions having been considered so far necessary and sufficient criteria for meeting the “quantum Zeno paradox” are being quantified.

  18. On the quantum discord of general X states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurischev, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Quantum discord Q is a function of density matrix elements. The domain of such a function in the case of two-qubit system with X density matrix may consist of three subdomains at most: two ones where the quantum discord is expressed in closed analytical forms ( and ) and an intermediate subdomain for which, to extract the quantum discord , it is required to solve numerically a one-dimensional minimization problem to find the optimal measurement angle . Hence, the quantum discord is given by a piecewise analytical-numerical formula . It is shown that the boundaries between the subdomains consist of bifurcation points. The subdomains are discovered in the dynamical phase flip channel model, in the anisotropic spin systems at thermal equilibrium, and in the heteronuclear dimers in an external magnetic field. We found that the transitions between subdomain and and ones occur suddenly, but continuously and smoothly, i.e., nonanalyticity is hidden and can be observed in higher order derivatives of discord function.

  19. Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. I. General considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    This article, as the first of three, aims at establishing the (time-dependent) Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the sense of space adiabatic perturbation theory, for quantum systems constructed by techniques of the loop quantum gravity framework, especially the canonical formulation of the latter. The analysis presented here fits into a rather general framework and offers a solution to the problem of applying the usual Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for molecular (or structurally analogous) systems to more general quantum systems (e.g., spin-orbit models) by means of space adiabatic perturbation theory. The proposed solution is applied to a simple, finite dimensional model of interacting spin systems, which serves as a non-trivial, minimal model of the aforesaid problem. Furthermore, it is explained how the content of this article and its companion affect the possible extraction of quantum field theory on curved spacetime from loop quantum gravity (including matter fields).

  20. Can a sub-quantum medium be provided by General Relativity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Thomas C.

    2016-03-01

    Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM) seeks to construct quantum mechanical theory and behaviour from classical underpinnings. This paper explores the possibility that the field of classical general relativity (GR) could supply a sub-quantum medium for these subquantum mechanics. Firstly, I present arguments which show that GR satisfies many of the a priori requirements for a sub-quantum medium. Secondly, some potential obstacles to using GR as the underlying field are noted, for example field strength (isn't gravity a very weak force?) and spin 2. Thirdly, the ability of dynamical exchange processes to create very strong effective fields is demonstrated through the use of a simple model, which solves many of the issues raised in the second section. I conclude that there appears to be enough evidence to pursue this direction of study further, particularly as this line of research also has the possibility to help unify quantum mechanics and general relativity.

  1. Generalized Lifshitz-Kosevich scaling at quantum criticality from the holographic correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Hofman, Diego M.

    2010-04-15

    We characterize quantum oscillations in the magnetic susceptibility of a quantum critical non-Fermi liquid. The computation is performed in a strongly interacting regime using the nonperturbative holographic correspondence. The temperature dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations is shown to depend on a critical exponent nu. For general nu the temperature scaling is distinct from the textbook Lifshitz-Kosevich formula. At the ''marginal'' value nu=(1/2), the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula is recovered despite strong interactions. As a by-product of our analysis we present a formalism for computing the amplitude of quantum oscillations for general fermionic theories very efficiently.

  2. Covariant chronogeometry and extreme distances: Elementary particles

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.; Jakobsen, H. P.; Ørsted, B.; Paneitz, S. M.; Speh, B.

    1981-01-01

    We study a variant of elementary particle theory in which Minkowski space, M0, is replaced by a natural alternative, the unique four-dimensional manifold ¯M with comparable properties of causality and symmetry. Free particles are considered to be associated (i) with positive-energy representations in bundles of prescribed spin over ¯M of the group of causality-preserving transformations on ¯M (or its mass-conserving subgroup) and (ii) with corresponding wave equations. In this study these bundles, representations, and equations are detailed, and some of their basic features are developed in the cases of spins 0 and ½. Preliminaries to a general study are included; issues of covariance, unitarity, and positivity of the energy are treated; appropriate quantum numbers are indicated; and possible physical applications are discussed. PMID:16593075

  3. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-15

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  4. Tighter quantum uncertainty relations following from a general probabilistic bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröwis, Florian; Schmied, Roman; Gisin, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty relations (URs) such as the Heisenberg-Robertson or the time-energy UR are often considered to be hallmarks of quantum theory. Here, a simple derivation of these URs is presented based on a single classical inequality from estimation theory, a Cramér-Rao-like bound. The Heisenberg-Robertson UR is then obtained by using the Born rule and the Schrödinger equation. This allows a clear separation of the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics from the Hilbert space structure and the dynamical law. It also simplifies the interpretation of the bound. In addition, the Heisenberg-Robertson UR is tightened for mixed states by replacing one variance by the quantum Fisher information. Thermal states of Hamiltonians with evenly gapped energy levels are shown to saturate the tighter bound for natural choices of the operators. This example is further extended to Gaussian states of a harmonic oscillator. For many-qubit systems, we illustrate the interplay between entanglement and the structure of the operators that saturate the UR with spin-squeezed states and Dicke states.

  5. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupuis, Frédéric; Szehr, Oleg; Fehr, Serge; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-12-01

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation.

  6. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    SciTech Connect

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupuis, Frédéric; Szehr, Oleg; Fehr, Serge; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-12-15

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation.

  7. Generalized trace-distance measure connecting quantum and classical non-Markovianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wißmann, Steffen; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Vacchini, Bassano

    2015-10-01

    We establish a direct connection of quantum Markovianity of an open system to its classical counterpart by generalizing the criterion based on the information flow. Here the flow is characterized by the time evolution of Helstrom matrices, given by the weighted difference of statistical operators, under the action of the quantum dynamical map. It turns out that the introduced criterion is equivalent to P divisibility of a quantum process, namely, divisibility in terms of positive maps, which provides a direct connection to classical Markovian stochastic processes. Moreover, it is shown that mathematical representations similar to those found for the original trace-distance-based measure hold true for the associated generalized measure for quantum non-Markovianity. That is, we prove orthogonality of optimal states showing a maximal information backflow and establish a local and universal representation of the measure. We illustrate some properties of the generalized criterion by means of examples.

  8. GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-07-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  9. Approaches to Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and

  10. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalized entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Walach, H

    2003-08-01

    Homeopathy is scientifically banned, both for lack of consistent empirical findings, but more so for lack of a sound theoretical model to explain its purported effects. This paper makes an attempt to introduce an explanatory idea based on a generalized version of quantum mechanics (QM), the weak quantum theory (WQT). WQT uses the algebraic formalism of QM proper, but drops some restrictions and definitions typical for QM. This results in a general axiomatic framework similar to QM, but more generalized and applicable to all possible systems. Most notably, WQT predicts entanglement, which in QM is known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlatedness within quantum systems. According to WQT, this entanglement is not only tied to quantum systems, but is to be expected whenever a global and a local variable describing a system are complementary. This idea is used here to reconstruct homeopathy as an exemplification of generalized entanglement as predicted by WQT. It transpires that homeopathy uses two instances of generalized entanglement: one between the remedy and the original substance (potentiation principle) and one between the individual symptoms of a patient and the general symptoms of a remedy picture (similarity principle). By bringing these two elements together, double entanglement ensues, which is reminiscent of cryptographic and teleportation applications of entanglement in QM proper. Homeopathy could be a macroscopic analogue to quantum teleportation. This model is exemplified and some predictions are derived, which make it possible to test the model. PMID:12972724

  11. Are Eddy Covariance series stationary?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral analysis via a discrete Fourier transform is used often to examine eddy covariance series for cycles (eddies) of interest. Generally the analysis is performed on hourly or half-hourly data sets collected at 10 or 20 Hz. Each original series is often assumed to be stationary. Also automated ...

  12. Shrinkage estimators for covariance matrices.

    PubMed

    Daniels, M J; Kass, R E

    2001-12-01

    Estimation of covariance matrices in small samples has been studied by many authors. Standard estimators, like the unstructured maximum likelihood estimator (ML) or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator, can be very unstable with the smallest estimated eigenvalues being too small and the largest too big. A standard approach to more stably estimating the matrix in small samples is to compute the ML or REML estimator under some simple structure that involves estimation of fewer parameters, such as compound symmetry or independence. However, these estimators will not be consistent unless the hypothesized structure is correct. If interest focuses on estimation of regression coefficients with correlated (or longitudinal) data, a sandwich estimator of the covariance matrix may be used to provide standard errors for the estimated coefficients that are robust in the sense that they remain consistent under misspecification of the covariance structure. With large matrices, however, the inefficiency of the sandwich estimator becomes worrisome. We consider here two general shrinkage approaches to estimating the covariance matrix and regression coefficients. The first involves shrinking the eigenvalues of the unstructured ML or REML estimator. The second involves shrinking an unstructured estimator toward a structured estimator. For both cases, the data determine the amount of shrinkage. These estimators are consistent and give consistent and asymptotically efficient estimates for regression coefficients. Simulations show the improved operating characteristics of the shrinkage estimators of the covariance matrix and the regression coefficients in finite samples. The final estimator chosen includes a combination of both shrinkage approaches, i.e., shrinking the eigenvalues and then shrinking toward structure. We illustrate our approach on a sleep EEG study that requires estimation of a 24 x 24 covariance matrix and for which inferences on mean parameters critically

  13. On a quantum algebraic approach to a generalized phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, D.; Hiley, B. J.

    1981-04-01

    We approach the relationship between classical and quantum theories in a new way, which allows both to be expressed in the same mathematical language, in terms of a matrix algebra in a phase space. This makes clear not only the similarities of the two theories, but also certain essential differences, and lays a foundation for understanding their relationship. We use the Wigner-Moyal transformation as a change of representation in phase space, and we avoid the problem of “negative probabilities” by regarding the solutions of our equations as constants of the motion, rather than as statistical weight factors. We show a close relationship of our work to that of Prigogine and his group. We bring in a new nonnegative probability function, and we propose extensions of the theory to cover thermodynamic processes involving entropy changes, as well as the usual reversible processes.

  14. Possible universal quantum algorithms for generalized Khovanov homology and the Rasmussen's invariant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Possible quantum algorithms for generalized Khovanov homology and the Rasmussen's invariant are proposed. Such algorithms are resulting from adaptations of the recently proposed Kauffman's algorithm for the standard Khovanov homology. The method that was applied consists in to write the relevant quantum invariant as the trace of a certain unitary operator and then to compute the trace using the Hadamard test. We apply such method to the quantum computation of the Jones polynomial, HOMFLY polynomial, Chromatic polynomial, Tutte polynomial and Bollobàs- Riordan polynomial. These polynomials are quantum topological invariants for knots, links, graphs and ribbon graphs respectively. The Jones polynomial is categorified by the standard Khovanov homology and the others polynomials are categorified by generalized Khovanov homologies, such as the Khovanov-Rozansky homology and the graph homologies. The algorithm for the Rasmussen's invariant is obtained using the gauge theory; and the recently introduced program of homotopyfication is linked with the super-symmetric quantum mechanics. It is claimed that a new program of analytification could be development from the homotopyfication using the celebrated Atiyah-Singer theorem and its super-symmetric interpretations. It is hoped that the super-symmetric quantum mechanics provides the hardware for the implementation of the proposed quantum algorithms.

  15. Outline of a Generalization and a Reinterpretation of Quantum Mechanics Recovering Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garola, Claudio; Sozzo, Sandro; Wu, Junde

    2016-05-01

    The ESR model has been recently proposed in several papers to offer a possible solution to the problems raising from the nonobjectivity of physical properties in quantum mechanics (QM) (mainly the objectification problem of the quantum theory of measurement). This solution is obtained by embodying the mathematical formalism of QM into a broader mathematical framework and reinterpreting quantum probabilities as conditional on detection rather than absolute. We provide a new and more general formulation of the ESR model and discuss time evolution according to it, pointing out in particular that both linear and nonlinear evolution may occur, depending on the physical environment.

  16. Quantum Fields Obtained from Convoluted Generalized White Noise Never Have Positive Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Gottschalk, Hanno

    2016-05-01

    It is proven that the relativistic quantum fields obtained from analytic continuation of convoluted generalized (Lévy type) noise fields have positive metric, if and only if the noise is Gaussian. This follows as an easy observation from a criterion by Baumann, based on the Dell'Antonio-Robinson-Greenberg theorem, for a relativistic quantum field in positive metric to be a free field.

  17. Quantum Anomalies for Generalized Euclidean Taub-Newman Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai; Visinescu, Anca

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the gravitational and axial anomalies with regard to quadratic constants of motion for the Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino (Taub-NUT) space and its generalizations as was done by Iwai and Katayama. The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the standard Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Stäckel-Killing tensors as products. For the axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the role of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. We compute the index of the Dirac operator for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics with the APS boundary conditions and find these metrics do not contribute to the axial anomaly for not too large deformations of the standard Taub-NUT metric.

  18. General form of genuine multipartite entanglement quantum channels for teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Zhu Shiyao; Guo, Guangcan

    2006-09-15

    Recently Yeo and Chua [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)] presented an explicit protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entanglement channel. Here we generalize completely their results to teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit state via genuine N-qubit entanglement channels. And we present the general form of the genuine multipartite entanglement channels, namely, the sufficient and necessary condition the genuine N-qubit entanglement channels must satisfy to teleport an arbitrary N-qubit state.

  19. Generalized Kac lemma for recurrence time in iterated open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkovicz, P.; Kiss, T.; Asbóth, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    We consider recurrence to the initial state after repeated actions of a quantum channel. After each iteration a projective measurement is applied to check recurrence. The corresponding return time is known to be an integer for the special case of unital channels, including unitary channels. We prove that for a more general class of quantum channels the expected return time can be given as the inverse of the weight of the initial state in the steady state. This statement is a generalization of the Kac lemma for classical Markov chains.

  20. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  1. Generalized reduction criterion for separability of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Chen, Kai; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2003-12-01

    A necessary separability criterion that relates the structures of the total density matrix and its reductions is given. The method used is based on the realignment method [K. Chen and L. A. Wu, Quant. Inf. Comput. 3, 193 (2003)]. The separability criterion naturally generalizes the reduction separability criterion introduced independently in the previous work [M. Horodecki and P. Horodecki, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4206 (1999) and N. J. Cerf, C. Adami, and R. M. Gingrich, Phys. Rev. A 60, 898 (1999)]. In special cases, it recovers the previous reduction criterion and the recent generalized partial transposition criterion [K. Chen and L. A. Wu, Phys. Lett. A 306, 14 (2002)]. The criterion involves only simple matrix manipulations and can therefore be easily applied.

  2. Auto covariance computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, T. E.; Meyers, J. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A laser velocimeter covariance processor which calculates the auto covariance and cross covariance functions for a turbulent flow field based on Poisson sampled measurements in time from a laser velocimeter is described. The device will process a block of data that is up to 4096 data points in length and return a 512 point covariance function with 48-bit resolution along with a 512 point histogram of the interarrival times which is used to normalize the covariance function. The device is designed to interface and be controlled by a minicomputer from which the data is received and the results returned. A typical 4096 point computation takes approximately 1.5 seconds to receive the data, compute the covariance function, and return the results to the computer.

  3. Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Renes, Joseph M.; Grassl, Markus

    2006-08-15

    Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an 'effective' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

  4. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-07-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized ‘filter function’. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate.

  5. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized ‘filter function’. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate. PMID:27405268

  6. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized 'filter function'. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate. PMID:27405268

  7. A Covariance NMR Toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David

    2011-03-01

    The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE.

  8. A covariance NMR toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE.

    PubMed

    Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David

    2011-03-01

    The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE. PMID:21215669

  9. Economical phase-covariant cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Buscemi, Francesco; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2005-04-01

    We derive the optimal N{yields}M phase-covariant quantum cloning for equatorial states in dimension d with M=kd+N, k integer. The cloning maps are optimal for both global and single-qudit fidelity. The map is achieved by an 'economical' cloning machine, which works without ancilla.

  10. Quantum interferometric visibility as a witness of general relativistic proper time.

    PubMed

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Pikovski, Igor; Brukner, Časlav

    2011-01-01

    Current attempts to probe general relativistic effects in quantum mechanics focus on precision measurements of phase shifts in matter-wave interferometry. Yet, phase shifts can always be explained as arising because of an Aharonov-Bohm effect, where a particle in a flat space-time is subject to an effective potential. Here we propose a quantum effect that cannot be explained without the general relativistic notion of proper time. We consider interference of a 'clock'-a particle with evolving internal degrees of freedom-that will not only display a phase shift, but also reduce the visibility of the interference pattern. According to general relativity, proper time flows at different rates in different regions of space-time. Therefore, because of quantum complementarity, the visibility will drop to the extent to which the path information becomes available from reading out the proper time from the 'clock'. Such a gravitationally induced decoherence would provide the first test of the genuine general relativistic notion of proper time in quantum mechanics. PMID:22009037

  11. Quantum-field-theoretical approach to phase-space techniques: Generalizing the positive-P representation

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.

  12. Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes

    SciTech Connect

    Houshmand, Monireh; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied

    2011-02-15

    Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.

  13. GENERAL A Hierarchy of Compatibility and Comeasurability Levels in Quantum Logics with Unique Conditional Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerd, Niestegge

    2010-12-01

    In the quantum mechanical Hilbert space formalism, the probabilistic interpretation is a later ad-hoc add-on, more or less enforced by the experimental evidence, but not motivated by the mathematical model itself. A model involving a clear probabilistic interpretation from the very beginning is provided by the quantum logics with unique conditional probabilities. It includes the projection lattices in von Neumann algebras and here probability conditionalization becomes identical with the state transition of the Lüders-von Neumann measurement process. This motivates the definition of a hierarchy of five compatibility and comeasurability levels in the abstract setting of the quantum logics with unique conditional probabilities. Their meanings are: the absence of quantum interference or influence, the existence of a joint distribution, simultaneous measurability, and the independence of the final state after two successive measurements from the sequential order of these two measurements. A further level means that two elements of the quantum logic (events) belong to the same Boolean subalgebra. In the general case, the five compatibility and comeasurability levels appear to differ, but they all coincide in the common Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics, in von Neumann algebras, and in some other cases.

  14. Generalized Lagrangian-Path Representation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper a new trajectory-based representation to non-relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated. This is ahieved by generalizing the notion of Lagrangian path (LP) which lies at the heart of the deBroglie-Bohm " pilot-wave" interpretation. In particular, it is shown that each LP can be replaced with a statistical ensemble formed by an infinite family of stochastic curves, referred to as generalized Lagrangian paths (GLP). This permits the introduction of a new parametric representation of the Schrödinger equation, denoted as GLP-parametrization, and of the associated quantum hydrodynamic equations. The remarkable aspect of the GLP approach presented here is that it realizes at the same time also a new solution method for the N-body Schrödinger equation. As an application, Gaussian-like particular solutions for the quantum probability density function (PDF) are considered, which are proved to be dynamically consistent. For them, the Schrödinger equation is reduced to a single Hamilton-Jacobi evolution equation. Particular solutions of this type are explicitly constructed, which include the case of free particles occurring in 1- or N-body quantum systems as well as the dynamics in the presence of suitable potential forces. In all these cases the initial Gaussian PDFs are shown to be free of the spreading behavior usually ascribed to quantum wave-packets, in that they exhibit the characteristic feature of remaining at all times spatially-localized.

  15. Generalized Lagrangian-Path Representation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a new trajectory-based representation to non-relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated. This is ahieved by generalizing the notion of Lagrangian path (LP) which lies at the heart of the deBroglie-Bohm " pilot-wave" interpretation. In particular, it is shown that each LP can be replaced with a statistical ensemble formed by an infinite family of stochastic curves, referred to as generalized Lagrangian paths (GLP). This permits the introduction of a new parametric representation of the Schrödinger equation, denoted as GLP-parametrization, and of the associated quantum hydrodynamic equations. The remarkable aspect of the GLP approach presented here is that it realizes at the same time also a new solution method for the N-body Schrödinger equation. As an application, Gaussian-like particular solutions for the quantum probability density function (PDF) are considered, which are proved to be dynamically consistent. For them, the Schrödinger equation is reduced to a single Hamilton-Jacobi evolution equation. Particular solutions of this type are explicitly constructed, which include the case of free particles occurring in 1- or N-body quantum systems as well as the dynamics in the presence of suitable potential forces. In all these cases the initial Gaussian PDFs are shown to be free of the spreading behavior usually ascribed to quantum wave-packets, in that they exhibit the characteristic feature of remaining at all times spatially-localized.

  16. Effect modification by time-varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Robins, James M; Hernán, Miguel A; Rotnitzky, Andrea

    2007-11-01

    Marginal structural models (MSMs) allow estimation of effect modification by baseline covariates, but they are less useful for estimating effect modification by evolving time-varying covariates. Rather, structural nested models (SNMs) were specifically designed to estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. In their paper, Petersen et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:985-993) describe history-adjusted MSMs as a generalized form of MSM and argue that history-adjusted MSMs allow a researcher to easily estimate effect modification by time-varying covariates. However, history-adjusted MSMs can result in logically incompatible parameter estimates and hence in contradictory substantive conclusions. Here the authors propose a more restrictive definition of history-adjusted MSMs than the one provided by Petersen et al. and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using history-adjusted MSMs, as opposed to SNMs, to examine effect modification by time-dependent covariates. PMID:17875581

  17. Minimal unitary (covariant) scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.V.; Markevich, A.

    1983-06-01

    In the minimal three particle equations developed by Lindesay the two body input amplitude was an on shell relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic scattering model characterized by a single mass parameter ..mu.. which in the two body (m + m) system looks like an s-channel bound state (..mu.. < 2m) or virtual state (..mu.. > 2m). Using this driving term in covariant Faddeev equations generates a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics. However, the simplest way of writing the relativisitic generalization of the Faddeev equations can take the on shell Mandelstam parameter s = 4(q/sup 2/ + m/sup 2/), in terms of which the two particle input is expressed, to negative values in the range of integration required by the dynamics. This problem was met in the original treatment by multiplying the two particle input amplitude by THETA(s). This paper provides what we hope to be a more direct way of meeting the problem.

  18. Galilean covariant harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single particle is described. Within the proposed formalism, all non-covariant force laws defining acting forces which become to be defined covariantly by some differential equations are rejected. Such an approach leads out of the standard classical mechanics and gives an example of non-Newtonian mechanics. It is shown that the exactly solvable linear system of differential equations defining forces contains the Galilean covariant description of harmonic oscillator as its particular case. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in Galilean covariant classical mechanics the validity of the second Newton law of dynamics implies the Hooke law and vice versa. It is shown that the kinetic and total energies transform differently with respect to the Galilean transformations.

  19. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  20. A Quantum-Like View to a Generalized Two Players Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.

    2015-10-01

    This paper consider the possibility of using some quantum tools in decision making strategies. In particular, we consider here a dynamical open quantum system helping two players, and , to take their decisions in a specific context. We see that, within our approach, the final choices of the players do not depend in general on their initial mental states, but they are driven essentially by the environment which interacts with them. The model proposed here also considers interactions of different nature between the two players, and it is simple enough to allow for an analytical solution of the equations of motion.

  1. The generalized ambiguity function: a bridgework between classical and quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, John E.; Parks, Allen D.

    2016-05-01

    We provide a common framework for the measurement problem for radar, sonar, and quantum mechanics by casting them in the common language of quantum mechanics as a Rigged Hilbert Space. This language reveals a more detailed understanding of the underlying interactions of a return signal that are not usually brought out by standard signal processing design techniques. It also provides a means to "post-select" the return signal so the receiver design for radars can be optimized for either a single or multiple operators. Thus, detector design can be optimized for signal interaction with objects, so the algorithm provides a solution to receiver design for general types of interactions.

  2. A general quantitative pH sensor developed with dicyandiamide N-doped high quantum yield graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhu Lian; Gao, Ming Xuan; Wang, Ting Ting; Wan, Xiao Yan; Zheng, Lin Ling; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-03-01

    A general quantitative pH sensor for environmental and intracellular applications was developed by the facile hydrothermal preparation of dicyandiamide (DCD) N-doped high quantum yield (QY) graphene quantum dots (GQDs) using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source. The obtained N-doped GQDs have excellent photoluminesence (PL) properties with a relatively high QY of 36.5%, suggesting that N-doped chemistry could promote the QY of carbon nanomaterials. The possible mechanism for the formation of the GQDs involves the CA self-assembling into a nanosheet structure through intermolecular H-bonding at the initial stage of the reaction, and then the pure graphene core with many function groups formed through the dehydration between the carboxyl and hydroxyl of the intermolecules under hydrothermal conditions. These N-doped GQDs have low toxicity, and are photostable and pH-sensitive between 1.81 to 8.96, giving a general pH sensor with a wide range of applications from real water to intracellular contents.A general quantitative pH sensor for environmental and intracellular applications was developed by the facile hydrothermal preparation of dicyandiamide (DCD) N-doped high quantum yield (QY) graphene quantum dots (GQDs) using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source. The obtained N-doped GQDs have excellent photoluminesence (PL) properties with a relatively high QY of 36.5%, suggesting that N-doped chemistry could promote the QY of carbon nanomaterials. The possible mechanism for the formation of the GQDs involves the CA self-assembling into a nanosheet structure through intermolecular H-bonding at the initial stage of the reaction, and then the pure graphene core with many function groups formed through the dehydration between the carboxyl and hydroxyl of the intermolecules under hydrothermal conditions. These N-doped GQDs have low toxicity, and are photostable and pH-sensitive between 1.81 to 8.96, giving a general pH sensor with a wide range of applications from real water

  3. Relating different quantum generalizations of the conditional Rényi entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Hayashi, Masahito

    2014-08-15

    Recently a new quantum generalization of the Rényi divergence and the corresponding conditional Rényi entropies was proposed. Here, we report on a surprising relation between conditional Rényi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Rényi entropies based on the quantum relative Rényi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Rényi entropies of two different kinds. As a direct application, we prove a collection of inequalities that relate different conditional Rényi entropies and derive a new entropic uncertainty relation.

  4. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  5. Security proof of counterfactual quantum cryptography against general intercept-resend attacks and its vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2012-06-01

    Counterfactual quantum cryptography, recently proposed by Noh, is featured with no transmission of signal particles. This exhibits evident security advantages, such as its immunity to the well-known photon-number-splitting attack. In this paper, the theoretical security of counterfactual quantum cryptography protocol against the general intercept-resend attacks is proved by bounding the information of an eavesdropper Eve more tightly than in Yin's proposal [Phys. Rev. A 82 042335 (2010)]. It is also shown that practical counterfactual quantum cryptography implementations may be vulnerable when equipped with imperfect apparatuses, by proving that a negative key rate can be achieved when Eve launches a time-shift attack based on imperfect detector efficiency.

  6. Time-delay of classical and quantum scattering processes: a conceptual overview and a general definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano

    2012-04-01

    We present a step by step introduction to the notion of time-delay in classical and quantum mechanics, with the aim of clarifying its foundation at a conceptual level. In doing so, we motivate the introduction of the concepts of "fuzzy" and "free-flight" sojourn times that we use to provide the most general possible definition for the quantum time-delay, valid for simple and multichannel scattering systems, with or without conditions on the observation of the scattering particle, and for incoming wave packets whose energy can be smeared out or sharply peaked (fixed energy). We conclude our conceptual analysis by presenting what we think is the right interpretation of the concepts of sojourn and delay times in quantum mechanics, explaining why, in ultimate analysis, they should not be called "times."

  7. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, L.

    1993-06-01

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations are shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.

  8. Quantum Harmonic Brownian Motion in a General Environment: a Modified Phase-Space Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Leehwa

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, I propose an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations are shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented. With the help of this theorem, the mechanism of this model is examined and the

  9. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, L. |

    1993-06-23

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.

  10. Certifying quantumness: Benchmarks for the optimal processing of generalized coherent and squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.

  11. A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Lorenza

    2015-03-01

    Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.

  12. Exact analytical solutions to the master equation of quantum Brownian motion for a general environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, C.H.; Roura, Albert; Hu, B.L.

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > We study the model of a quantum oscillator linearly coupled to a bath of oscillators. > We derive the master equation and solutions for general spectra and temperatures. > We generalize to cases with an external force and arbitrary number of oscillators. > Other derivations have incorrect diffusion and force response for nonlocal damping. > We give exact results for ohmic, sub-ohmic and supra-ohmic environments. - Abstract: We revisit the model of a quantum Brownian oscillator linearly coupled to an environment of quantum oscillators at finite temperature. By introducing a compact and particularly well-suited formulation, we give a rather quick and direct derivation of the master equation and its solutions for general spectral functions and arbitrary temperatures. The flexibility of our approach allows for an immediate generalization to cases with an external force and with an arbitrary number of Brownian oscillators. More importantly, we point out an important mathematical subtlety concerning boundary-value problems for integro-differential equations which led to incorrect master equation coefficients and impacts on the description of nonlocal dissipation effects in all earlier derivations. Furthermore, we provide explicit, exact analytical results for the master equation coefficients and its solutions in a wide variety of cases, including ohmic, sub-ohmic and supra-ohmic environments with a finite cut-off.

  13. Construction of Covariance Functions with Variable Length Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspari, Gregory; Cohn, Stephen E.; Guo, Jing; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on construction, directly in physical space, of three-dimensional covariance functions parametrized by a tunable length field, and on an application of this theory to reproduce the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 4 (GEOS-4) data assimilation system. These Covariance models are referred to as multi-level or nonseparable, to associate them with the application where a multi-level covariance with a large troposphere to stratosphere length field gradient is used to reproduce the QBO from sparse radiosonde observations in the tropical lower stratosphere. The multi-level covariance functions extend well-known single level covariance functions depending only on a length scale. Generalizations of the first- and third-order autoregressive covariances in three dimensions are given, providing multi-level covariances with zero and three derivatives at zero separation, respectively. Multi-level piecewise rational covariances with two continuous derivatives at zero separation are also provided. Multi-level powerlaw covariances are constructed with continuous derivatives of all orders. Additional multi-level covariance functions are constructed using the Schur product of single and multi-level covariance functions. A multi-level powerlaw covariance used to reproduce the QBO in GEOS-4 is described along with details of the assimilation experiments. The new covariance model is shown to represent the vertical wind shear associated with the QBO much more effectively than in the baseline GEOS-4 system.

  14. Covariant mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article, we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case, their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in dimension 2r covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.

  15. Generalized Galilean transformations and the measurement problem in the entropic dynamics approach to quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David T.

    Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful and accurate physical theory, yet since its inception, it has been afflicted with numerous conceptual difficulties. The primary subject of this thesis is the theory of entropic quantum dynamics (EQD), which seeks to avoid these conceptual problems by interpreting quantum theory from an informational perspective. We begin by reviewing Cox's work in describing probability theory as a means of rationally and consistently quantifying uncertainties. We then discuss how probabilities can be updated according to either Bayes' theorem or the extended method of maximum entropy (ME). After that discussion, we review the work of Caticha and Giffin that shows that Bayes' theorem is a special case of ME. This important result demonstrates that the ME method is the general method for updating probabilities. We then review some motivating difficulties in quantum mechanics before discussing Caticha's work in deriving quantum theory from the approach of entropic dynamics, which concludes our review. After entropic dynamics is introduced, we develop the concepts of symmetries and transformations from an informational perspective. The primary result is the formulation of a symmetry condition that any transformation must satisfy in order to qualify as a symmetry in EQD. We then proceed to apply this condition to the extended Galilean transformation. This transformation is of interest as it exhibits features of both special and general relativity. The transformation yields a gravitational potential that arises from an equivalence of information. We conclude the thesis with a discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We discuss the difficulties that arise in the standard quantum mechanical approach to measurement before developing our theory of entropic measurement. In entropic dynamics, position is the only observable. We show how a theory built on this one observable can account for the multitude of measurements present in

  16. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  17. Flux Partitioning by Isotopic Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, R.; Munger, J. W.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 is routinely measured by eddy covariance at sites around the world, but studies of ecosystem processes are more interested in the gross photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes that comprise the net flux. The standard method of partitioning the net flux into these components has been to extrapolate nighttime respiration into daytime based on a relationship between nighttime respiration, temperature, and sometimes moisture. However, such relationships generally account for only a small portion of the variation in nighttime respiration, and the assumption that they can predict respiration throughout the day is dubious. A promising alternate method, known as isotopic flux partitioning, works by identifying the stable isotopic signatures of photosynthesis and respiration in the CO2 flux. We have used this method to partition the net flux at Harvard Forest, MA, based on eddy covariance measurements of the net 12CO2 and 13CO2 fluxes (as well as measurements of the sensible and latent heat fluxes and other meteorological variables). The CO2 isotopologues were measured at 4 Hz by an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser spectrometer with a δ13C precision of 0.4 % in 0.25 sec and 0.02 % in 100 sec. In the absence of such high-frequency, high-precision isotopic measurements, past attempts at isotopic flux partitioning have combined isotopic flask measurements with high-frequency (total) CO2 measurements to estimate the isoflux (the EC/flask approach). Others have used a conditional flask sampling approach called hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA). We 'sampled' our data according to each of these approaches, for comparison, and found disagreement in the calculated fluxes of ~10% for the EC/flask approach, and ~30% for HREA, at midday. To our knowledge, this is the first example of flux partitioning by isotopic eddy covariance. Wider use of this method, enabled by a new generation of laser spectrometers, promises to open a new window

  18. Heavy pair production currents with general quantum numbers in dimensionally regularized nonrelativistic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    We discuss the form and construction of general color singlet heavy particle-antiparticle pair production currents for arbitrary quantum numbers, and issues related to evanescent spin operators and scheme dependences in nonrelativistic QCD in n=3-2{epsilon} dimensions. The anomalous dimensions of the leading interpolating currents for heavy quark and colored scalar pairs in arbitrary {sup 2S+1}L{sub J} angular-spin states are determined at next-to-leading order in the nonrelativistic power counting.

  19. The generalized partial transposition criterion for separability of multipartite quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Wu, Ling-An

    2002-12-01

    We present a generalized partial transposition separability criterion for the density matrix of a multipartite quantum system. This criterion comprises as special cases the famous Peres-Horodecki criterion and the recent realignment criterion in [O. Rudolph, quant-ph/0202121] and [K. Chen, L.A. Wu, quant-ph/0205017]. It involves only straightforward matrix manipulations and is easy to apply. A quantitative measure of entanglement based on this criterion is also obtained.

  20. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053

  1. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.

  2. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053

  3. The covariate-adjusted frequency plot.

    PubMed

    Holling, Heinz; Böhning, Walailuck; Böhning, Dankmar; Formann, Anton K

    2016-04-01

    Count data arise in numerous fields of interest. Analysis of these data frequently require distributional assumptions. Although the graphical display of a fitted model is straightforward in the univariate scenario, this becomes more complex if covariate information needs to be included into the model. Stratification is one way to proceed, but has its limitations if the covariate has many levels or the number of covariates is large. The article suggests a marginal method which works even in the case that all possible covariate combinations are different (i.e. no covariate combination occurs more than once). For each covariate combination the fitted model value is computed and then summed over the entire data set. The technique is quite general and works with all count distributional models as well as with all forms of covariate modelling. The article provides illustrations of the method for various situations and also shows that the proposed estimator as well as the empirical count frequency are consistent with respect to the same parameter. PMID:23376964

  4. General quantum two-player games, their gate operators, and Nash equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Two-player N-strategy games quantized according to the Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens scheme [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3077 (1999)] are considered. Group-theoretical methods are applied to the problem of finding a general form of gate operators (entanglers) under the assumption that the set of classical pure strategies is contained in the set of pure quantum ones. The role of the stability group of the initial state of the game is stressed. As an example, it is shown that maximally entangled games do not admit nontrivial pure Nash strategies. The general arguments are supported by explicit computations performed in the three-strategy case.

  5. Application of generalized operator representation in the time evolution of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Liu, Xiangyuan; Song, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically explored the application of generalized operator representation including P-, W-, and Husimi representation in the time evolution of quantum systems. In particular, by using the method of differentiation within an ordered product of operators, we give the normally and antinormally ordered forms of the integral kernels of Husimi operator representations and its corresponding formulations. By making use of the generalized operator representation, we transform exponentially complex operator equations into tractable phase-space equations. As a simple application, the time evolution equation of Husimi function in the amplitude dissipative channel is clearly obtained.

  6. Non-locality in quantum field theory due to general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Croon, Djuna; Fritz, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    We show that general relativity coupled to a quantum field theory generically leads to non-local effects in the matter sector. These non-local effects can be described by non-local higher dimensional operators which remarkably have an approximate shift symmetry. When applied to inflationary models, our results imply that small non-Gaussianities are a generic feature of models based on general relativity coupled to matter fields. However, these effects are too small to be observable in the cosmic microwave background.

  7. Covariant jump conditions in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itin, Yakov

    2012-02-01

    A generally covariant four-dimensional representation of Maxwell's electrodynamics in a generic material medium can be achieved straightforwardly in the metric-free formulation of electromagnetism. In this setup, the electromagnetic phenomena are described by two tensor fields, which satisfy Maxwell's equations. A generic tensorial constitutive relation between these fields is an independent ingredient of the theory. By use of different constitutive relations (local and non-local, linear and non-linear, etc.), a wide area of applications can be covered. In the current paper, we present the jump conditions for the fields and for the energy-momentum tensor on an arbitrarily moving surface between two media. From the differential and integral Maxwell equations, we derive the covariant boundary conditions, which are independent of any metric and connection. These conditions include the covariantly defined surface current and are applicable to an arbitrarily moving smooth curved boundary surface. As an application of the presented jump formulas, we derive a Lorentzian type metric as a condition for existence of the wave front in isotropic media. This result holds for ordinary materials as well as for metamaterials with negative material constants.

  8. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement. PMID:26577473

  9. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication

    PubMed Central

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N − 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN−1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N − 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N − 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement. PMID:26577473

  10. General response formula and application to topological insulator in quantum open system.

    PubMed

    Shen, H Z; Qin, M; Shao, X Q; Yi, X X

    2015-11-01

    It is well-known that the quantum linear response theory is based on the first-order perturbation theory for a system in thermal equilibrium. Hence, this theory breaks down when the system is in a steady state far from thermal equilibrium and the response up to higher order in perturbation is not negligible. In this paper, we develop a nonlinear response theory for such quantum open system. We first formulate this theory in terms of general susceptibility, after which we apply it to the derivation of Hall conductance for open system at finite temperature. As an example, the Hall conductance of the two-band model is derived. Then we calculate the Hall conductance for a two-dimensional ferromagnetic electron gas and a two-dimensional lattice model. The calculations show that the transition points of topological phase are robust against the environment. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of the nonlinear response in quantum open system, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and statistical physics. PMID:26651662

  11. A quantum generalization of intrinsic reaction coordinate using path integral centroid coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, Motoyuki; Fujisaki, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    We propose a generalization of the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for quantum many-body systems described in terms of the mass-weighted ring polymer centroids in the imaginary-time path integral theory. This novel kind of reaction coordinate, which may be called the "centroid IRC," corresponds to the minimum free energy path connecting reactant and product states with a least amount of reversible work applied to the center of masses of the quantum nuclei, i.e., the centroids. We provide a numerical procedure to obtain the centroid IRC based on first principles by combining ab initio path integral simulation with the string method. This approach is applied to NH3 molecule and N2H_5^- ion as well as their deuterated isotopomers to study the importance of nuclear quantum effects in the intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. We find that, in the intramolecular proton transfer (inversion) of NH3, the free energy barrier for the centroid variables decreases with an amount of about 20% compared to the classical one at the room temperature. In the intermolecular proton transfer of N2H_5^-, the centroid IRC is largely deviated from the "classical" IRC, and the free energy barrier is reduced by the quantum effects even more drastically.

  12. A quantum generalization of intrinsic reaction coordinate using path integral centroid coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Shiga, Motoyuki; Fujisaki, Hiroshi

    2012-05-14

    We propose a generalization of the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for quantum many-body systems described in terms of the mass-weighted ring polymer centroids in the imaginary-time path integral theory. This novel kind of reaction coordinate, which may be called the ''centroid IRC,'' corresponds to the minimum free energy path connecting reactant and product states with a least amount of reversible work applied to the center of masses of the quantum nuclei, i.e., the centroids. We provide a numerical procedure to obtain the centroid IRC based on first principles by combining ab initio path integral simulation with the string method. This approach is applied to NH{sub 3} molecule and N{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup -} ion as well as their deuterated isotopomers to study the importance of nuclear quantum effects in the intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. We find that, in the intramolecular proton transfer (inversion) of NH{sub 3}, the free energy barrier for the centroid variables decreases with an amount of about 20% compared to the classical one at the room temperature. In the intermolecular proton transfer of N{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup -}, the centroid IRC is largely deviated from the ''classical'' IRC, and the free energy barrier is reduced by the quantum effects even more drastically.

  13. Covariant Electrodynamics in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1990-05-01

    The generalized Galilei covariant Maxwell equations and their EM field transformations are applied to the vacuum electrodynamics of a charged particle moving with an arbitrary velocity v in an inertial frame with EM carrier (ether) of velocity w. In accordance with the Galilean relativity principle, all velocities have absolute meaning (relative to the ether frame with isotropic light propagation), and the relative velocity of two bodies is defined by the linear relation uG = v1 - v2. It is shown that the electric equipotential surfaces of a charged particle are compressed in the direction parallel to its relative velocity v - w (mechanism for physical length contraction of bodies). The magnetic field H(r, t) excited in the ether by a charge e moving uniformly with velocity v is related to its electric field E(r, t) by the equation H=ɛ0(v - w)xE/[ 1 +w • (t>- w)/c20], which shows that (i) a magnetic field is excited only if the charge moves relative to the ether, and (ii) the magnetic field is weak if v - w is not comparable to the velocity of light c0 . It is remarkable that a charged particle can excite EM shock waves in the ether if |i> - w > c0. This condition is realizable for anti-parallel charge and ether velocities if |v-w| > c0- | w|, i.e., even if |v| is subluminal. The possibility of this Cerenkov effect in the ether is discussed for terrestrial and galactic situations

  14. Covariance mapping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  15. Low-dimensional Representation of Error Covariance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo; Marchesin, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to prediction and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-state analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional representation. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-state analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady state. The first example uses the dynamics of a generalized advection equation exhibiting nonmodal transient growth. Failure to observe growing modes leads to increased steady-state analysis error variances. Leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix are well approximated by leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix. The second example uses the dynamics of a damped baroclinic wave model. The leading eigenvectors of a lowest-order approximation of the bound matrix are shown to approximate well the leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix.

  16. A 3+1 formalism for quantum electrodynamical corrections to Maxwell equations in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, J.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetized neutron stars constitute a special class of compact objects harbouring gravitational fields that deviate strongly from the Newtonian weak field limit. Moreover, strong electromagnetic fields anchored into the star give rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). Electromagnetic fields close to or above the critical value of BQ = 4.4 × 109 T are probably present in some pulsars and for most of the magnetars. To account properly for emission emanating from the neutron star surface like for instance thermal radiation and its polarization properties, it is important to include general relativistic (GR) effects simultaneously with non-linear electrodynamics. This can be achieved through a 3+1 formalism known in general relativity and that incorporates QED perturbations to Maxwell equations. Starting from the lowest order corrections to the Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, as given for instance by Born-Infeld or Euler-Heisenberg theory, we derive the non-linear Maxwell equations in general relativity including quantum vacuum effects. We also derive a prescription for the force-free limit and show that these equations can be solved with classical finite volume methods for hyperbolic conservation laws. It is therefore straightforward to include general relativity and QED in the description of neutron star magnetospheres by using standard classical numerical techniques borrowed from Maxwell and Newton theory. As an application, we show that spin-down luminosity corrections associated with QED effects are negligible with respect to GR corrections.

  17. Probe light-shift elimination in generalized hyper-Ramsey quantum clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanon-Willette, T.; de Clercq, E.; Arimondo, E.

    2016-04-01

    We present an interrogation scheme for the next generation of quantum clocks to suppress frequency shifts induced by laser probing fields that are themselves based on generalized hyper-Ramsey resonances. Sequences of composite laser pulses with a specific selection of phases, frequency detunings, and durations are combined to generate a very efficient and robust frequency locking signal with an almost perfect elimination of the light shift from off-resonant states and to decouple the unperturbed frequency measurement from the laser's intensity. The frequency lock point generated from synthesized error signals using either π /4 or 3 π /4 laser phase steps during the intermediate pulse is tightly protected against large laser-pulse area variations and errors in potentially applied frequency shift compensations. Quantum clocks based on weakly allowed or completely forbidden optical transitions in atoms, ions, molecules, and nuclei will benefit from these hyperstable laser frequency stabilization schemes to reach relative accuracies below the 10-18 level.

  18. Generalized microcanonical and Gibbs ensembles in classical and quantum integrable dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzbashyan, Emil A.

    2016-04-01

    We prove two statements about the long time dynamics of integrable Hamiltonian systems. In classical mechanics, we prove the microcanonical version of the Generalized Gibbs Ensemble (GGE) by mapping it to a known theorem and then extend it to the limit of infinite number of degrees of freedom. In quantum mechanics, we prove GGE for maximal Hamiltonians-a class of models stemming from a rigorous notion of quantum integrability understood as the existence of conserved charges with prescribed dependence on a system parameter, e.g. Hubbard U, anisotropy in the XXZ model etc. In analogy with classical integrability, the defining property of these models is that they have the maximum number of independent integrals. We contrast their dynamics induced by quenching the parameter to that of random matrix Hamiltonians.

  19. The covariant chiral ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan

    2016-03-01

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N = (4 , 4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T 4, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  20. Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.

  1. Quantum groups: Geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.S.

    1996-05-13

    The main theme of this thesis is a study of the geometry of quantum groups and quantum spaces, with the hope that they will be useful for the construction of quantum field theory with quantum group symmetry. The main tool used is the Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan description of quantum groups. A few content-rich examples of quantum complex spaces with quantum group symmetry are treated in details. In chapter 1, the author reviews some of the basic concepts and notions for Hopf algebras and other background materials. In chapter 2, he studies the vector fields of quantum groups. A compact realization of these vector fields as pseudodifferential operators acting on the linear quantum spaces is given. In chapter 3, he describes the quantum sphere as a complex quantum manifold by means of a quantum stereographic projection. A covariant calculus is introduced. An interesting property of this calculus is the existence of a one-form realization of the exterior differential operator. The concept of a braided comodule is introduced and a braided algebra of quantum spheres is constructed. In chapter 4, the author considers the more general higher dimensional quantum complex projective spaces and the quantum Grassman manifolds. Differential calculus, integration and braiding can be introduced as in the one dimensional case. Finally, in chapter 5, he studies the framework of quantum principal bundle and construct the q-deformed Dirac monopole as a quantum principal bundle with a quantum sphere as the base and a U(1) with non-commutative calculus as the fiber. The first Chern class can be introduced and integrated to give the monopole charge.

  2. Implementing general quantum measurements on linear optical and solid-state qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We show a systematic construction for implementing general measurements on a single qubit, including both strong (or projection) and weak measurements. We mainly focus on linear optical qubits. The present approach is composed of simple and feasible elements, i.e., beam splitters, wave plates, and polarizing beam splitters. We show how the parameters characterizing the measurement operators are controlled by the linear optical elements. We also propose a method for the implementation of general measurements in solid-state qubits. Furthermore, we show an interesting application of the general measurements, i.e., entanglement amplification. YO is partially supported by the SPDR Program, RIKEN. SA and FN acknowledge ARO, NSF grant No. 0726909, JSPS-RFBR contract No. 12-02-92100, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), MEXT Kakenhi on Quantum Cybernetics, and the JSPS via its FIRST program.

  3. Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).

  4. A generalized quantum-inspired decision making model for intelligent agent.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhuang; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2014-01-01

    A novel decision making for intelligent agent using quantum-inspired approach is proposed. A formal, generalized solution to the problem is given. Mathematically, the proposed model is capable of modeling higher dimensional decision problems than previous researches. Four experiments are conducted, and both empirical experiments results and proposed model's experiment results are given for each experiment. Experiments showed that the results of proposed model agree with empirical results perfectly. The proposed model provides a new direction for researcher to resolve cognitive basis in designing intelligent agent. PMID:24778580

  5. Implications of the general constraints for single-qubit quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas

    We revisit the general constraints of single qubit quantum process tomography and derive simplified forms in the Pauli basis. These forms give insight into the structure of the process matrix, which we examine in light of several examples. Specifically, we study some qubit leakage error models and show how different error models are manifest in the process matrix. NAP's research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  6. Generalized quantum master equations in and out of equilibrium: When can one win?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Aaron; Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E.

    2016-05-01

    Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. For a large number of problems, it has been shown that exact and approximate quantum dynamics methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach with an approximate method has been observed to return the same dynamics as using that method directly. Here, for systems both in and out of equilibrium, we provide a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which using an approximate method can yield benefits when combined with the GQME formalism. In particular, we demonstrate the necessary manipulations, which are satisfied by exact quantum dynamics, that are required to recast the memory kernel in a form that can be analytically shown to yield the same result as a direct application of the dynamics regardless of the approximation used. By considering the connections between these forms of the kernel, we derive the conditions that approximate methods must satisfy if they are to offer different results when used in conjunction with the GQME formalism. These analytical results thus provide new insights as to when proceeding via the GQME approach can be used to improve the accuracy of simulations.

  7. General Formalism of Decision Making Based on Theory of Open Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the general formalism of decision making which is based on the theory of open quantum systems. A person (decision maker), say Alice, is considered as a quantum-like system, i.e., a system which information processing follows the laws of quantum information theory. To make decision, Alice interacts with a huge mental bath. Depending on context of decision making this bath can include her social environment, mass media (TV, newspapers, INTERNET), and memory. Dynamics of an ensemble of such Alices is described by Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. We speculate that in the processes of evolution biosystems (especially human beings) designed such "mental Hamiltonians" and GKSL-operators that any solution of the corresponding GKSL-equation stabilizes to a diagonal density operator (In the basis of decision making.) This limiting density operator describes population in which all superpositions of possible decisions has already been resolved. In principle, this approach can be used for the prediction of the distribution of possible decisions in human populations.

  8. Generalized quantum master equations in and out of equilibrium: When can one win?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aaron; Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-05-14

    Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. For a large number of problems, it has been shown that exact and approximate quantum dynamics methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach with an approximate method has been observed to return the same dynamics as using that method directly. Here, for systems both in and out of equilibrium, we provide a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which using an approximate method can yield benefits when combined with the GQME formalism. In particular, we demonstrate the necessary manipulations, which are satisfied by exact quantum dynamics, that are required to recast the memory kernel in a form that can be analytically shown to yield the same result as a direct application of the dynamics regardless of the approximation used. By considering the connections between these forms of the kernel, we derive the conditions that approximate methods must satisfy if they are to offer different results when used in conjunction with the GQME formalism. These analytical results thus provide new insights as to when proceeding via the GQME approach can be used to improve the accuracy of simulations. PMID:27179469

  9. Impact of the 235U Covariance Data in Benchmark Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Luiz C; Mueller, Don; Arbanas, Goran; Wiarda, Dorothea; Derrien, Herve

    2008-01-01

    The error estimation for calculated quantities relies on nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries such as the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B). The uncertainty files (covariance matrices) in the ENDF/B library are generally obtained from analysis of experimental data. In the resonance region, the computer code SAMMY is used for analyses of experimental data and generation of resonance parameters. In addition to resonance parameters evaluation, SAMMY also generates resonance parameter covariance matrices (RPCM). SAMMY uses the generalized least-squares formalism (Bayes method) together with the resonance formalism (R-matrix theory) for analysis of experimental data. Two approaches are available for creation of resonance-parameter covariance data. (1) During the data-evaluation process, SAMMY generates both a set of resonance parameters that fit the experimental data and the associated resonance-parameter covariance matrix. (2) For existing resonance-parameter evaluations for which no resonance-parameter covariance data are available, SAMMY can retroactively create a resonance-parameter covariance matrix. The retroactive method was used to generate covariance data for 235U. The resulting 235U covariance matrix was then used as input to the PUFF-IV code, which processed the covariance data into multigroup form, and to the TSUNAMI code, which calculated the uncertainty in the multiplication factor due to uncertainty in the experimental cross sections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of the 235U covariance data in calculations of critical benchmark systems.

  10. Using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with Fallible Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Steven Andrew; Aguinis, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used widely in psychological research implementing nonexperimental designs. However, when covariates are fallible (i.e., measured with error), which is the norm, researchers must choose from among 3 inadequate courses of action: (a) know that the assumption that covariates are perfectly reliable is violated but…

  11. A semiclassical generalized quantum master equation for an arbitrary system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qiang; Geva, Eitan

    2004-06-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation (GQME) provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a, possibly anharmonic, quantum bath. In this equation, a memory kernel superoperator accounts for the influence of the bath on the dynamics of the system. In a previous paper [Q. Shi and E. Geva, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 12045 (2003)] we proposed a new approach to calculating the memory kernel, in the case of arbitrary system-bath coupling. Within this approach, the memory kernel is obtained by solving a set of two integral equations, which requires a new type of two-time system-dependent bath correlation functions as input. In the present paper, we consider the application of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) approximation for calculating those correlation functions, and subsequently the memory kernel. The new approach is tested on a benchmark spin-boson model. Application of the LSC approximation for calculating the relatively short-lived memory kernel, followed by a numerically exact solution of the GQME, is found to provide an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics. The success of the proposed LSC-GQME methodology is contrasted with the failure of both the direct application of the LSC approximation and the weak coupling treatment to provide an accurate description of the dynamics, for the same model, except at very short times. The feasibility of the new methodology to anharmonic systems is also demonstrated in the case of a two level system coupled to a chain of Lennard-Jones atoms.

  12. Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Time scale separation between intra-cluster and inter-cluster kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhoufei; Gong, Zhihao; Wu, Jianlan

    2015-09-14

    For a general two-cluster network, a new methodology of the cluster-based generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) is developed in the matrix formalism under two initial conditions: the local cluster equilibrium and system-bath factorized states. For each initial condition, the site population evolution follows exactly a distinct closed equation, where all the four terms involved are systematically expanded over inter-cluster couplings. For the system-bath factorized initial state, the numerical investigation of the two models, a biased (2, 1)-site system and an unbiased (2, 2)-site system, verifies the reliability of the GQKE and the relevance of higher-order corrections. The time-integrated site-to-site rates and the time evolution of site population reveal the time scale separation between intra-cluster and inter-cluster kinetics. The population evolution of aggregated clusters can be quantitatively described by the approximate cluster Markovian kinetics.

  13. Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Higher-order corrections to multichromophoric Förster theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jianlan Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei

    2015-08-21

    For a general two-cluster energy transfer network, a new methodology of the generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) method is developed, which predicts an exact time-convolution equation for the cluster population evolution under the initial condition of the local cluster equilibrium state. The cluster-to-cluster rate kernel is expanded over the inter-cluster couplings. The lowest second-order GQKE rate recovers the multichromophoric Förster theory (MCFT) rate. The higher-order corrections to the MCFT rate are systematically included using the continued fraction resummation form, resulting in the resummed GQKE method. The reliability of the GQKE methodology is verified in two model systems, revealing the relevance of higher-order corrections.

  14. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold

    2005-05-01

    Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics. PMID:15889967

  15. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdian, H. Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  16. Quantum Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieve, William C.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.

    2009-04-01

    1. Foundations of quantum statistical mechanics; 2. Elementary examples; 3. Quantum statistical master equation; 4. Quantum kinetic equations; 5. Quantum irreversibility; 6. Entropy and dissipation: the microscopic theory; 7. Global equilibrium: thermostatics and the microcanonical ensemble; 8. Bose-Einstein ideal gas condensation; 9. Scaling, renormalization and the Ising model; 10. Relativistic covariant statistical mechanics of many particles; 11. Quantum optics and damping; 12. Entanglements; 13. Quantum measurement and irreversibility; 14. Quantum Langevin equation: quantum Brownian motion; 15. Linear response: fluctuation and dissipation theorems; 16. Time dependent quantum Green's functions; 17. Decay scattering; 18. Quantum statistical mechanics, extended; 19. Quantum transport with tunneling and reservoir ballistic transport; 20. Black hole thermodynamics; Appendix; Index.

  17. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  18. Covariant approximation averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  19. The Bayesian Covariance Lasso

    PubMed Central

    Khondker, Zakaria S; Zhu, Hongtu; Chu, Haitao; Lin, Weili; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of sparse covariance matrices and their inverse subject to positive definiteness constraints has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. The abundance of high-dimensional data, where the sample size (n) is less than the dimension (d), requires shrinkage estimation methods since the maximum likelihood estimator is not positive definite in this case. Furthermore, when n is larger than d but not sufficiently larger, shrinkage estimation is more stable than maximum likelihood as it reduces the condition number of the precision matrix. Frequentist methods have utilized penalized likelihood methods, whereas Bayesian approaches rely on matrix decompositions or Wishart priors for shrinkage. In this paper we propose a new method, called the Bayesian Covariance Lasso (BCLASSO), for the shrinkage estimation of a precision (covariance) matrix. We consider a class of priors for the precision matrix that leads to the popular frequentist penalties as special cases, develop a Bayes estimator for the precision matrix, and propose an efficient sampling scheme that does not precalculate boundaries for positive definiteness. The proposed method is permutation invariant and performs shrinkage and estimation simultaneously for non-full rank data. Simulations show that the proposed BCLASSO performs similarly as frequentist methods for non-full rank data. PMID:24551316

  20. Analytic Dependence is an Unnecessary Requirement in Renormalization of Locally Covariant QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavkine, Igor; Moretti, Valter

    2016-03-01

    Finite renormalization freedom in locally covariant quantum field theories on curved spacetime is known to be tightly constrained, under certain standard hypotheses, to the same terms as in flat spacetime up to finitely many curvature dependent terms. These hypotheses include, in particular, locality, covariance, scaling, microlocal regularity and continuous and analytic dependence on the metric and coupling parameters. The analytic dependence hypothesis is somewhat unnatural, because it requires that locally covariant observables (which are simultaneously defined on all spacetimes) depend continuously on an arbitrary metric, with the dependence strengthened to analytic on analytic metrics. Moreover the fact that analytic metrics are globally rigid makes the implementation of this requirement at the level of local {*} -algebras of observables rather technically cumbersome. We show that the conditions of locality, covariance, scaling and a naturally strengthened microlocal spectral condition, are actually sufficient to constrain the allowed finite renormalizations equally strongly, thus eliminating both the continuity and the somewhat unnatural analyticity hypotheses. The key step in the proof uses the Peetre-Slovák theorem on the characterization of (in general non-linear) differential operators by their locality and regularity properties.

  1. Analytic Dependence is an Unnecessary Requirement in Renormalization of Locally Covariant QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavkine, Igor; Moretti, Valter

    2016-06-01

    Finite renormalization freedom in locally covariant quantum field theories on curved spacetime is known to be tightly constrained, under certain standard hypotheses, to the same terms as in flat spacetime up to finitely many curvature dependent terms. These hypotheses include, in particular, locality, covariance, scaling, microlocal regularity and continuous and analytic dependence on the metric and coupling parameters. The analytic dependence hypothesis is somewhat unnatural, because it requires that locally covariant observables (which are simultaneously defined on all spacetimes) depend continuously on an arbitrary metric, with the dependence strengthened to analytic on analytic metrics. Moreover the fact that analytic metrics are globally rigid makes the implementation of this requirement at the level of local {*}-algebras of observables rather technically cumbersome. We show that the conditions of locality, covariance, scaling and a naturally strengthened microlocal spectral condition, are actually sufficient to constrain the allowed finite renormalizations equally strongly, thus eliminating both the continuity and the somewhat unnatural analyticity hypotheses. The key step in the proof uses the Peetre-Slovák theorem on the characterization of (in general non-linear) differential operators by their locality and regularity properties.

  2. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  3. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath. PMID:27276940

  4. Covariant Spectator Theory and Hadron Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, M. T.; Leitão, Sofia; Biernat, Elmar P.; Stadler, Alfred; Ribeiro, J. E.; Gross, Franz

    2016-06-01

    We present the first results of a study on meson spectroscopy using a covariant formalism based on the Covariant Spectator Theory. Our approach is derived directly in Minkowski space and it approximates the Bethe-Salpeter equation by taking effectively into account the contributions from both ladder and crossed ladder diagrams in the q{bar{q}} interaction kernel. A general Lorentz structure of the kernel is tested and chiral constraints on the kernel are discussed. Results for the pion form factor are also presented.

  5. Covariance Analysis of Gamma Ray Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.

    2013-01-01

    The covariance method exploits fluctuations in signals to recover information encoded in correlations which are usually lost when signal averaging occurs. In nuclear spectroscopy it can be regarded as a generalization of the coincidence technique. The method can be used to extract signal from uncorrelated noise, to separate overlapping spectral peaks, to identify escape peaks, to reconstruct spectra from Compton continua, and to generate secondary spectral fingerprints. We discuss a few statistical considerations of the covariance method and present experimental examples of its use in gamma spectroscopy.

  6. Covariance analysis of gamma ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.

    2013-01-15

    The covariance method exploits fluctuations in signals to recover information encoded in correlations which are usually lost when signal averaging occurs. In nuclear spectroscopy it can be regarded as a generalization of the coincidence technique. The method can be used to extract signal from uncorrelated noise, to separate overlapping spectral peaks, to identify escape peaks, to reconstruct spectra from Compton continua, and to generate secondary spectral fingerprints. We discuss a few statistical considerations of the covariance method and present experimental examples of its use in gamma spectroscopy.

  7. Strong subadditivity for log-determinant of covariance matrices and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Simon, R.

    2016-08-01

    We prove that the log-determinant of the covariance matrix obeys the strong subadditivity inequality for arbitrary tripartite states of multimode continuous variable quantum systems. This establishes general limitations on the distribution of information encoded in the second moments of canonically conjugate operators. The inequality is shown to be stronger than the conventional strong subadditivity inequality for von Neumann entropy in a class of pure tripartite Gaussian states. We finally show that such an inequality implies a strict monogamy-type constraint for joint Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steerability of single modes by Gaussian measurements performed on multiple groups of modes.

  8. Canonical Naimark extension for generalized measurements involving sets of Pauli quantum observables chosen at random

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparaciari, Carlo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We address measurement schemes where certain observables Xk are chosen at random within a set of nondegenerate isospectral observables and then measured on repeated preparations of a physical system. Each observable has a probability zk to be measured, with ∑kzk=1, and the statistics of this generalized measurement is described by a positive operator-valued measure. This kind of scheme is referred to as quantum roulettes, since each observable Xk is chosen at random, e.g., according to the fluctuating value of an external parameter. Here we focus on quantum roulettes for qubits involving the measurements of Pauli matrices, and we explicitly evaluate their canonical Naimark extensions, i.e., their implementation as indirect measurements involving an interaction scheme with a probe system. We thus provide a concrete model to realize the roulette without destroying the signal state, which can be measured again after the measurement or can be transmitted. Finally, we apply our results to the description of Stern-Gerlach-like experiments on a two-level system.

  9. Moving Beyond Quantum Mechanics in Search for a Generalized Theory of Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpojotor, Godfrey; Animalu, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Though there are infinite number of theories currently in the literature in the search for a generalized theory of superconductivity (SC), there may be three domineering mechanisms for the Cooper pair formation (CPF) and their emergent theories of SC. Two of these mechanisms, electron-phonon interactions and electron-electron correlations which are based on the quantum theory axiom of action-at-a distance, may be only an approximation of the third mechanism which is contact interaction of the wavepackets of the two electrons forming the Cooper pair as envisaged in hadronic mechanics to be responsible for natural bonding of elements. The application of this hydronic --type interaction to the superconducting cuprates, iron based compounds and heavy fermions leads to interesting results. It is therefore suggested that the future of the search for the theory of SC may be considered from this natural possible bonding that at short distances, the CPF is by a nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian strong hadronic-type interactions due to deep wave-overlapping of spinning particles leading to Hulthen potential that is attractive between two electrons in singlet couplings while at large distances the CPF is by superexchange interaction which is purely a quantum mechanical affairs.

  10. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of covariance realism is to properly size a primary object's covariance in order to add validity to the calculation of the probability of collision. The covariance realism technique in this paper consists of three parts: collection/calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics. An empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) method is employed to determine if a covariance is properly sized by comparing the empirical distribution of Mahalanobis distance calculations to the hypothesized parent 3-DoF chi-squared distribution. To realistically size a covariance for collision probability calculations, this study uses a state noise compensation algorithm that adds process noise to the definitive epoch covariance to account for uncertainty in the force model. Process noise is added until the GOF tests pass a group significance level threshold. The results of this study indicate that when outliers attributed to persistently high or extreme levels of solar activity are removed, the aforementioned covariance realism compensation method produces a tuned covariance with up to 80 to 90% of the covariance propagation timespan passing (against a 60% minimum passing threshold) the GOF tests-a quite satisfactory and useful result.

  11. Equilibration of isolated many-body quantum systems with respect to general distinguishability measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balz, Ben N.; Reimann, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate equilibration of isolated many-body systems in the sense that, after initial transients have died out, the system behaves practically indistinguishable from a time-independent steady state, i.e., non-negligible deviations are unimaginably rare in time. Measuring the distinguishability in terms of quantum mechanical expectation values, results of this type have been previously established under increasingly weak assumptions about the initial disequilibrium, the many-body Hamiltonian, and the considered observables. Here, we further extend these results with respect to generalized distinguishability measures which fully take into account the fact that the actually observed, primary data are not expectation values but rather the probabilistic occurrence of different possible measurement outcomes.

  12. Generalized uncertainty relations and entanglement dynamics in quantum Brownian motion models

    SciTech Connect

    Anastopoulos, C.; Kechribaris, S.; Mylonas, D.

    2010-10-15

    We study entanglement dynamics in quantum Brownian motion (QBM) models. Our main tool is the Wigner function propagator. Time evolution in the Wigner picture is physically intuitive and it leads to a simple derivation of a master equation for any number of system harmonic oscillators and spectral density of the environment. It also provides generalized uncertainty relations, valid for any initial state, that allow a characterization of the environment in terms of the modifications it causes to the system's dynamics. In particular, the uncertainty relations are very informative about the entanglement dynamics of Gaussian states, and to a lesser extent for other families of states. For concreteness, we apply these techniques to a bipartite QBM model, describing the processes of entanglement creation, disentanglement, and decoherence at all temperatures and time scales.

  13. Mesoscopic quantum superposition of the generalized cat state: A diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Suranjana; Sharma, Raman; Roy, Utpal; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2015-11-01

    The orthogonality of cat and displaced cat states, underlying Heisenberg limited measurement in quantum metrology, is studied in the limit of a large number of states. The mesoscopic superposition of the generalized cat state is correlated with the corresponding state overlap function, controlled by the sub-Planck structures arising from phase-space interference. The asymptotic expression of this overlap function is evaluated, and the validity of large phase-space support and distinguishability of the constituent states, in which context the asymptotic limit is achieved, are discussed in detail. For a large number of coherent states, uniformly located on a circle, the overlap function significantly matches the diffraction pattern for a circular ring source with uniform angular strength. This is in accordance with the van Cittert-Zernike theorem, where the overlap function, similar to the mutual coherence function, matches a diffraction pattern. The physical situation under consideration is delineated in phase space by utilizing the Husimi Q function.

  14. Two Phases of the Non-Commutative Quantum Mechanics with the Generalized Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2016-04-01

    We consider the quantum mechanics on the noncommutative plane with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ge frac {θ }{2}, {Δ } p1 {Δ } p2 ge frac {bar {θ }}{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ge frac {hbar }{2}, {Δ } x1 {Δ } p2 ge frac {η }{2}. We show that the model has two essentially different phases which is determined by kappa = 1 + frac {1}{hbar 2 } (η 2 - θ bar {θ }). We construct a operator hat {π }i commuting with hat {x}j and discuss the harmonic oscillator model in two dimensional non-commutative space for three case κ > 0, κ = 0, κ < 0. Finally, we discuss the thermodynamics of a particle whose hamiltonian is related to the harmonic oscillator model in two dimensional non-commutative space.

  15. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four.

  16. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D L

    2016-01-01

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four. PMID:27272401

  17. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four. PMID:27272401

  18. Unifying the Geometry of General Relativity with the Virtual Particle Nature of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John

    2007-03-01

    General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) utilize different underlying assumptions regarding the nature of vacuum and space-time. GR requires the actual geometry of space-time to change in the presence of mass resulting in gravitation. QED operates within flat space-time and propagates forces through the exchange of virtual photons. Efforts to unify these theories are -- despite their mathematical elegance -- complex, cumbersome and incomplete. The inability to achieve unification may suggest a need to re-think basic conceptual models. The IWPD Research Center has found evidence suggesting that time -- as a unique degree of freedom -- may be illusionary. Our research suggests that time may be ``embedded'' within a spatial dimension through a geometric manipulation of the light cone in Minkowski space-time. This interpretation of space-time provides predictions that are experimentally verifiable and suggests a conceptual path for the unification of GR and QED.

  19. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-07-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  20. Quantum cosmology: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions. PMID:25582917

  1. Generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method in coherent medium theory for quantum transport simulation of disordered nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi

    2016-07-01

    Electron transport properties of nanoelectronics can be significantly influenced by the inevitable and randomly distributed impurities/defects. For theoretical simulation of disordered nanoscale electronics, one is interested in both the configurationally averaged transport property and its statistical fluctuation that tells device-to-device variability induced by disorder. However, due to the lack of an effective method to do disorder averaging under the nonequilibrium condition, the important effects of disorders on electron transport remain largely unexplored or poorly understood. In this work, we report a general formalism of Green's function based nonequilibrium effective medium theory to calculate the disordered nanoelectronics. In this method, based on a generalized coherent potential approximation for the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function, we developed a generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method to calculate the average of a two-Keldysh-Green's-function correlator. We obtain nine nonequilibrium vertex correction terms, as a complete family, to express the average of any two-Green's-function correlator and find they can be solved by a set of linear equations. As an important result, the averaged nonequilibrium density matrix, averaged current, disorder-induced current fluctuation, and averaged shot noise, which involve different two-Green's-function correlators, can all be derived and computed in an effective and unified way. To test the general applicability of this method, we applied it to compute the transmission coefficient and its fluctuation with a square-lattice tight-binding model and compared with the exact results and other previously proposed approximations. Our results show very good agreement with the exact results for a wide range of disorder concentrations and energies. In addition, to incorporate with density functional theory to realize first-principles quantum transport simulation, we have also derived a general form of

  2. Experience in using the covariances of some ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections: proposed improvements and addition of cross-reaction covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent ratio data, with carefully evaluated covariances, were combined with eleven of the ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections using the generalized least-squares method. The purpose was to improve these evaluated cross sections and covariances, as well as to generate values for the cross-reaction covariances. The results represent improved cross sections as well as realistic and usable covariances. The latter are necessary for meaningful intergral-differential comparisons and for spectrum unfolding.

  3. Explicit formulas for generalized harmonic perturbations of the infinite quantum well with an application to Mathieu equations

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Trujillo, A. L.; Schulze-Halberg, A.

    2012-10-15

    We obtain explicit formulas for perturbative corrections of the infinite quantum well model. The formulas we obtain are based on a class of matrix elements that we construct by means of two-parameter ladder operators associated with the infinite quantum well system. Our approach can be used to construct solutions to Schroedinger-type equations that involve generalized harmonic perturbations of their potentials, such as cosine powers, Fourier series, and more general functions. As a particular case, we obtain characteristic values for odd periodic solutions of the Mathieu equation.

  4. General covariance constraints on cosmological correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T.; Penco, Riccardo E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2015-01-01

    We study the extent to which diffeomorphism invariance restricts the properties of the perturbations in single scalar field cosmological models. We derive a set of identities that constrain the connected correlators of the cosmological perturbations, as well as the one-particle-irreducible vertices of the theory in any gauge. These identities are the analogues of Slavnov-Taylor identities in gauge theories, and follow essentially from diffeomorphism invariance alone. Yet because quantization requires diffeomorphism invariance to be broken, they not only reflect invariance under diffeomorphisms, but also how the latter has been broken by gauge fixing terms. In order not to lose the symmetry altogether, we cannot simply set some fields to zero, as is usually done in cosmological perturbation theory, but need to decouple them smoothly and make sure that they do not contribute to cosmological correlators in the decoupling limit. We use these identities to derive a set of consistency relations between bispectra and power spectra of cosmological perturbations in different gauges. Without additional assumptions, these consistency relations just seem to reflect the redundancy implied by diffeomorphisms. But when combined with analyticity, in a formulation of the theory in which auxiliary fields have been integrated out, we recover novel and previously derived relations that follow from invariance under both time and spatial diffeomorphisms.

  5. The geometrical structure of quantum theory as a natural generalization of information geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, Marcel

    2015-01-13

    Quantum mechanics has a rich geometrical structure which allows for a geometrical formulation of the theory. This formalism was introduced by Kibble and later developed by a number of other authors. The usual approach has been to start from the standard description of quantum mechanics and identify the relevant geometrical features that can be used for the reformulation of the theory. Here this procedure is inverted: the geometrical structure of quantum theory is derived from information geometry, a geometrical structure that may be considered more fundamental, and the Hilbert space of the standard formulation of quantum mechanics is constructed using geometrical quantities. This suggests that quantum theory has its roots in information geometry.

  6. The geometrical structure of quantum theory as a natural generalization of information geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reginatto, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanics has a rich geometrical structure which allows for a geometrical formulation of the theory. This formalism was introduced by Kibble and later developed by a number of other authors. The usual approach has been to start from the standard description of quantum mechanics and identify the relevant geometrical features that can be used for the reformulation of the theory. Here this procedure is inverted: the geometrical structure of quantum theory is derived from information geometry, a geometrical structure that may be considered more fundamental, and the Hilbert space of the standard formulation of quantum mechanics is constructed using geometrical quantities. This suggests that quantum theory has its roots in information geometry.

  7. General open-system quantum evolution in terms of affine maps of the polarization vector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Mark S.; Bishop, C. Allen; Ou, Yong-Cheng

    2011-01-15

    The operator-sum decomposition of a map from one density matrix to another has many applications in quantum information science. To this mapping there corresponds an affine map which provides a geometric description of the map of the density matrix in terms of the polarization vector representation. This has been thoroughly explored for qubits since the components of the polarization vector are measurable quantities (corresponding to expectation values of Hermitian operators) and also because it enables the description of map domains geometrically. Here we extend the operator-sum-affine-map correspondence to qudits, briefly discuss general properties of the map and the form for some particular cases, and provide several explicit results for qutrit maps. We use the affine map and a singular-value-like decomposition to find positivity constraints that provide a symmetry for small polarization vector magnitudes (states which are closer to the maximally mixed state), which is broken as the polarization vector increases in magnitude (a state becomes more pure). The dependence of this symmetry on the magnitude of the polarization vector implies the polar decomposition of the map cannot be used as it can for the qubit case. However, it still leads us to a connection between positivity and purity for general d-state systems.

  8. Interacting quantum fields and the chronometric principle

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.

    1976-01-01

    A form of interaction in quantum field theory is described that is physically intrinsic rather than superimposed via a postulated nonlinearity on a hypothetical free field. It derives from the extension to general symmetries of the distinction basic for the chronometric cosmology between the physical (driving) and the observed energies, together with general precepts of quantum field theory applicable to nonunitary representations. The resulting interacting field is covariant, causal, involves real particle production, and is devoid of nontrivial ultraviolet divergences. Possible physical applications are discussed. PMID:16592353

  9. Stardust Navigation Covariance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Premkumar R.

    2000-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta-II rocket. Mission participants include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and the University of Washington. The primary objective of the mission is to collect in-situ samples of the coma of comet Wild-2 and return those samples to the Earth for analysis. Mission design and operational navigation for Stardust is performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper will describe the extensive JPL effort in support of the Stardust pre-launch analysis of the orbit determination component of the mission covariance study. A description of the mission and it's trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the covariance procedure and models. Predicted accuracy's will be examined as they relate to navigation delivery requirements for specific critical events during the mission. Stardust was launched into a heliocentric trajectory in early 1999. It will perform an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) on January 15, 2001 to acquire an orbit for the eventual rendezvous with comet Wild-2. The spacecraft will fly through the coma (atmosphere) on the dayside of Wild-2 on January 2, 2004. At that time samples will be obtained using an aerogel collector. After the comet encounter Stardust will return to Earth when the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) will separate and land at the Utah Test Site (UTTR) on January 15, 2006. The spacecraft will however be deflected off into a heliocentric orbit. The mission is divided into three phases for the covariance analysis. They are 1) Launch to EGA, 2) EGA to Wild-2 encounter and 3) Wild-2 encounter to Earth reentry. Orbit determination assumptions for each phase are provided. These include estimated and consider parameters and their associated a-priori uncertainties. Major perturbations to the trajectory include 19 deterministic and statistical maneuvers

  10. Some asymptotic properties of kriging when the covariance function is misspecified

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, M.L.; Handcock, M.S.

    1989-02-01

    The impact of using an incorrect covariance function of kriging predictors is investigated. Results of Stein (1988) show that the impact on the kriging predictor from not using the correct covariance function is asymptotically negligible as the number of observations increases if the covariance function used is compatible with the actual covariance function on the region of interest R. The definition and some properties of compatibility of covariance functions are given. The compatibility of generalized covariances also is defined. Compatibility supports the intuitively sensible concept that usually only the behavior near the origin of the covariance function is critical for purposes of kriging. However, the commonly used spherical covariance function is an exception: observations at a distance near the range of a spherical covariance function can have a nonnegligible effect on kriging predictors for three-dimensional processes. Finally, a comparison is made with the perturbation approach of Diamond and Armstrong (1984) and some observations of Warnes (1986) are clarified.

  11. Diffeomorphism invariant cosmological symmetry in full quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Engle, Jonathan S.; Hogan, Matthew E.; Mendonça, Phillip

    2016-06-01

    This paper summarizes a new proposal to define rigorously a sector of loop quantum gravity at the diffeomorphism invariant level corresponding to homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies, thereby enabling a detailed comparison of results in loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology. The key technical steps we have completed are (a) to formulate conditions for homogeneity and isotropy in a diffeomorphism covariant way on the classical phase-space of general relativity, and (b) to translate these conditions consistently using well-understood techniques to loop quantum gravity. Some additional steps, such as constructing a specific embedding of the Hilbert space of loop quantum cosmology into a space of (distributional) states in the full theory, remain incomplete. However, we also describe, as a proof of concept, a complete analysis of an analogous embedding of homogeneous and isotropic loop quantum cosmology into the quantum Bianchi I model of Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing. Details will appear in a pair of forthcoming papers.

  12. Low-Fidelity Covariances: Neutron Cross Section Covariance Estimates for 387 Materials

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Low-fidelity Covariance Project (Low-Fi) was funded in FY07-08 by DOEÆs Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). The project was a collaboration among ANL, BNL, LANL, and ORNL. The motivation for the Low-Fi project stemmed from an imbalance in supply and demand of covariance data. The interest in, and demand for, covariance data has been in a continual uptrend over the past few years. Requirements to understand application-dependent uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest have led to the development of sensitivity / uncertainty and data adjustment software such as TSUNAMI [1] at Oak Ridge. To take full advantage of the capabilities of TSUNAMI requires general availability of covariance data. However, the supply of covariance data has not been able to keep up with the demand. This fact is highlighted by the observation that the recent release of the much-heralded ENDF/B-VII.0 included covariance data for only 26 of the 393 neutron evaluations (which is, in fact, considerably less covariance data than was included in the final ENDF/B-VI release).[Copied from R.C. Little et al., "Low-Fidelity Covariance Project", Nuclear Data Sheets 109 (2008) 2828-2833] The Low-Fi covariance data are now available at the National Nuclear Data Center. They are separate from ENDF/B-VII.0 and the NNDC warns that this information is not approved by CSEWG. NNDC describes the contents of this collection as: "Covariance data are provided for radiative capture (or (n,ch.p.) for light nuclei), elastic scattering (or total for some actinides), inelastic scattering, (n,2n) reactions, fission and nubars over the energy range from 10(-5{super}) eV to 20 MeV. The library contains 387 files including almost all (383 out of 393) materials of the ENDF/B-VII.0. Absent are data for (7{super})Li, (232{super})Th, (233,235,238{super})U and (239{super})Pu as well as (223,224,225,226{super})Ra, while (nat{super})Zn is replaced by (64,66,67,68,70{super})Zn

  13. Quantum spectral dimension in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Modesto, Leonardo; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    We reinterpret the spectral dimension of spacetimes as the scaling of an effective self-energy transition amplitude in quantum field theory (QFT), when the system is probed at a given resolution. This picture has four main advantages: (a) it dispenses with the usual interpretation (unsatisfactory in covariant approaches) where, instead of a transition amplitude, one has a probability density solving a nonrelativistic diffusion equation in an abstract diffusion time; (b) it solves the problem of negative probabilities known for higher-order and nonlocal dispersion relations in classical and quantum gravity; (c) it clarifies the concept of quantum spectral dimension as opposed to the classical one. We then consider a class of logarithmic dispersion relations associated with quantum particles and show that the spectral dimension dS of spacetime as felt by these quantum probes can deviate from its classical value, equal to the topological dimension D. In particular, in the presence of higher momentum powers it changes with the scale, dropping from D in the infrared (IR) to a value dSUV ≤ D in the ultraviolet (UV). We apply this general result to Stelle theory of renormalizable gravity, which attains the universal value dSUV = 2 for any dimension D.

  14. Application of covariant analytic mechanics to gravity with Dirac field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    We applied the covariant analytic mechanics with the differential forms to the Dirac field and the gravity with the Dirac field. The covariant analytic mechanics treats space and time on an equal footing regarding the differential forms as the basis variables. A significant feature of the covariant analytic mechanics is that the canonical equations, in addition to the Euler-Lagrange equation, are not only manifestly general coordinate covariant but also gauge covariant. Combining our study and the previous works (the scalar field, the abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and the gravity without the Dirac field), the applicability of the covariant analytic mechanics was checked for all fundamental fields. We studied both the first and second order formalism of the gravitational field coupled with matters including the Dirac field. It was suggested that gravitation theories including higher order curvatures cannot be treated by the second order formalism in the covariant analytic mechanics. In addition, we showed that the covariant analytic mechanics is equivalent to corrected De Donder-Weyl theory.

  15. The Marsden-Weinstein Reduction Structure of Integrable Dynamical Systems and a Generalized Exactly Solvable Quantum Superradiance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogolubov, N. N.; Prykarpatsky, Y. A.

    2013-03-01

    An approach to describing nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems of modern mathematical and theoretical physics, based on the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method on canonically symplectic manifolds with group symmetry, is proposed. Its natural relationship with the well-known Adler-Kostant-Souriau-Berezin-Kirillov method and the associated R-matrix approach is analyzed. A new generalized exactly solvable spatially one-dimensional quantum superradiance model, describing a charged fermionic medium interacting with external electromagnetic field, is suggested. The Lax type operator spectral problem is presented, the related R-structure is calculated. The Hamilton operator renormalization procedure subject to a physically stable vacuum is described, the quantum excitations and quantum solitons, related with the thermodynamical equilibrity of the model, are discussed.

  16. Inelastic light and electron scattering in parabolic quantum dots in magnetic field: Implications of generalized Kohn's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a one-component, quasi-zero-dimensional, quantum plasma exposed to a parabolic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. If the size of such a system as can be realized in the semiconducting quantum dots is on the order of the de Broglie wavelength, the electronic and optical properties become highly tunable. Then the quantum size effects challenge the observation of many-particle phenomena such as the magneto-optical absorption, Raman intensity, and electron energy loss spectrum. An exact analytical solution of the problem leads us to infer that these many-particle phenomena are, in fact, dictated by the generalized Kohn's theorem in the long-wavelength limit. Maneuvering the confinement and/or the magnetic field furnishes the resonance energy capable of being explored with the FIR, Raman, or electron energy loss spectroscopy. This implies that either of these probes should be competent in observing the localized magnetoplasmons in the system. A deeper insight into the physics of quantum dots is paving the way for their implementation in diverse fields such as quantum computing and medical imaging.

  17. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  18. Quantum Numbers of Eigenstates of Generalized de Broglie-Bargmann- Wigner Equations for Fermions with Partonic Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, H.

    2003-01-01

    Generalized de Broglie-Bargmann-Wigner (BBW) equations are relativistically invariant quantum mechanical many body equations with nontrivial interaction, selfregularization and probability interpretation. Owing to these properties these equations are a suitable means for describing relativistic bound states of fermions. In accordance with de Broglie's fusion theory and modern assumptions about the partonic substructure of elementary fermions, i.e., leptons and quarks, the three-body generalized BBW-equations are investigated. The transformation properties and quantum numbers of the three-parton equations under the relevant group actions are elaborated in detail. Section 3 deals with the action of the isospin group SU(2), a U(1) global gauge group for the fermion number, the hypercharge and charge generators. The resulting quantum numbers of the composite partonic systems can be adapted to those of the phenomenological particles to be described. The space-time transformations and in particular rotations generated by angular momentum operators are considered in Section 4. Based on the compatibility of the BBW-equations and the group theoretical constraints, in Sect. 5 integral equations are formulated in a representation with diagonal energy and total angular momentum variables. The paper provides new insight into the solution space and quantum labels of resulting integral equations for three parton states and prepares the ground for representing leptons and quarks as composite systems.

  19. How the Jones polynomial give rise to physical states of quantum general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Bruegmann, B. ); Gambini, R. ); Pullin, J. )

    1993-01-01

    Solutions to both the diffeomorphism and the hamiltonian constraint of quantum gravity have been found in the loop representation, which is based on Ashtekar's new variables. While the diffeomorphism constraint is easily solved by considering loop functionals which are knot invariants, there remains the puzzle why several of the known knot invariants are also solutions to the hamiltonian constraint. We show how the Jones polynomial gives rise to an infinite set of solutions to all the constraints of quantum gravity thereby illuminating the structure of the space of solutions and suggesting the existence of a deep connection between quantum gravity and knot theory at a dynamical level.

  20. General Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Homogeneous Immunoassay for Small Molecules Based on Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuezhi; Wen, Kai; Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Xiya; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe a general bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) homogeneous immunoassay based on quantum dots (QDs) as the acceptor and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) as the donor (QD-BRET) for the determination of small molecules. The ratio of the donor-acceptor that could produce energy transfer varied in the presence of different concentrations of free enrofloxacin (ENR), an important small molecule in food safety. The calculated Förster distance (R0) was 7.86 nm. Under optimized conditions, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for ENR was less than 1 ng/mL and the linear range covered 4 orders of magnitude (0.023 to 25.60 ng/mL). The cross-reactivities (CRs) of seven representative fluoroquinolones (FQs) were similar to the data obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The average intra- and interassay recoveries from spiked milk of were 79.8-118.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%, meeting the requirement of residue detection, which was a satisfactory result. Furthermore, we compared the influence of different luciferase substrates on the performance of the assay. Considering sensitivity and stability, coelenterazine-h was the most appropriate substrate. The results from this study will enable better-informed decisions on the choice of Rluc substrate for QD-BRET systems. For the future, the QD-BRET immunosensor could easily be extended to other small molecules and thus represents a versatile strategy in food safety, the environment, clinical diagnosis, and other fields. PMID:26948147

  1. Information-preserving structures: A general framework for quantum zero-error information

    SciTech Connect

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Ng, Hui Khoon; Poulin, David; Viola, Lorenza

    2010-12-15

    Quantum systems carry information. Quantum theory supports at least two distinct kinds of information (classical and quantum), and a variety of different ways to encode and preserve information in physical systems. A system's ability to carry information is constrained and defined by the noise in its dynamics. This paper introduces an operational framework, using information-preserving structures, to classify all the kinds of information that can be perfectly (i.e., with zero error) preserved by quantum dynamics. We prove that every perfectly preserved code has the same structure as a matrix algebra, and that preserved information can always be corrected. We also classify distinct operational criteria for preservation (e.g., 'noiseless','unitarily correctible', etc.) and introduce two natural criteria for measurement-stabilized and unconditionally preserved codes. Finally, for several of these operational criteria, we present efficient (polynomial in the state-space dimension) algorithms to find all of a channel's information-preserving structures.

  2. The Quantum Superalgebra ospq(1|2)} and a q-Generalization of the Bannai-Ito Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    The Racah problem for the quantum superalgebra ospq(1|2)} is considered. The intermediate Casimir operators are shown to realize a q-deformation of the Bannai-Ito algebra. The Racah coefficients of osp_q(1|2)} are calculated explicitly in terms of basic orthogonal polynomials that q-generalize the Bannai-Ito polynomials. The relation between these q-deformed Bannai-Ito polynomials and the q-Racah/Askey-Wilson polynomials is discussed.

  3. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  4. Covariance Spectroscopy Applied to Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R., Tinsley, J., Keegan, R., Quam, W.

    2011-09-01

    Covariance spectroscopy is a method of processing second order moments of data to obtain information that is usually absent from average spectra. In nuclear radiation detection it represents a generalization of nuclear coincidence techniques. Correlations and fluctuations in data encode valuable information about radiation sources, transport media, and detection systems. Gaining access to the extra information can help to untangle complicated spectra, uncover overlapping peaks, accelerate source identification, and even sense directionality. Correlations existing at the source level are particularly valuable since many radioactive isotopes emit correlated gammas and neutrons. Correlations also arise from interactions within detector systems, and from scattering in the environment. In particular, correlations from Compton scattering and pair production within a detector array can be usefully exploited in scenarios where direct measurement of source correlations would be unfeasible. We present a covariance analysis of a few experimental data sets to illustrate the utility of the concept.

  5. RNA sequence analysis using covariance models.

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, S R; Durbin, R

    1994-01-01

    We describe a general approach to several RNA sequence analysis problems using probabilistic models that flexibly describe the secondary structure and primary sequence consensus of an RNA sequence family. We call these models 'covariance models'. A covariance model of tRNA sequences is an extremely sensitive and discriminative tool for searching for additional tRNAs and tRNA-related sequences in sequence databases. A model can be built automatically from an existing sequence alignment. We also describe an algorithm for learning a model and hence a consensus secondary structure from initially unaligned example sequences and no prior structural information. Models trained on unaligned tRNA examples correctly predict tRNA secondary structure and produce high-quality multiple alignments. The approach may be applied to any family of small RNA sequences. Images PMID:8029015

  6. Quantum stochastic processes for maps on Hilbert C*-modules

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Jaeseong; Ji, Un Cig

    2011-05-15

    We discuss pairs ({phi}, {Phi}) of maps, where {phi} is a map between C*-algebras and {Phi} is a {phi}-module map between Hilbert C*-modules, which are generalization of representations of Hilbert C*-modules. A covariant version of Stinespring's theorem for such a pair ({phi}, {Phi}) is established, and quantum stochastic processes constructed from pairs ({l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, {l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}}) of families of such maps are studied. We prove that the quantum stochastic process J={l_brace}J{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from a {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi}={l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}} is a j-map for the quantum stochastic process j={l_brace}j{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from the given quantum dynamical semigroup {phi}={l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, and that J is covariant if the {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi} is covariant.

  7. Generalized non-equilibrium vertex correction method in coherent medium theory for quantum transport simulation of disordered nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi

    In realistic nanoelectronics, disordered impurities/defects are inevitable and play important roles in electron transport. However, due to the lack of effective quantum transport method, the important effects of disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we report a generalized non-equilibrium vertex correction (NVC) method with coherent potential approximation to treat the disorder effects in quantum transport simulation. With this generalized NVC method, any averaged product of two single-particle Green's functions can be obtained by solving a set of simple linear equations. As a result, the averaged non-equilibrium density matrix and various important transport properties, including averaged current, disordered induced current fluctuation and the averaged shot noise, can all be efficiently computed in a unified scheme. Moreover, a generalized form of conditionally averaged non-equilibrium Green's function is derived to incorporate with density functional theory to enable first-principles simulation. We prove the non-equilibrium coherent potential equals the non-equilibrium vertex correction. Our approach provides a unified, efficient and self-consistent method for simulating non-equilibrium quantum transport through disorder nanoelectronics. Shanghaitech start-up fund.

  8. Covariance expressions for eigenvalue and eigenvector problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liounis, Andrew J.

    There are a number of important scientific and engineering problems whose solutions take the form of an eigenvalue--eigenvector problem. Some notable examples include solutions to linear systems of ordinary differential equations, controllability of linear systems, finite element analysis, chemical kinetics, fitting ellipses to noisy data, and optimal estimation of attitude from unit vectors. In many of these problems, having knowledge of the eigenvalue and eigenvector Jacobians is either necessary or is nearly as important as having the solution itself. For instance, Jacobians are necessary to find the uncertainty in a computed eigenvalue or eigenvector estimate. This uncertainty, which is usually represented as a covariance matrix, has been well studied for problems similar to the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem, such as singular value decomposition. There has been substantially less research on the covariance of an optimal estimate originating from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. In this thesis we develop two general expressions for the Jacobians of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to the elements of their parent matrix. The expressions developed make use of only the parent matrix and the eigenvalue and eigenvector pair under consideration. In addition, they are applicable to any general matrix (including complex valued matrices, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors) as long as the eigenvalues are simple. Alongside this, we develop expressions that determine the uncertainty in a vector estimate obtained from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem given the uncertainty of the terms of the matrix. The Jacobian expressions developed are numerically validated with forward finite, differencing and the covariance expressions are validated using Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, the results from this work are used to determine covariance expressions for a variety of estimation problem examples and are also applied to the design of a dynamical system.

  9. General dissipative coefficient in warm intermediate inflation in Loop Quantum Cosmology in light of Planck and BICEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ramón; Olivares, Marco; Videla, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study a warm intermediate inflationary model with a general form for the dissipative coefficient Γ(T, ϕ) = CϕTm/ϕm-1 in the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC). We examine this model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. In general, we discuss in great detail the characteristics of this model in the slow-roll approximation. Also, we assume that the modifications to perturbation equations result exclusively from Hubble rate. In this approach, we use recent astronomical observations from Planck and BICEP2 experiments to restrict the parameters in our model.

  10. The generalized Fényes-Nelson model for free scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Mark

    1980-03-01

    The generalized Fényes-Nelson model of quantum mechanics is applied to the free scalar field. The resulting Markov field is equivalent to the Euclidean Markov field with the times scaled by a common factor which depends on the diffusion parameter. This result is consistent with Guerra's earlier work on stochastic quantization of scalar fields. It suggests a deep connection between Euclidean field theory and the stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics. The question of Lorentz covariance is also discussed.

  11. The Hopfield model revisited: covariance and quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Dalla Piazza, F.

    2016-01-01

    There are several possible applications of quantum electrodynamics in dielectric media which require a quantum description for the electromagnetic field interacting with matter fields. The associated quantum models can refer to macroscopic electromagnetic fields or, alternatively, to mesoscopic fields (polarization fields) describing an effective interaction between electromagnetic field and matter fields. We adopt the latter approach, and focus on the Hopfield model for the electromagnetic field in a dielectric dispersive medium in a framework in which space-time dependent mesoscopic parameters occur, like susceptibility, matter resonance frequency, and also coupling between electromagnetic field and polarization field. Our most direct goal is to describe in a phenomenological way a space-time varying dielectric perturbation induced by means of the Kerr effect in nonlinear dielectric media. This extension of the model is implemented by means of a Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian which, for constant microscopic parameters, and in the rest frame, coincides with the standard one. Moreover, we deduce a covariant scalar product and provide a canonical quantization scheme which takes into account the constraints implicit in the model. Examples of viable applications are indicated.

  12. Action recognition from video using feature covariance matrices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Ishwar, Prakash; Konrad, Janusz

    2013-06-01

    We propose a general framework for fast and accurate recognition of actions in video using empirical covariance matrices of features. A dense set of spatio-temporal feature vectors are computed from video to provide a localized description of the action, and subsequently aggregated in an empirical covariance matrix to compactly represent the action. Two supervised learning methods for action recognition are developed using feature covariance matrices. Common to both methods is the transformation of the classification problem in the closed convex cone of covariance matrices into an equivalent problem in the vector space of symmetric matrices via the matrix logarithm. The first method applies nearest-neighbor classification using a suitable Riemannian metric for covariance matrices. The second method approximates the logarithm of a query covariance matrix by a sparse linear combination of the logarithms of training covariance matrices. The action label is then determined from the sparse coefficients. Both methods achieve state-of-the-art classification performance on several datasets, and are robust to action variability, viewpoint changes, and low object resolution. The proposed framework is conceptually simple and has low storage and computational requirements making it attractive for real-time implementation. PMID:23508265

  13. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  14. Development of covariance capabilities in EMPIRE code

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.

    2008-06-24

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.

  15. Development of Covariance Capabilities in EMPIRE Code

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M. Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.

    2008-12-15

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.

  16. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  17. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: general implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy.

    PubMed

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Frisch, Michael J; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute. PMID:25399133

  18. Ballistic quantum state transfer in spin chains: General theory for quasi-free models and arbitrary initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    Ballistic quantum information transfer through spin chains is based on the idea of making the spin dynamics ruled by collective excitations with linear dispersion relation. Unlike perfect state transfer schemes, a ballistic transmission requires only a minimal engineering of the interactions; in fact, for most practical purposes, the optimization of the couplings to the ends of the chain is sufficient to obtain an almost perfect transmission. In this work we review different ballistic quantum state transfer protocols based on the dynamics of quasi-free spin chains, and further generalize them both at zero and finite temperature. In particular, besides presenting novel analytical results for XX, XY, and Ising spin models, it is shown how, via a complete control on the first and last two qubits of the chain, destructive thermal effects can be cancelled, leading to a high-quality state transmission irrespective of the temperature.

  19. Covariance Matrix Evaluations for Independent Mass Fission Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, N.; Serot, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Sumini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent needs for more accurate fission product yields include covariance information to allow improved uncertainty estimations of the parameters used by design codes. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to generate more reliable and complete uncertainty information on independent mass fission yields. Mass yields covariances are estimated through a convolution between the multi-Gaussian empirical model based on Brosa's fission modes, which describe the pre-neutron mass yields, and the average prompt neutron multiplicity curve. The covariance generation task has been approached using the Bayesian generalized least squared method through the CONRAD code. Preliminary results on mass yields variance-covariance matrix will be presented and discussed from physical grounds in the case of 235U(nth, f) and 239Pu(nth, f) reactions.

  20. Covariance Matrix Evaluations for Independent Mass Fission Yields

    SciTech Connect

    Terranova, N.; Serot, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2015-01-15

    Recent needs for more accurate fission product yields include covariance information to allow improved uncertainty estimations of the parameters used by design codes. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to generate more reliable and complete uncertainty information on independent mass fission yields. Mass yields covariances are estimated through a convolution between the multi-Gaussian empirical model based on Brosa's fission modes, which describe the pre-neutron mass yields, and the average prompt neutron multiplicity curve. The covariance generation task has been approached using the Bayesian generalized least squared method through the CONRAD code. Preliminary results on mass yields variance-covariance matrix will be presented and discussed from physical grounds in the case of {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f) reactions.

  1. Covariant transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Yang |

    1997-09-22

    Many phenomenological models for relativistic heavy ion collisions share a common framework - the relativistic Boltzmann equations. Within this framework, a nucleus-nucleus collision is described by the evolution of phase-space distributions of several species of particles. The equations can be effectively solved with the cascade algorithm by sampling each phase-space distribution with points, i.e. {delta}-functions, and by treating the interaction terms as collisions of these points. In between collisions, each point travels on a straight line trajectory. In most implementations of the cascade algorithm, each physical particle, e.g. a hadron or a quark, is often represented by one point. Thus, the cross-section for a collision of two points is just the cross-section of the physical particles, which can be quite large compared to the local density of the system. For an ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision, this could lead to a large violation of the Lorentz invariance. By using the invariance property of the Boltzmann equation under a scale transformation, a Lorentz invariant cascade algorithm can be obtained. The General Cascade Program - GCP - is a tool for solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation with any number of particle species and very general interactions with the cascade algorithm.

  2. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  3. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  4. A class of covariate-dependent spatiotemporal covariance functions

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Brian J; Eidsvik, Jo; Guindani, Michele; Nail, Amy J; Schmidt, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    In geostatistics, it is common to model spatially distributed phenomena through an underlying stationary and isotropic spatial process. However, these assumptions are often untenable in practice because of the influence of local effects in the correlation structure. Therefore, it has been of prolonged interest in the literature to provide flexible and effective ways to model non-stationarity in the spatial effects. Arguably, due to the local nature of the problem, we might envision that the correlation structure would be highly dependent on local characteristics of the domain of study, namely the latitude, longitude and altitude of the observation sites, as well as other locally defined covariate information. In this work, we provide a flexible and computationally feasible way for allowing the correlation structure of the underlying processes to depend on local covariate information. We discuss the properties of the induced covariance functions and discuss methods to assess its dependence on local covariate information by means of a simulation study and the analysis of data observed at ozone-monitoring stations in the Southeast United States. PMID:24772199

  5. Efficient tree tensor network states (TTNS) for quantum chemistry: Generalizations of the density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2013-04-01

    We investigate tree tensor network states for quantum chemistry. Tree tensor network states represent one of the simplest generalizations of matrix product states and the density matrix renormalization group. While matrix product states encode a one-dimensional entanglement structure, tree tensor network states encode a tree entanglement structure, allowing for a more flexible description of general molecules. We describe an optimal tree tensor network state algorithm for quantum chemistry. We introduce the concept of half-renormalization which greatly improves the efficiency of the calculations. Using our efficient formulation we demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of tree tensor network states versus matrix product states. We carry out benchmark calculations both on tree systems (hydrogen trees and π-conjugated dendrimers) as well as non-tree molecules (hydrogen chains, nitrogen dimer, and chromium dimer). In general, tree tensor network states require much fewer renormalized states to achieve the same accuracy as matrix product states. In non-tree molecules, whether this translates into a computational savings is system dependent, due to the higher prefactor and computational scaling associated with tree algorithms. In tree like molecules, tree network states are easily superior to matrix product states. As an illustration, our largest dendrimer calculation with tree tensor network states correlates 110 electrons in 110 active orbitals.

  6. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.

  7. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties in Spherical Quantum Dots: Generalized Hulthén Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyeaju, M. C.; Idiodi, J. O. A.; Ikot, A. N.; Solaimani, M.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we studied the optical properties of spherical quantum dots confined in Hulthén potential with the appropriate centrifugal term included. The approximate solution of the bound state and wave functions were obtained from the Schrödinger wave equation by applying the factorization method. Also, we have used the density matrix formalism to investigate the linear and third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient and refractive index changes.

  8. On the solvability of the quantum Rabi model and its 2-photon and two-mode generalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yao-Zhong

    2013-10-15

    We study the solvability of the time-independent matrix Schrödinger differential equations of the quantum Rabi model and its 2-photon and two-mode generalizations in Bargmann Hilbert spaces of entire functions. We show that the Rabi model and its 2-photon and two-mode analogs are quasi-exactly solvable. We derive the exact, closed-form expressions for the energies and the allowed model parameters for all the three cases in the solvable subspaces. Up to a normalization factor, the eigenfunctions for these models are given by polynomials whose roots are determined by systems of algebraic equations.

  9. Covariant balance laws in continua with microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavari, Arash; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the Green-Naghdi-Rivlin balance of energy method to continua with microstructure. The key idea is to replace the group of Galilean transformations with the group of diffeomorphisms of the ambient space. A key advantage is that one obtains in a natural way all the needed balance laws on both the macro and micro levels along with two Doyle-Erickson formulas. We model a structured continuum as a triplet of Riemannian manifolds: a material manifold, the ambient space manifold of material particles and a director field manifold. The Green-Naghdi-Rivlin theorem and its extensions for structured continua are critically reviewed. We show that when the ambient space is Euclidean and when the microstructure manifold is the tangent space of the ambient space manifold, postulating a single balance of energy law and its invariance under time-dependent isometries of the ambient space, one obtains conservation of mass, balances of linear and angular momenta but not a separate balance of linear momentum. We develop a covariant elasticity theory for structured continua by postulating that energy balance is invariant under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms of the ambient space, which in this case is the product of two Riemannian manifolds. We then introduce two types of constrained continua in which microstructure manifold is linked to the reference and ambient space manifolds. In the case when at every material point, the microstructure manifold is the tangent space of the ambient space manifold at the image of the material point, we show that the assumption of covariance leads to balances of linear and angular momenta with contributions from both forces and micro-forces along with two Doyle-Ericksen formulas. We show that generalized covariance leads to two balances of linear momentum and a single coupled balance of angular momentum. Using this theory, we covariantly obtain the balance laws for two specific examples, namely elastic

  10. The Performance Analysis Based on SAR Sample Covariance Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Erten, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Multi-channel systems appear in several fields of application in science. In the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) context, multi-channel systems may refer to different domains, as multi-polarization, multi-interferometric or multi-temporal data, or even a combination of them. Due to the inherent speckle phenomenon present in SAR images, the statistical description of the data is almost mandatory for its utilization. The complex images acquired over natural media present in general zero-mean circular Gaussian characteristics. In this case, second order statistics as the multi-channel covariance matrix fully describe the data. For practical situations however, the covariance matrix has to be estimated using a limited number of samples, and this sample covariance matrix follow the complex Wishart distribution. In this context, the eigendecomposition of the multi-channel covariance matrix has been shown in different areas of high relevance regarding the physical properties of the imaged scene. Specifically, the maximum eigenvalue of the covariance matrix has been frequently used in different applications as target or change detection, estimation of the dominant scattering mechanism in polarimetric data, moving target indication, etc. In this paper, the statistical behavior of the maximum eigenvalue derived from the eigendecomposition of the sample multi-channel covariance matrix in terms of multi-channel SAR images is simplified for SAR community. Validation is performed against simulated data and examples of estimation and detection problems using the analytical expressions are as well given. PMID:22736976

  11. Aspects of nonlocality in quantum field theory, quantum gravity and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a collection of essays on nonlocal phenomena in quantum field theory, gravity and cosmology. Mechanisms of nonlocal contributions to the quantum effective action are discussed within the covariant perturbation expansion in field strengths and spacetime curvatures. Euclidean version of the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values is presented as a special rule of obtaining the nonlocal effective equations of motion for the mean quantum field from the Euclidean effective action. This rule is applied to a new model of ghost free nonlocal cosmology which can generate the de Sitter (dS) cosmological evolution at an arbitrary value of Λ — a model of dark energy with the dynamical scale selected by a kind of a scaling symmetry breaking mechanism. This model is shown to interpolate between the superhorizon phase of a scalar mediated gravity and the short distance general relativistic limit in a special metric frame related by a nonlocal conformal transformation to the original metric.

  12. The Analysis of Eigenstates of a Few Generalized Quantum Baker’s Maps Using Hadamard and Related Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshisundaram, N.

    Application of the Hadamard and related transforms on a few generalized quantum baker’s maps have been studied. Effectiveness of the Hadamard transform and a new transform which combines the Fourier and the Hadamard transforms, for simplifying the eigenstates or resonances of the quantization of a few generalized baker’s map namely tetradic baker and lazy baker’s map when the Hilbert space dimension is power of 2 has been done by comparing the participation ratios in the transformed basis with respect to the position basis. Several special family of states based on their maximal compression in either Hadamard transform or the new transform are identified and they are related to the ubiquitous Thue-Morse and allied sequences. Evidence is provided that these special family of states as well as average over all eigenstates exhibits multifractal nature.

  13. Results on the gravity of quantum Fermi pressure of localized matter: A new test of general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.; Gillies, G.T.

    2006-05-15

    Recently Ehlers, Ozsvath, and Schucking discussed whether pressure contributes to active gravitational mass as required by general relativity. They pointed out that there is no experimental information on this available, though precision measurement of the gravitational constant should provide a test of this foundational aspect of gravity. We had used a similar argument earlier to test the contribution of leptons to the active gravitational mass. In this paper we use the result from the Zuerich gravitational constant experiment to provide the first adequate experimental input regarding the active gravitational mass of Fermi pressure. Apart from confirming the equality of the passive and active gravitational roles of the pressure term in general relativity within an accuracy of 5%, our results are consistent with the theoretical expectation of the cancellation of the gravity of pressure by the gravity of the surface tension of confined matter. This result on the active gravitational mass of the quantum zero-point Fermi pressure in the atomic nucleus is also interesting from the point of view of studying the interplay between quantum physics and classical gravity.

  14. Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.; Daboul, J.

    1994-07-01

    For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = {minus}{gamma}/r{sup {nu}}, {gamma} > 0 and {minus}{infinity} < {nu} < {infinity}. When the angular momentum is non-zero, these solutions lead to the classical orbits {rho}(t) = [cos {mu}({var_phi}(t) {minus} {var_phi}{sub 0}(t))]{sup 1/{mu}}, with {mu} = {nu}/2 {minus} 1 {ne} 0. For {nu} > 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when {nu} > 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Also, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, state which correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed.

  15. Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Daboul, Jamil

    1995-01-01

    For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = -gamma/r(exp nu), gamma greater than 0 and -infinity less than nu less than infinity. When the angular momentum is non-zero, these solutions lead to the classical orbits (p(t) = (cos mu(phi(t) - phi(sub 0)t))(exp 1/mu) with mu = nu/2 - 1 does not equal 0. For nu greater than 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when nu is greater than 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Further, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, states. They correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. Finally, the number of space dimensions of the system can determine whether or not an E = 0 state is bound. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed.

  16. A covariant Fokker-Planck equation for a simple gas from relativistic kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.

    2010-12-14

    A manifestly covariant Fokker-Planck differential equation is derived for the case of a relativistic simple gas by taking a small momentum transfer approximation within the collision integral of the relativistic Boltzmann equation. We follow closely previous work, with the main difference that we keep manifest covariance at every stage of the analysis. In addition, we use the covariant Juettner distribution function to find a relativistic generalization of the Einstein's fluctuation-dissipation relation.

  17. Quantum Tunneling of the Non-stationary Kerr-Newman Black Hole via a New Type of General Tortoise Coordinate Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhong-Wen; Deng, Juan; Li, Guo-Ping; Yang, Shu-Zheng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the quantum tunneling of the non-stationary Kerr-Newman black hole is investigated via Hamilton-Jacobi equation and two types of general tortoise coordinate transformations. The tunneling rates, the Hawking temperatures and radiation spectrums are derived respectively. Our result shows that the new type of general tortoise coordinate transformation is more reasonable.

  18. Tight finite-key analysis for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution under general attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chun; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-05-01

    For quantum key distribution (QKD) using spontaneous parametric-down-conversion sources (SPDCSs), the passive decoy-state protocol has been proved to be efficiently close to the theoretical limit of an infinite decoy-state protocol. In this paper, we apply a tight finite-key analysis for the passive decoy-state QKD using SPDCSs. Combining the security bound based on the uncertainty principle with the passive decoy-state protocol, a concise and stringent formula for calculating the key generation rate for QKD using SPDCSs is presented. The simulation shows that the secure distance under our formula can reach up to 182 km when the number of sifted data is 1010. Our results also indicate that, under the same deviation of statistical fluctuation due to finite-size effects, the passive decoy-state QKD with SPDCSs can perform as well as the active decoy-state QKD with a weak coherent source.

  19. Measuring our changing Earth by means of General Relativity and quantum sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Jakob

    2016-07-01

    Breakthroughs in quantum metrology and advanced laser metrology enable new methods for extremely accurate and precise measurements of time, ranging, inertial forces and gravity, in sensor setups that can be very compact. This is relevant for satellite geodesy and geodetic ground networks, which together provide the geometric and gravimetric reference frames and the basis for monitoring processes of global and regional change involving deformation and mass re-distribution. Ultraprecise optical atomic clocks and optical frequency transfer allow measuring the relativistic gravitational frequency redshift and open the perspective of tying height differences and height systems to atomic standards. Satellite gravimetry with laser interferometric ranging, which is demonstrated on LISA Pathfinder and the upcoming GRACE Follow-On, will allow recovering the Earth's large-scale mass redistribution in its water cycle and due to climatic change with better resolution. Interferometry with clouds of cold atoms is the basis for very sensitive and compact gravimeters to monitor local and regional geophysical processes.

  20. General Method for the Synthesis of Ultrastable Core/Shell Quantum Dots by Aluminum Doping.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhichun; Yao, Wei; Kong, Long; Zhao, Yixin; Li, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted extensive attention in various applications because of their unique optical and electronic properties. However, long-term photostability remains a challenge for their practical application. Here, we present a simple method to enhance the photostability of QDs against oxidation by doping aluminum into the shell of core/shell QDs. We demonstrate that Al in the coating shell can be oxidized to Al2O3, which can serve as a self-passivation layer on the surface of the core/shell QDs and effectively stop further photodegradation during long-term light irradiation. The prepared CdSe/CdS:Al QDs survived 24 h without significant degradation when they were subjected to intense illumination under LED light (450 nm, 0.35 W/cm(2)), whereas conventional CdSe/CdS QDs were bleached within 3 h. PMID:26389704

  1. Covariance Modifications to Subspace Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B

    2008-11-19

    Adaptive signal processing algorithms that rely upon representations of signal and noise subspaces often require updates to those representations when new data become available. Subspace representations frequently are estimated from available data with singular value (SVD) decompositions. Subspace updates require modifications to these decompositions. Updates can be performed inexpensively provided they are low-rank. A substantial literature on SVD updates exists, frequently focusing on rank-1 updates (see e.g. [Karasalo, 1986; Comon and Golub, 1990, Badeau, 2004]). In these methods, data matrices are modified by addition or deletion of a row or column, or data covariance matrices are modified by addition of the outer product of a new vector. A recent paper by Brand [2006] provides a general and efficient method for arbitrary rank updates to an SVD. The purpose of this note is to describe a closely-related method for applications where right singular vectors are not required. This note also describes the SVD updates to a particular scenario of interest in seismic array signal processing. The particular application involve updating the wideband subspace representation used in seismic subspace detectors [Harris, 2006]. These subspace detectors generalize waveform correlation algorithms to detect signals that lie in a subspace of waveforms of dimension d {ge} 1. They potentially are of interest because they extend the range of waveform variation over which these sensitive detectors apply. Subspace detectors operate by projecting waveform data from a detection window into a subspace specified by a collection of orthonormal waveform basis vectors (referred to as the template). Subspace templates are constructed from a suite of normalized, aligned master event waveforms that may be acquired by a single sensor, a three-component sensor, an array of such sensors or a sensor network. The template design process entails constructing a data matrix whose columns contain the

  2. General tracking control of arbitrary N-level quantum systems using piecewise time-independent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delben, G. J.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-05-01

    Here we propose a tracking quantum control protocol for arbitrary N-level systems. The goal is to make the expected value of an observable O to follow a predetermined trajectory S( t). For so, we drive the quantum state |\\varPsi (t) rangle evolution through an external potential V which depends on M_V tunable parameters (e.g., the amplitude and phase (thus M_V = 2) of a laser field in the dipolar condition). At instants t_n, these parameters can be rapidly switched to specific values and then kept constant during time intervals Δ t. The method determines which sets of parameters values can result in < \\varPsi (t) | O |\\varPsi (t) rangle = S(t). It is numerically robust (no intrinsic divergences) and relatively fast since we need to solve only nonlinear algebraic (instead of a system of coupled nonlinear differential) equations to obtain the parameters at the successive Δ t's. For a given S( t), the required minimum M_V = M_min 'degrees of freedom' of V attaining the control is a good figure of merit of the problem difficulty. For instance, the control cannot be unconditionally realizable if M_{min } > 2 and V is due to a laser field (the usual context in real applications). As it is discussed and exemplified, in these cases a possible procedure is to relax the control in certain problematic (but short) time intervals. Finally, when existing the approach can systematically access distinct possible solutions, thereby allowing a relatively simple way to search for the best implementation conditions. Illustrations for 3-, 4-, and 5-level systems and some comparisons with calculations in the literature are presented.

  3. Generalized Airy functions for use in one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of the one dimensional, time independent, Schroedinger equation in which the energy minus the potential varies as the nth power of the distance is obtained from proper linear combinations of Bessel functions. The linear combinations called generalized Airy functions, reduce to the usual Airy functions Ai(x) and Bi(x) when n equals 1 and have the same type of simple asymptotic behavior. Expressions for the generalized Airy functions which can be evaluated by the method of generalized Gaussian quadrature are obtained.

  4. Quantum computers and reality: Deutsch's anti-positivist campaign for explanations-in-general, apart from his Many Worlds Interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Thomas W.

    2002-04-01

    David Deutsch (Oxford University) is known for ``Deutsch's algorithmm"---for going beyond the initial ideas about quantum computing (QC) of Benioff, Bennett and Feynman, to describe a quantum Turing machine, and sparking today's widespread experimental research to actually build one. Deutsch does not accept the standard Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) of quantum mechanics (QM); he supports the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI) and credits it for his insights. In his book, The Fabric of Reality, and numerous articles and talks, he argues that the the adoption of the MWI is phnecessary for making the advances required for quantum computing. His argues that physicists must resolutely take a ``realistic" viewpoint to its logical conclusions, and, that the MWI is phthe realistic theory. In response to ubiquitous assertions by the majority of physicists that ``both systems give the same numbers," and ``all physics does (or can do) is to predict the outcome of experiments," he argues strenuously for the importance of explanations in quantum physics, and to scientific progress in general. Hence, I argue that there are two, reasonably separable, layers here: (i) opposition to positivist and instrumentalist arguments against the validity and/or value of phany explanation(s) phas such, and (ii) an argument about just what is the correct explanation: the MWI over the CI. While establishing the validity of (i) may possibly undermine CI's spirit, nevertheless (i) can be strongly validated independent from complicatons of an overlap with issues of the interpretation of QM. I develop some simple, historical contradictions regarding point (i), (without passing judgement on Deutsch's MWI or involving the CI). For example, the majority viewpoint identifies its seemingly ``non- philosophical" and non-``methaphysical" mindset as archtypically ``scientific", while seemingly quite unaware of the theoretical difficuties with positivist notions of truth, such as the fact that the foundations

  5. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra

    PubMed Central

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail. PMID:24225900

  6. Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.

  7. Two-loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Ven, Anton E. M.

    1992-07-01

    We prove the existence of a nonrenormalizable infinity in the two-loop effective action of perturbative quantum gravity by means of an explicit calculation. Our final result agrees with that obtained by earlier authors. We use the background-field method in coordinate space, combined with dimensional regularization and a heat kernel representation for the propagators. General covariance is manifestly preserved. Only vacuum graphs in the presence of an on-shell background metric need to be calculated. We extend the background covariant harmonic gauge to include terms nonlinear in the quantum gravitational fields and allow for general reparametrizations of those fields. For a particular gauge choice and field parametrization only two three-graviton and six four-graviton vertices are present in the action. Calculational labor is further reduced by restricting to backgrounds, which are not only Ricci-flat, but satisfy an additional constraint bilinear in the Weyl tensor. To handle the still formidable amount of algebra, we use the symbolic manipulation program FORM. We checked that the on-shell two-loop effective action is in fact independent of all gauge and field redefinition parameters. A two-loop analysis for Yang-Mills fields is included as well, since in that case we can give full details as well as simplify earlier analyses.

  8. A Review of Nonparametric Alternatives to Analysis of Covariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James

    1985-01-01

    Five distribution-free alternatives to parametric analysis of covariance are presented and demonstrated: Quade's distribution-free test, Puri and Sen's solution, McSweeney and Porter's rank transformation, Burnett and Barr's rank difference scores, and Shirley's general linear model solution. The results of simulation studies regarding Type I…

  9. A covariant approach to the gravitational refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaciu, I.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.

    A covariant formulation of the Maxwell's field equations in a gravitational field, based on the bimetric interpretation of general relativity Theory, is given. The purpose of the work is in adequate definition of the gravitational refractive index in agreement with both wave equations propagation and a relationship between refractive index and the Minkovskian tensor of gravitational permitivity.

  10. Alternative Test Criteria in Covariance Structure Analysis: A Unified Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satorra, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Within covariance structural analysis, a unified approach to asymptotic theory of alternative test criteria for testing parametric restrictions is provided. More general statistics for addressing the case where the discrepancy function is not asymptotically optimal, and issues concerning power analysis and the asymptotic theory of testing-related…

  11. Theoretical investigations in nonlinear quantum optics, theory of measurement, and pulsations of general relativistic models of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of six papers. The first four constitute the heart of the thesis; they are concerned with quantum-mechanical properties of certain harmonic-oscillator states. The first paper is a discourse on single-mode and two-mode Gaussian pure states (GPS), states produced when harmonic oscillators in their ground states are exposed to potentials that are linear or quadratic in oscillator position and momentum variables (creation and annihilation operators). The second and third papers develop a formalism for analyzing two photon devices (e.g., parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors), in which photons in the output modes arise from two-proton transitions, i.e., are created or destroyed two at a time. The fourth paper is an analysis of the noise in homodyne detection, a phase-sensitive detection scheme in which the special properties of (single-mode) squeezed states are revealed. The fifth paper considers the validity of the standard quantum limit (SQL) for measurements that monitor the position of a free mass. The sixth paper develops the mathematical theory of torsional (toroidal) oscillations in fully general relativistic, nonrotating, spherical stellar models and of the gravitational waves they emit.

  12. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, Martin

    2010-10-15

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  13. Methods for estimation of covariance matrices and covariance components for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate class. Each batch of plant feed material must meet certain requirements related to plant performance, and the resulting class must meet requirements imposed by the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. Properties of a process batch and the resultlng glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values from data on feed composition. Methods for checking and documenting compliance with feed and glass requirements must account for various types of uncertainties. This document focuses on the estimation. manipulation, and consequences of composition uncertainty, i.e., the uncertainty inherent in estimates of feed or glass composition. Three components of composition uncertainty will play a role in estimating and checking feed and glass properties: batch-to-batch variability, within-batch uncertainty, and analytical uncertainty. In this document, composition uncertainty and its components are treated in terms of variances and variance components or univariate situations, covariance matrices and covariance components for multivariate situations. The importance of variance and covariance components stems from their crucial role in properly estimating uncertainty In values calculated from a set of observations on a process batch. Two general types of methods for estimating uncertainty are discussed: (1) methods based on data, and (2) methods based on knowledge, assumptions, and opinions about the vitrification process. Data-based methods for estimating variances and covariance matrices are well known. Several types of data-based methods exist for estimation of variance components; those based on the statistical method analysis of variance are discussed, as are the strengths and weaknesses of this approach.

  14. Entanglement patterns and generalized correlation functions in quantum many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcza, G.; Noack, R. M.; Sólyom, J.; Legeza, Ö.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce transition operators that in a given basis of the single-site states of a many-body system have a single nonvanishing matrix element and introduce their correlation functions. We show that they fall into groups that decay with the same rate. The mutual information defined in terms of the von Neumann entropy between two sites is given in terms of these so-called generalized correlation functions. We confirm numerically that the long-distance decay of the mutual information follows the square of that of the most slowly decaying generalized correlation function. The main advantage of our procedure is that, in order to identify the most relevant physical processes, there is no need to know a priori the nature of the ordering in the system, i.e., no need to explicitly construct particular physical correlation functions. We explore the behavior of the mutual information and the generalized correlation functions for comformally invariant models and for the SU(n ) Hubbard model with n =2 ,3 ,4 , and 5, which are, in general, not conformally invariant. In this latter case, we show that for filling f =1 /q and q generalized correlation functions to the n -site case.

  15. Lévy flights and nonlocal quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr; Stephanovich, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    We develop a fully fledged theory of quantum dynamical patterns of behavior that are nonlocally induced. To this end we generalize the standard Laplacian-based framework of the Schrödinger picture quantum evolution to that employing nonlocal (pseudodifferential) operators. Special attention is paid to the Salpeter (here, m ⩾ 0) quasirelativistic equation and the evolution of various wave packets, in particular to their radial expansion in 3D. Foldy's synthesis of "covariant particle equations" is extended to encompass free Maxwell theory, which however is devoid of any "particle" content. Links with the photon wave mechanics are explored.

  16. New Frontiers at the Interface of General Relativity and Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiler, C.; Buser, M.; Kajari, E.; Schleich, W. P.; Rasel, E. M.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper we follow three major themes: (i) concepts of rotation in general relativity, (ii) effects induced by these generalized rotations, and (iii) their measurement using interferometry. Our journey takes us from the Foucault pendulum via the Sagnac interferometer to manifestations of gravito-magnetism in double binary pulsars and in Gödel’s Universe. Throughout our article we emphasize the emerging role of matter wave interferometry based on cold atoms or Bose-Einstein condensates leading to superior inertial sensors. In particular, we advertise recent activities directed towards the operation of a coherent matter wave interferometer in an extended free fall.

  17. Lorentz covariance, higher-spin superspaces and self-duality

    SciTech Connect

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Nuyts, Jean

    1998-12-15

    Lorentz covariant generalisations of the notions of supersymmetry, superspace and self-duality are discussed. The essential idea is to extend standard constructions by allowing tangent vectors and coordinates which transform according to more general Lorentz representations than solely the spinorial and vectorial ones of standard lore. Such superspaces provide model configuration spaces for theories of arbitrary spin fields. Our framework is an elegant one for handling higher-dimensional theories in a manifestly SO(3,1) cavariant fashion. A further application is the construction of a hierarchy of solvable Lorentz covariant systems generalising four-dimensional self-duality.

  18. Quasilocal conserved charges in a covariant theory of gravity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wontae; Kulkarni, Shailesh; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2013-08-23

    In any generally covariant theory of gravity, we show the relationship between the linearized asymptotically conserved current and its nonlinear completion through the identically conserved current. Our formulation for conserved charges is based on the Lagrangian description, and so completely covariant. By using this result, we give a prescription to define quasilocal conserved charges in any higher derivative gravity. As applications of our approach, we demonstrate the angular momentum invariance along the radial direction of black holes and reproduce more efficiently the linearized potential on the asymptotic anti-de Sitter space. PMID:24010423

  19. General route for the decomposition of InAs quantum dots during the capping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D.; Reyes, D. F.; Utrilla, A. D.; Ben, T.; Braza, V.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.; Ulloa, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of the capping process on the morphology of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) by using different GaAs-based capping layers (CLs), ranging from strain reduction layers to strain compensating layers, has been studied by transmission microscopic techniques. For this, we have measured simultaneously the height and diameter in buried and uncapped QDs covering populations of hundreds of QDs that are statistically reliable. First, the uncapped QD population evolves in all cases from a pyramidal shape into a more homogenous distribution of buried QDs with a spherical-dome shape, despite the different mechanisms implicated in the QD capping. Second, the shape of the buried QDs depends only on the final QD size, where the radius of curvature is function of the base diameter independently of the CL composition and growth conditions. An asymmetric evolution of the QDs’ morphology takes place, in which the QD height and base diameter are modified in the amount required to adopt a similar stable shape characterized by a averaged aspect ratio of 0.21. Our results contradict the traditional model of QD material redistribution from the apex to the base and point to a different universal behavior of the overgrowth processes in self-organized InAs QDs.

  20. General route for the decomposition of InAs quantum dots during the capping process.

    PubMed

    González, D; Reyes, D F; Utrilla, A D; Ben, T; Braza, V; Guzman, A; Hierro, A; Ulloa, J M

    2016-03-29

    The effect of the capping process on the morphology of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) by using different GaAs-based capping layers (CLs), ranging from strain reduction layers to strain compensating layers, has been studied by transmission microscopic techniques. For this, we have measured simultaneously the height and diameter in buried and uncapped QDs covering populations of hundreds of QDs that are statistically reliable. First, the uncapped QD population evolves in all cases from a pyramidal shape into a more homogenous distribution of buried QDs with a spherical-dome shape, despite the different mechanisms implicated in the QD capping. Second, the shape of the buried QDs depends only on the final QD size, where the radius of curvature is function of the base diameter independently of the CL composition and growth conditions. An asymmetric evolution of the QDs' morphology takes place, in which the QD height and base diameter are modified in the amount required to adopt a similar stable shape characterized by a averaged aspect ratio of 0.21. Our results contradict the traditional model of QD material redistribution from the apex to the base and point to a different universal behavior of the overgrowth processes in self-organized InAs QDs. PMID:26891164

  1. Quantum statistical entropy and minimal length of 5D Ricci-flat black string with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.

  2. Connecting Math and Motion: A Covariational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbertson, Robert J.; Thompson, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    We define covariational reasoning as the ability to correlate changes in two connected variables. For example, the ability to describe the height of fluid in an odd-shaped vessel as a function of fluid volume requires covariational reasoning skills. Covariational reasoning ability is an essential resource for gaining a deep understanding of the physics of motion. We have developed an approach for teaching physical science to in-service math and science high school teachers that emphasizes covariational reasoning. Several examples of covariation and results from a small cohort of local teachers will be presented.

  3. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  4. Spin filter effects in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with double quantum dots under general Rashba spin-orbit interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have reported on spin filters using linear Rashba spin-orbit interactions (SOI). However, spin filters using square and cubic Rashba SOIs have not yet been reported. We consider that this is because the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs are ambiguous. In this study, we try to derive the AC phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs from the viewpoint of non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory. These AC phases can be derived successfully from the non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory without the completing square methods. Using the results, we investigate the spin filtering in a double quantum dot (QD) Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring under linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. This AB ring consists of elongated QDs and quasi-one-dimensional quantum nanowires under an external magnetic field. The spin transport is investigated from the left nanowire to the right nanowire in the above structure within the tight-binding approximation. In particular, we focus on the difference of spin filtering among linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. The calculation is performed for the spin polarization by changing the penetrating magnetic flux for the AB ring subject to linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. It is found that perfect spin filtering is achieved for all of the Rashba SOIs. This result indicates that this AB ring under general Rashba SOIs can be a promising device for spin current generation. Moreover, the AB rings under general Rashba SOIs behave in totally different ways in response to penetrating magnetic flux, which is attributed to linear, square, and cubic behaviors in the in-plane momentum. This result enables us to make a clear distinction between linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs according to the peak position of the perfect spin filtering.

  5. Picture this: The value of multiple visual representations for student learning of quantum concepts in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Emily Christine

    Mental models for scientific learning are often defined as, "cognitive tools situated between experiments and theories" (Duschl & Grandy, 2012). In learning, these cognitive tools are used to not only take in new information, but to help problem solve in new contexts. Nancy Nersessian (2008) describes a mental model as being "[loosely] characterized as a representation of a system with interactive parts with representations of those interactions. Models can be qualitative, quantitative, and/or simulative (mental, physical, computational)" (p. 63). If conceptual parts used by the students in science education are inaccurate, then the resulting model will not be useful. Students in college general chemistry courses are presented with multiple abstract topics and often struggle to fit these parts into complete models. This is especially true for topics that are founded on quantum concepts, such as atomic structure and molecular bonding taught in college general chemistry. The objectives of this study were focused on how students use visual tools introduced during instruction to reason with atomic and molecular structure, what misconceptions may be associated with these visual tools, and how visual modeling skills may be taught to support students' use of visual tools for reasoning. The research questions for this study follow from Gilbert's (2008) theory that experts use multiple representations when reasoning and modeling a system, and Kozma and Russell's (2005) theory of representational competence levels. This study finds that as students developed greater command of their understanding of abstract quantum concepts, they spontaneously provided additional representations to describe their more sophisticated models of atomic and molecular structure during interviews. This suggests that when visual modeling with multiple representations is taught, along with the limitations of the representations, it can assist students in the development of models for reasoning about

  6. Quantum Cylindrical Waves and Parametrized Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    In this article, we review some illustrative results in the study of two related toy models for quantum gravity, namely cylindrical waves (which are cylindrically symmetric gravitational fields)and parametrized field theory (which is just free scalar field theory on a flat space-time in generally covariant disguise). In the former, we focus on the phenomenon of unexpected large quantum gravity effects in regions of weak classical gravitational fields and on an analysis of causality in a quantum geometry. In the latter, we focus on Dirac quantization, argue that this is related to the unitary implementability of free scalar field evolution along curved foliations of the flat space-time and review the relevant results for unitary implementability.

  7. Simulation-Extrapolation for Estimating Means and Causal Effects with Mismeasured Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Regression, weighting and related approaches to estimating a population mean from a sample with nonrandom missing data often rely on the assumption that conditional on covariates, observed samples can be treated as random. Standard methods using this assumption generally will fail to yield consistent estimators when covariates are measured with…

  8. Evaluation of Tungsten Nuclear Reaction Data with Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Trkov, A. Capote, R.; Kodeli, I.; Leal, L.

    2008-12-15

    As a follow-up of the work presented at the ND-2007 conference in Nice, additional fast reactor benchmarks were analyzed. Adjustment to the cross sections in the keV region was necessary. Evaluated neutron cross section data files for {sup 180,182,183,184,186}W isotopes were produced. Covariances were generated for all isotopes except {sup 180}W. In the resonance range the retro-active method was used. Above the resolved resonance range the covariance prior was generated by the Monte Carlo technique from nuclear model calculations with the Empire-II code. Experimental data were taken into account through the GANDR system using the generalized least-squares technique. Introducing experimental data results in relatively small changes in the cross sections, but greatly constrains the uncertainties. The covariance files are currently undergoing testing.

  9. Evaluation of Tungsten Nuclear Reaction Data with Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Trkov, A.; Capote, R.; Kodeli, I.; Leal, Luiz C.

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up of the work presented at the ND-2007 conference in Nice, additional fast reactor benchmarks were analyzed. Adjustment to the cross sections in the keV region was necessary. Evaluated neutron cross section data files for 180,182,183,184,186W isotopes were produced. Covariances were generated for all isotopes except 180W. In the resonance range the retro-active method was used. Above the resolved resonance range the covariance prior was generated by the Monte Carlo technique from nuclear model calculations with the Empire-II code. Experimental data were taken into account through the GANDR system using the generalized least-squares technique. Introducing experimental data results in relatively small changes in the cross sections, but greatly constrains the uncertainties. The covariance files are currently undergoing testing.

  10. Data Covariances from R-Matrix Analyses of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.M. Paris, M.W.

    2015-01-15

    After first reviewing the parametric description of light-element reactions in multichannel systems using R-matrix theory and features of the general LANL R-matrix analysis code EDA, we describe how its chi-square minimization procedure gives parameter covariances. This information is used, together with analytically calculated sensitivity derivatives, to obtain cross section covariances for all reactions included in the analysis by first-order error propagation. Examples are given of the covariances obtained for systems with few resonances ({sup 5}He) and with many resonances ({sup 13}C ). We discuss the prevalent problem of this method leading to cross section uncertainty estimates that are unreasonably small for large data sets. The answer to this problem appears to be using parameter confidence intervals in place of standard errors.

  11. Quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Huei; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2008-07-01

    In general relativity, quasi-local energy momentum expressions have been constructed from various formulae. However, the Newtonian theory of gravity gives a well-known and a unique quasi-local mass expression (surface integration). Since geometrical formulation of Newtonian gravity has been established in the covariant Newtonian spacetime, it provides a covariant approximation from relativistic to Newtonian theories. By using this approximation, we calculate the Komar integral, the Brown York quasi-local energy and the Dougan Mason quasi-local mass in the covariant Newtonian spacetime. It turns out that the Komar integral naturally gives the Newtonian quasi-local mass expression; however, further conditions (spherical symmetry) need to be made for Brown York and Dougan Mason expressions.

  12. Covariant electromagnetic theory for inertial frames with substratum flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1985-10-01

    The original Maxwell's equations for the ether rest frame are generalized to electromagnetic field equations for arbitrary inertial frames in which the ether is in a state of motion. The electromagnetic field equations with ether flow w are found to be Galilei covariant, and reduce to the Maxwell equations in the limit w/c goes to zero. Electromagnetic signals propagate isotropically with the speed of light relative to the ether. Relative to inertial frames with ether flow w, electromagnetic signals propagate anisotropically. In inertial frames with ether flow, an electromagnetic wave experiences a blue or red shift. The difficulties of the Lorentz covariant and ether-free special theory of relativity are removed by adopting a covariance principle compatible with an electromagnetic ether. The present theory is shown to agree with the Michelson-Morley and Doppler effect experiment.

  13. Data Covariances from R-Matrix Analyses of Light Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, G. M.; Paris, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    After first reviewing the parametric description of light-element reactions in multichannel systems using R-matrix theory and features of the general LANL R-matrix analysis code EDA, we describe how its chi-square minimization procedure gives parameter covariances. This information is used, together with analytically calculated sensitivity derivatives, to obtain cross section covariances for all reactions included in the analysis by first-order error propagation. Examples are given of the covariances obtained for systems with few resonances (5He) and with many resonances (13C). We discuss the prevalent problem of this method leading to cross section uncertainty estimates that are unreasonably small for large data sets. The answer to this problem appears to be using parameter confidence intervals in place of standard errors.

  14. Covariate-adjusted confidence interval for the intraclass correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shoukri, Mohamed M; Donner, Allan; El-Dali, Abdelmoneim

    2013-09-01

    A crucial step in designing a new study is to estimate the required sample size. For a design involving cluster sampling, the appropriate sample size depends on the so-called design effect, which is a function of the average cluster size and the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC). It is well-known that under the framework of hierarchical and generalized linear models, a reduction in residual error may be achieved by including risk factors as covariates. In this paper we show that the covariate design, indicating whether the covariates are measured at the cluster level or at the within-cluster subject level affects the estimation of the ICC, and hence the design effect. Therefore, the distinction between these two types of covariates should be made at the design stage. In this paper we use the nested-bootstrap method to assess the accuracy of the estimated ICC for continuous and binary response variables under different covariate structures. The codes of two SAS macros are made available by the authors for interested readers to facilitate the construction of confidence intervals for the ICC. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations we evaluate the relative efficiency of the estimators and evaluate the accuracy of the coverage probabilities of a 95% confidence interval on the population ICC. The methodology is illustrated using a published data set of blood pressure measurements taken on family members. PMID:23871746

  15. Manifestly covariant Jüttner distribution and equipartition theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.

    2010-02-01

    The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution plays a key role in describing several high-energy and astrophysical effects. Recently, computer simulations favored Jüttner’s as the relativistic generalization of Maxwell’s distribution for d=1,2,3 spatial dimensions and pointed to an invariant temperature. In this work, we argue an invariant temperature naturally follows from manifest covariance. We present a derivation of the manifestly covariant Jüttner’s distribution and equipartition theorem. The standard procedure to get the equilibrium distribution as a solution of the relativistic Boltzmann’s equation, which holds for dilute gases, is here adopted. However, contrary to previous analysis, we use Cartesian coordinates in d+1 momentum space, with d spatial components. The use of the multiplication theorem of Bessel functions turns crucial to regain the known invariant form of Jüttner’s distribution. Since equilibrium kinetic-theory results should agree with thermodynamics in the comoving frame to the gas the covariant pseudonorm of a vector entering the distribution can be identified with the reciprocal of temperature in such comoving frame. Then by combining the covariant statistical moments of Jüttner’s distribution a form of the equipartition theorem is advanced which also accommodates the invariant comoving temperature and it contains, as a particular case, a previous not manifestly covariant form.

  16. A General Quantum Mechanically Derived Force Field (QMDFF) for Molecules and Condensed Phase Simulations.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Stefan

    2014-10-14

    A black-box type procedure is presented for the generation of molecule-specific, classical potential energy functions (force-field, FF) solely from quantum mechanically (QM) computed input data. The approach can treat covalently bound molecules and noncovalent complexes with almost arbitrary structure. The necessary QM information consists of the equilibrium structure and the corresponding Hessian matrix, atomic partial charges, and covalent bond orders. The FF fit is performed automatically without any further input and yields a specific (nontransferable) potential which very closely resembles the QM reference potential near the equilibrium. The resulting atomistic, fully flexible FF is anharmonic and allows smooth dissociation of covalent bonds into atoms. A newly proposed force-constant-bond-energy relation with little empiricism provides reasonably accurate (about 5-10% error) atomization energies for almost arbitrary diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Intra- and intermolecular noncovalent interactions are treated by using well established and accurate D3 dispersion coefficients, CM5 charges from small basis set QM calculations, and a new interatomic repulsion potential. Particular attention has been paid to the construction of the torsion potentials which are partially obtained from automatic QM-tight-binding calculations for model systems. Detailed benchmarks are presented for conformational energies, atomization energies, vibrational frequencies, gas phase structures of organic molecules, and transition metal complexes. Comparisons to results from standard FF or semiempirical methods reveal very good accuracy of the new potential. While further studies are necessary to validate the approach, the initial results suggest QMDFF as a routine tool for the computation of a wide range of properties and systems (e.g., for molecular dynamics of isolated molecules, explicit solvation, self-solvation (melting) or even for molecular crystals) in particular when standard

  17. General properties of quantum optical systems in a strong field limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chumakov, S. M.; Klimov, Andrei B.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atoms or many n-level atoms) interacting with a resonant quantized mode of an em field. If the initial field state is a coherent state with a large photon number then the system dynamics possesses some general features, independently of the particular structure of the atomic system. Namely, trapping states, factorization of the wave function, collapses and revivals of the atomic energy oscillations are discussed.

  18. Quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qudit state with two-qudit entanglements and generalized Bell-state measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2008-07-01

    A scheme for quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qudit state is proposed with two-qudit entanglements and generalized Bell-state (GBS) measurements. In this scheme, the sender Alice should perform m two-particle GBS measurements on her 2m qudits, and the controllers also take GBS measurements on their qudits and transfer their quantum information to the receiver with entanglement swapping if the agents cooperate. We discuss two topological structures for this quantum state sharing scheme, a dispersive one and a circular one. The former is better at the aspect of security than the latter as it requires the number of the agents who should cooperate for recovering the quantum secret larger than the other one.

  19. Relativistically Covariant Many-Body Perturbation Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Hedendahl, Daniel

    A covariant evolution operator (CEO) can be constructed, representing the time evolution of the relativistic wave unction or state vector. Like the nonrelativistic version, it contains (quasi-)singularities. The regular part is referred to as the Green’s operator (GO), which is the operator analogue of the Green’s function (GF). This operator, which is a field-theoretical concept, is closely related to the many-body wave operator and effective Hamiltonian, and it is the basic tool for our unified theory. The GO leads, when the perturbation is carried to all orders, to the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in the equal-time or effective-potential approximation. When relaxing the equal-time restriction, the procedure is fully compatible with the exact BSE. The calculations are performed in the photonic Fock space, where the number of photons is no longer constant. The procedure has been applied to helium-like ions, and the results agree well with S-matrix results in cases when comparison can be performed. In addition, evaluation of higher-order quantum-electrodynamical (QED) correlational effects has been performed, and the effects are found to be quite significant for light and medium-heavy ions.

  20. Generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models: ground state entanglement and quantum entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, José A.; Finkel, Federico; González-López, Artemio; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a new class of generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models with \\text{su}(m+1) spin and long-range non-constant interactions, whose non-degenerate ground state is a Dicke state of \\text{su}(m+1) type. We evaluate in closed form the reduced density matrix of a block of L spins when the whole system is in its ground state, and study the corresponding von Neumann and Rényi entanglement entropies in the thermodynamic limit. We show that both of these entropies scale as alog L when L tends to infinity, where the coefficient a is equal to (m  -  k)/2 in the ground state phase with k vanishing \\text{su}(m+1) magnon densities. In particular, our results show that none of these generalized Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models are critical, since when L\\to ∞ their Rényi entropy R q becomes independent of the parameter q. We have also computed the Tsallis entanglement entropy of the ground state of these generalized \\text{su}(m+1) Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models, finding that it can be made extensive by an appropriate choice of its parameter only when m-k≥slant 3 . Finally, in the \\text{su}(3) case we construct in detail the phase diagram of the ground state in parameter space, showing that it is determined in a simple way by the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(3) . This is also true in the \\text{su}(m+1) case; for instance, we prove that the region for which all the magnon densities are non-vanishing is an (m  +  1)-simplex in {{{R}}m} whose vertices are the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(m+1) .

  1. Corrigendum: Thermodynamical instabilities of perfect fluid spheres in General Relativity (2013 Class. Quantum Grav. 30 115018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roupas, Zacharias

    2015-06-01

    In [1], the thermal equilibrium of static, spherically symmetric perfect fluids in General Relativity was studied. I would like to elaborate three points relevant to the results of [1]. The first point is only a clarification, summarized in theorem 1 below, of results that appear in [1]. The following two points correct the error in [1], stating that the condition for thermodynamic stability, found in [1], is referring to the microcanonical ensemble, while it was referring to the canonical one. In theorems 2 and 3, specific cases for which equivalence of dynamical and thermodynamic stability holds are specified.

  2. Three schemes of remote information concentration based on ancilla-free phase-covariant telecloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ming-qiang; Peng, Jia-Yin; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, remote information concentration is investigated which is the reverse process of the optimal asymmetric economical phase-covariant telecloning (OAEPCT). The OAEPCT is different from the reverse process of optimal universal telecloning. It is shown that the quantum information via OAEPCT procedure can be remotely concentrated back to a single qubit with a certain probability via several quantum channels. In these schemes, we adopt Bell measurement to measure the joint systems and use projected measurement and positive operator-valued measure to recover the original quantum state. The results shows non-maximally entangled quantum resource can be applied to information concentration.

  3. A new approach to calculating the memory kernel of the generalized quantum master equation for an arbitrary system-bath coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qiang; Geva, Eitan

    2003-12-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath. In this equation, the memory kernel accounts for the influence of the bath on the system's dynamics. The standard approach is based on using a perturbative treatment of the system-bath coupling for calculating this kernel, and is therefore restricted to systems weakly coupled to the bath. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating the memory kernel for an arbitrary system-bath coupling. The memory kernel is obtained by solving a set of two coupled integral equations that relate it to a new type of two-time system-dependent bath correlation functions. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the case of an asymetrical two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic bath.

  4. Correlations after quantum quenches in the XXZ spin chain: failure of the generalized Gibbs ensemble.

    PubMed

    Pozsgay, B; Mestyán, M; Werner, M A; Kormos, M; Zaránd, G; Takács, G

    2014-09-12

    We study the nonequilibrium time evolution of the spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg (XXZ) spin chain, with a choice of dimer product and Néel states as initial states. We investigate numerically various short-ranged spin correlators in the long-time limit and find that they deviate significantly from predictions based on the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) hypotheses. By computing the asymptotic spin correlators within the recently proposed quench-action formalism [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 257203 (2013)], however, we find excellent agreement with the numerical data. We, therefore, conclude that the GGE cannot give a complete description even of local observables, while the quench-action formalism correctly captures the steady state in this case. PMID:25260003

  5. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs: General framework and canonical perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a general framework for solving the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on a network of one-dimensional wires modeled by a metric graph with suitable matching conditions at the vertices. A formal solution is given that expresses the wave function and its derivative at one end of an edge (wire) nonlinearly in terms of the values at the other end. For the cubic NLSE this nonlinear transfer operation can be expressed explicitly in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Its application reduces the problem of solving the corresponding set of coupled ordinary nonlinear differential equations to a finite set of nonlinear algebraic equations. For sufficiently small amplitudes we use canonical perturbation theory, which makes it possible to extract the leading nonlinear corrections over large distances.

  6. Quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. W.; Li, H. L.; Zu, X. T.; Yang, S. Z.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The corrections to the Hawking temperature, entropy and the heat capacity are obtained via the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These modifications show that the GUP changes the evolution of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. Specially, the GUP effect becomes susceptible when the radius or mass of the black hole approaches the order of Planck scale, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. Meanwhile, the Planck scale remnant can be confirmed through the analysis of the heat capacity. Those phenomena imply that the GUP may give a way to solve the information paradox. Besides, we also investigate the possibilities to observe the black hole at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the results demonstrate that the black hole cannot be produced in the recent LHC.

  7. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs: General framework and canonical perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a general framework for solving the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on a network of one-dimensional wires modeled by a metric graph with suitable matching conditions at the vertices. A formal solution is given that expresses the wave function and its derivative at one end of an edge (wire) nonlinearly in terms of the values at the other end. For the cubic NLSE this nonlinear transfer operation can be expressed explicitly in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Its application reduces the problem of solving the corresponding set of coupled ordinary nonlinear differential equations to a finite set of nonlinear algebraic equations. For sufficiently small amplitudes we use canonical perturbation theory, which makes it possible to extract the leading nonlinear corrections over large distances. PMID:27078341

  8. Numerical approximation of head and flux covariances in three dimensions using mixed finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Andrew I.; Graham, Wendy D.

    A numerical method is developed for accurately approximating head and flux covariances and cross-covariances in finite two- and three-dimensional domains using the mixed finite element method. The method is useful for determining head and flux covariances for non-stationary flow fields, for example those induced by injection or extraction wells, impermeable subsurface barriers, or non-stationary hydraulic conductivity fields. Because the numerical approximations to the flux covariances are obtained directly from the solution to the coupled problem rather than having to differentiate head covariances, the approximations are in general more accurate than those obtained from conventional finite difference or finite element methods. Results for uniform flow example problems are consistent with results from previously published finite domain analyses and demonstrate that head variances and covariances are quite sensitive to boundary conditions and the size of the bounded domain. Flux variances and covariances are less sensitive to boundary conditions and domain size. Results comparing approximations from lower-order Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec and higher order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini [9] finite element spaces indicate that higher order element space improve the estimate of the flux covariances, but do not significantly affect the estimate of the head covariances.

  9. Covariance matrices for use in criticality safety predictability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-09-01

    Criticality predictability applications require as input the best available information on fissile and other nuclides. In recent years important work has been performed in the analysis of neutron transmission and cross-section data for fissile nuclei in the resonance region by using the computer code SAMMY. The code uses Bayes method (a form of generalized least squares) for sequential analyses of several sets of experimental data. Values for Reich-Moore resonance parameters, their covariances, and the derivatives with respect to the adjusted parameters (data sensitivities) are obtained. In general, the parameter file contains several thousand values and the dimension of the covariance matrices is correspondingly large. These matrices are not reported in the current evaluated data files due to their large dimensions and to the inadequacy of the file formats. The present work has two goals: the first is to calculate the covariances of group-averaged cross sections from the covariance files generated by SAMMY, because these can be more readily utilized in criticality predictability calculations. The second goal is to propose a more practical interface between SAMMY and the evaluated files. Examples are given for {sup 235}U in the popular 199- and 238-group structures, using the latest ORNL evaluation of the {sup 235}U resonance parameters.

  10. Teleportation of a general two-mode coherent-state superposition via attenuated quantum channels with ideal and/or threshold detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nguyen Ba

    2009-04-01

    Three novel probabilistic yet conclusive schemes are proposed to teleport a general two-mode coherent-state superposition via attenuated quantum channels with ideal and/or threshold detectors. The calculated total success probability is highest (lowest) when only ideal (threshold) detectors are used.

  11. Parameter inference with estimated covariance matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellentin, Elena; Heavens, Alan F.

    2016-02-01

    When inferring parameters from a Gaussian-distributed data set by computing a likelihood, a covariance matrix is needed that describes the data errors and their correlations. If the covariance matrix is not known a priori, it may be estimated and thereby becomes a random object with some intrinsic uncertainty itself. We show how to infer parameters in the presence of such an estimated covariance matrix, by marginalizing over the true covariance matrix, conditioned on its estimated value. This leads to a likelihood function that is no longer Gaussian, but rather an adapted version of a multivariate t-distribution, which has the same numerical complexity as the multivariate Gaussian. As expected, marginalization over the true covariance matrix improves inference when compared with Hartlap et al.'s method, which uses an unbiased estimate of the inverse covariance matrix but still assumes that the likelihood is Gaussian.

  12. COVARIANCE ASSISTED SCREENING AND ESTIMATION

    PubMed Central

    Ke, By Tracy; Jin, Jiashun; Fan, Jianqing

    2014-01-01

    Consider a linear model Y = X β + z, where X = Xn,p and z ~ N(0, In). The vector β is unknown and it is of interest to separate its nonzero coordinates from the zero ones (i.e., variable selection). Motivated by examples in long-memory time series (Fan and Yao, 2003) and the change-point problem (Bhattacharya, 1994), we are primarily interested in the case where the Gram matrix G = X′X is non-sparse but sparsifiable by a finite order linear filter. We focus on the regime where signals are both rare and weak so that successful variable selection is very challenging but is still possible. We approach this problem by a new procedure called the Covariance Assisted Screening and Estimation (CASE). CASE first uses a linear filtering to reduce the original setting to a new regression model where the corresponding Gram (covariance) matrix is sparse. The new covariance matrix induces a sparse graph, which guides us to conduct multivariate screening without visiting all the submodels. By interacting with the signal sparsity, the graph enables us to decompose the original problem into many separated small-size subproblems (if only we know where they are!). Linear filtering also induces a so-called problem of information leakage, which can be overcome by the newly introduced patching technique. Together, these give rise to CASE, which is a two-stage Screen and Clean (Fan and Song, 2010; Wasserman and Roeder, 2009) procedure, where we first identify candidates of these submodels by patching and screening, and then re-examine each candidate to remove false positives. For any procedure β̂ for variable selection, we measure the performance by the minimax Hamming distance between the sign vectors of β̂ and β. We show that in a broad class of situations where the Gram matrix is non-sparse but sparsifiable, CASE achieves the optimal rate of convergence. The results are successfully applied to long-memory time series and the change-point model. PMID:25541567

  13. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  14. Generalized quantum measurements on a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphree, Joseph D.; Hansen, Azure; Schultz, Justin T.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate two applications of generalized measurements on a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The first involves preparing the BEC in one of two non-orthogonal states constructed from a superposition of two atomic spin states. A positive-operator valued measure (POVM) for this system can be defined by three vectors in the 2D spin space. A two-photon Raman process rotates these vectors into a higher-dimensional space associating each with its own spin state, whose relative populations are measured using Stern-Gerlach imaging. This allows the possibility of unambiguously determining in which state the system was prepared. For the second application, a superposition of two spin states is used to put the BEC into one of three non-orthogonal states in the trine state configuration and measured using a POVM as before. Here an unambiguous measurement is impossible, but the POVM minimizes the error probability, improving upon the error probability associated with a traditional projective von Neumann measurement. Finally, incorporating orbital angular momentum states of the BEC allows for the possibility of extending these techniques into higher dimensions.

  15. Nonexistence of sharply covariant mutually unbiased bases in odd prime dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-09-01

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUB) are useful in a number of research areas. The symmetry of MUB is an elusive and interesting subject. A (complete set of) MUB in dimension d is sharply covariant if it can be generated by a group of order d (d +1 ) from a basis state. Such MUB, if they exist, would be most appealing to theoretical studies and practical applications. Unfortunately, they seem to be quite rare. Here we prove that no MUB in odd prime dimensions is sharply covariant, by virtue of clever applications of Mersenne primes, Galois fields, and Frobenius groups. This conclusion provides valuable insight about the symmetry of MUB and the geometry of quantum state space. It complements and strengthens the earlier result of the author that only two stabilizer MUB are sharply covariant. Our study leads to the conjecture that no MUB other than those in dimensions 2 and 4 is sharply covariant.

  16. Covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    XU, PEIRONG; ZHU, JI; ZHU, LIXING; LI, YI

    2016-01-01

    Summary Linear discriminant analysis has been widely used to characterize or separate multiple classes via linear combinations of features. However, the high dimensionality of features from modern biological experiments defies traditional discriminant analysis techniques. Possible interfeature correlations present additional challenges and are often underused in modelling. In this paper, by incorporating possible interfeature correlations, we propose a covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis method that simultaneously and consistently selects informative features and identifies the corresponding discriminable classes. Under mild regularity conditions, we show that the method can achieve consistent parameter estimation and model selection, and can attain an asymptotically optimal misclassification rate. Extensive simulations have verified the utility of the method, which we apply to a renal transplantation trial.

  17. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  18. Quantum Orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, Antti J.

    2016-06-01

    This is a study of orbifold-quotients of quantum groups (quantum orbifolds {Θ } rightrightarrows Gq). These structures have been studied extensively in the case of the quantum S U 2 group. A generalized theory of quantum orbifolds over compact simple and simply connected quantum groups is developed. Associated with a quantum orbifold there is an invariant subalgebra and a crossed product algebra. For each spin quantum orbifold, there is a unitary equivalence class of Dirac spectral triples over the invariant subalgebra, and for each effective spin quantum orbifold associated with a finite group action, there is a unitary equivalence class of Dirac spectral triples over the crossed product algebra. A Hopf-equivariant Fredholm index problem is studied as an application.

  19. Quantum motion on a torus as a submanifold problem in a generalized Dirac’s theory of second-class constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, D.M.; Liu, Q.H.; Zhu, X.M.

    2013-11-15

    A generalization of Dirac’s canonical quantization scheme for a system with second-class constraints is proposed, in which the fundamental commutation relations are constituted by all commutators between positions, momenta and Hamiltonian, so they are simultaneously quantized in a self-consistent manner, rather than by those between merely positions and momenta which leads to ambiguous forms of the Hamiltonian and the momenta. The application of the generalized scheme to the quantum motion on a torus leads to a remarkable result: the quantum theory is inconsistent if built up in an intrinsic geometric manner, whereas it becomes consistent within an extrinsic examination of the torus as a submanifold in three dimensional flat space with the use of the Cartesian coordinate system. The geometric momentum and potential are then reasonably reproduced. -- Highlights: •A generalization of Dirac’s canonical quantization is proposed for a system with second-class constraints. •Quantum motion on torus surface is explicitly treated to show how Schrödinger formalism is complementary to the Dirac one. •The embedding effect in quantum mechanics is originated from the quantization.

  20. Generalized analysis of quantum noise and dynamic backaction in signal-recycled Michelson-type laser interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Farid Ya.; Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Hammerer, Klemens; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the radiation-pressure-induced interaction of mirror motion and light fields in Michelson-type interferometers used for the detection of gravitational waves and for fundamental research in tabletop quantum optomechanical experiments, focusing on the asymmetric regime with a (slightly) unbalanced beam splitter and a (small) offset from the dark port. This regime, as it was shown recently, provides new interesting features, in particular a stable optical spring and optical cooling on cavity resonance. We show that, generally, the nature of optomechanical coupling in Michelson-type interferometers does not fit into the standard dispersive-dissipative dichotomy. In particular, a symmetric Michelson interferometer with signal-recycling but without power-recycling cavity is characterized by a purely dissipative optomechanical coupling; only in the presence of asymmetry, additional dispersive coupling arises. In gravitational waves detectors possessing signal- and power-recycling cavities, yet another coherent type of optomechanical coupling takes place. We develop here a generalized framework for the analysis of asymmetric Michelson-type interferometers, which also covers the possibility of the injection of carrier light into both ports of the interferometer. Using this framework, we analyze in depth the anomalous features of the Michelson-Sagnac interferometer, which have been discussed and observed experimentally previously [A. Xuereb et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213604 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.213604; S. P. Tarabrin et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 023809 (2013);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023809 A. Sawadsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 043601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.043601].

  1. Realization schemes for quantum instruments in finite dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, Giulio; Perinotti, Paolo; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2009-04-15

    We present a general dilation scheme for quantum instruments with continuous outcome space in finite dimensions, in terms of a measurement on a finite-dimensional ancilla, described by a positive operator valued measure (POVM). The general result is then applied to a large class of instruments generated by operator frames, which contains group-covariant instruments as a particular case and allows one to construct dilation schemes based on a measurement on the ancilla followed by a conditional feed-forward operation on the output. In the case of tight operator frames, our construction generalizes quantum teleportation and telecloning, producing a whole family of generalized teleportation schemes in which the instrument is realized via a joint POVM at the sender combined with a conditional feed-forward operation at the receiver.

  2. Eddy Covariance Measurements of the Sea-Spray Aerosol Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.; Yelland, M. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Prytherch, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, almost all estimates of the sea-spray aerosol source flux have been inferred through various indirect methods. Direct estimates via eddy covariance have been attempted by only a handful of studies, most of which measured only the total number flux, or achieved rather coarse size segregation. Applying eddy covariance to the measurement of sea-spray fluxes is challenging: most instrumentation must be located in a laboratory space requiring long sample lines to an inlet collocated with a sonic anemometer; however, larger particles are easily lost to the walls of the sample line. Marine particle concentrations are generally low, requiring a high sample volume to achieve adequate statistics. The highly hygroscopic nature of sea salt means particles change size rapidly with fluctuations in relative humidity; this introduces an apparent bias in flux measurements if particles are sized at ambient humidity. The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) was developed specifically to make high rate measurements of aerosol size distributions for use in eddy covariance measurements, and the instrument and data processing and analysis techniques have been refined over the course of several projects. Here we will review some of the issues and limitations related to making eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray source flux over the open ocean, summarise some key results from the last decade, and present new results from a 3-year long ship-based measurement campaign as part of the WAGES project. Finally we will consider requirements for future progress.

  3. Phenotypic Covariation and Morphological Diversification in the Ruminant Skull.

    PubMed

    Haber, Annat

    2016-05-01

    Differences among clades in their diversification patterns result from a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In this study, I examined the role of intrinsic factors in the morphological diversification of ruminants, in general, and in the differences between bovids and cervids, in particular. Using skull morphology, which embodies many of the adaptations that distinguish bovids and cervids, I examined 132 of the 200 extant ruminant species. As a proxy for intrinsic constraints, I quantified different aspects of the phenotypic covariation structure within species and compared them with the among-species divergence patterns, using phylogenetic comparative methods. My results show that for most species, divergence is well aligned with their phenotypic covariance matrix and that those that are better aligned have diverged further away from their ancestor. Bovids have dispersed into a wider range of directions in morphospace than cervids, and their overall disparity is higher. This difference is best explained by the lower eccentricity of bovids' within-species covariance matrices. These results are consistent with the role of intrinsic constraints in determining amount, range, and direction of dispersion and demonstrate that intrinsic constraints can influence macroevolutionary patterns even as the covariance structure evolves. PMID:27104991

  4. Spin Foam Models for Quantum Gravity and semi-classical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Maité

    2011-04-01

    The spinfoam framework is a proposal for a regularized path integral for quantum gravity. Spinfoams define quantum space-time structures describing the evolution in time of the spin network states for quantum geometry derived from Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The construction of this covariant approach is based on the formulation of General Relativity as a topological theory plus the so-called simplicity constraints which introduce local degrees of freedom. The simplicity constraints are essential in turning the non-physical topological theory into 4d gravity. In this PhD manuscript, an original way to impose the simplicity constraints in 4d Euclidean gravity using harmonic oscillators is proposed and new coherent states, solutions of the constraints, are given. Moreover, a consistent spinfoam model for quantum gravity has to be connected to LQG and must have the right semi-classical limit. An explicit map between the spin network states of LQG and the boundary states of spinfoam models is given connecting the canonical and the covariant approaches. Finally, new techniques to compute semiclassical asymptotic expressions for the transition amplitudes of 3d quantum gravity and to extract semi-classical information from a spinfoam model are introduced. Explicit computations based on approximation methods and on the use of recurrence relations on spinfoam amplitudes have been performed. The results are relevant to derive quantum corrections to the dynamics of the gravitational field.

  5. Particle emission from covariant phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Bambah, B.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Using Lorentz-covariant sources, we calculate the multiplicity distribution of {ital n} pair correlated particles emerging from a Lorentz-covariant phase-space volume. We use the Kim-Wigner formalism and identify these sources as the squeezed states of a relativistic harmonic oscillator. The applications of this to multiplicity distributions in particle physics is discussed.

  6. Group Theory of Covariant Harmonic Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple and concrete example for illustrating the properties of noncompact groups is presented. The example is based on the covariant harmonic-oscillator formalism in which the relativistic wave functions carry a covariant-probability interpretation. This can be used in a group theory course for graduate students who have some background in…

  7. REGRESSION METHODS FOR DATA WITH INCOMPLETE COVARIATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern statistical methods in chronic disease epidemiology allow simultaneous regression of disease status on several covariates. hese methods permit examination of the effects of one covariate while controlling for those of others that may be causally related to the disease. owe...

  8. A Simulation-Based Comparison of Covariate Adjustment Methods for the Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chaussé, Pierre; Liu, Jin; Luta, George

    2016-01-01

    Covariate adjustment methods are frequently used when baseline covariate information is available for randomized controlled trials. Using a simulation study, we compared the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with three nonparametric covariate adjustment methods with respect to point and interval estimation for the difference between means. The three alternative methods were based on important members of the generalized empirical likelihood (GEL) family, specifically on the empirical likelihood (EL) method, the exponential tilting (ET) method, and the continuous updated estimator (CUE) method. Two criteria were considered for the comparison of the four statistical methods: the root mean squared error and the empirical coverage of the nominal 95% confidence intervals for the difference between means. Based on the results of the simulation study, for sensitivity analysis purposes, we recommend the use of ANCOVA (with robust standard errors when heteroscedasticity is present) together with the CUE-based covariate adjustment method. PMID:27077870

  9. Innovation sequence application to aircraft sensor fault detection: comparison of checking covariance matrix algorithms

    PubMed

    Caliskan; Hajiyev

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the algorithms verifying the covariance matrix of the Kalman filter innovation sequence are compared with respect to detected minimum fault rate and detection time. Four algorithms are dealt with; the algorithm verifying the trace of the covariance matrix of the innovation sequence, the algorithm verifying the sum of all elements of the inverse covariance matrix of the innovation sequence, the optimal algorithm verifying the ratio of two quadratic forms of which matrices are theoretic and selected covariance matrices of Kalman filter innovation sequence, and the algorithm verifying the generalized variance of the covariance matrix of the innovation sequence. The algorithms are implemented for longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft to detect sensor faults, and some suggestions are given on the use of the algorithms in flight control systems. PMID:10826285

  10. Tonic and phasic co-variation of peripheral arousal indices in infants

    PubMed Central

    Wass, S.V.; de Barbaro, K.; Clackson, K.

    2015-01-01

    Tonic and phasic differences in peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) indicators strongly predict differences in attention and emotion regulation in developmental populations. However, virtually all previous research has been based on individual ANS measures, which poses a variety of conceptual and methodlogical challenges to comparing results across studies. Here we recorded heart rate, electrodermal activity (EDA), pupil size, head movement velocity and peripheral accelerometry concurrently while a cohort of 37 typical 12-month-old infants completed a mixed assessment battery lasting approximately 20 min per participant. We analysed covariation of these autonomic indices in three ways: first, tonic (baseline) arousal; second, co-variation in spontaneous (phasic) changes during testing; third, phasic co-variation relative to an external stimulus event. We found that heart rate, head velocity and peripheral accelerometry showed strong positive co-variation across all three analyses. EDA showed no co-variation in tonic activity levels but did show phasic positive co-variation with other measures, that appeared limited to sections of high but not low general arousal. Tonic pupil size showed significant positive covariation, but phasic pupil changes were inconsistent. We conclude that: (i) there is high covariation between autonomic indices in infants, but that EDA may only be sensitive at extreme arousal levels, (ii) that tonic pupil size covaries with other indices, but does not show predicted patterns of phasic change and (iii) that motor activity appears to be a good proxy measure of ANS activity. The strongest patterns of covariation were observed using epoch durations of 40 s per epoch, although significant covariation between indices was also observed using shorter epochs (1 and 5 s). PMID:26316360

  11. Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.

  12. The fitting of radioactive decay data by covariance methods

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Osadebe, F.A.N.

    1994-04-01

    The fitting of radioactive decay data is examined when radiations from two or more processes are indistinguishable. The model is a nonlinear sum of exponentials which cannot be linearized by transformations. Simple and generalized least-squares procedures utilizing covariance matrices are applied. The validity of the midpoint approximation is demonstrated. Guidelines for acquiring adequate radioactive decay data are suggested. The relevance to activation cross section determination is discussed.

  13. A covariant approach to the analysis of coherent processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasev, V. P.; Shelepin, L. A.

    A general group-theory approach to the study of coherent phenomena in many-particle multilevel systems interacting with boson fields is formulated on the basis of the dynamic symmetry theory and the formalism of group representations. Algebraic models of the systems under study are proposed using this approach which yield generalized Dicke models with allowance for both radiation and collisional processes and also consider systems with a varying number of particles. By using Glauber coherent states and generalized coherent states of SU (n) groups, covariant methods are developed for calculating various characteristics of cooperative phenomena and processes on the basis of the models proposed here.

  14. Manifest and concealed correlations in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A. C.; Iguain, J. L.

    1998-11-01

    The quantum covariance function is used to study correlations in quantum systems. Besides the obvious correlations due to the conservation of some quantity, the appearance of concealed quantum correlations like non-locality or non-separability is studied. The choice of an appropriate basis allows a complete analysis relating correlations with conservation laws and factorizability.

  15. Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)

  16. What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 via eddy covariance methods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, J.; Saleska, S.; Herndon, S.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; McManus, J. B.; Munger, J. W.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M.

    2005-12-01

    Better quantification of isotope ratios of atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of CO2 could substantially improve our ability to probe underlying physiological and ecological mechanisms controlling ecosystem carbon exchange, but the ability to make long-term continuous measurements of isotope ratios of exchange fluxes has been limited by measurement difficulties. In particular, direct eddy covariance methods have not yet been used for measuring the isotopic composition of ecosystem fluxes. Here we explore the feasibility of such measurements by: (a) proposing a general criterion for judging whether a sensor's performance is sufficient for making such measurements (the criterion is met when the contribution of sensor error to the flux measurement error is comparable to or less than the contribution of meteorological noise inherently associated with turbulence flux measurements); (b) using data-based numerical simulations to quantify the level of sensor precision and stability required to meet this criterion for making direct eddy covariance measurements of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 fluxes above a specific ecosystem (a mid-latitude temperate forest in central Massachusetts, USA); and (c) testing whether the performance of a new sensor -- a prototype pulsed quantum cascade laser-based isotope-ratio absorption spectrometer (and plausible improvements thereon) -- is sufficient for meeting the criterion in this ecosystem. We found that the error contribution from a prototype sensor (0.2 per mil, 1 SD of 10-sec integrations) to total isoflux measurement error was comparable to (1.5 to 2X) the irreducible meteorological noise inherently associated with turbulent flux measurements above this ecosystem (daytime measurement error SD of 60 percent of flux versus meteorological noise of 30-40 percent for instantaneous half-hour fluxes). Our analysis also shows that plausible instrument improvements (increase of sensor precision to 0.1 per mil, 1 SD of 10-sec integrations, and

  17. A comparative study of concurrence and negativity of general three-level quantum systems of two particles

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, V.

    2015-03-30

    Quantum entanglement is at the heart of quantum information processing. Ordering the quantum systems due to their entanglement is a popular problem of the field. For two level (qubit) systems of two particles, state ordering has been studied with respect to well-known entanglement measures such as Concurrence, Negativity and Relative Entropy of Entanglement (REE) [1-5]. In this work, we study the state ordering of the three-level quantum systems of two particles with respect to Concurrence and Negativity. In particular, constructing 10K random states and calculating their Concurrences and Negativities, we obtain the orderings of the states and present our results which are interesting when compared to that of two-level systems.

  18. Application of Quantum Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohdalová, Mária; Kalina, Martin; Nánásiová, Ol'ga

    2009-03-01

    This is the first attempt to smooth time series using estimators with applying quantum probability with causality (non-commutative s-maps on an othomodular lattice). In this context it means that we use non-symmetric covariance matrix to construction of our estimator.

  19. Comment on “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation” [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, Niklas Hänninen, Risto

    2014-11-15

    Van Gorder considers a formulation of the local induction approximation, which allows the vortex to move in the direction of the reference axis [“General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)]. However, in his analytical and numerical study he does not use it. A mistake in the torsion of a helical vortex is also corrected.

  20. Epigenetic Contribution to Covariance Between Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Omri; Kisdi, Eva; Jablonka, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has pointed to the ubiquity and abundance of between-generation epigenetic inheritance. This research has implications for assessing disease risk and the responses to ecological stresses and also for understanding evolutionary dynamics. An important step toward a general evaluation of these implications is the identification and estimation of the amount of heritable, epigenetic variation in populations. While methods for modeling the phenotypic heritable variance contributed by culture have already been developed, there are no comparable methods for nonbehavioral epigenetic inheritance systems. By introducing a model that takes epigenetic transmissibility (the probability of transmission of ancestral phenotypes) and environmental induction into account, we provide novel expressions for covariances between relatives. We have combined a classical quantitative genetics approach with information about the number of opportunities for epigenetic reset between generations and assumptions about environmental induction to estimate the heritable epigenetic variance and epigenetic transmissibility for both asexual and sexual populations. This assists us in the identification of phenotypes and populations in which epigenetic transmission occurs and enables a preliminary quantification of their transmissibility, which could then be followed by genomewide association and QTL studies. PMID:20100941

  1. Signal-to-noise issues in measuring nitrous oxide fluxes by the eddy covariance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicholas; Levy, Peter; Langford, Ben; Skiba, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Recently-developed fast-response gas analysers capable of measuring atmospheric N2O with high precision (< 50 ppt) at a rate of 10 Hz are becoming more widely available. These instruments are capable of measuring N2O fluxes using the eddy covariance method, with significantly less effort and uncertainty than previous instruments have allowed. However, there are still many issues to overcome in order to obtain accurate and reliable flux data. The signal-to-noise ratio of N2O measured using these instruments is still two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of CO2. The low signal-to-noise ratio can lead to systematic uncertainties, in the eddy covariance method, the most significant being in the calculation of the time lag between gas analyser and anemometer by maximisation of covariance (Langford et al., 2015). When signal-to-noise ratio is relatively low, as it is with many N2O measurements, the maximisation of covariance method can systematically overestimate fluxes. However, if constant time lags are assumed, then fluxes will be underestimated. This presents a major issue for N2O eddy covariance measurements. In this presentation we will focus on the signal to noise ratio for an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL). Eddy covariance flux measurements from multiple agricultural sites across the UK were investigated for potential uncertainties. Our presentation highlights some of these uncertainties when analysing eddy covariance data and offers suggestions as to how these issues may be minimised. Langford, B., Acton, W., Ammann, C., Valach, A. and Nemitz, E.: Eddy-covariance data with low signal-to-noise ratio: time-lag determination, uncertainties and limit of detection, Atmos Meas Tech, 8(10), 4197-4213, doi:10.5194/amt-8-4197-2015, 2015.

  2. A New General Tortoise Coordinate Transformation and Quantum Tunneling Effect of the Non-Stationary Higher Dimensional Vaidya-de Sitter Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhong-wen; Li, Guo-ping; Zhang, Yan; Zu, Xiao-tao

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we combine the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with a new general tortoise coordinate transformation to study quantum tunneling of scalar particles and fermions from the non-stationary higher dimensional Vaidya-de Sitter black hole. The results show that Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a semi-classical foundation equation which can easily derived from the particles' dynamic equations, it can helps us understand the origin of Hawking radiation. Besides, based on the dimensional analysis, we believed that the new general tortoise coordinate transformation is more reasonable than old ones.

  3. Scale-covariant theory of gravitation and astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Adams, P. J.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Tsiang, E.

    1977-01-01

    A scale-covariant theory of gravitation is presented which is characterized by a set of equations that are complete only after a choice of the scale function is made. Special attention is given to gauge conditions and units which allow gravitational phenomena to be described in atomic units. The generalized gravitational-field equations are derived by performing a direct scale transformation, by extending Riemannian geometry to Weyl geometry through the introduction of the notion of cotensors, and from a variation principle. Modified conservation laws are provided, a set of dynamical equations is obtained, and astrophysical consequences are considered. The theory is applied to examine certain homogeneous cosmological solutions, perihelion shifts, light deflections, secular variations of planetary orbital elements, stellar structure equations for a star in quasi-static equilibrium, and the past thermal history of earth. The possible relation of the scale-covariant theory to gauge field theories and their predictions of cosmological constants is discussed.

  4. An efficient algorithm for estimating noise covariances in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D. P.; Cohn, S. E.; Ghil, M.; Dalcher, A.

    1985-01-01

    An efficient computational algorithm for estimating the noise covariance matrices of large linear discrete stochatic-dynamic systems is presented. Such systems arise typically by discretizing distributed-parameter systems, and their size renders computational efficiency a major consideration. The proposed adaptive filtering algorithm is based on the ideas of Belanger, and is algebraically equivalent to his algorithm. The earlier algorithm, however, has computational complexity proportional to p to the 6th, where p is the number of observations of the system state, while the new algorithm has complexity proportional to only p-cubed. Further, the formulation of noise covariance estimation as a secondary filter, analogous to state estimation as a primary filter, suggests several generalizations of the earlier algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated for a distributed system arising in numerical weather prediction.

  5. Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell Quantum Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances on quantum foundations achieved the derivation of free quantum field theory from general principles, without referring to mechanical notions and relativistic invariance. From the aforementioned principles a quantum cellular automata (QCA) theory follows, whose relativistic limit of small wave-vector provides the free dynamics of quantum field theory. The QCA theory can be regarded as an extended quantum field theory that describes in a unified way all scales ranging from an hypothetical discrete Planck scale up to the usual Fermi scale. The present paper reviews the automaton theory for the Weyl field, and the composite automata for Dirac and Maxwell fields. We then give a simple analysis of the dynamics in the momentum space in terms of a dispersive differential equation for narrowband wave-packets. We then review the phenomenology of the free-field automaton and consider possible visible effects arising from the discreteness of the framework. We conclude introducing the consequences of the automaton dispersion relation, leading to a deformed Lorentz covariance and to possible effects on the thermodynamics of ideal gases.

  6. Covariation bias in panic-prone individuals.

    PubMed

    Pauli, P; Montoya, P; Martz, G E

    1996-11-01

    Covariation estimates between fear-relevant (FR; emergency situations) or fear-irrelevant (FI; mushrooms and nudes) stimuli and an aversive outcome (electrical shock) were examined in 10 high-fear (panic-prone) and 10 low-fear respondents. When the relation between slide category and outcome was random (illusory correlation), only high-fear participants markedly overestimated the contingency between FR slides and shocks. However, when there was a high contingency of shocks following FR stimuli (83%) and a low contingency of shocks following FI stimuli (17%), the group difference vanished. Reversal of contingencies back to random induced a covariation bias for FR slides in high- and low-fear respondents. Results indicate that panic-prone respondents show a covariation bias for FR stimuli and that the experience of a high contingency between FR slides and aversive outcomes may foster such a covariation bias even in low-fear respondents. PMID:8952200

  7. Reconciling Covariances with Reliable Orbital Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folcik, Z.; Lue, A.; Vatsky, J.

    2011-09-01

    There is a common suspicion that formal covariances do not represent a realistic measure of orbital uncertainties. By devising metrics for measuring the representations of orbit error, we assess under what circumstances such lore is justified as well as the root cause of the discrepancy between the mathematics of orbital uncertainty and its practical implementation. We offer a scheme by which formal covariances may be adapted to be an accurate measure of orbital uncertainties and show how that adaptation performs against both simulated and real space-object data. We also apply these covariance adaptation methods to the process of observation association using many simulated and real data test cases. We demonstrate that covariance-informed observation association can be reliable, even in the case when only two tracks are available. Satellite breakup and collision event catalog maintenance could benefit from the automation made possible with these association methods.

  8. Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product

    SciTech Connect

    Zet, G.

    2010-08-04

    We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.

  9. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  10. Covariate analysis of bivariate survival data

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The methods developed are used to analyze the effects of covariates on bivariate survival data when censoring and ties are present. The proposed method provides models for bivariate survival data that include differential covariate effects and censored observations. The proposed models are based on an extension of the univariate Buckley-James estimators which replace censored data points by their expected values, conditional on the censoring time and the covariates. For the bivariate situation, it is necessary to determine the expectation of the failure times for one component conditional on the failure or censoring time of the other component. Two different methods have been developed to estimate these expectations. In the semiparametric approach these expectations are determined from a modification of Burke's estimate of the bivariate empirical survival function. In the parametric approach censored data points are also replaced by their conditional expected values where the expected values are determined from a specified parametric distribution. The model estimation will be based on the revised data set, comprised of uncensored components and expected values for the censored components. The variance-covariance matrix for the estimated covariate parameters has also been derived for both the semiparametric and parametric methods. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey was analyzed by these methods. The two outcome variables are post-partum amenorrhea and breastfeeding; education and parity were used as the covariates. Both the covariate parameter estimates and the variance-covariance estimates for the semiparametric and parametric models will be compared. In addition, a multivariate test statistic was used in the semiparametric model to examine contrasts. The significance of the statistic was determined from a bootstrap distribution of the test statistic.

  11. Hawking radiation from a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole via covariant anomalies and effective action

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2008-08-15

    We adopt the covariant anomaly cancellation method as well as the effective action approach to obtain the Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem blackhole with a global monopole falling in the class of the most general spherically symmetric charged blackhole ({radical}(-g){ne}1), using only covariant boundary conditions at the event horizon.

  12. Sequential BART for imputation of missing covariates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; Daniels, Michael J; Winterstein, Almut G

    2016-07-01

    To conduct comparative effectiveness research using electronic health records (EHR), many covariates are typically needed to adjust for selection and confounding biases. Unfortunately, it is typical to have missingness in these covariates. Just using cases with complete covariates will result in considerable efficiency losses and likely bias. Here, we consider the covariates missing at random with missing data mechanism either depending on the response or not. Standard methods for multiple imputation can either fail to capture nonlinear relationships or suffer from the incompatibility and uncongeniality issues. We explore a flexible Bayesian nonparametric approach to impute the missing covariates, which involves factoring the joint distribution of the covariates with missingness into a set of sequential conditionals and applying Bayesian additive regression trees to model each of these univariate conditionals. Using data augmentation, the posterior for each conditional can be sampled simultaneously. We provide details on the computational algorithm and make comparisons to other methods, including parametric sequential imputation and two versions of multiple imputation by chained equations. We illustrate the proposed approach on EHR data from an affiliated tertiary care institution to examine factors related to hyperglycemia. PMID:26980459

  13. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Quantum strategies of quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-03-01

    In the classical Monty Hall problem, one player can always win with probability 2/3. We generalize the problem to the quantum domain and show that a fair two-party zero-sum game can be carried out if the other player is permitted to adopt quantum measurement strategy.

  15. The Principle of General Tovariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  16. Standing Waves in the Lorentz-Covariant World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    2005-07-01

    When Einstein formulated his special relativity, he developed his dynamics for point particles. Of course, many valiant efforts have been made to extend his relativity to rigid bodies, but this subject is forgotten in history. This is largely because of the emergence of quantum mechanics with wave-particle duality. Instead of Lorentz-boosting rigid bodies, we now boost waves and have to deal with Lorentz transformations of waves. We now have some nderstanding of plane waves or running waves in the covariant picture, but we do not yet have a clear picture of standing waves. In this report, we show that there is one set of standing waves which can be Lorentz-transformed while being consistent with all physical principle of quantum mechanics and relativity. It is possible to construct a representation of the Poincaré group using harmonic oscillator wave functions satisfying space-time boundary conditions. This set of wave functions is capable of explaining the quantum bound state for both slow and fast hadrons. In particular it can explain the quark model for hadrons at rest, and Feynman’s parton model hadrons moving with a speed close to that of light.

  17. Breaking generalized covariance, classical renormalization, and boundary conditions from superpotentials

    SciTech Connect

    Livshits, Gideon I.

    2014-02-15

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either the original Lagrangian must be effectively renormalized, or that boundary conditions must be imposed, so that space-time be asymptotically maximally symmetric. Non-metricity is central to this paradox, and we show how quadratic non-metricity in the bulk of space-time contributes to the conserved charges on the boundary, where it vanishes identically. This is a realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism, proposed by Percacci, where the non-metricity is the analogue of the Goldstone boson.

  18. Breaking generalized covariance, classical renormalization, and boundary conditions from superpotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits, Gideon I.

    2014-02-01

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either the original Lagrangian must be effectively renormalized, or that boundary conditions must be imposed, so that space-time be asymptotically maximally symmetric. Non-metricity is central to this paradox, and we show how quadratic non-metricity in the bulk of space-time contributes to the conserved charges on the boundary, where it vanishes identically. This is a realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism, proposed by Percacci, where the non-metricity is the analogue of the Goldstone boson.

  19. Gini covariance matrix and its affine equivariant version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherall, Lauren Anne

    Gini's mean difference (GMD) and its derivatives such as Gini index have been widely used as alternative measures of variability over one century in many research fields especially in finance, economics and social welfare. In this dissertation, we generalize the univariate GMD to the multivariate case and propose a new covariance matrix so called the Gini covariance matrix (GCM). The extension is natural, which is based on the covariance representation of GMD with the notion of multivariate spatial rank function. In order to gain the affine equivariance property for GCM, we utilize the transformation-retransformation (TR) technique and obtain TR version GCM that turns out to be a symmetrized M-functional. Indeed, both GCMs are symmetrized approaches based on the difference of two independent variables without reference of a location, hence avoiding some arbitrary definition of location for non-symmetric distributions. We study the properties of both GCMs. They possess the so-called independence property, which is highly important, for example, in independent component analysis. Influence functions of two GCMs are derived to assess their robustness. They are found to be more robust than the regular covariance matrix but less robust than Tyler and Dumbgen M-functional. Under elliptical distributions, the relationship between the scatter parameter and the two GCM are obtained. With this relationship, principal component analysis (PCA) based on GCM is possible. Estimation of two GCMs is presented. We study asymptotical behavior of the estimators. √n-consistency and asymptotical normality of estimators are established. Asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) of TR-GCM estimator with respect to sample covariance matrix is compared to that of Tyler and Dumbgen M-estimators. With little loss on efficiency (< 2%) in the normal case, it gains high efficiency for heavy-tailed distributions. Finite sample behavior of Gini estimators is explored under various models using two

  20. Response to "Comment on `General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation'"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    In R. A. Van Gorder, "General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation," Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014) I discussed properties of generalized vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion under the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation. Such solutions are stationary in terms of translational motion. In the Comment [N. Hietala, "Comment on `General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation' [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)]," Phys. Fluids 26, 119101 (2014)], the author criticizes my paper for not including translational motion (although it was clearly stated that the filament motion was assumed rotational). As it turns out, if one is interested in studying the geometric structure of solutions (which was the point of my paper), one obtains the needed qualitative results on the structure of such solutions by studying the purely rotational case. Nevertheless, in this Response I shall discuss the vortex filaments that have both rotational and translational motions. I then briefly discuss why one might want to study such generalized rotating filament solutions, in contrast to simple the standard helical or planar examples (which are really special cases). I also discuss how one can study the time evolution of filaments which exhibit more complicated dynamics than pure translation and rotation. Doing this, one can study non-stationary solutions which initially appear purely rotational and gradually display other dynamics as the filaments evolve.