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Sample records for generally covariant quantum

  1. Generally covariant quantum mechanics on noncommutative configuration spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Tomas; Paschke, Mario

    2007-11-15

    We generalize the previously given algebraic version of 'Feynman's proof of Maxwell's equations' to noncommutative configuration spaces. By doing so, we also obtain an axiomatic formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics over such spaces, which, in contrast to most examples discussed in the literature, does not rely on a distinguished set of coordinates. We give a detailed account of several examples, e.g., C{sup {infinity}}(Q)xM{sub n}(C) which leads to non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories, and of noncommutative tori T{sub {theta}}{sup d}. Moreover, we examine models over the Moyal-deformed plane R{sub {theta}}{sup 2}. Assuming the conservation of electrical charges, we show that in this case the canonical uncertainty relation [x{sub k},x{sub l}]=ig{sub kl} with metric g{sub kl} is only consistent if g{sub kl} is constant.

  2. Generalized asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloning within a nonextensive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, R.; Hamici, A.-H.; Hachemane, M.; Smida, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized transformation of the optimal asymmetric 1longrightarrow 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning. This generalization is based on the deformed forms of the exponential that emerge from nonextensive statistical mechanics. In particular, two distinct definitions of the q-exponential are discussed. The case where the cloning is symmetric is also studied. In order to highlight the influence of nonextensive treatment on the perfection of clones and entanglement, the effect of the q-index has been clearly illustrated in figures depicting the fidelities in terms of the entanglement parameter θ for different values of q. Our study shows that due to the intrinsic properties of the system, the entanglement is not preserved. Thus, entanglement can be controlled by the nonextensive parameter. As an illustration, the incoherent attack on the BB84 protocol has also been considered in the economical case.

  3. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  4. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2008-01-01

    We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work on generalized covariance analysis methods. This prior work allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, allowed for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator s anchor time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  5. Spacetime states and covariant quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenberger, Michael; Rovelli, Carlo

    2002-06-01

    In its usual presentation, classical mechanics appears to give time a very special role. But it is well known that mechanics can be formulated so as to treat the time variable on the same footing as the other variables in the extended configuration space. Such covariant formulations are natural for relativistic gravitational systems, where general covariance conflicts with the notion of a preferred physical-time variable. The standard presentation of quantum mechanics, in turn, again gives time a very special role, raising well known difficulties for quantum gravity. Is there a covariant form of (canonical) quantum mechanics? We observe that the preferred role of time in quantum theory is the consequence of an idealization: that measurements are instantaneous. Canonical quantum theory can be given a covariant form by dropping this idealization. States prepared by noninstantaneous measurements are described by ``spacetime smeared states.'' The theory can be formulated in terms of these states, without making any reference to a special time variable. The quantum dynamics is expressed in terms of the propagator, an object covariantly defined on the extended configuration space.

  6. Phase-covariant quantum benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Calsamiglia, J.; Aspachs, M.; Munoz-Tapia, R.; Bagan, E.

    2009-05-15

    We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment cannot be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.

  7. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-02-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation.

  8. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.

    2002-11-01

    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs.

  9. Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.

  10. Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayak, Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.

  11. Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.

    PubMed

    Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated. PMID:27078354

  12. Quantization of Generally Covariant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sforza, Daniel M.

    2000-12-01

    Finite dimensional models that mimic the constraint structure of Einstein's General Relativity are quantized in the framework of BRST and Dirac's canonical formalisms. The first system to be studied is one featuring a constraint quadratic in the momenta (the "super-Hamiltonian") and a set of constraints linear in the momenta (the "supermomentum" constraints). The starting point is to realize that the ghost contributions to the supermomentum constraint operators can be read in terms of the natural volume induced by the constraints in the orbits. This volume plays a fundamental role in the construction of the quadratic sector of the nilpotent BRST charge. It is shown that the quantum theory is invariant under scaling of the super-Hamiltonian. As long as the system has an intrinsic time, this property translates in a contribution of the potential to the kinetic term. In this aspect, the results substantially differ from other works where the scaling invariance is forced by introducing a coupling to the curvature. The contribution of the potential, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in the light of the Jacobi's principle. Then, it is shown that the obtained results can be extended to systems with extrinsic time. In this case, if the metric has a conformal temporal Killing vector and the potential exhibits a suitable behavior with respect to it, the role played by the potential in the case of intrinsic time is now played by the norm of the Killing vector. Finally, the results for the previous cases are extended to a system featuring two super-Hamiltonian constraints. This step is extremely important due to the fact that General Relativity features an infinite number of such constraints satisfying a non trivial algebra among themselves.

  13. Bilinear covariants and spinor fields duality in quantum Clifford algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Abłamowicz, Rafał; Gonçalves, Icaro; Rocha, Roldão da

    2014-10-15

    Classification of quantum spinor fields according to quantum bilinear covariants is introduced in a context of quantum Clifford algebras on Minkowski spacetime. Once the bilinear covariants are expressed in terms of algebraic spinor fields, the duality between spinor and quantum spinor fields can be discussed. Thus, by endowing the underlying spacetime with an arbitrary bilinear form with an antisymmetric part in addition to a symmetric spacetime metric, quantum algebraic spinor fields and deformed bilinear covariants can be constructed. They are thus compared to the classical (non quantum) ones. Classes of quantum spinor fields classes are introduced and compared with Lounesto's spinor field classification. A physical interpretation of the deformed parts and the underlying Z-grading is proposed. The existence of an arbitrary bilinear form endowing the spacetime already has been explored in the literature in the context of quantum gravity [S. W. Hawking, “The unpredictability of quantum gravity,” Commun. Math. Phys. 87, 395 (1982)]. Here, it is shown further to play a prominent role in the structure of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana spinor fields, besides the most general flagpoles and flag-dipoles. We introduce a new duality between the standard and the quantum spinor fields, by showing that when Clifford algebras over vector spaces endowed with an arbitrary bilinear form are taken into account, a mixture among the classes does occur. Consequently, novel features regarding the spinor fields can be derived.

  14. Bilinear covariants and spinor fields duality in quantum Clifford algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abłamowicz, Rafał; Gonçalves, Icaro; da Rocha, Roldão

    2014-10-01

    Classification of quantum spinor fields according to quantum bilinear covariants is introduced in a context of quantum Clifford algebras on Minkowski spacetime. Once the bilinear covariants are expressed in terms of algebraic spinor fields, the duality between spinor and quantum spinor fields can be discussed. Thus, by endowing the underlying spacetime with an arbitrary bilinear form with an antisymmetric part in addition to a symmetric spacetime metric, quantum algebraic spinor fields and deformed bilinear covariants can be constructed. They are thus compared to the classical (non quantum) ones. Classes of quantum spinor fields classes are introduced and compared with Lounesto's spinor field classification. A physical interpretation of the deformed parts and the underlying {Z}-grading is proposed. The existence of an arbitrary bilinear form endowing the spacetime already has been explored in the literature in the context of quantum gravity [S. W. Hawking, "The unpredictability of quantum gravity," Commun. Math. Phys. 87, 395 (1982)]. Here, it is shown further to play a prominent role in the structure of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana spinor fields, besides the most general flagpoles and flag-dipoles. We introduce a new duality between the standard and the quantum spinor fields, by showing that when Clifford algebras over vector spaces endowed with an arbitrary bilinear form are taken into account, a mixture among the classes does occur. Consequently, novel features regarding the spinor fields can be derived.

  15. Realization of the optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2005-12-15

    In several quantum information (QI) phenomena of large technological importance the information is carried by the phase of the quantum superposition states, or qubits. The phase-covariant cloning machine (PQCM) addresses precisely the problem of optimally copying these qubits with the largest attainable 'fidelity'. We present a general scheme which realizes the 1{yields}3 phase covariant cloning process by a combination of three different QI processes: the universal cloning, the NOT gate, and the projection over the symmetric subspace of the output qubits. The experimental implementation of a PQCM for polarization encoded qubits, the first ever realized with photons, is reported.

  16. Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2008-09-15

    We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

  17. Covariant quantum mechanics applied to noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    We here report a result obtained in collaboration with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, first shown in the paper [1]. Applying the manifestly covariant formalism of quantum mechanics to the much studied Snyder spacetime [2] we show how it is trivial in every physical observables, this meaning that every measure in this spacetime gives the same results that would be obtained in the flat Minkowski spacetime.

  18. Quantum energy inequalities and local covariance II: categorical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2007-11-01

    We formulate quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) in the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory developed by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and Verch, which is based on notions taken from category theory. This leads to a new viewpoint on the QEIs, and also to the identification of a new structural property of locally covariant quantum field theory, which we call local physical equivalence. Covariant formulations of the numerical range and spectrum of locally covariant fields are given and investigated, and a new algebra of fields is identified, in which fields are treated independently of their realisation on particular spacetimes and manifestly covariant versions of the functional calculus may be formulated.

  19. Gauge covariant fermion propagator in quenched, chirally symmetric quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Dong, Z.; Munczek, H.J.

    1995-08-01

    The chirally symmetric solution of the massless, quenched, Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) for the fermion propagator in three- and four-dimensional quantum electrodynamics was obtained. The DSEs are a valuable nonperturbative tool for studying field theories. In recent years a good deal of progress was made in addressing the limitations of the DSE approach in the study of Abelian gauge theories. Key to this progress is an understanding of the role of the dressed fermion/gauge-boson vertex in ensuring gauge covariance and multiplicative renormalizability of the solution of the fermion DSE. The solutions we obtain are manifestly gauge covariant and a general gauge covariance constraint on the fermion/gauge-boson vertex is presented, which motivates a vertex Ansatz that, for the first time, both satisfies the Ward identity when the fermion self-mass is zero and ensures gauge covariance of the fermion propagator. This research facilitates gauge-invariant, nonperturbative studies of continuum quantum electrodynamics and has already been used by others in studies of the chiral phase transition.

  20. Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulas which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulas. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and the correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulas are also useful in this case. By applying the formulas, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this phenomena is broken, the area shows rapid increase which suggests the phase transition from quantum to classical area.

  1. Inflation in general covariant theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongqing; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we study inflation in the framework of the nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant λ. We find that the Friedmann-Robterson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat in such a setup. We work out explicitly the linear perturbations of the flat FRW universe without specifying to a particular gauge, and find that the perturbations are different from those obtained in general relativity, because of the presence of the high-order spatial derivative terms. Applying the general formulas to a single scalar field, we show that in the sub-horizon regions, the metric and scalar field are tightly coupled and have the same oscillating frequencies. In the super-horizon regions, the perturbations become adiabatic, and the comoving curvature perturbation is constant. We also calculate the power spectra and indices of both the scalar and tensor perturbations, and express them explicitly in terms of the slow roll parameters and the coupling constants of the high-order spatial derivative terms. In particular, we find that the perturbations, of both scalar and tensor, are almost scale-invariant, and, with some reasonable assumptions on the coupling coefficients, the spectrum index of the tensor perturbation is the same as that given in the minimum scenario in general relativity (GR), whereas the index for scalar perturbation in general depends on λ and is different from the standard GR value. The ratio of the scalar and tensor power spectra depends on the high-order spatial derivative terms, and can be different from that of GR significantly.

  2. Generalized Covariant Gyrokinetic Dynamics of Magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cremaschini, C.; Tessarotto, M.; Nicolini, P.; Beklemishev, A.

    2008-12-31

    A basic prerequisite for the investigation of relativistic astrophysical magnetoplasmas, occurring typically in the vicinity of massive stellar objects (black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, etc.), is the accurate description of single-particle covariant dynamics, based on gyrokinetic theory (Beklemishev et al., 1999-2005). Provided radiation-reaction effects are negligible, this is usually based on the assumption that both the space-time metric and the EM fields (in particular the magnetic field) are suitably prescribed and are considered independent of single-particle dynamics, while allowing for the possible presence of gravitational/EM perturbations driven by plasma collective interactions which may naturally arise in such systems. The purpose of this work is the formulation of a generalized gyrokinetic theory based on the synchronous variational principle recently pointed out (Tessarotto et al., 2007) which permits to satisfy exactly the physical realizability condition for the four-velocity. The theory here developed includes the treatment of nonlinear perturbations (gravitational and/or EM) characterized locally, i.e., in the rest frame of a test particle, by short wavelength and high frequency. Basic feature of the approach is to ensure the validity of the theory both for large and vanishing parallel electric field. It is shown that the correct treatment of EM perturbations occurring in the presence of an intense background magnetic field generally implies the appearance of appropriate four-velocity corrections, which are essential for the description of single-particle gyrokinetic dynamics.

  3. Derivation of the Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Maker, David

    2010-09-30

    From the Occam's razor optimized assumption of a geometric point we derive a new generally covariant generalization of the Dirac equation. We solve that equation in domains r>r{sub H}, r{approx_equal}r{sub H}, and r

  4. Covariance and time regained in canonical general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Kouletsis, I.

    2008-09-15

    Canonical vacuum gravity is expressed in generally covariant form in order that spacetime diffeomorphisms be represented within its equal-time phase space. In accordance with the principle of general covariance and ideas developed within history phase-space formalisms in [I. Kouletsis and K. V. Kuchar, Phys. Rev. D 65, 125026 (2002)], [K. Savvidou, Classical Quantum Gravity 18, 3611 (2001)], [K. Savvidou, Classical Quantum Gravity 21, 615 (2004)], [K. Savvidou, Classical Quantum Gravity 21, 631 (2004)], the time mapping T: M{yields}R and the space mapping X: M{yields}{sigma} that define the Dirac-Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) foliation are incorporated into the framework of the Hilbert variational principle. The resulting canonical action encompasses all individual Dirac-ADM actions, corresponding to different choices of foliating vacuum spacetimes by spacelike hypersurfaces. The equal-time phase space P=(g{sub ij},p{sup ij},Y{sup {alpha}},P{sub {alpha}}) includes the embeddings Y{sup {alpha}}: {sigma}{yields}M and their conjugate momenta P{sub {alpha}}. It is constrained by eight first-class constraints. The constraint surface C is determined by the super-Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints of vacuum gravity and the vanishing of the embedding momenta. Deformations of the time and space mappings, {delta}T and {delta}X, and spacetime diffeomorphisms, V(set-membership sign)LDiffM, induce symplectic diffeomorphisms of P. While the generator D{sub ({delta}T,{delta}X)} of deformations depends on all eight constraints, the generator D{sub V} of spacetime diffeomorphisms depends only on the embedding momentum constraints. As a result, spacetime observables, namely, dynamical variables F on P that are invariant under spacetime diffeomorphisms, (F,D{sub V})|{sub C}=0, are not necessarily invariant under the deformations of the mappings, (F,D{sub ({delta}T,{delta}X)})|{sub C}{ne}0, nor are they constants of the motion, (F,{integral}d{sup 3}xH)|{sub C}{ne}0. Dirac

  5. Estimation of the covariance matrix of macroscopic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, László; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-05-01

    For systems analogous to a linear harmonic oscillator, the simplest way to characterize the state is by a covariance matrix containing the symmetrically ordered moments of operators analogous to position and momentum. We show that using Stokes-like detectors without direct access to either position or momentum, the estimation of the covariance matrix of a macroscopic signal is still possible using interference with a classical noisy and low-intensity reference. Such a detection technique will allow one to estimate macroscopic quantum states of electromagnetic radiation without a coherent high-intensity local oscillator. It can be directly applied to estimate the covariance matrix of macroscopically bright squeezed states of light.

  6. Generally Covariant Hamiltonian Approach to the Generalized Harmonic Formulation of General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Meng

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop a generally covariant Hamiltonian approach to the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity. As en route investigations, an important class of coordinate transformations in the context of the 3 + 1 decomposition, foliation preserving transformations, is defined; transformation rules of various 3 + 1 decomposition variables under this change of coordinates are investigated; the notion of covariant time derivative under foliation preserving transformations is defined; gauge conditions of various numerical relativity formulations are rewritten in generally covariant form. The Hamiltonian formulation of the generalized harmonic system is defined in the latter part of this dissertation. With the knowledge of covariant time derivative, the Hamiltonian formulation is extended to achieve general covariance. The Hamiltonian formulation is further proved to be symmetric hyperbolic.

  7. Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Singh, Parampreet E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2009-01-15

    In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.

  8. Resilience to decoherence of the macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, Nicolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2010-09-15

    We show that the quantum states generated by universal optimal quantum cloning of a single photon represent a universal set of quantum superpositions resilient to decoherence. We adopt the Bures distance as a tool to investigate the persistence of quantum coherence of these quantum states. According to this analysis, the process of universal cloning realizes a class of quantum superpositions that exhibits a covariance property in lossy configuration over the complete set of polarization states in the Bloch sphere.

  9. Covariant generalization of cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Hoegdahl, Janne; Nurmi, Sami; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2007-01-15

    We present an approach to cosmological perturbations based on a covariant perturbative expansion between two worldlines in the real inhomogeneous universe. As an application, at an arbitrary order we define an exact scalar quantity which describes the inhomogeneities in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and which is conserved on all scales for a barotropic ideal fluid. We derive a compact form for its conservation equation at all orders and assign it a simple physical interpretation. To make a comparison with the standard perturbation theory, we develop a method to construct gauge-invariant quantities in a coordinate system at arbitrary order, which we apply to derive the form of the nth order perturbation in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and its exact evolution equation. On large scales, this provides the gauge-invariant expression for the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces and its evolution equation at any order.

  10. Galilei covariance and Einstein's equivalence principle in quantum reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S. T.; Angelo, R. M.

    2015-02-01

    The covariance of the Schrödinger equation under Galilei boosts and the compatibility of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Einstein's equivalence principle have been constrained for so long to the existence of a superselection rule which would prevent a quantum particle from being found in superposition states of different masses. In an effort to avoid this expedient, and thus allow nonrelativistic quantum mechanics to account for unstable particles, recent works have suggested that the usual Galilean transformations are inconsistent with the nonrelativistic limit implied by the Lorentz transformation. Here we approach the issue in a fundamentally different way. Using a formalism of unitary transformations and employing quantum reference frames rather than immaterial coordinate systems, we show that the Schrödinger equation, although form variant, is fully compatible with the aforementioned principles of relativity.

  11. First integrals of motion in a gauge covariant framework, Killing-Maxwell system and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, M.

    2012-10-15

    Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

  12. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  13. Generalized quantum entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.

    2011-08-01

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the Tsallis and Kaniadakis frameworks is derived using a generalization of the ordinary multinomial coefficient. This generalization is based on the respective deformed multiplication and division. We show that the two above entropies are consistent with ones arbitrarily assumed at other contexts.

  14. Vector order parameter in general relativity: Covariant equations

    SciTech Connect

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    2010-07-15

    Phase transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking and vector order parameter are considered in multidimensional theory of general relativity. Covariant equations, describing the gravitational properties of topological defects, are derived. The topological defects are classified in accordance with the symmetry of the covariant derivative of the vector order parameter. The abilities of the derived equations are demonstrated in application to the braneworld concept. New solutions of the Einstein equations with a transverse vector order parameter are presented. In the vicinity of phase transition, the solutions are found analytically.

  15. Dynamics without Time for Quantum Gravity: Covariant Hamiltonian Formalism and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation on the Space G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on , and a canonical function S on which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.

  16. Dynamics without Time for Quantum Gravity: Covariant Hamiltonian Formalism and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation on the Space G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    Hamiltonian mechanics of field theory can be formulated in a generally covariant and background independent manner over a finite dimensional extended configuration space. I study the physical symplectic structure of the theory in this framework. This structure can be defined over a space G of three-dimensional surfaces without boundary, in the extended configuration space. These surfaces provide a preferred over-coordinatization of phase space. I consider the covariant form of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on G, and a canonical function S on G which is a preferred solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The application of this formalism to general relativity is fully covariant and yields directly the Ashtekar-Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the basic equation of canonical quantum gravity. Finally, I apply this formalism to discuss the partial observables of a covariant field theory and the role of the spin networks -basic objects in quantum gravity- in the classical theory.

  17. Generalized Least Squares Estimators in the Analysis of Covariance Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Michael W.

    This paper concerns situations in which a p x p covariance matrix is a function of an unknown q x 1 parameter vector y-sub-o. Notation is defined in the second section, and some algebraic results used in subsequent sections are given. Section 3 deals with asymptotic properties of generalized least squares (G.L.S.) estimators of y-sub-o. Section 4…

  18. General covariance, artificial gauge freedom and empirical equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, James Brian

    This dissertation updates the debate over the nontriviality of general covariance for Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and considers particle physics in the debate over underdetermination and empirical equivalence. Both tasks are tied to the unexplored issue of artificial gauge freedom, a valuable form of descriptive redundancy. Whereas Einstein took general covariance to characterize GTR, Kretschmann thought it merely a formal feature that any theory could have. Anderson and Friedman analyzed substantive general covariance as the lack of absolute objects, fields the same in all models. Some extant counterexamples and a new one involving the electron spinor field are resolved. However, Geroch and Giulini diagnose an absolute object in GTR itself in the metric's volume element. One might instead analyze substantive general covariance as formal general covariance achieved without hiding preferred coordinates as scalar "clock fields," recalling Einstein's early views. Theories with no metric or multiple metrics make the age of the universe meaningless or ambiguous, respectively, so the ancient and medieval debate over the eternity of the world should be recast. Particle physics provides case studies for empirical equivalence. Proca's electromagnetism with some nonzero photon mass constitutes a family of rivals to Maxwell's theory. Whereas any Proca theory can be distinguished empirically from Maxwell's, the Proca family approaches Maxwell's for small masses, yielding permanent underdetermination with only approximate empirical equivalence. The weak nuclear force also displays a smooth massless limit classically, but not after quantization, recalling the instability of empirical equivalence under change of auxiliary hypotheses. The standard electroweak theory apparently permits a photon mass term and hence underdetermination, but possible further unification might not. The question of underdetermination regarding massive gravity is unresolved. Physicists

  19. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  20. Realization of a universal and phase-covariant quantum cloning machine in separate cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Song Qingming; Ye Liu

    2011-04-15

    We present a scheme to realize a special quantum cloning machine in separate cavities. The quantum cloning machine can copy the quantum information from a photon pulse to two distant atoms. Choosing the different parameters, the method can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning and optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning.

  1. General covariant xp models and the Riemann zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Germán

    2012-02-01

    We study a general class of models whose classical Hamiltonians are given by H = U(x)p + V(x)/p, where x and p are the position and momentum of a particle moving in one dimension, and U and V are positive functions. This class includes the Hamiltonians HI = x(p + 1/p) and HII = (x + 1/x)(p + 1/p), which have been recently discussed in connection with the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We show that all these models are covariant under general coordinate transformations. This remarkable property becomes explicit in the Lagrangian formulation which describes a relativistic particle moving in a (1+1)-dimensional spacetime whose metric is constructed from the functions U and V. General covariance is maintained by quantization and we find that the spectra are closely related to the geometry of the associated spacetimes. In particular, the Hamiltonian HI corresponds to a flat spacetime, whereas its spectrum approaches the Riemann zeros on average. The latter property also holds for the model HII, whose underlying spacetime is asymptotically flat. These results suggest the existence of a Hamiltonian whose underlying spacetime encodes the prime numbers, and whose spectrum provides the Riemann zeros.

  2. Effective quantum gravity observables and locally covariant QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejzner, Kasia

    2016-03-01

    Perturbative algebraic quantum field theory (pAQFT) is a mathematically rigorous framework that allows to construct models of quantum field theories (QFTs) on a general class of Lorentzian manifolds. Recently, this idea has been applied also to perturbative quantum gravity (QG), treated as an effective theory. The difficulty was to find the right notion of observables that would in an appropriate sense be diffeomorphism invariant. In this paper, I will outline a general framework that allows to quantize theories with local symmetries (this includes infinitesimal diffeomorphism transformations) with the use of the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism. This approach has been successfully applied to effective QG in a recent paper by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and myself. In the same paper, we also proved perturbative background independence of the quantized theory, which is going to be discussed in the present work as well.

  3. Locally covariant quantum field theory and the spin-statistics connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2016-03-01

    The framework of locally covariant quantum field theory (QFT), an axiomatic approach to QFT in curved spacetime (CST), is reviewed. As a specific focus, the connection between spin and statistics is examined in this context. A new approach is given, which allows for a more operational description of theories with spin and for the derivation of a more general version of the spin-statistics connection in CSTs than previously available. This part of the text is based on [C. J. Fewster, arXiv:1503.05797.] and a forthcoming publication; the emphasis here is on the fundamental ideas and motivation.

  4. Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.

    PubMed

    Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-03-01

    Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics. PMID:25871066

  5. Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-03-01

    Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics.

  6. Local conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Sijie; Lemos, José P.

    2005-04-01

    A set of sufficient conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound given by Strominger and Thompson is as follows: Suppose that the entropy of matter can be described by an entropy current sa. Let ka be any null vector along L and s≡-kasa. Then the generalized bound can be derived from the following conditions: (i) s'≤2πTabkakb, where s'=ka∇as and Tab is the stress-energy tensor; (ii) on the initial 2-surface B, s(0)≤-1/4θ(0), where θ is the expansion of ka. We prove that condition (ii) alone can be used to divide a spacetime into two regions: The generalized entropy bound holds for all light sheets residing in the region where s<-1/4θ and fails for those in the region where s>-1/4θ. We check the validity of these conditions in FRW flat universe and a scalar field spacetime. Some apparent violations of the entropy bounds in the two spacetimes are discussed. These holographic bounds are important in the formulation of the holographic principle.

  7. General quantum key distribution in higher dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhao-Xi; Shi, Han-Duo; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Lei, Jin; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2012-01-01

    We study a general quantum key distribution protocol in higher dimension. In this protocol, quantum states in arbitrary g+1 (1≤g≤d) out of all d+1 mutually unbiased bases in a d-dimensional system can be used for the key encoding. This provides a natural generalization of the quantum key distribution in higher dimension and recovers the previously known results for g=1 and d. In our investigation, we study Eve's attack by two slightly different approaches. One is considering the optimal cloner of Eve, and the other, defined as the optimal attack, is maximizing Eve's information. We derive results for both approaches and show the deviation of the optimal cloner from the optimal attack. With our systematic investigation of the quantum key distribution protocols in higher dimension, one may balance the security gain and the implementation cost by changing the number of bases in the key encoding. As a side product, we also prove the equivalency between the optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machine and the optimal cloner for the g=d-1 quantum key distribution.

  8. The Galilean covariance of quantum mechanics in the case of external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Harvey R.; Holland, Peter R.

    1999-03-01

    Textbook treatments of the Galilean covariance of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a spinless particle seem invariably to cover the case of a free particle or one in the presence of a scalar potential. The principal objective of this paper is to examine the situation in the case of arbitrary forces, including the velocity-dependent variety resulting from a vector potential. To this end, we revisit the 1964 theorem of Jauch which purports to determine the most general form of the Hamiltonian consistent with "Galilean-invariance," and argue that the proof is less than compelling. We then show systematically that the Schrödinger equation in the case of a Jauch-type Hamiltonian is Galilean covariant, so long as the vector and scalar potentials transform in a certain way. These transformations, which to our knowledge have appeared very rarely in the literature on quantum mechanics, correspond in the case of electrodynamical forces to the "magnetic" nonrelativistic limit of Maxwell's equations in the sense of Le Bellac and Lévy-Leblond (1973). Finally, this Galilean covariant theory sheds light on Feynman's "proof" of Maxwell's equations, as reported by Dyson in 1990.

  9. Realizing a partial general quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices in a cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Yang Zhen; Ye Liu

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for implementing a partial general quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices coupled to a nonresonant cavity. By regulating the time parameters, our system can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning, and optimal symmetric economical phase-covariant cloning. In the scheme the cavity is only virtually excited, thus, the cavity decay is suppressed during the cloning operations.

  10. General covariant gauge fixing for massless spin-two fields

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, F. T.; Frenkel, J.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2007-11-15

    The most general covariant gauge fixing Lagrangian is considered for a spin-two gauge theory in the context of the Faddeev-Popov procedure. In general, five parameters characterize this gauge fixing. Certain limiting values for these parameters give rise to a spin-two propagator that is either traceless or transverse, but for no values of these parameters is this propagator simultaneously traceless and transverse. Having a traceless-transverse propagator ensures that only the physical degrees of freedom associated with the tensor field propagate, and hence it is analogous to the Landau gauge in electrodynamics. To obtain such a traceless-transverse propagator, a gauge fixing Lagrangian which is not quadratic must be employed; this sort of gauge fixing Lagrangian is not encountered in the usual Faddeev-Popov procedure. It is shown that when this nonquadratic gauge fixing Lagrangian is used, two fermionic and one bosonic ghosts arise. As a simple application we discuss the energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field at finite temperature.

  11. Simple sufficient conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Marolf, Donald

    2003-09-01

    The generalized covariant entropy bound is the conjecture that for any null hypersurface which is generated by geodesics with nonpositive expansion starting from a spacelike 2-surface B and ending in a spacelike 2-surface B', the matter entropy on that hypersurface will not exceed one quarter of the difference in areas, in Planck units, of the two spacelike 2-surfaces. We show that this bound can be derived from the following phenomenological assumptions: (i) matter entropy can be described in terms of an entropy current sa; (ii) the gradient of the entropy current is bounded by the energy density, in the sense that |kakb∇asb|⩽2πTabkakb/ħ for any null vector ka where Tab is the stress energy tensor; and (iii) the entropy current sa vanishes on the initial 2-surface B. We also show that the generalized Bekenstein bound—the conjecture that the entropy of a weakly gravitating isolated matter system will not exceed a constant times the product of its mass and its width—can be derived from our assumptions. Though we note that any local description of entropy has intrinsic limitations, we argue that our assumptions apply in a wide regime. We closely follow the framework of an earlier derivation, but our assumptions take a simpler form, making their validity more transparent in some examples.

  12. Optimal universal asymmetric covariant quantum cloning circuits for qubit entanglement manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Levente; Koniorczyk, Matyas; Adam, Peter; Janszky, Jozsef

    2010-03-15

    We consider the entanglement manipulation capabilities of the universal covariant quantum cloner or quantum processor circuit for quantum bits. We investigate its use for cloning a member of a bipartite or a genuine tripartite entangled state of quantum bits. We find that for bipartite pure entangled states a nontrivial behavior of concurrence appears, while for GHZ entangled states a possibility of the partial extraction of bipartite entanglement can be achieved.

  13. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  14. Derivation of manifestly covariant quantum models for spinning relativistic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnelius, Robert; Mårtensson, Ulf

    1990-05-01

    A method to construct manifestly covariant models for relativistic spinning particles is given. The models involve manifestly covariant internal variables leading to discrete state spaces apart from the coordinate and momentum variables. The precise form of the models are extracted from the Bargmann-Wigner conditions on the Pauli-Lubanski operator, together with some consistency conditions. Several simple models are derived and analysed, some of which are new. Also manifestly conformally invariant models for particles with arbitrary spins are derived using a condition of Bracken and Jessup.

  15. The Split Property for Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theories in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2015-12-01

    The split property expresses the way in which local regions of spacetime define subsystems of a quantum field theory. It is known to hold for general theories in Minkowski space under the hypothesis of nuclearity. Here, the split property is discussed for general locally covariant quantum field theories in arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetimes, using a spacetime deformation argument to transport the split property from one spacetime to another. It is also shown how states obeying both the split and (partial) Reeh-Schlieder properties can be constructed, providing standard split inclusions of certain local von Neumann algebras. Sufficient conditions are given for the theory to admit such states in ultrastatic spacetimes, from which the general case follows. A number of consequences are described, including the existence of local generators for global gauge transformations, and the classification of certain local von Neumann algebras. Similar arguments are applied to the distal split property and circumstances are exhibited under which distal splitting implies the full split property.

  16. Generalized parametrization dependence in quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Knorr, Benjamin; Lippoldt, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    We critically examine the gauge and field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaußian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical observables are independent of such calculational specifications, the construction of quantum gravity field theories typically relies on off-shell quantities such as β functions and generating functionals and thus face potential stability issues with regard to such generalized parametrizations. We analyze a two-parameter class of covariant gauge conditions, the role of momentum-dependent field rescalings and a class of field parametrizations. Using the product of Newton and cosmological constant as an indicator, the principle of minimum sensitivity identifies stationary points in this parametrization space which show a remarkable insensitivity to the parametrization. In the most insensitive cases, the quantized gravity system exhibits a non-Gaußian UV stable fixed point, lending further support to asymptotically safe quantum gravity. One of the stationary points facilitates an analytical determination of the quantum gravity phase diagram and features ultraviolet and infrared complete RG trajectories with a classical regime.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2008-06-01

    The open problem of constructing a consistent and experimentally tested quantum theory of the gravitational field has its place at the heart of fundamental physics. The main approaches can be roughly divided into two classes: either one seeks a unified quantum framework of all interactions or one starts with a direct quantization of general relativity. In the first class, string theory (M-theory) is the only known example. In the second class, one can make an additional methodological distinction: while covariant approaches such as path-integral quantization use the four-dimensional metric as an essential ingredient of their formalism, canonical approaches start with a foliation of spacetime into spacelike hypersurfaces in order to arrive at a Hamiltonian formulation. The present book is devoted to one of the canonical approaches—loop quantum gravity. It is named modern canonical quantum general relativity by the author because it uses connections and holonomies as central variables, which are analogous to the variables used in Yang Mills theories. In fact, the canonically conjugate variables are a holonomy of a connection and the flux of a non-Abelian electric field. This has to be contrasted with the older geometrodynamical approach in which the metric of three-dimensional space and the second fundamental form are the fundamental entities, an approach which is still actively being pursued. It is the author's ambition to present loop quantum gravity in a way in which every step is formulated in a mathematically rigorous form. In his own words: 'loop quantum gravity is an attempt to construct a mathematically rigorous, background-independent, non-perturbative quantum field theory of Lorentzian general relativity and all known matter in four spacetime dimensions, not more and not less'. The formal Leitmotiv of loop quantum gravity is background independence. Non-gravitational theories are usually quantized on a given non-dynamical background. In contrast, due to

  18. Covariation bias for ambiguous social stimuli in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Christiane; Ofer, Julia; Flor, Herta

    2004-11-01

    The authors investigated whether the negative interpretation bias in generalized social phobia (GSP) reflects and is maintained by illusory correlations. Participants were exposed to descriptions of ambiguous social events, situations involving fear-relevant animals and nature scenes that were randomly paired with negative, positive, or neutral emotional facial expressions. Prior to the experiment, the GSP participants overestimated the contingency social situations-negative outcome, whereas the controls judged negative outcomes as least likely. A posteriori, the GSP participants exhibited an illusory correlation specifically between social cues and negative outcomes. During the experiment, only the controls showed distorted outcome predictions for social situations. Hence, illusory correlations--possibly resulting from acquired associations between social cues and negative consequences--may contribute to a negative interpretation bias in GSP. PMID:15535796

  19. Pion generalized parton distributions within a fully covariant constituent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Pace, Emanuele; Romanelli, Giovanni; Salmè, Giovanni; Salmistraro, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We extend the investigation of the generalized parton distribution for a charged pion within a fully covariant constituent quark model, in two respects: (1) calculating the tensor distribution and (2) adding the treatment of the evolution, needed for achieving a meaningful comparison with both the experimental parton distribution and the lattice evaluation of the so-called generalized form factors. Distinct features of our phenomenological covariant quark model are: (1) a 4D Ansatz for the pion Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, to be used in the Mandelstam formula for matrix elements of the relevant current operators, and (2) only two parameters, namely a quark mass assumed to be m_q=~220 MeV and a free parameter fixed through the value of the pion decay constant. The possibility of increasing the dynamical content of our covariant constituent quark model is briefly discussed in the context of the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude.

  20. Implementing an ancilla-free 1{yields}M economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices in cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Longbao; Ye Liu; Zhang Wenhai

    2007-09-15

    We propose a simple scheme to realize 1{yields}M economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (EPQCM) with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits. In our scheme, multi-SQUIDs are fixed into a microwave cavity by adiabatic passage for their manipulation. Based on this model, we can realize the EPQCM with high fidelity via adiabatic quantum computation.

  1. The fermionic covariant prolongation structure of the super generalized Hirota equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaowen; Yao, Shaokui; Zhang, Chunhong; Gegenhasi

    2016-07-01

    The integrability of a super generalized Hirota equation (GHE) is investigated by means of the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We construct the su(2/1) × R(λ) prolongation structure for the super GHE and derive the corresponding Lax representation and the Bäcklund transformation. In addition, a solution of the super integrable equation is presented.

  2. The generalized quadratic covariation for fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index less than 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Litan; Liu, Junfeng; Chen, Chao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the generalized quadratic covariation of f(BH) and BH defined by $ [f(BH),BH](H)t:=\\lim_\\varepsilon\\downarrow 0}(1)/(\\varepsilon2H)\\int 0t{f(BHs+\\varepsilon) -f(BHs)}(BHs+\\varepsilon-BH_s)ds2H in probability, where f is a Borel function and BH is a fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index 0 < H < 1/2. We construct a Banach space {H} of measurable functions such that the generalized quadratic covariation exists in L2(Ω) and the Bouleau-Yor identity takes the form [f(BH),BH]t(H)=-\\int_ {R}}f(x){L}H(dx,t) provided f\\in {H}, where {L}^{H}(x, t) is the weighted local time of BH. These are also extended to the time-dependent case, and as an application we give the identity between the generalized quadratic covariation and the 4-covariation [g(BH), BH, BH, BH] when H = 1/4.

  3. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2009-05-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH =1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo=0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde, not requiring the standard method's pathology of adhoc assumptions such as gauges and counterterms, 19 free parameters (you can vary any way you want) that have confused, blocked the progress of theoretical physics for the past 30 years.

  4. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH/r=1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo =0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde.

  5. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2009-03-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH =1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo=0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde, not requiring the standard method's pathology of adhoc assumptions such as gauges and counterterms, 19 free parameters (you can vary any way you want) that have confused, blocked the progress of theoretical physics for the past 30 years.

  6. Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S.

    2006-12-15

    The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

  7. Covariant second-order perturbations in generalized two-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Tzavara, Eleftheria; Tent, Bartjan van; Mizuno, Shuntaro E-mail: Shuntaro.Mizuno@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-07-01

    We examine the covariant properties of generalized models of two-field inflation, with non-canonical kinetic terms and a possibly non-trivial field metric. We demonstrate that kinetic-term derivatives and covariant field derivatives do commute in a proper covariant framework, which was not realized before in the literature. We also define a set of generalized slow-roll parameters, using a unified notation. Within this framework, we study the most general class of models that allows for well-defined adiabatic and entropic sound speeds, which we identify as the models with parallel momentum and field velocity vectors. For these models we write the exact cubic action in terms of the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. We thus provide the tool to calculate the exact non-Gaussianity beyond slow-roll and at any scale for these generalized models. We illustrate our general results by considering their long-wavelength limit, as well as with the example of two-field DBI inflation.

  8. Correspondence between quantum and classical information: Generalized quantum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2006-04-15

    The concept of generalized quantum measurement is introduced as a transformation that sets a one-to-one correspondence between the initial states of the measured object system and final states of the object-meter system with the help of a classical informational index, unambiguously linked to a classically compatible set of quantum states. It is shown that the generalized quantum measurement concept covers all key types of quantum measurement--standard projective, entangling, fuzzy, and generalized measurements with a partial or complete destruction of initial information associated with the object. A special class of soft quantum measurements as a basic model for the fuzzy measurements widespread in physics is introduced and its information properties are studied in detail. Also, a special class of partially destructive measurements mapping all states of the Hilbert space of a finite-dimensional quantum system onto the basis states of an infinite-dimensional quantum system is considered.

  9. Four dimensional quantum gravity: The covariant path integral and quantization of the conformal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.

    1993-01-01

    After first reviewing the issue of vacuum energy (the cosmological constant problem) in the Einstein theory, the covariant path integral for gravity in four dimensions is constructed. The problem of vacuum energy requires determining the correct ground state of the quantum theory of gravity, and as such is an infrared problem, arising prior to and independently of the physics of the Planck scale. It is addressed in these lectures by studying the infrared fixed point of the low energy effective action of the conformal factor generated by the quantum trace anomaly in four dimensions. The infrared fixed point of this effective theory describes a conformally invariant phase of gravity with a vanishing effective cosmological term.

  10. Four dimensional quantum gravity: The covariant path integral and quantization of the conformal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.

    1993-03-01

    After first reviewing the issue of vacuum energy (the cosmological constant problem) in the Einstein theory, the covariant path integral for gravity in four dimensions is constructed. The problem of vacuum energy requires determining the correct ground state of the quantum theory of gravity, and as such is an infrared problem, arising prior to and independently of the physics of the Planck scale. It is addressed in these lectures by studying the infrared fixed point of the low energy effective action of the conformal factor generated by the quantum trace anomaly in four dimensions. The infrared fixed point of this effective theory describes a conformally invariant phase of gravity with a vanishing effective cosmological term.

  11. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  12. General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-06-01

    Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.

  13. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gui-Lu

    2006-05-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  14. Accelerated optimization and automated discovery with covariance matrix adaptation for experimental quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslund, Jonathan; Shir, Ofer M.; Bäck, Thomas; Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    Optimization of quantum systems by closed-loop adaptive pulse shaping offers a rich domain for the development and application of specialized evolutionary algorithms. Derandomized evolution strategies (DESs) are presented here as a robust class of optimizers for experimental quantum control. The combination of stochastic and quasi-local search embodied by these algorithms is especially amenable to the inherent topology of quantum control landscapes. Implementation of DES in the laboratory results in efficiency gains of up to ˜9 times that of the standard genetic algorithm, and thus is a promising tool for optimization of unstable or fragile systems. The statistical learning upon which these algorithms are predicated also provide the means for obtaining a control problem’s Hessian matrix with no additional experimental overhead. The forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) method is introduced to enable retrieval of the Hessian matrix, which can reveal information about the landscape’s local structure and dynamic mechanism. Exploitation of such algorithms in quantum control experiments should enhance their efficiency and provide additional fundamental insights.

  15. Accelerated optimization and automated discovery with covariance matrix adaptation for experimental quantum control

    SciTech Connect

    Roslund, Jonathan; Shir, Ofer M.; Rabitz, Herschel; Baeck, Thomas

    2009-10-15

    Optimization of quantum systems by closed-loop adaptive pulse shaping offers a rich domain for the development and application of specialized evolutionary algorithms. Derandomized evolution strategies (DESs) are presented here as a robust class of optimizers for experimental quantum control. The combination of stochastic and quasi-local search embodied by these algorithms is especially amenable to the inherent topology of quantum control landscapes. Implementation of DES in the laboratory results in efficiency gains of up to {approx}9 times that of the standard genetic algorithm, and thus is a promising tool for optimization of unstable or fragile systems. The statistical learning upon which these algorithms are predicated also provide the means for obtaining a control problem's Hessian matrix with no additional experimental overhead. The forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) method is introduced to enable retrieval of the Hessian matrix, which can reveal information about the landscape's local structure and dynamic mechanism. Exploitation of such algorithms in quantum control experiments should enhance their efficiency and provide additional fundamental insights.

  16. Nonparametric Covariate-Adjusted Association Tests Based on the Generalized Kendall’s Tau*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wensheng; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors for comorbidity is important in psychiatric research. Empirically, studies have shown that testing multiple, correlated traits simultaneously is more powerful than testing a single trait at a time in association analysis. Furthermore, for complex diseases, especially mental illnesses and behavioral disorders, the traits are often recorded in different scales such as dichotomous, ordinal and quantitative. In the absence of covariates, nonparametric association tests have been developed for multiple complex traits to study comorbidity. However, genetic studies generally contain measurements of some covariates that may affect the relationship between the risk factors of major interest (such as genes) and the outcomes. While it is relatively easy to adjust these covariates in a parametric model for quantitative traits, it is challenging for multiple complex traits with possibly different scales. In this article, we propose a nonparametric test for multiple complex traits that can adjust for covariate effects. The test aims to achieve an optimal scheme of adjustment by using a maximum statistic calculated from multiple adjusted test statistics. We derive the asymptotic null distribution of the maximum test statistic, and also propose a resampling approach, both of which can be used to assess the significance of our test. Simulations are conducted to compare the type I error and power of the nonparametric adjusted test to the unadjusted test and other existing adjusted tests. The empirical results suggest that our proposed test increases the power through adjustment for covariates when there exist environmental effects, and is more robust to model misspecifications than some existing parametric adjusted tests. We further demonstrate the advantage of our test by analyzing a data set on genetics of alcoholism. PMID:22745516

  17. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  18. Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraczewski, A.; Stobińska, M.

    2012-10-01

    Macroscopically populated quantum superpositions pose a question to what extent the macroscopic world obeys quantum mechanical laws. Recently, such superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have been demonstrated. They are of fundamental and technological interest. We present numerical methods useful for modeling of these states. Their properties are governed by a Gaussian hypergeometric function, which cannot be reduced to either elementary or easily tractable functions. We discuss the method of efficient computation of this function for half-integer parameters and a moderate value of its argument. We show how to dynamically estimate a cutoff for infinite sums involving this function performed over its parameters. Our algorithm exceeds double precision and is parallelizable. Depending on the experimental parameters it chooses one of the several ways of summation to achieve the best efficiency. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Program summary Program title: MQSVIS Catalogue identifier: AEMR_ v1_ 0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1643 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13212 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP). RAM: 200 MB for single run for 1000×1000 tile Classification: 4.15, 18. External routines: OpenMP Nature of problem: Recently, macroscopically populated quantum superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have

  19. Work Measurement as a Generalized Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-01

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P (w ). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P (w ). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  20. A general theory of quantum relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minic, Djordje; Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    2004-02-01

    The geometric form of standard quantum mechanics is compatible with the two postulates: (1) the laws of physics are invariant under the choice of experimental setup and (2) every quantum observation or event is intrinsically statistical. These postulates remain compatible within a background independent extension of quantum theory with a local intrinsic time implying the relativity of the concept of a quantum event. In this extension the space of quantum events becomes dynamical and only individual quantum events make sense observationally. At the core of such a general theory of quantum relativity is the three-way interplay between the symplectic form, the dynamical metric and non-integrable almost complex structure of the space of quantum events. Such a formulation provides a missing conceptual ingredient in the search for a background independent quantum theory of gravity and matter. The crucial new technical element in our scheme derives from a set of recent mathematical results on certain infinite-dimensional almost Kahler manifolds which replace the complex projective spaces of standard quantum mechanics.

  1. Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2015-10-01

    The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the generalized effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.

  2. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  3. Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2009-02-01

    Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.

  4. Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.

  5. Relationship Between Large-Scale Functional and Structural Covariance Networks in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Mantini, Dante; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Zhengge; Chen, Guanghui; Jiao, Qing; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The human brain can be modeled as a network, whose structure can be revealed by either anatomical or functional connectivity analyses. Little is known, so far, about the topological features of the large-scale interregional functional covariance network (FCN) in the brain. Further, the relationship between the FCN and the structural covariance network (SCN) has not been characterized yet, in the intact as well as in the diseased brain. Here, we studied 59 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic–clonic seizures and 59 healthy controls. We estimated the FCN and the SCN by measuring amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and gray matter volume (GMV), respectively, and then we conducted graph theoretical analyses. Our ALFF-based FCN and GMV-based results revealed that the normal human brain is characterized by specific topological properties such as small worldness and highly-connected hub regions. The patients had an altered overall topology compared to the controls, suggesting that epilepsy is primarily a disorder of the cerebral network organization. Further, the patients had altered nodal characteristics in the subcortical and medial temporal regions and default-mode regions, for both the FCN and SCN. Importantly, the correspondence between the FCN and SCN was significantly larger in patients than in the controls. These results support the hypothesis that the SCN reflects shared long-term trophic mechanisms within functionally synchronous systems. They can also provide crucial information for understanding the interactions between the whole-brain network organization and pathology in generalized tonic–clonic seizures. PMID:23510272

  6. Generalized Squashing Factors for Covariant Description of Magnetic Connectivity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study of magnetic connectivity in the solar corona reveals a need to generalize the field line mapping technique to arbitrary geometry of the boundaries and systems of coordinates. Indeed, the global description of the connectivity in the corona requires the use of the photospheric and solar wind boundaries. Both are closed surfaces and therefore do not admit a global regular system of coordinates. At least two overlapping regular systems of coordinates for each of the boundaries are necessary in this case to avoid spherical-pole-like singularities in the coordinates of the footpoints. This implies that the basic characteristic of magnetic connectivity-the squashing degree or factor Q of elemental flux tubes, according to Titov and coworkers-must be rewritten in covariant form. Such a covariant expression of Q is derived in this work. The derived expression is very flexible and highly efficient for describing the global magnetic connectivity in the solar corona. In addition, a general expression for a new characteristic Q1, which defines a squashing of the flux tubes in the directions perpendicular to the field lines, is determined. This new quantity makes it possible to filter out the quasi-separatrix layers whose large values of Q are caused by a projection effect at the field lines nearly touching the photosphere. Thus, the value Q1 provides a much more precise description of the volumetric properties of the magnetic field structure. The difference between Q and Q1 is illustrated by comparing their distributions for two configurations, one of which is the Titov-Demoulin model of a twisted magnetic field.

  7. Multi-atom entanglement engineering and phase-covariant quantum cloning with a single resonant interaction assisted by external driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2014-12-01

    We propose a scheme to realize multi-atom entanglement and phase-covariant quantum cloning in a short-time manner possessing the advantage of its robustness with respect to parameter fluctuations. The process is achieved by externally driving the atoms to resonantly couple to the cavity mode. Compared to other strategies, such as the adiabatic or virtual-photon techniques, it provides a method which allows the relatively fast coherent manipulation.

  8. Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r(G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8 , most of which were previously unknown.

  9. A quantum logic network for implementing optimal symmetric universal and phase-covariant telecloning of a bipartite entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanyu; Zhu, Aidong

    2008-10-01

    A quantum logic network to implement quantum telecloning is presented in this paper. The network includes two parts: the first part is used to create the telecloning channel and the second part to teleport the state. It can be used not only to implement universal telecloning for a bipartite entangled state which is completely unknown, but also to implement the phase-covariant telecloning for one that is partially known. Furthermore, the network can also be used to construct a tele-triplicator. It can easily be implemented in experiment because only single- and two-qubit operations are used in the network.

  10. Covariance estimators for generalized estimating equations (GEE) in longitudinal analysis with small samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Kong, Lan; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Lijun

    2016-05-10

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) is a general statistical method to fit marginal models for longitudinal data in biomedical studies. The variance-covariance matrix of the regression parameter coefficients is usually estimated by a robust "sandwich" variance estimator, which does not perform satisfactorily when the sample size is small. To reduce the downward bias and improve the efficiency, several modified variance estimators have been proposed for bias-correction or efficiency improvement. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on recent developments of modified variance estimators and compare their small-sample performance theoretically and numerically through simulation and real data examples. In particular, Wald tests and t-tests based on different variance estimators are used for hypothesis testing, and the guideline on appropriate sample sizes for each estimator is provided for preserving type I error in general cases based on numerical results. Moreover, we develop a user-friendly R package "geesmv" incorporating all of these variance estimators for public usage in practice. PMID:26585756

  11. Generalized Quantum Theory and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroun, Michael Anthony

    This dissertation is divided into two main topics. The first is the generalization of quantum dynamics when the Schrodinger partial differential equation is not defined even in the weak mathematical sense because the potential function itself is a distribution in the spatial variable, the same variable that is used to define the kinetic energy operator, i.e. the Laplace operator. The procedure is an extension and broadening of the distributional calculus and offers spectral results as an alternative to the only other two known methods to date, namely a) the functional calculi; and b) non-standard analysis. Furthermore, the generalizations of quantum dynamics presented within give a resolution to the time asymmetry paradox created by multi-particle quantum mechanics due to the time evolution still being unitary. A consequence is the randomization of phases needed for the fundamental justification Pauli master equation. The second topic is foundations of the quantum theory of fields. The title is phrased as ``foundations'' to emphasize that there is no claim of uniqueness but rather a proposal is put forth, which is markedly different than that of constructive or axiomatic field theory. In particular, the space of fields is defined as a space of generalized functions with involutive symmetry maps (the CPT invariance) that affect the topology of the field space. The space of quantum fields is then endowed the Frechet property and interactions change the topology in such a way as to cause some field spaces to be incompatible with others. This is seen in the consequences of the Haag theorem. Various examples and discussions are given that elucidate a new view of the quantum theory of fields and its (lack of) mathematical structure.

  12. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulfide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdel, Katharina; Spielmann, Felix M.; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur containing trace gas present in the troposphere at concentrations of around 500 ppt. Recent interest in COS by the ecosystem-physiological community has been sparked by the fact that COS co-diffuses into plant leaves pretty much the same way as carbon dioxide (CO2) does, but in contrast to CO2, COS is not known to be emitted by plants. Thus uptake of COS by vegetation has the potential to be used as a tracer for canopy gross photosynthesis, which cannot be measured directly, however represents a key term in the global carbon cycle. Since a few years, quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers (QCLAS) are commercially available with the precision, sensitivity and time response suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. While there exist a handful of published reports on EC flux measurements in the recent literature, no rigorous investigation of the applicability of QCLAS for EC COS flux measurements has been carried out so far, nor have been EC processing and QA/QC steps developed for carbon dioxide and water vapor flux measurements within FLUXNET been assessed for COS. The aim of this study is to close this knowledge gap, to discuss critical steps in the post-processing chain of COS EC flux measurements and to devise best-practice guidelines for COS EC flux data processing. To this end we collected EC COS (and CO2, H2O and CO) flux measurements above a temperate mountain grassland in Austria over the vegetation period 2015 with a commercially available QCLAS. We discuss various aspects of EC data post-processing, in particular issues with the time-lag estimation between sonic anemometer and QCLAS signals and QCLAS time series detrending, as well as QA/QC, in particular flux detection limits, random flux uncertainty, the interaction of various processing steps with common EC QA/QC filters (e.g. detrending and stationarity tests), u*-filtering, etc.

  13. Shear-free dust solution in general covariant Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldoni, O.; da Silva, M. F. A.; Chan, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have studied non stationary dust spherically symmetric spacetime, in general covariant theory [ U(1) extension] of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the minimally coupling and non-minimum coupling with matter, in the post-newtonian approximation in the infrared limit. The Newtonian prepotential \\varphi was assumed null. The aim of this work is to know if we can have the same spacetime, as we know in the General Relativity Theory (GRT), in Hořava-Lifshitz Theory (HLT) in this limit. We have shown that there is not an analogy of the dust solution in HLT with the minimally coupling, as in GRT. Using non-minimum coupling with matter, we have shown that the solution admits a process of gravitational collapse, leaving a singularity at the end. This solution has, qualitatively, the same temporal behaviour as the dust collapse in GRT. However, we have also found a second possible solution, representing a bounce behavior that is not found in GRT.

  14. Evidence for maximal acceleration and singularity resolution in covariant loop quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2013-08-30

    A simple argument indicates that covariant loop gravity (spin foam theory) predicts a maximal acceleration and hence forbids the development of curvature singularities. This supports the results obtained for cosmology and black holes using canonical methods. PMID:24033021

  15. Efficient exploration of pan-cancer networks by generalized covariance selection and interactive web content

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Teresia; Johansson, Patrik; Sanchez, José; Marinescu, Voichita D.; Jörnsten, Rebecka; Nelander, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Statistical network modeling techniques are increasingly important tools to analyze cancer genomics data. However, current tools and resources are not designed to work across multiple diagnoses and technical platforms, thus limiting their applicability to comprehensive pan-cancer datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). To address this, we describe a new data driven modeling method, based on generalized Sparse Inverse Covariance Selection (SICS). The method integrates genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional data from multiple cancers, to define links that are present in multiple cancers, a subset of cancers, or a single cancer. It is shown to be statistically robust and effective at detecting direct pathway links in data from TCGA. To facilitate interpretation of the results, we introduce a publicly accessible tool (cancerlandscapes.org), in which the derived networks are explored as interactive web content, linked to several pathway and pharmacological databases. To evaluate the performance of the method, we constructed a model for eight TCGA cancers, using data from 3900 patients. The model rediscovered known mechanisms and contained interesting predictions. Possible applications include prediction of regulatory relationships, comparison of network modules across multiple forms of cancer and identification of drug targets. PMID:25953855

  16. General variational principle for spherically symmetric perturbations in diffeomorphism covariant theories

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Michael D.; Wald, Robert M.

    2007-04-15

    We present a general method for the analysis of the stability of static, spherically symmetric solutions to spherically symmetric perturbations in an arbitrary diffeomorphism covariant Lagrangian field theory. Our method involves fixing the gauge and solving the linearized gravitational field equations to eliminate the metric perturbation variables in terms of the matter variables. In a wide class of cases--which include f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory of Jacobson and Mattingly, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory--the remaining perturbation equations for the matter fields are second order in time. We show how the symplectic current arising from the original Lagrangian gives rise to a symmetric bilinear form on the variables of the reduced theory. If this bilinear form is positive definite, it provides an inner product that puts the equations of motion of the reduced theory into a self-adjoint form. A variational principle can then be written down immediately, from which stability can be tested readily. We illustrate our method in the case of Einstein's equation with perfect fluid matter, thereby rederiving, in a systematic manner, Chandrasekhar's variational principle for radial oscillations of spherically symmetric stars. In a subsequent paper, we will apply our analysis to f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory.

  17. Generalized mutual information of quantum critical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, F. C.; Rajabpour, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study the generalized mutual information I˜n of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The generalized mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the Rényi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete Z (Q ) symmetries (Q -state Potts model with Q =2 ,3 ,4 and Z (Q ) parafermionic models with Q =5 ,6 ,7 ,8 and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the U (1 ) continuous symmetries (Klein-Gordon field theory, X X Z and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wave functions in two special bases. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter n that defines I˜n. For a system, with total size L and subsystem sizes ℓ and L -ℓ , the I˜n has a logarithmic leading behavior given by c/˜n4 log[L/π sin(π/ℓ L ) ] where the coefficient c˜n is linearly dependent on the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory describing the system's critical properties.

  18. Entanglement of multipartite quantum states and the generalized quantum search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Robert Michael

    2002-09-01

    In chapter 2 various parameterizations for the orbits under local unitary transformations of three-qubit pure states are analyzed. It is shown that the entanglement monotones of any multipartite pure state uniquely determine the orbit of that state. It follows that there must be an entanglement monotone for three-qubit pure states which depends on the Kempe invariant defined in [1]. A form for such an entanglement monotone is proposed. A theorem is proved that significantly reduces the number of entanglement monotones that must be looked at to find the maximal probability of transforming one multipartite state to another. In chapter 3 Grover's unstructured quantum search algorithm is generalized to use an arbitrary starting superposition and an arbitrary unitary matrix. A formula for the probability of the generalized Grover's algorithm succeeding after n iterations is derived. This formula is used to determine the optimal strategy for using the unstructured quantum search algorithm. The speedup obtained illustrates that a hybrid use of quantum computing and classical computing techniques can yield a performance that is better than either alone. The analysis is extended to the case of a society of k quantum searches acting in parallel. In chapter 4 the positive map Gamma : rho → (Trrho) - rho is introduced as a separability criterion. Any separable state is mapped by the tensor product of Gamma and the identity in to a non-negative operator, which provides a necessary condition for separability. If Gamma acts on a two-dimensional subsystem, then it is equivalent to partial transposition and therefore also sufficient for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems. Finally, a connection between this map for two qubits and complex conjugation in the "magic" basis [2] is displayed.

  19. A class of group covariant signal sets and its necessary and sufficient condition

    SciTech Connect

    Usuda, Tsuyoshi Sasaki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Shiromoto, Keisuke

    2014-12-04

    (G,χ-hat)-covariant quantum state signals, which is a generalization of the narrow sense group covariant signals, are defined. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for (G,χ-hat)-covariant signals is given and examples of the signals are shown.

  20. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  1. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobroff, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

  2. Exact Distributions of Intraclass Correlation and Cronbach's Alpha with Gaussian Data and General Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, Emily O.; Muller, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    Intraclass correlation and Cronbach's alpha are widely used to describe reliability of tests and measurements. Even with Gaussian data, exact distributions are known only for compound symmetric covariance (equal variances and equal correlations). Recently, large sample Gaussian approximations were derived for the distribution functions. New exact…

  3. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  4. A Generalized Information Theoretical Model for Quantum Secret Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chen-Ming; Li, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Ting-Ting; Li, Yong-Ming

    2016-07-01

    An information theoretical model for quantum secret sharing was introduced by H. Imai et al. (Quantum Inf. Comput. 5(1), 69-80 2005), which was analyzed by quantum information theory. In this paper, we analyze this information theoretical model using the properties of the quantum access structure. By the analysis we propose a generalized model definition for the quantum secret sharing schemes. In our model, there are more quantum access structures which can be realized by our generalized quantum secret sharing schemes than those of the previous one. In addition, we also analyse two kinds of important quantum access structures to illustrate the existence and rationality for the generalized quantum secret sharing schemes and consider the security of the scheme by simple examples.

  5. Harmonizing General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2007-04-01

    Gravitation is the common underlying texture between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. We take gravitation as the link that can make possible the marriage between these two sciences. We use here the duality of Nature for gravitation: A continuous warped space, wave-like, and a discrete quantum gas, particle-like, both coexistent and producing an equilibrium state in the Universe. The result is a static, non expanding, spherical, unlimited and finite Universe, with no cosmological constant and no dark energy. Macht's Principle is reproduced here by the convergence of the two cosmological equations of Einstein. From this a Mass Boom concept is born given by M = t, M the mass of the Universe and t its age. Also a decreasing speed of light is the consequence of the Mass Boom, c = 1/t, which explains the Supernovae Type Ia observations without the need of expansion (nor, of course, accelerated expansion). Our Mass Boom model completely wipes out the problems and paradoxes built in the Big Bang model, like the horizon, monopole, entropy, flatness, fine tuning, etc. It also eliminates the need for inflation.

  6. Several experimental realizations of symmetric phase-covariant quantum cloners of single-photon qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, Lucie; Černoch, Antonín; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Dušek, Miloslav

    2007-10-01

    We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.

  7. Several experimental realizations of symmetric phase-covariant quantum cloners of single-photon qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Soubusta, Jan; Cernoch, Antonin; Bartuskova, Lucie; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Dusek, Miloslav

    2007-10-15

    We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.

  8. Optical implementations of the optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2003-05-01

    We propose two simple implementations of the optimal symmetric 1{yields}2 phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits. The first scheme is designed for qubits encoded into polarization states of photons and it involves a mixing of two photons on an unbalanced beam splitter. This scheme is probabilistic and the cloning succeeds with the probability 1/3. In the second setup, the qubits are represented by the states of Rydberg atoms and the cloning is accomplished by the resonant interaction of the atoms with a microwave field confined in a high-Q cavity. This latter approach allows for deterministic implementation of the optimal cloning transformation.

  9. Examining a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in de Sitter space by studying “black hole radiation”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejhan, Hamed; Rahbardehghan, Surena

    2016-04-01

    Respecting that any consistent quantum field theory in curved space-time must include black hole radiation, in this paper, we examine the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler (KGB) formalism as an inevitable quantization scheme in order to follow the guideline of the covariance of minimally coupled massless scalar field and linear gravity on de Sitter (dS) background in the sense of Wightman-Gärding approach, by investigating thermodynamical aspects of black holes. The formalism is interestingly free of pathological large distance behavior. In this construction, also, no infinite term appears in the calculation of expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor (we have an automatic and covariant renormalization) which results in the vacuum energy of the free field to vanish. However, the existence of an effective potential barrier, intrinsically created by black holes gravitational field, gives a Casimir-type contribution to the vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor. On this basis, by evaluating the Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the vicinity of a nonrotating black hole event horizon through the KGB quantization, in this work, we explicitly prove that the hole produces black-body radiation which its temperature exactly coincides with the result obtained by Hawking for black hole radiation.

  10. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  11. A General Method of Selecting Quantum Channel for Bidirectional Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hong-Zi; Tian, Xiu-Lao; Hu, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Based on tensor representation and Bell basis measurement in bidirectional quantum teleportation, a criterion that can be used to judge whether a four-qubit quantum state can be regarded as quantum channel or not in bidirectional teleportation is suggested and a theoretical scheme of bidirectional teleportation via four-qubit state as the quantum channel is proposed. In accordance with this criterion we give a general method of selecting quantum channel in bidirectional teleportation, which is determined by the channel parameter matrix R in the Bell basis measurement. This general method provide a theoretical basis for quantum channel selection in bidirectional quantum teleportation experiments.

  12. A family of generalized quantum entropies: definition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Zozor, S.; Holik, F.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a quantum version of the generalized (h,φ )-entropies, introduced by Salicrú et al. for the study of classical probability distributions. We establish their basic properties and show that already known quantum entropies such as von Neumann, and quantum versions of Rényi, Tsallis, and unified entropies, constitute particular classes of the present general quantum Salicrú form. We exhibit that majorization plays a key role in explaining most of their common features. We give a characterization of the quantum (h,φ )-entropies under the action of quantum operations and study their properties for composite systems. We apply these generalized entropies to the problem of detection of quantum entanglement and introduce a discussion on possible generalized conditional entropies as well.

  13. A family of generalized quantum entropies: definition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Zozor, S.; Holik, F.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum version of the generalized (h,φ ) -entropies, introduced by Salicrú et al. for the study of classical probability distributions. We establish their basic properties and show that already known quantum entropies such as von Neumann, and quantum versions of Rényi, Tsallis, and unified entropies, constitute particular classes of the present general quantum Salicrú form. We exhibit that majorization plays a key role in explaining most of their common features. We give a characterization of the quantum (h,φ ) -entropies under the action of quantum operations and study their properties for composite systems. We apply these generalized entropies to the problem of detection of quantum entanglement and introduce a discussion on possible generalized conditional entropies as well.

  14. Hybrid quantum computing: semicloning for general database retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2005-05-01

    Quantum computing (QC) has become an important area of research in computer science because of its potential to provide more efficient algorithmic solutions to certain problems than are possible with classical computing (CC). In particular, QC is able to exploit the special properties of quantum superposition to achieve computational parallelism beyond what can be achieved with parallel CC computers. However, these special properties are not applicable for general computation. Therefore, we propose the use of "hybrid quantum computers" (HQCs) that combine both classical and quantum computing architectures in order to leverage the benefits of both. We demonstrate how an HQC can exploit quantum search to support general database operations more efficiently than is possible with CC. Our solution is based on new quantum results that are of independent significance to the field of quantum computing. More specifically, we demonstrate that the most restrictive implications of the quantum No-Cloning Theorem can be avoided through the use of semiclones.

  15. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James D.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-02-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of a generalized quantum-mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical, and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line and the glued tree of depth three to observe the behavior of the QW-to-CRW transition.

  16. Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.

  17. Manufacturing time operators: Covariance, selection criteria, and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G. C.; Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J.

    2010-07-15

    We provide the most general forms of covariant and normalized time operators and their probability densities, with applications to quantum clocks, the time of arrival, and Lyapunov quantum operators. Examples are discussed of the profusion of possible operators and their physical meaning. Criteria to define unique, optimal operators for specific cases are given.

  18. Quantum mechanical generalization of the balistic electron wind theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacina, A.

    1980-06-01

    The Fiks' quasiclassical theory of the electron wind force is quantum mechanically generalized. Within the framework of this generalization the space dependence of the electron wind force is calculated in the vicinity of an interface between two media. It is found that quantum corrections may be comparable with or even greater than corresponding quasiclassical values.

  19. Uncertainty characteristics of generalized quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2003-02-01

    The effects of any quantum measurement can be described by a collection of measurement operators {Mm} acting on the quantum state of the measured system. However, the Hilbert space formalism tends to obscure the relationship between the measurement results and the physical properties of the measured system. In this paper, a characterization of measurement operators in terms of measurement resolution and disturbance is developed. It is then possible to formulate uncertainty relations for the measurement process that are valid for arbitrary input states. The motivation of these concepts is explained from a quantum communication viewpoint. It is shown that the intuitive interpretation of uncertainty as a relation between measurement resolution and disturbance provides a valid description of measurement back action. Possible applications to quantum cryptography, quantum cloning, and teleportation are discussed.

  20. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  1. Quantum generalized Reed-Solomon codes: Unified framework for quantum maximum-distance-separable codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Xing, Li-Juan; Wang, Xin-Mei

    2008-01-01

    We construct a family of quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) codes from classical generalized Reed-Solomon codes and derive the necessary and sufficient condition under which these quantum codes exist. We also give code bounds and show how to construct them analytically. We find that existing quantum MDS codes can be unified under these codes in the sense that when a quantum MDS code exists, then a quantum code of this type with the same parameters also exists. Thus, as far as is known at present, they are the most important family of quantum MDS codes.

  2. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-03-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of generalized quantum mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases, but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line, the QW to CRW transition and transitions to genearlized QSWs that go beyond the CRW and QW. QSWs provide a new framework to the study of quantum algorithms as well as of quantum walks with environmental effects.

  3. Static electromagnetic fields and charged black holes in general covariant theory of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzou, Ahmad; Lin, Kai; Wang, Anzhong

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study electromeganetic static spacetimes in the nonrelativisitc general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity, proposed recently by Hořava and Melby-Thompson, and present all the electric static solutions, which represent the generalization of the Reissner-Nordström solution found in Einstein's general relativity (GR). The global/local structures of spacetimes in the HL theory in general are different from those given in GR, because the dispersion relations of test particles now contain high-order momentum terms, so the speeds of these particles are unbounded in the ultraviolet (UV). As a result, the conception of light-cones defined in GR becomes invalid and test particles do not follow geodesics. To study black holes in the HL theory, we adopt the geometrical optical approximations, and define a horizon as a (two-closed) surface that is free of spacetime singularities and on which massless test particles are infinitely redshifted. With such a definition, we show that some of our solutions give rise to (charged) black holes, although the radii of their horizons in general depend on the energies of the test particles.

  4. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zehui; Guo, Juan; Gao, Jiangrui

    2006-05-01

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  5. Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Dupre, M.J.

    2013-12-15

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.

  6. Covariant energy-momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstock, F. I.; Dupre, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy-momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy-momentum.

  7. Topics in Covariant Closed String Field Theory and Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Maha

    1991-01-01

    The closed string field theory based on the Witten vertex is found to be nonpolynomial in order to reproduce all tree amplitudes correctly. The interactions have a geometrical pattern of overlaps, which can be thought as the edges of a spherical polyhedron with face-perimeters equal to 2pi. At each vertex of the polyhedron there are three faces, thus all elementary interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The quantum action is constructed by substracting counterterms which cancel the overcounting of moduli space, and by adding loop vertices in such a way no possible surfaces are missed. A counterterm that gives the correct one-string one-loop amplitude is formulated. The lowest order loop vertices are analyzed in the cases of genus one and two. Also, a one-loop two -string counterterm that restores BRST invariance to the respective scattering amplitude is constructed. An attempt to understand the formulation of two -dimensional pure gravity from the discrete representation of a two-dimensional surface is made. This is considered as a toy model of string theory. A well-defined mathematical model is used. Its continuum limit cannot be naively interpreted as pure gravity because each term of the sum over surfaces is not positive definite. The model, however, could be considered as an analytic continuation of the standard matrix model formulation of gravity. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  8. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  9. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  10. Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, Alexander C. R.

    2014-06-01

    A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeated-interactions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59-104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412-434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317-329, 2010). When the random-walk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.

  11. Structural Modeling of Measurement Error in Generalized Linear Models with Rasch Measures as Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…

  12. Possible universal quantum algorithms for generalized Turaev-Viro invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan

    2011-05-01

    An emergent trend in quantum computation is the topological quantum computation (TQC). Briefly, TQC results from the application of quantum computation with the aim to solve the problems of quantum topology such as topological invariants for knots and links (Jones polynomials, HOMFLY polynomials, Khovanov polynomials); topological invariants for graphs (Tutte polynomial and Bollobás-Riordan polynomial); topological invariants for 3-manifolds (Reshetiskin-Turaev, Turaev-Viro and Turaer-Viro-Ocneanu invariants) and topological invariants for 4-manifolds( Crane-Yetter invariants). In a few words, TQC is concerned with the formulation of quantum algorithms for the computation of these topological invariants in quantum topology. Given that one of the fundamental achievements of quantum topology was the discovery of strong connections between monoidal categories and 3-dimensional manifolds, in TQC is possible and necessary to exploit such connections with the purpose to formulate universal quantum algorithms for topological invariants of 3-manifolds. In the present work we make an exploration of such possibilities. Specifically we search for universal quantum algorithms for generalized Turaev-Viro invariants of 3-manifolds such as the Turaev-Viro-Ocneanu invariants, the Kashaev-Baseilhac-Benedetti invariants of 3-manifolds with links and the Geer-Kashaev-Turaev invariants of 3-manifolds with a link and a principal bundle. We also look for physical systems (three dimensional topological insulators and three-dimensional gravity) over which implement the resulting universal topological quantum algorithms.

  13. Generalized uncertainty principle in Bianchi type I quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, B.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2007-07-01

    We study a quantum Bianchi type I model in which the dynamical variables of the corresponding minisuperspace obey the generalized Heisenberg algebra. Such a generalized uncertainty principle has its origin in the existence of a minimal length suggested by quantum gravity and sting theory. We present approximate analytical solutions to the corresponding Wheeler DeWitt equation in the limit where the scale factor of the universe is small and compare the results with the standard commutative and noncommutative quantum cosmology. Similarities and differences of these solutions are also discussed.

  14. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  15. General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel

    2010-09-15

    Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.

  16. Quantum phases for a generalized harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Paul

    2008-03-01

    An effective Hamiltonian for the generalized harmonic oscillator is determined by using squeezed state wavefunctions. The equations of motion over an extended phase space are determined and then solved perturbatively for a specific choice of the oscillator parameters. These results are used to calculate the dynamic and geometric phases for the generalized oscillator with this choice of parameters.

  17. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Zehui; Guo Juan; Gao Jiangrui

    2006-05-15

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  18. General relativistic effects in quantum interference of “clocks”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, M.; Pikovski, I.; Costa, F.; Brukner, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been each successfully tested in numerous experiments. However, the regime where both theories are jointly required to explain physical phenomena remains untested by laboratory experiments, and is also not fully understood by theory. This contribution reviews recent ideas for a new type of experiments: quantum interference of “clocks”, which aim to test novel quantum effects that arise from time dilation. “Clock” interference experiments could be realised with atoms or photons in near future laboratory experiments.

  19. Generalized Limits for Single-Parameter Quantum Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Boixo, Sergio; Flammia, Steven T.; Caves, Carlton M.; Geremia, JM

    2007-03-02

    We develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multisystem interactions. For a Hamiltonian with k-system parameter-sensitive terms, the quantum limit scales as 1/N{sup k}, where N is the number of systems. These quantum limits remain valid when the Hamiltonian is augmented by any parameter-independent interaction among the systems and when adaptive measurements via parameter-independent coupling to ancillas are allowed.

  20. Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hellmann, Frank; Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the definition of quantum probability in the context of 'timeless' general-relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we study the probability of sequences of events, or multievent probability. In conventional quantum mechanics this can be obtained by means of the 'wave function collapse' algorithm. We first point out certain difficulties of some natural definitions of multievent probability, including the conditional probability widely considered in the literature. We then observe that multievent probability can be reduced to single-event probability, by taking into account the quantum nature of the measuring apparatus. In fact, by exploiting the von-Neumann freedom of moving the quantum/classical boundary, one can always trade a sequence of noncommuting quantum measurements at different times, with an ensemble of simultaneous commuting measurements on the joint system+apparatus system. This observation permits a formulation of quantum theory based only on single-event probability, where the results of the wave function collapse algorithm can nevertheless be recovered. The discussion also bears on the nature of the quantum collapse.

  1. Covariant Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2011-03-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

  2. Generalized additive models with interval-censored data and time-varying covariates: application to human immunodeficiency virus infection in hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Bacchetti, Peter; Quale, Christopher

    2002-06-01

    We describe a method for extending smooth nonparametric modeling methods to time-to-event data where the event may be known only to lie within a window of time. Maximum penalized likelihood is used to fit a discrete proportional hazards model that also models the baseline hazard, and left-truncation and time-varying covariates are accommodated. The implementation follows generalized additive modeling conventions, allowing both parametric and smooth terms and specifying the amount of smoothness in terms of the effective degrees of freedom. We illustrate the method on a well-known interval-censored data set on time of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a multicenter study of hemophiliacs. The ability to examine time-varying covariates, not available with previous methods, allows detection and modeling of nonproportional hazards and use of a time-varying covariate that fits the data better and is more plausible than a fixed alternative. PMID:12071419

  3. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario.

    PubMed

    Scholak, Torsten; Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a "coherent control interferometer" as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of "quantum delayed-choice" in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not. PMID:25429946

  4. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholak, Torsten; Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a "coherent control interferometer" as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of "quantum delayed-choice" in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  5. Generalized quantum gravity condensates for homogeneous geometries and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Ryan, James P.; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    We construct a generalized class of quantum gravity condensate states that allows the description of continuum homogeneous quantum geometries within the full theory. They are based on similar ideas already applied to extract effective cosmological dynamics from the group field theory formalism, and thus also from loop quantum gravity. However, they represent an improvement over the simplest condensates used in the literature, in that they are defined by an infinite superposition of graph-based states encoding in a precise way the topology of the spatial manifold. The construction is based on the definition of refinement operators on spin network states, written in a second quantized language. The construction also lends itself easily to application to the case of spherically symmetric quantum geometries.

  6. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Scholak, Torsten Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a “coherent control interferometer” as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of “quantum delayed-choice” in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  7. Generalized coherent states under deformed quantum mechanics with maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2013-10-01

    Following the Gazeau-Klauder approach, we construct generalized coherent states (GCS) as the quantum simulator to examine the deformed quantum mechanics, which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum. We study deformed harmonic oscillators and compute their probability distribution and entropy of states exactly. Also, a particle in an infinite potential box is studied perturbatively. In particular, unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case increases the entropy of the Planck scale quantum optical system. Furthermore, for simplicity, we obtain the modified uncertainty principle (MUP) with the perturbative treatment up to leading order. MUP turns out to increase generally. However, for certain values of γ (a parameter of GCS), it is possible that the MUP will vanish and hence will exhibit the classical characteristic. This is interpreted as the manifestation of the intrinsic high-momentum cutoff at lower momentum in a perturbative treatment. Although the GCS saturates the minimal uncertainty in a simultaneous measurement of physical position and momentum operators, thus constituting the squeezed states, complete coherency is impossible in quantum gravitational physics. The Mandel Q number is calculated, and it is shown that the statistics can be Poissonian and super-/sub-Poissonian depending on γ. The equation of motion is studied, and both Ehrenfest’s theorem and the correspondence principle are recovered. Fractional revival times are obtained through the autocorrelation, and they indicate that the superposition of a classical-like subwave packet is natural in GCS. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated (Snyder) type of deformed quantum mechanics, which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum. With the advances of quantum optics technology, it might be possible to realize some of these distinguishing quantum-gravitational features within the domain of future experiments.

  8. Generalized quantum statistics and Lie (super)algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, N. I.

    2016-03-01

    Generalized quantum statistics, such as paraboson and parafermion statistics, are characterized by triple relations which are related to Lie (super)algebras of type B. The correspondence of the Fock spaces of parabosons, parafermions as well as the Fock space of a system of parafermions and parabosons to irreducible representations of (super)algebras of type B will be pointed out. Example of generalized quantum statistics connected to the basic classical Lie superalgebra B(1|1) ≡ osp(3|2) with interesting physical properties, such as noncommutative coordinates, will be given. Therefore the article focuses on the question, addressed already in 1950 by Wigner: do the equation of motion determine the quantum mechanical commutation relation?

  9. Generalized Kronig-Penney model for ultracold atomic quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negretti, A.; Gerritsma, R.; Idziaszek, Z.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Calarco, T.

    2014-10-01

    We study the properties of a quantum particle interacting with a one-dimensional structure of equidistant scattering centers. We derive an analytical expression for the dispersion relation and for the Bloch functions in the presence of both even and odd scattering waves within the pseudopotential approximation. This generalizes the well-known solid-state physics textbook result known as the Kronig-Penney model. Our generalized model can be used to describe systems such as degenerate Fermi gases interacting with ions or with another neutral atomic species confined in an optical lattice, thus enabling the investigation of polaron or Kondo physics within a simple formalism. We focus our attention on the specific atom-ion system and compare our findings with quantum defect theory. Excellent agreement is obtained within the regime of validity of the pseudopotential approximation. This enables us to derive a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian for a degenerate quantum Bose gas in a linear chain of ions.

  10. Faddeev-Popov-ghost propagators for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2008-09-15

    The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.

  11. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  12. Experimental realization of generalized qubit measurements based on quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-yuan; Yu, Neng-kun; Kurzyński, Paweł; Xiang, Guo-yong; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental implementation of a single-qubit generalized measurement scenario, the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), based on a quantum walk model. The qubit is encoded in a single-photon polarization. The photon performs a quantum walk on an array of optical elements, where the polarization-dependent translation is performed via birefringent beam displacers and a change of the polarization is implemented with the help of wave plates. We implement: (i) trine POVM, i.e., the POVM elements uniformly distributed on an equatorial plane of the Bloch sphere; (ii) symmetric-informationally-complete (SIC) POVM; and (iii) unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal qubit states.

  13. Generalized Jaynes-Cummings model as a quantum search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, A.

    2009-07-15

    We propose a continuous time quantum search algorithm using a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model. In this model the states of the atom are the elements among which the algorithm realizes the search, exciting resonances between the initial and the searched states. This algorithm behaves like Grover's algorithm; the optimal search time is proportional to the square root of the size of the search set and the probability to find the searched state oscillates periodically in time. In this frame, it is possible to reinterpret the usual Jaynes-Cummings model as a trivial case of the quantum search algorithm.

  14. Factorization in the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) where the commutation relation is given by [x̂,p̂] = iℏ(1 + αp̂ + βp̂2). For this algebra, we obtain the eigenfunction of the momentum operator. We also study the GUP corrected quantum particle in a box. Finally, we apply the factorization method to the harmonic oscillator in the presence of a minimal observable length and obtain the energy eigenvalues by applying the perturbation method.

  15. The Nature of Covariation between Autistic Traits and Clumsiness: A Twin Study in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moruzzi, Sara; Ogliari, Anna; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    While social impairment, difficulties with communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors are central features of Autism Spectrum Disorders, physical clumsiness is a commonly co-occurring feature. In a sample of 398 twin pairs (aged 8-17 years) from the Italian Twin Registry we investigated the nature of the co-variation between a psychometric…

  16. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-09-01

    The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  17. Quantum black hole in the generalized uncertainty principle framework

    SciTech Connect

    Bina, A.; Moslehi, A.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we study the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on canonical quantum gravity of black holes. Through the use of modified partition function that involves the effects of the GUP, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of the Schwarzschild black hole. We also calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy for the modification of the Schwarzschild black hole in the presence of the GUP.

  18. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  19. Generalized Kraus operators and generators of quantum dynamical semigroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alazzawi, Sabina; Baumgartner, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Quantum dynamical semigroups play an important role in the description of physical processes such as diffusion, radiative decay or other non-equilibrium events. Taking strongly continuous and trace preserving semigroups into consideration, we show that, under a special criterion, the generator of such a group admits a certain generalized standard form, thereby shedding new light on known approaches in this direction. Furthermore, we illustrate our analysis in concrete examples.

  20. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices. PMID:27188691

  1. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-01

    We briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  2. Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias

    2005-03-01

    Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632

  3. Lorentz-covariant quantum 4-potential and orbital angular momentum for the transverse confinement of matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, R.; da Paz, I. G.

    2016-08-01

    In two recent papers exact Hermite-Gaussian solutions to relativistic wave equations were obtained for both electromagnetic and particle beams. The solutions for particle beams correspond to those of the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit. Here, it will be shown that each beam particle has additional 4-momentum resulting from transverse localization compared to a free particle traveling in the same direction as the beam with the same speed. This will be referred to as the quantum 4-potential term since it will be shown to play an analogous role in relativistic Hamiltonian quantum mechanics as the Bohm potential in the nonrelativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Low-order localization effects include orbital angular momentum, Gouy phase, and beam spreading. Toward a more systematic approach for calculating localization effects at all orders, it will be shown that both the electromagnetic and quantum 4-potentials couple into the canonical 4-momentum of a particle in a similar way. This offers the prospect that traditional methods used to calculate the affect of an electromagnetic field on a particle can now be adapted to take localization effects into account. The prospects for measuring higher order quantum 4-potential related effects experimentally are also discussed alongside some questions to challenge the quantum information and quantum field theorists.

  4. The generalized second law implies a quantum singularity theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2013-08-01

    The generalized second law can be used to prove a singularity theorem, by generalizing the notion of a trapped surface to quantum situations. Like Penrose’s original singularity theorem, it implies that spacetime is null-geodesically incomplete inside black holes, and to the past of spatially infinite Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. If space is finite instead, the generalized second law requires that there only be a finite amount of entropy producing processes in the past, unless there is a reversal of the arrow of time. In asymptotically flat spacetime, the generalized second law also rules out traversable wormholes, negative masses, and other forms of faster-than-light travel between asymptotic regions, as well as closed timelike curves. Furthermore it is impossible to form baby universes which eventually become independent of the mother universe, or to restart inflation. Since the semiclassical approximation is used only in regions with low curvature, it is argued that the results may hold in full quantum gravity. The introduction describes the second law and its time-reverse, in ordinary and generalized thermodynamics, using either the fine-grained or the coarse-grained entropy. (The fine-grained version is used in all results except those relating to the arrow of time.)

  5. Autonomous quantum to classical transitions and the generalized imaging theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, John S.; Feagin, James M.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of the transition of a dynamical system from quantum to classical mechanics is of continuing interest. Practically it is of importance for the interpretation of multi-particle coincidence measurements performed at macroscopic distances from a microscopic reaction zone. Here we prove the generalized imaging theorem which shows that the spatial wave function of any multi-particle quantum system, propagating over distances and times large on an atomic scale but still microscopic, and subject to deterministic external fields and particle interactions, becomes proportional to the initial momentum wave function where the position and momentum coordinates define a classical trajectory. Currently, the quantum to classical transition is considered to occur via decoherence caused by stochastic interaction with an environment. The imaging theorem arises from unitary Schrödinger propagation and so is valid without any environmental interaction. It implies that a simultaneous measurement of both position and momentum will define a unique classical trajectory, whereas a less complete measurement of say position alone can lead to quantum interference effects.

  6. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  7. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  8. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin–Meshkov–Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  9. Instrumental variables II: instrumental variable application—in 25 variations, the physician prescribing preference generally was strong and reduced covariate imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Rassen, Jeremy A.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Glynn, Robert J.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Objective An instrumental variable (IV) is an unconfounded proxy for a study exposure that can be used to estimate a causal effect in the presence of unmeasured confounding. To provide reliably consistent estimates of effect, IVs should be both valid and reasonably strong. Physician prescribing preference (PPP) is an IV that uses variation in doctors' prescribing to predict drug treatment. As reduction in covariate imbalance may suggest increased IV validity, we sought to examine the covariate balance and instrument strength in 25 formulations of the PPP IV in two cohort studies. Study Design and Setting We applied the PPP IV to assess antipsychotic medication (APM) use and subsequent death among two cohorts of elderly patients. We varied the measurement of PPP, plus performed cohort restriction and stratification. We modeled risk differences with two-stage least square regression. First-stage partial r2 values characterized the strength of the instrument. The Mahalanobis distance summarized balance across multiple covariates. Results Partial r2 ranged from 0.028 to 0.099. PPP generally alleviated imbalances in nonpsychiatry-related patient characteristics, and the overall imbalance was reduced by an average of 36% (±40%) over the two cohorts. Conclusion In our study setting, most of the 25 formulations of the PPP IV were strong IVs and resulted in a strong reduction of imbalance in many variations. The association between strength and imbalance was mixed. PMID:19345561

  10. General monogamy property of global quantum discord and the application

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Zhao, Li-Ming; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2014-09-15

    We provide a family of general monogamy inequalities for global quantum discord (GQD), which can be considered as an extension of the usual discord monogamy inequality. It can be shown that those inequalities are satisfied under the similar condition for the holding of usual monogamy relation. We find that there is an intrinsic connection among them. Furthermore, we present a different type of monogamy inequality and prove that it holds under the condition that the bipartite GQDs do not increase when tracing out some subsystems. We also study the residual GQD based on the second type of monogamy inequality. As applications of those quantities, we investigate the GQDs and residual GQD in characterizing the quantum phase transition in the transverse field Ising model.

  11. General monogamy property of global quantum discord and the application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Zhao, Li-Ming; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2014-09-01

    We provide a family of general monogamy inequalities for global quantum discord (GQD), which can be considered as an extension of the usual discord monogamy inequality. It can be shown that those inequalities are satisfied under the similar condition for the holding of usual monogamy relation. We find that there is an intrinsic connection among them. Furthermore, we present a different type of monogamy inequality and prove that it holds under the condition that the bipartite GQDs do not increase when tracing out some subsystems. We also study the residual GQD based on the second type of monogamy inequality. As applications of those quantities, we investigate the GQDs and residual GQD in characterizing the quantum phase transition in the transverse field Ising model.

  12. Quantum Bayesianism as the basis of general theory of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-05-28

    We discuss the subjective probability interpretation of the quantum-like approach to decision making and more generally to cognition. Our aim is to adopt the subjective probability interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum Bayesianism (QBism), to serve quantum-like modelling and applications of quantum probability outside of physics. We analyse the classical and quantum probabilistic schemes of probability update, learning and decision-making and emphasize the role of Jeffrey conditioning and its quantum generalizations. Classically, this type of conditioning and corresponding probability update is based on the formula of total probability-one the basic laws of classical probability theory. PMID:27091160

  13. Covariant Closed String Coherent States

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.

  14. Covariant closed string coherent states.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops. PMID:21405564

  15. Position-dependent mass quantum Hamiltonians: general approach and duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego-Monteiro, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S.; Curado, E. M. F.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze a general family of position-dependent mass (PDM) quantum Hamiltonians which are not self-adjoint and include, as particular cases, some Hamiltonians obtained in phenomenological approaches to condensed matter physics. We build a general family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians which are quantum mechanically equivalent to the non-self-adjoint proposed ones. Inspired by the probability density of the problem, we construct an ansatz for the solutions of the family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians. We use this ansatz to map the solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equations generated by the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians into the Hilbert space of the solutions of the respective dual self-adjoint Hamiltonians. This mapping depends on both the PDM and on a function of position satisfying a condition that assures the existence of a consistent continuity equation. We identify the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians here studied with a very general family of Hamiltonians proposed in a seminal article of Harrison (1961 Phys. Rev. 123 85) to describe varying band structures in different types of metals. Therefore, we have self-adjoint Hamiltonians that correspond to the non-self-adjoint ones found in Harrison’s article.

  16. Generalized Uncertainty Relation in the Non-commutative Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ≥ {θ}/{2}, {Δ} p1 {Δ } p2 ≥ {bar{θ}}/{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ≥ {hbar _{eff}}/{2} is discussed. Four each uncertainty relation, wave functions saturating each uncertainty relation are explicitly constructed. The unitary operators relating the non-commutative position and momentum operators to the commutative position and momentum operators are also investigated. We also discuss the uncertainty relation related to the harmonic oscillator.

  17. Multiconfigurational quantum propagation with trajectory-guided generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigolo, Adriano; Viscondi, Thiago F.; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    2016-03-01

    A generalized version of the coupled coherent states method for coherent states of arbitrary Lie groups is developed. In contrast to the original formulation, which is restricted to frozen-Gaussian basis sets, the extended method is suitable for propagating quantum states of systems featuring diversified physical properties, such as spin degrees of freedom or particle indistinguishability. The approach is illustrated with simple models for interacting bosons trapped in double- and triple-well potentials, most adequately described in terms of SU(2) and SU(3) bosonic coherent states, respectively.

  18. The Cavenish Experiment, General Relativity, Nuclear Quantum Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, Ronald R.

    2008-04-01

    The Cavendish Experiment - Demonstration clearly shows the Gravitational attraction between two masses, which is a force proportional to the Newtonian mechanics. General Relativity fails the Cavendish Experiment because there is no force between two gravitating masses but instead pictures a fallacious time-space concept. GR has no definitive proofs. The very hot corona and not GR cause the bending of light near and about the Sun The Perihelion of Mercury, the 43 arc seconds is 3.8 x 10-12 of the total and is not a proof of GR. This Perihelion rotation is nothing more than another mode of Newtonian mechanics explained by Newtonian mechanics. Each orbit is an ellipse, a Newtonian function that adds together because of Newtonian functions and accounts for any movement and advancement of Mercury. Because of gravity and speed changes, clocks change, time does not change. Other proofs are not valid because they are Quantum effects or plainly Newtonian refractions. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation clearly explains the gravitational force between two gravitating masses because of alternating electromagnetic functions in nuclei of matter. Some 20 proofs and indications prove this, plainly and clearly. Any gravity theory that does not conform to the Cavendish demonstration is not a viable theory of gravity. With Nuclear Quantum Gravitation, the Forces are plainly and coherently unified.

  19. Spatial prediction of Soil Organic Carbon contents in croplands, grasslands and forests using environmental covariates and Generalized Additive Models (Southern Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Stevens, Antoine; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Providing spatially continuous Soil Organic Carbon data (SOC) is needed to support decisions regarding soil management, and inform the political debate with quantified estimates of the status and change of the soil resource. Digital Soil Mapping techniques are based on relations existing between a soil parameter (measured at different locations in space at a defined period) and relevant covariates (spatially continuous data) that are factors controlling soil formation and explaining the spatial variability of the target variable. This study aimed at apply DSM techniques to recent SOC content measurements (2005-2013) in three different landuses, i.e. cropland, grassland, and forest, in the Walloon region (Southern Belgium). For this purpose, SOC databases of two regional Soil Monitoring Networks (CARBOSOL for croplands and grasslands, and IPRFW for forests) were first harmonized, totalising about 1,220 observations. Median values of SOC content for croplands, grasslands, and forests, are respectively of 12.8, 29.0, and 43.1 g C kg-1. Then, a set of spatial layers were prepared with a resolution of 40 meters and with the same grid topology, containing environmental covariates such as, landuses, Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives, soil texture, C factor, carbon inputs by manure, and climate. Here, in addition to the three classical texture classes (clays, silt, and sand), we tested the use of clays + fine silt content (particles < 20 µm and related to stable carbon fraction) as soil covariate explaining SOC variations. For each of the three land uses (cropland, grassland and forest), a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was calibrated on two thirds of respective dataset. The remaining samples were assigned to a test set to assess model performance. A backward stepwise procedure was followed to select the relevant environmental covariates using their approximate p-values (the level of significance was set at p < 0.05). Standard errors were estimated for each of

  20. Quantum description of light propagation in generalized media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2016-02-01

    Linear quantum input-output relation based models are widely applied to describe the light propagation in a lossy medium. The details of the interaction and the associated added noise depend on whether the device is configured to operate as an amplifier or an attenuator. Using the traveling wave (TW) approach, we generalize the linear material model to simultaneously account for both the emission and absorption processes and to have point-wise defined noise field statistics and intensity dependent interaction strengths. Thus, our approach describes the quantum input-output relations of linear media with net attenuation, amplification or transparency without pre-selection of the operation point. The TW approach is then applied to investigate materials at thermal equilibrium, inverted materials, the transparency limit where losses are compensated, and the saturating amplifiers. We also apply the approach to investigate media in nonuniform states which can be e.g. consequences of a temperature gradient over the medium or a position dependent inversion of the amplifier. Furthermore, by using the generalized model we investigate devices with intensity dependent interactions and show how an initial thermal field transforms to a field having coherent statistics due to gain saturation.

  1. A general method for selecting quantum channel for bidirectional controlled state teleportation and other schemes of controlled quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a large number of protocols for bidirectional controlled state teleportation (BCST) have been proposed using n-qubit entangled states (nin {5,6,7}) as quantum channel. Here, we propose a general method of selecting multiqubit (n>4) quantum channels suitable for BCST and show that all the channels used in the existing protocols of BCST can be obtained using the proposed method. Further, it is shown that the quantum channels used in the existing protocols of BCST form only a negligibly small subset of the set of all the quantum channels that can be constructed using the proposed method to implement BCST. It is also noted that all these quantum channels are also suitable for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Following the same logic, methods for selecting quantum channels for other controlled quantum communication tasks, such as controlled bidirectional joint remote state preparation and controlled quantum dialogue, are also provided.

  2. Tensor analysis and curvature in quantum space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Namsrai, K.

    1987-03-01

    Introducing quantum space-time into physics by means of the transformation language of noncommuting coordinates gives a simple scheme of generalizing the tensor analysis. The general covariance principle for the quantum space-time case is discussed, within which one can obtain the covariant structure of basic tensor quantities and the motion equation for a particle in a gravitational field. Definitions of covariant derivatives and curvature are also generalized in the give case. It turns out that the covariant structure of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor is not preserved in quantum space-time. However, if the curvature tensor R/sub ..mu.. nu lambda chi/(z) is redetermined up to the value of the L/sup 2/ term, then its covariant structure is achieved, and it, in turn, allows them to reconstruct the Einstein equation in quantum space-time.

  3. Misunderstanding analysis of covariance.

    PubMed

    Miller, G A; Chapman, J P

    2001-02-01

    Despite numerous technical treatments in many venues, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) remains a widely misused approach to dealing with substantive group differences on potential covariates, particularly in psychopathology research. Published articles reach unfounded conclusions, and some statistics texts neglect the issue. The problem with ANCOVA in such cases is reviewed. In many cases, there is no means of achieving the superficially appealing goal of "correcting" or "controlling for" real group differences on a potential covariate. In hopes of curtailing misuse of ANCOVA and promoting appropriate use, a nontechnical discussion is provided, emphasizing a substantive confound rarely articulated in textbooks and other general presentations, to complement the mathematical critiques already available. Some alternatives are discussed for contexts in which ANCOVA is inappropriate or questionable. PMID:11261398

  4. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport—Generalized correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  5. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport—Generalized correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-04-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  6. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport--generalized correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-04-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  7. Nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in the condensed phase via the generalized quantum master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Ka, Being J.; Geva, Eitan

    2006-07-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath. In this equation, the memory kernel accounts for the influence of the bath on the system's dynamics, and the inhomogeneous term accounts for initial system-bath correlations. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating the memory kernel and inhomogeneous term for arbitrary initial state and system-bath coupling. The memory kernel and inhomogeneous term are obtained by numerically solving a single inhomogeneous Volterra equation of the second kind for each. The new approach can accommodate a very wide range of projection operators, and requires projection-free two-time correlation functions as input. An application to the case of a two-state system with diagonal coupling to an arbitrary bath is described in detail. Finally, the utility and self-consistency of the formalism are demonstrated by an explicit calculation on a spin-boson model.

  8. Subdiffusive and superdiffusive quantum transport and generalized duality

    SciTech Connect

    Sassetti, M.; Schomerus, H.; Weiss, U.

    1996-02-01

    As a generic model for transport of interacting fermions through a barrier or interstitials in a lattice, quantum Brownian motion in a periodic potential is studied. There is a duality transformation between the continuous coordinate or phase representation and the discrete momentum or charge representation for general frequency-dependent damping. Sub-Ohmic friction is mapped on super-Ohmic friction, and vice versa. The mapping is exact for arbitrary barrier height and valid at any temperature. Thus all features of the continuous model can be investigated from analytical or numerical analysis of the discrete model. Nonperturbative results for the frequency-dependent linear mobility including subdiffusive and superdiffusive behaviors are reported. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Quantum electrodynamical corrections to a magnetic dipole in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, J.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetized neutron stars are privileged places where strong electromagnetic fields as high as BQ = 4.4 × 109 T exist, giving rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). These corrections need to be included to the general relativistic (GR) description of a magnetic dipole supposed to be anchored in the neutron star. In this paper, these QED and GR perturbations to the standard flat space-time dipole are calculated to the lowest order in the fine structure constant αsf and to any order in the ratio Rs/R where R is the neutron star radius and Rs its Schwarzschild radius. Following our new 3+1 formalism developed in a previous work, we compute the multipolar non-linear corrections to this dipole and demonstrate the presence of a small dipolar ℓ = 1 and hexapolar ℓ = 3 component.

  10. Generalized energy measurements and modified transient quantum fluctuation theorems.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Venkatesh, B Prasanna; Talkner, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Determining the work which is supplied to a system by an external agent provides a crucial step in any experimental realization of transient fluctuation relations. This, however, poses a problem for quantum systems, where the standard procedure requires the projective measurement of energy at the beginning and the end of the protocol. Unfortunately, projective measurements, which are preferable from the point of view of theory, seem to be difficult to implement experimentally. We demonstrate that, when using a particular type of generalized energy measurements, the resulting work statistics is simply related to that of projective measurements. This relation between the two work statistics entails the existence of modified transient fluctuation relations. The modifications are exclusively determined by the errors incurred in the generalized energy measurements. They are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the force protocol. Particularly simple expressions for the modified Crooks relation and Jarzynski equality are found for Gaussian energy measurements. These can be obtained by a sequence of sufficiently many generalized measurements which need not be Gaussian. In accordance with the central limit theorem, this leads to an effective error reduction in the individual measurements and even yields a projective measurement in the limit of infinite repetitions. PMID:25353748

  11. General Properties of Overlap Operators in Disordered Quantum Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoi, C.

    2016-04-01

    We study short-range quantum spin systems with Gaussian disorder. We obtain quantum mechanical extensions of the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities. We discuss properties of overlap spin operators with these identities.

  12. Methodical study of nitrous oxide eddy covariance measurements using quantum cascade laser spectrometery over a Swiss forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Zeyer, K.; Zeeman, M.; Michna, P.; Zingg, A.; Buchmann, N.; Emmenegger, L.

    2007-10-01

    Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured at the Lägeren CarboEurope IP flux site over the multi-species mixed forest dominated by European beech and Norway spruce. Measurements were carried out during a four-week period in October-November 2005 during leaf senescence. Fluxes were measured with a standard ultrasonic anemometer in combination with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer that measured N2O, CO2, and H2O mixing ratios simultaneously at 5 Hz time resolution. To distinguish insignificant fluxes from significant ones it is proposed to use a new approach based on the significance of the correlation coefficient between vertical wind speed and mixing ratio fluctuations. This procedure eliminated roughly 56% of our half-hourly fluxes. Based on the remaining, quality checked N2O fluxes we quantified the mean efflux at 0.8±0.4 μmol m-2 h-1 (mean ± standard error). Most of the contribution to the N2O flux occurred during a 6.5-h period starting 4.5 h before each precipitation event. No relation with precipitation amount could be found. Visibility data representing fog density and duration at the site indicate that wetting of the canopy may have as strong an effect on N2O effluxes as does below-ground microbial activity. It is speculated that above-ground N2O production from the senescing leaves at high moisture (fog, drizzle, onset of precipitation event) may be responsible for part of the measured flux.

  13. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  14. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism. PMID:26382378

  15. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  16. Stability, ghost, and strong coupling in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of gravity with {lambda}{ne}1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yongqing; Wang Anzhong

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate three important issues: stability, ghost, and strong coupling, in the Horava-Melby-Thompson setup of the Horava-Lifshitz theory with {lambda}{ne}1, generalized recently by da Silva. We first develop the general linear scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with arbitrary spatial curvature and find that an immediate by-product of the setup is that, in all the inflationary models described by a scalar field, the FRW universe is necessarily flat. Applying them to the case of the Minkowski background, we find that it is stable, and, similar to the case {lambda}=1, the spin-0 graviton is eliminated. The vector perturbations vanish identically in the Minkowski background. Thus, similar to general relativity, a free gravitational field in this setup is completely described by a spin-2 massless graviton, even with {lambda}{ne}1. We also study the ghost problem in the FRW background and find explicitly the ghost-free conditions. To study the strong coupling problem, we consider two different kinds of spacetimes, all with the presence of matter: one is cosmological, and the other is static. We find that the coupling becomes strong for a process with energy higher than M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 5/2} in the flat FRW background and M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 3} in a static weak gravitational field, where |c{sub {psi}|{identical_to}}|(1-{lambda})/(3{lambda}-1)|{sup 1/2}.

  17. Fractional angular momentum in noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi-Lun; Sun, Yong-Li; Wang, Qing; Long, Zheng-Wen; Jing, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics, i.e., the Chern-Simons quantum mechanics on the noncommutative plane in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm magnetic vector potentials, is studied in this paper. We focus our attention on the canonical orbital angular momentum and show that there are two different approaches to produce the fractional angular momentum in the noncommutative generalized Chern-Simons quantum mechanics.

  18. The quantum Ising chain with a generalized defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Uwe

    1990-08-01

    The finite-size scaling properties of the quantum Ising chain with different types of generalized defects are studied. This not only means an alteration of the coupling constant as previously examined, but also an additional arbitrary transformation in the algebra of observables at one site of the chain. One can distinguish between two classes of generalized defects: on the one hand those which do not affect the finite-size integrability of the Ising chain, and on the other hand those that destroy this property. In this context, finite-size integrability is always understood as a synonym for the possibility to write the hamiltonian of the finite chain as a bilinear expression in fermionic operators by means of a Jordan-Wigner transformation. Concerning the first type of defect, an exact solution for the scaling spectrum is obtained for the most universal defect that preserves the global Z2 symmetry of the chain. It is shown that in the continuum limit this yields the same result as for one properly chosen ordinary defect, that is changing the coupling constant only, and thus the finite-size scaling spectra can be described by irreps of a shifted u(1) Kac-Moody algebra. The other type of defect is examined by means of numerical finite-size calculations. In contrast to the first case, these calculations suggest a non-continuous dependence of the scaling dimensions on the defect parameters. A conjecture for the operator content involving only one primary field of a Virasoro algebra with central charge c= {1}/{2} is given.

  19. Covariant magnetic connection hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, F.

    2016-04-01

    > In the single fluid, non-relativistic, ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description, magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved `magnetic connections' between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D magnetic connection hypersurfaces in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when .

  20. Efficient retrieval of landscape Hessian: forced optimal covariance adaptive learning.

    PubMed

    Shir, Ofer M; Roslund, Jonathan; Whitley, Darrell; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the Hessian matrix at the landscape optimum of a controlled physical observable offers valuable information about the system robustness to control noise. The Hessian can also assist in physical landscape characterization, which is of particular interest in quantum system control experiments. The recently developed landscape theoretical analysis motivated the compilation of an automated method to learn the Hessian matrix about the global optimum without derivative measurements from noisy data. The current study introduces the forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) technique for this purpose. FOCAL relies on the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) that exploits covariance information amongst the control variables by means of principal component analysis. The FOCAL technique is designed to operate with experimental optimization, generally involving continuous high-dimensional search landscapes (≳30) with large Hessian condition numbers (≳10^{4}). This paper introduces the theoretical foundations of the inverse relationship between the covariance learned by the evolution strategy and the actual Hessian matrix of the landscape. FOCAL is presented and demonstrated to retrieve the Hessian matrix with high fidelity on both model landscapes and quantum control experiments, which are observed to possess nonseparable, nonquadratic search landscapes. The recovered Hessian forms were corroborated by physical knowledge of the systems. The implications of FOCAL extend beyond the investigated studies to potentially cover other physically motivated multivariate landscapes. PMID:25019911

  1. Implementation of generalized quantum measurements for unambiguous discrimination of multiple non-orthogonal coherent states.

    PubMed

    Becerra, F E; Fan, J; Migdall, A

    2013-01-01

    Generalized quantum measurements implemented to allow for measurement outcomes termed inconclusive can perform perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states, a task which is impossible using only measurements with definitive outcomes. Here we demonstrate such generalized quantum measurements for unambiguous discrimination of four non-orthogonal coherent states and obtain their quantum mechanical description, the positive-operator valued measure. For practical realizations of this positive-operator valued measure, where noise and realistic imperfections prevent perfect unambiguous discrimination, we show that our experimental implementation outperforms any ideal standard-quantum-limited measurement performing the same non-ideal unambiguous state discrimination task for coherent states with low mean photon numbers. PMID:23774177

  2. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  3. Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-03-01

    Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.

  4. Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.

  5. Covariant Perturbation Expansion of Off-Diagonal Heat Kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Yu-Zi; Li, Wen-Du; Zhang, Ping; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Covariant perturbation expansion is an important method in quantum field theory. In this paper an expansion up to arbitrary order for off-diagonal heat kernels in flat space based on the covariant perturbation expansion is given. In literature, only diagonal heat kernels are calculated based on the covariant perturbation expansion.

  6. Solutions to Master equations of quantum Brownian motion in a general environment with external force

    SciTech Connect

    Roura, Albert; Fleming, C H; Hu, B L

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the model of a system made up of a Brownian quantum oscillator linearly coupled to an environment made up of many quantum oscillators at finite temperature. We show that the HPZ master equation for the reduced density matrix derived earlier [B.L. Hu, J.P. Paz, Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 45, 2843 (1992)] has incorrectly specified coefficients for the case of nonlocal dissipation. We rederive the QBM master equation, correctly specifying all coefficients, and determine the position uncertainty to be free of excessive cutoff sensitivity. Our coefficients and solutions are reduced entirely to contour integration for analytic spectra at arbitrary temperature, coupling strength, and cut-off. As an illustration we calculate the master equation coefficients and solve the master equation for ohmic coupling (with finite cutoff) and example supra-ohmic and sub-ohmic spectral densities. We determine the effect of an external force on the quantum oscillator and also show that our representation of the master equation and solutions naturally extends to a system of multiple oscillators bilinearly coupled to themselves and the bath in arbitrary fashion. This produces a formula for investigating the standard quantum limit which is central to addressing many theoretical issues in macroscopic quantum phenomena and experimental concerns related to low temperature precision measurements. We find that in a dissipative environment, all initial states settle down to a Gaussian density matrix whose covariance is determined by the thermal reservoir and whose mean is determined by the external force. We specify the thermal covariance for the spectral densities we explore.

  7. The incredible shrinking covariance estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, James

    2012-05-01

    Covariance estimation is a key step in many target detection algorithms. To distinguish target from background requires that the background be well-characterized. This applies to targets ranging from the precisely known chemical signatures of gaseous plumes to the wholly unspecified signals that are sought by anomaly detectors. When the background is modelled by a (global or local) Gaussian or other elliptically contoured distribution (such as Laplacian or multivariate-t), a covariance matrix must be estimated. The standard sample covariance overfits the data, and when the training sample size is small, the target detection performance suffers. Shrinkage addresses the problem of overfitting that inevitably arises when a high-dimensional model is fit from a small dataset. In place of the (overfit) sample covariance matrix, a linear combination of that covariance with a fixed matrix is employed. The fixed matrix might be the identity, the diagonal elements of the sample covariance, or some other underfit estimator. The idea is that the combination of an overfit with an underfit estimator can lead to a well-fit estimator. The coefficient that does this combining, called the shrinkage parameter, is generally estimated by some kind of cross-validation approach, but direct cross-validation can be computationally expensive. This paper extends an approach suggested by Hoffbeck and Landgrebe, and presents efficient approximations of the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOC) estimate of the shrinkage parameter used in estimating the covariance matrix from a limited sample of data.

  8. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  9. Covariant Galileon

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Esposito-Farese, G.; Vikman, A.

    2009-04-15

    We consider the recently introduced 'Galileon' field in a dynamical spacetime. When the Galileon is assumed to be minimally coupled to the metric, we underline that both field equations of the Galileon and the metric involve up to third-order derivatives. We show that a unique nonminimal coupling of the Galileon to curvature eliminates all higher derivatives in all field equations, hence yielding second-order equations, without any extra propagating degree of freedom. The resulting theory breaks the generalized 'Galilean' invariance of the original model.

  10. Eddy covariance measurements of NH3 fluxes over a natural grass land with an open-path quantum cascade laser-based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, D.; Benedict, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Prenni, A. J.; Schichtel, B. A.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    NH3 is an important component of the bio-atmospheric N cycle with implications for regional air quality, human and ecosystem health degradation, and global climate change. However, measuring NH3 flux is challenging, requiring a sensor with high sensitivity (sub-ppbv), fast response time and the capability to account for NH3 adsorption effects. In this study, we address these issues with an open-path quantum-cascade-based sensor for eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Previously, our EC NH3 sensor was deployed over a feedlot in Colorado in 2013 and 2014, and the results showed the potential of the sensor to measure NH3 emissions from agricultural sources. In the summer of 2015, the sensor was installed at a remote monitoring site in Rocky Mountain National Park to measure NH3 flux over a natural grass land. During the deployment, the precision of the sensor was about 0.15 ppbv at 10 Hz, and the detection limit of the flux was estimated to be 0.7±0.5 ng NH3/s/m2. The cospectra of the NH3 flux closely resembled those of CO2 flux and sensible heat flux measured by a LI-7500 CO2 analyzer and a CSAT3 sonic anemometer. The ogive analyses indicated that the loss of NH3 fluxes due to various damping effects was about 15%. Examining initial results from a few days of measurement, the measured NH3 fluxes appear to have a strong diurnal pattern with local emissions during afternoon, a pattern not previously reported for remote grass land. The pattern is consistent with background NH3 concentration measured by PICARRO NH3 analyzer, although summertime afternoon concentration increases at the site have previously been associated with upslope transport from urban and agricultural regions to the east. The results demonstrate the sensor's capability to measure NH3 flux in low NH3 conditions and also show that more measurements are needed to investigate spatial and temporal variability of NH3 flux.

  11. Ultraprecise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits with generalized directional couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, R.; Keil, R.; Gräfe, M.; Nolte, S.; Szameit, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present an innovative approach for ultra-precise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits. To this end, we employ generalized directional couplers that utilize a detuning of the propagation constant in optical waveguides by the overlap of adjacent waveguide modes. We demonstrate our findings in experiments with classical as well as quantum light.

  12. Direct measurement of general quantum states using strong measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Song, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The direct state measurement (DSM) based on the weak measurement has the advantage of simplicity, versatility, and directness. However, the weak measurement will introduce an unavoidable error in the reconstructed quantum state. We modify the DSM by replacing the weak coupling between the system and the pointer by a strong one, and present two procedures for measuring quantum states, one of which can give the wave function or the density matrix directly. We can also measure the Dirac distribution of a discrete system directly. Furthermore, we propose quantum circuits for realizing these procedures, and the main body of the circuits consists of Toffoli gates. By numerical simulation, we find that our scheme can eliminate the biased error effectively.

  13. Implementation of optimal phase-covariant cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2007-07-15

    The optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (PQCM) broadcasts the information associated to an input qubit into a multiqubit system, exploiting a partial a priori knowledge of the input state. This additional a priori information leads to a higher fidelity than for the universal cloning. The present article first analyzes different innovative schemes to implement the 1{yields}3 PQCM. The method is then generalized to any 1{yields}M machine for an odd value of M by a theoretical approach based on the general angular momentum formalism. Finally different experimental schemes based either on linear or nonlinear methods and valid for single photon polarization encoded qubits are discussed.

  14. Information, fidelity, and reversibility in general quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    We present the amount of information, fidelity, and reversibility obtained by arbitrary quantum measurements on completely unknown states. These quantities are expressed as functions of the singular values of a measurement operator corresponding to the obtained outcome. As an example, we consider a class of quantum measurements with highly degenerate singular values to discuss trade-offs among information, fidelity, and reversibility. The trade-offs are at the level of a single outcome, in the sense that the quantities pertain to each single outcome rather than the average over all possible outcomes.

  15. General framework for quantum macroscopicity in terms of coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadin, Benjamin; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-02-01

    We propose a universal language to assess macroscopic quantumness in terms of coherence, with a set of conditions that should be satisfied by any measure of macroscopic coherence. We link the framework to the resource theory of asymmetry. We show that the quantum Fisher information gives a good measure of macroscopic coherence, enabling a rigorous justification of a previously proposed measure of macroscopicity. This picture lets us draw connections between different measures of macroscopicity and evaluate them; we show that another widely studied measure fails one of our criteria.

  16. On the quantum discord of general X states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurischev, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Quantum discord Q is a function of density matrix elements. The domain of such a function in the case of two-qubit system with X density matrix may consist of three subdomains at most: two ones where the quantum discord is expressed in closed analytical forms ( and ) and an intermediate subdomain for which, to extract the quantum discord , it is required to solve numerically a one-dimensional minimization problem to find the optimal measurement angle . Hence, the quantum discord is given by a piecewise analytical-numerical formula . It is shown that the boundaries between the subdomains consist of bifurcation points. The subdomains are discovered in the dynamical phase flip channel model, in the anisotropic spin systems at thermal equilibrium, and in the heteronuclear dimers in an external magnetic field. We found that the transitions between subdomain and and ones occur suddenly, but continuously and smoothly, i.e., nonanalyticity is hidden and can be observed in higher order derivatives of discord function.

  17. Generalized guidance equation for peaked quantum solitons and effective gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durt, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Bouncing oil droplets have been shown to follow de Broglie-Bohm–like trajectories and at the same time they exhibit attractive and repulsive pseudo-gravitation. We propose a model aimed at rendering account of these phenomenological observations. It inspires, in a more speculative approach, a toy model for quantum gravity.

  18. Decoherence in generalized measurement and the quantum Zeno paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Gerhard; Wallentowitz, Sascha; Toschek, Peter E.

    2014-07-01

    In the development of quantum mechanics, the evolution of a quantum system was a controversial item. The duality of unitary evolution and state reduction as proposed by John von Neumann was widely felt unsatisfactory. Among the various attempts to reconcile the two incompatible modes of dynamics, the model of decoherence has turned out rather convincing. While the debate has been going on mainly by reasoning the consequences of gedanken experiments, the technical progress has made available techniques of addressing real experiments, even on an individual quantum object. In particular, the impeded evolution of an atom under continuous or reiterated measurement, predicted long ago, has been proven. The procedure of such an experiment-as with many a more conventional one-includes sequences of alternating time intervals of preparation and detection, known as “pump-probe”, or “drive-probe” measurements. We discuss this procedure in the context of the decoherence model. The emergence of pointer states of the meter is outlined. We show compatibility of this approach with photon counting, and emphasize the importance of information transfer in the course of measurement. Qualitative conditions having been considered so far necessary and sufficient criteria for meeting the “quantum Zeno paradox” are being quantified.

  19. Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. I. General considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    This article, as the first of three, aims at establishing the (time-dependent) Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the sense of space adiabatic perturbation theory, for quantum systems constructed by techniques of the loop quantum gravity framework, especially the canonical formulation of the latter. The analysis presented here fits into a rather general framework and offers a solution to the problem of applying the usual Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for molecular (or structurally analogous) systems to more general quantum systems (e.g., spin-orbit models) by means of space adiabatic perturbation theory. The proposed solution is applied to a simple, finite dimensional model of interacting spin systems, which serves as a non-trivial, minimal model of the aforesaid problem. Furthermore, it is explained how the content of this article and its companion affect the possible extraction of quantum field theory on curved spacetime from loop quantum gravity (including matter fields).

  20. Can a sub-quantum medium be provided by General Relativity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Thomas C.

    2016-03-01

    Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM) seeks to construct quantum mechanical theory and behaviour from classical underpinnings. This paper explores the possibility that the field of classical general relativity (GR) could supply a sub-quantum medium for these subquantum mechanics. Firstly, I present arguments which show that GR satisfies many of the a priori requirements for a sub-quantum medium. Secondly, some potential obstacles to using GR as the underlying field are noted, for example field strength (isn't gravity a very weak force?) and spin 2. Thirdly, the ability of dynamical exchange processes to create very strong effective fields is demonstrated through the use of a simple model, which solves many of the issues raised in the second section. I conclude that there appears to be enough evidence to pursue this direction of study further, particularly as this line of research also has the possibility to help unify quantum mechanics and general relativity.

  1. Generalized Lifshitz-Kosevich scaling at quantum criticality from the holographic correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Hofman, Diego M.

    2010-04-15

    We characterize quantum oscillations in the magnetic susceptibility of a quantum critical non-Fermi liquid. The computation is performed in a strongly interacting regime using the nonperturbative holographic correspondence. The temperature dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations is shown to depend on a critical exponent nu. For general nu the temperature scaling is distinct from the textbook Lifshitz-Kosevich formula. At the ''marginal'' value nu=(1/2), the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula is recovered despite strong interactions. As a by-product of our analysis we present a formalism for computing the amplitude of quantum oscillations for general fermionic theories very efficiently.

  2. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-15

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  3. Covariant chronogeometry and extreme distances: Elementary particles

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.; Jakobsen, H. P.; Ørsted, B.; Paneitz, S. M.; Speh, B.

    1981-01-01

    We study a variant of elementary particle theory in which Minkowski space, M0, is replaced by a natural alternative, the unique four-dimensional manifold ¯M with comparable properties of causality and symmetry. Free particles are considered to be associated (i) with positive-energy representations in bundles of prescribed spin over ¯M of the group of causality-preserving transformations on ¯M (or its mass-conserving subgroup) and (ii) with corresponding wave equations. In this study these bundles, representations, and equations are detailed, and some of their basic features are developed in the cases of spins 0 and ½. Preliminaries to a general study are included; issues of covariance, unitarity, and positivity of the energy are treated; appropriate quantum numbers are indicated; and possible physical applications are discussed. PMID:16593075

  4. Tighter quantum uncertainty relations following from a general probabilistic bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröwis, Florian; Schmied, Roman; Gisin, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty relations (URs) such as the Heisenberg-Robertson or the time-energy UR are often considered to be hallmarks of quantum theory. Here, a simple derivation of these URs is presented based on a single classical inequality from estimation theory, a Cramér-Rao-like bound. The Heisenberg-Robertson UR is then obtained by using the Born rule and the Schrödinger equation. This allows a clear separation of the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics from the Hilbert space structure and the dynamical law. It also simplifies the interpretation of the bound. In addition, the Heisenberg-Robertson UR is tightened for mixed states by replacing one variance by the quantum Fisher information. Thermal states of Hamiltonians with evenly gapped energy levels are shown to saturate the tighter bound for natural choices of the operators. This example is further extended to Gaussian states of a harmonic oscillator. For many-qubit systems, we illustrate the interplay between entanglement and the structure of the operators that saturate the UR with spin-squeezed states and Dicke states.

  5. Generalized trace-distance measure connecting quantum and classical non-Markovianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wißmann, Steffen; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Vacchini, Bassano

    2015-10-01

    We establish a direct connection of quantum Markovianity of an open system to its classical counterpart by generalizing the criterion based on the information flow. Here the flow is characterized by the time evolution of Helstrom matrices, given by the weighted difference of statistical operators, under the action of the quantum dynamical map. It turns out that the introduced criterion is equivalent to P divisibility of a quantum process, namely, divisibility in terms of positive maps, which provides a direct connection to classical Markovian stochastic processes. Moreover, it is shown that mathematical representations similar to those found for the original trace-distance-based measure hold true for the associated generalized measure for quantum non-Markovianity. That is, we prove orthogonality of optimal states showing a maximal information backflow and establish a local and universal representation of the measure. We illustrate some properties of the generalized criterion by means of examples.

  6. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupuis, Frédéric; Szehr, Oleg; Fehr, Serge; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-12-01

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation.

  7. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    SciTech Connect

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupuis, Frédéric; Szehr, Oleg; Fehr, Serge; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-12-15

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation.

  8. GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-07-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  9. Approaches to Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and

  10. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalized entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Walach, H

    2003-08-01

    Homeopathy is scientifically banned, both for lack of consistent empirical findings, but more so for lack of a sound theoretical model to explain its purported effects. This paper makes an attempt to introduce an explanatory idea based on a generalized version of quantum mechanics (QM), the weak quantum theory (WQT). WQT uses the algebraic formalism of QM proper, but drops some restrictions and definitions typical for QM. This results in a general axiomatic framework similar to QM, but more generalized and applicable to all possible systems. Most notably, WQT predicts entanglement, which in QM is known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlatedness within quantum systems. According to WQT, this entanglement is not only tied to quantum systems, but is to be expected whenever a global and a local variable describing a system are complementary. This idea is used here to reconstruct homeopathy as an exemplification of generalized entanglement as predicted by WQT. It transpires that homeopathy uses two instances of generalized entanglement: one between the remedy and the original substance (potentiation principle) and one between the individual symptoms of a patient and the general symptoms of a remedy picture (similarity principle). By bringing these two elements together, double entanglement ensues, which is reminiscent of cryptographic and teleportation applications of entanglement in QM proper. Homeopathy could be a macroscopic analogue to quantum teleportation. This model is exemplified and some predictions are derived, which make it possible to test the model. PMID:12972724

  11. Are Eddy Covariance series stationary?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral analysis via a discrete Fourier transform is used often to examine eddy covariance series for cycles (eddies) of interest. Generally the analysis is performed on hourly or half-hourly data sets collected at 10 or 20 Hz. Each original series is often assumed to be stationary. Also automated ...

  12. Shrinkage estimators for covariance matrices.

    PubMed

    Daniels, M J; Kass, R E

    2001-12-01

    Estimation of covariance matrices in small samples has been studied by many authors. Standard estimators, like the unstructured maximum likelihood estimator (ML) or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator, can be very unstable with the smallest estimated eigenvalues being too small and the largest too big. A standard approach to more stably estimating the matrix in small samples is to compute the ML or REML estimator under some simple structure that involves estimation of fewer parameters, such as compound symmetry or independence. However, these estimators will not be consistent unless the hypothesized structure is correct. If interest focuses on estimation of regression coefficients with correlated (or longitudinal) data, a sandwich estimator of the covariance matrix may be used to provide standard errors for the estimated coefficients that are robust in the sense that they remain consistent under misspecification of the covariance structure. With large matrices, however, the inefficiency of the sandwich estimator becomes worrisome. We consider here two general shrinkage approaches to estimating the covariance matrix and regression coefficients. The first involves shrinking the eigenvalues of the unstructured ML or REML estimator. The second involves shrinking an unstructured estimator toward a structured estimator. For both cases, the data determine the amount of shrinkage. These estimators are consistent and give consistent and asymptotically efficient estimates for regression coefficients. Simulations show the improved operating characteristics of the shrinkage estimators of the covariance matrix and the regression coefficients in finite samples. The final estimator chosen includes a combination of both shrinkage approaches, i.e., shrinking the eigenvalues and then shrinking toward structure. We illustrate our approach on a sleep EEG study that requires estimation of a 24 x 24 covariance matrix and for which inferences on mean parameters critically

  13. Possible universal quantum algorithms for generalized Khovanov homology and the Rasmussen's invariant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, Mario; Ospina, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Possible quantum algorithms for generalized Khovanov homology and the Rasmussen's invariant are proposed. Such algorithms are resulting from adaptations of the recently proposed Kauffman's algorithm for the standard Khovanov homology. The method that was applied consists in to write the relevant quantum invariant as the trace of a certain unitary operator and then to compute the trace using the Hadamard test. We apply such method to the quantum computation of the Jones polynomial, HOMFLY polynomial, Chromatic polynomial, Tutte polynomial and Bollobàs- Riordan polynomial. These polynomials are quantum topological invariants for knots, links, graphs and ribbon graphs respectively. The Jones polynomial is categorified by the standard Khovanov homology and the others polynomials are categorified by generalized Khovanov homologies, such as the Khovanov-Rozansky homology and the graph homologies. The algorithm for the Rasmussen's invariant is obtained using the gauge theory; and the recently introduced program of homotopyfication is linked with the super-symmetric quantum mechanics. It is claimed that a new program of analytification could be development from the homotopyfication using the celebrated Atiyah-Singer theorem and its super-symmetric interpretations. It is hoped that the super-symmetric quantum mechanics provides the hardware for the implementation of the proposed quantum algorithms.

  14. On a quantum algebraic approach to a generalized phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, D.; Hiley, B. J.

    1981-04-01

    We approach the relationship between classical and quantum theories in a new way, which allows both to be expressed in the same mathematical language, in terms of a matrix algebra in a phase space. This makes clear not only the similarities of the two theories, but also certain essential differences, and lays a foundation for understanding their relationship. We use the Wigner-Moyal transformation as a change of representation in phase space, and we avoid the problem of “negative probabilities” by regarding the solutions of our equations as constants of the motion, rather than as statistical weight factors. We show a close relationship of our work to that of Prigogine and his group. We bring in a new nonnegative probability function, and we propose extensions of the theory to cover thermodynamic processes involving entropy changes, as well as the usual reversible processes.

  15. Outline of a Generalization and a Reinterpretation of Quantum Mechanics Recovering Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garola, Claudio; Sozzo, Sandro; Wu, Junde

    2016-05-01

    The ESR model has been recently proposed in several papers to offer a possible solution to the problems raising from the nonobjectivity of physical properties in quantum mechanics (QM) (mainly the objectification problem of the quantum theory of measurement). This solution is obtained by embodying the mathematical formalism of QM into a broader mathematical framework and reinterpreting quantum probabilities as conditional on detection rather than absolute. We provide a new and more general formulation of the ESR model and discuss time evolution according to it, pointing out in particular that both linear and nonlinear evolution may occur, depending on the physical environment.

  16. Quantum Fields Obtained from Convoluted Generalized White Noise Never Have Positive Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Gottschalk, Hanno

    2016-05-01

    It is proven that the relativistic quantum fields obtained from analytic continuation of convoluted generalized (Lévy type) noise fields have positive metric, if and only if the noise is Gaussian. This follows as an easy observation from a criterion by Baumann, based on the Dell'Antonio-Robinson-Greenberg theorem, for a relativistic quantum field in positive metric to be a free field.

  17. Quantum Anomalies for Generalized Euclidean Taub-Newman Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai; Visinescu, Anca

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the gravitational and axial anomalies with regard to quadratic constants of motion for the Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino (Taub-NUT) space and its generalizations as was done by Iwai and Katayama. The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the standard Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Stäckel-Killing tensors as products. For the axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the role of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. We compute the index of the Dirac operator for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics with the APS boundary conditions and find these metrics do not contribute to the axial anomaly for not too large deformations of the standard Taub-NUT metric.

  18. General form of genuine multipartite entanglement quantum channels for teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Zhu Shiyao; Guo, Guangcan

    2006-09-15

    Recently Yeo and Chua [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)] presented an explicit protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entanglement channel. Here we generalize completely their results to teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit state via genuine N-qubit entanglement channels. And we present the general form of the genuine multipartite entanglement channels, namely, the sufficient and necessary condition the genuine N-qubit entanglement channels must satisfy to teleport an arbitrary N-qubit state.

  19. Generalized Kac lemma for recurrence time in iterated open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkovicz, P.; Kiss, T.; Asbóth, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    We consider recurrence to the initial state after repeated actions of a quantum channel. After each iteration a projective measurement is applied to check recurrence. The corresponding return time is known to be an integer for the special case of unital channels, including unitary channels. We prove that for a more general class of quantum channels the expected return time can be given as the inverse of the weight of the initial state in the steady state. This statement is a generalization of the Kac lemma for classical Markov chains.

  20. Generalized reduction criterion for separability of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Chen, Kai; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2003-12-01

    A necessary separability criterion that relates the structures of the total density matrix and its reductions is given. The method used is based on the realignment method [K. Chen and L. A. Wu, Quant. Inf. Comput. 3, 193 (2003)]. The separability criterion naturally generalizes the reduction separability criterion introduced independently in the previous work [M. Horodecki and P. Horodecki, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4206 (1999) and N. J. Cerf, C. Adami, and R. M. Gingrich, Phys. Rev. A 60, 898 (1999)]. In special cases, it recovers the previous reduction criterion and the recent generalized partial transposition criterion [K. Chen and L. A. Wu, Phys. Lett. A 306, 14 (2002)]. The criterion involves only simple matrix manipulations and can therefore be easily applied.

  1. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  2. Auto covariance computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, T. E.; Meyers, J. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A laser velocimeter covariance processor which calculates the auto covariance and cross covariance functions for a turbulent flow field based on Poisson sampled measurements in time from a laser velocimeter is described. The device will process a block of data that is up to 4096 data points in length and return a 512 point covariance function with 48-bit resolution along with a 512 point histogram of the interarrival times which is used to normalize the covariance function. The device is designed to interface and be controlled by a minicomputer from which the data is received and the results returned. A typical 4096 point computation takes approximately 1.5 seconds to receive the data, compute the covariance function, and return the results to the computer.

  3. Generalized decoding, effective channels, and simplified security proofs in quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Renes, Joseph M.; Grassl, Markus

    2006-08-15

    Prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols can be decomposed into two basic steps: delivery of the signals over a quantum channel and distillation of a secret key from the signal and measurement records by classical processing and public communication. Here we formalize the distillation process for a general protocol in a purely quantum-mechanical framework and demonstrate that it can be viewed as creating an 'effective' quantum channel between the legitimate users Alice and Bob. The process of secret key generation can then be viewed as entanglement distribution using this channel, which enables application of entanglement-based security proofs to essentially any prepare and measure protocol. To ensure secrecy of the key, Alice and Bob must be able to estimate the channel noise from errors in the key, and we further show how symmetries of the distillation process simplify this task. Applying this method, we prove the security of several key distribution protocols based on equiangular spherical codes.

  4. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-07-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized ‘filter function’. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate.

  5. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized 'filter function'. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate. PMID:27405268

  6. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized ‘filter function’. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate. PMID:27405268

  7. A Covariance NMR Toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David

    2011-03-01

    The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE.

  8. A covariance NMR toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE.

    PubMed

    Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David

    2011-03-01

    The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE. PMID:21215669

  9. Economical phase-covariant cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Buscemi, Francesco; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2005-04-01

    We derive the optimal N{yields}M phase-covariant quantum cloning for equatorial states in dimension d with M=kd+N, k integer. The cloning maps are optimal for both global and single-qudit fidelity. The map is achieved by an 'economical' cloning machine, which works without ancilla.

  10. Quantum interferometric visibility as a witness of general relativistic proper time.

    PubMed

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Pikovski, Igor; Brukner, Časlav

    2011-01-01

    Current attempts to probe general relativistic effects in quantum mechanics focus on precision measurements of phase shifts in matter-wave interferometry. Yet, phase shifts can always be explained as arising because of an Aharonov-Bohm effect, where a particle in a flat space-time is subject to an effective potential. Here we propose a quantum effect that cannot be explained without the general relativistic notion of proper time. We consider interference of a 'clock'-a particle with evolving internal degrees of freedom-that will not only display a phase shift, but also reduce the visibility of the interference pattern. According to general relativity, proper time flows at different rates in different regions of space-time. Therefore, because of quantum complementarity, the visibility will drop to the extent to which the path information becomes available from reading out the proper time from the 'clock'. Such a gravitationally induced decoherence would provide the first test of the genuine general relativistic notion of proper time in quantum mechanics. PMID:22009037