1997 marks the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Remarkable progress has been made over the last 25 years in elucidating the physiological mechanisms involved in the entrainment, generation and expression of circadian rhythms at the cellular and systems levels. The recent discovery and cloning of the first mammalian
Fred W. Turek
Background Organisms ranging from humans to cyanobacteria undergo circadian rhythm, that is, variations in behavior that cycle over a period about 24 hours in length. A fundamental property of circadian rhythm is that it is free-running, and continues with a period close to 24 hours in the absence of light cycles or other external cues. Regulatory networks involving feedback inhibition and feedforward stimulation of mRNA transcription and translation are thought to be critical for many circadian mechanisms, and genes coding for essential components of circadian rhythm have been identified in several organisms. However, it is not clear how such components are organized to generate a circadian oscillation. Results We propose a model in which two independent transcriptional-translational oscillators with periods much shorter than 24 hours are coupled to drive a forced oscillator that has a circadian period, using mechanisms and parameters of conventional molecular biology. Furthermore, the resulting circadian oscillator can be entrained by an external light-dark cycle through known mechanisms. We rationalize the mathematical basis for the observed behavior of the model, and show that the behavior is not dependent on the details of the component ultradian oscillators but occurs even if quite generalized basic oscillators are used. Conclusion We conclude that coupled, independent, transcriptional-translational oscillators with relatively short periods can be the basis for circadian oscillators. The resulting circadian oscillator can be entrained by 24-hour light-dark cycles, and the model suggests a mechanism for its evolution.
Paetkau, Verner; Edwards, Roderick; Illner, Reinhard
|The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and…
Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail
The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian rhythms, they are provided with opportunities to connect learning to experiences and observations from their own lives. This article describes how to reset the biological clock of a shamrock plant while shedding light on its circadian rhythms.
Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. G.
Circadian rhythms, characterized by a period of about 24 h, are the most widespread biological rhythms generated autonomously at the molecular level. The core molecular mechanism responsible for circadian oscillations relies on the negative regulation exerted by a protein on the expression of its own gene. Deterministic models account for the occurrence of autonomous circadian oscillations, for their entrainment by light-dark cycles, and for their phase shifting by light pulses. Stochastic versions of these models take into consideration the molecular fluctuations that arise when the number of molecules involved in the regulatory mechanism is low. Numerical simulations of the stochastic models show that robust circadian oscillations can already occur with a limited number of mRNA and protein molecules, in the range of a few tens and hundreds, respectively. Various factors affect the robustness of circadian oscillations with respect to molecular noise. Besides an increase in the number of molecules, entrainment by light-dark cycles, and cooperativity in repression enhance robustness, whereas the proximity of a bifurcation point leads to less robust oscillations. Another parameter that appears to be crucial for the coherence of circadian rhythms is the binding/unbinding rate of the inhibitory protein to the promoter of the clock gene. Intercellular coupling further increases the robustness of circadian oscillations.
Gonze, Didier; Goldbeter, Albert
Aims Adverse cardiovascular events in humans occur with a day\\/night pattern, presumably related to a daily pattern of behaviours or endogenous circadian rhythms in cardiovascular variables. Healthy humans possess a scale-invariant\\/fractal structure in heartbeat fluctuations that exhibits an endogenous circadian rhythm and changes towards the structure observed in cardiovascular disease at the circadian phase corresponding to the time of the
Kun Hu; Frank A. J. L. Scheer; Ruud M. Buijs; Steven A. Shea
1.Neural mechanisms involved in the generation and entrainment of circadian rhythms of behaviour were studied in male golden hamsters,Mesocricetus auratus.2.Destruction of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and accompanying interruption of the retino-hypothalamic tract (RHT) modified or eliminated entrainment to lighting cycles.3.Such lesions also prevented the generation of normal circadian rhythms of both activity and drinking. Some lesioned hamsters
There has been considerable progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that contribute to memory formation and the generation of circadian rhythms. However, it is not well understood how these two processes interact to generate long-term memory. Recent studies in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have shown time-of-day effects on neurophysiology and memory formation, and have revealed a possible role for
Jason R. Gerstner; Jerry C. P. Yin
There is a growing recognition that the circadian timing system, in particular recently discovered clock genes, plays a major role in a wide range of physiological systems. Microarray studies, for example, have shown that the expression of hundreds of genes changes many fold in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver heart and kidney. In this review, we discuss the role of circadian rhythmicity in the control of reproductive function in animals and humans. Circadian rhythms and clock genes appear to be involved in optimal reproductive performance, but there are sufficient redundancies in their function that many of the knockout mice produced do not show overt reproductive failure. Furthermore, important strain differences have emerged from the studies especially between the various Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycle Kaput) mutant strains. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that the primary clock genes, Clock and Bmal1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as Mop3), strongly influence reproductive competency. The extent to which the circadian timing system affects human reproductive performance is not known, in part, because many of the appropriate studies have not been done. With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans. PMID:16940279
Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J
Objective The aim of this article is to review progress in understanding the mechanisms that underlie circadian and sleep rhythms, and their role in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods Literature was selected principally by Medline searches, and additional reports were identified based on ongoing research activities in the authors’ laboratory. Results Many physiological processes show circadian rhythms of activity. Sleep and waking are the most obvious circadian rhythms in mammals. There is considerable evidence that circadian and sleep disturbances are important in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Depressed patients often show altered circadian rhythms, sleep disturbances, and diurnal mood variation. Chronotherapies, including bright light exposure, sleep deprivation, and social rhythm therapies, may be useful adjuncts in non-seasonal and seasonal depression. Antidepressant drugs have marked effects on circadian processes and sleep. Conclusions Recent progress in understanding chronobiological and sleep regulation mechanisms may provide novel insights and avenues into the development of new pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies for mood disorders.
Germain, Anne; Kupfer, David J.
Since extracellular calcium is known to be involved in the entrainment of the circadian pacemaker in the retina of Bulla gouldiana, we have assessed the requirement for extracellular calcium in the generation of the circadian rhythm. To enable us to assay the state of the pacemaker during low-calcium treatment, which often obscures rhythmicity, long-duration pulses of low-calcium artificial seawater (no
Sat Bir S. Khalsa; Martin R. Ralph; Gene D. Block
We investigated the occurrence of circadian rhythms in retinomotor movements and retinal sensitivity in the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. When green sunfish were kept in constant darkness, cone photoreceptors exhibited circadian retinomotor movements; rod photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pigment granules did not. Cones elongated during subjective night and contracted during subjective day. These results corroborate those of Burnside and Ackland (1984. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 25:539-545). Electroretinograms (ERGs) recorded in constant darkness in response to dim flashes (lambda = 640 nm) exhibited a greater amplitude during subjective night than during subjective day. The nighttime increase in the ERG amplitude corresponded to a 3-10-fold increase in retinal sensitivity. The rhythmic changes in the ERG amplitude continued in constant darkness with a period of approximately 24 h, which indicates that the rhythm is generated by a circadian oscillator. The spectral sensitivity of the ERG recorded in constant darkness suggests that cones contribute to retinal responses during both day and night. Thus, the elongation of cone myoids during the night does not abolish the response of the cones. To examine the role of retinal efferents in generating retinal circadian rhythms, we cut the optic nerve. This procedure did not abolish the rhythms of retinomotor movement or of the ERG amplitude, but it did reduce the magnitude of the nighttime phases of both rhythms. Our results suggest that more than one endogenous oscillator regulates the retinal circadian rhythms in green sunfish. Circadian signals controlling the rhythms may be either generated within the eye or transferred to the eye via a humoral pathway.
Daily or circadian rhythmical oscillations occur in several physiological and behavioral functions that contribute to athletic performance. These functions include resting levels of sensory motor, perceptual, and cognitive performance and several neuromuscular, behavioral, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables. In addition, circadian rhythms have been reported in many indices of aerobic capacity, in certain physiological variables at different exercise levels, and, in a few studies, in actual athletic performance proficiency. Circadian rhythmicity in components of athletic performance can be modulated by workload, psychological stressors, motivation, "morningness/eveningness" differences, social interaction, lighting, sleep disturbances, the "postlunch dip" phenomenon, altitude, dietary constituents, gender, and age. These rhythms can significantly influence performance depending upon the time of day at which the athletic endeavor takes place. Disturbance of circadian rhythmicity resulting from transmeridian flight across several time zones can result in fatigue, malaise, sleep disturbance, gastrointestinal problems, and performance deterioration in susceptible individuals (circadian dysrhythmia or "jet-lag"). Factors influencing the degree of impairment and duration of readaptation include direction of flight, rhythm synchronizer intensity, dietary constituents and timing of meals, and individual factors such as morningness/eveningness, personality traits, and motivation. It is the intent of the authors to increase awareness of circadian rhythmic influences upon physiology and performance and to provide a scientific data base for the human circadian system so that coaches and athletes can make reasonable decisions to reduce the negative impact of jet-lag and facilitate readaptation following transmeridian travel. PMID:3906341
Winget, C M; DeRoshia, C W; Holley, D C
Many biological functions change cyclically over a 24-h period, such cycles being referred to as circadian rhythms. The major rhythms of relevance to examine performance are those of body temperature and the sleep-wake cycle. Many components of exercise performance are closely related to the body temperature curve which peaks in the early evening. Exercise with predominantly neuromotor and cognitive components depend also on the underlying sleep-wake cycle. Some performance measures are subject to ultradian cycles and show a transient decline in the early afternoon. Optimal time of day for exercise is determined not just by endogenous rhythms but also by the nature and intensity of exercise, the population concerned, environmental conditions, and individual phase types. Environmental factors impinging on circadian rhythms include light, heat, air ionization, activity and eating patterns, and social activities. Endogenous rhythms are desynchronized when perturbed by nocturnal shift work or time-zone transitions. Coping with desynchronosis involves behavioral, dietary, or pharmacological treatments. Sleep loss interacts with circadian rhythmicity but affects cognitive function more so than gross motor actions. The existence of self-sustaining rhythms should be recognized by athletic practitioners, sports scientists concerned with experimental work and fitness testing, sports injury specialists, and sports organizers concerned with the travel plans of athletes. PMID:2286092
Organisms use circadian and circannual rhythms in cells or cell complexes for time measurements, thus the term biological clocks. Properties and models of biological clocks are discussed. In mammals, the biological clock system perceives light signals via the retina. Signals are then led to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, functioning as the central clock region. Via pathways -
Mistlberger, R.E. Neurobiology of food anticipatory circadian rhythms. Physiol Behav 00(00):000–000, 2011. Circadian rhythms in mammals can be entrained by daily schedules of light or food availability. A master light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is comprised of a population of cell autonomous, transcriptionally based circadian oscillators with defined retinal inputs, circadian clock genes and neural outputs.
Ralph E. Mistlberger
We use a core molecular model capable of generating circadian rhythms to assess the robustness of circadian oscillations with respect to molecular noise. The model is based on the negative feedback exerted by a regulatory protein on the expression of its gene. Such a negative regulatory mechanism underlies circadian oscillations of the PER protein in Drosophila and of the FRQ
Didier Gonze; José Halloy; Albert Goldbeter
Present invention is a method of improving circadian rhythms in blind people by stimulation the visual neural system. Ideally a retinal prosthesis of the type used to restore vision can be used to restore normal circadian rhythms. Additionally, brightness...
R. J. Greenberg M. S. Humayun
Living things on the earth including bacteria, plants and animals show circadian rhythms in their behaviors and physiological phenomena, and these circadian rhythms are usually synchronized with environmental changes having the period of 24 h on the earth. In mammals including human beings, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions as a master circadian oscillator, and generates a circadian rhythm of food intake. Sometimes the circadian oscillation of the SCN is disturbed with physical and psychological stressors. This review describes the functional relationship in respect to connections between the circadian oscillator in the SCN and food regulatory centers and neurons in the brain focusing on its mechanism in human beings, and a possible involvement of the circadian oscillator of the SCN in the abnormality of the appetite control. PMID:11268586
The relative effectiveness of external zeitgebers synchronizing circadian rhythms can be evaluated by mesuring the size of the range of entrainment. The experimental approach to measure entrainment limits is the application of an artificial zeitgeber with slowly and steadily changing period. In human circadian rhythms, an absolute light-dark (LD) cycle with a light intensity during L of 100 lux or
Rtitger A. Wever; Jan Polášek; Christina M. Wildgruber
This program of research identified a number of novel roles for peptides and neurotransmitters found in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), in the regulation of SCN neuronal activity and behavioral circadian rhythms. Major findings included the observations...
Drosophila is by far the most advanced model to understand the complex biochemical interactions upon which circadian clocks rely. Most of the genes that have been characterized so far were isolated through genetic screens using the locomotor activity rhythms of the adults as a circadian output. In addition, new techniques are available to deregulate gene expression in specific cells, allowing
André Klarsfeld; Jean-Christophe Leloup; François Rouyer
Although caffeine alters sleep in many animals, whether or not it affects mammalian circadian clocks remains unknown. Here, we found that incubating cultured mammalian cell lines, human osteosarcoma U2OS cells and mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, with caffeine lengthened the period of circadian rhythms. Adding caffeine to ex vivo cultures also lengthened the circadian period in mouse liver explants from Per2::Luciferase
Hideaki Oike; Masuko Kobori; Takahiro Suzuki; Norio Ishida
The eye of the mollusk Bulla gouldiana contains a pacemaker that generates a circadian rhythm in compound action potentials (CAPs) in the optic nerve. In this paper, we present evidence of a second circadian rhythm in the optic nerve of the eye maintained in darkness at 15 °C. This is a rhythm in the frequency of small (10–40 µV) neural
Michael E. Geusz; Terry L. Page
Rapid air travel across several time zones exposes the traveller to a shift in his\\/her internal biological clock. The result is a transient desynchronisation of the circadian rhythm, called jet lag, lasting until the rhythm is rephased to the new environmental conditions. The most commonly experienced symptoms are sleep disorders, difficulties with concentrating, irritability, depression, fatigue, disorientation, loss of appetite,
R. Manfredini; F. Manfredini; C. Fersini; F. Conconi
Circadian activity rhythms in hamsters are entrained to the daily light:dark cycle by photic information arriving from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals. The effects of light on adjusting the timing of the circadian pacemaker is modified, both positively and negatively, by a variety of transmitter systems, but the effects of endocannabinoids have not been reported. Therefore, in this study we evaluated cannabinoids specific for the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB(1)) for their ability to modulate light-induced phase advances in hamster circadian activity rhythms. All compounds were administered intraperitoneally. The CB(1) agonist CP55940 potently inhibited light-induced phase shifts with near 90% inhibition achieved with a dose of 0.125 mg/kg. The inhibitory effect of CP55940 was partially reversed by the CB(1) antagonist LY320135 and completely reversed with 1 mg/kg of the CB(1) antagonist AM 251. Neither LY320135 nor AM 251 had any effect on light-induced phase shifts when administered alone. Further evidence for CB(1) involvement in hamster circadian rhythms was provided by immunohistochemical detection of CB(1) receptors in four separate nuclei comprising the principal components of the hamster circadian system: the suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus, and dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Altogether these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system has the capability to modulate circadian rhythms in the hamster and cannabis use should be evaluated for adverse effects on circadian rhythms in humans. PMID:18582849
Sanford, Anna E; Castillo, Elizabeth; Gannon, Robert L
Circadian rhythms in noradrenergic (NE) and dopaminergic (DA) metabolites and in cyclic nucleotide production were measured in discrete regions of rat brain. A circadian rhythm was found in the concentration of the NE metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl...
M. S. Kafka M. A. Benedito R. H. Roth L. K. Steele W. W. Wolfe
The objective of this paper is to provide information about circadian rhythms and their relevance to the development of models of human cognitive performance. Circadian rhythms are well-established characteristics of human performance. However, to date, m...
T. L. Kelly
It has been known for decades that urinary potassium excretion varies with a circadian pattern. In this review, we consider the historical evidence for this phenomenon and present an overview of recent developments in the field. Extensive evidence from the latter part of the past century clearly shows that circadian potassium excretion does not depend on endogenous aldosterone. Of note is the recent discovery that the expression of several renal potassium transporters varies with a circadian pattern that appears to be consistent with substantial clinical data regarding daily fluctuations in urinary potassium levels. We propose the circadian clock mechanism as a key regulator of renal potassium transporters, and consequently renal potassium excretion. Further investigation into the regulation mechanism of renal potassium transport by the circadian clock is warranted to increase our understanding of the clinical relevance of circadian rhythms to potassium homeostasis. PMID:23953800
Gumz, Michelle L; Rabinowitz, Lawrence
Substance abuse is linked to numerous mental and physical health problems, including disturbed sleep. The association between substance use and sleep appears to be bidirectional, in that substance use may directly cause sleep disturbances, and difficulty sleeping may be a risk factor for relapse to substance use. Growing evidence similarly links substance use to disturbances in circadian rhythms, although many gaps in knowledge persist, particularly regarding whether circadian disturbance leads to substance abuse or dependence. Given the integral role circadian rhythms play in regulating sleep, circadian mechanisms may account in part for sleep-substance abuse interactions. Furthermore, a burgeoning research base supports a role for the circadian system in regulating reward processing, indicating that circadian mechanisms may be directly linked to substance abuse independently of sleep pathways. More work in this area is needed, particularly in elucidating how sleep and circadian disturbance may contribute to initiation of, and/or relapse to, substance use. Sleep and circadian-based interventions could play a critical role in the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders.
Hasler, Brant P.; Smith, Leisha J.; Cousins, Jennifer C.; Bootzin, Richard R.
Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep-wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598
Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F
Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption are frequently observed in patients with psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disease. The abnormal sleep that is experienced by these patients is largely assumed to be the product of medication or some other influence that is not well defined. However, normal brain function and the generation of sleep are linked by common neurotransmitter systems and regulatory
Katharina Wulff; Silvia Gatti; Joseph G. Wettstein; Russell G. Foster
The organization of biological activities into daily cycles is universal in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, flies, birds and man. Comparisons of circadian clocks in unicellular and multicellular organisms using molecular genetics and genomics have provided new insights into the mechanisms and complexity of clock systems. Whereas unicellular organisms require stand-alone clocks that can generate 24-hour rhythms
Vincent M. Cassone; David J. Earnest; Susan S. Golden; Paul E. Hardin; Terry L. Thomas; Mark J. Zoran; Deborah Bell-Pedersen
Hormone secretion, metabolism, and the cell cycle are under rhythmic control. Lack of rhythmic control has been predicted to lead to uncontrolled proliferation and cancer. Consistent with this prediction are findings that circadian disruption by dim light at night or chronic jet lag accelerates tumor growth in desynchronized animals. Circadian controlled factors such as insulin/IGF-1, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and melatonin have be implicated in controlling tumor growth in the desynchronized animals. Recent attention has focused on the signaling pathways activated by the circadian controlled factors because these pathways hold the potential for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22252116
Greene, Michael W
This collection of studies had the aim of exploring whether older (77 + years) men and women have circadian body temperature rhythms different from those of younger adults. A total of 20 older men and 28 older women were compared with either 22 young men or 14 middle-aged men in four protocols; all but the first protocol using a subset
Timothy H. Monk; Daniel J. Buysse; Charles F. Reynolds; David J. Kupfer; Patricia R. Houck
Although several studies have described effects of meal frequency and timing of meals on growth performance and body composition of different species of fishes, the mechanisms by which such variables influence the energy partitioning processes is not known. They may interact with the natural feeding rhythm of the fish, or with various behavioural and physiological parameters that exhibit ‘circadian-like’ patterns;
Thierry Boujard; John F. Leatherland
Human space activity began in 1961. About 400 persons have gone to space since then, and about 70 of them have stayed more than 1 month. Circadian rhythm and sleep in space have been investigated several times, though the effect of longer stays in space has not been adequately clarified. Electromagnetic fields are different in the space environment, especially in
R. Izumi; N. Ishioka; K. Mizuno; T. Goka
Cellular life emerged ?3.7?billion years ago. With scant exception, terrestrial organisms have evolved under predictable daily cycles owing to the Earth's rotation. The advantage conferred on organisms that anticipate such environmental cycles has driven the evolution of endogenous circadian rhythms that tune internal physiology to external conditions. The molecular phylogeny of mechanisms driving these rhythms has been difficult to dissect because identified clock genes and proteins are not conserved across the domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. Here we show that oxidation-reduction cycles of peroxiredoxin proteins constitute a universal marker for circadian rhythms in all domains of life, by characterizing their oscillations in a variety of model organisms. Furthermore, we explore the interconnectivity between these metabolic cycles and transcription-translation feedback loops of the clockwork in each system. Our results suggest an intimate co-evolution of cellular timekeeping with redox homeostatic mechanisms after the Great Oxidation Event ?2.5?billion years ago. PMID:22622569
Edgar, Rachel S; Green, Edward W; Zhao, Yuwei; van Ooijen, Gerben; Olmedo, Maria; Qin, Ximing; Xu, Yao; Pan, Min; Valekunja, Utham K; Feeney, Kevin A; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Hastings, Michael H; Baliga, Nitin S; Merrow, Martha; Millar, Andrew J; Johnson, Carl H; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; O'Neill, John S; Reddy, Akhilesh B
Biological circadian clocks oscillate with an approximately 24-hour period, are ubiquitous, and presumably confer a selective advantage by anticipating the transitions between day and night. The circadian rhythms of sleep, melatonin secretion and body core temperature are thought to be generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, the anatomic locus of the mammalian circadian clock. Autosomal semi-dominant mutations in
Christopher R. Jones; Scott S. Campbell; Stephanie E. Zone; Fred Cooper; Alison DeSano; Patricia J. Murphy; Bryan Jones; Laura Czajkowski; Louis J. Pt?ek
Studies investigating gender differences in human circadian rhythms report equivocal results. In addition, many of these studies have been limited to examination of one circadian variable. This study examined gender differences in circadian rhythms of multiple physiological variables of rhesus monkeys under highly controlled conditions. Under general anesthesia, eight female and seven male rhesus were implanted with a biotelemetry transmitter
Laura K. Barger; Tana M. Hoban-Higgins; Charles A. Fuller
Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...
Across a large phylogenetic distance, circadian systems that regulate daily changes in physiology and behavior exhibit fundamental properties that are remarkably similar, suggesting either a conservation or constraint on the optimal organization of the biological clock. Whether or not this is a reflection of homologies in the genetic underpinnings of these clocks is unknown. Nonetheless, evidence for comparable organization from
Martin R. Ralph
Circadian rhythms of heart rate variability have been widely studied in recent years. However, most previous reports described such rhythms in terms of normalized units of the low- and high-frequency (LF and HF) spectral components. In this study, we analyzed circadian rhythms of spectral components in absolute units and found unexpected results in normal subjects as well as coronary heart
G. Q. Wu; L. L. Shen; D. K. Tang; D. A. Zheng; C.-S. Poon
The demonstration of a circadian variation in frequency of onset of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and stroke\\u000a provides an opportunity to gain insight into the mechanism of transformation from chronic stable to acute unstable manifestation\\u000a of cardiovascular disease. Contributing physiologic changes that exhibit a morning peak include arterial pressure, heart rate,\\u000a and vascular tone, which promote plaque rupture, together
Elizabeth Shaw; Geoffrey H. Tofler
Rapid air travel across several time zones exposes the traveller to a shift in his/her internal biological clock. The result is a transient desynchronisation of the circadian rhythm, called jet lag, lasting until the rhythm is rephased to the new environmental conditions. The most commonly experienced symptoms are sleep disorders, difficulties with concentrating, irritability, depression, fatigue, disorientation, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Apart from the decrements in mental and physical performance directly consequent on such symptoms, competitive athletes are also exposed to the additional negative consequences of a shift from the optimal circadian window of performance. A brief summary of the possible negative effects of jet lag on athletic performance and potentially alleviating strategies is given. ?????
Manfredini, R.; Manfredini, F.; Fersini, C.; Conconi, F.
Bilateral electrolytic lesions in the suprachiasmatic nuclei permanently eliminated nocturnal and circadian rhythms in drinking behavior and locomotor activity of albino rats. The generation of 24-hr behavioral rhythms and the entrainment of these rhythms to the light-dark cycle of environmental illumination may be coordinated by neurons in the suprachiasmatic region of the rat brain. Destruction of the medial preoptic area
Friedrich K. Stephan; Irving Zucker
To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24?h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles. PMID:22683844
Bodenstein, C; Heiland, I; Schuster, S
To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24?h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles.
Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.
A 55-year-old man presented with excessive daytime sleepiness and a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a pontine lesion distinguishable from major cerebrovascular disease, demyelination and neoplasm. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants, methylcobalamine and thyroxine failed to synchronize the circadian rhythm. Antiepileptic drugs aggravated the condition, while melatonin and protireline partially relieved the patient from poorly controlled sleep disorder. A pontine lesion appeared to be related to the circadian rhythm sleep disorder of the patient. PMID:10209358
Kashihara, K; Takahashi, K; Shohmori, T
Influence of stress on immunity and pathogenesis relates to corticotropic axis: hypothalamus-hypophysis-surrenals (HHS). Its over-stimulation due to traumas during early childhood or before birth seems to generate brain abnormalities such as reduction of hippocampus volume. More typical of adult age, hypothalamus-pineal gland axis (HP), responsible for melatonin production, may be impaired because of chronic stress, mainly through sleep disturbances or addictive behaviours. Old age has been reported to produce same impairments. Circadian cycle of melatonin is closely related to immune functions and its disturbance seems to induce, among populations undergoing frequent changes of life rhythm, a significant raise of cancer incidence: night shift workers, air pilots... Stress then seems enable to increase cancer risk through its negative impact on HHS and HP axis and therefore on immunity. Immunotherapy, which was an interesting solution considering this, has not yield yet expected results. Upstream, other ways have been successfully investigated in prospective randomised trials, such as psychotherapeutic treatments, with positive effects on cellular immunity and survival. The ability to condition immune responses in animals allows thinking that hypnotherapy could also be used along with standard treatments. PMID:15939136
Kwiatkowski, F; Abrial, C; Gachon, F; Chevrier, R; Curé, H; Chollet, P
Genetic and biochemical experiments over the past decade have facilitated the construction of a viable working model for the molecular mechanisms that generate the circadian rhythm in Mus musculus. The basic mechanism consists of two intertwined transcription-translation negative feedback loops. One, the "positive loop," controls the rhythmic expression of a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-domain-containing positive transcription factor, BMAL1 (also called MOP3). The other, the "negative loop," controls the transcription of mPeriod 1 and 2 and mCryptochrome 1 and 2, two families of genes that encode repressor proteins. The loops are intertwined because the proteins mPeriod and mCryptochrome directly repress transcription mediated by the CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimer, whereas CLOCK:BMAL1 drives transcription of the mPeriod and mCryptochrome genes, as well as that of Rev-erb-alpha, a repressor of Bmal1 expression. Mutations, including the tau mutation in hamsters [encoding Casein kinase I ε (CkIε)], have identified essential functions for other proteins in the timekeeping mechanism. The master pacemaker for circadian rhythms in mice is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Light cycles can synchronize molecular rhythms in the SCN by stimulating the release of glutamate and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) from melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. This results in increased transcription of mPeriod genes and a shift in the phase of the clock. This Pathway Map of the murine circadian mechanism describes the individual known components of the mouse circadian clock and their mutual interactions. Science Viewpoint R. N. Van Gelder, E. D. Herzog, W. J. Schwartz, P. H. Taghert, Circadian rhythms: In the loop at last. Science 300, 1534-1535 (2003). [Abstract] [Full Text
Russell N. Van Gelder (Washington University Medical School;Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology REV)
Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed. PMID:15943202
Mallis, M M; DeRoshia, C W
Recent studies have shown that functional variations in clock genes, which generate circadian rhythms through interactive positive\\/negative feedback loops, contribute to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in humans. Another potential candidate for rhythm disorder susceptibility is casein kinase I epsilon (CKI?), which phosphorylates clock proteins and plays a pivotal role in the circadian clock. To determine whether variations
Atsuko Takano; Makoto Uchiyama; Naofumi Kajimura; Kazuo Mishima; Yuichi Inoue; Yuichi Kamei; Tsuyoshi Kitajima; Kayo Shibui; Masaaki Katoh; Tsuyoshi Watanabe; Yuki Hashimotodani; Toru Nakajima; Yuji Ozeki; Toru Hori; Naoto Yamada; Ryoichi Toyoshima; Norio Ozaki; Masako Okawa; Katsuya Nagai; Kiyohisa Takahashi; Yasushi Isojima; Toshio Yamauchi; Takashi Ebisawa
Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and entrained by light-activated signaling pathways. In hamsters, the mechanism responsible for light-induced phase advances involves the activation of guanylyl cyclase, cGMP and its related kinase (PKG). It is not completely known whether interference with this pathway affects entrainment of the clock, including adaptation to changing light schedules. Here we report that cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 is present in the hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei, and administration of the inhibitor sildenafil (3.5 mg/kg, i.p.) enhances circadian responses to light and decreases the amount of time necessary for reentrainment after phase advances of the light-dark cycle. These results suggest that sildenafil may be useful for treatment of circadian adaptation to environmental changes, including transmeridian eastbound flight schedules. PMID:17519328
Agostino, Patricia V; Plano, Santiago A; Golombek, Diego A
Forward genetic approaches (phenotype to gene) are powerful methods to identify mouse circadian clock components. The success of these approaches, however, is highly dependent on the quality of the phenotype— specifically, the ability to measure circadian rhythms in individual mice. This article outlines the factors necessary to measure mouse circadian rhythms, including choice of mouse strain, facilities and equipment design and construction, experimental design, high-throughput methods, and finally methods for data analysis.
Siepka, Sandra M.; Takahashi, Joseph S.
\\u000a Circadian rhythms are cycles in physiological processes that have a near-daily frequency. The wrist skin temperature has proven\\u000a to be a good marker of circadian rhythmicity. In this paper we attempt to establish whether complexity changes in human circadian\\u000a rhythms in ageing can be assessed through phase variability in individual wrist temperature records. To this end, we propose\\u000a some phase
R. Marin; M. Campos; A. Gomariz; A. Lopez; M. Rol
The mammalian circadian oscillator is primarily driven by an essential negative feedback loop comprising a positive component, the CLOCK-BMAL1 complex, and a negative component, the PER-CRY complex. Numerous studies suggest that feedback inhibition of CLOCK-BMAL1 is mediated by time-dependent physical interaction with its direct target gene products PER and CRY, suggesting that the ratio between the negative and positive complexes must be important for the molecular oscillator and rhythm generation. We explored this idea by altering expression of clock components in fibroblasts derived from Per2Luc and Per mutant mice, a cell system extensively used to study in vivo clock mechanisms. Our data demonstrate that the stoichiometric relationship between clock components is critical for the robustness of circadian rhythms and provide insights into the mechanistic organization of the negative feedback loop. Our findings may explain why certain mutant mice or cells are arrhythmic, whereas others are rhythmic, and suggest that robustness of circadian rhythms can be increased even in wild-type cells by modulating the stoichiometry.
Lee, Yongjin; Chen, Rongmin; Lee, Hyeong-min; Lee, Choogon
Summary Artificial bright light cycles (LD 8?16) of about 5000 lux during the light period were applied to two subjects in a temporal isolation unit, who had shown free-running circadian rhythms in sleep-wakefulness and rectal temperature. The circadian rhythms were successfully entrained by the artificial light cycle, but the phase relation of the rhythms to the light cycle was substantially
K. Honma; S. Honma; T. Wada
Many metabolic and developmental processes in fungi are controlled by biological rhythms. Circadian rhythms approximate a daily (24 h) cycle and have been thoroughly studied in the model fungus, Neurospora crassa. However relatively few examples of true circadian rhythms have been documented among other filamentous fungi. In this study we describe a circadian rhythm underlying hyphal melanization in Cercospora kikuchii, an important pathogen of soybean. After growth in light or light : dark cycles, colonies transferred to darkness produced zonate bands of melanized hyphae interspersed with bands of hyaline hyphae. Rhythmic production of bands was remarkably persistent in the absence of external cues, lasting at least 7 d after transfer to darkness, and was compensated over a range of temperatures. As in N. crassa, blue light but not red light was sufficient to entrain the circadian rhythm in C. kikuchii, and a putative ortholog of white collar-1, one of the genes required for light responses in N. crassa, was identified in C. kikuchii. Circadian regulation of melanization is conserved in other members of the genus: Similar rhythms were identified in another field isolate of C. kikuchii as well as field isolates of C. beticola and C. sorghi, but not in wild-type strains of C. zeae-maydis or C. zeina. This report represents the first documented circadian rhythm among Dothideomycete fungi and provides a new opportunity to dissect the molecular basis of circadian rhythms among filamentous fungi. PMID:20943572
Bluhm, Burton H; Burnham, A Michele; Dunkle, Larry D
Periodic expression of so-called clock genes is an essential part of the circadian clock. In Drosophila melanogaster the cyclic expression of per and tim through an autoregulatory feedback loop is believed to play a central role in circadian rhythm generation. However, it is still elusive whether this hypothesis is applicable to other insect species. Here it is shown that per
Yoshiyuki Moriyama; Tomoaki Sakamoto; Svetlana G. Karpova; Akira Matsumoto; Sumihare Noji; Kenji Tomioka
Background: Low-amplitude temperature oscillations can entrain the phase of circadian rhythms in several unicellular and multicellular organisms, including Neurospora and Drosophila. Because mammalian body temperature is subject to circadian variations of 1°C–4°C, we wished to determine whether these temperature cycles could serve as a Zeitgeber for circadian gene expression in peripheral cell types.Results: In RAT1 fibroblasts cultured in vitro, circadian
Steven A. Brown; Gottlieb Zumbrunn; Fabienne Fleury-Olela; Nicolas Preitner; Ueli Schibler
BackgroundAlthough an endogenous circadian clock located in the retinal photoreceptor layer governs various physiological events including melatonin rhythms in Xenopus laevis, it remains unknown which of the photoreceptors, rod and\\/or cone, is responsible for the circadian regulation of melatonin release.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe selectively disrupted circadian clock function in either the rod or cone photoreceptor cells by generating transgenic Xenopus tadpoles expressing
Naoto Hayasaka; Silvia I. Larue; Carla B. Green; Paul A. Bartell
Metabolic, physiological and behavioral processes exhibit 24-hour rhythms in most organisms, including humans. These rhythms are driven by a system of self-sustained clocks and are entrained by environmental cues such as light-dark cycles as well as food intake. In mammals, the circadian clock system is hierarchically organized such that the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus integrates environmental information and synchronizes the phase of oscillators in peripheral tissues. The transcription and translation feedback loops of multiple clock genes are involved in the molecular mechanism of the circadian system. Disturbed circadian rhythms are known to be closely related to many diseases, including sleep disorders. Advanced sleep phase type, delayed sleep phase type and nonentrained type of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) are thought to result from disorganization of the circadian system. Evaluation of circadian phenotypes is indispensable to understanding the pathophysiology of CRSD. It is laborious and costly to assess an individual's circadian properties precisely, however, because the subject is usually required to stay in a laboratory environment free from external cues and masking effects for a minimum of several weeks. More convenient measurements of circadian rhythms are therefore needed to reduce patients' burden. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of CRSD as well as surrogate measurements for assessing an individual's circadian phenotype.
Daily life functions such as sleep and feeding oscillate with circa 24 h period due to endogenous circadian rhythms generated by circadian clocks. Genetic or environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with various aging-related phenotypes. Circadian rhythms decay during normal aging, and there is a need to explore strategies that could avert age-related changes in the circadian system. Exercise was reported to delay aging in mammals. Here, we investigated whether daily exercise via stimulation of upward climbing movement could improve circadian rest/activity rhythms in aging Drosophila melanogaster. We found that repeated exercise regimen did not strengthen circadian locomotor activity rhythms in aging flies and had no effect on their lifespan. We also tested the effects of exercise on mobility and determined that regular exercise lowered age-specific climbing ability in both wild type and clock mutant flies. Interestingly, the climbing ability was most significantly reduced in flies carrying a null mutation in the core clock gene period, while rescue of this gene significantly improved climbing to wild type levels. Our work highlights the importance of period in sustaining endurance in aging flies exposed to physical challenge.
Rakshit, Kuntol; Wambua, Rebecca; Giebultowicz, Tomasz M.; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.
Daily life functions such as sleep and feeding oscillate with circa 24h period due to endogenous circadian rhythms generated by circadian clocks. Genetic or environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with various aging-related phenotypes. Circadian rhythms decay during normal aging, and there is a need to explore strategies that could avert age-related changes in the circadian system. Exercise was reported to delay aging in mammals. Here, we investigated whether daily exercise via stimulation of upward climbing movement could improve circadian rest/activity rhythms in aging Drosophila melanogaster. We found that repeated exercise regimen did not strengthen circadian locomotor activity rhythms in aging flies and had no effect on their lifespan. We also tested the effects of exercise on mobility and determined that regular exercise lowered age-specific climbing ability in both wild type and clock mutant flies. Interestingly, the climbing ability was most significantly reduced in flies carrying a null mutation in the core clock gene period, while rescue of this gene significantly improved climbing to wild type levels. Our work highlights the importance of period in sustaining endurance in aging flies exposed to physical challenge. PMID:23916842
Rakshit, Kuntol; Wambua, Rebecca; Giebultowicz, Tomasz M; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M
Daily activity times and circadian rhythms of crickets have been a subject of behavioral and physiological study for decades. However, recent studies suggest that the underlying molecular mechanism of cricket endogenous clocks differ from the model of circadian rhythm generation in Drosophila. Here we examine the circadian free-running periods of walking and singing in two Hawaiian swordtail cricket species, Laupala cerasina and Laupala paranigra, that differ in the daily timing of mating related activities. Additionally, we examine variation in sequence and daily cycling of the period (per) gene transcript between these species. The species differed significantly in free-running period of singing, but did not differ significantly in the free-running period of locomotion. Like in Drosophila, per transcript abundance showed cycling consistent with a role in circadian rhythm generation. The amino acid differences identified between these species suggest a potential of the per gene in interspecific behavioral variation in Laupala. PMID:23436058
Fergus, Daniel J; Shaw, Kerry L
Circadian rhythmicity was repeatedly determined in a patient with Alzheimer's disease by measuring his core temperature with a rectal thermistor and motor activity by an ambulatory activity monitor. The first recording, performed 9 years after he was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, showed well organized 24 hr circadian rhythm of core body temperature. The second recording, made four months later, showed very poor fit of core body temperature to 24 hour rhythm, but excellent fit with 36 hour rhythm. The third recording, made two months later, showed again good fit of core body temperature with 24 hour cycle. The last recording, which was performed 5 months later, showed almost complete disappearance of circadian rhythm of body temperature. These changes probably reflect gradual lengthening of the circadian cycle that at one point became extremely lengthened before returning to the 24 hr cycle. PMID:23208027
Volicer, L; Harper, D G; Stopa, E G
Amniote circadian organization derives from the interactions of circadian oscillator and photoreceptors located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the pineal gland, and the eyes. In mammals, circadian organization is dominated by the SCN, w...
V. M. Cassone W. S. Warren D. S. Brooks J. Lu
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus functions as a circadian pacemaker. This study used multimicroelectrode plates to measure extracellular action potential activity simultaneously from multiple sites within the cultured mouse SCN. Neurons within the isolated mouse SCN expressed a circadian rhythm in spontaneous firing rate for weeks in culture.
Erik D Herzog; Michael E Geusz; Sat Bir S Khalsa; Martin Straume; Gene D Block
For many years, researchers have suggested that abnormalities in circadian rhythms may underlie the development of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder (BPD), major depression and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Furthermore, some of the treatments that are currently employed to treat mood disorders are thought to act by shifting or “resetting” the circadian clock, including total sleep deprivation (TSD) and
Colleen A. McClung
Deep body temperature of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, was monitored continuously by radio telemetry. Pinealectomy abolished the normal circadian rhythm of body temperature in constant darkness, and significantly altered the amplitude of body temperature rhythms entrained to light cycles. The body temperature minima of pinealectomized birds never fell as low as those of unoperated birds regardless of the light
Sue Binkley; Edward Kluth; Michael Menaker
In the first 10 days of a strict bed regime (for medical reasons) changes were noted in the circadian rhythm of the heart rate, body temperature, minute volume of respiration and openness of the bronchial passages. By the 19-21st day in bed initial rhythm...
V. M. Koroleva-munts
Circadian rhythms can be entrained by a light-dark (LD) cycle and can also be reset pharmacologically, for example, by the CK1?/? inhibitor PF-670462. Here, we determine how these two independent signals affect circadian timekeeping from the molecular to the behavioral level. By developing a systems pharmacology model, we predict and experimentally validate that chronic CK1?/? inhibition during the earlier hours of a LD cycle can produce a constant stable delay of rhythm. However, chronic dosing later during the day, or in the presence of longer light intervals, is not predicted to yield an entrained rhythm. We also propose a simple method based on phase response curves (PRCs) that predicts the effects of a LD cycle and chronic dosing of a circadian drug. This work indicates that dosing timing and environmental signals must be carefully considered for accurate pharmacological manipulation of circadian phase.
Kim, J K; Forger, D B; Marconi, M; Wood, D; Doran, A; Wager, T; Chang, C; Walton, K M
Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that harmonize a variety of physiological processes within the body. Although many urinary functions exhibit clear daily or circadian variation in diurnal humans and nocturnal rodents, the precise mechanisms of these variations are as yet unclear. In this review, we briefly introduce circadian clocks and their organization in mammals. We then summarize known daily or circadian variations in urinary function. Importantly, recent findings by others as well as results obtained by us suggest an active role of circadian clock genes in various urinary functions. Finally, we discuss possible research avenues for the circadian control of urinary function.
Noh, Jong-Yun; Han, Dong-Hee; Yoon, Ji-Ae; Kim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Kim, Chang-Ju
The rat pineal is a component of the circadian clock. Exogenous melatonin entrains the rat clock and does not require the presence of the pineal gland. The pineal gland is important for circadian rhythmicity. Pinealectomy exacerbates the disruptive effect...
V. M. Cassone
The basic molecular mechanisms underlying circadian oscillators follow the same general plan across the phylogenetic spectrum: oscillating feedback loops in which clock gene products negatively regulate their own expression. The circadian clocks of animals involve at least two interacting feedback loops. This Viewpoint compares and contrasts the circadian clocks of mammals and of Drosophila, emphasizing how different players are used
Russell N. Van Gelder; Erik D. Herzog; William J. Schwartz; Paul H. Taghert
Leptin, a hormone mainly produced by fat cells, shows cell-specific effects to regulate feeding and metabolic activities. We propose that an important feature of metabolic dysregulation resulting in obesity is the loss of the circadian rhythm of biopotentials. This was tested in the pan-leptin receptor knockout (POKO) mice newly generated in our laboratory. In the POKO mice, leptin no longer induced pSTAT-3 signaling after intracerebroventricular injection. Three basic phenotypes were observed: the heterozygotes had similar weight and adiposity as the wild-type (WT) mice (>60% of the mice); the homozygotes were either fatter (?30%), or rarely leaner (<5%) than the WT mice. By early adulthood, the POKO mice had higher average body weight and adiposity than their respective same-sex WT littermate controls, and this was consistent among different batches. The homozygote fat POKO showed significant reduction of midline estimating statistic of rhythm of circadian parameters, and shifts of ultradian rhythms. The blunted circadian rhythm of these extremely obese POKO mice was also seen in their physical inactivity, longer feeding bouts, and higher food intake. The extent of obesity correlated with the blunted circadian amplitude, accumulative metabolic and locomotor activities, and the severity of hyperphagia. This contrasts with the heterozygote POKO mice which showed little obesity and metabolic disturbance, and only subtle changes of the circadian rhythm of metabolic activity without alterations in feeding behavior. The results provide a novel aspect of leptin resistance, almost manifesting as an "all or none" phenomenon. PMID:23869060
Hsuchou, Hung; Wang, Yuping; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine G; Kastin, Abba J; Jang, Eunjin; Halberg, Franz; Pan, Weihong
Circadian rhythms are observed in mating behaviors in moths: females emit sex pheromones and males are attracted by these pheromones in rhythmic fashions. In the moth Spodoptera littoralis, we demonstrated the occurrence of a circadian oscillator in the antenna, the peripheral olfactory organ. We identified different clock genes, period (per), cryptochrome1 (cry1) and cryptochrome2 (cry2), in this organ. Using quantitative
Christine Merlin; Philippe Lucas; Didier Rochat; Marie-Christine François; Martine Maïbèche-Coisne; Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly
A recently developed wearable device has gained attention in the area of self-discipline for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between circadian rhythm and body shape change using actigraphy. Using a body shape vector, we classified 24 women in their 40s and 50s into 3 groups with different body shape changes. A circadian
S. Kume; N. Tokumitsu; S. Sakamoto; H. Hagiwara
Deep body temperature (DBT) and heart rate (HR) circadian rhythms were determined by radiotelemetry in 4 mares kept under controlled light and temperature conditions. Ovulations were determined by rectal palpation of their ovaries. Mean DBT values ranged from 35.85 ± .04 to 37.22 ± .02°C The circadian range of oscillation was extremely low, approximately 0.5° C, with time of maximum
J. W. Evans; C. M. Winget; C. De Roshia; D. C. Holley
We have investigated the effects of destruction of the geniculo-hypothalamic tract (GHT) on the circadian system of golden hamsters. In the first experiment, intact hamsters were housed in constant darkness, and phase shifts in running-wheel activity rhythms were assessed following 15-min light pulses administered at circadian time (CT) 12 (defined as the beginning of activity), CT 14, CT 18, and
Mary E. Harrington; Benjamin Rusak
The role of optic lobes in rhythm generation was examined by a combination of surgical operation and immunohistochemistry using anti-?-pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) antibody. In adult male crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus, one optic lobe was removed and the contralateral optic lobe was surgically lesioned to varying extent. Locomotor rhythms persisted in most crickets with the optic nerve severed or with the lamina
Akiko Okamoto; Hisako Mori; Kenji Tomioka
The diverse social lifestyle and the small and accessible nervous system of insects make them valuable for research on the adaptive value and the organization principles of circadian rhythms and sleep. We focus on two complementary model insects, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is amenable to extensive transgenic manipulations, and the honey bee Apis mellifera, which has rich and well-studied social behaviors. Social entrainment of activity rhythms (social synchronization) has been studied in many animals. Social time givers appear to be specifically important in dark cavity-dwelling social animals, but here there are no other clear relationships between the degree of sociality and the effectiveness of social entrainment. The olfactory system is important for social entrainment in insects. Little is known, however, about the molecular and neuronal pathways linking olfactory neurons to the central clock. In the honey bee, the expression, phase, and development of circadian rhythms are socially regulated, apparently by different signals. Peripheral clocks regulating pheromone synthesis and the olfactory system have been implicated in social influences on circadian rhythms in the fruit fly. An enriched social environment increases the total amount of sleep in both fruit flies and honey bees. In fruit flies, these changes have been linked to molecular and neuronal processes involved in learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. The studies on insects suggest that social influences on the clock are richer than previously appreciated and have led to important breakthroughs in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social influences on sleep and circadian rhythms. PMID:22902124
Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Bloch, Guy
Circadian rhythms are endogenous cycles with periods close to, but not exactly equal to, 24 h. In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus as well as several peripheral cell types, such as fibroblasts. Protein kinases are key regulators of the circadian molecular machinery. We investigated the role of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which belong to the mitogen-activated protein kinases family, in the regulation of circadian rhythms. In rat-1 fibroblasts, the p46 kDa, but not the p54 kDa, isoforms of JNK expressed circadian rhythms in phosphorylation. The JNK-inhibitor SP600125 dose-dependently extended the period of Period1-luciferase rhythms in rat-1 fibroblasts from 24.23±0.17–31.48±0.07 h. This treatment also dose-dependently delayed the onset of the bioluminescence rhythms. The effects of SP600125 on explant cultures from Period1-luciferase transgenic mice and Period2Luciferase knockin mice appeared tissue-specific. SP600125 lengthened the period in SCN, pineal gland, and lung explants in Period1-luciferase and Period2Luciferase mice. However, in the kidneys circadian rhythms were abolished in Period1-luciferase, while circadian rhythms were not affected by SP600125 treatment in Period2Luciferase mice. Valproic acid, already known to affect period length, enhanced JNK phosphorylation and, as predicted, shortened the period of the Period1-bioluminescence rhythms in rat-1 fibroblasts. In conclusion, our results showed that SP600125 treatment, as well as valproic acid, alters JNK phosphorylation levels, and modulates the period length in various tissues. We conclude that JNK phosphorylation levels may help to set the period length of mammalian circadian rhythms.
Chansard, M.; Molyneux, P.; Nomura, K.; Harrington, M. E.; Fukuhara, C.
Many physiological and behavioural functions have circadian rhythms – endogenous oscillations with a period of approximately 24 h that can occur even in the absence of sleep. We determined whether there is an endogenous circadian rhythm in breathing, metabolism and ventilatory chemosensitivity in humans. Ten healthy, adult males were studied throughout 4 days in a stable laboratory environment. After two initial baseline days (16 h wakefulness plus 8 h sleep) that served to achieve a steady state, subjects were studied under constant behavioural and environmental conditions throughout 41 h of wakefulness. Ventilation, metabolism and the magnitude of the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were measured every 2 h. Individuals’ data were aligned according to circadian phase (core body temperature minimum; CBTmin) and averaged. In the group average data, there was a significant and large amplitude circadian variation in HCVR slope (average of ±0.4 l min?1 mmHg?1; corresponding to ±12.1 % of 24 h mean), and a smaller amplitude rhythm in the HCVR x-axis intercept (average of ±1.1 mmHg; ±2.1 % of 24 h mean). Despite a significant circadian variation in metabolism (±3.2 % of 24 h mean), there were no detectable rhythms in tidal volume, respiratory frequency or ventilation. This small discrepancy between metabolism and ventilation led to a small but significant circadian variation in end-tidal PCO2(PET,CO2; ±0.6 mmHg; ±1.5 % of 24 h mean). The circadian minima of the group-averaged respiratory variables occurred 6-8 h earlier than CBTmin, suggesting that endogenous changes in CBT across the circadian cycle have less of an effect on respiration than equivalent experimentally induced changes in CBT. Throughout these circadian changes, there were no correlations between HCVR parameters (slope or x-axis intercept) and either resting ventilation or resting PET,CO2. This suggests that ventilation and PET,CO2 are little influenced by central chemosensory respiratory control in awake humans even when at rest under constant environmental and behavioural conditions. The characteristic change in PET,CO2 during non-rapid eye movement sleep was shown to be independent of circadian variations in PET,CO2, and probably reflects a change from predominantly behavioural to predominantly chemosensory respiratory control. This study has documented the existence and magnitude of circadian variations in respiration and respiratory control in awake humans for the first time under constant behavioural and environmental conditions. These results provide unique insights into respiratory control in awake humans, and highlight the importance of considering the phase of the circadian cycle in studies of respiratory control.
Spengler, Christina M; Czeisler, Charles A; Shea, Steven A
rhythms in VIP- and PHI-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 285: R939-R949, 2003. First published July 10, 2003; 10.1152\\/ajpregu.00200.2003.—The related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pep- tide histidine isoleucine (PHI) are expressed at high levels in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but their function in the regulation of circadian rhythms is unknown. To study
Christopher S. Colwell; Stephan Michel; Jason Itri; Williams Rodriguez; J. Tam; Vincent Lelievre; Zhou Hu; X. Liu; James A. Waschek
Context: Diurnal rhythms of LH and FSH have been reported in normal women, but it is unclear whether these reflect underlying circadian control from the suprachiasmatic nucleus and/or external influences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous circadian rhythms of LH, FSH, and the glycoprotein free ?-subunit (FAS) are present in reproductive-aged women. Design and Setting: Subjects were studied in the early follicular phase using a constant routine protocol in a Clinical Research Center at an academic medical center. Subjects: Subjects were healthy, normal-cycling women aged 23–29 yr (n = 11). Main Outcome Measures: Temperature data were collected, and blood samples were assayed for LH, FSH, FAS, and TSH. Results: Core body temperature and TSH were best fit by a sinusoid model, indicating that known circadian rhythms were present in this population. However, the patterns of FSH, LH, and FAS over 24 h were best fit by a linear model. Furthermore, there were no differences in LH and FAS interpulse intervals or pulse amplitudes between evening, night, and morning. Conclusions: Under conditions that control for sleep/wake, light/dark, activity, position, and nutritional cues, there is no circadian rhythm of LH, FSH, or FAS in women during the early follicular phase despite the presence of endogenous rhythms of TSH and core body temperature. These studies indicate that endogenous circadian control does not contribute to previously reported diurnal rhythms in reproductive-aged women and emphasizes the importance of environmental cues in controlling normal reproductive function.
Klingman, Kara M.; Marsh, Erica E.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Anderson, Ellen J.
Summary Circadian clocks generate daily rhythms in molecular, cellular, and physiological functions providing temporal dimension to organismal homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests two-way relationship between circadian clocks and aging. While disruption of the circadian clock leads to premature aging in animals, there is also age-related dampening of output rhythms such as sleep/wake cycles and hormonal fluctuations. Decay in the oscillations of several clock genes was recently reported in aged fruit flies, but mechanisms underlying these age-related changes are not understood. We report that the circadian light-sensitive protein CRYPTOCHROME (CRY), is significantly reduced at both mRNA and protein levels in heads of old Drosophila melanogaster. Restoration of CRY using the binary GAL4/UAS system in old flies significantly enhanced the mRNA oscillatory amplitude of several genes involved in the clock mechanism. Flies with CRY overexpressed in all clock cells maintained strong rest/activity rhythms in constant darkness late in life when rhythms were disrupted in most control flies. WE also observed a remarkable extension of healthspan in flies with elevated CRY. Conversely, CRY deficient mutants showed accelerated functional decline and accumulated greater oxidative damage. Interestingly, overexpression of CRY in central clock neurons alone was not sufficient to restore rest/activity rhythms or extend healthspan. Together, these data suggest novel anti-aging functions of CRY and indicate that peripheral clocks play an active role in delaying behavioral and physiological aging.
Rakshit, Kuntol; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Models of circadian timekeeping mechanisms in plants, flies, and mammals are expanding to include intracellular small-molecule signals.
Marie C. Harrisingh (Yale School of Medicine;Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology); Michael N. Nitabach (Yale School of Medicine;Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
This study explores circadian rhythms and their effects on long term recall in 127 college students. Students are exposed to a series of commercials over a period of time. Unaided recall is attempted two weeks later. Results from two studies (one examining recall in the morning at 9 AM and the other looking at recall at 3:30 in the afternoon)
Nora Martin; Diane Prince
The dual rhythm model of dreaming states that, under high sensory thresholds, heightened general cortical activation common to both REM\\/NREM and circadian-driven activation cycles sums to produce the main characteristics of dreaming. In addition, the unique pattern of regional brain activation characteristic of REM sleep amplifies the emotional intensity of the dream. Subjects were awakened from REM and NREM sleep
Erin J. Wamsley; Yasutaka Hirota; Matthew A. Tucker; Mark R. Smith; John S. Antrobus
In chick embryos, various instantaneous heart rate (IHR) fluctuations (e.g. HR variability, HR irregularities) have been found and developmental patterns of mean heart rate (MHR) have been elucidated. IHR changes have also measured in newly hatched and young chickens in order to investigate the developmental patterns of MHR and any potential diurnal HR rhythmicity such as a circadian rhythm. The
K. Moriya; R. Akiyama; E. M. Dzialowski; W. W. Burggren; H. Tazawa
Abstract Circadian rhythm has been the object of much attention. This review addresses the aspects of cell signaling, receptors, therapy and electrical effects in a multifaceted fashion. The pineal gland, which produces the important hormones melatonin and serotonin, exerts a prominent influence, in addition to the supraschiasmatic nucleus. Many aspects involve free radicals which have played a widespread role in biochemistry. PMID:23914781
Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy
Fatigue is one of the most frequent and distressing complaints reported by patients with cancer. Describing relationships among disrupted circadian rhythms and cancer-related fatigue is important to the design and testing of interventions that target specific underlying etiology of fatigue. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on whether evidence exists to support the notion that disrupted
Judith K. Payne
Measurement of persistent circadian rhythms of bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra has been automated using the Apple II microcomputer. The mechanics of the system are under software control and allow for the measurement of up to 60 different samples for periods of at least 3 weeks, with data points for each sample every 15 min. Experiments are presented
Walter Taylor; Steven Wilson; Robert Presswood; J. W. Hastings
The author provides perspective on a study reported on page 483 of this issue. Findings from this study identifying a crucial circadian gene in hamsters represents "a major breakthrough for time-conscious mammals".
Michael Young (The Rockefeller University;Laboratory of Genetics and National Science Foundation Center for Biological Timing)
We review recent studies in our laboratory which have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying photic entrainment of the mammalian circadian system. The results from studies of extracellular single-unit recordings and of photic induction of Fos-like ...
The dual rhythm model of dreaming states that, under high sensory thresholds, heightened general cortical activation common to both REM/NREM and circadian-driven activation cycles sums to produce the main characteristics of dreaming. In addition, the unique pattern of regional brain activation characteristic of REM sleep amplifies the emotional intensity of the dream. Subjects were awakened from REM and NREM sleep once near the nadir of the core body temperature rhythm, where circadian-driven cortical activation was assumed to be low, and again in the late morning, where this activation was presumed to be high. As predicted, changes in the central characteristics of dream reports mirrored REM/NREM and circadian-driven fluctuations in general activation, while at the same time, the regional activation pattern unique to REM sleep amplified dream emotionality selectively in REM reports. PMID:17208651
Wamsley, Erin J; Hirota, Yasutaka; Tucker, Matthew A; Smith, Mark R; Antrobus, John S
Background Sleep disturbances comparable with insomnia occur in up to 80% of people with schizophrenia, but very little is known about the contribution of circadian coordination to these prevalent disruptions. Aims A systematic exploration of circadian time patterns in individuals with schizophrenia with recurrent sleep disruption. Method We examined the relationship between sleep-wake activity, recorded actigraphically over 6 weeks, along with ambient light exposure and simultaneous circadian clock timing, by collecting weekly 48 h profiles of a urinary metabolite of melatonin in 20 out-patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy control individuals matched for age, gender and being unemployed. Results Significant sleep/circadian disruption occurred in all the participants with schizophrenia. Half these individuals showed severe circadian misalignment ranging from phase-advance/delay to non-24 h periods in sleep-wake and melatonin cycles, and the other half showed patterns from excessive sleep to highly irregular and fragmented sleep epochs but with normally timed melatonin production. Conclusions Severe circadian sleep/wake disruptions exist despite stability in mood, mental state and newer antipsychotic treatment. They cannot be explained by the individuals' level of everyday function.
Wulff, Katharina; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Middleton, Benita; Foster, Russell G.; Joyce, Eileen M.
Honey bee workers care for ("nurse") the brood around the clock without circadian rhythmicity, but then they forage outside with strong circadian rhythms and a consolidated nightly rest. This chronobiological plasticity is associated with variation in the expression of the canonical “clock genes” that regulate the circadian clock: nurse bees show no brain rhythms of expression, while foragers do. These results suggest that the circadian system is organized differently in nurses and foragers. Nurses switch to activity with circadian rhythms shortly after removed from the hive suggesting that at least some clock cells in their brain continue to measure time while in the hive. We performed a microarray genome-wide survey to determine general patterns of brain gene expression in nurses and foragers sampled around the clock. We found 160 and 541 transcripts that exhibited significant sinusoidal oscillations in nurses and foragers, respectively, with peaks of expression distributed throughout the day in both task groups. Consistent with earlier studies, transcripts of genes involved in circadian rhythms, including Clockwork Orange that has not been studied before in bees, oscillated in foragers but not in nurses. The oscillating transcripts also were enriched for genes involved in the visual system, “development” and “response to stimuli” (foragers), “muscle contraction” and “microfilament motor gene expression” (nurses), and “generation of precursor metabolites” and “energy” (both). Transcripts of genes encoding P450 enzymes oscillated in both nurses and foragers but with a different phase. This study identified new putative clock-controlled genes in the honey bee and suggests that some brain functions show circadian rhythmicity even in nurse bees that are active around the clock.
Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Southey, Bruce R.; Shemesh, Yair; Rubin, Elad B.; Cohen, Mira; Robinson, Gene E.; Bloch, Guy
Many behavioral and physiological processes, including locomotor activity, blood pressure, body temperature, sleep(fasting)/wake(feeding) cycles as well as metabolic regulation display diurnal rhythms. The biological clock ensures proper metabolic alignment of energy substrate availability and processing. Studies in animals and humans highlight a strong link between circadian disorders and altered metabolic responses and cardiovascular events. Shiftwork, for instance, increases the risk to develop metabolic abnormalities resembling the Metabolic Syndrome. Nuclear receptors have long been known as metabolic regulators. Several of them (ie. Rev-erb?, ROR?, PPARs) are subjected to circadian variations and are integral components of the molecular clock machinery. In turn, these nuclear receptors regulate downstream target genes in a circadian manner, acting to properly gate metabolic events to the appropriate circadian time window.
Duez, Helene; Staels, Bart
Bioluminescence techniques allow accurate monitoring of the circadian clock in single cells. We have analyzed bioluminescence data of Per gene expression in mouse SCN neurons and fibroblasts. From these data, we extracted parameters such as damping rate and noise intensity using two simple mathematical models, one describing a damped oscillator driven by noise, and one describing a self-sustained noisy oscillator. Both models describe the data well and enabled us to quantitatively characterize both wild-type cells and several mutants. It has been suggested that the circadian clock is self-sustained at the single cell level, but we conclude that present data are not sufficient to determine whether the circadian clock of single SCN neurons and fibroblasts is a damped or a self-sustained oscillator. We show how to settle this question, however, by testing the models' predictions of different phases and amplitudes in response to a periodic entrainment signal (zeitgeber).
Westermark, Pal O.; Welsh, David K.; Okamura, Hitoshi; Herzel, Hanspeter
The pace has quickened in circadian biology research. In particular, an abundance of results focused on post-translational modifications (PTMs) is sharpening our view of circadian molecular clockworks. PTMs affect nearly all aspects of clock biology; in some cases they are essential for clock function and in others, they provide layers of regulatory fine-tuning. Our goal is to review recent advances in clock PTMs, help make sense of emerging themes, and spotlight intriguing and perhaps controversial new findings. We focus on PTMs affecting the core functions of eukaryotic clocks, in particular the functionally related oscillators in Neurospora crassa, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammalian cells.
Mehra, Arun; Baker, Christopher L.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.
Circadian rhythms can be entrained by a light-dark (LD) cycle and can also be reset pharmacologically, for example, by the CK1?/? inhibitor PF-670462. Here, we determine how these two independent signals affect circadian timekeeping from the molecular to the behavioral level. By developing a systems pharmacology model, we predict and experimentally validate that chronic CK1?/? inhibition during the earlier hours of a LD cycle can produce a constant stable delay of rhythm. However, chronic dosing later during the day, or in the presence of longer light intervals, is not predicted to yield an entrained rhythm. We also propose a simple method based on phase response curves (PRCs) that predicts the effects of a LD cycle and chronic dosing of a circadian drug. This work indicates that dosing timing and environmental signals must be carefully considered for accurate pharmacological manipulation of circadian phase.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2013) 2, e57; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.34; published online 17 July 2013. PMID:23863866
Kim, J K; Forger, D B; Marconi, M; Wood, D; Doran, A; Wager, T; Chang, C; Walton, K M
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. Several computational models with or without time delays have been developed for circadian rhythms. Exact stochastic simulations have been carried out for several models without time delays, but no exact stochastic simulation has been done for models with delays. In this paper, we proposed a detailed and a reduced stochastic model with delays for circadian rhythms in Drosophila based on two deterministic models of Smolen et al. and employed exact stochastic simulation to simulate circadian oscillations. Our simulations showed that both models can produce sustained oscillations and that the oscillation is robust to noise in the sense that there is very little variability in oscillation period although there are significant random fluctuations in oscillation peeks. Moreover, although average time delays are essential to simulation of oscillation, random changes in time delays within certain range around fixed average time delay cause little variability in the oscillation period. Our simulation results also showed that both models are robust to parameter variations and that oscillation can be entrained by light/dark circles. Our simulations further demonstrated that within a reasonable range around the experimental result, the rates that dclock and per promoters switch back and forth between activated and repressed sites have little impact on oscillation period.
Circadian rhythms of arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR) and oral temperature (OT) were studied in healthy male truck drivers and in a control group of air traffic controllers. Twenty-four-hour records of systolic and diastolic AP and HR and of OT were obtained from 12 truck drivers both during the outward and homeward journey in Europe and Asia, and from 12 air traffic controllers during a morning shift. Data were analyzed by the cosinor method. The results obtained in the control group were as follows (mesor/amplitude/acrophase): systolic AP (mm Hg): 111.1/6.1/16.51 h; diastolic AP: 68.4%5.6/16.58 h; HR (b.p.m.): 77.07/7.6/17.46 h; OT (dg C): 36.74/0.21/17.26 h. Statistically significant acrophase advances were observed for the circadian rhythms of systolic, diastolic and mean AP and of HR in TD during the outward journey in comparison with the control ATC group. These differences were still present during the homeward journey, in combination with an acrophase delay of the circadian rhythm of OT. Our results supply grounds to suppose that extended working time combined with greater load during a long-lasting trip may act to generate an internal desynchronization of circadian rhythms in long-haul truck drivers. PMID:9156470
Stoynev, A G; Minkova, N K
Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation. PMID:21891835
Bodenstein, C; Heiland, I; Schuster, S
Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.
Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.
Bioluminescence techniques allow accurate monitoring of the circadian clock in single cells. We have analyzed bioluminescence data of Per gene expression in mouse SCN neurons and fibroblasts. From these data, we extracted parameters such as damping rate and noise intensity using two simple mathematical models, one describing a damped oscillator driven by noise, and one describing a self-sustained noisy oscillator.
Pål O. Westermark; David K. Welsh; Hitoshi Okamura; Hanspeter Herzel
The authors provide perspective on two papers from the McKnight group, on pages 506 (2) and 510 (3) of this issue, which report on a fascinating discovery that may provide an unexpected molecular link between circadian oscillations and energy homeostasis.
Ueli Schibler (University of Geneva;Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences II); Juergen Ripperger (University of Geneva;Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences II); Steven Brown (University of Zurich;Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences II,)
In this era of jet travel, our body 'remembers' the previous time zone, such that when we travel, our sleep–wake pattern, mental alertness, eating habits and many other physiological processes temporarily suffer the consequences of time displacement until we adjust to the new time zone. Although the existence of a circadian clock in humans had been postulated for decades, an
Satchidananda Panda; John B. Hogenesch; Steve A. Kay
Nutrient and energy metabolism in mammals exhibits strong diurnal rhythm that aligns with the body clock. Circadian regulation of metabolism is mediated through reciprocal signaling between the clock and metabolic regulatory networks. Recent work has demonstrated that autophagy is rhythmically activated in a clock-dependent manner. As autophagy is a conserved biological process that contributes to nutrient and cellular homeostasis, its cyclic induction may provide a novel link between clock and metabolism. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying circadian autophagy regulation, the role of rhythmic autophagy in nutrient and energy metabolism, and its implications in physiology and metabolic disease.
Ma, Di; Li, Siming; Molusky, Matthew M.; Lin, Jiandie D.
Circadian clocks are responsible for daily rhythms in a wide array of processes, including gastrointestinal (GI) function. These are vital for normal digestive rhythms and overall health. Previous studies demonstrated circadian clocks within the cells of GI tissue. The present study examines the roles played by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), master circadian pacemaker for overt circadian rhythms, and the sympathetic nervous system in regulation of circadian GI rhythms in the mouse Mus musculus. Surgical ablation of the SCN abolishes circadian locomotor, feeding, and stool output rhythms when animals are presented with food ad libitum, while restricted feeding reestablishes these rhythms temporarily. In intact mice, chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine has no effect on feeding and locomotor rhythmicity in light-dark cycles or constant darkness but attenuates stool weight and stool number rhythms. Again, however, restricted feeding reestablishes rhythms in locomotor activity, feeding, and stool output rhythms. Ex vivo, intestinal tissue from PER2::LUC transgenic mice expresses circadian rhythms of luciferase bioluminescence. Chemical sympathectomy has little effect on these rhythms, but timed administration of the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol causes a phase-dependent shift in PERIOD2 expression rhythms. Collectively, the data suggest that the SCN are required to maintain feeding, locomotor, and stool output rhythms during ad libitum conditions, acting at least in part through daily activation of sympathetic activity. Even so, this input is not necessary for entrainment to timed feeding, which may be the province of oscillators within the intestines themselves or other components of the GI system.
Malloy, Jaclyn N.; Paulose, Jiffin K.; Li, Ye
The circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin is the best marker of internal time under low ambient light levels. The endogenous melatonin rhythm exhibits a close association with the endogenous circadian component of the sleep propensity rhythm. This has led to the idea that melatonin is an internal sleep "facilitator" in humans, and therefore useful in the treatment of insomnia and the readjustment of circadian rhythms. There is evidence that administration of melatonin is able: (i) to induce sleep when the homeostatic drive to sleep is insufficient; (ii) to inhibit the drive for wakefulness emanating from the circadian pacemaker; and (iii) induce phase shifts in the circadian clock such that the circadian phase of increased sleep propensity occurs at a new, desired time. Therefore, exogenous melatonin can act as soporific agent, a chronohypnotic, and/or a chronobiotic. We describe the role of melatonin in the regulation of sleep, and the use of exogenous melatonin to treat sleep or circadian rhythm disorders. PMID:12622846
Cajochen, C; Kräuchi, K; Wirz-Justice, A
The CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) gene encodes a MYB-related transcription factor involved in the phytochrome induction of a light-harvesting chlorophyll a\\/b-protein (Lhcb) gene. Expression of the CCA1 gene is transiently induced by phytochrome and oscillates with a circadian rhythm. Constitutive expression of CCA1 protein in transgenic plants abolished the circadian rhythm of several genes with dramatically different phases. These
Zhi-Yong Wang; Elaine M. Tobin
Using digital techniques for signal analysis—the correlogram and a high-resolution analysis of time series, maximum-entropy spectral analysis (MESA)—we have detected both circadian and ultradian rhythms in the locomotor activity of free-runningper0 males and in females lacking theper locus (per-; heterozygous for two deficiencies, each of which deletes the gene). Over half theper0 individuals and half theper- individuals tested were rhythmically
Harold B. Dowse; Jeffrey C. Hall; John M. Ringo
The circadian locomotor rhythm of house sparrows was entrained by a sound stimulus. The birds were maintained at a constant temperature in dim green light. The entraining agent was 41\\/2 hours of tape-recorded bird song played each day. Variations in the response to this stimulus have been correlated with individual variations in free-running period. This is the first clear demonstration
Michael Menaker; Arnold Eskin
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers emerge from the pupae with no circadian rhythms in behavior or brain clock gene expression but show strong rhythms later in life. This postembryonic development of circadian rhythms is reminiscent of that of infants of humans and other primates but contrasts with most insects, which typically emerge from the pupae with strong circadian rhythms. Very
Ada Eban-Rothschild; Yair Shemesh; Guy Bloch
The human body displays central circadian rhythms of activity. Recent findings suggest that peripheral tissues, such as bone, possess their own circadian clocks. Studies have shown that osteocalcin protein levels oscillate over a 24-hour period, yet the specific skeletal sites involved and its transcriptional profile remain unknown. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that peripheral circadian mechanisms regulate transcription driven by the osteocalcin promoter. Transgenic mice harboring the human osteocalcin promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene were used. Mice of both genders and various ages were analyzed non-invasively at sequential times throughout 24-hour periods. Statistical analyses of luminescent signal intensity of osteogenic activity from multiple skeletal sites indicated a periodicity of ~ 24 hrs. The maxillomandibular complex displayed the most robust oscillatory pattern. These findings have implications for dental treatments in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery, as well as for the mechanisms underlying bone remodeling in the maxillomandibular complex.
Gafni, Y.; Ptitsyn, A.A.; Zilberman, Y.; Pelled, G.; Gimble, J.M.; Gazit, D.
..cap alpha..-Methyl-p-tyrosine shifts the acrophase (time of highest temperature) of the circadian temperature rhythm of the rat to earlier or later times of day depending on the phase of the cicadian cycle at which the drug is administered. When ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester HCl is injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg late in the projected 8-h light phase, the acrophase of the intraperitoneal temperature rhythm is delayed by up to 3 h.However, when the same dose of drug is given 9-10 h into the projected 16-h dark phase of the daily cycle, the acrophase of the temperature rhythm occurs about 2 h earlier than expected. The times of ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine administration leading to maximal phase delays or advances are correlated with the times of minimal and maximal turnover of norepinephrine in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that changing rates of norepinephrine turnover in the hypothalamus may regulate the circadian temperature rhythm in rats. The results also emphasize the fact that the effects of drugs may vary as a function of the time of administration. This fact must be taken into account in pharmacologic testing.
Cahill, A.L.; Ehret, C.F.
Although it is generally accepted that the circadian clock provides a timing signal for the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, mechanistic explanations of this phenomenon remain underexplored. It is known, for example, that circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock) mutant mice have severely dampened LH surges, but whether this phenotype derives from a loss of circadian rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or altered circadian function in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons has not been resolved. GnRH neurons can be stimulated to cycle with a circadian period in vitro and disruption of that cycle disturbs secretion of the GnRH decapeptide. We show that both period-2 (PER2) and brain muscle Arnt-like-1 (BMAL1) proteins cycle with a circadian period in the GnRH population in vivo. PER2 and BMAL1 expression both oscillate with a 24-hour period, with PER2 peaking during the night and BMAL1 peaking during the day. The population, however, is not as homogeneous as other oscillatory tissues with only about 50% of the population sharing peak expression levels of BMAL1 at zeitgeber time 4 (ZT4) and PER2 at ZT16. Further, a light pulse that induced a phase delay in the activity rhythm of the GnRH-eGFP mice caused a similar delay in peak expression levels of BMAL1 and PER2. These studies provide direct evidence for a functional circadian clock in native GnRH neurons with a phase that closely follows that of the SCN. PMID:19786732
Hickok, Jason R; Tischkau, Shelley A
1.The isolated eyeof Aplysia has a circadian rhythm of compound optic nerve potentials. An attempt to inhibit entrainment of this rhythm by blocking synaptic transmission led to the discovery that one such inhibitor, manganese, produced phase shifts in the rhythm. Treatments of manganese (10 mM) of 6 h duration at different phases of the rhythm resulted in a phase response
Arnold Eskin; George Corrent
Like functions of other organisms, most of the physiological and behavioral functions of human are characterized by day-night rhythms. The rhythms which exhibit approximately 24-hour periodicity are called as circadian rhythms. This review is to summarize the progress of studies on relation of circadian rhythum disruption and cancer. The research results from animal experiments and population-based epidemiological studies have showed that cancer is closly related to circadian rhythm. Although numrous studies have demonstrated the close relation between circadian rhythm disruption and cancer, the mechanism is not yet clear. The current studies attributed decreased level of melatonin secretion and disruption of clock genes expression to the mechanism of carcinogenesis of circadian rhythm disruption. PMID:23198447
Li, Shengwu; Wu, Jia; Hu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Hong
Circadian clocks have evolved to synchronize physiology, metabolism and behaviour to the 24-h geophysical cycles of the Earth. Drosophila melanogaster's rhythmic locomotor behaviour provides the main phenotype for the identification of higher eukaryotic clock genes. Under laboratory light-dark cycles, flies show enhanced activity before lights on and off signals, and these anticipatory responses have defined the neuronal sites of the corresponding morning (M) and evening (E) oscillators. However, the natural environment provides much richer cycling environmental stimuli than the laboratory, so we sought to examine fly locomotor rhythms in the wild. Here we show that several key laboratory-based assumptions about circadian behaviour are not supported by natural observations. These include the anticipation of light transitions, the midday 'siesta', the fly's crepuscular activity, its nocturnal behaviour under moonlight, and the dominance of light stimuli over temperature. We also observe a third major locomotor component in addition to M and E, which we term 'A' (afternoon). Furthermore, we show that these natural rhythm phenotypes can be observed in the laboratory by using realistic temperature and light cycle simulations. Our results suggest that a comprehensive re-examination of circadian behaviour and its molecular readouts under simulated natural conditions will provide a more authentic interpretation of the adaptive significance of this important rhythmic phenotype. Such studies should also help to clarify the underlying molecular and neuroanatomical substrates of the clock under natural protocols. PMID:22495312
Vanin, Stefano; Bhutani, Supriya; Montelli, Stefano; Menegazzi, Pamela; Green, Edward W; Pegoraro, Mirko; Sandrelli, Federica; Costa, Rodolfo; Kyriacou, Charalambos P
BACKGROUND—Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome associated with a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 17, band p11.2. Characteristic features include neurobehavioural abnormalities such as aggressive and self-injurious behaviour and significant sleep disturbances. The majority of patients have a common deletion characterised at the molecular level. Physical mapping studies indicate that all patients with the common deletion are haploinsufficient for subunit 3 of the COP9 signalosome (COPS3), which is conserved from plants to humans, and in the plant Arabidopis thaliana regulates gene transcription in response to light. Haploinsufficiency of this gene is hypothesised to be potentially involved in the sleep disturbances seen in these patients. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. SMS patients are reported to have fewer sleep disturbances when given a night time dose of this sleep inducing hormone.?METHODS—Urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the major hepatic metabolite of melatonin, in 19 SMS patients were measured in conjunction with 24 hour sleep studies in 28 SMS patients. Five of the 28 patients did not have the common SMS deletion. To investigate a potential correlation of COPS3 haploinsufficiency and disturbed melatonin excretion, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using two BACs containing coding exons of COPS3.?RESULTS—All SMS patients show significant sleep disturbances when assessed by objective criteria. Abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of aMT6s were observed in all but one SMS patient. Interestingly this patient did not have the common deletion. All patients studied, including the one patient with a normal melatonin rhythm, were haploinsufficient for COPS3.?CONCLUSIONS—Our data indicate a disturbed circadian rhythm in melatonin and document the disturbed sleep pattern in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Our findings suggest that the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of melatonin and altered sleep patterns could be secondary to aberrations in the production, secretion, distribution, or metabolism of melatonin; however, a direct role for COPS3 could not be established.???Keywords: melatonin; circadian rhythms; Smith-Magenis syndrome; COPS3
Potocki, L.; Glaze, D.; Tan, D.; Park, S.; Kashork, C.; Shaffer, L.; Reiter, R.; Lupski, J.
The locomotor activity rhythm of flies from four populations of Drosophila melanogaster, maintained under constant light for more than 600 generations, was recorded in continuous light (LL) and continuous darkness (DD) using four different protocols. The main objective behind these experiments was to estimate the proportion of flies exhibiting circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in LL, and to investigate whether this could be increased by subjecting the flies to various light regimes. About 26% of the flies exhibited a circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in LL, and the proportion increased to about 48% after an exposure to 12 h of darkness. About 77% of the flies exhibited a circadian locomotor activity rhythm in DD. Persistence of circadian locomotor activity rhythm in a considerable proportion of these flies suggests an intrinsic adaptive value to possessing circadian rhythmicity, derived, perhaps, from the need to synchronise various processes within the organism.
Sheeba, V.; Chandrashekaran, M. K.; Joshi, Amitabh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar
Previous studies have shown that life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias display both circadian and septadian (day of the week) periodicity. We hypothesized that assessing the relation between these circadian and septadian rhythms may provide important pathophysiologic information about the mechanism of sudden cardiac death. Using the database from a population of 683 consecutive patients with a third-generation implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), we examined
Robert W Peters; Steve McQuillan; Michael R Gold
In order to maintain cosmonaut health and performance, it is important for the work-rest schedule to follow human circadian rhythms (CR). What happens with CR in space flight? Investigations of CR in mammals revealed, that the circadian phase in flight is less stable, probably due to a displacement of the range of entrainment, resulting from internal period change (the latter was confirmed on insects). The circadian period may be a gravity-dependent parameter. If so, the basic biological requirement for the day length might be different in weightlessness. On this basis, a higher risk of desynchronosis is expected in a long-duration space flight. As a countermeasure, a non-24-hr day length could be suggested, being close to the internal circadian period (in humans about 25 hr). Taking into account a possible displacement of period in weightlessness, it seems reasonable to establish a flexible work-rest schedule, capable to follow the body temperature CR by means of biofeedback.
Alpatov, Alexey M.
The mammalian circadian system is a complex hierarchical temporal network which is organized around an ensemble of uniquely coupled cells comprising the principal circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. This central pacemaker is entrained each day by the environmental light/dark cycle and transmits synchronizing cues to cell-autonomous oscillators in tissues throughout the body. Within cells of the central pacemaker and the peripheral tissues, the underlying molecular mechanism by which oscillations in gene expression occur involves interconnected feedback loops of transcription and translation. Over the past 10 years we have learned much regarding the genetics of this system, including how it is particularly resilient when challenged by single-gene mutations, how accessory transcriptional loops enhance the robustness of oscillations, how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the control of circadian gene expression, and how, from coupled neuronal networks, emergent clock properties arise. Here we will explore the genetics of the mammalian circadian system from cell-autonomous molecular oscillations, to interactions among central and peripheral oscillators and ultimately, to the daily rhythms of behavior observed in the animal.
Lowrey, Phillip L.; Takahashi, Joseph S.
One to four months after implantation of a gastric fistula, a circadian rhythm in gastric acidity could be demonstrated by use of the intragastric 24-hour pH-metry in dogs with the gastric fistula protruding on the left side of the upper abdomen. This circadian rhythm was found to be fully developed within 3 years, and it remained unchanged up to 5
S. Postius; U. Bräuer
Background: It has been difficult to demonstrate circadian rhythm in the two parameters of heart rate turbulence, turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS). Objective: To devise a new method for detecting circadian rhythm in noisy data, and apply it to selected Holter recordings from two post-myocardial infarction databases, Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST, n=684) and Innovative Stratification of Arrhythmic
Mari Watanabe; Mark Alford; Raphael Schneider; Axel Bauer; Petra Barthel; Phyllis Stein; Georg Schmidt
Recently, we found that the circadian rhythms of natriuresis as well as of glomerular filtration rate were disturbed similar to the blood pressure in non-dipper type of essential hypertension during intake of a high-sodium diet. In this study, we examined circadian rhythms of the urinary albumin excretion rate (AER), which is recognized as a marker of glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure,
Masataka Nishimura; Takashi Uzu; Takashi Fujii; Genjiro Kimura
Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) - a circadian rhythm sleep disorder - is most commonly seen in adolescents. The differential diagnosis between DSPD and conventional psychophysiological insomnia is important for correct therapeutic intervention. Adolescent DSPD sleep duration is commonly 9 hours or more. Depression may be comorbid with DSPD. DSPD has a negative impact on adolescent academic performance. DSPD treatments include bright light therapy, chronotherapeutic regimens, and administration of melatonin as a chronobiotic (as distinct from a soporific). Attention to non-photic and extrinsic factors including healthy sleep parameters is also important to enable better sleep and mood outcomes in adolescents. PMID:24138360
Bartlett, Delwyn J; Biggs, Sarah N; Armstrong, Stuart M
Much is known and has been written around the concept and application of circadian rhythms to the human body, which has contributed to a greater understanding of how the physiology of the human body works, interacts and changes over a twenty 4-h time period. What is less understood is whether and how the physical body and mental behaviour changes over the much larger time scale of a month and beyond. This paper sets out to explore this relationship between time, physiology and behaviour through investigating both the existing literature on the subject and the connection between the phases of the moon and the occurrence of epileptic seizures and aggression. PMID:20465778
Barber, C F
The mammalian circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) controls daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. Lesions of the SCN cause arrhythmicity of locomotor activity, and transplants of fetal SCN tissue restore rhythmic behavior that is consistent with the periodicity of the donor's genotype, suggesting that the SCN determines the period of the circadian behavioral rhythm. While several studies have demonstrated that the circadian characteristics of in vitro SCN rhythms represent circadian behavior, others have shown that the periods of explanted SCN are not always congruent with locomotor activity. We find that the aberrant rhythms of ex vivo SCN lacking functional Period1 (Per1?/?) do not represent the behavioral rhythms of the mutant animals. Surprisingly, in C57BL/6J Per1?/? mice, the real-time circadian gene promoter activity rhythm is weak or absent in adult SCN slices in vitro even though the free-running wheel-running activity rhythm is indistinguishable from wild-type (Per1+/+) mice. While some neurons in Per1?/? SCN explants exhibit robust circadian rhythms, others have irregular and/or low-amplitude rhythms. Together, these data suggest that either a small population of rhythmic neurons in the Per1?/? SCN is sufficient to control wheel-running activity or that in vivo physiological factors can compensate for the aberrant endogenous rhythms of Per1?/? SCN.
Pendergast, Julie S.; Friday, Rio C.; Yamazaki, Shin
Circadian rhythms, generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), are synchronized to the ambient light/dark (LD) cycle. Long-term disruptions in circadian rhythms are associated with many health problems. However, the underlying mechanisms for such pathologies are not well understood. In the present study, we utilized a chronic jet lag paradigm consisting of weekly 6 h phase shifts in the LD cycle to investigate the circadian responses in behavior and in the functioning of the SCN following long-term circadian perturbation, and to explore the duration and direction dependent changes of the SCN using rats subjected to weekly phase advances or delays. Wheel-running activity was monitored over four weekly phase advances. The nocturnal activity pattern was re-established by the end of each shift, and the rate for recovering the nocturnality appeared to accelerate following multiple shifts. SCN function was assessed by the expressions of the protein product of clock gene PER1 and of two putative SCN output signals, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and prokineticin2 (Pk2). At the end of the 4th weekly advance, the amplitude of the PER1 rhythm in the SCN decreased, and this reduction was more prominent in the dorsomedial SCN than in the ventrolateral SCN. The levels of AVP and Pk2 expression were also attenuated in the SCN and in targets of its efferent projections. Comparing rats subjected to four or eight shifts of either delay or advance, the results revealed that the responses of the SCN depended on both duration and direction of the shifts, such that the level of PER1 expression further decreased at the end of the 8th compared to the 4th phase advance, but did not change significantly following phase delays. Taken together, the results suggest that rhythm perturbation could compromise the time-keeping function of the SCN, which could contribute to the associated health issues. PMID:21443932
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous and intermittent methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration on circadian rhythm. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four individuals, aged between 52 and 80 years, were fed through a nasoenteric tube. Fifteen individuals received a continuous infusion for 24 hours/d, and 19 received an intermittent infusion in comparable quantities, every 4 hours from 8:00 to 20:00. In each patient, 4 indirect calorimetric measurements were carried out over 24 hours (A: 7:30, B: 10:30, C: 14:30, and D: 21:30) for 3 days. Results: Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the intermittent group than in the continuous group (1782 ± 862 vs 1478 ± 817 kcal/24 hours, P = .05; 257 ± 125 vs 212 ± 117 mL/min, P = .048, respectively). The intermittent group had higher levels of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption at all the measured time points compared with the continuous group. Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in both groups were significantly different throughout the day for 3 days. Conclusion: There is circadian rhythm variation of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption with continuous and intermittent infusion for EN. This suggests that only one indirect daily calorimetric measurement is not able to show the patient's true needs. Energy expenditure is higher at night with both food administration methods. Moreover, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption are higher with the intermittent administration method at all times. PMID:23599248
Leuck, Marlene; Levandovski, Rosa; Harb, Ana; Quiles, Caroline; Hidalgo, Maria Paz
In both mammals and fruit flies, casein kinase I has been shown to regulate the circadian phosphorylation of the period protein (PER). This phosphorylation regulates the timing of PER's nuclear accumulation and decline, and it is necessary for the generation of circadian rhythms. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations affecting a casein kinase I (CKI) ortholog called doubletime (dbt) can produce short
Fabian Preuss; Jin-Yuan Fan; Madhavi Kalive; Shu Bao; Eric Schuenemann; Edward S. Bjes; Jeffrey L. Price
Neurons have an enormous capacity to adapt to changing conditions through the regulation of gene expression, morphology, and physiology. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, this plasticity includes recurrent changes taking place within intervals of a few hours during the day. The rhythmic alterations in the morphology of neurons described so far include changes in axonal diameter, branching complexity, synapse numbers, and the number of synaptic vesicles. The cycles of these changes have larger amplitude when the fly is exposed to light, but they persist in constant darkness and require the expression of the clock genes period and timeless, leading to the concept of circadian plasticity. The molecular mechanisms driving these cycles appear to require the expression of these genes either inside the neurons themselves or in other peripheral pacemaker cells. Loss-of-function mutations in period and timeless not only abolish the morphological rhythms, but also often cause abnormal axonal branching suggesting that circadian plasticity is relevant for the maintenance of normal morphology. Research into whether (1) circadian plasticity is a common feature of neurons in all animals and (2) our own neurons change shape between day and night will be of interest. PMID:21562943
Mehnert, Kerstin I; Cantera, Rafael
The pineal gland of birds, in contrast to its mammalian counterpart, is a directly photosensitive organ. It has recently been demonstrated that light also acting via the retina acutely suppresses melatonin synthesis in the chicken pineal gland. The present study was aimed to investigate whether retinal illumination alone was capable of resetting the biological oscillator generating the circadian rhythm of
Jolanta B. Zawilska; Ma?gorzata Berezi?ska; Anna Lorenc; Debra J. Skene; Jerzy Z. Nowak
|The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…
Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.
The sleep-wake cycle and the circadian rhythm of rectal temperature were recorded in subjects who lived singly in an isolation unit. In 10 subjects, the freerunning rhythms remained internally synchronized, 10 other subjects showed internal desynchronization. Times of onset and end of bedrest (“sleep”) were determined in each cycle and referred to the phase of the temperature rhythm. In the
Jtirgen Zulley; Riitger Wever; Jiirgen Aschoff
The ubiquity of circadian rhythms suggests that they have an intrinsic adaptive value (Ouyang et al. 1998; Ronneberg and Foster 1997). Some experiments have shown that organisms have enhanced longevity, development time or growth rates when maintained in environments whose periodicity closely matches their endogenous period (Aschoff et al. 1971; Highkin and Hanson 1954; Hillman 1956; Pittendrigh and Minis 1972; Went 1960). So far there has been no experimental evidence to show that circadian rhythms per se (i.e. periodicity itself, as opposed to phasing properties of a rhythm) confer a fitness advantage. We show that the circadian eclosion rhythm persists in a population of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster maintained in constant conditions of light, temperature, and humidity for over 600 generations. The results suggest that even in the absence of any environmental cycle there exists some intrinsic fitness value of circadian rhythms.
Sheeba, V.; Sharma, V. K.; Chandrashekaran, M. K.; Joshi, A.
1. The circadian rhythms of urinary excretion of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, urate, calcium and phosphate have been studied in several groups of volunteers. 2. These rhythms have been measured: under nychthemeral and constant routine regimens; while subjects were in an Isolation Unit or allowed free egress into society; with spontaneous changes in dietary intake; or after potassium-loading. 3. A direct relationship between 24 h mean rate of excretion and range of excretion was found in all circumstances and for all variables; this relationship was found also when the mesor and amplitude of the cosine curve best describing each 24 h of data were considered. 4. These relationships derive from the observation that, with increases in 24 h mean rates of excretion, nocturnal rates increased less than diurnal rates. 5. This differential sensitivity as between the night and day times has both endogenous and exogenous components. 6. It is suggested that circadian rhythms of urinary excretion result at least partially from this differential sensitivity of the kidney to homeostatic control mechanisms.
Minors, D S; Waterhouse, J M
Several studies have established that the circulating concentration of intact parathyroid hormone, PTH (1–84), over 24 h follows\\u000a a circadian rhythm. The importance of this circadian rhythm is not known although some authors have detected alterations in\\u000a the rhythm in metabolic bone disease and following dietary manipulation. We have studied the circadian rhythm of PTH (1–84)\\u000a in 8 premenopausal women,
W. D. Fraser; F. C. Logue; J. P. Christie; S. J. Gallacher; D. Cameron; D. St. J. O’Reilly; G. H. Beastall; I. T. Boyle
Infants born with intrauterine growth restriction are at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in neonatal and later life. Although circadian rhythm is a prognostic marker of cardiovascular health, the concern over the circadian rhythm of these infants is rarely observed. To determine the influence of intrauterine growth retardation on the pattern of circadian rhythm, heart rate (HR) circadian rhythmicity was analyzed in 39 small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight and height below <-2.0 standard deviation score [SDS]) and 117 appropriate for gestational age (AGA; >-1.5 to <1.5 SDS) infants within 72 hours of birth using spectral analysis and cosinor analysis. Amplitude, midline estimating statistic of rhythm, and acrophase calculated from circadian rhythm were analyzed with clinical variables. A significant HR circadian rhythm was observed in 23.1% of the SGA and 24.8% of the AGA group without significant differences; however, SGA infants exhibited remarkable smaller amplitudes compared with AGA in all gestational age (GA) groups (p < 0.001). Amplitudes in AGA infants were positively correlated with the GA or body composition relevant variables (p < 0.001, respectively), but not SGA infants. The blunted HR circadian rhythmicity in SGA infants showed in this study might indicate the vulnerability to pathophysiological condition and could potentially refer to cardiovascular disease in later life. PMID:22307843
Begum, Esmot Ara; Bonno, Motoki; Sasaki, Naoya; Omori, Yusuke; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sugino, Noriko; Tanaka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hatsumi; Ido, Masaru
Investigations on circadian rhythms have markedly advanced our understanding of health and disease with the advent of high-throughput technologies like microarrays and epigenetic profiling. They elucidated the multi-level behaviour of interactive oscillations from molecules to neuronal networks and eventually to processes of learning and memory in an impressive manner. The small-world topology of synchronized firing through neuron-neuron and neuron-glia gap junctions is discussed as a mathematical approach to these intensively studied issues. It has become evident that, apart from some disorders caused by gene mutations, the majority of disorders originating from disturbances of rhythms arise from environmental influences and epigenetic changes. In this context, it was mandatory to think of and devise experiments on temporary scales, which exponentially increased the volumes of data obtained from time-series and rapidly became prohibitive of manual inspection. Therefore, more and more sophisticated mathematical algorithms have been developed to identify rhythmic expression of genes and to find coexpression by their clustering. It is expected that disturbed rhythmic behaviour in mental disorders is reflected in altered oscillatory behaviour of gene expression. PMID:23599242
Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Pildaín, L V; Matthäus, F; Schmitt, A; Falkai, P
To assess their effects on the conidiation rhythm in Neurospora, 14 saturated fatty acids from 6 to 24 carbons long were used to supplement the bd csp and bd csp cel strains. Both strains express a circadian spore-forming rhythm when grown on solid media; the cel mutation confers a partial fatty acid requirement. Fatty acid supplements from 8 to 13 carbons long lengthened the free-running period of bd csp cel compared with the control value of 21 h; the maximal effect (33 h) was obtained with nonanoic acid (9:0) at a concentration of 5 × 10?4 M. In contrast, the period of bd csp remained unchanged under all experimental conditions. The short-chain fatty acids (<14 carbons) reduced the rate of advance of the growth front in both strains, compared with unsupplemented controls. However, this inhibition did not appear to be responsible for the lengthened periods in bd csp cel. Nor was direct incorporation of the short-chain (period-lengthening) fatty acids into mycelial total lipids responsible, since such incorporation was not observed. In fact, extensive metabolic conversion of these supplements by both strains was indicated by the disappearance of short-chain fatty acids from the agar media coupled with their absence in mycelial lipids, and by the liberation of 14CO2 from cultures supplemented with [1-14C]lauric acid (12:0).
Mattern, Daniell; Brody, Stuart
Changes have been demonstrated in circadian rhythm indices of the cardiovascular system in essentially healthy individuals, in the course of transmeridional flights, particularly when crossing over 9 time zones. The nature of the changes depends on the di...
N. I. Moiseyeva
|The use of sleep scheduling and a daytime routine for the treatment of circadian rhythm disorder was found helpful in decreasing a blind 2-year old's nighttime wake periods and daytime sleepiness. (DB)|
Mindell, J. A.; And Others
. In order to assess day-to-day variations of the circadian rhythm of biochemical bone resorption markers, urinary morning\\u000a (6–8 a.m.) and evening (7–10 p.m.) samples from 35 individuals were monitored during 3 subsequent days. The bone-specific\\u000a deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks of type I collagen followed a circadian rhythm in all individuals. In contrast, no such\\u000a pattern was observed in the urinary
J. Aerssens; K. Declerck; B. Maeyaert; S. Boonen; J. Dequeker
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls the circadian rhythm of physiological and behavioural processes in mammals. Here we show that prokineticin 2 (PK2), a cysteine-rich secreted protein, functions as an output molecule from the SCN circadian clock. PK2 messenger RNA is rhythmically expressed in the SCN, and the phase of PK2 rhythm is responsive to light entrainment. Molecular and genetic studies
Michelle Y. Cheng; Clayton M. Bullock; Chuanyu Li; Alex G. Lee; Jason C. Bermak; James Belluzzi; David R. Weaver; Frances M. Leslie; Qun-Yong Zhou
Background Recent studies show that circadian rhythm changes are closely related to the occurrence and development of various tumors, such as breast, liver, and prostate. However, there are significant differences in circadian rhythm between different tumors. At present, the circadian rhythm characteristics of oral cancer remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the circadian rhythm characteristics of the in vivo growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and methods Thirty-two nude mice were placed under 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycles. The human OSCC cell line BcaCD885 was inoculated in the cheek of nude mice. After 3 weeks, eight mice were sacrificed at four time points, including 4 hours after light onset (HALO), 10 HALO, 16 HALO, and 22 HALO, during a period of 24 hours. The volume of excised tumors was measured and the proliferative index (PI) and apoptotic index (AI) of tumor cells were determined by flow cytometry. A cosine analysis method was used to determine whether the tumor volume, PI, and AI obeyed a circadian rhythm. Results There was a significant circadian rhythm in the tumor volume and PI of OSCC cells. For the tumor volume, there were significant differences between the four time points. The peak and trough values of the tumor volume appeared at 3.23 HALO and 15.23 HALO, whereas the peak and trough values of PI appeared at 6.60 HALO and 18.16 HALO, respectively. However, there was no circadian rhythm in the AI of tumor cells, despite significant differences between the four time points. Conclusion This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the tumor volume and PI of in vivo growing OSCC undergo circadian rhythms. These results support the assertion that time factor should be considered in the occurrence, development, treatment, efficacy evaluation and pathophysiology of OSCC.
Zhao, Ningbo; Tang, Hong; Yang, Kai; Chen, Dan
Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF), such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz magnetic fields, have been shown to suppress the nocturnal production of pineal melatonin. The amount of melatonin produced in the pineal gland changes according to the circadian rhythm. The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of anterior hypothalamus are supposed to be the site of a master circadian pacemaker
|Discusses the diagnosis and management of "non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome," a form of cyclic insomnia to which people who are totally blind are prone. Covered are incidence and clinical features, formal diagnostic criteria, the biological basis of circadian sleep disorders, circadian rhythms in blind people, pharmacological entrainment, and the…
Sack, R. L.; Blood, M. L.; Hughes, R. J.; Lewy, A. J.
The pineal and the eyes are known to be important components in the circadian system of some species of lizards; their effects may be mediated by the hormone melatonin. We examined the role played by these structures in the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Surgical removal of the pineal had no effect on circadian locomotor rhythms, even though this procedure abolished
Daniel S. Janik; Michael Menaker
The influence of circadian rhythms on memory has long been studied; however, the molecular prerequisites for their interaction remain elusive. The hippocampus, which is a region of the brain important for long-term memory formation and temporary maintenance, shows circadian rhythmicity in pathways central to the memory-consolidation process. As neuronal plasticity is the translation of numerous inputs, illuminating the direct molecular
Kristin L Eckel-Mahan; Daniel R Storm
Even if the effects of caffeine on some physiological parameters are well known, its influence on circadian rhythmicity had not yet been investigated. This possible influence is of particular importance, introducing a possible bias in chronopharmacological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated caffeine administration on the circadian rhythms of heart rate “H,”
Anne-Laure Pelissier; Manon Gantenbein; Bernard Bruguerolle
While circadian rhythms of locomotion have been reported in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, it is unclear whether heart rate is also modulated on a circadian basis. To address this issue, both heart rate and locomotor activity were continuously monitored in light-dark (LD) cycles and constant darkness (DD). Lobsters in running wheels exhibited significant nocturnal increases in locomotor activity and
Christopher C. Chabot; Laura K. Webb
In mammals, it is well established that circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the rhythmic secretion of hormones, are regulated by a brain clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. While SCN regulation of gonadal hormone secretion has been amply studied, the mechanisms whereby steroid hormones affect circadian functions are less well known. This is surprising
Eiko Iwahana; Ilia Karatsoreos; Shigenobu Shibata; Rae Silver
The cell division cycle and the circadian clock represent two major cellular rhythms. These two periodic processes are coupled in multiple ways, given that several molecular components of the cell cycle network are controlled in a circadian manner. For example, in the network of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) that governs progression along the successive phases of the cell cycle, the synthesis
Claude Gérard; Albert Goldbeter
Automated monitoring of circadian rhythms is an efficient way of gaining insight into oscillation parameters like period and phase for the underlying pacemaker of the circadian clock. Measurement of the circadian rhythm of phototaxis (swimming towards light) exhibited by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been automated by directing a narrow and dim light beam through a culture at regular intervals and determining the decrease in light transmittance due to the accumulation of cells in the beam. In this study, the monitoring process was optimized by constructing a new computer-controlled measuring machine that limits the test beam to wavelengths reported to be specific for phototaxis and by choosing an algal strain, which does not need background illumination between test light cycles for proper expression of the rhythm. As a result, period and phase of the rhythm are now unaffected by the time a culture is placed into the machine. Analysis of the rhythm data was also optimized through a new algorithm, whose robustness was demonstrated using virtual rhythms with various noises. The algorithm differs in particular from other reported algorithms by maximizing the fit of the data to a sinusoidal curve that dampens exponentially. The algorithm was also used to confirm the reproducibility of rhythm monitoring by the machine. Machine and algorithm can now be used for a multitude of circadian clock studies that require unambiguous period and phase determinations such as light pulse experiments to identify the photoreceptor(s) that reset the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii.
Gaskill, Christa; Forbes-Stovall, Jennifer; Kessler, Bruce; Young, Mike; Rinehart, Claire A.; Jacobshagen, Sigrid
Literature is reviewed indicating that aging is characterized by changes in circadian rhythms and sleep quality. The most marked change is an attenuation of amplitude. An advance of phase, a shortening of period, and a desynchronization of rhythms are also evident. The mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. However, age-related changes in the retina, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and pineal gland seem
Bryan L. Myers; Pietro Badia
Purpose: Circadian rhythms (CR) are commonly disrupted in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). Bright light improves and strengthens CR in other populations. This randomized controlled study examined the effect of morning administration of bright light therapy on CR in women undergoing chemotherapy for BC. We hypothesized that women receiving bright light therapy would exhibit more robust rhythms than
Ariel B. Neikrug; Michelle Rissling; Vera Trofimenko; Lianqi Liu; Loki Natarajan; Susan Lawton; Barbara A. Parker; Sonia Ancoli-Israel
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that the altitude of origin altered the photic and thermal sensitivity of the circadian pacemaker controlling eclosion and oviposition rhythms of high altitude Himalayan strains of Drosophila ananassae. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of altitude of origin on the pacemaker controlling the adult locomotor activity rhythm of D. helvetica. METHODS: Locomotor activity
Keny Vanlalhriatpuia; Vanlalnghaka Chhakchhuak; Satralkar K Moses; SB Iyyer; Kasture; AJ Shivagaje; Barnabas J Rajneesh; Dilip S Joshi
The circadian rhythm of body-temperature was assessed in seventy-four naval ratings. The average rhythm of those subjects rated as 'extraverted' in personality was found to differ slightly but significantly in form from those rated as 'introverted'. It is...
M. J. F. Blake
A psychologically normal blind man, living and working in normal society, suffered from a severe cyclic sleep-wake disorder. Investigations showed that he had circadian rhythms of body temperature, alertness, performance, cortisol secretion, and urinary electrolyte excretion which were desynchronized from the 24-hour societal schedule. These rhythms all had periods which were longer than 24 hours and indistinguishable from the period
L. E. M. Miles; D. M. Raynal; M. A. Wilson
Stomatal diffusion resistance in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. which had been grown in light:dark cycles followed a marked circadian rhythm when the plants were transferred to continuous darkness. Reentrainment of the rhythm required more than one inductive change in photoperiod. The phasing of the rhythm of dark stomatal opening was contolled primarily by the light-on (dawn) signal, whereas the rhythm of dark closure was related to the light-off (dusk) signal. The evidence points to a dual control of the circadian clock in which a product of photosynthesis plays a major role. No evidence for phytochrome involvement in the phasing of the rhythm was found. An influence of phytochrome on the amplitude of the stomatal rhythm was observed in which removal of phytochrome-far-red absorbing form caused rapid damping.
Holmes, M. Geoffrey; Klein, William H.
In the study of circadian rhythms, it has been a puzzle how a limited number of circadian clock genes can control diverse aspects of physiology. Here we investigate circadian gene expression genome-wide using larval zebrafish as a model system. We made use of a spatial gene expression atlas to investigate the expression of circadian genes in various tissues and cell types. Comparison of genome-wide circadian gene expression data between zebrafish and mouse revealed a nearly anti-phase relationship and allowed us to detect novel evolutionarily conserved circadian genes in vertebrates. We identified three groups of zebrafish genes with distinct responses to light entrainment: fast light-induced genes, slow light-induced genes, and dark-induced genes. Our computational analysis of the circadian gene regulatory network revealed several transcription factors (TFs) involved in diverse aspects of circadian physiology through transcriptional cascade. Of these, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor a (mitfa), a dark-induced TF, mediates a circadian rhythm of melanin synthesis, which may be involved in zebrafish's adaptation to daily light cycling. Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms.
Wang, Haifang; Du, Jiulin; Yan, Jun
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in biological systems and regulate metabolic processes throughout the body. Misalliance of these circadian rhythms and the systems they regulate has a profound impact on hormone levels and increases risk of developing metabolic diseases. Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is one of the major signaling molecules used by the master circadian oscillator to entrain downstream circadian rhythms. Several recent genetic studies have pointed out that a common variant in the gene that encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MTNR1B) is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis, reduced insulin secretion, and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Here, we try to review the role of this receptor and its signaling pathways in respect to glucose homeostasis and development of the disease. PMID:23015324
Nagorny, Cecilia; Lyssenko, Valeriya
Adults with ADHD often have sleep problems that are caused by a delay of their internal circadian rhythm system. Such individuals are often typified as 'evening' or 'night' persons. This review focuses on the link between ADHD symptoms and the evening typology through multiple pathways. Etiology of the internal circadian rhythm system, the genetic basis for evening typology, overlap between ADHD symptoms and evening preference and risk factors for various chronic health conditions, including metabolic syndrome and cancer, are discussed. The treatment perspectives to reset the delayed rhythm in adults with ADHD involve psychoeducation on sleep hygiene, melatonin in the afternoon or evening and bright light therapy in the morning. PMID:24117273
Kooij, Jj Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise
This study aimed to (1) identify a stable, trait-like component to cortisol and its circadian rhythm, and (2) investigate individual differences in developmental trajectories of HPA-axis maturation. Multiple salivary cortisol samples were collected longitudinally across four assessments from age 9 (3rd grade) through age 15 (9th grade) in a community sample of children (N=357). Sophisticated statistical models examined cortisol levels and its rhythm over time; effects of age, puberty and gender were primarily considered. In addition to situation-specific and stable short-term or epoch-specific cortisol components, there is a stable, trait-like component of cortisol levels and circadian rhythm across multiple years covering the transition from childhood into adolescence. Youth had higher cortisol and flatter circadian rhythms as they got older and more physically developed. Girls had higher cortisol, stronger circadian rhythms, and greater developmental influences across adolescence. Distinguishing a stable, trait-like component of cortisol level and its circadian rhythm provides the empirical foundation for investigating putative mechanisms underlying individual differences in HPA functioning. The findings also provide important descriptive information about maturational processes influencing HPA-axis development.
Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Allison, Amber L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Essex, Marilyn J.
This study aimed to (1) identify a stable, trait-like component to cortisol and its circadian rhythm, and (2) investigate individual differences in developmental trajectories of HPA-axis maturation. Multiple salivary cortisol samples were collected longitudinally across four assessments from age 9 (3rd grade) through age 15 (9th grade) in a community sample of children (N = 357). Sophisticated statistical models examined cortisol levels and its rhythm over time; effects of age, puberty and gender were primarily considered. In addition to situation-specific and stable short-term or epoch-specific cortisol components, there is a stable, trait-like component of cortisol levels and circadian rhythm across multiple years covering the transition from childhood into adolescence. Youth had higher cortisol and flatter circadian rhythms as they got older and more physically developed. Girls had higher cortisol, stronger circadian rhythms, and greater developmental influences across adolescence. Distinguishing a stable, trait-like component of cortisol level and its circadian rhythm provides the empirical foundation for investigating putative mechanisms underlying individual differences in HPA functioning. The findings also provide important descriptive information about maturational processes influencing HPA-axis development. PMID:21953537
Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Allison, Amber L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Essex, Marilyn J
Chronotherapeutics involve the administration of treatments according to circadian rhythms. Circadian timing of anti-cancer medications has been shown to improve treatment tolerability up to fivefold and double efficacy in experimental and clinical studies. However, the physiological and the molecular components of the circadian timing system (CTS), as well as gender, critically affect the success of a standardized chronotherapeutic schedule. In addition, a wrongly timed therapy or an excessive drug dose disrupts the CTS. Therefore, a non-invasive approach to accurately detect and monitor circadian rhythms is needed for a dynamic assessment of the CTS in order to personalize chronomodulated drug delivery schedule in cancer patients. Since core body temperature is a robust circadian biomarker, we recorded temperature at multiple locations on the skin of the upper chest and back of controls and cancer patients continuously. Variability in the circadian phase existed among patch locations in individual subjects over the course of 2–6 days, demonstrating the need to monitor multiple skin temperature locations to determine the precise circadian phase. Additionally, we observed that locations identified by infrared imaging as relatively cool had the largest 24 h temperature variations. Disruptions in skin temperature rhythms during treatment were found, pointing to the need to continually assess circadian timing and personalize chronotherapeutic schedules.
Scully, Christopher G.; Karaboue, Abdoulaye; Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph; Innominato, Pasquale F.; Chon, Ki H.; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Levi, Francis
The influence of circadian rhythms on memory has long been studied; however, the molecular prerequisites for their interaction remain elusive. The hippocampus, which is a region of the brain important for long-term memory formation and temporary maintenance, shows circadian rhythmicity in pathways central to the memory-consolidation process. As neuronal plasticity is the translation of numerous inputs, illuminating the direct molecular links between circadian rhythms and memory consolidation remains a daunting task. However, the elucidation of how clock genes contribute to synaptic plasticity could provide such a link. Furthermore, the idea that memory training could actually function as a zeitgeber for hippocampal neurons is worth consideration, based on our knowledge of the entrainment of the circadian clock system. The integration of many inputs in the hippocampus affects memory consolidation at both the cellular and the systems level, leaving the molecular connections between circadian rhythmicity and memory relatively obscure but ripe for investigation.
Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Storm, Daniel R
For long, the immune system has been thought of as an effector mechanism reacting to antigenic challenge with defensive responses designed to eliminate 'foreign' material and return to a standby or surveillance mode. However, the recent concept now supported by substantial evidence suggests that immunity is not effector biased but is also a sensory organ and forms part of an integrated homeostatic network. The bidirectional information flow between the neuroendocrine and immune systems functions to maintain and protect the internal homeostasis of the organism. The paradox of this interwined function is that homeostasis may require the neuroendocrine system to work for or against the immune system, as is the case in infection. Potential dangers necessitate activation of the immune system, and such a response may pose risks to the integrity of the host. This occurs when an overly vigorous response may be detrimental and kill the host, as is the case of toxic shock syndrome. Therefore, the constant monitoring role of the neuroendocrine system to control and, when necessary, regulate the function of the immune system is crucial for the homeostatic integrity of the host. This reciprocity of functional need determines the mode of action to determine the context of a perceived threat and the best way to respond. Any breakdown in this two-way communication may manifest itself in problems such as autoimmunity, septic shock, or chronic infection. In this article, we review our current knowledge of circadian rhythm and its relation to the immune response. PMID:19241255
Habbal, O A; Al-Jabri, A A
Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).
Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.
A pharmacological approach was used to examine the role of acetylcholine in the photic control of circadian rhythms and seasonal reproductive cycles. The experimental protocol was designed to determine whether the administration of carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, could mimic the effects of brief light pulses on gonadal function and/or the circadian rhythm of wheel-running activity in golden hamsters. Intraventricular injections of carbachol, administered singularly at discrete phase points throughout the circadian cycle, induced phase-dependent shifts in the free-running rhythm of activity similar to those caused by a brief light exposure. Injections of carbachol once every 23.33 hr for 9 weeks entrained the activity rhythm and stimulated the neuroendocrine-gonadal axis in a manner similar to that observed after the presentation of 1-hr light pulses at this frequency. In contrast, the administration of carbachol once every 24 hr did not consistently provide an entraining signal for the activity rhythm and did not stimulate reproductive function. Importantly, the effects of carbachol on the seasonal reproductive response were correlated with the timing of the injections relative to the activity rhythm. These findings suggest that acetylcholine may play an important role in the mechanism by which light regulates circadian rhythms and seasonal reproductive cycles. PMID:3858881
Earnest, D J; Turek, F W
Background Dysregulation of circadian rhythms can contribute to diseases of lipid metabolism. NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1(SIRT1) is an important hub which links lipid metabolism with circadian clock by its deacetylation activity depends on intracellular NAD+/NADH content ratio. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous reductant which can affect the intracellular redox state. Therefore, we hypothesized that exogenous H2S can affect the expression of circadian clock genes mediated by sirt1 thereby affecting body's lipid metabolism. And also because the liver is a typical peripheral circadian clock oscillator that is intimately linked to lipid metabolism. Thus the effect of H2S were observed on 24-hour dynamic expression of 4 central circadian clock genes and sirt1gene in primary cultured hepatocytes. Results We established a hepatocyte model that showed a circadian rhythm by serum shock method. And detected that the expression level and the peak of circadian clock genes decreased gradually and H2S could maintain the expression and amplitude of circadian clock genes such as Clock, Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erb?within a certain period time. Accordingly the expression level of sirt1 in H2S group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Conclusion Exogenous reductant H2S maintain the circadian rhythm of clock gene in isolated liver cells. We speculated that H2S has changed NAD+/NADH content ratio in hepatocytes and enhanced the activity of SIRT1 protein directly or indirectly, so as to maintain the rhythm of expression of circadian clock genes, they play a role in the prevention and treatment of lipid metabolism-related disease caused by the biological clock disorders.
We are using the fungus Neurospora crassa as a model organism to study the circadian system of eukaryotes. Although the FRQ/WCC feedback loop is said to be central to the circadian system in Neurospora, rhythms can still be seen under many conditions in FRQ-less (frq knockout) strains. To try to identify components of the FRQ-less oscillator (FLO), we carried out a mutagenesis screen in a FRQ-less strain and selected colonies with altered conidiation (spore-formation) rhythms. A mutation we named UV90 affects rhythmicity in both FRQ-less and FRQ-sufficient strains. The UV90 mutation affects FRQ-less rhythms in two conditions: the free-running long-period rhythm in choline-depleted chol-1 strains becomes arrhythmic, and the heat-entrained rhythm in the frq10 knockout is severely altered. In a FRQ-sufficient background, the UV90 mutation causes damping of the free-running conidiation rhythm, reduction of the amplitude of the FRQ protein rhythm, and increased phase-resetting responses to both light and heat pulses, consistent with a decreased amplitude of the circadian oscillator. The UV90 mutation also has small but significant effects on the period of the conidiation rhythm and on growth rate. The wild-type UV90 gene product appears to be required for a functional FLO and for sustained, high-amplitude rhythms in FRQ-sufficient conditions. The UV90 gene product may therefore be a good candidate for a component of the FRQ-less oscillator. These results support a model of the Neurospora circadian system in which the FRQ/WCC feedback loop mutually interacts with a single FLO in an integrated circadian system.
Li, Sanshu; Motavaze, Kamyar; Kafes, Elizabeth; Suntharalingam, Sujiththa; Lakin-Thomas, Patricia
Circadian rhythms in pacemaker cells persist for weeks in constant darkness, while in other types of cells the molecular oscillations that underlie circadian rhythms damp rapidly under the same conditions. Although much progress has been made in understanding the biochemical and cellular basis of circadian rhythms, the mechanisms leading to damped or self-sustained oscillations remain largely unknown. There exist many mathematical models that reproduce the circadian rhythms in the case of a single cell of the Drosophila fly. However, not much is known about the mechanisms leading to coherent circadian oscillation in clock neuron networks. In this work we have implemented a model for a network of interacting clock neurons to describe the emergence (or damping) of circadian rhythms in Drosophila fly, in the absence of zeitgebers. Our model consists of an array of pacemakers that interact through the modulation of some parameters by a network feedback. The individual pacemakers are described by a well-known biochemical model for circadian oscillation, to which we have added degradation of PER protein by light and multiplicative noise. The network feedback is the PER protein level averaged over the whole network. In particular, we have investigated the effect of modulation of the parameters associated with (i) the control of net entrance of PER into the nucleus and (ii) the non-photic degradation of PER. Our results indicate that the modulation of PER entrance into the nucleus allows the synchronization of clock neurons, leading to coherent circadian oscillations under constant dark condition. On the other hand, the modulation of non-photic degradation cannot reset the phases of individual clocks subjected to intrinsic biochemical noise.
Diambra, Luis; Malta, Coraci P.
The crepuscular biting rhythm of A. subalbatus has been found to be a genuine circadian rhythm. When the entrained biting rhythm is allowed to freerun in constant darkness (DD) and continuous illumination (LL), it persists in DD (tau = 24.36 hr) and also in LL of ca. 0.1 1x (tau-23.82 hr) thus deviating from the strict 24 hr periodicity of the geophysical day. The biting rhythm becomes arrhythmic in LL of 1.0, 10, 0.4, 4, 40 lx even the first cycle damping away. PMID:7916332
Pandian, R S
Legends of macro-anomalies before large earthquakes have been passed down for generations in Asia. Most of the statements on earthquake precursors are considered unreliable afterthoughts by traditional scientists. However, disturbed biological rhythms in mice were observed before the Kobe EQ in 1995 (Yokoi et al, 2003). The records of unusual mouse behavior before the earthquake were obtained to study biological clock at Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University. It is clarified that the disturbance was very rare phenomena statistically. Similar phenomenon was observed before the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, too (Li et al, 2009). In the presentation, I will discuss the phenomena as one example of preseismic unusual animal behaviors.
Three mammalian Period (Per) genes, termed Per1, Per2, and Per3, have been identified as structural homologues of the Drosophila circadian clock gene, period (per). The three Per genes are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian pacemaker in mammals. The phases of peak mRNA levels for the three Per genes in the SCN are slightly different. Light sequentially induces the transcripts of Per1 and Per2 but not of Per3 in mice. These data and others suggest that each Per gene has a different but partially redundant function in mammals. To elucidate the function of Per1 in the circadian system in vivo, we generated two transgenic rat lines in which the mouse Per1 (mPer1) transcript was constitutively expressed under the control of either the human elongation factor-1? (EF-1?) or the rat neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter. The transgenic rats exhibited an ?0.6–1.0-h longer circadian period than their wild-type siblings in both activity and body temperature rhythms. Entrainment in response to light cycles was dramatically impaired in the transgenic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the amplitudes of oscillation in the rat Per1 (rPer1) and rat Per2 (rPer2) mRNAs were significantly attenuated in the SCN and eyes of the transgenic rats. These results indicate that either the level of Per1, which is raised by overexpression, or its rhythmic expression, which is damped or abolished in over expressing animals, is critical for normal entrainment of behavior and molecular oscillation of other clock genes.
Numano, Rika; Yamazaki, Shin; Umeda, Nanae; Samura, Tomonori; Sujino, Mitsugu; Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Ueda, Masatsugu; Mori, Akiko; Yamada, Kazunori; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Inouye, Shin-Ichi T.; Menaker, Michael; Tei, Hajime
A daily body temperature rhythm (BTR) is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis in mammals. While mammals use internal energy to regulate body temperature, ectotherms typically regulate body temperature behaviorally . Some ectotherms maintain homeostasis via a daily temperature preference rhythm (TPR) , but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that Drosophila exhibit a daily circadian clock dependent TPR that resembles mammalian BTR. Pacemaker neurons critical for locomotor activity are not necessary for TPR; instead, the dorsal neuron 2s (DN2s), whose function was previously unknown, is sufficient. This indicates that TPR, like BTR, is controlled independently from locomotor activity. Therefore, the mechanisms controlling temperature fluctuations in fly TPR and mammalian BTR may share parallel features. Taken together, our results reveal the existence of a novel DN2- based circadian neural circuit that specifically regulates TPR; thus, understanding the mechanisms of TPR will shed new light on the function and neural control of circadian rhythms.
Kaneko, Haruna; Head, Lauren M.; Ling, Jinli; Tang, Xin; Liu, Yilin; Hardin, Paul E.; Emery, Patrick; Hamada, Fumika N.
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model species of algae for studies on the circadian clock. Previously, we isolated a series of mutants showing defects in the circadian rhythm of a luciferase reporter introduced into the chloroplast genome, and identified the genes responsible for the defective circadian rhythm. However, we were unable to identify the gene responsible for the defective circadian rhythm of the rhythm of chloroplast 97 (roc97) mutant because of a large genomic deletion. Here, we identified the gene responsible for the roc97 mutation through a genetic complementation study. This gene encodes a protein that is homologous to the subunit of N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) which catalyzes N-terminal acetylation of proteins. Our results provide the first example of involvement of the protein N-terminal acetyltransferase in the circadian rhythm. PMID:22266323
Matsuo, Takuya; Iida, Takahiro; Ishiura, Masahiro
There is growing evidence that alterations in the intrinsic circadian clock and sleep might affect the aging process. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) provides unique opportunities to explore the role of the clock in successful and unsuccessful physiological and cognitive aging in a diurnal primate with consolidated nighttime sleep, complex cognitive functions, long life span, and phylogenetic proximity to humans. A longitudinal study was conducted to characterize the effects of aging on the entrained and intrinsic circadian rhythms of activity, polysomnographic sleep patterns, and melatonin production in unrestrained male rhesus monkeys [6-9 (n=6) and 24-28 (n=4) years of age]. An age-dependent decline was found in the stability of circadian rhythms of activity and in peak melatonin levels. The range of individual intrinsic circadian periods (?) is not age-dependent. Aged monkeys do not display clearly defined "morningness-eveningness" chronotypes and, unlike the young, show no correlation between the chronotype under entrained conditions and the length of intrinsic circadian period. The daily activity period (?) is reduced with age and this is associated with high day-to-day variability in sleep quantity and quality, fragmentation of nighttime sleep and daytime wakefulness, increased daytime sleep time, overall increase in stage 1 sleep, and reduced time spent in rapid-eye movement and slow-wave sleep. In the absence of environmental time cues, age-dependent changes in sleep and circadian rhythms are exacerbated and circadian patterns of sleep in young rhesus monkeys start resembling those in aged animals, together suggesting important role of circadian regulation in aging sleep phenotype. This first characterization of age-dependent changes in the intrinsic rhythms and sleep in rhesus monkeys, demonstrating major similarities to human aging phenotype, should assist in the search for the mechanisms involved and for effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:21454295
Zhdanova, I V; Masuda, K; Quasarano-Kourkoulis, C; Rosene, D L; Killiany, R J; Wang, S
The daily patterns of task performance in honey bee colonies during behavioral development were studied to determine the\\u000a role of circadian rhythmicity in age-related division of labor. Although it is well known that foragers exhibit robust circadian\\u000a patterns of activity in both field and laboratory settings, we report that many in-hive tasks are not allocated according\\u000a to a daily rhythm
Darrell Moore; Jennifer E. Angel; Iain M. Cheeseman; Susan E. Fahrbach; Gene E. Robinson
Background The incidence of syncope exhibits a daily pattern with more occurrences in the morning, possibly due to influences from the endogenous circadian system and/or the daily pattern of behavioral/emotional stimuli. This study tested the hypothesis that the circadian system modulates cardiovascular responses to postural stress, leading to increased susceptibility to syncope at specific times of day. Methods and Results Twelve subjects underwent a 13-day in-laboratory protocol, in which subjects’ sleep-wake cycles were adjusted to 20 hours for 12 cycles. A 15-minute title-table test (60° head-up) was performed ~4.5 hours after scheduled awakening in each cycle so that twelve tests in each subject were distributed evenly across the circadian cycle. Out of 144 tests, signs/symptoms of presyncope were observed in 21 tests in 6 subjects. These presyncope events displayed a clear circadian rhythm (P=0.028) with 17 cases (81%) in the circadian phase range corresponding to ~22:30-10:30 (4.25 times of the probability from the other half of the circadian cycle). Significant circadian rhythms were also observed in hemodynamic and autonomic function markers (blood pressure, heart rate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and indices of cardiac vagal tone) that may underlie the circadian rhythm of presyncope susceptibility. Conclusion The circadian system affects cardiovascular responses to postural stressors resulting in greater susceptibility to presyncope during the biological night. This finding suggests that night-shift workers and people with disrupted sleep at night may have great risk of syncope due to their exposure to postural stressors during the biological night.
Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank AJL; Laker, Michael; Smales, Carolina; Shea, Steven A
Exposure for 4 hours to vanillic acid (4-hydroxy 3-methoxy benzoic acid) caused large delay phase shifts (5 to 6 hours) in the circadian rhythm of bioluminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra, when assayed at either 10 to 14 circadian time or 22 to 02 circadian time in constant light and temperature, provided that the pH of the medium was 7.1 or lower. Corresponding changes in the pH with acetic acid did not shift phase. Vanillic acid caused detectable depolarization of the membranes of Gonyaulax, as demonstrated with the cyanine dye fluorescence technique.
Kiessig, Richard S.; Herz, Jeffrey M.; Sweeney, Beatrice M.
A computer technique (cosinor analysis) has been used to evaluate circadian rhythms in airway calibre in normals and asthmatics. Two hundred and twenty-one normal subjects recorded peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) at home four times a day for seven days. Rhythm detection was statistically significant in 145 of them (65.6%) who showed a mean amplitude of 8.3% of individual mean
M R Hetzel; T J Clark
Body temperature (Tb) and metabolic rate (O2 consumption) were measured continuously in naked mole-rats. Circadian rhythms were observed for both parameters. Body temperature increased at the end of the light phase in a 12L:12D cycle in three of four animals. The remaining animal exhibited a freerunning rhythm of Tb. When animals had access to running wheels, the time of elevated
Alexandra P Riccio; Bruce D Goldman
The free-running circadian rhythm of cell division in the algal flagellate, Euglena gracilis (Z) was perturbed by 3-h light signals of varying intensities imposed at different circadian times (CT). Light pulses within the range of 700 to 7,500 lux were found to yield the same 'strong' (Type 0) phase response curve (PRC) comprising both advance and delay phase shifts as great as 15 h. Dark signals generated a PRC of reduced amplitude with very little, if any, phase advance being observed. Light perturbations of lower intensity, however, elicited quite different responses if applied at a quite specific circadian time: A 40- to 400-lux pulse given at approximately CT 0 (late subjective night) induced total arrhythmicity, and the culture reverted to asynchronous, exponential growth. Different degrees of arrhythmicity were induced by the same low-intensity perturbations (I*) given slightly before or after this sensitive phase point (T*), but if imposed at other circadian times, they generated normal type 0 phase resetting. The demonstration of the existence of this critical pulse (T*, I*) provides further evidence that the cell division cycle of Euglena (and presumably other microorganisms) is regulated by a circadian oscillator and, in particular, by one having limit cycle dynamics. PMID:3837018
Malinowski, J R; Laval-Martin, D L; Edmunds, L N
Mitotic delay is described as a classical response to radiation; however, circadian rhythmicity in cell division in vivo has not been considered by many authors. The present study investigated the relation between fluctuations reported as mitotic delay and recovery in vivo and circadian oscillations in mitotic index in mouse corneal epithelium. One aspect involved single doses (approximately 600 rad) given to mice at different circadian stages. The normal circadian rhythm in cell division was never obliterated. Inhibition of mitosis was evident but unpredictable, ranging from 6 to 15 hr after irradiation. Recovery was evident only during the daily increase in mitotic index of controls. The classical interpretation of recovery from mitotic delay may be in an in vitro phenomenon not reflecting in vivo responses, which are apparently strongly circadian stage dependent. The second portion of the study demonstrated a dose-response effect on length of mitotic delay and, to a lesser extent, degree of recovery.
General anesthesia is occasionally associated with postoperative complications such as sleep disorder, drowsiness, or mood alterations. Hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh), the extracellular level of which increases during the dark (active) phase and decreases during the light (rest) phase in rats, is thought to be associated with locomotor activity and be crucial for learning and memory. Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic, is known to shift the circadian rhythms of physiological parameters including locomotor activity and body temperature in both rodents and humans, while the effects of volatile anesthetics on the circadian rhythm largely remain unclear. The present study examined the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on the diurnal changes in hippocampal ACh release and locomotor activity in rats. Rats were divided into three groups: a light-phase anesthesia group (LA group), a dark-phase anesthesia group (DA group), and a control group. They were exposed to a 12-h light/12-h dark environment and anesthetized with 1.4% isoflurane for 4h during the middle of the light phase (LA group) and dark phase (DA group). Simultaneous measurement of hippocampal ACh by microdialysis and locomotor activity were done for 60h under free-moving conditions. Hippocampal ACh release and locomotor activity showed a clear circadian rhythm. In the DA group, but not in the LA group, the diurnal variation in ACh release was significantly disturbed and a more than 2-h phase-advance in locomotor activity was observed. There was a significant correlation between hippocampal ACh release and locomotor activity, and isoflurane anesthesia disrupted it even after anesthesia was discontinued. This study revealed that the levels and circadian rhythms of hippocampal ACh release and locomotor activity were more sensitive to isoflurane anesthesia when it was administered during the active phase. Our findings suggest that anesthesia exerts differential effects on the regulation of circadian rhythms depending on the circadian phase. PMID:23396087
Kikuchi, T; Tan, H; Mihara, T; Uchimoto, K; Mitsushima, D; Takase, K; Morita, S; Goto, T; Andoh, T; Kamiya, Y
INTRODUCTION: The hormone melatonin regulates the sleep and this pineal hormone is synthesized in the organism from the amino acid tryptophan. It is known that breast-fed babies have better sleep patterns and a better entrained sleep\\/wake cycle than bottle-fed babies (adapted formula). OBJECTIVE: To compare the circadian rhythm of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) - the metabolite of melatonin excreted in the urine
J. Cubero; V. Valero; J. Sánchez; M. Rivero; H. Parvez; A. B. Rodríguez; C. Barriga
During puberty, humans develop a later chronotype, exhibiting a phase-delayed daily rest/activity rhythm. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) whether similar changes in chronotype occur during puberty in a laboratory rodent species, 2) whether these changes are due to pubertal hormones affecting the circadian timekeeping system. We tracked the phasing and distribution of wheel-running activity rhythms during post-weaning development in rats that were gonadectomized before puberty or left intact. We found that intact peripubertal rats had activity rhythms that were phase-delayed relative to adults. Young rats also exhibited a bimodal nocturnal activity distribution. As puberty progressed, bimodality diminished and late-night activity phase-advanced until it consolidated with early-night activity. By late puberty, intact rats showed a strong, unimodal rhythm that peaked at the beginning of the night. These pubertal changes in circadian phase were more pronounced in males than females. Increases in gonadal hormones during puberty partially accounted for these changes, as rats that were gonadectomized before puberty demonstrated smaller phase changes than intact rats and maintained ultradian rhythms into adulthood. We investigated the role of photic entrainment by comparing circadian development under constant and entrained conditions. We found that the period(?) of free-running rhythms developed sex differences during puberty. These changes in ? did not account for pubertal changes in entrained circadian phase, as the consolidation of activity at the beginning of the subjective night persisted under constant conditions in both sexes. We conclude that the circadian system continues to develop in a hormone-sensitive manner during puberty.
Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; King, Andrea F.; Possidente, Bernard; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.; Lumia, Augustus R.; Peckham, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Theresa M.
Locomotor activity of the male cricketGryllus bimaculatus DeGeer was recorded from the 7th or last (8th) instar nymph. The nymph showed a diurnal rhythm (nymphal rhythm = NR), while the adult, on the contrary, was nocturnal (adult rhythm = AR) (Fig. 1). This rhythm reversal occurred suddenly 3 to 5 days after the imaginal molt, almost simultaneously with the first
Kenji Tomioka; Yoshihiko Chiba
Circadian rhythm in newly emerged individuals of the Red Squirrel (Scuirus vulgaris) flea C.s.sciurorum was studied in a constant environment, using an insect activity monitor. Trials were run over 7 days using two start times (08.00 and 17.00 hours). The results show that, regardless of start time, the fleas display a 24 h activity rhythm. The presence of a rhythm under constant conditions gives a strong indication that C.s.sciurorum has a self-sustaining clock which is started by disturbance and is most likely to be linked to host activity patterns. PMID:9330251
Clark, F; Deadman, D; Greenwood, M; Larsen, K S
Despite the large number of publications concerning circadian body temperature in rodents, relatively little is known about phase relationships of the body temperature cycle relative to daily locomotor rhythms. Phase angle differences between core body temperature and locomotor activity were determined by a group of overlapping methods for 14 hamsters and 11 chipmunks under constant light (LL) and entrained (LD) photo schedules. The study compared the onset of the body temperature cycle with three separate components of daily locomotor activity: the onset of wheel running, the onset of total activity in a standard wheel cage, and the onset of total activity in a restricted cage, respectively. The temperature cycle showed a pronounced phase lead over onset of wheel-running activity in all hamsters and in the majority of chipmunks, but the phase lead was reduced when total activity was considered. With activity restriction, the onset of temperature rise and activity onset concurred. The body temperature onset in some species may serve as a valid phase point for indirect measurement of circadian timing, but the potential artifact of masking by heat generated from muscular activity should be kept clearly in mind. PMID:9877411
Decoursey, P J; Pius, S; Sandlin, C; Wethey, D; Schull, J
Affective disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder are associated with major disruptions in circadian rhythms. Indeed, altered sleep/wake cycles are a critical feature for diagnosis in the DSM IV and several of the therapies used to treat these disorders have profound effects on rhythm length and stabilization in human populations. Furthermore, multiple human genetic studies have identified polymorphisms in specific circadian genes that associate with these disorders. Thus, there appears to be a strong association between the circadian system and mood regulation, although the mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. Recently, a number of studies in animal models have begun to shed light on the complex interactions between circadian genes and mood-related neurotransmitter systems, the effects of light manipulation on brain circuitry, the impact of chronic stress on rhythms, and the ways in which antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs alter the clock. This review will focus on the recent advances that have been gleaned from the use of pre-clinical models to further our understanding of how the circadian system regulates mood.
McClung, Colleen A.
A shorter phase angle between habitual wake time and underlying circadian rhythms has been reported in evening types (E types) compared to morning-types (M types). In this study, phase angles were compared between 12 E types and 12 M types to verify if this difference was observed when the sleep schedule was relatively free from external social constraints. Subjects were
Valérie Mongrain; Suzie Lavoie; Brahim Selmaoui; Jean Paquet; Marie Dumont
With the hypothesis that police horses with abnormal cortisol circadian rhythm (CCR) had more chance to develop colic, the aim of this study was to determine the CCR ratio in horses subjected to different housing and work conditions and to associate abnormal CCR ratio with incidence of colic. A total of 116 police horses belonging to four different groups were
Baity B. Leal; Geraldo E. S. Alves; Robert H. Douglas; Beatriz Bringel; Robert J. Young; João Paulo A. Haddad; Walmir S. Viana; Rafael R. Faleiros
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex metabolic disease that arises as a consequence of interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. One recently described environmental trigger associated with development of T2DM is disturbance of circadian rhythms due to shift work, sleep loss, or nocturnal lifestyle. However, the underlying mechanisms behind this association are largely unknown. To address this, the
John E. Gale; Heather I. Cox; Jingyi Qian; Gene D. Block; Christopher S. Colwell; Aleksey V. Matveyenko
Depression is a family of complex and multifactorial illnesses that are characterized by disruptions in the functioning of a number of physiological, neuroendocrine and behavioral processes. Of these, sleep disturbance and circadian rhythm abnormalities constitute the most prevalent signs of depressive illness. Difficulty in falling asleep, decreases in total sleep time and sleep efficiency, early morning awakenings, and rapid eye
Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal; Adam Moscovitch; Venkatramanujam Srinivasan; David Warren Spence; Daniel P. Cardinali; Gregory M. Brown
The circadian rhythm functioning and sleep patterns of 10 adults with Asperger syndrome were investigated using actigraphy. When compared with data from neurotypical adults, both statistical and clinically significant differences were found between the two groups, with the adults with Asperger syndrome showing marked abnormalities in both the…
Hare, Dougal Julian; Jones, Steven; Evershed, Kate
To explore whether a condition of severe heart failure results in alteration of the 24-h-blood pressure (BP) profile and BP circadian rhythm, 19 patients with severe heart failure (NYHA class III-IV, 17M, 2F, mean age 57+/-8 years) were considered and compared to a control group of age- and sex-matched normal subjects. All subjects were submitted to non-invasive 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using a SpaceLabs 90207 unit (recording interval 15 min). Both systolic and diastolic BP profiles were evaluated using the two-step method of analysis reported by Staessen: the existence of a BP circadian rhythm was first tested using Siegel's runs test, then a Fourier multiple harmonic analysis allowed us to obtain the BP profile parameters Acrophases (Acro, hh:mm) and Amplitudes (Ampl, mm Hg). The same methods were used for pulse rate. Our results showed the presence of a BP circadian rhythm in severe heart failure subjects, as well as in control subjects. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the two groups when considering the BP profile parameters Acro and Ampl. In conclusion, in contrast with previous reports, our results show that both BP circadian rhythm and BP profile parameters are preserved in patients with severe heart failure. PMID:10321440
Moroni, C; De Biase, L; Pannarale, G; Bondanini, F; Affricano, D; Campa, P P; Cassone, R
|This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…
Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.
The possibility that circadian rhythm alteration may contribute to the life-prolonging effect of food restriction was investigated in female CD2Fi mice housed in a room with a 12-h span of fluorescent lighting daily. A control group was allowed to feed ad libitum throughout life while three other groups began lifelong restriction to about 75 % of ad libitum intake when
WALTER NELSON; ANDFRANZ HALBERG
Using 24-hour Holter monitoring and time domain and power spectral measurements, we evaluated the variability or the heart rate and its circadian rhythm in 55 male patients with Duchenne-type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) to characterize their autonomic function versus findings in 20 normal controls. Comparisons were also made in patients with mild, moderate, and severe stages of DMD. The percent
Masayuki Yotsukura; Kazuya Sasaki; Eisei Kachi; Akira Sasaki; Tadayuki Ishihara; Kyozo Ishikawa
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a shift in the light cycle and of restricted food availability on circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate, and behavioral activity in freely moving rats by radiotelemetry. In rats that were fed ad lib, a shift of the light cycle by 6 h (from lights on 0700–1900
Maarten van den Buuse
Circadian misalignment has been implicated in the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) have long been known and the mechanisms controlling them have been actively investigated in physiology and disease. In this respect, the introduction of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has enabled a more accurate assessment of circadian BP patterns in order to solve diagnostic uncertainty or to establish dipper status. However, attention has been mainly focused on measures of extent (midline estimating statistic of rhythm, MESOR, and amplitude) rather than timing (acrophase) of changes within a cycle. The review summarises 1) evidence for altered characteristics of BP rhythm (in particular, phase shifts along the time axis) in animal and human diabetes mellitus, 2) the mechanisms that have been supposed to underlie the observed changes in cardiovascular function before diabetes onset and during progression of the disease, and 3) the adverse consequences that may result from an altered circadian BP rhythm. PMID:22698080
Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio
The study aimed at establishing differences in the circadian rhythm parameters of oral temperature and heart rate between three groups of workers matched by age: tolerant shiftworkers with good sleep quality and few psychosomatic and digestive complaints, intolerant shiftworkers with poor sleep quality and more psychosomatic and digestive complaints, and workers who had never worked in shifts. The study was
Stjepan Vida?ek; Zvjezdana Prizmic; Ljiljana Kaliterna; Biserka Radoševic-Vida?ek; Snježana ?abrajec-Grbac; Branka Fornazar-Kneževi?; Vera Lalic
Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which...
D. K. Chapman A. H. Brown A. O. Dahl
In Drosophila, the amidated neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) is expressed by the ventral subset of lateral pace- maker neurons and is required for circadian locomotor rhythms. Residual rhythmicity in pdf mutants likely reflects the activity of other neurotransmitters. We asked whether other neuropep- tides contribute to such auxiliary mechanisms. We used the gal4\\/UAS system to create mosaics for the
Paul H. Taghert; Randall S. Hewes; Jae H. Park; Martha A. O'Brien; Mei Han; Molly E. Peck
BACKGROUND: Variation in circadian rhythms and nocturnality may, hypothetically, be related to or independent of genetic variation in photoperiodic mediation of seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. We hypothesized that strain variation in photoperiodism between photoperiodic F344 rats and nonphotoperiodic Harlan Sprague Dawley (HSD) rats might be caused by underlying variation in clock function. We predicted that HSD rats would
Cheryl D Seroka; Cynthia E Johnson; Paul D Heideman
Circadian rhythm of feeding, oviposition, and emergence of boll weevil adults were determined at 5 different photophases (24, 14, 12, 10 and 0 hours) and a constant 27 deg C temperature, 65% RH in the laboratory. Squares from petri dishes, where they were exposed to boll weevil females, were remove...
This study evaluates possible circadian rhythms during prolonged propofol infusion in patients in the intensive care unit. Eleven patients were sedated with a constant propofol infusion. The blood samples for the propofol assay were collected every hour during the second day, the third day, and after the termination of the propofol infusion. Values of electroencephalographic bispectral index (BIS), arterial blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation and body temperature were recorded every hour at the blood collection time points. A two-compartment model was used to describe propofol pharmacokinetics. Typical values of the central and peripheral volume of distribution and inter-compartmental clearance were VC = 27.7 l, VT = 801 l, and CLD = 2.73 l/min. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found to influence the propofol metabolic clearance according to Cl (l/min) = 2.65·(1 ? 0.00714·(SBP ? 135)). There was no significant circadian rhythm detected with respect to propofol pharmacokinetics. The BIS score was assessed as a direct effect model with EC50 equal 1.98 mg/l. There was no significant circadian rhythm detected within the BIS scores. We concluded that the light–dark cycle did not influence propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in intensive care units patients. The lack of night–day differences was also noted for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and blood oxygenation. Circadian rhythms were detected for heart rate and body temperature, however they were severely disturbed from the pattern of healthy patients.
Kusza, Krzysztof; Wawrzyniak, Katarzyna; Grzeskowiak, Edmund; Kokot, Zenon J.; Matysiak, Jan; Grabowski, Tomasz; Wolc, Anna; Wiczling, Pawel; Regulski, Milosz
Time shift A high-throughput cell-based screen identified a benzothiazole analogue, LH846, which induces period lengthening of the circadian rhythm. Affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and genomic analysis identified protein kinase CKI? as the biological target of LH846 (see picture).
Lee, Jae Wook; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Peters, Eric C.; Garcia, Michael; Gonzalez, Rodolfo; Cho, Charles Y.; Wu, Xu
We investigated neurotransmitters which play a role in conveying light information to the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We studies the effects on SCN cell responses to light of classic small-molecule transmitters, such as glutamate...
Daily rhythms of mammalian physiology, metabolism, and behavior parallel the day-night cycle. They are orchestrated by a central circadian clock in the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Transcription of clock genes is sensitive to metabolic changes in reduction and oxidation (redox); however, circadian cycles in protein oxidation have been reported in anucleate cells, where no transcription occurs. We tested whether the SCN also expresses redox cycles and how such metabolic oscillations might affect neuronal physiology. We detected self-sustained circadian rhythms of SCN redox state that required the molecular clockwork. The redox oscillation could determine the excitability of SCN neurons through non-transcriptional modulation of multiple K+ channels. Thus, dynamic regulation of SCN excitability appears to be closely tied to metabolism that engages the clockwork machinery.
Wang, Tongfei A.; Yu, Yanxun V.; Govindaiah, Gubbi; Ye, Xiaoying; Artinian, Liana; Coleman, Todd P.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Cox, Charles L.; Gillette, Martha U.
The expanding science of circadian rhythm biology and a growing literature in human clinical research on circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) prompted the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to convene a task force of experts to write a review of this important topic. Due to the extensive nature of the disorders covered, the review was written in two sections. The first review paper, in addition to providing a general introduction to circadian biology, addresses “exogenous” circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). The second review paper addresses the “endogenous” circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD), delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), irregular sleep-wake rhythm (ISWR), and the non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome (nonentrained type) or free-running disorder (FRD). These practice parameters were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the AASM to present recommendations for the assessment and treatment of CRSDs based on the two accompanying comprehensive reviews. The main diagnostic tools considered include sleep logs, actigraphy, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), circadian phase markers, and polysomnography. Use of a sleep log or diary is indicated in the assessment of patients with a suspected circadian rhythm sleep disorder (Guideline). Actigraphy is indicated to assist in evaluation of patients suspected of circadian rhythm disorders (strength of recommendation varies from “Option” to “Guideline,” depending on the suspected CRSD). Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for the diagnosis of CRSDs, but may be indicated to rule out another primary sleep disorder (Standard). There is insufficient evidence to justify the use of MEQ for the routine clinical evaluation of CRSDs (Option). Circadian phase markers are useful to determine circadian phase and confirm the diagnosis of FRD in sighted and unsighted patients but there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in the diagnosis of SWD, JLD, ASPD, DSPD, or ISWR (Option). Additionally, actigraphy is useful as an outcome measure in evaluating the response to treatment for CRSDs (Guideline). A range of therapeutic interventions were considered including planned sleep schedules, timed light exposure, timed melatonin doses, hypnotics, stimulants, and alerting agents. Planned or prescribed sleep schedules are indicated in SWD (Standard) and in JLD, DSPD, ASPD, ISWR (excluding elderly-demented/nursing home residents), and FRD (Option). Specifically dosed and timed light exposure is indicated for each of the circadian disorders with variable success (Option). Timed melatonin administration is indicated for JLD (Standard); SWD, DSPD, and FRD in unsighted persons (Guideline); and for ASPD, FRD in sighted individuals, and for ISWR in children with moderate to severe psychomotor retardation (Option). Hypnotic medications may be indicated to promote or improve daytime sleep among night shift workers (Guideline) and to treat jet lag-induced insomnia (Option). Stimulants may be indicated to improve alertness in JLD and SWD (Option) but may have risks that must be weighed prior to use. Modafinil may be indicated to improve alertness during the night shift for patients with SWD (Guideline). Citation: Morgenthaler TI; Lee-Chiong T; Alessi C; Friedman L; Aurora N; Boehlecke B; Brown T; Chesson AL; Kapur V; Maganti R; Owens J; Pancer J; Swick TJ; Zak R; Standards of Practice Committee of the AASM. Practice Parameters for the Clinical Evaluation and Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1445-1459.
Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Aurora, R. Nisha; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Chesson, Andrew L.; Kapur, Vishesh; Maganti, Rama; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd J.; Zak, Rochelle
The present study makes an attempt to find out the action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its antagonist d-(CH2)5 Tyr (Me) AVP applied at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) on the circadian rhythm of water intake. Chronic implantation of a 22 G stainless steel cannula for injection was performed using a stereotaxic technique under Nembutal anesthesia. AVP and its antagonist were injected into the SCN of free-moving rats at the beginning of light and dark phases of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Injections of AVP during either phase did not disrupt the circadian pattern of water intake while the injections of the antagonist disrupted it. The findings are suggestive of the involvement of AVP as a mediator of the circadian rhythm of water intake at the level of the neural pacemaker, SCN. PMID:1394607
Reghunandanan, V; Reghunandanan, R; Marya, R K; Singh, P I
The large (l) and small (s) isoforms of FREQUENCY (FRQ) are elements of interconnected feedback loops of the Neurospora circadian clock. The expression ratio of l-FRQ versus s-FRQ is regulated by thermosensitive splicing of an intron containing the initiation codon for l-FRQ. We show that this splicing is dependent on light and temperature and displays a circadian rhythm. Strains expressing only l-FRQ or s-FRQ support short and long temperature-compensated circadian rhythms, respectively. The thermosensitive expression ratio of FRQ isoforms influences period length in wt. Our data indicate that differential expression of FRQ isoforms is not required for temperature compensation but rather provides a means to fine-tune period length in response to ambient temperature.
Diernfellner, Axel; Colot, Hildur V.; Dintsis, Orfeas; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Brunner, Michael
Most animals from flies to humans count on circadian clocks to synchronize their physiology and behaviors. Daily light cycles are well-known environmental cues for setting circadian rhythms. Warmer and cooler temperatures that mimic day and night are also effective in entraining circadian activity in most animals. Even vertebrate organisms can be induced to show circadian responses through exposure to temperature cycles. In poikilothermic animals such as Drosophila, temperature differences of only 2–3°C are sufficient to synchronize locomotor rhythms. However, the molecular sensors that participate in temperature regulation of circadian activity in fruit flies or other animals are enigmatic. It is also unclear whether such detectors are limited to the periphery or may be in the central brain. Here, we showed that Drosophila TRPA1 (Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel A1) was necessary for normal activity patterns during temperature cycles. The trpA1 gene was expressed in a subset of pacemaker neurons in the central brain. In response to temperature entrainment, loss of trpA1 impaired activity, and altered expression of the circadian clock protein Period (Per) in a subset of pacemaker neurons. These findings underscore a role for a thermoTRP in temperature regulation that extends beyond avoidance of noxious or suboptimal temperatures.
Lee, Youngseok; Montell, Craig
Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling synchronizes the circadian rhythm of individual peripheral cells and induces the expression of circadian genes, including Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2). However, no GC response element (GRE) has been reported in the Per2 promoter region. Here we report the molecular mechanisms of Per2 induction by GC signaling and its relevance to the regulation of circadian timing. We found that GC prominently induced Per2 expression and delayed the circadian phase. The overlapping GRE and E-box (GE2) region in the proximal Per2 promoter was responsible for GC-mediated Per2 induction. The GRE in the Per2 promoter was unique in that brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL1) was essential for GC-induced Per2 expression, whereas other GRE-containing promoters, such as Per1 and mouse mammary tumor virus, responded to dexamethasone in the absence of BMAL1. This specialized regulatory mechanism was mediated by BMAL1-dependent binding of the GC receptor to GRE in Per2 promoter. When Per2 induction was abrogated by the mutation of the GRE or E-box, the circadian oscillation phase failed to be delayed compared with that of the wild-type. Therefore, the current study demonstrates that the rapid Per2 induction mediated by GC is crucial for delaying the circadian rhythm. PMID:23620290
Cheon, Solmi; Park, Noheon; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin
Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling synchronizes the circadian rhythm of individual peripheral cells and induces the expression of circadian genes, including Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2). However, no GC response element (GRE) has been reported in the Per2 promoter region. Here we report the molecular mechanisms of Per2 induction by GC signaling and its relevance to the regulation of circadian timing. We found that GC prominently induced Per2 expression and delayed the circadian phase. The overlapping GRE and E-box (GE2) region in the proximal Per2 promoter was responsible for GC-mediated Per2 induction. The GRE in the Per2 promoter was unique in that brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL1) was essential for GC-induced Per2 expression, whereas other GRE-containing promoters, such as Per1 and mouse mammary tumor virus, responded to dexamethasone in the absence of BMAL1. This specialized regulatory mechanism was mediated by BMAL1-dependent binding of the GC receptor to GRE in Per2 promoter. When Per2 induction was abrogated by the mutation of the GRE or E-box, the circadian oscillation phase failed to be delayed compared with that of the wild-type. Therefore, the current study demonstrates that the rapid Per2 induction mediated by GC is crucial for delaying the circadian rhythm.
Cheon, Solmi; Park, Noheon; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin
Most animals from flies to humans count on circadian clocks to synchronize their physiology and behaviors. Daily light cycles are well known environmental cues for setting circadian rhythms. Warmer and cooler temperatures that mimic day and night are also effective in entraining circadian activity in most animals. Even vertebrate organisms can be induced to show circadian responses through exposure to temperature cycles. In poikilothermic animals such as Drosophila, temperature differences of only 2-3°C are sufficient to synchronize locomotor rhythms. However, the molecular sensors that participate in temperature regulation of circadian activity in fruit flies or other animals are enigmatic. It is also unclear whether such detectors are limited to the periphery or may be in the central brain. Here, we showed that Drosophila TRPA1 (transient receptor potential cation channel A1) was necessary for normal activity patterns during temperature cycles. The trpA1 gene was expressed in a subset of pacemaker neurons in the central brain. In response to temperature entrainment, loss of trpA1 impaired activity, and altered expression of the circadian clock protein period (Per) in a subset of pacemaker neurons. These findings underscore a role for a thermoTRP in temperature regulation that extends beyond avoidance of noxious or suboptimal temperatures. PMID:23595730
Lee, Youngseok; Montell, Craig
Sleep deprivation, shift work, and jet lag all disrupt normal biological rhythms and have major impacts on health; however, circadian disorganization has never been shown as a causal risk factor in organ disease. We now demonstrate devastating effects of rhythm disorganization on cardiovascular and renal integrity and that interventions based on circadian principles prevent disease pathology caused by a short-period mutation (tau) of the circadian system in hamsters. The point mutation in the circadian regulatory gene, casein kinase-1epsilon, produces early onset circadian entrainment with fragmented patterns of behavior in +/tau heterozygotes. Animals die at a younger age with cardiomyopathy, extensive fibrosis, and severely impaired contractility; they also have severe renal disease with proteinuria, tubular dilation, and cellular apoptosis. On light cycles appropriate for their genotype (22 h), cyclic behavioral patterns are normalized, cardiorenal phenotype is reversed, and hearts and kidneys show normal structure and function. Moreover, hypertrophy does not develop in animals whose suprachiasmatic nucleus was ablated as young adults. Circadian organization therefore is critical for normal health and longevity, whereas chronic global asynchrony is implicated in the etiology of cardiac and renal disease. PMID:18272659
Martino, Tami A; Oudit, Gavin Y; Herzenberg, Andrew M; Tata, Nazneen; Koletar, Margaret M; Kabir, Golam M; Belsham, Denise D; Backx, Peter H; Ralph, Martin R; Sole, Michael J
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex metabolic disease that arises as a consequence of interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. One recently described environmental trigger associated with development of T2DM is disturbance of circadian rhythms due to shift work, sleep loss, or nocturnal lifestyle. However, the underlying mechanisms behind this association are largely unknown. To address this, the authors examined the metabolic and physiological consequences of experimentally controlled circadian rhythm disruption in wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley and diabetes-prone human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic (HIP) rats: a validated model of T2DM. WT and HIP rats at 3 months of age were exposed to 10 weeks of either a normal light regimen (LD: 12:12-h light/dark) or experimental disruption in the light-dark cycle produced by either (1) 6-h advance of the light cycle every 3 days or (2) constant light protocol. Subsequently, blood glucose control, beta-cell function, beta-cell mass, turnover, and insulin sensitivity were examined. In WT rats, 10 weeks of experimental disruption of circadian rhythms failed to significantly alter fasting blood glucose levels, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell mass/turnover, or insulin sensitivity. In contrast, experimental disruption of circadian rhythms in diabetes-prone HIP rats led to accelerated development of diabetes. The mechanism subserving early-onset diabetes was due to accelerated loss of beta-cell function and loss of beta-cell mass attributed to increases in beta-cell apoptosis. Disruption of circadian rhythms may increase the risk of T2DM by accelerating the loss of beta-cell function and mass characteristic in T2DM.
Gale, John E.; Cox, Heather I.; Qian, Jingyi; Block, Gene D.; Colwell, Christopher S.; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex metabolic disease that arises as a consequence of interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. One recently described environmental trigger associated with development of T2DM is disturbance of circadian rhythms due to shift work, sleep loss, or nocturnal lifestyle. However, the underlying mechanisms behind this association are largely unknown. To address this, the authors examined the metabolic and physiological consequences of experimentally controlled circadian rhythm disruption in wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley and diabetes-prone human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic (HIP) rats: a validated model of T2DM. WT and HIP rats at 3 months of age were exposed to 10 weeks of either a normal light regimen (LD: 12:12-h light/dark) or experimental disruption in the light-dark cycle produced by either (1) 6-h advance of the light cycle every 3 days or (2) constant light protocol. Subsequently, blood glucose control, beta-cell function, beta-cell mass, turnover, and insulin sensitivity were examined. In WT rats, 10 weeks of experimental disruption of circadian rhythms failed to significantly alter fasting blood glucose levels, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell mass/turnover, or insulin sensitivity. In contrast, experimental disruption of circadian rhythms in diabetes-prone HIP rats led to accelerated development of diabetes. The mechanism subserving early-onset diabetes was due to accelerated loss of beta-cell function and loss of beta-cell mass attributed to increases in beta-cell apoptosis. Disruption of circadian rhythms may increase the risk of T2DM by accelerating the loss of beta-cell function and mass characteristic in T2DM. PMID:21921296
Gale, John E; Cox, Heather I; Qian, Jingyi; Block, Gene D; Colwell, Christopher S; Matveyenko, Aleksey V
DBP, a PAR leucine zipper transcription factor, accumulates according to a robust circadian rhythm in liver and several other tissues of mouse and rat. Here we report that DBP mRNA levels also oscillate strongly in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, believed to harbor the central mammalian pacemaker. However, peak and minimum levels of DBP mRNA are reached about 4 h earlier in the SCN than in liver, suggesting that circadian DBP expression is controlled by different mechanisms in SCN and in peripheral tissues. Mice homozygous for a DBP-null allele display less locomotor activity and free-run with a shorter period than otherwise isogenic wild-type animals. The altered locomotor activity in DBP mutant mice and the highly rhythmic expression of the DBP gene in SCN neurons suggest that DBP is involved in controlling circadian behavior. However, since DBP-/- mice are still rhythmic and since DBP protein is not required for the circadian expression of its own gene, dbp is more likely to be a component of the circadian output pathway than a master gene of the clock.
Lopez-Molina, L; Conquet, F; Dubois-Dauphin, M; Schibler, U
We used a controlled-environment leaf gas-exchange system and the micrometeorological technique eddy covariance to determine whether circadian rhythms constrain the rates of leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest over a day. When exposed to continuous and constant light for 20 to 48 hours leaves of eleven of seventeen species reduced their photosynthetic rates and closed their stomata during the normally dark period and resumed active gas exchange during the normally light period. Similarly, the rate of whole-forest CO2 uptake at a predetermined irradiance declined during the late afternoon and early morning and increased during the middle of the day. We attribute these cycles to circadian rhythms that are analogous to ones that have been reported for herbaceous plants in the laboratory. The importance of endogenous gas exchange rhythms presents a previously unrecognized challenge for efforts to both interpret and model land-atmosphere energy and mass exchange.
Doughty, Christopher E.; Goulden, Michael L.; Miller, Scott D.; da Rocha, Humberto R.
Circadian rhythms of the living organisms are 24hr oscillations found in behavior, biochemistry and physiology. Under constant conditions, the rhythms continue with their intrinsic period length, which are rarely exact 24hr. In this paper, we examine the effects of light on the phase of the gene expression rhythms derived from the interacting feedback network of a few clock genes, taking advantage of a computer simulation with Cell Illustrator. The simulation results suggested that the interacting circadian feedback network at the molecular level is essential for phase dependence of the light effects, observed in mammalian behavior. Furthermore, the simulation reproduced the biological observations that the range of entrainment to shorter or longer than 24hr light-dark cycles is limited, centering around 24hr. Application of our model to inter-time zone flight successfully demonstrated that 6 to 7 days are required to recover from jet lag when traveling from Tokyo to New York. PMID:19425160
Mitou, Natsumi; Ikegami, Yuto; Matsuno, Hiroshi; Miyano, Satoru; Inouye, Shin-ichi T
The appearance, progression, and potential role for circadian rhythms during early development have previously focused mainly on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peri- and postnatal expression of canonical clock genes. More recently, gene expression studies in embryonic stem cells have shown that some clock genes are expressed in undifferentiated cells; however rhythmicity was only established when cells are directed toward a neural fate. These studies also concluded that a functional clock is not present in ESCs, based solely on their gene expression. The null hypothesis underlying the present study is that embryonic stem cells become rhythmic in both clock gene expression and glucose utilization only when allowed to spontaneously differentiate. Undifferentiated stem cells (ESCs, n?=?6 cultures/timepoint for all experiments) were either maintained in their pluripotent state or released into differentiation (dESCs, n?=?6 cultures/timepoint for all experiments). Glucose utilization was assayed through 2-deoxyglucose uptake measurement, and clock gene and glucose transporter expression was assayed every 4 hours for 2 days in ESCs and dESCs by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the same cell lysates. Undifferentiated stem cells expressed a self-sustained rhythm in glucose uptake that was not coincident with rhythmic expression of clock genes. This physiological rhythm was paralleled by glucose transporter mRNA expression. Upon differentiation, circadian patterns of some but not all clock genes were expressed, and the amplitude of the glucose utilization rhythm was enhanced in dESCs. These data provide the earliest evidence of a functional circadian clock, in addition to further challenging the idea that rhythmic transcription of clock genes are necessary for rhythmic physiological output and suggest a role for a clock-controlled physiology in the earliest stages of development.
Paulose, Jiffin K.; Rucker, Edmund B.; Cassone, Vincent M.
Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured during the circadian cycle of Neurospora. Internal pH of Neurospora cultures in liquid medium was assayed by the 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione method and gave values for pHi which were similar to those previously obtained by other workers using pH-microelectrodes with agar-grown cultures. Cytoplasmic pH changed in liquid medium cultures, but these changes were not related to the circadian clock. Furthermore, treatments which raise or lower pHi do not phase-shift the circadian rhythm. These results indicate that pHi plays no specific role in regulating the circadian clock of Neurospora.
Johnson, Carl Hirschie
Seven healthy men were studied in a 34-h constant routine protocol to investigate whether the daily rhythm of heat production and heat loss has an endogenous circadian component. Under these unmasking conditions (constant bed rest, no sleep allowed, regular food and fluid intake), a significant circadian rhythm could be demonstrated for heat production, heart rate, and skin temperatures but not for the respiratory quotient. Heat production and heart rate were phase locked with a maximum at 1100-1200 h. Proximal skin temperatures (infraclavicular region, thigh, and forehead) followed the same circadian rhythm as rectal temperature, whereas distal skin temperatures (hands and feet) were opposite in phase. These physiological circadian rhythm parameters, as well as biochemical parameters (urinary sodium, potassium, urea, and urine flow), were phase advanced by 25-180 min with respect to the circadian rhythm in rectal temperature. Our findings under unmasking conditions show that the circadian variation in rectal temperature is a consequence of endogenous circadian rhythms in both heat production and heat loss. PMID:8092328
Kräuchi, K; Wirz-Justice, A
The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. Here, we discuss the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of C. miniata (Kaffir lily), Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. Plants are able to memorize daytime and nighttime. Even at continuous light or darkness, plants recognize nighttime or daytime and change the input resistance. The circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. The activation of voltage gated channels depends on the applied voltage, electrical charge, and the speed of transmission of electrical energy from the electrostimulator to plants. PMID:22353874
Volkov, Alexander; Waite, Astian J; Wooten, Joseph D; Markin, Vladislav S
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in many organisms. Animals that are forced to be active around the clock typically show reduced performance, health and survival. Nevertheless, we review evidence of animals showing prolonged intervals of activity with attenuated or nil overt circadian rhythms and no apparent ill effects. We show that around-the-clock and ultradian activity patterns are more common than is generally appreciated, particularly in herbivores, in animals inhabiting polar regions and habitats with constant physical environments, in animals during specific life-history stages (such as migration or reproduction), and in highly social animals. The underlying mechanisms are diverse, but studies suggest that some circadian pacemakers continue to measure time in animals active around the clock. The prevalence of around-the-clock activity in diverse animals and habitats, and an apparent diversity of underlying mechanisms, are consistent with convergent evolution. We suggest that the basic organizational principles of the circadian system and its complexity encompass the potential for chronobiological plasticity. There may be trade-offs between benefits of persistent daily rhythms versus plasticity, which for reasons still poorly understood make overt daily arrhythmicity functionally adaptive only in selected habitats and for selected lifestyles. PMID:23825202
Bloch, Guy; Barnes, Brian M; Gerkema, Menno P; Helm, Barbara
Circadian locomotor rhythm and its underlying mechanism were investigated in the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus. Adult male crickets showed a nocturnal locomotor rhythm peaking early in the dark phase of a light to dark cycle. This rhythm persisted under constant darkness (DD) with a free-running period averaging 23.1 +/- 0.3 hr. Although constant bright light made most animals arrhythmic, about 40% of the animals showed free-running rhythms with a period longer than 24 hr under constant dim light condition. On transfer to DD, all arrhythmic animals restored the locomotor rhythm. Bilateral optic nerve severance resulted in free-running of the rhythm even under light-dark cycles. The free-running period of the optic nerve severed animals was significantly longer than sham operated crickets in DD, suggesting that the compound eye plays some role in determining the free-running period. Removal of bilateral lamina-medulla portion of the optic lobe abolished the rhythm under DD. These results demonstrate that the photoreceptor for entrainment is the compound eye and the optic lobe is indispensable for persistence of the rhythm. However, 75% and 54% of the optic lobeless animals showed aberrant rhythms with a period very close to 24 hr under light and temperature cycles, respectively, suggesting that there are neural and/or humoral mechanisms for the aberrant rhythms outside of the optic lobe. Since ocelli removal did not affect the photoperiodically induced rhythm, it is likely that the photoreception for the rhythm is performed through an extraretinal photoreceptor. PMID:9450385
Abe, Y; Ushirogawa, H; Tomioka, K
Ten pregnant Sprague Dawley rat dams were exposed to spaceflight aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-70) for gestational days 11-20 (G 11-20; FLT group). Control dams were maintained in either a flight-like (FDS group) or vivarium cage environment (VIV group) on earth. All dams had ad lib access to food and water and were exposed to a light-dark cycle consisting of 12 hours of light (approximately 30 lux) followed by 12 hours of darkness. The dams were closely monitored from G 22 until parturition. All pups were cross-fostered at birth; each foster dam had a litter of 10 pups. Pups remained with their foster dam until post natal day 21 (PN 21). Pup body mass was measured twice weekly. At PN 14 FLT pups had a smaller body mass than did the VIV pups (p < 0.01). Circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity of pups from two FLT dams (n = 8), two FDS dams (n = 9) and two VIV dams (n = 7) were studied starting from age PN 21. All pups had circadian rhythms of temperature and activity at this age. There were no significant differences in rhythms between groups that could be attributed to microgravity exposure. These results indicate that exposure to the microgravity environment of spaceflight during this embryonic development period does not affect the development of the circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity. PMID:11543088
Hoban-Higgins, T M; Murakami, D M; Tang, I H; Fuller, P M; Fuller, C A
A significant subset of both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder patients rapidly (within 24 hours) and robustly improves with the chronotherapeutic intervention of sleep deprivation therapy (SDT). Major mood disorder patients are reported to have abnormal circadian rhythms including temperature, hormonal secretion, mood, and particularly sleep. These rhythms are modulated by the clock gene machinery and its products. It is hypothesized that SDT resets abnormal clock gene machinery, that relapse of depressive symptoms during recovery night sleep reactivates abnormal clock gene machinery, and that supplemental chronotherapies and medications can block relapse and help stabilize circadian-related improvement. The central circadian clock genes, BMAL1/CLOCK (NPAS2), bind to Enhancer Boxes to initiate the transcription of circadian genes, including the period genes (per1, per2, per3). It is suggested that a defect in BMAL1/CLOCK (NPAS2) or in the Enhancer Box binding contributes to altered circadian function associated, in part, with the period genes. The fact that chronotherapies, including SDT and sleep phase advance, are dramatically effective suggests that altered clock gene machinery may represent a core pathophysiological defect in a subset of mood disorder patients. PMID:22906517
Bunney, Blynn G; Bunney, William E
Circadian rhythms govern a wide variety of physiological and metabolic functions in many organisms, from prokaryotes to humans. We previously reported that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, contributes to circadian control. In addition, SIRT1 activity is regulated in a cyclic manner in virtue of the circadian oscillation of the coenzyme NAD(+). Here we used specific SIRT1 activator compounds both in vitro and in vivo. We tested a variety of compounds to show that the activation of SIRT1 alters CLOCK:BMAL1-driven transcription in different systems. Activation of SIRT1 induces repression of circadian gene expression and decreases H3 K9/K14 acetylation at corresponding promoters in a time-specific manner. Specific activation of SIRT1 was demonstrated in vivo using liver-specific SIRT1-deficient mice, where the effect of SIRT1 activator compounds was shown to be dependent on SIRT1. Our findings demonstrate that SIRT1 can fine-tune circadian rhythm and pave the way to the development of pharmacological strategies to address a broad range of therapeutic indications. PMID:23341587
Bellet, Marina M; Nakahata, Yasukazu; Boudjelal, Mohamed; Watts, Emma; Mossakowska, Danuta E; Edwards, Kenneth A; Cervantes, Marlene; Astarita, Giuseppe; Loh, Christine; Ellis, James L; Vlasuk, George P; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo
Background Organisms are able to anticipate changes in the daily environment with an internal oscillator know as the circadian clock. Transcription is an important mechanism in maintaining these oscillations. Here we explore, using whole genome tiling arrays, the extent of rhythmic expression patterns genome-wide, with an unbiased analysis of coding and noncoding regions of the Arabidopsis genome. Results As in previous studies, we detected a circadian rhythm for approximately 25% of the protein coding genes in the genome. With an unbiased interrogation of the genome, extensive rhythmic introns were detected predominantly in phase with adjacent rhythmic exons, creating a transcript that, if translated, would be expected to produce a truncated protein. In some cases, such as the MYB transcription factor AT2G20400, an intron was found to exhibit a circadian rhythm while the remainder of the transcript was otherwise arrhythmic. In addition to several known noncoding transcripts, including microRNA, trans-acting short interfering RNA, and small nucleolar RNA, greater than one thousand intergenic regions were detected as circadian clock regulated, many of which have no predicted function, either coding or noncoding. Nearly 7% of the protein coding genes produced rhythmic antisense transcripts, often for genes whose sense strand was not similarly rhythmic. Conclusions This study revealed widespread circadian clock regulation of the Arabidopsis genome extending well beyond the protein coding transcripts measured to date. This suggests a greater level of structural and temporal dynamics than previously known.
Hazen, Samuel P; Naef, Felix; Quisel, Tom; Gendron, Joshua M; Chen, Huaming; Ecker, Joseph R; Borevitz, Justin O; Kay, Steve A
Circadian rhythms govern a wide variety of physiological and metabolic functions in many organisms, from prokaryotes to humans. We previously reported that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, contributes to circadian control. In addition, SIRT1 activity is regulated in a cyclic manner in virtue of the circadian oscillation of the coenzyme NAD+. Here we used specific SIRT1 activator compounds both in vitro and in vivo. We tested a variety of compounds to show that the activation of SIRT1 alters CLOCK:BMAL1-driven transcription in different systems. Activation of SIRT1 induces repression of circadian gene expression and decreases H3 K9/K14 acetylation at corresponding promoters in a time-specific manner. Specific activation of SIRT1 was demonstrated in vivo using liver-specific SIRT1-deficient mice, where the effect of SIRT1 activator compounds was shown to be dependent on SIRT1. Our findings demonstrate that SIRT1 can fine-tune circadian rhythm and pave the way to the development of pharmacological strategies to address a broad range of therapeutic indications.
Bellet, Marina M.; Nakahata, Yasukazu; Boudjelal, Mohamed; Watts, Emma; Mossakowska, Danuta E.; Edwards, Kenneth A.; Cervantes, Marlene; Astarita, Giuseppe; Loh, Christine; Ellis, James L.; Vlasuk, George P.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo
Segregating hybrids and stable allopolyploids display morphological vigor1,2,3, and Arabidopsis allotetraploids are larger than the parents Arabidopsis thaliana and A. arenosa1,4. The mechanisms are unknown. Circadian clocks mediate metabolic pathways and increase fitness in animals and plants5,6,7,8. Here we report that epigenetic modifications of the circadian clock genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY)9,10 and their reciprocal regulators TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and GIGANTEA (GI)10,11,12 mediate expression changes in downstream genes and pathways. During the day, epigenetic repression of CCA1 and LHY induced expression of TOC1, GI and downstream genes that contain CCA1 binding site (CBS)13 in chlorophyll and starch metabolic pathways in allotetraploids and F1 hybrids, which produced more chlorophyll and starch than the parents in the same environment. Mutations in cca1 and cca1 lhy and daily repression of cca1 in TOC1:cca1-RNAi transgenic plants increased expression of downstream genes and chlorophyll and starch content, whereas constitutively expressing CCA1 or ectopically expressing TOC1:CCA1 had the opposite effects. The causal effects of CCA1 on output traits suggest that hybrids and allopolyploids gain advantages from the control of circadian-mediated physiological and metabolic pathways, leading to growth vigor and increased biomass.
Ni, Zhongfu; Kim, Eun-Deok; Ha, Misook; Lackey, Erika; Liu, Jianxin; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Chen, Z. Jeffrey
Human Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased incidence of hypertension and disrupted blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythm. Db/db mice have been used extensively as a model of Type 2 diabetes, but their BP is not well characterized. In this study, we used radiotelemetry to define BP and the circadian rhythm in db/db mice. We found that the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were each significantly increased by 11, 8, and 9 mmHg in db/db mice compared with controls. In contrast, no difference was observed in pulse pressure or heart rate. Interestingly, both the length of time db/db mice were active (locomotor) and the intensity of locomotor activity were significantly decreased in db/db mice. In contrast to controls, the 12-h light period average BP in db/db mice did not dip significantly from the 12-h dark period. A partial Fourier analysis of the continuous 72-h BP data revealed that the power and the amplitude of the 24-h period length rhythm were significantly decreased in db/db mice compared with the controls. The acrophase was centered at 0141 in control mice, but became scattered from 1805 to 0236 in db/db mice. In addition to BP, the circadian rhythms of heart rate and locomotor activity were also disrupted in db/db mice. The mean arterial pressure during the light period correlates with plasma glucose, insulin, and body weight. Moreover, the oscillations of the clock genes DBP and Bmal1 but not Per1 were significantly dampened in db/db mouse aorta compared with controls. In summary, our data show that db/db mice are hypertensive with a disrupted BP, heart rate, and locomotor circadian rhythm. Such changes are associated with dampened oscillations of clock genes DBP and Bmal1 in vasculature. PMID:18708447
Su, Wen; Guo, Zhenheng; Randall, David C; Cassis, Lisa; Brown, David R; Gong, Ming C
This study employed a mathematical model of the respiratory control system to test the plausibility of the hypothesis that circadian rhythms in respiratory control can significantly influence respiratory stability at sleep onset. Computer simulations utilized a standardized \\
Neurons in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) generate daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, but it is unclear how they maintain and synchronize these rhythms in vivo. We hypothesized that parallel signaling pathways in the SCN are required to synchronize rhythms in these neurons for coherent output. We recorded firing and clock-gene expression patterns while blocking candidate signaling pathways for
Sara J. Aton; James E. Huettner; Martin Straume; Erik D. Herzog
OBJECTIVES: Aging is associated with changes in circadian rhythms. Current evidence supports a role for circadian rhythms in the pathophysiology of depression. However, little is known about the relationship between depressive symptoms and circadian activity rhythms in older adults. We examined this association in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3,020 women (mean age: 83.55 ± 3.79 years) enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as "normal" (0-2; referent group, N = 1,961), "some depressive symptoms" (3-5, N = 704), or "depressed" (?6, N = 355). Circadian activity rhythm variables were measured using wrist actigraphy. RESULTS: In age-adjusted and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures site-adjusted models, greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with decreased amplitude (height; df = 3,014, t = -11.31, p for linear trend <0.001), pseudo F-statistic (robustness; df = 3,014, t = -8.07, p for linear trend <0.001), and mesor (mean modeled activity; df = 3014, t = -10.36, p for linear trend <0.001) of circadian activity rhythms. Greater levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with increased odds of being in the lowest quartile for amplitude (df = 1, ?(2) = 9240, p for linear trend <0.001), pseudo F-statistic (df = 1, ?(2) = 49.73, p for linear trend <0.001), and mesor (df = 1, ?(2) = 81.12, p for linear trend <0.001). These associations remained significant in multivariate models. Post-hoc analyses comparing mean amplitude, mesor, and pseudo F-statistic values pair-wise between depression-level groups revealed significant differences between women with "some depressive symptoms" and the "normal" group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a graded association between greater levels of depressive symptoms and more desynchronization of circadian activity rhythms in community-dwelling older women. This association was observed even for women endorsing subthreshold levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:23567424
Maglione, Jeanne E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W; Paudel, Misti L; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E; Tranah, Greg J; Stone, Katie L
In fish, dietary digestible energy (DE) content is a major factor controlling feed intake. It was therefore of interest to determine how circadian rhythm of feeding activity is influenced by the dietary DE levels. To that end, groups of European sea bass were fed on demand by means of self feeders, under light-dark and constant light conditions, with a fixed or an unlimited amount of feed with variable lipid contents. Daily total feed intake, but not the feeding rhythm, was adjusted in relation to the DE content of the diet regardless of the lighting conditions. We conclude that a satiation mechanism was likely responsible for the regulation of feed intake in relation to the dietary fat content but was not acting in itself on the mechanisms that drive the free-running rhythms of feeding activity. These results are giving additional evidence that a true endogenous clock is driving feeding activity rhythms in fish. PMID:10764898
Boujard, T; Gélineau, A; Corraze, G; Kaushik, S; Gasset, E; Coves, D; Dutto, G
Sleep and wake represent two profoundly different states of physiology that arise within the brain from a complex interaction between multiple neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems. These neural networks are, in turn, adjusted by three key drivers that collectively determine the duration, quality, and efficiency of sleep. Two of these drivers are endogenous, namely, the circadian system and a homeostatic hourglass oscillator, while the third is exogenous-our societal structure (social time). In this chapter, we outline the neuroscience of sleep and highlight the links between sleep, mood, cognition, and mental health. We emphasize that the complexity of sleep/wake generation and regulation makes this behavioral cycle very vulnerable to disruption and then explore this concept by examining sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) when the exogenous and endogenous drivers of sleep are in conflict. SCRD can be particularly severe when social timing forces an abnormal pattern of sleep and wake upon our endogenous sleep biology. SCRD is also very common in mental illness, and although well known, this association is poorly understood or treated. Recent studies suggest that the generation of sleep and mental health shares overlapping neural mechanisms such that defects in these endogenous pathways result in pathologies to both behaviors. The evidence for this association is examined in some detail. We conclude this review by suggesting that the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of sleep/wake behavior, and of the health consequences of sleep disruption, will provide new ways to decrease the conflict between biological and societal timing in both the healthy and individuals with mental illness. PMID:23899602
Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Wulff, Katharina; Winnebeck, Eva; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till
It has been demonstrated that the function of mammalian clock gene transcripts is controlled by the binding of heme in vitro. To examine the effects of heme on biological rhythms in vivo, we measured locomotor activity (LA) and core body temperature (T(b)) in a mouse model of porphyria with impaired heme biosynthesis by feeding mice a griseofulvin (GF)-containing diet. Mice fed with a 2.0% GF-containing diet (GF2.0) transiently exhibited phase advance or phase advance-like phenomenon by 1-3 h in terms of the biological rhythms of T(b) or LA, respectively (both, P < 0.05) while mice were kept under conditions of a light/dark cycle (12 h:12 h). We also observed a transient, ~0.3 h shortening of the period of circadian T(b) rhythms in mice kept under conditions of constant darkness (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the observed duration of abnormal circadian rhythms in GF2.0 mice lasted between 1 and 3 wk after the onset of GF ingestion; this finding correlated well with the extent of impairment of heme biosynthesis. When we examined the effects of therapeutic agents for acute porphyria, heme, and hypertonic glucose on the pathological status of GF2.0 mice, it was found that the intraperitoneal administration of heme (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or glucose (9 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 7 days partially reversed (50%) increases in urinary ?-aminolevulinic acids levels associated with acute porphyria. Treatment with heme, but not with glucose, suppressed the phase advance (-like phenomenon) in the diurnal rhythms (P < 0.05) and restored the decrease of heme (P < 0.01) in GF2.0 mice. These results suggest that impairments of heme biosynthesis, in particular a decrease in heme, may affect phase and period of circadian rhythms in animals. PMID:22552790
Iwadate, Reiko; Satoh, Yoko; Watanabe, Yukino; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Mashino, Tadahiko; Mitsumoto, Atsushi
Under conditions of feeding at will and normal light-dark alternation, rats consume the major portion of their daily food intake during the dark period and the circadian peak of plasma corticosteroid concentrations and of body temperature levels occurs just prior to or subsequent to the time of light-dark transition. Both light-dark transition and time of food presentation have been implicated as “Zeitgebers” in determining the phase of these two circadian rhythms. The present data indicate the following: (i) The time of food presentation appears to be a more potent synchronizer of the phase of plasma corticosteroid levels than is the light-dark cycle. This has been demonstrated in rats under conditions in which light-dark phase shift has been dissociated from a concomitant shift of time of eating. In contrast, under such conditions, the rhythm of body temperature appears to be more tightly coupled to the light-dark cycle. This illustrates that the time of food ingestion and the peak of body temperature rhythms can be uncoupled and that the phasing effects of restricted food ingestion on corticosteroid rhythms does not extend to body temperature rhythms. It also suggests the presence of different control mechanisms and/or pathways for corticosteroid and body temperature rhythms as well as the use of different pathways by different Zeitgebers. (ii) Rats maintained in constant dim light with free access to food exhibit aperiodic feeding behavior; plasma corticosteroid concentrations and body temperature levels are also aperiodic. Imposition of a restricted period of food access under such constant light conditions is associated with the appearance of a circadian periodicity of both plasma corticosteroid concentrations and body temperature levels, with peaks, respectively, just before and after the time of food presentation. This represents an additional example of food entrainment of previously aperiodic functions, similar to the food entrainment we have described in animals rendered aperiodic by lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Krieger, Dorothy T.; Hauser, Herbert
The circadian rhythm of hormones (N = 10) and mental performance (N = 18) was investigated in male cadets during a 5-day military training course with continuous heavy physical activities corresponding to 35% of the maximal oxygen uptake, with almost total lack of food and sleep. The 24-h means for androstenedione, dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and thyroid-stimulating hormone decreased strongly during the course, and the circadian rhythm was extinguished below the minimum levels measured during the control experiment. The 24-h means for cortisol, dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone increased during the course, and the circadian rhythm was abolished above the maximum levels of the control experiment. A gradual increase was found in thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine during the first 12 h of activities, followed by a constant decrease for the rest of the course. Mental performance decreased during the course and the amplitude of its circadian rhythm increased from +/- 10% to +/- 30% of the 24-h mean. The circadian rhythms investigated were almost normalized after 4-5 days of rest. However, the nocturnal rise for cortisol, androstenedione and DHEA appeared earlier, and the plasma levels of thyroid hormones, estradiol and DHEA-S were lower during the recovery experiment than in the control experiment. The responses to stress of the circadian rhythm for mental performance and steroid hormones during the course indicate a differential regulation. PMID:8038905
Several bodily functions in humans vary on a 24 h pattern and most of these variations persist with a circadian period ofca 25 h when subjects are studied under conditions of social and temporal isolation. We report in this paper that the estimates\\u000a of short time intervals (TE) of 2 h are strongly coupled to the circadian rhythm in sleepwakefulness.
M. K. Chandrashekaran; G. Marimuthu; R. Subbaraj; P. Kumarasamy; M. S. Ramkumar; K. Sripathi
A persisting, free-running, circadian rhythm of cell division in a heterotrophically grown mutant of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris having impaired photosynthesis is obtained upon placing a culture that has been previously synchronized by a 10,14 light-dark cycle into continuous darkness at 19 degrees C (but not at 25 degrees C). A similar persisting rhythm is initiated in exponentially increasing cultures (growing in darkness at 19 degrees C) by a single "switch-up" in irradiance to continuous bright illumination. The results implicate an endogenous biological clock which "gates" the specific event of cell division in the cell developmental cycle. PMID:5416537
Jarrett, R M; Edmunds, L N
Circadian clocks are ubiquitous biological oscillators that coordinate an organism’s behavior with the daily cycling of the external environment. To ensure synchronization with the environment, the period of the clock must be maintained near 24 h even as amplitude and phase are altered by input signaling. We show that, in a reconstituted circadian system from cyanobacteria, these conflicting requirements are satisfied by distinct functions for two domains of the central clock protein KaiC: the C-terminal autokinase domain integrates input signals through the ATP/ADP ratio, and the slow N-terminal ATPase acts as an input-independent timer. We find that phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain followed by an ATPase cycle in the N-terminal domain is required to form the inhibitory KaiB•KaiC complexes that drive the dynamics of the clock. We present a mathematical model in which this ATPase-mediated delay in negative feedback gives rise to a compensatory mechanism that allows a tunable phase and amplitude while ensuring a robust circadian period.
Phong, Connie; Markson, Joseph S.; Wilhoite, Crystal M.; Rust, Michael J.
The study of the circadian molecular clock in skeletal muscle is in the very early stages. Initial research has demonstrated the presence of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle and that skeletal muscle of a clock-compromised mouse, Clock mutant, exhibits significant disruption in normal expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. In light of the growing association between the molecular clock, metabolism, and metabolic disease, it will also be important to understand the contribution of circadian factors to normal metabolism, metabolic responses to muscle training, and contribution of the molecular clock in muscle-to-muscle disease (e.g., insulin resistance). Consistent with the potential for the skeletal muscle molecular clock modulating skeletal muscle physiology, there are findings in the literature that there is significant time-of-day effects for strength and metabolism. Additionally, there is some recent evidence that temporal specificity is important for optimizing training for muscular performance. While these studies do not prove that the molecular clock in skeletal muscle is important, they are suggestive of a circadian contribution to skeletal muscle function. The application of well-established models of skeletal muscle research in function and metabolism with available genetic models of molecular clock disruption will allow for more mechanistic understanding of potential relationships.
Zhang, Xiping; Dube, Thomas J.
This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking the "collection" tab in the left hand column. Interviews with Clifford Saper on circadian rhythm and jet lag (begins at 3:14) and David J. Stensel on exercise and appetite (begins at 11:54). Click here for the full study by David Stensel. The Buzz in Physiology (Begins at 1:25) Total Time: 20:27
APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Clifford Saper (Beth Isreal Hospital); David J Stensel (Loughborough University)
A persisting, "free-running," circadian rhythm of cell division in autotrophically grown Euglena gracilis is obtained upon placing either an exponentially increasing population or a culture that has been synchronized by a 10:14 light-dark cycle in a random illumination regimen that affords a total of 8 hours of light each 24 hours. These results are interpreted as implicating an endogenous biological clock which "gates" the specific event of cell division in the cell developmental cycle. PMID:5793244
Edmunds, L N; Funch, R R
To study the circadian rhythm changes of the heart rate variability (HRV) during chronic sound stress, Wistar rats were implanted\\u000a with telemetry transmitters and exposed to chronic ultrasound stress for 14 days. The heart rate, mean R-R intervals (mean\\u000a R-R) and body temperature were monitored hourly. The spectra of five-minute heart rate variability were plotted on a log-log\\u000a scale of
H. Takeuchi; A. Enzo; H. Minamitani
Most cardiovascular activities show a circadian rhythm, as do electrophysiological phenomenon. Under theinfluence of both external stimuli and endogenous homoeostatic mechanisms, cardiac electrophysiologicalproperties change diurnally and enable the cardiovascular system adapt to rest-exercise cycles. According torecent reports, almost all non-invasive electrophysiological phenomena, such as electrocardiographic indices,cardiac refractoriness and conduction, pacing and defibrillation threshold, heart rate variability indices, andeven Q-T dispersion
Yi-Fang Guo; Phyllis K. Stein
Lcomotor activity was recorded in singly caged pig-tailed macaques Macaca nemestrina in constant conditions with intensities of illumination varying between 0.003 lux and 100 lux. Each animal was kept in at least 5 different conditions for 2–3 weeks each. Three quantities of the circadian rhythm: the period, the duration of activity as opposed to rest, and the amount of activity
Hiromi Tokura; Jürgen Aschoff
Background Little is known about the relationships between sleep/wake circadian activity rhythms and fatigue in family caregivers (FCs) of oncology patients. Objectives In a sample of FCs of oncology patients, to describe values for nocturnal sleep/rest, daytime wake/activity, and circadian activity rhythm parameters measured using actigraphy and to evaluate the relationships between these subjective and objective measures of sleep disturbance and self-reported fatigue severity. Methods FCs (n=103) completed self-report measures for sleep disturbance (i.e., Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, General Sleep Disturbance Scale) and fatigue (Lee Fatigue Scale) and wore wrist actigraphs for 48 hours prior to beginning radiation therapy. Spearman rank correlations were calculated between variables. Results Approximately 40% to 60% of FCs experienced sleep disturbance depending on whether clinically significant cutoffs for the subjective or objective measures were used to calculate occurrence rates. In addition, these FCs reported moderate levels of fatigue. Only a limited number of significant correlations were found between the subjective and objective measures of sleep disturbance. Significant positive correlations were found between fatigue and subjective, but not objective measures of sleep disturbance. The amplitude of circadian activity rhythm was not related to any objective sleep measure but was correlated with self-report of longer sleep onset latency. Conclusions A significant percentage of FCs experience clinically meaningful disturbances in sleep-wake circadian activity rhythms. These disturbances occur primarily in sleep maintenance. Implications for Practice: FCs need to be assessed, along with patients, for sleep disturbance and appropriate interventions initiated for them and for the patient.
Dhruva, Anand; Lee, Kathryn; Paul, Steven M.; West, Claudia; Dunn, Laura; Dodd, Marylin; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Cooper, Bruce; Swift, Patrick; Miaskowski, Christine
Traveling through several time zones results in a constellation of symptoms known as jet lag. These include reduced alertness,\\u000a daytime fatigue, loss of appetite, reduced cognitive skills, and disruption of the sleep\\/wake cycle. In susceptible air travel\\u000a passengers, jet lag may exacerbate affective illness and result in psychiatric morbidity. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms\\u000a and melatonin secretion represent the common underlying
Venkatramanujam Srinivasan; Jarnail Singh; Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal; Gregory M. Brown; David Warren Spence; Daniel P. Cardinali
We compared the period of the rhythm of plasma melatonin, driven by the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker, to in vitro periodicity in cultured peripheral fibroblasts to assess the effects on these rhythms of a polymorphism of PER3 (rs57875989), which is associated with sleep timing. In vitro circadian period was determined using luminometry of cultured fibroblasts, in which the expression of firefly luciferase was driven by the promoter of the circadian gene Arntl (Bmal1). The period of the melatonin rhythm was assessed in a 9-d forced desynchrony protocol, minimizing confounding effects of sleep-wake and light-dark cycles on circadian rhythmicity. In vitro periods (32 participants, 24.61±0.33 h, mean±sd) were longer than in vivo periods (31 participants, 24.16±0.17 h; P<0.0001) but did not differ between PER3 genotypes (P>0.4). Analyses of replicate in vitro assessments demonstrated that circadian period was reproducible within individuals (intraclass correlation=0.62), but in vivo and in vitro period assessments did not correlate (P>0.9). In accordance with circadian entrainment theory, in vivo period correlated with the timing of melatonin (P<0.05) at baseline and with diurnal preference (P<0.05). Individual circadian rhythms can be reliably assessed in fibroblasts but may not correlate with physiological rhythms driven by the central circadian pacemaker.—Hasan, S., Santhi, N., Lazar, A.S., Slak, A., Lo, J., von Schantz, M., Archer, S. N., Johnston, J. D., Dijk, D.-J. Assessment of circadian rhythms in humans: comparison of real-time fibroblast reporter imaging with plasma melatonin.
Hasan, Sibah; Santhi, Nayantara; Lazar, Alpar S.; Slak, Ana; Lo, June; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Johnston, Jonathan D.; Dijk, Derk-Jan
Objective Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can display the features of endogenous hypercortisolism but are difficult to evaluate for Cushing's syndrome. We evaluated the circadian rhythm of plasma compared with salivary cortisol in subjects with ESRD. Design Plasma and salivary cortisol and plasma ACTH samples were drawn frequently over 24?h in an inpatient research unit in stable ESRD subjects on daytime chronic hemodialysis (n=16) vs controls (n=8). Methods Plasma cortisol was measured every 2?h from 0800 to 0600?h the following day. Salivary cortisol was measured every 2?h, except between 2400 and 0400?h (sleep time). Plasma ACTH measured in a subset of samples and C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured as a marker of a subclinical inflammatory state in all subjects. Results ESRD subjects had a discernable circadian rhythm in plasma and salivary cortisol, but with a significantly higher nadir (1800–2400?h) compared with the controls (P=0.016–<0.001). After excluding four ESRD subjects without a normal circadian rhythm, the ESRD subjects still had higher nadir plasma and salivary cortisol and plasma ACTH compared with controls. There was no difference in the correlation of salivary and plasma cortisol in control vs ESRD subjects. ESRD subjects had higher CRP levels compared with controls. Conclusions ESRD subjects had increased late-night plasma and salivary cortisol and plasma ACTH levels. Late-night salivary cortisol is a reliable index of plasma cortisol in ESRD patients.
Raff, Hershel; Trivedi, Hariprasad
Activity rhythms in 24 h light-dark cycles, constant darkness, and constant light conditions were analyzed in four different Nasonia species for each sex separately. Besides similarities, clear differences are evident among and within Nasonia species as well as between sexes. In all species, activity in a light-dark cycle is concentrated in the photophase, typical for diurnal organisms. Contrary to most diurnal insect species so far studied, Nasonia follows Aschoff's rule by displaying long (>24 h) internal rhythms in constant darkness but short (<24 h) in constant light. In constant light, N. vitripennis males display robust circadian activity rhythms, whereas females are usually arrhythmic. In contrast to other Nasonia species, N. longicornis males display anticipatory activity, i.e. activity shortly before light-on in a light-dark cycle. As expected, N. oneida shows activity patterns similar to those of N. giraulti but with important differences in key circadian parameters. Differences in circadian activity patterns and parameters between species may reflect synchronization of specific life-history traits to environmental conditions. Scheduling mating or dispersion to a specific time of the day could be a strategy to avoid interspecific hybridization in Nasonia species that live in sympatry.
Bertossa, Rinaldo C.; van Dijk, Jeroen; Diao, Wenwen; Saunders, David; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Beersma, Domien G. M.
The reported circadian rhythm of blood pressure variability with a rise in pressure before awakening has been the subject of controversy. Previous studies have suggested that since heart rate continues to fall before awakening while blood pressure is rising these physiological variables are subject to different control mechanisms. To evaluate further the dissociation of heart rate and blood pressure changes in a group of patients with a fixed heart rate, 11 patients who were dependent on ventricular demand pacemakers underwent intra-arterial ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Nine aged matched control subjects followed the same protocol. Circadian curves plotted from pooled hourly mean data showed that despite a fixed heart rate the circadian pattern persisted, although attenuated, with blood pressure rising several hours before its rapid rise on awakening. Physiological testing showed that despite a fixed heart rate systolic blood pressure rose in response to bicycle exercise, there was a postural fall in the blood pressure on tilting and a modified Valsalva response. There was considerable beat to beat variability resulting presumably from asychronous pacing. Hour to hour changes did not contribute to the differences between the two groups and were not responsible for attenuation of the circadian rhythm. It is concluded that blood pressure and heart rate control mechanisms may be dissociated, particularly in the period before awakening. PMID:6743428
Davies, A B; Gould, B A; Cashman, P M; Raftery, E B
Circadian disruption in shift-work is common and has deleterious effects on health and performance. Current efforts to mitigate these harms reasonably focus on the phase of the circadian pacemaker, which unfortunately in humans, shifts slowly and often incompletely. Temporal reorganization of rhythmic waveform (i.e., the shape of its 24?h oscillation), rather than phase, however, may better match performance demands of shift-workers and can be quickly and feasibly implemented in animals. In fact, a bifurcated pacemaker waveform may permit stable entrainment of a bimodal sleep/wake rhythm promoting alertness in both night and daylight hours. Although bifurcation has yet to be formally assessed in humans, evidence of conserved properties of circadian organization and plasticity predict its occurrence: humans respond to conventional manipulations of waveform (e.g., photoperiodism); behaviorally, the sleep/wake rhythm is adaptable; and finally, the human circadian system likely derives from the same multiple cellular oscillators that permit waveform flexibility in the rodent pacemaker. In short, investigation into untried manipulations of waveform in humans to facilitate adjustment to challenging schedules is justified.
Harrison, Elizabeth M.; Gorman, Michael R.
We tested whether a high potassium diet alters lithium's effects on locomotor activity rhythms to the same extent as it prevents lithium toxicity. Rats fed a standard diet containing 0.47% potassium lost weight after subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic pump delivering 1.35 mg of lithium chloride per hour, and most died or became sick within three weeks after implantation. In contrast, all rats fed a diet containing 4.1% potassium gained weight at the same rate regardless of whether they had received lithium infusions or placebo. In a second experiment, lithium administration by either diet or osmotic pump delayed wheel running rhythms, showing that lithium's central nervous system action did not depend on potassium intake or method of lithium administration. Dietary potassium supplementation may provide a useful strategy for improving the therapeutic index of lithium treatment. PMID:3600167
Klemfuss, H; Kripke, D F
In the inhabitants of the North during increase of geomagnetic activity and during magnetic calm the decrease of amplitude of circadian rhythm of total antioxidant capacity of saliva is observed. The most favorable conditions to display the circadian rhythm are observed at Kp from 0,5 up to 2. The long residing in the North is connected to influence of irregularly varying geomagnetic activity causing disturbance of function of circadian and antioxidant systems that, probably, is one of the reasons of acceleration of process of aging at northerner and of higher risk of occurrence in them the age associated diseases. PMID:18383711
Borisenkov, M F
Objective Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) show a time-of-night pattern, with most movements at the beginning of the night. Our study aimed to determine whether this pattern is due to an endogenous circadian rhythm, like that in the related movement disorder Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). Methods Four healthy older adults with a screening PLMI> 20 were studied in an inpatient forced desynchrony protocol with an imposed sleep-wake cycle of 20 hours for twelve “nights,” allowing separation of circadian and sleep homeostatic influences on leg movements. We recorded sleep polysomnographically throughout each scheduled episode, including left and right anterior tibialis EMG. Results PLMS in Stage 2 showed both a significant time-within-sleep pattern and a significant circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm in PLMS peaked at the circadian phases when usual sleep onset occurs, preceding the evening rise in melatonin secretion. Conclusions In our subjects, the circadian pattern of PLMs expression was very similar to that previously reported in patients with RLS. This evidence for a circadian rhythm in PLMS has implications for treatment and provides direction for future studies of the pathophysiology of this movement disorder.
Duffy, Jeanne F.; Lowe, Alex S.W.; Silva, Edward J.; Winkelman, John W.
The role of the compound eyes in entrainment of the circadian activity rhythm was examined in Protophormia terraenovae (Diptera: Calliphoridae). In intact females, the freerunning period of the rhythm under constant darkness was about 25.0h. The rhythm entrained to light–dark (LD) cycles with activity restricted to the photophase. When the compound eyes were completely covered with silver paint and black
Y. Hamasaka; Y. Watari; T. Arai; H. Numata; S. Shiga
Although there is good consensus that a single administration of melatonin in the early evening can phase advance human circadian rhythms, the evidence for phase delay shifts to a single melatonin stimulus given in the early morning is sparse. We therefore carried out a double-blind randomized-order placebo-controlled study under modified constant routine (CR) conditions (58 hr bedrest under approximately 8 lux with sleep 23:00-07:00 hr) in nine healthy young men. A single (pharmacological) dose of melatonin (5 mg p.o.) or a placebo was administered at 07:00 hr on the first morning. Core body temperature (CBT) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded, and saliva was collected half-hourly for assay of melatonin. Neither the timing of the mid-range crossing times of temperature (MRCT) and HR rhythms, nor dim light melatonin onset (DLMOn) or offset (DLMOff) were phase shifted the day after melatonin administration compared with placebo. The only change was an altered wave form of the CBT rhythm: longer duration of higher-than-average temperature after melatonin administration. Under the same modified CR conditions we have previously demonstrated a clear phase advance of the above circadian rhythms following a single administration of 5 mg melatonin in the evening. This study's failure to find significant delays to a single administration does not negate other positive findings with multiple doses, which may be necessary for a 'weak zeitgeber'. PMID:11841593
Wirz-Justice, Anna; Werth, Esther; Renz, Claudia; Müller, Simon; Kräuchi, Kurt
Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease characterized by loss of sleep activity due to selective thalamic degeneration. To assess the secretory pattern of melatonin (MT) in FFI, we studied two cases of overt disease under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control. Each patient underwent repeated 24-h study sessions, and MT was assayed at 30-min intervals. Six healthy volunteers were used as controls. Slow wave sleep was never recorded, whereas occasional episodes of enacted dreaming accompanied by rapid ocular movements and complex muscular activities were documented, with no detectable rhythm. Plasma MT concentrations gradually decreased as the disease progressed. A significant circadian rhythm was detected in the earlier recordings, with decreasing amplitudes with disease progression. Complete rhythm obliteration was achieved in the most advanced stage. Normally placed nocturnal acrophases were detected in the earlier stages, but then a shift toward the daytime hours was observed. Thalamic lesions of FFI appear to determine a progressive disruption of the sleep/wake cycle accompanied by decreased circulating levels of MT, with progressive alterations in the circadian rhythm of this hormone. On the other hand, decreased secretion of MT may contribute to the sleep disturbances of FFI. PMID:8175963
Portaluppi, F; Cortelli, P; Avoni, P; Vergnani, L; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A; Sforza, E; Degli Uberti, E C; Gambetti, P; Lugaresi, E
The nightly production and secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland, an endocrine organ near the anatomical center of the brain, provides important time-of-day and time-of-year information to the remainder of the body. In mammals, the circadian rhythm of melatonin (low levels during the day and high levels at night) is synchronized by the prevailing light:dark environment with the retinas of the eyes doing the photoreception required for the induction of this rhythm. The advent of artificial light sources has allowed animals or humans to be exposed to light at unusual times, i.e., during the night. Light falling on the retinas at night leads to a rapid depression in the production and secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland. The magnitude of the drop in circulating melatonin due to light exposure at night is related to the brightness (intensity) as well as the wavelength (color) of light to which humans are exposed. The lowered melatonin values following unusual light exposure at night provide erroneous information to a number of organs that respond to the melatonin message since the signal implies it is day when, in fact, it is still night. Besides visible light, certain ultraviolet wavelengths as well as extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields may also disturb the melatonin rhythm. These nonvisible wavelengths may influence the circadian melatonin rhythm by mechanisms similar to those by which light causes disturbances of melatonin production and release. PMID:1509117
Reiter, R J
Background Clinical psychiatry has always been limited by the lack of objective tests to substantiate diagnoses and a lack of specific treatments that target underlying pathophysiology. One area in which these twin failures has been most frustrating is major depression. Due to very considerable progress in the basic and clinical neurosciences of sleep-wake cycles and underlying circadian systems this situation is now rapidly changing. Discussion The development of specific behavioral or pharmacological strategies that target these basic regulatory systems is driving renewed clinical interest. Here, we explore the extent to which objective tests of sleep-wake cycles and circadian function - namely, those that measure timing or synchrony of circadian-dependent physiology as well as daytime activity and nighttime sleep patterns - can be used to identify a sub-class of patients with major depression who have disturbed circadian profiles. Summary Once this unique pathophysiology is characterized, a highly personalized treatment plan can be proposed and monitored. New treatments will now be designed and old treatments re-evaluated on the basis of their effects on objective measures of sleep-wake cycles, circadian rhythms and related metabolic systems.
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers emerge from the pupae with no circadian rhythms in behavior or brain clock gene expression but show strong rhythms later in life. This postembryonic development of circadian rhythms is reminiscent of that of infants of humans and other primates but contrasts with most insects, which typically emerge from the pupae with strong circadian rhythms. Very little is known about the internal and external factors regulating the ontogeny of circadian rhythms in bees or in other animals. We tested the hypothesis that the environment during early life influences the later expression of circadian rhythms in locomotor activity in young honey bees. We reared newly emerged bees in various social environments, transferred them to individual cages in constant laboratory conditions, and monitored their locomotor activity. We found that the percentage of rhythmic individuals among bees that experienced the colony environment for their first 48 h of adult life was similar to that of older sister foragers, but their rhythms were weaker. Sister bees isolated individually in the laboratory for the same period were significantly less likely to show circadian rhythms in locomotor activity. Bees experiencing the colony environment for only 24 h, or staying for 48 h with 30 same-age sister bees in the laboratory, were similar to bees individually isolated in the laboratory. By contrast, bees that were caged individually or in groups in single- or double-mesh enclosures inside a field colony were as likely to exhibit circadian rhythms as their sisters that were freely moving in the same colony. These findings suggest that the development of the circadian system in young adult honey bees is faster in the colony than in isolation. Direct contact with the queen, workers, or the brood, contact pheromones, and trophallaxis, which are all important means of communication in honey bees, cannot account for the influence of the colony environment, since they were all withheld from the bees in the double-mesh enclosures. Our results suggest that volatile pheromones, the colony microenvironment, or both influence the ontogeny of circadian rhythms in honey bees. PMID:22653890
Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Shemesh, Yair; Bloch, Guy
Rhythmic frq transcription is essential for the function of the Neurospora circadian clock. Here we show that there is a circadian histone occupancy rhythm at the frq promoter that is regulated by FREQUENCY (FRQ). Using a combination of forward genetics and genome sequencing, we identify Clock ATPase (CATP) as an essential clock component. Our results demonstrate that CATP associates with the frq locus and other WCC target genes and promotes histone removal at these loci to allow circadian gene transcription. These results indicate that the rhythmic control of histone occupancy at clock genes is critical for circadian clock function. PMID:23958634
Cha, Joonseok; Zhou, Mian; Liu, Yi
A circadian rhythm in the intracellular level of K+ in Gonyaulax polyedra is reported. When axenic cultures of Gonyaulax in continuous light (60-75 fot candles) are exposed for 4 hours to 0.1 or 0.2% ethanol, the subsequent free-running rhythm in stimulated bioluminescence is phase-shifted, the amount and direction of the shift being dependent on the time in the circadian cycle when cells are treated. The phase-response curve for ethanol closely resembles that for light in similarly maintained cells. When valinomycin (0.1 or 0.2 ?g ml?1) is present in addition to ethanol, the phase of the bioluminescence rhythm is returned to that of an untreated cell suspension. Valinomycin thus negates the effect of ethanol on phase. The intracellular K+ level immediately after treatment of a cell suspension for 4 hours with ethanol (0.1%) is about half that of untreated cells. If valinomycin (0.1 ?g ml?1) is also present during the 4-hour treatment, the intracellular K+ is only slightly lower than in untreated cells. Increasing the external concentration of K+ or Na+ for 4 hours has no effect on the rhythm of stimulated bioluminescence. These results are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the mechanism by which circadian oscillations are generated involves changes in membrane properties.
Sweeney, Beatrice M.
Daily fluctuations of cortisol concentration in the blood or saliva have been repeatedly reported. However, several contradictions in the existing literature appear on this subject. The present study was performed to definitively establish options for testing adrenocortical function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate parallel circadian rhythms in salivary and serum cortisol concentrations during a 24-h period. Twenty horses were examined under the same conditions. Blood and saliva samples were taken every 2 h for 24 h to determine the daily changes in cortisol concentrations of saliva and serum at rest and to determine the relationship between salivary and serum cortisol levels. Cosinor analysis of group mean data confirmed a significant circadian component for both serum and salivary cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001 in both cases). The serum cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:50 AM (95% CI, 10:00 AM-11:40 AM), a MESOR of 22.67 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 11.93 ng/mL. The salivary cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:00 AM (95% CI, 9:00 AM-11:00 AM), a MESOR of 0.52 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 0.12 ng/mL. We found a significant but weak association between salivary and serum cortisol concentrations; the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (P < 0.001). The use of salivary cortisol level as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may be warranted. However, the salivary cortisol levels are more likely to be correlated with free plasma cortisol than with the total plasma cortisol concentration. PMID:23688596
Bohák, Zs; Szabó, F; Beckers, J-F; Melo de Sousa, N; Kutasi, O; Nagy, K; Szenci, O
Objective Studies on the influence of genetic factors on the ontogeny of cortisol circadian rhythm in infants are lacking. This study evaluated the influence of twinning and the heritability on the age of emergence of salivary cortisol rhythm. Design and subjects A longitudinal study was performed using salivary samples obtained during morning and night, at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks of postnatal life in 34 infants, 10 monozygotic (MZ) and 7 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Salivary cortisol was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Zigosity was verified by DNA analysis of at least 13 short tandem repeat polymorphisms. Difference of the emergence of cortisol circadian rhythm, within each twin pair, the intraclass correlation coefficient and the heritability index (h2) were calculated. Results The mean (± SEM) age of emergence of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm was similar in MZ and DZ (7·8 ± 1·0 vs 7·4 ± 1·3 weeks). Seven pairs showed coincidence of the emergence of cortisol rhythm. Ten pairs were not coincident; among them the within-pair difference of emergence of salivary circadian rhythm was similar in both MZ and DZ groups. The intraclass correlation coefficients were rMZ = 0·60, P = 0·02; and rDZ = 0·65, P = 0·03, respectively. The heritability index (h2) was 0·21 (ns). Conclusions Salivary circadian rhythm appeared at the same postnatal age in MZ and DZ twin infants. Although several physiological aspects might be involved, the heritability index, obtained in the present study, suggests less genetic than environmental impact on the age of the onset of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Our data also indicated that each twin-pair show synchrony because they probably shared prenatal and postnatal environmental synchronizers.
Custodio, Rodrigo Jose; Junior, Carlos Eduardo Martinelli; Milani, Soraya Lopes Sader; Simoes, Aguinaldo Luis; de Castro, Margaret; Moreira, Ayrton Custodio
In man bile acid synthesis has a distinct circadian rhythm but the relationship of this rhythm to feedback inhibition by bile acid is unknown. We measured bile acid synthesis as release of 14CO2 from (26-14C)cholesterol every 2 hr in three normal volunteers during five separate 24-hr periods. Data were fitted by computer to a cosine curve to estimate amplitude and acrophase of the circadian rhythm. In an additional six volunteers, we measured synthesis every 2 hr from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. only. During the control period, amplitude (expressed as percentage of mean synthesis) averaged 52% and acrophase averaged 6:49 a.m. During administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 126% of baseline (p less than 0.1), amplitude averaged 43% and acrophase averaged 6:20 a.m. During administration of chenodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 43% of baseline (p less than 0.001), amplitude averaged 53% and acrophase averaged 9:04 a.m. Addition of prednisone to this regimen of chenodeoxycholic acid to eliminate release of 14CO2 from corticosteroid hormone synthesis resulted in a mean amplitude of 62% and a mean acrophase of 6:50 a.m., values very similar to those in the baseline period. Administration of prednisone alone also did not significantly alter the baseline amplitude (40%) or acrophase (6:28 a.m.). We conclude that neither chenodeoxycholic acid nor ursodeoxycholic acid significantly alters the circadian rhythm of bile acid synthesis in man.
Pooler, P.A.; Duane, W.C.
"Permanent" or "fixed" night shifts have been argued to offer a potential benefit over rotating shift systems in that they may serve to maximize circadian adjustment and hence minimize the various health and safety problems associated with night work. For this reason, some authors have argued in favor of permanent shift systems, but their arguments assume at least a substantial, if not complete, adjustment of the circadian clock. They have emphasized the finding that the day sleeps taken between successive night shifts by permanent night workers are rather longer than those of either slowly or rapidly rotating shift workers, but this could simply reflect increased pressure for sleep. The present paper reviews the literature on the adjustment to permanent night work of the circadian rhythm in the secretion of melatonin, which is generally considered to be the best known indicator of the state of the endogenous circadian body clock. Studies of workers in "abnormal" environments, such as oil rigs and remote mining operations, were excluded, as the nature of these unique settings might serve to assist adjustment. The results of the six studies included indicate that only a very small minority (<3%) of permanent night workers evidence "complete"adjustment of their endogenous melatonin rhythm to night work, less than one in four permanent night workers evidence sufficiently "substantial" adjustment to derive any benefit from it, there is no difference between studies conducted in normal or dim lighting, and there is no evidence of gender difference in the adjustment to permanent night work. It is concluded that in normal environments, permanent night-shift systems are unlikely to result in sufficient circadian adjustment in most individuals to benefit health and safety. PMID:18533325
Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) as a zeitnehmer (time taker) is responsible for generation of circadian rhythm and regulation of photoperiodic flowering. There are two orthologs (OsELF3-1 and OsELF3-2) of ELF3 in rice (Oryza sativa), but their roles have not yet been fully identified. Here, we performed a functional characterization of OsELF3-1 and revealed it plays a more predominant role than OsELF3-2 in rice heading. Our results suggest OsELF3-1 can affect rice circadian systems via positive regulation of OsLHY expression and negative regulation of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsPRR73 and OsPRR95 expression. In addition, OsELF3-1 is involved in blue light signaling by activating EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (Ehd1) expression to promote rice flowering under short-day (SD) conditions. Moreover, OsELF3-1 suppresses a flowering repressor GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (Ghd7) to indirectly accelerate flowering under long-day (LD) conditions. Taken together, our results indicate OsELF3-1 is essential for circadian regulation and photoperiodic flowering in rice.
Chen, Weilan; Du, Anping; Zhu, Ling; Wang, Shiguang; Deng, Xing Wang; Li, Shigui
Residents in the marine intertidal, the zone where terrestrial and marine habitats converge, inhabit an environment that is subject to both the 24-h day and night daily rhythm of the terrestrial earth and also the 12.4-h ebb and flow of the tidal cycle. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of the daily and tidal cycle on the physiology of intertidal mussels, Mytilus californianus, by monitoring rhythms of gene expression in both simulated and natural tidal environments. We report that >40% of the transcriptome exhibits rhythmic gene expression, and that depending on the specific tidal conditions, between 80% and 90% of the rhythmic transcripts follow a circadian expression pattern with a period of 24 to 26 h. Consistent with the dominant effect of the circadian cycle we show that the expression of clock genes oscillates with a 24-h period. Our data indicate that the circadian 24-h cycle is the dominant driver of rhythmic gene expression in this intertidal inhabitant despite the profound environmental and physiological changes associated with aerial exposure during tidal emergence.
Connor, Kwasi M.; Gracey, Andrew Y.
Investigation of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) circadian chronological structure changes by means of blood pressure monitoring in healthy pregnant women during development of gestational hypertension (GH) and pre-eclampsia (PE) was carried out. 72 hours blood pressure monitoring (TM-2421 device, Tokyo, Japan) was carried out in 34 healthy pregnant women. Parametric and non-parametric indices of circadian rhythms were determined, which allowed us to include in group A 17 women who had normal BP until delivery. Group B consisted of 17 women with hypertension in II and III trimesters. Increase of hyperbaric index (HBI) of SBP was revealed in the I trimester in women in whom hypertension was developed later in pregnancy. HBI was used as a prognostic criterion of developing MESOR-hypertension long before its clinical manifestation. In the II and III trimesters HBI, per cent time of elevation (PTE%) and MESORs of SBP and DBP circadian rhythms progressively augmented. Pregnant women with hypertension belonged to type non-dipper according to D/N% changes (less then 10%). This may be the result of insufficient decrease of night values of SBP in group B pregnant women, which is characteristic of GH and PE. PMID:17057308
Shaginian, M G
We have developed a rhesus monkey model that enables us to investigate physiological rhythms and circadian effects on performance in an integrated framework. Monkeys worked for 8 h/day on a two-component task (a vigilance trial followed by a discrimination trial) for their daily food aliquot. Concurrently, we recorded activity and temperature rhythms around the clock. To test the model, we studied rhythms and performance during entrainment to a 24-h light cycle and after a 6-h phase advance. Results from this animal model displayed many of the essential characteristics seen in similar human experiments. During stable entrainment, temperature rhythms reached their maximum amplitude in late afternoon, with activity rhythms reaching their maximum amplitude several hours earlier. Performance exhibited consistent task-dependent variations over the course of daily sessions. Speed of discrimination performance was fastest at the beginning of the session, and speed of vigilance performance was fastest several hours later. After a 6-h phase advance, monkeys exhibited transient internal desynchrony with activity resynchronizing faster than temperature. Both vigilance and discrimination were impaired after the phase shift, with vigilance exhibiting larger-magnitude and longer-lasting impairments than discrimination. A second drop in performance was seen 10-14 days after the phase shift. These data replicate and extend earlier work in humans and show that this model can be used in the study of chronobiological questions that would be too expensive or too impractical to do with humans. PMID:2801999
Tapp, W N; Natelson, B H
Subterranean common mole voles, Ellobius talpinus, were implanted with long-term recording electronic thermometers to obtain hourly body temperature (T(b)) data during either the wintertime or summertime. The two individuals tested during the summertime had significant circadian and ultradian rhythms in their T(b). Four of the five mole voles tested during the wintertime lacked rhythmicity in their T(b). The fifth individual lacked circadian rhythms but had ultradian rhythms in its T(b). A loss of circadian rhythms in T(b) during deep torpor or hibernation has been reported for a few species of mammals. Inasmuch as the mole voles' wintertime T(b) remained at euthermic levels, our results show that a loss of circadian body temperature rhythms in mole voles does not require the low T(b) of deep torpor or hibernation. A tentative conclusion, based on these few animals, is that in common mole voles the T(b) rhythms may disappear during the wintertime even though their T(b) remains high. PMID:20560717
Petrovski, Dmitry V; Novikov, Eugene A; Burns, John T; Moshkin, Mikhail P
To investigate whether measurements of cortisol responses to exercise are confounded by neglect of the hormone's circadian rhythm, we measured the serum and salivary cortisol responses of eight women to 40 min of 70% maximal oxygen consumption treadmill exercise beginning at 0800 and 2000. Responses were calculated relative to the usually employed preexercise concentrations and also to concentrations at the same times of another day while subjects were at rest. Compared with areas under response curves (AUCs) calculated relative to their circadian baselines, AUCs for serum and salivary cortisol calculated by reference to preexercise concentrations were underestimated (serum, P < 0.001; salivary, P < 0.01) by 93 and 84% in the morning and by 37 and 35% in the evening, respectively. Calculated by the usual preexercise baseline method, rises in serum and salivary cortisol were similarly underestimated. More accurately calculated relative to their circadian baselines, serum and salivary cortisol AUCs were similar (P = 0.63 and P = 0.37, respectively) in the morning and evening, as were their rises (P = 0.23 and P = 0.70, respectively). In future investigations of the existence and magnitude of cortisol responses, those responses must be calculated relative to the hormone's circadian baseline. PMID:7649899
Thuma, J R; Gilders, R; Verdun, M; Loucks, A B
In this work we study a system of three van der Pol oscillators. Two of the oscillators are identical, and are not directly coupled to each other, but rather are coupled via the third oscillator. We investigate the existence of the in-phase mode in which the two identical oscillators have the same behavior. To this end we use the two variable expansion perturbation method (also known as multiple scales) to obtain a slow flow, which we then analyze using the computer algebra system MACSYMA and the numerical bifurcation software AUTO. Our motivation for studying this system comes from the presence of circadian rhythms in the chemistry of the eyes. We model the circadian oscillator in each eye as a van der Pol oscillator. Although there is no direct connection between the two eyes, they are both connected to the brain, especially to the pineal gland, which is here represented by a third van der Pol oscillator.
Rompala, Kevin; Rand, Richard; Howland, Howard
The incidence of the metabolic syndrome represents a spectrum of disorders that continue to increase across the industrialized world. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to metabolic syndrome and recent evidence has emerged to suggest that alterations in circadian systems and sleep participate in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we highlight studies at the intersection of clinical medicine and experimental genetics that pinpoint how perturbations of the internal clock system, and sleep, constitute risk factors for disorders including obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and even inflammation. An exciting aspect of the field has been the integration of behavioral and physiological approaches, and the emerging insight into both neural and peripheral tissues in disease pathogenesis. Consideration of the cell and molecular links between disorders of circadian rhythms and sleep with metabolic syndrome has begun to open new opportunities for mechanism-based therapeutics. PMID:20167942
Maury, Eleonore; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Bass, Joseph
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), a monosynaptic retinal projection to the SCN, is the major path by which light entrains the circadian system to the external photoperiod. The circadian system of rodents effectively integrates or counts photons, and the magnitude of the rhythm phase response is proportional to the total energy of the photic stimulus. In the present studies, responsiveness to light and integrative capacity of the circadian system were tested in hamsters after reduction of retinal photoreceptor input by 50%. At CT 19, animals in constant darkness with or without unilateral retinal occlusion were exposed to 1 of 6 irradiances of 5-min white-light pulses ranging from 0.0011 to 70 microW/cm(2) or 5 white-light pulses of 0.6 microW/cm(2) with durations ranging from 0.25 to 150.0 min. Assessment of light-induced circadian rhythm phase response and Fos expression in the SCN by these animals revealed that a 50% reduction in input from photoreceptors stimulated directly with light caused a decrease in responsiveness to the longest duration and highest irradiance pulses presented. Despite this effect, both the magnitude of Fos induction in the SCN and phase-shift response remained directly proportional to the total energy in the photic stimuli. The results support the view that a reciprocal relationship between stimulus irradiance and duration persists despite the 50% reduction in retinal photoreceptor input. The mechanism of integration neither resides in the retina nor in the RHT. PMID:16275770
Muscat, Louise; Morin, Lawrence P
Several hypothetical models suggest that the circadian clock system is involved in the photoperiodic clock mechanisms in insects. However, there is no evidence for this at a neuronal level. In the present study, whether circadian clock neurons were involved in photoperiodism was examined by surgical ablation of small area in the brain and by immunocytochemical analysis in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae. Five types of PER-immunoreactive cells, dorsal lateral neurons (LN(d)), large ventral lateral neurons (l-LN(v)), small ventral lateral neurons (s-LN(v)), lateral dorsal neurons (DN(l)) and medial dorsal neurons (DN(m)) were found, corresponding to period-expressing neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. Four l-LN(v)s and four s-LN(v)s were bilaterally double-labelled with antisera against pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and PER. When the anterior base of the medulla in the optic lobe, where PDF-immunoreactive somata (l-LN(v) and s-LN(v)) are located, was bilaterally ablated, 55% of flies showed arrhythmic or obscure activity patterns under constant darkness. Percentages of flies exhibiting a rhythmic activity pattern decreased along with the number of small PDF-immunoreactive somata (i.e. s-Ln(v)). When regions containing small PDF somata (s-LN(v)) were bilaterally ablated, flies did not discriminate photoperiod, and diapause incidences were 48% under long-day and 55% under short-day conditions. The results suggest that circadian clock neurons, s-LN(v)s, driving behavioural rhythms might also be involved in photoperiodism, and that circadian behavioural rhythms and photoperiodism share neural elements in their underlying mechanisms. PMID:19252004
Shiga, Sakiko; Numata, Hideharu
A relationship exists between the sleep-wake cycle and hormone secretion, which, in women, is further modulated by the menstrual cycle. This interaction can influence sleep across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), who experience specific alterations of circadian rhythms during their symptomatic luteal phase along with sleep disturbances during this time. This review will address the variation of sleep at different menstrual phases in healthy and PMDD women, as well as changes in circadian rhythms, with an emphasis on their relationship with female sex hormones. It will conclude with a brief discussion on nonpharmacological treatments of PMDD which use chronotherapeutic methods to realign circadian rhythms as a means of improving sleep and mood in these women.
Shechter, Ari; Boivin, Diane B.
Total glucocorticoid hormone levels in plasma of various species, including humans, follow a circadian rhythm that is made up from an underlying series of hormone pulses. In blood most of the glucocorticoid is bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin and albumin, resulting in low levels of free hormone. Although only the free fraction is biologically active, surprisingly little is known about the rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormones. We used single-probe microdialysis to measure directly the free corticosterone levels in the blood of freely behaving rats. Free corticosterone in the blood shows a distinct circadian and ultradian rhythm with a pulse frequency of approximately one pulse per hour together with an increase in hormone levels and pulse height toward the active phase of the light/dark cycle. Similar rhythms were also evident in the subcutaneous tissue, demonstrating that free corticosterone rhythms are transferred from the blood into peripheral target tissues. Furthermore, in a dual-probe microdialysis study, we demonstrated that the circadian and ultradian rhythms of free corticosterone in the blood and the subcutaneous tissue were highly synchronized. Moreover, free corticosterone rhythms were also synchronous between the blood and the hippocampus. These data demonstrate for the first time an ultradian rhythm of free corticosterone in the blood that translates into synchronized rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormone in peripheral and central tissues. The maintenance of ultradian rhythms across tissue barriers in both the periphery and the brain has important implications for research into aberrant biological rhythms in disease and for the development of improved protocols for glucocorticoid therapy.
Qian, Xiaoxiao; Droste, Susanne K.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.
Total glucocorticoid hormone levels in plasma of various species, including humans, follow a circadian rhythm that is made up from an underlying series of hormone pulses. In blood most of the glucocorticoid is bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin and albumin, resulting in low levels of free hormone. Although only the free fraction is biologically active, surprisingly little is known about the rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormones. We used single-probe microdialysis to measure directly the free corticosterone levels in the blood of freely behaving rats. Free corticosterone in the blood shows a distinct circadian and ultradian rhythm with a pulse frequency of approximately one pulse per hour together with an increase in hormone levels and pulse height toward the active phase of the light/dark cycle. Similar rhythms were also evident in the subcutaneous tissue, demonstrating that free corticosterone rhythms are transferred from the blood into peripheral target tissues. Furthermore, in a dual-probe microdialysis study, we demonstrated that the circadian and ultradian rhythms of free corticosterone in the blood and the subcutaneous tissue were highly synchronized. Moreover, free corticosterone rhythms were also synchronous between the blood and the hippocampus. These data demonstrate for the first time an ultradian rhythm of free corticosterone in the blood that translates into synchronized rhythms of free glucocorticoid hormone in peripheral and central tissues. The maintenance of ultradian rhythms across tissue barriers in both the periphery and the brain has important implications for research into aberrant biological rhythms in disease and for the development of improved protocols for glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:22822164
Qian, Xiaoxiao; Droste, Susanne K; Lightman, Stafford L; Reul, Johannes M H M; Linthorst, Astrid C E
An attempt was made to accelerate the reentrainment of circadian rhythms in squirrel monkeys exposed to 8-hr phase advances and phase delays of the daily light-dark cycle by timed administration of the short-acting benzodiazepine, triazolam. On the day of...
Z. Boulos M. C. Moore-Ede
Ulva lactuca L. var. latissima (L.) Decandolle and var. rigida (C. Agardh) Le Jolis and U. mutabilis Foyn have a circadian rhythm of chloroplast orientation which results in large changes in the light-absorption properties of the thallus. During the day, the chloroplasts cover the outer face of the cells and absorbance is high. At night, the chloroplasts are along the side walls and absorbance is low. Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh, E. intestinalis (L.) Link, E. sp., and Monostroma grevillei (Thuret) Wittrock, members of the Ulvales, were not observed to have this rhythmic movement. Chloroplasts, when in the face position, could not be induced to move to the sides by high intensity light up to 80,000 lux. Unrelated to chloroplast position per se and light-absorption efficiency, there is a rhythm of photosynthetic capacity which peaks just before midday and which continues in constant darkness. Images
Britz, Steven J.; Briggs, Winslow R.
Cryptochrome (CRY) is a blue-light-absorbing protein involved in the photic entrainment of the circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster. We have investigated the locomotor activity rhythms of flies carrying cryb mutant and revealed that they have two separate circadian oscillators with different responsiveness to light. When kept in constant light conditions, wild-type flies became arrhythmic, while cryb mutant flies exhibited free-running
Taishi Yoshii; Yuriko Funada; Tadashi Ibuki-Ishibashi; Akira Matsumoto; Teiichi Tanimura; Kenji Tomioka
An earlier companion volume to this text ended with an epilogue on “The Unification Hypothesis of Chronobiology from Molecule\\u000a to Mind” wherein we traced the evolution of life and mind as manifest in our circadian and ultradian psychobiology (Lloyd\\u000a and Rossi, 1992). This chapter extends that broad scenario by reviewing the circadian and ultradian rhythms of gene expression,\\u000a brain plasticity,
E. L. Rossi; K. L. Rossi
Circadian rhythms in mammals are synchronized to environmental light-dark cycles through a direct retinal projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian clock. This process is thought to be modulated by other afferents to the SCN, including a dense serotonergic projection from the midbrain raphe. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that a systemically administered 5-hydroxytry ptamine1A\\/7 (5-HT1A\\/7) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin
E. T. Weber; R. L. Gannon; M. A. Rea
Circadian rhythms in the morphology of neurons have been demonstrated in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. One such rhythm is characterized by changes in the size of synaptic boutons of an identified flight motor neuron, with larger boutons during the day compared with those at night. A more detailed temporal resolution of this rhythm shows here that boutons grow at a time of increased locomotor activity during the morning but become gradually smaller during the day and second period of increased locomotor activity in the evening. We have experimentally manipulated the synaptic activity of the fly during short periods of the day to investigate whether changes in bouton size might be a consequence of the different levels of synaptic activity associated with the locomotion rhythm of the fly. In the late night and early morning, when the flies normally have an intense period of locomotion, the boutons grow independently of whether the flies are active or completely paralyzed. Bouton size is not affected by sleep-deprivation during the early night. The cycle in bouton size persists for 2 days even in decapitated flies, which do not move, reinforcing the notion that it is largely independent of synaptic activity, and showing that a pacemaker other than the main biological clock can drive it. PMID:18688648
Mehnert, Kerstin I; Cantera, Rafael
1.A circadian rhythm in the frequency and amplitude of compound action potential (CAP) from the isolated eye ofAplysia persists for a week or morein vitro in constant darkness. This rhythm has a period of about 26 hours (Figs. 1,2) in a specific culture medium and may express several periodic amplitude components (Fig. 3).2.Constant light (LL) of low intensity shortens the
Jon W. Jacklet; Hew York
1.The organization of the pacemaker driving the circadian rhythm of N-acetyltransferase activity in the rat pineal gland was studied by observing changes of the rhythm caused by 1 min light pulses applied at night. These pulses proved to be effective phase-shifting signals.2.After 1 min light pulses applied in the first half of the night. N-acetyltransferase activity began to increase anew
Helena Illnerová; Ji?í Van??ek
Compared with birds and mammals, very little is known about the development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates. The development and regulation of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) should provide insight into the evolution of these mechanisms. One useful model for examining the development of respiratory rhythm generation in ectothermic vertebrates has
Michael S. Hedrick
Adult (48-week-old) and senescent (72-week-old) individually-kept Nothobranchius korthausae were used as experimental subjects to characterise circadian system (CS) function and age-related changes in senescent fish. This species was specifically chosen because it has already shown potential for use as a model system in gerontological studies. The rest-activity rhythm (RAR) in fish can be easily monitored and used to characterise the state of the CS, and it has also been proposed as a reliable model to study sleep-like periods in fish. As they aged, N. korthausae experienced a significant decrease in total daily activity and a progressive impairment of the RAR, accompanied by changes in the regularity, fragmentation and amplitude of the rhythm. The ability of the CS to oscillate autonomously when the two main synchronizers, photoperiod and feeding time, were absent (continuous darkness and random feeding), was also impaired with age, as the capacity to re-synchronise to the light-dark (LD) cycle declined. Melatonin treatment improved the regularity, fragmentation and amplitude of the RAR in senescent fish, and it also improved sleep efficiency. In conclusion, N. korthausae represents a viable model for studying the aging of the circadian system and the restorative effect of chronobiotic substances, such as melatonin. PMID:23466303
Lucas-Sánchez, Alejandro; Almaida-Pagán, Pedro Francisco; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Mendiola, Pilar; de Costa, Jorge
Circadian rhythms are generated by brain cells located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus, but it is not clear how individual cells contribute to the operation of the circadian clock. SCN neurons dissociated from newborn rat...
S. M. Reppert D. K. Welsh
Single-point laser scanning confocal imaging produces signals with high spatial resolution in living organisms. However, photo-induced toxicity, bleaching, and focus drift remain challenges, especially when recording over several days for monitoring circadian rhythms. Bioluminescence imaging is a tool widely used for this purpose, and does not cause photo-induced difficulties. However, bioluminescence signals are dimmer than fluorescence signals, and are potentially affected by levels of cofactors, including ATP, O(2), and the substrate, luciferin. Here we describe a novel time-lapse confocal imaging technique to monitor circadian rhythms in living tissues. The imaging system comprises a multipoint scanning Nipkow spinning disk confocal unit and a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera mounted on an inverted microscope with auto-focusing function. Brain slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian clock, were prepared from transgenic mice expressing a clock gene, Period 1 (Per1), and fluorescence reporter protein (Per1::d2EGFP). The SCN slices were cut out together with membrane, flipped over, and transferred to the collagen-coated glass dishes to obtain signals with a high signal-to-noise ratio and to minimize focus drift. The imaging technique and improved culture method enabled us to monitor the circadian rhythm of Per1::d2EGFP from optically confirmed single SCN neurons without noticeable photo-induced effects or focus drift. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we also monitored calcium circadian rhythms at a single-cell level in a large population of SCN neurons. Thus, the Nipkow spinning disk confocal imaging system developed here facilitates long-term visualization of circadian rhythms in living cells. PMID:22480987
Enoki, Ryosuke; Ono, Daisuke; Hasan, Mazahir T; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are known to play important roles in the folding of nascent proteins and in the formation of disulfide bonds. Recently, we identified a PDI from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrPDI2) by a mass spectrometry approach that is specifically enriched by heparin affinity chromatography in samples taken during the night phase. Here, we show that the recombinant CrPDI2 is a redox-active protein. It is reduced by thioredoxin reductase and catalyzes itself the reduction of insulin chains and the oxidative refolding of scrambled RNase A. By immunoblots, we confirm a high-amplitude change in abundance of the heparin-bound CrPDI2 during subjective night. Interestingly, we find that CrPDI2 is present in protein complexes of different sizes at both day and night. Among three identified interaction partners, one (a 2-cys peroxiredoxin) is present only during the night phase. To study a potential function of CrPDI2 within the circadian system, we have overexpressed its gene. Two transgenic lines were used to measure the rhythm of phototaxis. In the transgenic strains, a change in the acrophase was observed. This indicates that CrPDI2 is involved in the circadian signaling pathway and, together with the night phase-specific interaction of CrPDI2 and a peroxiredoxin, these findings suggest a close coupling of redox processes and the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii. PMID:23475997
Filonova, Anna; Haemsch, Paul; Gebauer, Christin; Weisheit, Wolfram; Wagner, Volker
We assessed the therapeutic effect of exogenous melatonin (MEL), dexamethasone (DEXA), and a combination of both on nociceptive response induced by chronic inflammation and on the rest-activity circadian rhythm in rats. A total of 64 animals were randomly divided into eight groups of eight rats each: one control group and seven groups with complete Freund's adjuvant-inflamed animals (CFA; injection into the footpad). One of the CFA-inflamed groups did not receive any treatment; the other six were treated with melatonin (MEL), dexamethasone (DEXA), melatonin plus dexamethasone (MELDEXA), and their respective vehicles. Fifteen days after CFA injection, animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of MEL (50?mg/kg) or its vehicle (8% ethanol in saline), DEXA (0.25?mg/kg) or its vehicle (saline), and MEL plus DEXA or their vehicles, for 8 days. The von Frey test was performed 24?h after the last administration of each treatment regimen. Hind paw thickness was measured using a pachymeter during the treatment days. The degree of swelling and histological findings were analyzed. All treated groups significantly reduced the severity of inflammation when compared with their vehicles (repeated-measures analysis of variance [ANOVA], p?0.05 for all analyses). Inflamed animals treated with dexamethasone alone or associated with melatonin showed marked inhibition of histological findings. On the other hand, the group treated with melatonin remained with moderate inflammation. The CFA group showed a decrease in the mean rest-activity circadian rhythm, determined by the number of touch-detections per hour during water intake in comparison with the control group; only the group treated with melatonin showed a synchronized rest-activity rhythm. At the end of treatment, a significant increase was observed in hind paw withdrawal threshold on the von Frey test in the treated groups (one-way ANOVA, p?0.05 for all). Our findings showed that melatonin (50?mg/kg) has strong chronobiotic and antinociceptive effects, but only mild anti-inflammatory effects. This evidence supports the hypothesis that melatonin can induce phase advance and circadian rhythm synchronization in rats with chronic inflammation. PMID:23879696
Laste, Gabriela; Vidor, Liliane; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Rozisky, Joanna Ripoll; Medeiros, Liciane; de Souza, Andressa; Meurer, Luíse; de Souza, Izabel Cristina Custódio; Torres, Iraci L S; Caumo, Wolnei
Cell-cycle traverse is associated with fluctuations in the cellular content of cAMP; artificial alterations of these levels phase-shift cell division in free-running cultures of achlorophyllous Euglena maintained in constant darkness (DD). The phase shifts observed, however, are only transient: the cell division rhythm rephases to that of unperturbed controls. This implies that the second messenger functions downstream of the circadian oscillator. Further, the level of cAMP is known to indicate carbon nutrient status and the competency of cells to traverse various restriction points in the cell cycle of other eukaryotes. We wished to determine the profile of cAMP content in free-running, dividing and non-dividing cultures of green, wild-type cells, which survive well during prolonged growth arrest. We monitored cAMP content in photoautothropic cultures of E. gracilis (strain Z) at 25 degrees C under either an entraining light-dark cycle comprising 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LD:12,12) or free-running (LD:1/2,1/2) regimes. cAMP content in rhythmically dividing, light-phased or free-running cells exhibited bimodality [peaks at CT (circadian time) 9-14 and CT 19-22). Expression of cAMP content on a per milligram total cellular protein basis caused the day trough (CT 1-3) to be even more distinct. Non-dividing, free-running, photoautotrophic cultures displayed a similarly phased bimodality in cAMP content. These findings in wild-type Euglena confirm that the bimodal rhythm of cAMP content is regulated by the circadian oscillator that underlies division rhythmicity but is not dependent on the cell division cycle. We will now determine the effect of the fluctuating cAMP levels on the phosphorylation status and activity of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. PMID:10048792
Mohabir, G; Edmunds, L N
Central nervous system ganglia within the head of the beetle Pachymorpha sexguttata were labeled using an antibody that recognizes an evolutionarily conserved region of the period (per) gene product of Drosophila melanogaster. per and the protein it encodes (PER) are believed to play a central role in the generation of endogenous circadian rhythms in flies; therefore anti-PER-mediated immunoreactivity may help
Brigitte Frisch; Gerta Fleissner; Günther Fleissner; Christian Brandes; Jeffrey C. Hall
Individuals differ widely in cortisol output over the day, but the etiology of these individual differences remains poorly understood. Twin studies are useful for quantifying genetic and environmental influences on variation in cortisol output, lending insight into underlying influences on the components of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Salivary cortisol was assayed on 446 twin pairs (157 monozygotic, 289 dizygotic; ages 7–8). Parents helped youth collect saliva 30 min after waking, mid-afternoon, and 30 minutes prior to bedtime across 3 consecutive days. We used hierarchical linear modeling to extract predicted cortisol levels and to distinguish cortisol’s diurnal rhythm using a slopes-as-outcome piecewise growth curve model; two slopes captured the morning-to-afternoon and afternoon-to-evening rhythm, respectively. Separate genetic models were then fit to cortisol level at waking, mid-afternoon, and evening as well as the diurnal rhythm across morning-to-afternoon and afternoon-to-evening hours. Three results from these analyses are striking. First, morning-to-afternoon cortisol level showed the highest additive genetic variance (heritability), consistent with prior research. Second, cortisol’s diurnal rhythm had an additive genetic component, particularly across the morning-to-afternoon hours. In contrast, additive genetic variation did not significantly contribute to variation in afternoon-to-evening slope. Third, the majority of variance in cortisol concentration was associated with shared family environments. In summary, both genetic and environmental factors influence cortisol’s circadian rhythm, and they do so differentially across the day.
Van Hulle, Carol A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill
The present paper reports a study on the in vivo diagnosis and egg excretion rhythm of the pinworm Passalurus ambiguus in domesticated rabbits. Three copromicroscopic techniques were compared: the cellophane tape test, the McMaster technique, and the FLOTAC technique. Out of the 51 New Zealand White rabbit does examined, 42 (82.3%) resulted positive when examined with the FLOTAC technique, 39 (76.5%) with the cellophane tape test, and 29 (56.9%) with the McMaster technique. The agreement between the FLOTAC technique and the cellophane tape test was almost perfect (greater than 0.8); only moderate were the agreements (0.4) between the FLOTAC and the McMaster techniques and between the McMaster technique and the cellophane tape test. The results showed that the FLOTAC technique can be used for the quali-quantitative coprological diagnosis of P. ambiguus in rabbits due to its great sensitivity, as already shown for parasites of other animal species. The circadian rhythm of egg excretion by P. ambiguus was studied utilizing 42 individually caged rabbit does; fecal samples were collected from each cage every 6 h, i.e., at 6:00-12:00 hours, 12:00-18:00 hours, 18:00-24:00 hours, and 24:00-6:00 hours, and were analyzed by the FLOTAC technique. A circadian rhythm of P. ambiguus egg excretion was found, with significant lower values at 6:00-12:00 hours. In conclusion, the present study showed that the FLOTAC technique is the best copromicroscopic method for assessing P. ambiguus prevalence and intensity in rabbits and that the afternoon and evening hours are the best times for fecal sampling to perform the pinworm diagnosis. PMID:17372763
Rinaldi, Laura; Russo, Tamara; Schioppi, Mariangela; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe
Complete melatonin rhythm generating systems, including photodetector, circadian clock and melatonin synthesis machinery, are located within individual photoreceptor cells in two sites in Teleost fish: the pineal organ and retina. In both, light regulates daily variations in melatonin secretion by controlling the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). However, in each species examined to date, marked differences exist between the two
J. Falcon; Y. Gothilf; S. L. Coon; G. Boeufand; D. C. Kleinz
Recent evidence shows that the temporal alignment between the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian pacemaker affects self-assessment of mood in healthy subjects. Despite the differences in affective state between healthy subjects and patients with psychiatric disorders, these results have implications for analyzing diurnal variation of mood in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and sleep disturbances in other major psychiatric conditions such as chronic schizophrenia. In a good proportion of patients with depression, mood often improves over the course of the day; an extension of waking often has an antidepressant effect. Sleep deprivation has been described as a treatment for depression for more than 30 years, and approximately 50% to 60% of patients with depression respond to this approach, especially those patients who report that their mood improves over the course of the day. The mechanisms by which sleep deprivation exerts its antidepressant effects are still controversial, but a reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), sleep pressure and slow-wave sleep (SWS), or a circadian phase disturbance, have been proposed. Although several studies support each of these hypotheses, none is sufficient to explain all observations reported to date. Unfortunately, the disturbed sleep-wake cycle or behavioural activities of depressed patients often explain several of the abnormalities reported in the diurnal rhythms of these patients. Thus, protocols that specifically manipulate the sleep-wake cycle to unmask the expression of the endogenous circadian pacemaker are greatly needed. In chronic schizophrenia, significant disturbances in sleep continuity, REM sleep, and SWS have been consistently reported. These disturbances are different from those observed in depression, especially with regard to REM sleep. Circadian phase abnormalities in schizophrenic patients have also been reported. Future research is expected to clarify the nature of these abnormalities. Images Fig. 1
Summary 12?12-h cycles of presence and absence of mother mouse act as a ‘zeitgeber’ and entrain the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in the pups ofMus booduga under continuous darkness or continuous dim light. Continuous higher illumination of 15–25 lx abolishes this impressive maternal entrainment.
N. Viswanathan; M. K. Chandrashekaran
The effects of hepatic vagotomy upon the circadian rhythm of lipogenesis and body fat store levels were tested in seasonally obese Syrian hamsters. Lipogenesis was studied 8 weeks after surgery by measuring the incorporation of label into epididymal and retroperitoneal fat pad lipid in animals killed 30 min after intraperitoneal [3H]-glucose injection and 2 h after bovine insulin injections. A
Donn D. Martin; Anthony H. Cincotta; Albert H. Meier
Evening chronotypes typically have sleep patterns timed 2–3 hours later than morning chronotypes. Ambulatory studies have suggested that differences in the timing of underlying circadian rhythms as a cause of the sleep period differences. However, differences in endogenous circadian rhythms are best explored in laboratory protocols such as the constant routine. We used a 27-hour modified constant routine to measure the endogenous core temperature and melatonin circadian rhythms as well as subjective and objective sleepiness from hourly 15-minute sleep opportunities. Ten (8f) morning type individuals were compared with 12 (8f) evening types. All were young, healthy, good sleepers. The typical sleep onset, arising times, circadian phase markers for temperature and melatonin and objective sleepiness were all 2–3 hours later for the evening types than morning types. However, consistent with past studies the differences for the subjective sleepiness rhythms were much greater (5–9 hours). Therefore, the present study supports the important role of subjective alertness/sleepiness in determining the sleep period differences between morning and evening types and the possible vulnerability of evening types to delayed sleep phase disorder.
Lack, Leon; Bailey, Michelle; Lovato, Nicole; Wright, Helen
The mechanisms underlying age-related changes in the signal from the biological clock have yet to be determined. The authors sought to determine if the phase advance of circadian melatonin rhythm during the middle years of life is related to different patterns of habitual light exposure. Forty-one healthy subjects between the ages of 22 and 58 y were studied. Habitual light
Anna Kawinska; Marie Dumont; Brahim Selmaoui; Jean Paquet; Julie Carrier
Circadian oscillations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) depend on transcriptional repression by Period (PER)1 and PER2 proteins within single cells and on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) signaling between cells. Because VIP is released by SCN neurons in a circadian pattern, and, after photic stimulation, it has been suggested to play a role in the synchronization to environmental light cycles. It is not known, however, if or how VIP entrains circadian gene expression or behavior. Here, we tested candidate signaling pathways required for VIP-mediated entrainment of SCN rhythms. We found that single applications of VIP reset PER2 rhythms in a time- and dose-dependent manner that differed from light. Unlike VIP-mediated signaling in other cell types, simultaneous antagonism of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities was required to block the VIP-induced phase shifts of SCN rhythms. Consistent with this, VIP rapidly increased intracellular cAMP in most SCN neurons. Critically, daily VIP treatment entrained PER2 rhythms to a predicted phase angle within several days, depending on the concentration of VIP and the interval between VIP applications. We conclude that VIP entrains circadian timing among SCN neurons through rapid and parallel changes in adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities.
An, Sungwon; Irwin, Robert P.; Allen, Charles N.; Tsai, Connie
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in and secreted by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in a circadian pattern. Transcription of the AVP gene in organotypic cultures of rat SCN was studied by using an intronic in situ hybridization. AVP gene transcription in the cultured SCN maintained a daily rhythm with a peak in the daytime. Inhibition of spon- taneous activity by
HIROSHI ARIMA; SHIRLEY B. HOUSE; HAROLD GAINER; GRETI AGUILERA
To provide basic information on the normal functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in relation to pubertal devel- opment, growth (weight and height), body composition, and gender and to obtain reference data for serum cortisol concentrations in children, we investigated the basal circadian rhythm of serum cortisol in a group of 235 healthy children (162 boys and 73 girls). The age
URBAN KNUTSSON; JOVANNA DAHLGREN; CLAUDE MARCUS; STEN ROSBERG; MIKAEL BRONNEGÅRD; PONTUS STIERNA; KERSTIN ALBERTSSON-WIKLAND
During the D1 mission the endogenous circadian rhythm of the photoaccumulation response persisted in two strains of Chlamydomonas. The amplitude was about twice as high in space as on the ground indicating that a larger fraction of cells was able to contribute to the expression of the rhythm. On the ground, cells usually enter the light cone of the illuminated area in the recording cuvette on the upper edge and leave it, due to gravity, on the lower one in a pulsating manner. This sometimes produces high frequency oscillations of light extinction on the ground. In space there were no such fluctuations; instead, cells swam into the light and stayed there harvesting more light energy for photosynthesis than did control cells. This probably enhanced the survival rate and increased the fraction of motile cells which contribute to the photoaccumulation. A more sophisticated evaluation technique allowed determination of the phase in the short period strain; it was delayed by two hours compared to the control. In an acetate free wildtype sample a rhythm with a period of about 24 hours was also detected. PMID:11537341
Mergenhagen, D; Mergenhagen, E
During the D1 mission the endogenous circadian rhythm of the photoaccumulation response persisted in two strains of Chlamydomonas. The amplitude was about twice as high in space as on the ground indicating that a larger fractionof cells was able to contribute to the expression of the rhythm. On the ground, cells usually enter the light cone of the illuminated area in the recording cuvette on the upper edge and leave it, due to gravity, on the lower one in a pulsating manner. This sometimes produces high frequency oscillations of light extinction on the ground. In space there were no such fluctuations; instead, cells swam into the light and stayed there harvesting more light energy for photosynthesis than did control cells. This probably enhanced the survival rate and increased the fraction of motile cells which contribute to the photoaccumulation. A more sophisticated evaluation technique allowed determination of the phase in the short period strain; it was delayed by two hours compared to the control. In an acetate free wildtype sample a rhythm with a period of about 24 hours was also detected.
Mergenhagen, Dieter; Mergenhagen, Elke
Cell-free extracts that show activity in photosynthetic electron flow have been prepared from the unicellular dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra. Electron flow, as O2 uptake, was measured through both photo-system I and II from water to methyl viologen, through photosystem I alone from reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol to methyl viologen which does not include the plastoquinone pool or from duroquinol to methyl viologen which includes the plastoquinone pool. Electron flow principally through photosystem II was measured from water to diaminodurene and ferricyanide, as O2 evolution. Cultures of Gonyaulax were grown on a 12-hour light:12 hour dark cycle to late log phase, then transferred to constant light at the beginning of a light period. After 3 days, measurements of electron flow were made at the maximum and minimum of the photosynthetic rhythm, as determined from measurements of the rhythm of bioluminescence. Photosynthesis was also measured in whole cells, either as 14C fixation or O2 evolution. Electron flow through both photosystems and through photosystem II alone were clearly rhythmic, while electron flow through photosystem I, including or excluding the plastoquinone pool, was constant with time in the circadian cycle. Thus, only changes in photosystem II account for the photosynthesis rhythm in Gonyaulax.
Samuelsson, Goran; Sweeney, Beatrice M.; Matlick, H. Allen; Prezelin, Barbara B.
Sleep inertia is the impaired cognitive performance immediately upon awakening, which decays over tens of minutes. This phenomenon has relevance to people who need to make important decisions soon after awakening, such as on-call emergency workers. Such awakenings can occur at varied times of day or night, so the objective of the study was to determine whether or not the magnitude of sleep inertia varies according to the phase of the endogenous circadian cycle. Twelve adults (mean, 24 years; 7 men) with no medical disorders other than mild asthma were studied. Following 2 baseline days and nights, subjects underwent a forced desynchrony protocol composed of seven 28-h sleep/wake cycles, while maintaining a sleep/wakefulness ratio of 1:2 throughout. Subjects were awakened by a standardized auditory stimulus 3 times each sleep period for sleep inertia assessments. The magnitude of sleep inertia was quantified as the change in cognitive performance (number of correct additions in a 2-min serial addition test) across the first 20 min of wakefulness. Circadian phase was estimated from core body temperature (fitted temperature minimum assigned 0°). Data were segregated according to: (1) circadian phase (60° bins); (2) sleep stage; and (3) 3rd of the night after which awakenings occurred (i.e., tertiary 1, 2, or 3). To control for any effect of sleep stage, the circadian rhythm of sleep inertia was initially assessed following awakenings from Stage 2 (62% of awakening occurred from this stage; n = 110). This revealed a significant circadian rhythm in the sleep inertia of cognitive performance (p = 0.007), which was 3.6 times larger during the biological night (circadian bin 300°, ~2300–0300 h in these subjects) than during the biological day (bin 180°, ~1500–1900 h). The circadian rhythm in sleep inertia was still present when awakenings from all sleep stages were included (p = 0.004), and this rhythm could not be explained by changes in underlying sleep drive prior to awakening (changes in sleep efficiency across circadian phase or across the tertiaries), or by the proportion of the varied sleep stages prior to awakenings. This robust endogenous circadian rhythm in sleep inertia may have important implications for people who need to be alert soon after awakening.
Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Thomas J.; Hilton, Michael F.; Shea, Steven A.
Foetal breathing in mice results from prenatal activity of the two coupled hindbrain oscillators considered to be responsible for respiratory rhythm generation after birth: the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) is active shortly before the onset of foetal breathing; the parafacial respiratory group (e-pF in embryo) starts activity one day earlier. Transcription factors have been identified that are essential to specify neural progenitors and lineages forming each of these oscillators during early development of the neural tube: Hoxa1, Egr2 (Krox20), Phox2b, Lbx1 and Atoh1 for the e-pF; Dbx1 and Evx1 for the preBötC which eventually grow contralateral axons requiring expression of Robo3. Inactivation of the genes encoding these factors leads to mis-specification of these neurons and distinct breathing abnormalities: apneic patterns and loss of central chemosensitivity for the e-pF (central congenital hypoventilation syndrome, CCHS, in humans), complete loss of breathing for the preBötC, right-left desynchronized breathing in Robo3 mutants. Mutations affecting development in more rostral (pontine) respiratory territories change the shape of the inspiratory drive without affecting the rhythm. Other (primordial) embryonic oscillators start in the mouse three days before the e-pF, to generate low frequency (LF) rhythms that are probably required for activity-dependent development of neurones at embryonic stages; in the foetus, however, they are actively silenced to avoid detrimental interaction with the on-going respiratory rhythm. Altogether, these observations provide a strong support to the previously proposed hypothesis that the functional organization of the respiratory generator is specified at early stages of development and is dual in nature, comprising two serially non-homologous oscillators. PMID:21527363
Champagnat, Jean; Morin-Surun, Marie-Pierre; Bouvier, Julien; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Fortin, Gilles
A unique extra-suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) oscillator, operating independently of the light-entrainable oscillator, has been hypothesized to generate feeding and drug-related rhythms. To test the validity of this hypothesis, sham-lesioned (Sham) and SCN-lesioned (SCNx) rats were housed in constant dim-red illumination (LL(red)) and received a daily cocaine injection every 24 h for 7 d (Experiment 1). In a second experiment, rats underwent 3-h daily restricted feeding (RF) followed 12 d later by the addition of daily cocaine injections given every 25 h in combination with RF until the two schedules were in antiphase. In both experiments, body temperature and total activity were monitored continuously. Results from Experiment 1 revealed that cocaine, but not saline, injections produced anticipatory increases in temperature and activity in SCNx and Sham rats. Following withdrawal from cocaine, free-running temperature rhythms persisted for 2-10 d in SCNx rats. In Experiment 2, robust anticipatory increases in temperature and activity were associated with RF and cocaine injections; however, the feeding periodicity (23.9 h) predominated over the cocaine periodicity. During drug withdrawal, the authors observed two free-running rhythms of temperature and activity that persisted for >14 d in both Sham and SCNx rats. The periods of the free-running rhythms were similar to the feeding entrainment (period = 23.7 and 24.0 h, respectively) and drug entrainment (period = 25.7 and 26.1 h, respectively). Also during withdrawal, the normally close correlation between activity and temperature was greatly disrupted in Sham and SCNx rats. Taken together, these results do not support the existence of a single oscillator mediating the rewarding properties of both food and cocaine. Rather, they suggest that these two highly rewarding behaviors can be temporally isolated, especially during drug withdrawal. Under stable dual-entrainment conditions, food reward appears to exhibit a slightly greater circadian influence than drug reward. The ability to generate free-running temperature rhythms of different frequencies following combined food and drug exposures could reflect a state of internal desynchrony that may contribute to the addiction process and drug relapse. PMID:22475541
Jansen, Heiko T; Sergeeva, Anna; Stark, Gemaine; Sorg, Barbara A
Age-related division of labor in honey bees is associated with plasticity in circadian rhythms. Forager bees that are typically older than 3 weeks of age show strong behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms with higher activity during the day. Younger bees that typically care for ("nurse") the brood are active around the clock with similar brain clock gene levels throughout the day. However, nurses that are caged on brood-less combs inside or outside the hive show robust circadian rhythms with higher activity during the day, suggesting that direct contact with the brood mediates the plasticity in the circadian system. The nature of the brood signals affecting the workers' circadian system and the modalities by which they are detected are unknown. Given that the antennae are pivotal sensory organs in bees, we hypothesized that they are involved in mediating the brood influence on the plasticity in circadian rhythms. The flagella of the antennae are densely covered with diverse sensory structures able to detect a wide range of signals. To test our hypothesis, we removed the flagella of nurses and observed their behavior in isolation and in free-foraging colonies. We found that individually-isolated flagella-less bees under constant laboratory conditions show robust circadian rhythms in locomotor activity. In observation hives, flagella-less bees cared for the brood, but were more active during the day. By contrast, sham-treated bees were active around the clock as typical of nurses. Detailed video recordings showed that the brood-tending behavior of flagella-less and sham-treated bees is similar. These observations suggest that the difference in the patterns of brood care activity is not because the flagella-less bees did not contact the brood. Our results suggest that nurses are able to find the brood in the dark environment of the hive without their flagella, perhaps by using other sensory organs. The higher activity of flagella-less bees during the day further suggests that the flagella are involved in mediating the brood signals modulating plasticity in the circadian system. PMID:22641119
Nagari, Moshe; Bloch, Guy
Background We recently reported that the altitude of origin altered the photic and thermal sensitivity of the circadian pacemaker controlling eclosion and oviposition rhythms of high altitude Himalayan strains of Drosophila ananassae. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of altitude of origin on the pacemaker controlling the adult locomotor activity rhythm of D. helvetica. Methods Locomotor activity rhythms of the high altitude Himalayan (haH) strain (Hemkund-Sahib, 4,121 m above sea level) and the low altitude Himalayan (laH) strain (Birahi, 1,132 m a.s.l.) of D. helvetica were assayed by two experiments. The first experiment examined the natural entrainment pattern in light-dark (LD) cycles at the breeding site of each strain. The second experiment examined the entrainment parameters in LD 12:12 cycles and the period of free-running rhythm in constant darkness (DD) under controlled laboratory conditions. Results When entrained by natural or artificial LD cycles, the haH strain had an unimodal activity pattern with a single peak that commenced in the forenoon and continued till evening, while the laH strain had a bimodal activity pattern in which the morning peak occurred before lights-on and was separated by about 4 h from the evening peak. Unimodality of the haH strain was retained in DD; however, bimodality of the laH strain was abolished in DD since the evening peak disappeared immediately after the trasfer from LD 12:12 to DD. The period of the free-running rhythm of the haH strain was ~26.1 h, whereas that of the laH strain was ~21.7 h. Conclusion Parameters of entrainment and free-running rhythm of the adult locomotor activity of the haH strain of D. helvetica were strikingly different from those of the laH strain and were likely due to ecological adaptations to the prevailing environmental conditions at the altitude where the species evolved.
Vanlalhriatpuia, Keny; Chhakchhuak, Vanlalnghaka; Moses, Satralkar K; Iyyer, SB; Kasture, MS; Shivagaje, AJ; Rajneesh, Barnabas J; Joshi, Dilip S
High-fructose diet is known to produce cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. The objective was to determine whether the timing of high fructose (10% liquid solution) intake affect the metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. Male C57BL mice with radiotelemetric probes were divided into four groups: (1) 24?h water (control); (2) 24?h fructose (F24); (3) 12?h fructose during the light phase (F12L); (4) 12?h fructose during the dark phase (F12D). All fructose groups had higher fluid intake. Body weight was increased in mice on restricted access with no difference in total caloric intake. Fasting glycemia was higher in groups with restricted access. F24 mice showed a fructose-induced blood pressure increase during the dark period. Blood pressure circadian rhythms were absent in F12L mice. Results suggest that the timing of fructose intake is an important variable in the etiology of cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies produced by high fructose consumption.
Senador, Danielle; Shewale, Swapnil; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Elased, Khalid M.; Morris, Mariana
Sleep loss, as well as concomitant fatigue and risk, is ubiquitous in today’s fast-paced society. A biomathematical model that succeeds in describing performance during extended wakefulness would have practical utility in operational environments and could help elucidate the physiological basis of sleep loss effects. Eighteen subjects (14 males, 4 females; age 25.8 ± 4.3 years) with low levels of habitual caffeine consumption (<300 mg/day) participated. On night 1, subjects slept for 8 h (2300–0700 h), followed by 77 h of continuous wakefulness. They were assigned randomly to receive placebo or caffeine (200 mg, i.e., two sticks of Stay Alert gum) at 0100, 0300, 0500, and 0700 during nights 2, 3, and 4. The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was administered periodically over the 77-h period of continuous wakefulness. Statistical analysis reveals lognormality in each PVT, allowing for closed-form median calculation. An iterative parameter estimation algorithm, which takes advantage of MatLab’s (R2007a) least-squares nonlinear regression, is used to estimate model parameters from subjects’ PVT medians over time awake. In the model, daily periodicity is accounted for with a four-component Fourier series, and a simplified binding function describes asymptotic fatigue. The model highlights patterns in data that suggest (1) the presence of a performance inhibitor that increases and saturates over the period of continuous wakefulness, (2) competitive inhibition of this inhibitor by caffeine, (3) the persistence of an internally driven circadian rhythm of alertness, and (4) a multiplicative relationship between circadian rhythm and performance inhibition. The present inhibitor-based minimal model describes performance data in a manner consistent with known biochemical processes.
Benitez, Patrick L.; Kamimori, Gary H.; Balkin, Thomas J.; Greene, Alexander; Johnson, Michael L.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by heart rate variability (HRV) with 24-hours ECG Holter (HRV), the circadian autonomic activity in offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and the relation with insulin-resistance. METHODS: 50 Caucasian offsprings of type 2 diabetic subjects were divided in two groups: insulin-resistant offsprings (IR) and non insulin-resistant offsprings (NIR). Autonomic nervous activity was studied by HRV. Time domain and spectral analysis (low frequency, LF, and high frequency, HF, provide markers of sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation when assessed in normalized units) were evaluated. RESULTS. Time domain showed a reduction of total SDNN in IR (p < 0.001) and NIR (p 0.047) versus controls. Spectral analysis showed a total and night LF higher in IR and NIR than in control group (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION. In frequency domain, the analysis of sympathetic (LF) and parasympathetic (HF) component evidenced an association between the offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and a sympathetic overactivity. A global reduction and alteration of circadian rhythm of autonomic activity are present in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients with and without insulin resistance. The data of our study suggested that an autonomic impairment is associated with the familiarity for type 2 diabetes independently to insulin resistance and that an impairment of autonomic system activity could precede the insulin resistance.
Fiorentini, A; Perciaccante, A; Paris, A; Serra, P; Tubani, L
Endogenous circadian and circannual rhythms may exist in the metabolism, ventilation, and breathing pattern of turtles that could further prolong dive times during daily and seasonal periods of reduced activity. To test this hypothesis, turtles were held under seasonal or constant environmental conditions over a 1-yr period, and in each season, V(O)(2) and respiratory variables were measured in all animals under both the prevailing seasonal conditions and the constant conditions for 24 h. Endogenous circadian and circannual rhythms in metabolism and ventilation occurred independent of ambient temperature, photoperiod, and activity, although long-term entrainment to daily and seasonal changes in temperature and photoperiod were required for them to be expressed. Metabolism and ventilation were always higher during the photophase, and the day-night difference was greater at any given temperature when the photoperiod was provided. When corrected for temperature, turtles had elevated metabolic and ventilation rates in the fall and spring (corresponding to the reproductive seasons) and suppressed metabolism and ventilation during winter. The strength of the circadian rhythm varied seasonally, with proportionately larger day-night differences in colder seasons. Daily and seasonal cycles in ventilation largely followed metabolism, although daily and seasonal changes did occur in the breathing pattern independent of levels of total ventilation. These endogenous circadian and circannual changes in metabolism, ventilation, and breathing pattern prolonged dive times at night and in winter and may serve to reduce the costs of breathing and transport and risk of predation. PMID:19358691
Reyes, Catalina; Milsom, William K
In Neurospora crassa, the cel mutation lengthens the period of the circadian rhythm when the medium is supplemented with linoleic acid (18:2). Double mutant strains were constructed between cel and the clock mutants prd-1 and four alleles at the frq locus. It was found that: (1) the effect of 18:2 on cel was blocked by prd-1, i.e., prd-1 is epistatic to cel. (2) cel and frq interact such that the percent increase in the period produced by 18:2 was inversely proportional to the period of the frq parent. (3) Data from the literature on period effects in double mutant strains support a multiplicative rather than an additive model. A biochemical interpretation of these interactions is discussed, based on the control of flux through metabolic pathways. Because the cel strain is known to be deficient in the pantothenate derivative normally attached to the fatty acid synthetase (FAS) complex, the possibility that cel may affect other pantothenate-modified proteins was investigated. It was found that in the cel/sup +/ strain, five proteins of molecular weights (M/sub r/) 9000, 19,000, 22,000, 140,000, and 200,000 were labelled with (/sup 14/C)pantothenate. In the cel strain, only the 200 k (FAS) label was reduced in amount. Therefore, there is no evidence that cel affects circadian rhythmicity through any deficiency other than FAS. A biochemical model for circadian rhythmicity in Neurospora is presented. Oscillations in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca/sup 2 +/ are proposed; clock mutations are postulated to affect Ca/sup 2 +/ transporters and the mitochondrial membrane; and phase-shifting effects are accounted for by changes in Ca/sup 2 +/ or ATP levels.
Chronic methamphetamine (MAP) treatment desynchronises the behavior rhythms of rats from light-dark cycles. Our previous study (Masubuchi et al., 2000) demonstrated the phase reversal of circadian rhythms in clock gene expression in several brain areas of rats treated with MAP. However, for technical reasons, it was not clear whether the phase shifts were the consequence of phase-shifted behavior rhythms or reflected phase shifts of extra-suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) oscillators in these areas. In the present study, circadian gene expression rhythms in discrete brain areas were continuously monitored in slice cultures of MAP-treated rats. Methamphetamine was given to rats carrying a Period2-dLuciferase reporter system via the drinking water for more than 2 weeks. When behavior rhythms were completely phase reversed, the brain was sampled for slice cultures and circadian bioluminescence rhythms were measured for 5 days in the SCN and four areas of the dopaminergic system, the olfactory bulb, caudate putamen, parietal cortex and substantia nigra. The circadian rhythms in the SCN and caudate putamen were not significantly phase shifted, whereas those in the parietal cortex and substantia nigra showed significant phase-delay shifts of 6-8 h and that in the olfactory bulb showed phase-advance shifts of ca. 8 h. Neither the period nor the amplitude of the circadian rhythm was changed by MAP treatment. These findings indicate that the extra-SCN oscillators in several brain areas are desynchronised from the SCN circadian pacemaker by MAP treatment in parallel with the desynchronisation of behavior rhythms in rats. As the direction and extent of phase shifts of circadian rhythms were different among the areas examined, the brain extra-SCN oscillators responded differentially to MAP. PMID:23725367
Natsubori, Akiyo; Honma, Ken-Ichi; Honma, Sato
Summary Background There is no simple and practical way to monitor sleep patterns in patients in acute care units. We designed this study to assess sleep patterns, energy expenditure and circadian rhythms of patients’ skin temperature in the coronary care unit (CCU) utilizing a new portable device. Material/Methods The SenseWear Armband (SWA) was used to record sleep duration, distribution over 24 hr, energy expenditure and the circadian rhythms of skin temperature in 46 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for the first 24 hr in the CCU and upon transfer to the ward. An advanced analysis was used to extract and compare data associated with the above variables in the two settings. Results Patients in the CCU had a reduced night’s sleep duration (5.6±2.2 hr) with more frequent and significantly shorter night sessions (p=0.015) than patients in the ward. Energy expenditure and METs (metabolic equivalents of a task) were significantly lower in the CCU than in the ward. However, the midline-estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR) and acrophase for skin temperature did not exhibit any significant difference between the two settings. Conclusions Patients with ACS have sleep fragmentation and shorter nocturnal sleep duration in the CCU compared to the ward. On the other hand, there was no difference in the circadian rhythms of skin temperature between patients in the CCU and the general wards.
Otair, Hadil Al; Al-shamiri, Mustafa; Bahobail, Mohammed; Sharif, Munir M.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.
One hundred and sixty two people working in various departments of cotton spinning and weaving mills measured and recorded their own peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) at two hourly intervals during Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday of the same work week, from waking in the morning throughout the day until going to bed and a last time the following morning after waking. The circadian rhythm in PEFR was computed by the Halberg program. The mean amplitude of the rhythm in the group was found to be 3.3% and the acrophase fell approximately in the middle of the waking hours. Older workers and those claiming to suffer from symptoms of chronic bronchitis were found to have an amplitude significantly higher (4.1% and 3.9% respectively) than their younger or symptom free counterparts (2.6% and 2.9% respectively; p less than 0.03). The amplitude of cardroom workers (2.4%), workers with byssinosis (2.7%), and those with much exposure to airborne cotton dust (3.3%) and bacteria (2.9%) tended to be lower than that of less exposed groups such as office staff (3.9%), though the difference was significant only in the case of cardroom workers (p less than 0.04). This may be due to airborne contaminants in the working environment.
Cinkotai, F F; Sharpe, T C; Gibbs, A C
The effect of daily restricted feeding (RF) on the circadian wheel-running rhythms of the kowari, Dasyuroides byrnei, was examined in two experiments. Kowaris were presented with a preferred food (determined in a pilot study) during a daily 2-h meal in the light period of a 14:10 light-dark (LD) cycle (expts 1 and 2), during constant dark (DD) immediately after termination of the LD cycle (expt 1), and during DD when kowaris were free running (expt 1). Results showed that 1) RF elicited anticipatory activity similar in duration and phasing to that observed in the rat; 2) cycles of meal-associated activity free ran for up to 6 days after the termination of RF; 3) activity persists at a phase near that of the former mealtime during periods of food deprivation; and 4) activity indicative of beating between two pacemakers occurred when feeding was restricted to the L period of LD cycles. Together these observations suggest that the activity rhythms of the kowari may be controlled by separate, but possibly coupled, light-entrainable and food-entrainable pacemakers, as are those of the rat. PMID:1928428
Kennedy, G A; Coleman, G J; Armstrong, S M
A new method for the stimulation of bioluminescence in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra is described. With this technique, in which cells flow through a capillary coil, it is possible to graduate the intensity of the stimulus by varying the flow rate. In continuous darkness, the threshold stimulus for cells in the middle of the day phase is greater than that for cells in the middle of the night phase. Some evidence suggests heterogeneity of sensitivity to stimulation among either cells or individual luminescent sources within a cell. At stimulus intensities much above threshold, the luminescence of both day- and night-phase cells is proportional to the number of cells within the capillary coil. Night-phase cells emit about 14 times as much light as do day-phase cells in continuous darkness. Single bioluminescent flashes from cells were recorded with a high speed camera. No significant difference in flash kinetics was found between cells in the day and the night phase in continuous darkness. Cells in the night phase emit a flash three to five times brighter than that from day-phase cells. About twice as many flashes are recorded in a given time from a population of night-phase cells. The activity of both luciferin and luciferase have been shown to vary rhythmically. The differences in threshold and number of flahses are evidence for a second component of the circadian rhythm in luminescence, a rhythm in sensitivity to stimulation.
Christianson, Roger; Sweeney, Beatrice M.
Background The phase and amplitude of rhythms in physiology and behavior are generated by circadian oscillators and entrained to the 24-h day by exposure to the light-dark cycle and feedback from the sleep-wake cycle. The extent to which the phase and amplitude of multiple rhythms are similarly affected during altered timing of light exposure and the sleep-wake cycle has not been fully characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the phase and amplitude of the rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, cortisol, alertness, performance and sleep after a perturbation of entrainment by a gradual advance of the sleep-wake schedule (10 h in 5 days) and associated light-dark cycle in 14 healthy men. The light-dark cycle consisted either of moderate intensity ‘room’ light (?90–150 lux) or moderate light supplemented with bright light (?10,000 lux) for 5 to 8 hours following sleep. After the advance of the sleep-wake schedule in moderate light, no significant advance of the melatonin rhythm was observed whereas, after bright light supplementation the phase advance was 8.1 h (SEM 0.7 h). Individual differences in phase shifts correlated across variables. The amplitude of the melatonin rhythm assessed under constant conditions was reduced after moderate light by 54% (17–94%) and after bright light by 52% (range 12–84%), as compared to the amplitude at baseline in the presence of a sleep-wake cycle. Individual differences in amplitude reduction of the melatonin rhythm correlated with the amplitude of body temperature, cortisol and alertness. Conclusions/Significance Alterations in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle and associated bright or moderate light exposure can lead to changes in phase and reduction of circadian amplitude which are consistent across multiple variables but differ between individuals. These data have implications for our understanding of circadian organization and the negative health outcomes associated with shift-work, jet-lag and exposure to artificial light.
Dijk, Derk-Jan; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Silva, Edward J.; Shanahan, Theresa L.; Boivin, Diane B.; Czeisler, Charles A.
Glutamate released from retinal ganglion cells conveys information about the daily light:dark cycle to master circadian pacemaker neurons within the suprachiasmatic nucleus that then synchronize internal circadian rhythms with the external day-length. Glutamate activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well established, but the function of the metabotropic glutamate receptors that are also located in this nucleus
Robert L. Gannon; Mark J. Millan
Despite its advantages as a chronobiological technique, the ultra-short sleep/wake protocol remains underutilized in circadian rhythm research. The purpose of this study was to examine circadian rhythms of psychomotor vigilance (PVT), mood, and sleepiness in a sample (n=25) of healthy young adults while they adhered to a 3 h ultra-short sleep/wake protocol. The protocol involved 1 h sleep intervals in darkness followed by 2 h wake intervals in dim light, repeated for 50-55 h. A 5 min PVT test was conducted every 9 h with the standard metrics of mean reaction time (RT; RT(mean)), median RT (RT(med)), fastest 10% of responses (RT(10fast)), and reciprocal of the 10% slowest responses (1/RT(10slow)). Subjective measures of mood and sleepiness were assessed every 3 h. A cosine fit of intra-aural temperature, assessed three times per wake period, established the time of the body temperature minimum (T(min)). Mood, sleepiness, and PVT performances were expressed relative to individual means and compared across eight times of day and twelve 2 h intervals relative to T(min). Significant time-of-day and circadian patterns were demonstrated for each of the PVT metrics, as well as for mood and sleepiness. Most mood subscales exhibited significant deterioration in day 2 of the protocol without alteration of circadian pattern. However, neither sleepiness nor performance was worse on the second day of observation compared to the first day. These data provide further support for the use of the ultra-short sleep/wake protocol for measurement of circadian rhythms. PMID:20205564
Kline, Christopher E; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Moore, Teresa A; Devlin, Tina M; Youngstedt, Shawn D
Summary form only given. To study the circadian rhythm changes of the heart rate variability (HRV) during chronic sound stress, Wistar rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters and exposed to chronic ultrasound stress for 14 days. The heart rate, mean R-R intervals (mean R-R), and body temperature were monitored hourly. The spectra of five-minute heart rate variability were plotted on
H. Minamitani; H. Takeuchi; Y. Takiguchi
Radiofrequency fields (RF) at 1800 MHz are known to affect melatonin (MEL) and testosterone in male rats, but it remains to be determined whether RF affected circadian rhythm of these plasma hormones. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1800-MHz RF at 208 ?w\\/cm power density (SAR: 0.5762 W\\/kg) at different zeitgeber (ZT) periods of the day, including 0 (ZT0), 4
Fenju Qin; Jie Zhang; Honglong Cao; Cao Yi; Jian Xiang Li; Jihua Nie; Li Li Chen; Jiajun Wang; Jian Tong
Dark-phase light contamination can significantly disrupt chronobiologic rhythms, thereby potentially altering the endocrine physiology and metabolism of experimental animals and influencing the outcome of scientific investigations. We sought to determine whether exposure to low-level light contamination during the dark phase influenced the normally entrained circadian rhythms of various substances in plasma. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were housed in photobiologic light-exposure chambers configured to create 1) a 12:12-h light:dark cycle without dark-phase light contamination (control condition; 123 µW/cm2, lights on at 0600), 2) experimental exposure to a low level of light during the 12-h dark phase (with 0.02, 0.05, 0.06, or 0.08 µW/cm2 light at night), or 3) constant bright light (123 µW/cm2). Dietary and water intakes were recorded daily. After 2 wk, rats underwent 6 low-volume blood draws at 4-h intervals (beginning at 0400) during both the light and dark phases. Circadian rhythms in dietary and water intake and levels of plasma total fatty acids and lipid fractions remained entrained during exposure to either control conditions or low-intensity light during the dark phase. However, these patterns were disrupted in rats exposed to constant bright light. Circadian patterns of plasma melatonin, glucose, lactic acid, and corticosterone were maintained in all rats except those exposed to constant bright light or the highest level of light during the dark phase. Therefore even minimal light contamination during the dark phase can disrupt normal circadian rhythms of endocrine metabolism and physiology and may alter the outcome of scientific investigations.
Dauchy, Robert T; Dauchy, Erin M; Tirrell, Robert P; Hill, Cody R; Davidson, Leslie K; Greene, Michael W; Tirrell, Paul C; Wu, Jinghai; Sauer, Leonard A; Blask, David E
Reproducibility of circadian rhythm of variability in heart rate was studied in 40 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings at baseline (time 1) and after 4 months (time 2). The standard deviation of the R-R interval and the low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15 to 0.45 Hz) components of variability in heart
Junichiro Hayano; Wei Jiang; Robert Waugh; Christopher O’Connor; David Frid; James A. Blumenthal
The aim of this study was to investigate for the effects of valpromide on heart rate circadian rhythm in remitted recurrent unipolar and bipolar disorders (DSM-III-R). It consisted of a comparative, randomized, double-blind, repeated cross-over study of valpromide versus placebo over four four-week periods. The primary evaluation criteria was heart rate (HR). Secondary criteria comprised motor activity (MA) and the
P Lemoine; J Fondarai; T Faivre
Circadian rhythms of activity were compared in ground-dwelling Tenebrionid beetles from the Kara Kum sand desert: Trigonoscelis gigas Reitter, Trigonoscelis sublaevicollis Reitter, Pisterotarsa gigantea Fish.-W., Sternodes caspicus Pall, Blaps faustii Seidlitz, and Ocnera imbricata Fish.-W. For the observations, artificial pens (enclosures) 60 × 60?cm and 80?cm deep were arranged in field conditions and filled with various kinds of sand to
Viktor A. Zotov; Alexey M. Alpatov
INTRODUCTION: Prior in vivo murine studies suggest circadian oscillations for hematopoietic stem cell release, which are maintained following administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or plerixafor. Furthermore, retrospective data analysis of healthy donors who underwent G-CSF-induced mobilization demonstrated significantly increased CD34+ cell yields when collected in the afternoon compared with the morning. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted to directly examine the number of peripheral blood CD34+ and CD34+CD38- progenitor/stem cells at baseline and then every 6 hours for 24 hours on days 4 to 5 of G-CSF (10 ?g/kg/day in the morning) mobilization in 11 allogeneic donors. Data were analyzed using mixed-model analysis of repeated measures. RESULTS: Whereas we observed a significant increase in CD34+ cell counts toward the evening, counts were then sustained on the morning of day 5. The correlation between CD34+CD38- cell counts and the less defined CD34+ populations was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the pharmacodynamic activity and timing of G-CSF may alter endogenous progenitor rhythms. Donor age, medical history, and medications may also impact circadian rhythm. Further studies should examine the circadian rhythm at the peak of G-CSF mobilization and should consider potential confounders such as the time of G-CSF administration and the age of the subjects. PMID:23514984
Shi, Patricia A; Isola, Luis M; Gabrilove, Janice L; Moshier, Erin L; Godbold, James H; Miller, Lorraine K; Frenette, Paul S
The locomotor activity of the millipede Glyphiulus cavernicolus (Spirostreptida), which occupies the deeper recesses of a cave, was monitored in light-dark (LD) cycles (12h light and 12h darkness), constant darkness (DD), and constant light (LL) conditions. These millipedes live inside the cave and are apparently never exposed to any periodic factors of the environment such as light-dark, temperature, and humidity cycles. The activity of a considerable fraction of these millipedes was found to show circadian rhythm, which entrained to a 12:12 LD cycle with maximum activity during the dark phase of the LD cycle. Under constant darkness (DD), 56.5% of the millipedes (n = 23) showed circadian rhythms, with average free-running period of 25.7h +/- 3.3h (mean +/- SD, range 22.3h to 35.0h). The remaining 43.5% of the millipedes, however, did not show any clear-cut rhythm. Under DD conditions following an exposure to LD cycles, 66.7% (n = 9) showed faint circadian rhythm, with average free-running period of 24.0h +/- 0.8h (mean +/- SD, range 22.9h to 25.2h). Under constant light (LL) conditions, only 2 millipedes of 11 showed free-running rhythms, with average period length of 33.3h +/- 1.3h. The results suggest that these cave-dwelling millipedes still possess the capacity to measure time and respond to light and dark situations. PMID:11128292
Koilraj, A J; Sharma, V K; Marimuthu, G; Chandrashekaran, M K
We defined chronobiologic norms for supraventricular and ventricular single extrasystoles (SV and VE, respectively) in healthy older males in lowland areas. The study was extended to higher altitudes, where hypobaric hypoxia was expected to increase extrasystole frequency, while perhaps not changing rhythmicity. In healthy men (lowland n = 37, altitude n = 22), aged 49-72 years, mean numbers of SVs and VEs were counted over a 24-h period. Cosinor regression was used to test the 24-h rhythm and its 2nd-10th harmonics. The resulting approximating function for either extrasystole type includes its point, 95% confidence interval of the mean, and 95% tolerance for single measurement estimates. Separate hourly differences (delta) between altitude and lowland (n = 59) were also analysed. Hourly means were significantly higher in the mountains versus lowland, by +0.8 beats/h on average for SVs, and by +0.9 beats/h for VEs. A relatively rich chronogram for VEs in mountains versus lowland exists. Delta VEs clearly display a 24-h component and its 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 7th harmonics. This results in significantly higher accumulation of VEs around 8.00 a.m., 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. in the mountains. The increase in extrasystole occurrence in the mountains is probably caused by higher hypobaric hypoxia and resulting sympathetic drive. Healthy men at elevated altitudes show circadian and several ultradian rhythms of single VEs dependent on the hypoxia level. This new methodological approach--evaluating the differences between two locations using delta values--promises to provide deeper insight into the occurrence of premature beats. PMID:20195873
Kujanik, Stefan; Mikulecky, Miroslav
We defined chronobiologic norms for supraventricular and ventricular single extrasystoles (SV and VE, respectively) in healthy older males in lowland areas. The study was extended to higher altitudes, where hypobaric hypoxia was expected to increase extrasystole frequency, while perhaps not changing rhythmicity. In healthy men (lowland n = 37, altitude n = 22), aged 49-72 years, mean numbers of SVs and VEs were counted over a 24-h period. Cosinor regression was used to test the 24-h rhythm and its 2nd-10th harmonics. The resulting approximating function for either extrasystole type includes its point, 95% confidence interval of the mean, and 95% tolerance for single measurement estimates. Separate hourly differences (delta) between altitude and lowland ( n = 59) were also analysed. Hourly means were significantly higher in the mountains versus lowland, by +0.8 beats/h on average for SVs, and by +0.9 beats/h for VEs. A relatively rich chronogram for VEs in mountains versus lowland exists. Delta VEs clearly display a 24-h component and its 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 7th harmonics. This results in significantly higher accumulation of VEs around 8.00 a.m., 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. in the mountains. The increase in extrasystole occurrence in the mountains is probably caused by higher hypobaric hypoxia and resulting sympathetic drive. Healthy men at elevated altitudes show circadian and several ultradian rhythms of single VEs dependent on the hypoxia level. This new methodological approach—evaluating the differences between two locations using delta values—promises to provide deeper insight into the occurrence of premature beats.
Kujanik, Stefan; Mikulecky, Miroslav
1. The circadian pacemaker regulates the timing, structure and consolidation of human sleep. The extent to which this pacemaker affects electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep remains unclear. 2. To investigate this, a total of 1.22 million power spectra were computed from EEGs recorded in seven men (total, 146 sleep episodes; 9 h 20 min each) who participated in a one-month-long protocol in which the sleep-wake cycle was desynchronized from the rhythm of plasma melatonin, which is driven by the circadian pacemaker. 3. In rapid eye movement (REM) sleep a small circadian variation in EEG activity was observed. The nadir of the circadian rhythm of alpha activity (8.25-10.5 Hz) coincided with the end of the interval during which plasma melatonin values were high, i.e. close to the crest of the REM sleep rhythm. 4. In non-REM sleep, variation in EEG activity between 0.25 and 11.5 Hz was primarily dependent on prior sleep time and only slightly affected by circadian phase, such that the lowest values coincided with the phase of melatonin secretion. 5. In the frequency range of sleep spindles, high-amplitude circadian rhythms with opposite phase positions relative to the melatonin rhythm were observed. Low-frequency sleep spindle activity (12.25-13.0 Hz) reached its crest and high-frequency sleep spindle activity (14.25-15.5 Hz) reached its nadir when sleep coincided with the phase of melatonin secretion. 6. These data indicate that the circadian pacemaker induces changes in EEG activity during REM and non-REM sleep. The changes in non-REM sleep EEG spectra are dissimilar from the spectral changes induced by sleep deprivation and exhibit a close temporal association with the melatonin rhythm and the endogenous circadian phase of sleep consolidation.
Dijk, D J; Shanahan, T L; Duffy, J F; Ronda, J M; Czeisler, C A
Nicotine replacement therapy appears to be safe when used by healthy patients to aid in smoking cessation; however, the immediate acute effects of nicotine replacement therapy on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function in heavy smokers are not well understood. Twenty-six heavy smokers were requested to stop smoking for 48 hours. BP and heart rate were recorded over 48 hours by ambulatory BP monitoring, with beat-to-beat changes being monitored for the first 10 hours by a noninvasive finger device. The reactivity of the brachial artery was evaluated using flow-mediated dilation immediately after smoking cessation, before the application of a 21-mg nicotine patch or placebo patch, and 24 hours after patch placement. Transdermal nicotine caused a mild but significant elevation in BP in the early morning in 21 of 26 volunteers. The decrease in nocturnal BP was attenuated in patients with the nicotine patch compared with the placebo patch; this was associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. PMID:16330894
Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Ferreira-Melo, Silvia Elaine; Sabha, Maricene; Nogueira, Eduardo Arantes; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Consolin Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Moreno, Heitor
Bed bugs must avoid detection when finding hosts and returning to hidden harborages. Their stealthy habits include foraging when hosts are asleep. Characteristics of spontaneous locomotor activity rhythm of bed bugs with different feeding histories were studied. In the absence of host stimuli, adults and nymphs were much more active in the dark than in the light. The onset of activity in the scotophase commenced soon after lights-off. The free-running period (tau) for all stages was longer in continuous darkness (DD) than in continuous light (LL). The lengthening of tau in DD is an exception for the circadian rule that predicts the opposite in nocturnal animals. Activity in all stages was entrained to reverse L:D regimes within four cycles. Short-term starved adults moved more frequently than recently fed adults. While bed bugs can survive for a year or more without a blood meal, we observed a reduction in activity in insects held for five weeks without food. We suggest that bed bugs make a transition to host-stimulus dependent searching when host presence is not predictable. Such a strategy would enable bed bugs to maximize reproduction when resources are abundant and save energy when resources are scarce. PMID:20452356
Romero, Alvaro; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F
According to the data of direct electroencephalography (EEG) human fetus can develop circadian rhythm of sleep-wake cycle before birth. Healthy fetus during birth is awake and takes an active part in the delivery. The fetus sleep during birth is developed only in hypoxic states. EEG irregularities of sleep are noticed yet in fetal stage. Children aged 0-1 year develop five phases of sleep: drowsiness, active sleep, sleep of middle depth, deep sleep, paradoxical REM sleep. Maturity of superficial sleep terminates by the 10th-12th month of life. The sleep of average depth and deep sleep terminate maturity by the 2nd month of life. Duration of paradoxical sleep increases considerably by the age 12th month and is divided into 2 stages. By the age of 12 months paradoxical sleep remains immature. In children of the same age with CNS disorder the structural composition of sleep changes: active sleep is prolonged, sleep of middle depth is not changed, deep sleep does not develop, paradoxical-REM sleep is atypical. PMID:17057286
Kintraia, P Ia; Devdariani, M G; Kokhiia, M I; Mikadze, S I
Hormones play a major role in regulating behavior and physiology, and their efficacy is often dependent on the temporal pattern in which they are secreted. Significant insights into the mechanisms underlying rhythmic hormone secretion have been gained from transgenic rodent models, suggesting that many of the body's rhythmic functions are regulated by a coordinated network of central and peripheral circadian pacemakers. Some neuroendocrine rhythms are driven by transcriptional-posttranslational feedback circuits comprising ‘core clock genes’, while others represent a cyclic cascade of neuroendocrine events. This review focuses on recent data from the rhesus macaque, a non-human primate model with high clinical translation potential. With primary emphasis on adrenal and gonadal steroids, it illustrates the rhythmic nature of hormone secretion, and discusses the impact that fluctuating hormone levels have on the accuracy of clinical diagnoses and on the design of effective hormone replacement therapies in the elderly. In addition, this minireview raises awareness of the rhythmic expression patterns shown by many genes, and discusses how this could impact interpretation of data obtained from gene profiling studies, especially from nocturnal rodents.
Urbanski, Henryk F.
The L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) in avian retinal cone photoreceptors are under circadian control, in which the protein expression of the ?1 subunits and the current density are greater at night than during the day. Both Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Ras-phosphatidylionositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathways are part of the circadian output that regulate the L-VGCC rhythm, while cAMP-dependent signaling is further upstream of Ras to regulate the circadian outputs in photoreceptors. However, there are missing links between cAMP-dependent signaling and Ras in the circadian output regulation of L-VGCCs. In this study, we report that calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine (ser)/threonine (thr) phosphatase, participates in the circadian output pathway to regulate L-VGCCs through modulating both Ras-MAPK and Ras-PI3K-AKT signaling. The activity of calcineurin, but not its protein expression, was under circadian regulation. Application of a calcineurin inhibitor, FK-506 or cyclosporine A, reduced the L-VGCC current density at night with a corresponding decrease in L-VGCC?1D protein expression, but the circadian rhythm of L-VGCC?1D mRNA levels were not affected. Inhibition of calcineurin further reduced the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT (at thr 308) and inhibited the activation of Ras, but inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K signaling did not affect the circadian rhythm of calcineurin activity. However, inhibition of adenylate cyclase significantly dampened the circadian rhythm of calcineurin activity. These results suggest that calcineurin is upstream of MAPK and PI3K-AKT but downstream of cAMP in the circadian regulation of L-VGCCs.
Huang, Cathy Chia-Yu; Ko, Michael L.; Vernikovskaya, Darya I.; Ko, Gladys Y.-P.
We report that l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a serotonin precursor, resets the overt circadian rhythm in the Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor, in a phase- and dose-dependent manner. We used wheel running to assess phase shifts in the free-running locomotor activity rhythm. Following entrainment to a 12:12 h light-dark cycle, 5-HTP (100 mg/kg in saline) was intraperitoneally administered in complete darkness at circadian time (CT)s 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21, and the ensuing phase shifts in the locomotor activity rhythm were calculated. The results show that 5-HTP differentially shifts the phase of the rhythm, causing phase advances from CT 0 to CT 12 and phase delays from CT 12 to CT 21. Maximum advance phase shift was at CT 6 (1.18 ± 0.37 h) and maximum delay was at CT 18 (-2.36 ± 0.56 h). No extended dead zone is apparent. Vehicle (saline) at any CT did not evoke a significant phase shift. Investigations with different doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of 5-HTP revealed that the phase resetting effect is dose-dependent. The shape of the phase-response curve (PRC) has a strong similarity to PRCs obtained using some serotonergic agents. There was no significant increase in wheel-running activity after 5-HTP injection, ruling out behavioral arousal-dependent shifts. This suggests that this phase resetting does not completely depend on feedback of the overt rhythmic behavior on the circadian clock. A mechanistic explanation of these shifts is currently lacking.
Basu, Priyoneel; Singaravel, Muniyandi; Haldar, Chandana
Circadian oscillators play an indispensable role in the coordination of physiological processes with the cyclic changes in the physical environment. A significant number of recent clinical and molecular studies suggest that circadian biology may play an important role in the regulation of adipose and other metabolic tissue functions. In this discussion, we present the hypothesis that circadian dysfunction may be
Sanjin Zvonic; Z. Elizabeth Floyd; Randall L. Mynatt; Jeffrey M. Gimble
The results of this study demonstrate an influence of the circadian rhythm on the effects of microwave exposure on plasma cortisol and rectal temperature. The lower rectal temperature during night exposures was presumably due to the lower sham-condition temperature at night, since the temperature increase over sham levels was similar for either day or night exposures. The absence of a cortisol response during night exposures may be simply related to the absolute body temperature reached, although more complex circadian influences cannot be eliminated by these data. Although the results were insufficient to provide a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved, it was shown conclusively that the responses studied depended not only on the independent variables of microwave exposure selected, but also on the baseline levels of the normal physiological state that existed at the time of exposure.
Objective Morningness/eveningness (M/E) is a stable characteristic of individuals. Circadian rhythms are altered in episodes of mood disorder. Mood disorder patients were more evening-type than normal population. In this study, we compared the characteristics of M/E among the 257 patients with bipolar I disorder (BPD1), bipolar II disorder (BPD2) and major depressive disorder, recurrent (MDDR). Methods M/E was evaluated using the Korean version of the composite scale of morningness (CS). Factor analysis was done to extract specific elements of circadian rhythm (morning preference, morning alertness, and evening tiredness). The total score and scores for factors and individual items of CS were compared in order to evaluate differences among the three different diagnostic groups. Factor scores of CS were different among the diagnostic groups. Results BPD1 subjects had a higher score for evening tiredness than BPD2 subjects (p=0.060), and BPD1 subjects had a significantly higher score for morning alertness than subjects with MDDR (p=0.034). This difference was even more profound for the representative item scores of each factor; item 2 of CS for evening tiredness (BPD1>BPD2, p=0.007) and item 5 of CS for morning alertness (BPD1>MDDR, p=0.002). Total score of CS were not different among 3 diagnostic groups. Conclusion Circadian rhythm characteristics measured by CS were different among BPD1, BPD2, and MDDR. BPD2 showed more eveningness than BPD1. MDDR showed less morningness than BPD1. CS would be a reasonable endophenotype associated with mood disorders. More studies with large sample size of mood disorders on M/E are warranted.
Chung, Jae Kyung; Lee, Kyu Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Eui-Joong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Jung-Eun; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik
An increased risk of death or severe injury due to late-morning thrombotic events is well established. Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the coagulation cascade, and endothelial stresses, coupled with production of pro-coagulant microparticles (MP) are also important factors in loss of haemostasis. TF and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) -positive cell microparticles were assessed periodically over a 24-hour (h) period in healthy human subjects to ascertain if they followed a circadian rhythm. Eleven healthy male subjects were assessed in a temperature-controlled environment with dietary intake consistent between subjects. Blood samples were taken every 4 h by venipuncture, and TF and VCAM-1 positive microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. A significant circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 MP (p=or<0.0001), and a trend was shown, although not statistically significant (p=0.065) in TF microparticles. A peak was observed at 9 a.m. for VCAM-1 positive MP, followed by a decrease and subsequent peak at 9 p.m. and a minimum at 5 a.m. TF-positive MP followed a strikingly similar trend in both variation and absolute numbers with a delay. A circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 and less so TF-positive MP. This has significant implications in terms of the well known increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events matching this data. To our knowledge this is the first such report of quantified measurements of these MP over a 24-h period and the only measurement of a 24-h variation of in-vivo blood-borne TF. PMID:18449421
Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V; Sandström, Marie E; Taylor, Lee; McNaughton, Lars; Laden, Gerard
The immune system interacts with the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis via so-called glucocorticoid increasing factors, which are produced by the immune system during immune reactions, causing an elevation of systemic glucocorticoid levels that contribute to preservation of the immune reactions specificities. Previous results from our laboratory had already shown an altered immuno-neuroendocrine dialogue via the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in autoimmune disease-prone chicken and mouse strains. In the present study, we further investigated the altered glucocorticoid response via the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in murine lupus. We established the circadian rhythms of corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, adrenocorticotropic hormone and melatonin, as well as the time response curves after injection of interleukin-1 of the first three parameters in normal SWISS and lupus-prone MRL/MP-fas(Ipr) mice. The results show that lupus-prone MRL/ MP-fas(Ipr) mice do not react appropriately to changes of the light/dark cycle, circadian melatonin rhythms seem to uncouple from the light/dark cycle, and plasma corticosterone levels are elevated during the resting phase. Diurnal changes of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and adrenocorticotropic hormone were normal compared to healthy controls. These data indicate that MRL/ MP-fas(Ipr) mice not only show an altered glucocorticoid response mediated via the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal axis to IL-1, but are also affected by disturbances of corticosterone and melatonin circadian rhythms. Our findings may have implications for intrathymic T cell development and the emergence of autoimmune disease. PMID:10882059
Lechner, O; Dietrich, H; Oliveira dos Santos, A; Wiegers, G J; Schwarz, S; Harbutz, M; Herold, M; Wick, G
The master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls daily rhythms of behavior in mammals. C57BL/6J mice lacking Period1 (Per1?/?) are an anomaly because their SCN molecular rhythm is weak or absent in vitro even though their locomotor activity rhythm is robust. To resolve the contradiction between the in vitro and in vivo circadian phenotypes of Per1?/? mice, we measured the multi-unit activity (MUA) rhythm of the SCN neuronal population in freely-behaving mice. We found that in vivo Per1?/? SCN have high-amplitude MUA rhythms, demonstrating that the ensemble of neurons is driving robust locomotor activity in Per1?/? mice. Since the Per1?/? SCN electrical activity rhythm is indistinguishable from wild-types, in vivo physiological factors or coupling of the SCN to a known or unidentified circadian clock(s) may compensate for weak endogenous molecular rhythms in Per1?/? SCN. Consistent with the behavioral light responsiveness of Per1?/? mice, in vivo MUA rhythms in Per1?/? SCN exhibited large phase shifts in response to light. Since the acute response of the MUA rhythm to light in Per1?/? SCN is equivalent to wild-types, an unknown mechanism mediates enhanced light responsiveness of Per1?/? mice. Thus, Per1?/? mice are a unique model for investigating the component(s) of the in vivo environment that confers robust rhythmicity to the SCN as well as a novel mechanism of enhanced light responsiveness. PMID:23717599
Takasu, Nana N; Pendergast, Julie S; Olivas, Cathya S; Yamazaki, Shin; Nakamura, Wataru
The master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls daily rhythms of behavior in mammals. C57BL/6J mice lacking Period1 (Per1?/?) are an anomaly because their SCN molecular rhythm is weak or absent in vitro even though their locomotor activity rhythm is robust. To resolve the contradiction between the in vitro and in vivo circadian phenotypes of Per1?/? mice, we measured the multi-unit activity (MUA) rhythm of the SCN neuronal population in freely-behaving mice. We found that in vivo Per1?/? SCN have high-amplitude MUA rhythms, demonstrating that the ensemble of neurons is driving robust locomotor activity in Per1?/? mice. Since the Per1?/? SCN electrical activity rhythm is indistinguishable from wild-types, in vivo physiological factors or coupling of the SCN to a known or unidentified circadian clock(s) may compensate for weak endogenous molecular rhythms in Per1?/? SCN. Consistent with the behavioral light responsiveness of Per1?/? mice, in vivo MUA rhythms in Per1?/? SCN exhibited large phase shifts in response to light. Since the acute response of the MUA rhythm to light in Per1?/? SCN is equivalent to wild-types, an unknown mechanism mediates enhanced light responsiveness of Per1?/? mice. Thus, Per1?/? mice are a unique model for investigating the component(s) of the in vivo environment that confers robust rhythmicity to the SCN as well as a novel mechanism of enhanced light responsiveness.
Takasu, Nana N.; Pendergast, Julie S.; Olivas, Cathya S.; Yamazaki, Shin; Nakamura, Wataru
Seasonal rhythms of androgen excretion were studied in 247 normal subjects and 213 patients with peptic ulcer in the stage of remission. Circadian rhythms were examined in 84 patients and excretion of androgen fractions in 81 patients. The patients manifested changes in the seasonal rhythms of androgen excretion. In winter period, androgen excretion was higher in the patients with peptic ulcer but in spring, the normal subjects had a higher excretion than patients, whereas in summer the patients had a higher excretion than normal subjects. Despite the preservation of the rhythmical pattern the patients demonstrated changes in the rhythm expressed in the decreased amplitude of seasonal fluctuations and deformation of the seasonal rhythm. Circadian rhythms differed only at some seasons. The difference in excretion of androgens (dehydroandrosterone and androsterone) were revealed at individual seasons. Deformation of the rhythms in peptic ulcer patients can be corrected by application of early preventive measures aimed at normalization of the excretory rhythm and restoration of the rhythm characteristic of the regional climatic zone under consideration. PMID:3157236
E?l'bart, V L
Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under “unmasked”, time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P?.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P?=?.025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.
Shechter, Ari; Lesperance, Paul; Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K.; Boivin, Diane B.
Two sets of wide-field neurons extend neurites into the fly's optic lamina, where monopolar cells receive photoreceptor input.\\u000a They exhibit immunoreactivity to antibodies raised against either 5-hydroxytryptamine or the crustacean peptide PDH, respectively.\\u000a Both are proposed whole-field neuromodulators of vision, apparently regulating a circadian rhythm of monopolar cell size.\\u000a Seeking functional correlates, we have re-examined the electroretinogram for circadian rhythmicity,
B. Chen; I. A. Meinertzhagen; S. R. Shaw
Adouble-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus
Sat Bir S. Khalsa; Megan E. Jewett; Jeanne F. Duffy; Charles A. Czeisler
Circadian variation of QT interval dispersion (QTd) and heart rate variability spectral indices was evaluated in healthy persons in 24-hour 3-lead electrocardiogram. Mean values, SD, and SD\\/mean were evaluated for 24 hours, each hour separately and in night, day, and morning periods. Table Curve2D and multiple regression were applied to find correlations between parameters. In 50% of subjects, a significant
Andrzej Bi?an; Agnieszka Witczak; Robert Palusi?ski; Andrzej Ignatowicz; Janusz Hanzlik
Background: Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is secreted by the adipocyte and is involved in the regulation of body weight, energy homeostasis and a wide spectrum of biological activities. Objective: We studied how variations in circadian serum leptin levels change as people age. Methods: Serum leptin levels were studied on a circadian basis in 26 men, 6 overweight
Zi-Yan Zhao; Yue-Rong Fu; Xin-Hua Li; Yu-Yang Li; André Bogdan; Yvan Touitou
In an earlier published telephone interview study (n > 1,000) we have shown that retired shift workers subjectively report worse sleep than retired day workers. This laboratory study sought to determine whether these findings held up when objective polysomnograhic (PSG) measures of sleep were taken and whether retirees' circadian temperature rhythms differed as a function of shift work exposure. All completers of the telephone interview were invited to attend a 36-hour laboratory study for which participants were paid. This involved continuous core body temperature measurement (using an ingestible pill-based system) and 2 nights of PSG. Shift work exposure (plus other measures) was collected by taking a detailed work history. The second laboratory night was scored into sleep stages. Post hoc, we divided participants into 4 shift work exposure groups: 0 years (ie, no exposure to shift work), 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years. Sample sizes were 11, 16, 15, and 15, respectively, with approximate equality in mean age (71.7 years of age, 69.1 years of age, 70.0 years of age, and 70.4 years of age, respectively) and percent male (63%, 50%, 67%, and 73%, respectively). Shift work exposure was associated with worse PSG sleep in a dose-related fashion. The percentages of participants with sleep efficiency, 80% for the 0 years, 1 to 7 years, 7 to 20 years, and >20 years groups were 36%, 63%, 67%, and 73%, respectively (P < 0.01), and the percentages with total sleep time (TST), 6 hours were 36%, 56%, 53%, and 73%, respectively (P < 0.01). From the circadian rhythm record, shift work exposure appeared to result (P = 0.06) in an increased spread of phase angles (difference between habitual bedtime and time of temperature trough). In conclusion, it appears likely that shift work may be related to a scarring of sleep and circadian rhythms. This may be associated with a change in the relationship between habitual sleep timing and the phase of the circadian pacemaker.
Monk, Timothy H.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Billy, Bart D.; Fletcher, Mary E.; Kennedy, Kathy S.
Purpose To investigate whether caffeine ingestion counteracts the morning reduction in neuromuscular performance associated with the circadian rhythm pattern. Methods Twelve highly resistance-trained men underwent a battery of neuromuscular tests under three different conditions; i) morning (10:00 a.m.) with caffeine ingestion (i.e., 3 mg kg?1; AMCAFF trial); ii) morning (10:00 a.m.) with placebo ingestion (AMPLAC trial); and iii) afternoon (18:00 p.m.) with placebo ingestion (PMPLAC trial). A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled experimental design was used, with all subjects serving as their own controls. The neuromuscular test battery consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity during free-weight full-squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises against loads that elicit maximum strength (75% 1RM load) and muscle power adaptations (1 m s?1 load). Isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVCLEG) and isometric electrically evoked strength of the right knee (EVOKLEG) were measured to identify caffeine's action mechanisms. Steroid hormone levels (serum testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone) were evaluated at the beginning of each trial (PRE). In addition, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine were measured PRE and at the end of each trial following a standardized intense (85% 1RM) 6 repetitions bout of SQ (POST). Results In the PMPLAC trial, dynamic muscle strength and power output were significantly enhanced compared with AMPLAC treatment (3.0%–7.5%; p?0.05). During AMCAFF trial, muscle strength and power output increased above AMPLAC levels (4.6%–5.7%; p?0.05) except for BP velocity with 1 m s?1 load (p?=?0.06). During AMCAFF, EVOKLEG and NE (a surrogate of maximal muscle sympathetic nerve activation) were increased above AMPLAC trial (14.6% and 96.8% respectively; p?0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that caffeine ingestion reverses the morning neuromuscular declines in highly resistance-trained men, raising performance to the levels of the afternoon trial. Our electrical stimulation data, along with the NE values, suggest that caffeine increases neuromuscular performance having a direct effect in the muscle.
Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallares, Jesus Garcia; Lopez-Samanes, Alvaro; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.
Previously, we investigated the role of neuropeptide Y and leptin-sensitive networks in the mediobasal hypothalamus in sleep and feeding and found profound homeostatic and circadian deficits with an intact suprachiasmatic nucleus. We propose that the arcuate nuclei (Arc) are required for the integration of homeostatic circadian systems, including temperature and activity. We tested this hypothesis using saporin toxin conjugated to leptin (Lep-SAP) injected into Arc in rats. Lep-SAP rats became obese and hyperphagic and progressed through a dynamic phase to a static phase of growth. Circadian rhythms were examined over 49 days during the static phase. Rats were maintained on a 12:12-h light-dark (LD) schedule for 13 days and, thereafter, maintained in continuous dark (DD). After the first 13 days of DD, food was restricted to 4 h/day for 10 days. We found that the activity of Lep-SAP rats was arrhythmic in DD, but that food anticipatory activity was, nevertheless, entrainable to the restricted feeding schedule, and the entrained rhythm persisted during the subsequent 3-day fast in DD. Thus, for activity, the circuitry for the light-entrainable oscillator, but not for the food-entrainable oscillator, was disabled by the Arc lesion. In contrast, temperature remained rhythmic in DD in the Lep-SAP rats and did not entrain to restricted feeding. We conclude that the leptin-sensitive network that includes the Arc is required for entrainment of activity by photic cues and entrainment of temperature by food, but is not required for entrainment of activity by food or temperature by photic cues. PMID:23986359
Wiater, Michael F; Li, Ai-Jun; Dinh, Thu T; Jansen, Heiko T; Ritter, Sue
Non-image related responses to light, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to the day/night cycle, are mediated by classical rod/cone photoreceptors and by a small subset of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive, expressing the photopigment, melanopsin. This raises the possibility that the melanopsin cells may be serving as a conduit for photic information detected by the rods and/or cones. To test this idea, we developed a specific immunotoxin consisting of an anti-melanopsin antibody conjugated to the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. Intravitreal injection of this immunotoxin results in targeted destruction of melanopsin cells. We find that the specific loss of these cells in the adult mouse retina alters the effects of light on circadian rhythms. In particular, the photosensitivity of the circadian system is significantly attenuated. A subset of animals becomes non-responsive to the light/dark cycle, a characteristic previously observed in mice lacking rods, cones, and functional melanopsin cells. Mice lacking melanopsin cells are also unable to show light induced negative masking, a phenomenon known to be mediated by such cells, but both visual cliff and light/dark preference responses are normal. These data suggest that cells containing melanopsin do indeed function as a conduit for rod and/or cone information for certain non-image forming visual responses. Furthermore, we have developed a technique to specifically ablate melanopsin cells in the fully developed adult retina. This approach can be applied to any species subject to the existence of appropriate anti-melanopsin antibodies.
Goz, Didem; Studholme, Keith; Lappi, Douglas A.; Rollag, Mark D.; Provencio, Ignacio; Morin, Lawrence P.
Background Alterations in the circadian arterial pressure (AP) rhythm predict cardiovascular mortality. We examined the circadian AP rhythm and the effect of renin-angiotensin system blockade in congenic mRen2.Lewis hypertensive rats, a renin-dependent model of hypertension derived from the backcross of transgenic hypertensive [mRen-2]27 rats with Lewis normotensive ones. Methods Twenty nine mRen2.Lewis hypertensive rats were randomly assigned to drink tap-water (vehicle; n=9), valsartan (30 mg/kg/day; n=10) or valsartan (30mg/kg/day) combined with aliskiren given s.c. (50 mg/kg/day; n=10) for two weeks treatment. AP, heart rate, and locomotive activity were recorded with chronically implanted radiotelemetry probes. The awake/asleep ratio was calculated as (awake mean AP (MAP) mean – asleep MAP mean)/ (awake MAP mean) × 100. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and concentration (PRC), and plasma and kidney angiotensin II (Ang II) were measured by radioimmunoassays. Results Untreated hypertensive rats showed an inverse AP rhythm, higher at day and lower at night, accompanied by normal rhythms of heart rate and locomotive activity. Treatment with valsartan or aliskiren/valsartan normalized both the elevated AP and the AP rhythm with the combination therapy being more effective both in reducing MAP and in restoring the awake/asleep ratio. While PRA and PRC increased with the treatments, addition of aliskiren to valsartan partially reversed the increases in plasma Ang II levels while both valsartan and aliskiren/valsartan markedly reduced renal cortical content of Ang II. Conclusion The altered circadian AP rhythm in this renin-dependent hypertension model uncovers a significant role of Ang II on the desynchronization of the circadian rhythm among AP, heart rate, and locomotive activity.
Moniwa, Norihito; Varagic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; VonCannon, Jessica L.; Ferrario, Carlos M.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue syndrome (CRFS) could be rigorously applied to cancer inpatients, and to explore the relationship between subjective fatigue and objective measures of physical activity, sleep, and circadian rhythm. Female cancer patients (n=25) and a comparison group of subjects without cancer (n=25) were studied. Study participants completed a
Roland Fernandes; Patrick Stone; Paul Andrews; Rachael Morgan; Shanika Sharma
The fatty acids oleic, linoleic, and linolenic, each of which has a cis double bond at the delta 9 position, are known to lengthen the circadian period of conidiation (spore formation) of strains of Neurospora crassa carrying the cel mutation. cel confers a partial fatty acid requirement on the organism and has been used to promote incorporation of exogenous fatty acids. To test whether a physical effect imparted by the cis double bonds, such as increased membrane fluidity, is critical for the perturbation of the rhythm, various isomers of these fatty acids were supplemented to the bd csp cel strain. Positional isomers of oleic acid, such as petroselinic (delta 6) and vaccenic (delta 11) acids, and longer-chain isomers, such as eicosenoic (delta 11) and erucic (delta 13) acids, did not lengthen the rhythm. The shorter-chain palmitoleic (delta 9) acid did not give a consistent lengthening of the rhythm; it may be elongated to vaccenic acid. In contrast, gamma-linolenic acid (delta 6,9,12) dramatically lengthened the period. Linoelaidic acid (the trans,trans isomer of linoleic acid) lengthened the period at 22 degrees C, but elaidic acid (the trans isomer of oleic acid) did not. Elaidic acid was shown to exert a lengthening effect, but only at lower temperatures. The data do not support a direct physical action as the source of the fatty acids' "chronobiotic" ability. PMID:3156558
Mattern, D L
Glutamate released from retinal ganglion cells conveys information about the daily light:dark cycle to master circadian pacemaker neurons within the suprachiasmatic nucleus that then synchronize internal circadian rhythms with the external day-length. Glutamate activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well established, but the function of the metabotropic glutamate receptors that are also located in this nucleus is not known. Therefore, in this study we evaluated agonists and antagonists acting at orthosteric or allosteric sites for mGluR5 and mGluR2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptors for their ability to modulate light-induced phase advances and delays of hamster circadian activity rhythms. mGluR5 allosteric antagonists fenobam, MPEP and MTEP, each 10 mg/kg, potentiated light-induced phase advances of hamster circadian activity rhythms, while the mGluR5 agonists CHPG, (S)-3,5-DHPG or positive allosteric modulator CDPPB had no effect. Neither mGluR5 agonists nor antagonists had any effect on light-induced phase delays of activity rhythms. The competitive mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495, 10 mg/kg, also potentiated light-induced phase advances, but inhibited light-induced phase delays. The mGluR2/3 agonists LY354740 and LY404039 were without effect on phase advances while a third agonist LY379268, 10 mg/kg, inhibited both light-induced advances and delays. Finally, mGluR2/3 agonists LY379268 and LY404039 also inhibited light-induced phase delays of activity rhythms. These results suggest that during light-induced phase advances, mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 receptors act to negatively modulate the effects of light on the circadian pacemaker or its output(s). mGluR5 receptors do not appear to be involved during light-induced phase delays. In contrast, the role for mGluR2/3 receptors during phase delays is more complicated as both agonists and antagonists inhibit light-induced phase delays. Dysfunctions in human circadian rhythms have been implicated in some forms of depression, and metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands, which are also being evaluated for antidepressant activity, are shown here to be capable of modifying light-induced phase shifts of circadian activity rhythms. PMID:20831878
Gannon, Robert L; Millan, Mark J
The circadian activity of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is controlled by the master circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. However, the reciprocal influence of CRF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis upon the circadian pacemaker is less well established. Therefore, in the present study, we tested two nonpeptidergic antagonists at CRF(1) receptors for their ability to modulate photic resetting of pacemaker time (phase). CP154,526 dose dependently and significantly inhibited light-induced phase advances in hamster circadian activity rhythms late in the subjective night by approximately 60% at a maximally effective dose of 20 mg/kg delivered intraperitoneally. Likewise, a further CRF(1) receptor antagonist, DMP695, inhibited phase advances by approximately 40% at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The attenuation of phase shifts by CP154,526 was specific to phase advances as light-induced phase delays of the circadian pacemaker achieved early in the subjective night were not affected by CP154,526 (20 mg/kg). We also tested one of the CRF(1) receptor antagonists for its potential ability to reset the pacemaker in the absence of light and found that CP154,526 did not elicit a nonphotic phase shifts in circadian activity rhythms at circadian times (CT) 2, 8, 14, 18, or 22. In conclusion, CRF(1) receptor antagonists selectively modulate the effect of light on the circadian pacemaker late at night. These novel data emphasize the suspected critical link between CRF and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, on the one hand, and stress (including stress caused by jet-lag) and depression on the other. These results also suggest that CRF(1) antagonists may not only improve affect but also counter the circadian disruption associated with depression and other stress-related disorders. PMID:16551464
Gannon, Robert L; Millan, Mark J
The circadian clock controls many cellular processes, some of which are key to tumor suppression, including cell proliferation\\u000a and apoptosis, DNA repair, metabolism, hormone signaling, and immune function. The association between altered circadian clock\\u000a function and increased risk of colorectal cancer is increasingly evident from epidemiologic, preclinical, and clinical studies.\\u000a In this review, we discuss several distinct mechanisms by which
Patricia A. Wood; Xiaoming Yang; William J. M. Hrushesky
Although light is accepted as the dominant zeitgeber for entrainment of the human circadian system, reports that some totally blind individuals appear entrained to the 24-h day have suggested that non-photic stimuli may also be effective circadian synchronizers in humans. We investigated the sleep and rest–activity patterns of 22 blind subjects (17 teenagers and 5 adults) in their natural environmental
T. Ben Lazreg; I. Laatiri; M. Dogui
Age-related changes in sleep may be linked to modifications in the circadian timing system. This study compared sleep patterns and unmasked circadian temperature parameters between a group of young subjects and a group of middle-aged subjects. Habitual bedtime and waketime were earlier in the middle-aged than in the young. In addition, middle-aged subjects reported a greater orientation toward morningness and
Julie Carrier; Jean Paquet; Jocelyn Morettini; Évelyne Touchette
Circadian pattern of heart rate variability spectral indices, including hourly, 24-hour, night, day, morning, and sex-adjusted measures of low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF\\/HF, was evaluated in healthy persons in 24-hour 3-lead electrocardiogram. HF showed circadian pattern with the greatest night values and LF\\/HF with the smallest night values. Peaks of hourly LF were found between 5 and
Andrzej Bilan; Agnieszka Witczak; Robert Palusi?ski; Wojciech My?li?ski; Janusz Hanzlik
The serotonin and circadian systems are principal regulatory networks of the brain. Each consists of a unique set of neurons that make widespread neural connections and a defined gene network of transcriptional regulators and signaling genes that subserve serotonergic and circadian function at the genetic level. These master regulatory networks of the brain are extensively intertwined, with reciprocal circuit connections, expression of key genetic elements for serotonin signaling in clock neurons and expression of key clock genes in serotonergic neurons. The reciprocal connections of the serotonin and circadian systems likely have importance for neurobehavioral disorders, as suggested by their convergent contribution to a similar range of mood disorders including seasonal affective disorder (SAD), bipolar disorder, and major depression, and as suggested by their overlapping relationship with the developmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder. Here we review the neuroanatomical and genetic basis for serotonin-circadian interactions in the brain, their potential relationship with neurobehavioral disorders, and recent work examining the effects on the circadian system of genetic perturbation of the serotonergic system as well as the molecular and behavioral effects of developmental imprinting of the circadian system with perinatal seasonal light cycles. PMID:21963350
Ciarleglio, C M; Resuehr, H E S; McMahon, D G
This study examines the effects of the leptin receptor mutation in obese Zucker rats on entrainment of food-anticipatory rhythms to daily feeding schedules. Leptin is secreted by adipocytes in proportion to fat content, exhibits a daily rhythm in plasma that is synchronized to feeding time, and inhibits activity of arcuate neuropeptide Y neurons that stimulate feeding behavior and regulate metabolism.
R. E Mistlberger; E. G Marchant
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) in the above-ground organs synthesizes and accumulates (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids (GMCA), the precursors of phytoanticipin herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin). The diurnal rhythmicity of the sum of GMCA (maximum before daybreak) and herniarin (acrophase at 10 h 21 min of circadian time) was observed under artificial lighting conditions LD 12:12. The acrophase is the time point of the maximum of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data. In continuous light, the circadian rhythms of both compounds were first described with similar acrophases of endogenous rhythms; a significantly different result from that in synchronized conditions. The rhythms' mesor (the mean value of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data) under free-running conditions was not influenced. Abiotic stress under synchronized conditions decreased the average content of GMCA to half of the original level and eliminated the rhythmicity. In contrast, the rhythm of herniarin continued, though its content significantly increased. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in a significant increase in GMCA content, which did not manifest any rhythmicity while the rhythm of herniarin continued. Circadian control of herniarin could be considered as a component of the plant's specialized defence mechanisms. PMID:19430793
Repcák, Miroslav; Smajda, Benadik; Kovácik, Jozef; Eliasová, Adriana
Variation in the production of opioid receptors over a 24-h period is considered to contribute to circadian alterations in neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the possible changes in the circadian rhythm of mRNA expression for µ-opioid receptor (MOR), ?-opioid receptor (KOR), and adrenaline ?2a receptor (?2a) in the periaqueductal gray, frontal cortex, thalamus, and spinal cord following sciatic nerve ligation in mice. In sham-operated mice, the latencies of hind paw-withdrawal in response to thermal stimuli at 14:00 and 20:00 were significantly greater than that at 8:00 and the latency at 2:00 was significantly less than those at 14:00 and 20:00, indicating a "rest" period-dominant circadian rhythm for thermal pain-thresholds. In sciatic nerve-ligated mice, the latencies of hind paw-withdrawal in response to thermal stimuli at 14:00 and 20:00 were significantly less than that at 8:00, and the latency at 2:00 was significantly greater than those at 14:00 and 20:00. A correlative tendency between the time-variation of pain latency and the time-variation of MOR mRNA expression was observed in the periaqueductal gray of sham-operated and sciatic nerve-ligated mice. In contrast, neither mouse showed a strong circadian rhythm for the expressions of KOR and ?2a mRNAs in any region. The present data suggest that changes in MOR mRNA expression in the periaqueductal gray may be synchronized with the circadian rhythm for the pain threshold for noxious thermal stimuli. In contrast, neuropathic pain in mice exhibited a negative circadian pattern for the expression of MOR, KOR, and ?2a receptors in the frontal cortex, thalamus, and spinal cord. PMID:23280810
Takada, Tomohiko; Yamashita, Akira; Date, Akitoshi; Yanase, Makoto; Suhara, Yuki; Hamada, Asami; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Ikegami, Daigo; Iseki, Masako; Inada, Eiichi; Narita, Minoru
Serotonin receptor 7, i.e. 5-HT(7) protein coded by Htr7 gene, was discovered in supra-chiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus but is widespread in the forebrain. Studies have shown that this receptor is involved in learning/memory, regulation of mood and circadian rhythms. The modulatory effects of two novel agonists, LP-211 and LP-378, were assessed in male adult CD-1 mice with a battery of behavioral tests. Exp. 1 (Black/White Boxes, BWB: Adriani et al., 2009) and Exp. 2 (Dark/Light, D/L; Novelty-seeking, N-S) show: a) that LP-211 administration (acutely, at a 0.25 mg/kg dose i.p.) increases locomotion and BWB exploration; b) that the time spent away from an aversive, lit chamber (i.e., stress-induced anxiety) and in a new environment (i.e., novelty-induced curiosity) are both reduced. Sub-chronic LP-211 (at a 2.5 mg/kg dose i.p.) reveals a sensitization of locomotor-stimulant properties over 4-5 days. In Exp. 3 (BWB), a three- to four-fold dosage (acutely, at 0.83 mg/kg i.p.) is needed with LP-378 to increase locomotion and BWB exploration. In Exp. 4, mice under constant-light conditions reveal the expected spontaneous lengthening (1.5 h per day) of circadian rhythms. A significant phase advance is induced by LP-211 (at a 0.25 mg/kg dose i.p., administered around activity offset), with onset of activity taking place 6 h earlier than in controls. In summary, LP-211 is able to act consistently onto exploratory motivation, anxiety-related profiles, and spontaneous circadian rhythm. In the next future, agonist modulation of 5-HT(7) receptors might turn out to be beneficial for sleep and/or anxiety disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:21945717
Adriani, Walter; Travaglini, Domenica; Lacivita, Enza; Saso, Luciano; Leopoldo, Marcello; Laviola, Giovanni
Individual differences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation are considerable and represent a neurobiological trait. Genetic polymorphisms reported to be predictors have suggested the involvement of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep regulation in determining this trait. We applied mathematical and statistical modeling of these two processes to psychomotor vigilance performance and sleep physiological data from a laboratory study of repeated exposure to 36 h of total sleep deprivation in 9 healthy young adults. This served to quantify the respective contributions of individual differences in the two processes to the magnitudes of participants’ individual vulnerabilities to sleep deprivation. For the homeostatic process, the standard deviation for individual differences was found to be about 60% as expressed relative to its group-average contribution to neurobehavioral performance impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation period, the group-average effect of the homeostatic process was twice as big as that of the circadian process. In absolute terms, therefore, the impact of the individual differences in the homeostatic process was twice as large as the impact of the individual differences in the circadian process in this study. These modeling results indicated that individualized applications of mathematical models predicting performance on the basis of a homeostatic and a circadian process should account for individual differences in both processes.
Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Bender, Amy M.; Dinges, David F.
Individual differences in vulnerability to neurobehavioral performance impairment during sleep deprivation are considerable and represent a neurobiological trait. Genetic polymorphisms reported to be predictors have suggested the involvement of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep regulation in determining this trait. We applied mathematical and statistical modeling of these two processes to psychomotor vigilance performance and sleep physiological data from a laboratory study of repeated exposure to 36 h of total sleep deprivation in 9 healthy young adults. This served to quantify the respective contributions of individual differences in the two processes to the magnitudes of participants' individual vulnerabilities to sleep deprivation. For the homeostatic process, the standard deviation for individual differences was found to be about 60% as expressed relative to its group-average contribution to neurobehavioral performance impairment. The same was found for the circadian process. Across the span of the total sleep deprivation period, the group-average effect of the homeostatic process was twice as big as that of the circadian process. In absolute terms, therefore, the impact of the individual differences in the homeostatic process was twice as large as the impact of the individual differences in the circadian process in this study. These modeling results indicated that individualized applications of mathematical models predicting performance on the basis of a homeostatic and a circadian process should account for individual differences in both processes. PMID:22239924
Van Dongen, Hans P A; Bender, Amy M; Dinges, David F
Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The central clock controls the HPA axis, creating the diurnal oscillation of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the HPA axis adjusts the circadian rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in response to various stressors through the GR. Further, Clock-Bmal1 regulates the response to glucocorticoids in peripheral tissues through acetylation of the GR, possibly antagonizing the biologic actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating cortisol. Importantly, dysregulation in the clock system and the HPA axis may cause similar pathologic manifestations—including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease—by uncoupling circulating cortisol concentrations from tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids.
Urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP-c) was measured morning and evening in 35 patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). 65% of the patients revealed a higher night time than day time concentration of AMP-c in the urine, reflecting increased sympathetic adrenergic activity. The circadian rhythm was lost in 88.55% of the 35 patients. The pathogenic factors and mechanisms involved in AWS are discussed and the contribution of sympathetic adrenergic hyperactivity to the onset of the withdrawal syndrome with its concomitant depression of the cholinergic and GABAergic systems is emphasised. Finally it is suggested that insomnia and the loss of REM sleep may also contribute to the onset of the condition. PMID:2993962
Nardoni, A; Di Piazza, V; Marchetti, E; Geatti, O; Cedaro, P; Lattuada, L
Pigment-dispersing factors (PDFs) are octadeca-peptides widely distributed in insect optic lobes and brain. In this study, we have purified PDF and determined its amino acid sequence in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Its primary structure was NSEIINSLLGLPKVLNDA-NH(2), homologous to other PDH family members so far reported. When injected into the optic lobe of experimentally blinded adult male crickets, Gryllus-PDF induced phase shifts in their activity rhythms in a phase dependent and dose dependent manner. The resulted phase response curve (PRC) showed delays during the late subjective night to early subjective day and advances during the mid subjective day to mid subjective night. The PRC was different in shape from those for light, serotonin and temperature. These results suggest that PDF plays a role in phase regulation of the circadian clock through a separate pathway from those of other known phase regulating agents. PMID:14624032
Singaravel, Muniyandi; Fujisawa, Yuko; Hisada, Miki; Saifullah, A S M; Tomioka, Kenji
To explore the influence of circadian rhythms on executive function during early adolescence, we administered a battery of executive function measures (including a Go-Nogo task, the Iowa Gambling Task, a Self-ordered Pointing task, and an Intra/Extradimensional Shift task) to Morning-preference and Evening-preference participants (N = 80) between the ages of 11 and 14 years who were tested in the morning or afternoon. Significant Chronotype × Time of Day interactions (controlling for amount of sleep the previous night) revealed that adolescents tested at their optimal times of day performed better than those tested at their nonoptimal times. Implications for our understanding of physiological arousal, sleep, and executive function during adolescence are discussed. PMID:22490180
Hahn, Constanze; Cowell, Jason M; Wiprzycka, Ursula J; Goldstein, David; Ralph, Martin; Hasher, Lynn; Zelazo, Philip David
Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.
Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.
The concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and dopamine (DA) were determined in the nucleus accumbens (anterior, posterior) and striatum of rats every 2 h during a period of 24 h. For both substances, a circadian rhythm was found, which was best fitted by a dominant 24-h period superimposed by the second (12 h) and fourth (6 h) harmonics. The rhythms in CCK and DA were negatively correlated because of a difference in phase position by approximately 3 h. A dominant DA peak was found in the light phase coinciding with a trough in CCK and vice versa in the dark phase. Based on these data, CCK and DA were determined in rats treated with gamma-butyrolactone (GBL; inhibitor of DA release) or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; stimulator of DA release) at 0900 h or 1300 h to study a putative time-dependency in drug effects. After GBL treatment, CCK as well as DA increased by up to 200% whereas TRH administration led to a rather complex alteration, inasmuch as CCK was increased or decreased, depending on circadian time, whereas the rhythmic pattern in DA remained relatively unaffected. Comparing the drug effects obtained at 0900 h with the response seen at 1300 h revealed significant quantitative as well as qualitative differences. The results demonstrate that the neurotransmission system investigated changed its level of activity depending on time of day. No changes were obtained that convincingly may be ascribed to colocalization of DA and CCK. It is concluded that the chronobiological data indicate a close interaction of CCK and DA in various areas of the rat brain, independent of colocalization. PMID:8653803
Schade, R; Vick, K; Ott, T; Sohr, R; Pfister, C; Bellach, J; Golor, G; Lemmer, B
Specific features of the 24 h-blood pressure (BP) pattern are linked to the progressive injury of target tissues and risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Studies have consistently shown an association between blunted asleep BP decline and increased incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Thus, there is growing interest in how to achieve better BP control during nighttime sleep in addition to during daytime activity, according to the particular requirements of each hypertension patient. One approach takes into consideration the endogenous circadian rhythm-determinants of the 24-h BP pattern, especially, the prominent day-night variation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which activates during nighttime sleep. A series of clinical studies have demonstrated a different effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors benazepril, captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, spirapril, and trandolapril when routinely ingested in the morning vs. the evening. In most cases, the evening schedule exerts a more marked effect on the asleep than awake BP means. Similarly, a once-daily evening, in comparison to morning, ingestion schedule of the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) irbesartan, olmesartan, telmisartan, and valsartan exerts greater therapeutic effect on asleep BP, plus significant increase in the sleep-time relative BP decline, with normalization of the circadian BP profile toward a more dipping pattern, independent of drug terminal half-life. Chronotherapy, the timing of treatment to body rhythms, is a cost-effective means of both individualizing and optimizing the treatment of hypertension through normalization of the 24-h BP level and profile, and it may constitute an effective option to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:20930708
Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Portaluppi, Francesco; Fabbian, Fabio; Smolensky, Michael H
Psychological stressors prominently affect diurnal rhythms, including locomotor activity, sleep, blood pressure, and body temperature, in humans. Here, we found that a novel continuous stress imposed by the perpetual avoidance of water on a wheel (PAWW) affected several physiological diurnal rhythms in mice. One week of PAWW stress decayed robust circadian locomotor rhythmicity, while locomotor activity was evident even during the light period when the mice are normally asleep. Daytime activity was significantly upregulated, whereas nighttime activity was downregulated, resulting in a low amplitude of activity. Total daily activity gradually decreased with increasing exposure to PAWW stress. The mice could be exposed to PAWW stress for over 3 weeks without adaptation. Furthermo