These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A Mathematical Model for the Intracellular Circadian Rhythm Generator  

E-print Network

A Mathematical Model for the Intracellular Circadian Rhythm Generator Tjeerd olde Scheper,1 Don for the intracellular circadian rhythm generator has been studied, based on a negative feedback of protein products. Key words: SCN; circadian rhythm; molecular clock; entrain- ment; phase­response curves; models Free

van Pelt, Jaap

2

Intrinsic, nondeterministic circadian rhythm generation in identified mammalian neurons  

E-print Network

Intrinsic, nondeterministic circadian rhythm generation in identified mammalian neurons Alexis B August 5, 2009 (received for review March 16, 2009) Circadian rhythms are modeled as reliable and self transcription. Genetic deletion of these repressors abolishes circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology (2

Huettner, James E.

3

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS Circadian Photoreception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are driven by autonomous cellular clocks. To be useful, these clocks must be synchronized to the day-night cycles of the real world. This article provides a review of research on circadian photoreceptors in mammals.

Michael Menaker (University of Virginia;Department of Biology)

2003-01-10

4

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

There have been remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of circadian rhythms, as well as the impact of circadian dysfunction on health and disease. This information has transformed our understanding of the effect of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) on health, performance and safety. CRSDs are caused by alterations of the central circadian time-keeping system, or a misalignment of the endogenous circadian rhythm and the external environment. In this section, we provide a review of circadian biology and discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the most commonly encountered CRSDs in clinical practice. PMID:23099133

Zhu, Lirong; Zee, Phyllis C.

2012-01-01

5

Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian rhythms, they are provided with opportunities to connect learning to experiences and observations from their own lives. This article describes how to reset the biological clock of a shamrock plant while shedding light on its circadian rhythms.

Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. G.

2009-02-01

6

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders • Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSP): DSP occurs when a person regularly goes to ... in the general population is unknown. Risk Groups • DSP is more common in teens and young adults , ...

7

Robustness of circadian rhythms with respect to molecular noise  

E-print Network

Robustness of circadian rhythms with respect to molecular noise Didier Gonze, Jose´ Halloy molecular model capable of generating circadian rhythms to assess the robustness of circadian oscillations stochastic simulations model Drosophila Neurospora Circadian rhythms characterized by a period close to 24 h

Goldbeter, Albert

8

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

2014-01-01

9

The role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the generation of circadian rhythms in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Neural mechanisms involved in the generation and entrainment of circadian rhythms of behaviour were studied in male golden hamsters,Mesocricetus auratus.2.Destruction of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and accompanying interruption of the retino-hypothalamic tract (RHT) modified or eliminated entrainment to lighting cycles.3.Such lesions also prevented the generation of normal circadian rhythms of both activity and drinking. Some lesioned hamsters

Benjamin Rusak

1977-01-01

10

Melatonin for Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Dementia  

E-print Network

Melatonin for Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Dementia Available from: http. Describe the pathophysiology of circadian rhythm disturbances in dementia 2. Evaluate current treatment options for circadian rhythm disturbances in dementia 3. Review available literature on the use

Pillow, Jonathan

11

Gonadectomy reveals sex differences in circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus androgen receptors in mice  

E-print Network

Gonadectomy reveals sex differences in circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus androgen rights reserved. Keywords: Circadian rhythms; Mouse; Gonadal hormones; Dihydrotestosterone; Testosterone is necessary for the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms (Klein et al., 1991). In proof, lesions

Silver, Rae

12

Circadian rhythms in Drosophila.  

PubMed

We discuss some historical features of the circadian in Drosophila melanogaster. We then describe some recent progress from our laboratory in three different areas. First, we discuss the regulation of circadian gene expression as assayed with microarrays. Results are discussed that verify and extend published data, both with respect to the previously identified cycling mRNAs as well as some clustering within the genome of some of the genes that give rise to these circadian transcripts. Also discussed are experiments that attempt to identify transcripts that are enriched in lateral neurons, the key circadian pacemaker cells in the Drosophila brain. Second, the issue of damping within the brain is addressed, by assaying molecular oscillations after many days in constant darkness. Third, the identification of a new circadian mutant is described, which is a fully recessive allele of the gene Clock. The previous allele in flies, as well as the single mutant allele in mice, is a dominant allele. This limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the genetic and molecular analyses in these mutant strains. Results with the new recessive allele not only support the notion that Clock is an important clock gene but also indicate that it contributes more to the amplitude of the rhythm rather than the period. PMID:14712924

Rosbash, Michael; Allada, Ravi; McDonald, Mike; Peng, Ying; Zhao, Jie

2003-01-01

13

Robust and tunable circadian rhythms from differentially sensitive catalytic domains  

E-print Network

Robust and tunable circadian rhythms from differentially sensitive catalytic domains Connie Phonga of circadian rhythms are generally tunable, and input signals can reset the oscillator to efficiently bring that generates circadian rhythms satisfies these constraints in any organism. To study the molecular origins

Gardel, Margaret

14

Mammalian Circadian Rhythms: A Neural Network Model,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A neural network model provides behavioral, physiological, and anatomical predictions of how circadian rhythms are generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus. The 4-dimensional basic gated pacemaker model is defined in ter...

G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg

1987-01-01

15

Circadian rhythms: basic neurobiology and clinical applications.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms are major features of adaptation to our environment. In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated and regulated by a circadian timing system. This system consists of entertainment pathways, pacemakers, and pace-maker output to effector systems that are under circadian control. The primary entertainment pathway is the retinohypothalamic tract, which terminates in the circadian pacemakers, the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. The output of the suprachiasmatic nuclei is principally to the hypothalamus, the midline thalamus, and the basal forebrain. This provides a temporal organization to the sleep-wake cycle, to many physiological and endocrine functions, and to psychomotor performance functions. Disorders of circadian timing primarily affect entertainment and pacemaker functions. The pineal hormone, melatonin, appears to be promising agent for therapy of some circadian timing disorders. PMID:9046960

Moore, R Y

1997-01-01

16

244 Dispatch Circadian rhythms: Partners in time  

E-print Network

244 Dispatch Circadian rhythms: Partners in time Russell N. Van Gelder* and Mark A. Krasnow of the rhythms he discovered. Circadian rhythms -- self- sustained, nearly 24 hour rhythms of behavior in insects. Despite intensive analysis of the physiological properties of circadian rhythms, no clear insight

Krasnow, Mark A.

17

CHAPTER SEVEN Circadian Rhythms, Sleep  

E-print Network

CHAPTER SEVEN Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance Namni Goel*, Mathias Basner*, Hengyi Rao*, , David F. Dinges* *Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Contents 1. Introduction 156 2. Sleep­Wake and Circadian Regulation: Two

Pennsylvania, University of

18

METABOLISM AND THE CONTROL OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS  

E-print Network

METABOLISM AND THE CONTROL OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS Jared Rutter, Martin Reick, and Steven L. Mc@biochem.swmed.edu Key Words entrainment, suprachiasmatic nucleus, circadian rhythm, neural activity, restricted feeding, central circadian oscillator f Abstract The core apparatus that regulates circadian rhythm has been exten

Rutter, Jared

19

Circadian rhythms in the green sunfish retina  

PubMed Central

We investigated the occurrence of circadian rhythms in retinomotor movements and retinal sensitivity in the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. When green sunfish were kept in constant darkness, cone photoreceptors exhibited circadian retinomotor movements; rod photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pigment granules did not. Cones elongated during subjective night and contracted during subjective day. These results corroborate those of Burnside and Ackland (1984. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 25:539-545). Electroretinograms (ERGs) recorded in constant darkness in response to dim flashes (lambda = 640 nm) exhibited a greater amplitude during subjective night than during subjective day. The nighttime increase in the ERG amplitude corresponded to a 3-10-fold increase in retinal sensitivity. The rhythmic changes in the ERG amplitude continued in constant darkness with a period of approximately 24 h, which indicates that the rhythm is generated by a circadian oscillator. The spectral sensitivity of the ERG recorded in constant darkness suggests that cones contribute to retinal responses during both day and night. Thus, the elongation of cone myoids during the night does not abolish the response of the cones. To examine the role of retinal efferents in generating retinal circadian rhythms, we cut the optic nerve. This procedure did not abolish the rhythms of retinomotor movement or of the ERG amplitude, but it did reduce the magnitude of the nighttime phases of both rhythms. Our results suggest that more than one endogenous oscillator regulates the retinal circadian rhythms in green sunfish. Circadian signals controlling the rhythms may be either generated within the eye or transferred to the eye via a humoral pathway. PMID:3598559

1987-01-01

20

Robustness of circadian rhythms with respect to molecular noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a core molecular model capable of generating circadian rhythms to assess the robustness of circadian oscillations with respect to molecular noise. The model is based on the negative feedback exerted by a regulatory protein on the expression of its gene. Such a negative regulatory mechanism underlies circadian oscillations of the PER protein in Drosophila and of the FRQ

Didier Gonze; José Halloy; Albert Goldbeter

2002-01-01

21

Circadian Rhythm Control: Neurophysiological Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was implicated as a primary component in central nervous system mechanisms governing circadian rhythms. Disruption of the normal synchronization of temperature, activity, and other rhythms is detrimental to health. Sleep wake disorders, decreases in vigilance and performance, and certain affective disorders may result from or be exacerbated by such desynchronization. To study the basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in entrainment of circadian systems by the environment, Parylene-coated, etched microwire electrode bundles were used to record extracellular action potentials from the small somata of the SCN and neighboring hypothalamic nuclei in unanesthetized, behaving animals. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and chronically prepared with EEG ane EMG electrodes in addition to a moveable microdrive assembly. The majority of cells had firing rates 10 Hz and distinct populations of cells which had either the highest firing rate or lowest firing rate during sleep were seen.

Glotzbach, S. F.

1985-01-01

22

OPTIMIZATION OF WORK SCHEDULES BASED ON CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS KERI HAGERMAN  

E-print Network

OPTIMIZATION OF WORK SCHEDULES BASED ON CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS By KERI HAGERMAN A SENIOR RESEARCH PAPER.2. Circadian Rhythms----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.2.1. A Circadian Rhythm Model---------------------------------------------------------- 1.3. Shift Work

Miles, Will

23

Circadian Rhythm Disruption in Cancer Biology  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms show universally a 24-h oscillation pattern in metabolic, physiological and behavioral functions of almost all species. This pattern is due to a fundamental adaptation to the rotation of Earth around its own axis. Molecular mechanisms of generation of circadian rhythms organize a biochemical network in suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues, building cell autonomous clock pacemakers. Rhythmicity is observed in transcriptional expression of a wide range of clock-controlled genes that regulate a variety of normal cell functions, such as cell division and proliferation. Desynchrony of this rhythmicity seems to be implicated in several pathologic conditions, including tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorized “shiftwork that involves circadian disruption [as] probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A in the IARC classification system of carcinogenic potency of an agentagent) (Painting, Firefighting, and Shiftwork; IARC; 2007). This review discusses the potential relation between disruptions of normal circadian rhythms with genetic driving machinery of cancer. Elucidation of the role of clockwork disruption, such as exposure to light at night and sleep disruption, in cancer biology could be important in developing new targeted anticancer therapies, optimizing individualized chronotherapy and modifying lighting environment in workplaces or homes. PMID:22811066

Savvidis, Christos; Koutsilieris, Michael

2012-01-01

24

J Appl Physiol . Author manuscript Rev-erb-: an integrator of circadian rhythms and metabolism  

E-print Network

J Appl Physiol . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Rev-erb- : an integrator of circadian rhythms circadian clock ensures daily rhythms in diverse behavioral and physiological processes, including locomotor activity and sleep/wake cycles, but also food intake patterns. Circadian rhythms are generated

Boyer, Edmond

25

Circadian Rhythms and Cancer Chronotherapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Circadian Timing System (CTS) controls cellular proliferation and drug metabolism over a 24-h period through molecular\\u000a clocks in each cell. These cellular clocks are coordinated by a hypothalamic pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which\\u000a generate or control circadian physiology. The CTS down-regulates malignant growth in experimental models and in cancer patients.\\u000a It also generates large and predictable 24-h changes in

Francis Lévi; Atilla Altinok; Albert Goldbeter

26

[Relation between dementia and circadian rhythm disturbance].  

PubMed

Dementia and circadian rhythm disturbance are closely linked. First, dementia patient shows circadian rhythm disorders (e.g. insomnia, night wandering, daytime sleep). These symptoms are a burden for caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbance of dementia relates ADL and cognitive impairment, and diurnal rhythm disorder of blood pressure and body temperature. Some study shows that circadian rhythm disorders in dementia are a disturbance of neural network between suprachiasmatic nucleus and cerebral white matter, and involvement of both frontal lobes, left parietal and occipital cortex, left temporoparietal region. The first-line treatment of circadian rhythm disturbance should be non-drug therapy (e.g. exercise, bright light exposure, reduce caffeine intake, etc.). If physician prescribe drugs, keep the rule of low-dose and short-term and avoid benzodiazepines. Atypical antipsychotic drugs like risperidone and some antidepressants are useful for treatment of insomnia in dementia. But this usage is off-label. So we must well inform to patient and caregiver, and get consent about treatment. Second, some study shows circadian rhythm disorder is a risk factor of dementia. However, we should discuss that circadian rhythm disturbance is "risk factor of dementia" or "prodromal symptom of dementia". If a clinician finds circadian rhythm disorder in elderly people, should be examined cognitive and ADL function, and careful about that patients have dementia or will develop dementia. PMID:24724422

Nakamura, Kei; Meguro, Kenichi

2014-03-01

27

Bright light affects human circadian rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of external zeitgebers synchronizing circadian rhythms can be evaluated by mesuring the size of the range of entrainment. The experimental approach to measure entrainment limits is the application of an artificial zeitgeber with slowly and steadily changing period. In human circadian rhythms, an absolute light-dark (LD) cycle with a light intensity during L of 100 lux or

Rtitger A. Wever; Jan Polášek; Christina M. Wildgruber

1983-01-01

28

Circadian rhythms: glucocorticoids and arthritis.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms are driven by biological clocks and are endogenous in origin. Therefore, circadian changes in the metabolism or secretion of endogenous glucocorticoids are certainly responsible in part for the time-dependent changes observed in the inflammatory response and arthritis. More recently, melatonin (MLT), another circadian hormone that is the secretory product of the pineal gland, has been found implicated in the time-dependent inflammatory reaction with effects opposite those of cortisol. Interestingly, cortisol and MLT show an opposite response to the light. The light conditions in the early morning have a strong impact on the morning cortisol peak, whereas MLT is synthesized in a strictly nocturnal pattern. Recently, a diurnal rhythmicity in healthy humans between cellular (Th1 type) or humoral (Th2 type) immune responses has been found and related to immunomodulatory actions of cortisol and MLT. The interferon (IFN)-gamma/interleukin (IL)-10 ratio peaked during the early morning and correlated negatively with plasma cortisol and positively with plasma MLT. Accordingly, the intensity of the arthritic pain varies consistently as a function of the hour of the day: pain is greater after waking up in the morning than in the afternoon or evening. The reduced cortisol and adrenal androgen secretion, observed during testing in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients not treated with glucocoticoids, should be clearly considered as a "relative adrenal insufficiency" in the presence of a sustained inflammatory process, and allows Th1 type cytokines to be produced in higher amounts during the late night. In conclusion, the right timing (early morning) for the glucocorticoid therapy in arthritis is fundamental and well justified by the circadian rhythms of the inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:16855156

Cutolo, Maurizio; Sulli, Alberto; Pizzorni, Carmen; Secchi, Maria Elena; Soldano, Stefano; Seriolo, Bruno; Straub, Rainer H; Otsa, Kati; Maestroni, Georges J

2006-06-01

29

Endogenous circadian rhythm in human motor activity uncoupled from circadian influences  

E-print Network

Endogenous circadian rhythm in human motor activity uncoupled from circadian influences on cardiac significant circadian rhythms with a peak at the circadian phase corresponding to 5­9 p.m. ( 9 h later than a circadian rhythm. These findings suggest that endogenous circadian-mediated activity vari- ations

Stanley, H. Eugene

30

Modelling circadian rhythms of protein KaiA, KaiB and KaiC interactions in cyanobacteria  

E-print Network

Modelling circadian rhythms of protein KaiA, KaiB and KaiC interactions in cyanobacteria SHAO LI rhythms. The mechanism of circadian rhythm generation in cyanobacteria is different from eukaryotes. Based of circadian rhythms in vitro, we developed a mathematical model to describe post-translational oscillations

Li, Shao

31

A proposal for robust temperature compensation of circadian rhythms  

PubMed Central

The internal circadian rhythms of cells and organisms coordinate their physiological properties to the prevailing 24-h cycle of light and dark on earth. The mechanisms generating circadian rhythms have four defining characteristics: they oscillate endogenously with period close to 24 h, entrain to external signals, suffer phase shifts by aberrant pulses of light or temperature, and compensate for changes in temperature over a range of 10°C or more. Most theoretical descriptions of circadian rhythms propose that the underlying mechanism generates a stable limit cycle oscillation (in constant darkness or dim light), because limit cycles quite naturally possess the first three defining properties of circadian rhythms. On the other hand, the period of a limit cycle oscillator is typically very sensitive to kinetic rate constants, which increase markedly with temperature. Temperature compensation is therefore not a general property of limit cycle oscillations but must be imposed by some delicate balance of temperature dependent effects. However, “delicate balances” are unlikely to be robust to mutations. On the other hand, if circadian rhythms arise from a mechanism that concentrates sensitivity into a few rate constants, then the “balancing act” is likely to be more robust and evolvable. We propose a switch-like mechanism for circadian rhythms that concentrates period sensitivity in just two parameters, by forcing the system to alternate between a stable steady state and a stable limit cycle. PMID:17229851

Hong, Christian I.; Conrad, Emery D.; Tyson, John J.

2007-01-01

32

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS FROM MULTIPLE OSCILLATORS: LESSONS FROM DIVERSE ORGANISMS  

PubMed Central

The organization of biological activities into daily cycles is universal in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, flies, birds and man. Comparisons of circadian clocks in unicellular and multicellular organisms using molecular genetics and genomics have provided new insights into the mechanisms and complexity of clock systems. Whereas unicellular organisms require stand-alone clocks that can generate 24-hour rhythms for diverse processes, organisms with differentiated tissues can partition clock function to generate and coordinate different rhythms. In both cases, the temporal coordination of a multi-oscillator system is essential for producing robust circadian rhythms of gene expression and biological activity. PMID:15951747

Bell-Pedersen, Deborah; Cassone, Vincent M.; Earnest, David J.; Golden, Susan S.; Hardin, Paul E.; Thomas, Terry L.; Zoran, Mark J.

2009-01-01

33

Modeling some properties of circadian rhythms.  

PubMed

Mathematical models have been very useful in biological research. From the interaction of biology and mathematics, new problems have emerged that have generated advances in the theory, suggested further experimental work and motivated plausible conjectures. From our perspective, it is absolutely necessary to incorporate modeling tools in the study of circadian rhythms and that without a solid mathematical framework a real understanding of them will not be possible. Our interest is to study the main process underlying the synchronization in the pacemaker of a circadian system: these mechanisms should be conserved in all living beings. Indeed, from an evolutionary perspective, it seems reasonable to assume that either they have a common origin or that they emerge from similar selection circumstances. We propose a general framework to understand the emergence of synchronization as a robust characteristic of some cooperative systems of non-linear coupled oscillators. In a first approximation to the problem we vary the topology of the network and the strength of the interactions among oscillators. In order to study the emergent dynamics, we carried out some numerical computations. The results are consistent with experiments reported in the literature. Finally, we proposed a theoretical framework to study the phenomenon of synchronization in the context of circadian rhythms: the dissipative synchronization of nonautonomous dynamical systems. PMID:24245720

Lara-Aparicio, Miguel; Barriga-Montoya, Carolina; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo; Fuentes-Pardo, Beatriz

2014-04-01

34

Genetic Basis of Human Circadian Rhythm Disorders  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythm disorders constitute a group of phenotypes that usually present as altered sleep-wake schedules. Until a human genetics approach was applied to investigate these traits, the genetic components regulating human circadian rhythm and sleep behaviors remained mysterious. Steady advances in the last decade have dramatically improved our understanding of the genes involved in circadian rhythmicity and sleep regulation. Finding these genes presents new opportunities to use a wide range of approaches, including in vitro molecular studies and in vivo animal modeling, to elevate our understanding of how sleep and circadian rhythms are regulated and maintained. Ultimately, this knowledge will reveal how circadian and sleep disruption contribute to various ailments and shed light on how best to maintain and recover good health. PMID:22849821

Jones, Christopher R.; Huang, Angela L.; Ptacek, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

2012-01-01

35

Rev-erb: an integrator of Circadian Rhythms and Metabolism. Hlne Duez1,2,3,4  

E-print Network

Rev-erb: an integrator of Circadian Rhythms and Metabolism. Hélène Duez1,2,3,4 and Bart Staels1.Staels@pasteur-lille.fr; Helene.Duez@pasteur-lille.fr). Keywords: Circadian rhythm, metabolic disorders, Rev-erb, biological clock activity and sleep/wake cycles, but also food intake patterns. Circadian rhythms are generated

Boyer, Edmond

36

c-Jun N-TERMINAL KINASE INHIBITOR SP600125 MODULATES THE PERIOD OF MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS  

E-print Network

c-Jun N-TERMINAL KINASE INHIBITOR SP600125 MODULATES THE PERIOD OF MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS M/ULP UMR 7168, 67084, Strasbourg, France Abstract Circadian rhythms are endogenous cycles with periods close to, but not exactly equal to, 24 h. In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated

Harrington, Mary

37

Circadian rhythms of women with fibromyalgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic and debilitating disorder characterized by widespread nonarticular musculoskeletal pain whose etiology is unknown. Many of the symptoms of this syndrome, including difficulty sleeping, fatigue, malaise, myalgias, gastrointestinal complaints, and decreased cognitive function, are similar to those observed in individuals whose circadian pacemaker is abnormally aligned with their sleep-wake schedule or with local environmental time. Abnormalities in melatonin and cortisol, two hormones whose secretion is strongly influenced by the circadian pacemaker, have been reported in women with fibromyalgia. We studied the circadian rhythms of 10 women with fibromyalgia and 12 control healthy women. The protocol controlled factors known to affect markers of the circadian system, including light levels, posture, sleep-wake state, meals, and activity. The timing of the events in the protocol were calculated relative to the habitual sleep-wake schedule of each individual subject. Under these conditions, we found no significant difference between the women with fibromyalgia and control women in the circadian amplitude or phase of rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and core body temperature. The average circadian phases expressed in hours posthabitual bedtime for women with and without fibromyalgia were 3:43 +/- 0:19 and 3:46 +/- 0:13, respectively, for melatonin; 10:13 +/- 0:23 and 10:32 +/- 0:20, respectively for cortisol; and 5:19 +/- 0:19 and 4:57 +/- 0:33, respectively, for core body temperature phases. Both groups of women had similar circadian rhythms in self-reported alertness. Although pain and stiffness were significantly increased in women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy women, there were no circadian rhythms in either parameter. We suggest that abnormalities in circadian rhythmicity are not a primary cause of fibromyalgia or its symptoms.

Klerman, E. B.; Goldenberg, D. L.; Brown, E. N.; Maliszewski, A. M.; Adler, G. K.

2001-01-01

38

Neuroanatomy of the Extended Circadian Rhythm System  

PubMed Central

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), site of the primary clock in the circadian rhythm system, has three major afferent connections. The most important consists of a retinohypothalamic projection through which photic information, received by classical rod/cone photoreceptors and intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells, gains access to the clock. This information influences phase and period of circadian rhythms. The two other robust afferent projections are the median raphe serotonergic pathway and the geniculohypothalamic (GHT), NPY-containing pathway from the thalamic intergeniculate leaflet (IGL). Beyond this simple framework, the number of anatomical routes that could theoretically be involved in rhythm regulation is enormous, with the SCN projecting to 15 regions and being directly innervated by about 35. If multisynaptic afferents to the SCN are included, the number expands to approximately brain 85 areas providing input to the SCN. The IGL, a known contributor to circadian rhythm regulation, has a still greater level of complexity. This nucleus connects abundantly throughout the brain (to approximately 100 regions) by pathways that are largely bilateral and reciprocal. Few of these sites have been evaluated for their contributions to circadian rhythm regulation, although most have a theoretical possibility of doing so via the GHT. The anatomy of IGL connections suggests that one of its functions may be regulation of eye movements during sleep. Together, neural circuits of the SCN and IGL are complex and interconnected. As yet, few have been tested with respect to their involvement in rhythm regulation. PMID:22766204

Morin, Lawrence P

2012-01-01

39

Shape Invariant Modelling of Circadian Rhythms with Random Effects and  

E-print Network

Shape Invariant Modelling of Circadian Rhythms with Random Effects and Smoothing Spline ANOVA dynamics such as circadian rhythms. Under the assumption that the expected response functions of all methods to a real data set to investigate disease effects on circadian rhythms of cortisol, a hormone

Wang, Yuedong

40

Circadian Synchrony in Networks of Protein Rhythm Driven Neurons  

E-print Network

Circadian Synchrony in Networks of Protein Rhythm Driven Neurons WILLIAM S. BUSH AND HAVA T; suprachiasmatic nucleus; protein expression; circadian rhythms INTRODUCTION S yncronicity has been examined M P L E X I T Y 67 DOI 10.1002/cplx.20145 #12;circadian rhythms, such as the sleep­wake cycle

Siegelmann , Hava T

41

Circadian rhythms and molecular noise Didier Gonze and Albert Goldbeter  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythms and molecular noise Didier Gonze and Albert Goldbeter Faculté des Sciences; accepted 17 May 2006; published online 30 June 2006 Circadian rhythms, characterized by a period of about to be crucial for the coherence of circadian rhythms is the binding/unbinding rate of the inhibitory protein

Goldbeter, Albert

42

Circadian rhythm and cell population growth June 17, 2010  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythm and cell population growth June 17, 2010 Jean Clairambault 1 , 2 , St effect of disruption of circadian rhythms on tumor growth enhancement is indirect, that, growth processes, eigenvalues , circadian rhythms, cancer 1 INRIA, projet BANG, Domaine de Voluceau, BP

43

Original article Effects of light on human circadian rhythms  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of light on human circadian rhythms Debra J. Skene Steven W. Lockley system. The circadian rhythms (melatonin, cortisol, timing of sleep/wake) of individuals with different perception (LP) mainly have normally entrained circadian rhythms, whereas subjects with no conscious light

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Modeling the molecular regulatory mechanism of circadian rhythms  

E-print Network

Modeling the molecular regulatory mechanism of circadian rhythms in Drosophila Jean mechanism of circadian rhythms in Drosoph- ila, theoretical models closely related to experimental a second to years.(1,2) Among these rhythms, circadian oscillations, which occur with a period of about 24

Goldbeter, Albert

45

Uncovering Hidden Fluctuations in a Circadian Rhythm Dante R. Chialvoa  

E-print Network

Uncovering Hidden Fluctuations in a Circadian Rhythm Dante R. Chialvoa , Trinitat Cambrasb for the study of circadian rhythms, the precise statistical properties of animal motion are unknown. To study properties might have implications on the understanding of circadian rhythms mechanism, since its contradict

Chialvo, Dante R.

46

Circadian rhythms in Macaca mulatta monkeys during Bion 11 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circadian rhythms of primate brain temperature, head and ankle skin temperature, motor activity, and heart rate were studied during spaceflight and on the ground. In space, the circadian rhythms of all the parameters were synchronized with diurnal Zeitgebers. However, in space the brain temperature rhythm showed a significantly more delayed phase angle, which may be ascribed to an increase of the endogenous circadian period.

Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Tumurova, E. G.; Fuller, C. A.

2000-01-01

47

Drosophila Circadian Rhythms: Stability Robustness Analysis and Model Reduction  

E-print Network

Drosophila Circadian Rhythms: Stability Robustness Analysis and Model Reduction Jorge M. Gonc investigates two models of circadian rhythms in Drosophila: one by Gonze et al. and a more generic model the control and regulation of circadian rhythms and other limit cycle behaviours. 1 Introduction Many aspects

Gonçalves, Jorge

48

Circadian rhythms of performance: new trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brief review is concerned with how human performance efficiency changes as a function of time of day. It presents an overview of some of the research paradigms and conceptual models that have been used to investigate circadian performance rhythms. The influence of homeostatic and circadian processes on performance regulation is discussed. The review also briefly presents recent mathematical models of alertness that have been used to predict cognitive performance. Related topics such as interindividual differences and the postlunch dip are presented.

Carrier, J.; Monk, T. H.

2000-01-01

49

Circadian Rhythms and Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The present review provides a conceptual introduction to sleep and circadian research in psychiatric illness, and discusses recent experimental and intervention findings in this area. Recent Findings In this review, studies published since January 2011 on circadian disturbance and psychiatric illness have been summarized. Summary Exciting new results have increasingly utilized objective and validated instruments to measure the circadian system in experimental studies. Since 2011, treatment research has still predominantly utilized self-report measures as outcome variables. However, research in the treatment domain for sleep/circadian disturbances comorbid with psychiatric illness has advanced the field in its work to broaden the validation of existing sleep treatments to additional patient populations with comorbid sleep/circadian disruptions, address how to increase access to and affordability of treatment for sleep and circadian dysfunction for patients with psychiatric disorders, and how to combine psychosocial treatments with psychopharmacology to optimize treatment outcomes. PMID:24060916

Asarnow, Lauren D.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

2014-01-01

50

Circadian rhythms in white adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ. It is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism by secreting factors (adipokines) that regulate appetite, food intake, glucose disposal, and energy expenditure. Many of these adipokines display profound day/night rhythms, and accumulating evidence links disruption of these rhythms to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we briefly present the circadian system, describe the development of white adipose tissue (WAT) and its depot-specific characteristics and innervation, we discuss energy storage in WAT and, lastly, review recent findings that link circadian rhythmicity to adipose tissue biology and obesity. PMID:22877666

van der Spek, Rianne; Kreier, Felix; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

2012-01-01

51

Glial Cell Modulation of Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

Studies of Drosophila and mammals have documented circadian changes in the morphology and biochemistry of glial cells. In addition, it is known that astrocytes of flies and mammals contain evolutionarily conserved circadian molecular oscillators that are similar to neuronal oscillators. In several sections of this review, I summarize the morphological and biochemical rhythms of glia that may contribute to circadian control. I also discuss the evidence suggesting that glia-neuron interactions may be critical for circadian timing in both flies and mammals. Throughout the review, I attempt to compare and contrast findings from these invertebrate and vertebrate models so as to provide a synthesis of current knowledge and indicate potential research avenues that may be useful for better understanding the roles of glial cells in the circadian system. PMID:21732426

JACKSON, F. ROB

2011-01-01

52

Circadian rhythms, sleep deprivation, and human performance.  

PubMed

Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep-wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F

2013-01-01

53

Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance  

PubMed Central

Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

2014-01-01

54

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / December 1999Leloup et al. / LIMIT CYCLE MODELS FOR CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS Limit Cycle Models for Circadian Rhythms  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / December 1999Leloup et al. / LIMIT CYCLE MODELS FOR CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS Limit Cycle Models for Circadian Rhythms Based on Transcriptional Regulation in Drosophila, in the form of limit cycle oscillations. The effect of light on circadian rhythms is taken into account

Goldbeter, Albert

55

Circadian rhythms from multiple oscillators: lessons from diverse organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of biological activities into daily cycles is universal in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, flies, birds and man. Comparisons of circadian clocks in unicellular and multicellular organisms using molecular genetics and genomics have provided new insights into the mechanisms and complexity of clock systems. Whereas unicellular organisms require stand-alone clocks that can generate 24-hour rhythms

Vincent M. Cassone; David J. Earnest; Susan S. Golden; Paul E. Hardin; Terry L. Thomas; Mark J. Zoran; Deborah Bell-Pedersen

2005-01-01

56

Procedures for numerical analysis of circadian rhythms  

PubMed Central

This article reviews various procedures used in the analysis of circadian rhythms at the populational, organismal, cellular and molecular levels. The procedures range from visual inspection of time plots and actograms to several mathematical methods of time series analysis. Computational steps are described in some detail, and additional bibliographic resources and computer programs are listed. PMID:23710111

REFINETTI, ROBERTO; LISSEN, GERMAINE CORNE; HALBERG, FRANZ

2010-01-01

57

Circadian rhythms and feeding time in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies have described effects of meal frequency and timing of meals on growth performance and body composition of different species of fishes, the mechanisms by which such variables influence the energy partitioning processes is not known. They may interact with the natural feeding rhythm of the fish, or with various behavioural and physiological parameters that exhibit ‘circadian-like’ patterns;

Thierry Boujard; John F. Leatherland

1992-01-01

58

A circadian rhythm of conidiation in Neurospora crassa (L-12)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two fungi growth chambers containing six growth tubes each are used in this experiment. One chamber is for the space experiment; the other is for the simultaneous ground control experiment. The hyphae of Neurospora crassa band A mutant are inoculated at one end of each tube. Both the chambers are kept at 3 C plus or minus 1.5 C to stop hyphae growth until the Spacelab is activated. After the activation, each chamber is transferred simultaneously to the Spacelab and a phytotron in KSC and kept in continuous light at the same temperature. After about 24 hours of light exposure, each chamber is inserted into a growth chamber bag to keep it in constant darkness. The circadian rhythm of conidiation is initiated by this light to dark transition. After the dark incubation for 5 days at room temperature, both the growth chambers are kept at 3 C plus or minus 1.5 C to stop growth of the hyphae. After the space shuttle lands, both conidiation patterns are compared and analyzed. It has been known that numerous physiological phenomena show circadian rhythms. They are characterized by the fact that the oscillation can persist under constant conditions of light and temperature. Therefore, it has been accepted by most investigators that the generation mechanism of the circadian rhythm is endogeneous. However, one cannot reject the possibility that these rhythms are caused by some geophysical exogeneous factor having a 24-hour period, such as atmospheric pressure, gravity, or electromagnetic radiation. We use Neurospora crassa band A mutual which shows an obvious circadian rhythm in its spore-forming (conidiation) on the ground, and we intend to attempt the conidation of this mutant in the Spacelab where 24-hour periodicity is severely attenuated and to elucidate the effect of the geophysical exogeneous factor in the generation mechanism of the circadian rhythm.

Miyoshi, Yashuhiro

1993-01-01

59

Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

1977-01-01

60

Number 53, 2006 23 Non-circadian light inducible rhythm in Aspergillus nidulans  

E-print Network

Number 53, 2006 23 Non-circadian light inducible rhythm in Aspergillus nidulans Sijmen E. Schoustra. This is reminiscent of a circadian rhythm. We found however that our observed rhythm is induced by light (leaking; therefore, we conclude that the rhythm is not a true intrinsic circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms

Kassen, Rees

61

Circadian rhythm and cell population growth  

E-print Network

Molecular circadian clocks, that are found in all nucleated cells of mammals, are known to dictate rhythms of approximately 24 hours (circa diem) to many physiological processes. This includes metabolism (e.g., temperature, hormonal blood levels) and cell proliferation. It has been observed in tumor-bearing laboratory rodents that a severe disruption of these physiological rhythms results in accelerated tumor growth. The question of accurately representing the control exerted by circadian clocks on healthy and tumour tissue proliferation to explain this phenomenon has given rise to mathematical developments, which we review. The main goal of these previous works was to examine the influence of a periodic control on the cell division cycle in physiologically structured cell populations, comparing the effects of periodic control with no control, and of different periodic controls between them. We state here a general convexity result that may give a theoretical justification to the concept of cancer chronothera...

Clairambault, Jean; Lepoutre, Thomas

2010-01-01

62

Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24?h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles.

Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

2012-06-01

63

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . Author manuscript Nuclear receptors linking circadian rhythms and cardiometabolic control  

E-print Network

; metabolism ; physiopathology ; Cardiovascular System ; drug effects ; metabolism ; Circadian Rhythm ; drug ; genetics Author Keywords circadian rhythm ; cardiometabolic disorders ; nuclear receptors ; Rev-erbalpha ; RORalpha ; PPAR ; PGC1alpha ; biological clock ; metabolic syndrome Introduction: circadian rhythms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Dynamic mechanistic explanation: computational modeling of circadian rhythms as an exemplar for cognitive science  

E-print Network

Dynamic mechanistic explanation: computational modeling of circadian rhythms as an exemplar. In circadian rhythm models, variables generally correspond to properties of parts and operations with a computational model that enables exploration of the mechanism's dynamics. Using exemplars from circadian rhythm

Bechtel, William

65

The role of circadian rhythm in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The circadian rhythm is an endogenous time keeping system shared by most organisms. The circadian clock is comprised of both peripheral oscillators in most organ tissues of the body and a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the central nervous system. The circadian rhythm is crucial in maintaining the normal physiology of the organism including, but not limited to, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cellular metabolism; whereas disruption of the circadian rhythm is closely related to multi-tumorigenesis. In the past several years, studies from different fields have revealed that the genetic or functional disruption of the molecular circadian rhythm has been found in various cancers, such as breast, prostate, and ovarian. In this review, we will investigate and present an overview of the current research on the influence of circadian rhythm regulating proteins on breast cancer. PMID:23997531

Li, Shujing; Ao, Xiang

2013-01-01

66

Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space.  

PubMed

Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed. PMID:15943202

Mallis, M M; DeRoshia, C W

2005-06-01

67

Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed.

Mallis, M. M.; DeRoshia, C. W.

2005-01-01

68

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / December 2001Gorman et al. / SPLIT CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN HAMSTERS Temporal Reorganization of the Suprachiasmatic  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / December 2001Gorman et al. / SPLIT CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN HAMSTERS Temporal Reorganization of the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei in Hamsters with Split Circadian Rhythms Michael R circadian rhythms is suggested by the splitting of activity rhythms into two components in constant light

Lee, Theresa

69

Circadian rhythms originate from intertwined feedback processes in genetic regulatory net-works. Computational models of increasing complexity have been proposed for the molec-  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Circadian rhythms originate from intertwined feedback processes in genetic regulatory net for circadian rhythms in Drosophila account for a variety of dynamical properties, such as phase shifting: THE COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS Most living organisms have developed the capability of generating

Goldbeter, Albert

70

Circadian rhythms in healthy aging--effects downstream from the pacemaker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using both previously published findings and entirely new data, we present evidence in support of the argument that the circadian dysfunction of advancing age in the healthy human is primarily one of failing to transduce the circadian signal from the circadian timing system (CTS) to rhythms "downstream" from the pacemaker rather than one of failing to generate the circadian signal itself. Two downstream rhythms are considered: subjective alertness and objective performance. For subjective alertness, we show that in both normal nychthemeral (24 h routine, sleeping at night) and unmasking (36 h of constant wakeful bed rest) conditions, advancing age, especially in men, leads to flattening of subjective alertness rhythms, even when circadian temperature rhythms are relatively robust. For objective performance, an unmasking experiment involving manual dexterity, visual search, and visual vigilance tasks was used to demonstrate that the relationship between temperature and performance is strong in the young, but not in older subjects (and especially not in older men).

Monk, T. H.; Kupfer, D. J.

2000-01-01

71

Peroxiredoxins are conserved markers of circadian rhythms  

PubMed Central

Summary Cellular life emerged ~3.7 billion years ago. With scant exception, terrestrial organisms have evolved under predictable daily cycles due to the Earth’s rotation. The advantage conferred upon organisms that anticipate such environmental cycles has driven the evolution of endogenous circadian rhythms that tune internal physiology to external conditions. The molecular phylogeny of mechanisms driving these rhythms has been difficult to dissect because identified clock genes and proteins are not conserved across the domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. Here we show that oxidation-reduction cycles of peroxiredoxin proteins constitute a universal marker for circadian rhythms in all domains of life, by characterising their oscillations in a variety of model organisms. Furthermore, we explore the interconnectivity between these metabolic cycles and transcription-translation feedback loops of the clockwork in each system. Our results suggest an intimate co-evolution of cellular time-keeping with redox homeostatic mechanisms following the Great Oxidation Event ~2.5 billion years ago. PMID:22622569

Edgar, Rachel S.; Green, Edward W.; Zhao, Yuwei; van Ooijen, Gerben; Olmedo, Maria; Qin, Ximing; Xu, Yao; Pan, Min; Valekunja, Utham K.; Feeney, Kevin A.; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Hastings, Michael H.; Baliga, Nitin S.; Merrow, Martha; Millar, Andrew J.; Johnson, Carl H.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; O'Neill, John S.; Reddy, Akhilesh B.

2012-01-01

72

Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Mediates Circadian Rhythms in Mammalian Olfactory Bulb and Olfaction  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the olfactory bulbs (OBs) function as an independent circadian system regulating daily rhythms in olfactory performance. However, the cells and signals in the olfactory system that generate and coordinate these circadian rhythms are unknown. Using real-time imaging of gene expression, we found that the isolated olfactory epithelium and OB, but not the piriform cortex, express similar, sustained circadian rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2). In vivo, PER2 expression in the OB of mice is circadian, approximately doubling with a peak around subjective dusk. Furthermore, mice exhibit circadian rhythms in odor detection performance with a peak at approximately subjective dusk. We also found that circadian rhythms in gene expression and odor detection performance require vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or its receptor VPAC2R. VIP is expressed, in a circadian manner, in interneurons in the external plexiform and periglomerular layers, whereas VPAC2R is expressed in mitral and external tufted cells in the OB. Together, these results indicate that VIP signaling modulates the output from the OB to maintain circadian rhythms in the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:24760863

Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Wang, Thomas; Marpegan, Luciano; Holy, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

73

Circadian Activity Rhythms, Time Urgency, and Achievement Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many physiological and psychological processes fluctuate throughout the day in fairly stable, rhythmic patterns. The relationship between individual differences in circadian activity rhythms and a sense of time urgency were explored as well as a number of achievement-related variables. Undergraduates (N=308), whose circadian activity rhythms were…

Watts, Barbara L.

74

Circadian temperature rhythms of older people  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of studies had the aim of exploring whether older (77+ years) men and women have circadian body temperature rhythms different from those of younger adults. A total of 20 older men and 28 older women were compared with either 22 young men or 14 middle-aged men in four protocols; all but the first protocol using a subset of the sample. The four protocols were: 1) 24 h, and 2) 72 h data collections on a normal laboratory routine (sleeping at night); 3) between 36 h and 153 h of field data collection at home; and 4) 36 h of a constant conditions routine (wakeful bedrest under temporal isolation) in the laboratory. There was some evidence for an age-related phase advance in temperature rhythm, especially for the older men on a normal routine, though this was not present in the constant conditions protocol, where 5 of the older subjects showed major delays in the timing of the body temperature trough (10:00 or later). There was no statistically significant evidence from any of the protocols that older subjects generally had lower temperature rhythm amplitudes than younger adults. Only when older men were compared with younger men in 24-h rhythm amplitude by simple t-test did any comparison involving amplitude achieve statistical significance (p < 0.05).

Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

1995-01-01

75

Characterization of neurospora circadian rhythms in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine whether the circadian rhythm of conidiation in neurospora crassa is endogenously derived or is driven by some geophysical time cue, an experiment was conducted on space shuttle flight STS-9, where inoculated race tubes were exposed to the microgravity environment of space. The results demonstated that the rhythm can persist in space. However, there were several minor alterations noted; an increase in the period of the oscillation and the variability of the growth rate and a diminished rhythm amplitude, which eventually damped out in 25% of the flight tubes. On day seven of the flight, the tubes were exposed to light while their growth fronts were marked. It appears that some aspects of this marking process reinstated a robust rhythm in all the tubes which continued throughout the remainder of the flight. It was hypothesized that the damping found prior to the marking procedure on STS-9 may have been a result of the hypergravity pulse of launch and not due to the microgravity of the orbital lab; furthermore, that the marking procedure, by exposing the samples to light, had reinstated rhythmicity. To test this, an investigation was conducted into the effects of acute and chronic exposure to hypergravity.

Ferraro, James S.

1987-01-01

76

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / June 1999Olde Scheper et al. / MOLECULAR CIRCADIAN CLOCKS A Model of Molecular Circadian Clocks  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / June 1999Olde Scheper et al. / MOLECULAR CIRCADIAN CLOCKS A Model, the Netherlands Abstract A fundamental question in the field of circadian rhythms concerns the biochemical of the intricate molecu- lar interactions governing circadian rhythmogenesis. Key words circadian rhythm

van Pelt, Jaap

77

A ticking clock: Performance analysis of a Circadian rhythm with stochastic process  

E-print Network

A ticking clock: Performance analysis of a Circadian rhythm with stochastic process algebra Jeremy problem, that of capturing and reproducing the Circadian rhythm. A Circadian rhythm provides cells us to simulate resource starvation and observe its e#ect on the Circadian rhythm. #12; Recent

Imperial College, London

78

A ticking clock: Performance analysis of a Circadian rhythm with stochastic process  

E-print Network

A ticking clock: Performance analysis of a Circadian rhythm with stochastic process algebra Jeremy problem, that of capturing and reproducing the Circadian rhythm. A Circadian rhythm provides cells us to simulate resource starvation and observe its effect on the Circadian rhythm. #12;Recent

Imperial College, London

79

Preliminary characterization of persisting circadian rhythms during space flight: Neurospora as a model system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the Spacelab environment on the circadian rhythms in microorganisms are investigated. Neurospora is chosen because of its well characterized circadian rhythm of growth. Growth rate, banding patterns, and circadian period and phase information are studied.

Sulzman, F. W.

1981-01-01

80

Circadian Rhythms in Prokaryotes: Luciferase as a Reporter of Circadian Gene Expression in Cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a luciferase reporter gene and continuous automated monitoring of bioluminescence to demonstrate unequivocally that cyanobacteria exhibit circadian behaviors that are fundamentally the same as circadian rhythms of eukaryotes. We also show that these rhythms can be studied by molecular methods in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, a strain for which genetic transformation is well established. A promoterless segment of

Takao Kondo; Carl A. Strayer; Resham D. Kulkarni; Walter Taylor; Masahiro Ishiura; Susan S. Golden; Carl Hirschie Johnson

1993-01-01

81

[Circadian rhythm study from anticipatory behavior to drug treatment].  

PubMed

Precise, rhythmic, daily change of the internal milieu is a conspicuous feature of all living organisms. It affects temporal patterns of all kinds of behaviors during a day and deeply influences both the social structure and daily life of individual human beings. These daily variations arise from the internal circadian mechanisms. Three functions of the endogenous clock are discriminated as rhythm generation, entrainment to light-dark cycle and output from the clock. The endogenous clock is localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in mammals. Recent papers demonstrated strong expression of clock genes such as Per1, Per2 and Per3 in the SCN. Circadian oscillation is basically regulated by the transcription/translation feedback system of the Per gene in mammals. As serotonin/antidepressant and GABA/benzodiazepine drugs affect the light and non-light-induced entrainment, these drugs can regulate the circadian oscillation of clock genes and environmental stimuli-induced change of Per gene expression in the SCN. There are two main stimuli that entrain circadian rhythm, the light-dark cycle (LD) and restricted feeding. Light resets the circadian clock with induction of Per1 and Per2 gene in the SCN, the locus of a main oscillator. Mice were allowed access to food for 4 h during daytime (7 h in advance of feeding time) under LD or constant darkness. The peaks of mPer1 and mPer2 mRNA in the cerebral cortex and liver were advanced 6-12 h after 6 days of RF, whereas those in SCN were unaffected. The increase of mPer expression by RF treatment was observed in SCN-lesioned mice. The present results suggest that RF strongly entrained the expression of mPer and clock-controlled genes in the cerebral cortex and liver without affecting light-dependent SCN clock function. PMID:16313103

Shibata, Shigenobu

2005-10-01

82

Analysis of Gene Regulatory Networks in the Mammalian Circadian Rhythm  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythm is fundamental in regulating a wide range of cellular, metabolic, physiological, and behavioral activities in mammals. Although a small number of key circadian genes have been identified through extensive molecular and genetic studies in the past, the existence of other key circadian genes and how they drive the genomewide circadian oscillation of gene expression in different tissues still remains unknown. Here we try to address these questions by integrating all available circadian microarray data in mammals. We identified 41 common circadian genes that showed circadian oscillation in a wide range of mouse tissues with a remarkable consistency of circadian phases across tissues. Comparisons across mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and human showed that the circadian phases of known key circadian genes were delayed for 4–5 hours in rat compared to mouse and 8–12 hours in macaque and human compared to mouse. A systematic gene regulatory network for the mouse circadian rhythm was constructed after incorporating promoter analysis and transcription factor knockout or mutant microarray data. We observed the significant association of cis-regulatory elements: EBOX, DBOX, RRE, and HSE with the different phases of circadian oscillating genes. The analysis of the network structure revealed the paths through which light, food, and heat can entrain the circadian clock and identified that NR3C1 and FKBP/HSP90 complexes are central to the control of circadian genes through diverse environmental signals. Our study improves our understanding of the structure, design principle, and evolution of gene regulatory networks involved in the mammalian circadian rhythm. PMID:18846204

Yan, Jun; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yuting; Shao, Chunxuan

2008-01-01

83

Introduction: circadian rhythm and its disruption: impact on reproductive function.  

PubMed

Almost all forms of life have predictable daily or circadian rhythms in molecular, endocrine, and behavioral functions. In mammals, a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei coordinates the timing of these rhythms. Daily light exposure that affects the retina of the eye directly influences this area, which is required to align endogenous processes to the appropriate time of day. The present "Views and Reviews" articles discuss the influence of circadian rhythms, especially nightly secretion of melatonin, on reproductive function and parturition. In addition, an examination is made of problems that arise from recurrent circadian rhythm disruption associated with changes in light exposure patterns common to modern day society. Finally, a possible solution to prevent disruptions in circadian phase markers by filtering out short wavelengths from nocturnal light is reviewed. PMID:24954773

Casper, Robert F; Gladanac, Bojana

2014-08-01

84

Preliminary characterization of persisting circadian rhythms during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to evaluate the function of the circadian timing system in space, the circadian rhythm of conidiation of the fungus Neurospora crassa was monitored in constant darkness on the STS 9 flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia. During the first 7 days of spaceflight many tubes showed a marked reduction in the apparent amplitude of the conidiation rhythm, and some cultures appeared arrhythmic. There was more variability in the growth rate and circadian rhythms of individual cultures in space than is usually seen on earth. The results of this experiment indicate that while the circadian rhythm of Neurospora conidiation can persist outside of the earth's environment, either the timekeeping process or its expression is altered in space.

Sultzman, F. M.

1984-01-01

85

Circadian rhythms and depression: human psychopathology and animal models.  

PubMed

Most organisms (including humans) developed daily rhythms in almost every aspect of their body. It is not surprising that rhythms are also related to affect in health and disease. In the present review we present data that demonstrate the evidence for significant interactions between circadian rhythms and affect from both human studies and animal models research. A number of lines of evidence obtained from human and from animal models research clearly demonstrate relationships between depression and circadian rhythms including (1) daily patterns of depression; (2) seasonal affective disorder; (3) connections between circadian clock genes and depression; (4) relationship between sleep disorders and depression; (5) the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation; (6) the antidepressant effect of bright light exposure; and (7) the effects of antidepressant drugs on sleep and circadian rhythms. The integration of data suggests that the relationships between the circadian system and depression are well established but the underlying biology of the interactions is far from being understood. We suggest that an important factor hindering research into the underlying mechanisms is the lack of good animal models and we propose that additional efforts in that area should be made. One step in that direction could be the attempt to develop models utilizing diurnal animals which might have a better homology to humans with regard to their circadian rhythms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21871466

Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim

2012-01-01

86

CLINICAL REVIEW Circadian rhythms, sleep, and substance abuse  

E-print Network

CLINICAL REVIEW Circadian rhythms, sleep, and substance abuse Brant P. Hasler a,*, Leisha J. Smith abuse Substance dependence Addiction Alcohol Opiates Methamphetamine Cocaine s u m m a r y Substance in knowledge persist, particularly regarding whether circadian disturbance leads to substance abuse

Schumaker, Mark

87

Wavelet-Based Time Series Analysis of Circadian Rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of circadian oscillations that exhibit variability in period or amplitude can be accomplished through wavelet transforms. Wavelet-based methods can also be used quite effectively to remove trend and noise from time series and to assess the strength of rhythms in different frequency bands, for example, ultradian versus circadian components in an activity record. In this article, we describe how

Tanya L. Leise; Mary E. Harrington

2011-01-01

88

Application of long-term microdialysis in circadian rhythm research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory has pioneered long-term microdialysis to monitor pineal melatonin secretion in living animals across multiple circadian cycles. There are numerous advantages of this approach for rhythm analysis: (1) we can precisely define melatonin onset and offset phases; (2) melatonin is a reliable and stable neuroendocrine output of the circadian clock (versus behavioral output which is sensitive to stress or

Jimo Borjigin; Tiecheng Liu

2008-01-01

89

Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with short wavelength light  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoreceptor(s) responsible for photoresetting of the human circadian system have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of short wavelength light to alter the timing of circadian rhythms. Eleven male subjects were studied in 15 4-day trials with a single 4 h light pulse administered on day 3, immediately after habitual wake

Victoria L. Warman; Derk-Jan Dijk; Guy R. Warman; Josephine Arendt; Debra J. Skene

2003-01-01

90

Endogenous circadian rhythm in an index of cardiac vulnerability independent of changes in behavior  

E-print Network

Endogenous circadian rhythm in an index of cardiac vulnerability independent of changes in behavior features of the healthy human heartbeat have an endogenous circadian rhythm that brings the features closer circadian rhythm (with a sharp peak at the circadian phase corre- sponding to 10 a.m.), which is independent

Stanley, H. Eugene

91

Circadian rhythms in electric waveform structure and rate in the electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythms in electric waveform structure and rate in the electric fish Brachyhypopomus regulation of circadian rhythm expression. Previous studies asserting that these oscillations are circadian and magnitude, a difference consistent with proposals by others that declines of behavioral circadian rhythms

Stoddard, Philip

92

Dynamics of three coupled van der Pol oscillators with application to circadian rhythms  

E-print Network

Dynamics of three coupled van der Pol oscillators with application to circadian rhythms Kevin this system comes from the presence of circadian rhythms in the chemistry of the eyes. We model the circadian.elsevier.com/locate/cnsns #12;Our motivation for studying this system comes from the presence of circadian rhythms

Rand, Richard H.

93

Pineal Function in Sparrows: Circadian Rhythms and Body Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep body temperature of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, was monitored continuously by radio telemetry. Pinealectomy abolished the normal circadian rhythm of body temperature in constant darkness, and significantly altered the amplitude of body temperature rhythms entrained to light cycles. The body temperature minima of pinealectomized birds never fell as low as those of unoperated birds regardless of the light

Sue Binkley; Edward Kluth; Michael Menaker

1971-01-01

94

Circadian rhythms of chicken brain temperatures  

PubMed Central

1. Brain temperature was recorded continuously for up to 18 days in unanaesthetized adult male chickens. With the use of a guide box of plexiglas screwed into a trephine of the calvarium, several thermocouples could be inserted at various depths into the brain at the same time. 2. While brain temperatures were being recorded, each chicken was placed in a small circular arena and kept either in a light—dark cycle (LD 12:12 hr) or in conditions of constant dim illumination (LL) within a soundproof chamber. 3. Under LD-conditions, the range of oscillation (the difference between maximum and minimum within one period) in brain temperature at any one site was about 1·5° C. During the 12 hr of light the temperature often reached a plateau for several hours. During darkness, a minimum of temperature was usually reached shortly after light-off. Brain temperature started to rise several hours before light-on. 4. All eleven chickens tested under LL-conditions showed free running circadian rhythms of brain temperature, with mean periods varying between 22·75 and 25·00 hr (overall mean: 23·69 hr). The range of oscillation in LL-conditions was smaller than in LD-conditions, but was seldom less than 1·0° C. 5. In LD as well as in LL, continuous fluctuations of temperature with a much higher frequency were superimposed on the circadian cycle. The fluctuations occurred synchronously at all sites of the brain and were of the same order of magnitude (frequency and range) during wakefulness as during sleep. PMID:4702413

Aschoff, Christoff; Aschoff, Jurgen; Paul, Ursula von Saint

1973-01-01

95

Timing of Locomotor Activity Circadian Rhythms in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms are driven by endogenous biological clocks and are synchronized to environmental cues. The chronobiological study of Caenorhabditis elegans, an extensively used animal model for developmental and genetic research, might provide fundamental information about the basis of circadian rhythmicity in eukaryotes, due to its ease of use and manipulations, as well as availability of genetic data and mutant strains. The aim of this study is to fully characterize the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in C. elegans, as well as a means for genetic screening in this nematode and the identification of circadian mutants. We have developed an infrared method to measure locomotor activity in C. elegans and found that, under constant conditions, although inter-individual variability is present, circadian periodicity shows a population distribution of periods centered at 23.9±0.4 h and is temperature-compensated. Locomotor activity is entrainable by light-dark cycles and by low-amplitude temperature cycles, peaking around the night-day transition and day, respectively. In addition, lin-42(mg152) or lin-42(n1089) mutants (bearing a mutation in the lin-42 gene, homolog to the per gene) exhibit a significantly longer circadian period of 25.2±0.4 h or 25.6±0.5 h, respectively. Our results represent a complete description of the locomotor activity rhythm in C. elegans, with a methodology that allowed us to uncover three of the key features of circadian systems: entrainment, free-running and temperature compensation. In addition, abnormal circadian periods in clock mutants suggest a common molecular machinery responsible for circadian rhythmicity. Our analysis of circadian rhythmicity in C. elegans opens the possibility for further screening for circadian mutations in this species. PMID:19859568

Simonetta, Sergio H.; Migliori, Maria Laura; Romanowski, Andres; Golombek, Diego A.

2009-01-01

96

RNA-binding proteins and circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

An Arabidopsis transcript preferentially expressed at the end of the daily light period codes for the RNA-binding protein AtGRP7. A reverse genetic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed its role in the generation of circadian rhythmicity: AtGRP7 is part of a negative feedback loop through which it influences the oscillations of its own transcript. Biochemical and genetic experiments indicate a mechanism for this autoregulatory circuit: Atgrp7 gene transcription is rhythmically activated by the circadian clock during the day. The AtGPR7 protein accumulates with a certain delay and represses further accumulation of its transcript, presumably at the post-transcriptional level. In this respect, the AtGRP7 feedback loop differs from known circadian oscillators in the fruitfly Drosophila and mammals based on oscillating clock proteins that repress transcription of their own genes with a 24 h rhythm. It is proposed that the AtGRP7 feedback loop may act within an output pathway from the Arabidopsis clock. PMID:11710982

Staiger, D

2001-01-01

97

Circadian rhythms in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms of wheel running and feeding were measured in the short-tailed shrew. Shrews were strongly nocturnal, and their activity rhythms entrained to both long-day (LD 16:8) and short-day (LD 6:18) photocycles. Under conditions of continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD), the activity rhythms free-ran with average periodicities of 25.1 hours and 24.1 hours, respectively. In LL the level of activity was depressed, and in some cases wheel running was completely inhibited. No significant sex differences were observed in the period or amplitude of the monitored circadian rhythms. All shrews fed throughout the day and night; however, unlike in previous reports, ultradian periods of feeding behavior were not found. The results are related to Aschoff's four observations for the effect of light on activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. PMID:2255728

Antipas, A J; Madison, D M; Ferraro, J S

1990-08-01

98

Circadian Rhythms of Ethylene Emission in Arabidopsis1[w  

PubMed Central

Ethylene controls multiple physiological processes in plants, including cell elongation. Consequently, ethylene synthesis is regulated by internal and external signals. We show that a light-entrained circadian clock regulates ethylene release from unstressed, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings, with a peak in the mid-subjective day. The circadian clock drives the expression of multiple ACC SYNTHASE genes, resulting in peak RNA levels at the phase of maximal ethylene synthesis. Ethylene production levels are tightly correlated with ACC SYNTHASE 8 steady-state transcript levels. The expression of this gene is controlled by light, by the circadian clock, and by negative feedback regulation through ethylene signaling. In addition, ethylene production is controlled by the TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 genes, which are critical for all circadian rhythms yet tested in Arabidopsis. Mutation of ethylene signaling pathways did not alter the phase or period of circadian rhythms. Mutants with altered ethylene production or signaling also retained normal rhythmicity of leaf movement. We conclude that circadian rhythms of ethylene production are not critical for rhythmic growth. PMID:15516515

Thain, Simon C.; Vandenbussche, Filip; Laarhoven, Lucas J.J.; Dowson-Day, Mandy J.; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Tobin, Elaine M.; Harren, Frans J.M.; Millar, Andrew J.; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

2004-01-01

99

Diminished leptin signaling can alter circadian rhythm of metabolic activity and feeding  

PubMed Central

Leptin, a hormone mainly produced by fat cells, shows cell-specific effects to regulate feeding and metabolic activities. We propose that an important feature of metabolic dysregulation resulting in obesity is the loss of the circadian rhythm of biopotentials. This was tested in the pan-leptin receptor knockout (POKO) mice newly generated in our laboratory. In the POKO mice, leptin no longer induced pSTAT-3 signaling after intracerebroventricular injection. Three basic phenotypes were observed: the heterozygotes had similar weight and adiposity as the wild-type (WT) mice (>60% of the mice); the homozygotes were either fatter (?30%), or rarely leaner (<5%) than the WT mice. By early adulthood, the POKO mice had higher average body weight and adiposity than their respective same-sex WT littermate controls, and this was consistent among different batches. The homozygote fat POKO showed significant reduction of midline estimating statistic of rhythm of circadian parameters, and shifts of ultradian rhythms. The blunted circadian rhythm of these extremely obese POKO mice was also seen in their physical inactivity, longer feeding bouts, and higher food intake. The extent of obesity correlated with the blunted circadian amplitude, accumulative metabolic and locomotor activities, and the severity of hyperphagia. This contrasts with the heterozygote POKO mice which showed little obesity and metabolic disturbance, and only subtle changes of the circadian rhythm of metabolic activity without alterations in feeding behavior. The results provide a novel aspect of leptin resistance, almost manifesting as an “all or none” phenomenon. PMID:23869060

Hsuchou, Hung; Wang, Yuping; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine G.; Kastin, Abba J.; Jang, Eunjin; Halberg, Franz

2013-01-01

100

Circadian Rhythms in Stomatal Responsiveness to Red and Blue Light.  

PubMed Central

Stomata of many plants have circadian rhythms in responsiveness to environmental cues as well as circadian rhythms in aperture. Stomatal responses to red light and blue light are mediated by photosynthetic photoreceptors; responses to blue light are additionally controlled by a specific blue-light photoreceptor. This paper describes circadian rhythmic aspects of stomatal responsiveness to red and blue light in Vicia faba. Plants were exposed to a repeated light:dark regime of 1.5:2.5 h for a total of 48 h, and because the plants could not entrain to this short light:dark cycle, circadian rhythms were able to "free run" as if in continuous light. The rhythm in the stomatal conductance established during the 1.5-h light periods was caused both by a rhythm in sensitivity to light and by a rhythm in the stomatal conductance established during the preceding 2.5-h dark periods. Both rhythms peaked during the middle of the subjective day. Although the stomatal response to blue light is greater than the response to red light at all times of day, there was no discernible difference in period, phase, or amplitude of the rhythm in sensitivity to the two light qualities. We observed no circadian rhythmicity in net carbon assimilation with the 1.5:2.5 h light regime for either red or blue light. In continuous white light, small rhythmic changes in photosynthetic assimilation were observed, but at relatively high light levels, and these appeared to be attributable largely to changes in internal CO2 availability governed by stomatal conductance. PMID:12231947

Gorton, H. L.; Williams, W. E.; Assmann, S. M.

1993-01-01

101

Circadian melatonin rhythm and excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Importance Diurnal fluctuations of motor and non-motor symptoms and high prevalence of sleep/wake disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) suggest a role of the circadian system in the modulation of these symptoms. Yet, surprisingly little is known regarding circadian function in PD, and whether circadian dysfunction is involved in the development of sleep/wake disturbances in PD. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the timing and amplitude of the 24-hour melatonin rhythm, a marker of endogenous circadian rhythmicity, with self-reported sleep quality, the severity of daytime sleepiness and disease metrics. Design A cross-sectional study, (2009–2012). Setting PD and Movement Disorders Center, Northwestern University, Chicago. Participants Twenty PD patients on stable dopaminergic therapy and 15 age-matched controls underwent blood sampling for the measurement of serum melatonin levels at 30-minute intervals for 24 hours under modified constant routine conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s) Clinical and demographic data, self-reported measures of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)), circadian markers of the melatonin rhythm, including the amplitude, area-under-the-curve (AUC), and phase of the 24-hour rhythm. Results Participants with PD had a blunted circadian rhythms of melatonin secretion compared to controls; both the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm and the 24-hour AUC for circulating melatonin levels were significantly lower in PD participants compared with controls (p<0.001). Markers of circadian phase were not significantly different between the two groups. Among PD participants, those with excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS score ?10) had a significantly lower amplitude of the melatonin rhythm and the 24-hour melatonin AUC compared with PD participants without excessive sleepiness (p=0.001). Disease duration, UPDRS scores, levodopa equivalent dose and global PSQI scores in the PD group were not significantly related to measures of the melatonin circadian rhythm. Conclusion and Relevance These results indicate that circadian dysfunction may underlie excessive sleepiness in PD. The nature of this association needs to be further explored in longitudinal studies. Approaches aimed to strengthen circadian function, such as timed bright light and exercise, might potentially serve as complementary therapies for the non-motor manifestations of PD. PMID:24566763

Videnovic, Aleksandar; Noble, Charleston; Reid, Kathryn J.; Peng, Jie; Turek, Fred W.; Marconi, Angelica; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Simuni, Tanya; Zadikoff, Cindy; Zee, Phyllis C.

2014-01-01

102

No Transcription-Translation Feedback in Circadian Rhythm of KaiC Phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop is thought to be essential in generating circadian rhythms in any model organism. In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, the essential clock protein KaiC is proposed to form this type of transcriptional negative feedback. Nevertheless, we demonstrate here temperature-compensated, robust circadian cycling of KaiC phosphorylation even without kaiBC messenger RNA accumulation under continuous dark conditions. This

Jun Tomita; Masato Nakajima; Takao Kondo; Hideo Iwasaki

2005-01-01

103

Circadian genes, rhythms and the biology of mood disorders.  

PubMed

For many years, researchers have suggested that abnormalities in circadian rhythms may underlie the development of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder (BPD), major depression and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Furthermore, some of the treatments that are currently employed to treat mood disorders are thought to act by shifting or "resetting" the circadian clock, including total sleep deprivation (TSD) and bright light therapy. There is also reason to suspect that many of the mood stabilizers and antidepressants used to treat these disorders may derive at least some of their therapeutic efficacy by affecting the circadian clock. Recent genetic, molecular and behavioral studies implicate individual genes that make up the clock in mood regulation. As well, important functions of these genes in brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with mood regulation are becoming apparent. In this review, the evidence linking circadian rhythms and mood disorders, and what is known about the underlying biology of this association, is presented. PMID:17395264

McClung, Colleen A

2007-05-01

104

An ASMT variant associated with bipolar disorder influences sleep and circadian rhythms: a pilot study  

E-print Network

1 An ASMT variant associated with bipolar disorder influences sleep and circadian rhythms: a pilot references) 10 Keywords: sleep; actigraphy; melatonin; ASMT gene; bipolar disorder; circadian rhythms.12103 #12;2 ABSTRACT Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience persistent circadian rhythm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa: Dynamics of the clock component frequency visualized using a fluorescent reporter  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa: Dynamics of the clock component frequency visualized using August 2009 Accepted 30 December 2009 Available online 4 January 2010 Keywords: Circadian rhythm m essential to the function of this organism's circadian rhythm. Increasingly, deciphering the coupling

Hasty, Jeff

106

Behavioural Processes 64 (2003) 161175 Circadian rhythms of locomotor activity in Drosophila  

E-print Network

Behavioural Processes 64 (2003) 161­175 Circadian rhythms of locomotor activity in Drosophila André that clockwatchers have to face when using Drosophila activity rhythms to understand the multiple facets of circadian function. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Drosophila; Circadian clock; Activity rhythms

Rouyer, Francois

107

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10852 Circadian rhythms govern cardiac repolarization  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10852 Circadian rhythms govern cardiac repolarization and arrhythmogenesis evidence that links circadian rhythms to vulnerability in ventricular arrhythmias in mice. Specifically, we are said to be circadian. This cell-autonomous rhythm is coor- dinated by an endless negative

108

The protein kinase CK2 is involved in regulation of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis  

E-print Network

The protein kinase CK2 is involved in regulation of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis Shoji Sugano by endogenous circadian rhythms. The circa- dian clock-associated 1 (CCA1) and the late elongated hypocotyl (LHY. Finally, we found that the photoperiodic flow- ering response, which is influenced by circadian rhythms

Tobin, Elaine

109

Circadian Rhythms Confer a Higher Level of Fitness to Arabidopsis Plants1  

E-print Network

Circadian Rhythms Confer a Higher Level of Fitness to Arabidopsis Plants1 Rachel M. Green, Sonia, P.O. Box 160606, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095­1606 Circadian rhythms have circadian rhythm mutants, LHY-ox and elf3, have low-viability phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate

Tobin, Elaine

110

Melatonin, sleep, and circadian rhythms: rationale for development of specific melatonin agonists  

E-print Network

Review Melatonin, sleep, and circadian rhythms: rationale for development of specific melatonin Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs), whether chronic or transient, affect a broad range of individuals-running circadian rhythms. Furthermore, studies have reported beneficial effects of melatonin for treatment

Gillette, Martha U.

111

Testicular Hormones Modulate Circadian Rhythms of the Diurnal Rodent, Octodon degus  

E-print Network

Testicular Hormones Modulate Circadian Rhythms of the Diurnal Rodent, Octodon degus Tammy J. Although go- nadal hormones primarily organize circadian rhythms during early development, adult gonadal hormones have activational properties on various aspects of circadian rhythms in a number of species

Lee, Theresa

112

Circadian rhythms constrain leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythms constrain leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest Christopher E circadian rhythms constrain the rates of leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest over a day of the day. We attribute these cycles to circadian rhythms that are analogous to ones that have been reported

Goulden, Michael L.

113

Food-entrained circadian rhythms are sustained in arrhythmic Clk/Clk mutant mice  

E-print Network

Food-entrained circadian rhythms are sustained in arrhythmic Clk/Clk mutant mice SiNae Pitts,1 of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian rhythms within the SCN depend on transcription- translation feedback). Light- and food- entrainable circadian rhythms share many properties, including limits of entrainment

Silver, Rae

114

POTENTIATION OF THE RESETTING EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF HAMSTERS USING SEROTONIN  

E-print Network

POTENTIATION OF THE RESETTING EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF HAMSTERS USING SEROTONIN, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063, USA Abstract--Circadian rhythms are entrained by light/dark cycles. In hamsters, the effects of light on circadian rhythms can be modulated by serotonergic input

Harrington, Mary

115

Age-related disruptions in circadian timing: evidence for "split" activity rhythms in the SAMP8  

E-print Network

Age-related disruptions in circadian timing: evidence for "split" activity rhythms in the SAMP8 J timing in SAMP8. © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Circadian rhythms; Aging of circadian rhythms are ob- served in many species, including humans, and are charac- terized by both changes

Liu, Taosheng

116

Shape Invariant Modelling of Circadian Rhythms with Random E#ects and  

E-print Network

Shape Invariant Modelling of Circadian Rhythms with Random E#ects and Smoothing Spline ANOVA dynamics such as circadian rhythms. Under the assumption that the expected response functions of all methods to a real data set to investigate disease e#ects on circadian rhythms of cortisol, a hormone

Wang, Yuedong

117

Circadian rhythms persist without transcription in a John S. O'Neill1,5  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythms persist without transcription in a eukaryote John S. O'Neill1,5 *, Gerben Van-line summary: Circadian rhythms in a eukaryote can be sustained soley by post- translational mechanisms which are conserved across taxa. #12;Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and co-ordinate numerous aspects

Mesbah, Mounir

118

The Impact of HIF1? on the Per2 Circadian Rhythm in Renal Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the circadian rhythm central generator consists of interactions among clock genes, including Per1/2/3, Cry1/2, Bmal1, and Clock. Circadian rhythm disruption may lead to increased risk of cancer in humans, and deregulation of clock genes has been implicated in many types of cancers. Among these genes, Per2 is reported to have tumor suppressor properties, but little is known about the correlation between Per2 and HIF, which is the main target of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) therapy. In this study, the rhythmic expression of the Per2 gene was not detectable in renal cancer cell lines, with the exception of Caki-2 cells. In Caki-2 cells, HIF1? increased the amplitude of Per2 oscillation by directly binding to the HIF-binding site located on the Per2 promoter. These results indicate that HIF1? may enhance the amplitude of the Per2 circadian rhythm. PMID:25333958

Okabe, Takashi; Kumagai, Megumi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Shirotake, Suguru; Kodaira, Kiichiro; Oyama, Masafumi; Ueno, Munehisa; Ikeda, Masaaki

2014-01-01

119

Monitoring Cell-autonomous Circadian Clock Rhythms of Gene Expression Using Luciferase Bioluminescence Reporters  

PubMed Central

In mammals, many aspects of behavior and physiology such as sleep-wake cycles and liver metabolism are regulated by endogenous circadian clocks (reviewed1,2). The circadian time-keeping system is a hierarchical multi-oscillator network, with the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronizing and coordinating extra-SCN and peripheral clocks elsewhere1,2. Individual cells are the functional units for generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms3,4, and these oscillators of different tissue types in the organism share a remarkably similar biochemical negative feedback mechanism. However, due to interactions at the neuronal network level in the SCN and through rhythmic, systemic cues at the organismal level, circadian rhythms at the organismal level are not necessarily cell-autonomous5-7. Compared to traditional studies of locomotor activity in vivo and SCN explants ex vivo, cell-based in vitro assays allow for discovery of cell-autonomous circadian defects5,8. Strategically, cell-based models are more experimentally tractable for phenotypic characterization and rapid discovery of basic clock mechanisms5,8-13. Because circadian rhythms are dynamic, longitudinal measurements with high temporal resolution are needed to assess clock function. In recent years, real-time bioluminescence recording using firefly luciferase as a reporter has become a common technique for studying circadian rhythms in mammals14,15, as it allows for examination of the persistence and dynamics of molecular rhythms. To monitor cell-autonomous circadian rhythms of gene expression, luciferase reporters can be introduced into cells via transient transfection13,16,17 or stable transduction5,10,18,19. Here we describe a stable transduction protocol using lentivirus-mediated gene delivery. The lentiviral vector system is superior to traditional methods such as transient transfection and germline transmission because of its efficiency and versatility: it permits efficient delivery and stable integration into the host genome of both dividing and non-dividing cells20. Once a reporter cell line is established, the dynamics of clock function can be examined through bioluminescence recording. We first describe the generation of P(Per2)-dLuc reporter lines, and then present data from this and other circadian reporters. In these assays, 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and U2OS human osteosarcoma cells are used as cellular models. We also discuss various ways of using these clock models in circadian studies. Methods described here can be applied to a great variety of cell types to study the cellular and molecular basis of circadian clocks, and may prove useful in tackling problems in other biological systems. PMID:23052244

Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Khan, Sanjoy K.; Kathale, Nimish D.; Xu, Haiyan; Liu, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

120

Lesions of the Thalamic Intergeniculate Leaflet Alter Hamster Circadian Rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effects of destruction of the geniculo-hypothalamic tract (GHT) on the circadian system of golden hamsters. In the first experiment, intact hamsters were housed in constant darkness, and phase shifts in running-wheel activity rhythms were assessed following 15-min light pulses administered at circadian time (CT) 12 (defined as the beginning of activity), CT 14, CT 18, and

Mary E. Harrington; Benjamin Rusak

1986-01-01

121

Loss of dopamine disrupts circadian rhythms in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Although a wide range of physiological functions regulated by dopamine (DA) display circadian variations, the role of DA in the generation and/or modulation of these rhythms is unknown. In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in addition to the classical motor symptoms, disturbances of the pattern of daily rest/wake cycles are common non-motor symptoms. We investigated daily and circadian rhythms of rest/activity behaviors in a transgenic MitoPark mouse model with selective inactivation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) resulting in a slow and progressive degeneration of DA neurons in midbrain structures. Correlated with this, MitoPark mice show a gradual reduction in locomotor activity beginning at about 20weeks of age. In a light-dark cycle, MitoPark mice exhibit a daily pattern of rest/activity rhythms that shows an age-dependent decline in both the amplitude and the stability of the rhythm, coupled with an increased fragmentation of day/night activities. When the circadian system is challenged by exposure to constant darkness or constant light conditions, control littermates retain a robust free-running circadian locomotor rhythm, whereas in MitoPark mice, locomotor rhythms are severely disturbed or completely abolished. Re-exposure to a light/dark cycle completely restores daily locomotor rhythms. MitoPark mice and control littermates express similar masking behaviors under a 1h light/1h dark regime, suggesting that the maintenance of a daily pattern of rest/activity in arrhythmic MitoPark mice can be attributed to the acute inhibitory and stimulatory effects of light and darkness. These results imply that, in addition to the classical motor abnormalities observed in PD, the loss of the midbrain DA neurons leads to impairments of the circadian control of rest/activity rhythms. PMID:25171792

Fifel, Karim; Cooper, Howard M

2014-11-01

122

Mood Disorders, Circadian Rhythms, Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the understanding of circadian rhythms have led to an interest in the treatment of major depressive disorder with chronobiotic agents. Many tissues have autonomous circadian rhythms, which are orchestrated by the master clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC). Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is secreted from the pineal gland during darkness. Melatonin acts mainly on MT1 and MT2 receptors, which are present in the SNC, regulating physiological and neuroendocrine functions, including circadian entrainment, referred to as the chronobiotic effet. Circadian rhythms has been shown to be either misaligned or phase shifted or decreased in amplitude in both acute episodes and relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Manipulation of circadian rhythms either using physical treatments (such as high intensity light) or behavioral therapy has shown promise in improving symptoms. Pharmacotherapy using melatonin and pure melatonin receptor agonists, while improving sleep, has not been shown to improve symptoms of depression. A novel antidepressant, agomelatine, combines 5HT2c antagonist and melatonin agonist action, and has shown promise in both acute treatment of MDD and in preventing relapse. PMID:23650464

Quera Salva, M.A.; Hartley, S.

2012-01-01

123

Observer Design for a Core Circadian Rhythm Network  

PubMed Central

The paper investigates the observer design for a core circadian rhythm network in Drosophila and Neurospora. Based on the constructed highly nonlinear differential equation model and the recently proposed graphical approach, we design a rather simple observer for the circadian rhythm oscillator, which can well track the state of the original system for various input signals. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the designed observer. Potential applications of the related investigations include the real-world control and experimental design of the related biological networks. PMID:25121122

Zhang, Yuhuan

2014-01-01

124

Circadian rhythm of heart rate and heart rate variability  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) are increasingly used as markers of cardiac autonomic activity.?AIM—To examine circadian variation in heart rate and HRV in children.?SUBJECTS—A total of 57 healthy infants and children, aged 2 months to 15 years, underwent ambulatory 24 hour Holter recording. Monitoring was also performed on five teenagers with diabetes mellitus and subclinical vagal neuropathy in order to identify the origin of the circadian variation in HRV.?METHODS—The following variables were determined hourly: mean RR interval, four time domain (SDNN, SDNNi, rMSSD, and pNN50) and four frequency domain indices (very low, low and high frequency indices, low to high frequency ratio). A chronobiological analysis was made by cosinor method for each variable.?RESULTS—A significant circadian variation in heart rate and HRV was present from late infancy or early childhood, characterised by a rise during sleep, except for the low to high frequency ratio that increased during daytime. The appearance of these circadian rhythms was associated with sleep maturation. Time of peak variability did not depend on age. Circadian variation was normal in patients with diabetes mellitus.?CONCLUSION—We have identified a circadian rhythm of heart rate and HRV in infants and children. Our data confirm a progressive maturation of the autonomic nervous system and support the hypothesis that the organisation of sleep, associated with sympathetic withdrawal, is responsible for these rhythms.?? PMID:10906034

Massin, M.; Maeyns, K.; Withofs, N.; Ravet, F.; Gerard, P.; HEALY, M

2000-01-01

125

Circadian rhythms of temperature and activity in obese and lean Zucker rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The circadian timing system is important in the regulation of feeding and metabolism, both of which are aberrant in the obese Zucker rat. This study tested the hypothesis that these abnormalities involve a deficit in circadian regulation by examining the circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity in lean and obese Zucker rats exposed to normal light-dark cycles, constant light, and constant dark. Significant deficits in both daily mean and circadian amplitude of temperature and activity were found in obese Zucker female rats relative to lean controls in all lighting conditions. However, the circadian period of obese Zucker rats did not exhibit differences relative to lean controls in either of the constant lighting conditions. These results indicate that although the circadian regulation of temperature and activity in obese Zucker female rats is in fact depressed, obese rats do exhibit normal entrainment and pacemaker functions in the circadian timing system. The results suggest a deficit in the process that generates the amplitude of the circadian rhythm.

Murakami, D. M.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

1995-01-01

126

An endogenous circadian rhythm of respiratory control in humans  

PubMed Central

Many physiological and behavioural functions have circadian rhythms – endogenous oscillations with a period of approximately 24 h that can occur even in the absence of sleep. We determined whether there is an endogenous circadian rhythm in breathing, metabolism and ventilatory chemosensitivity in humans. Ten healthy, adult males were studied throughout 4 days in a stable laboratory environment. After two initial baseline days (16 h wakefulness plus 8 h sleep) that served to achieve a steady state, subjects were studied under constant behavioural and environmental conditions throughout 41 h of wakefulness. Ventilation, metabolism and the magnitude of the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were measured every 2 h. Individuals’ data were aligned according to circadian phase (core body temperature minimum; CBTmin) and averaged. In the group average data, there was a significant and large amplitude circadian variation in HCVR slope (average of ±0.4 l min?1 mmHg?1; corresponding to ±12.1 % of 24 h mean), and a smaller amplitude rhythm in the HCVR x-axis intercept (average of ±1.1 mmHg; ±2.1 % of 24 h mean). Despite a significant circadian variation in metabolism (±3.2 % of 24 h mean), there were no detectable rhythms in tidal volume, respiratory frequency or ventilation. This small discrepancy between metabolism and ventilation led to a small but significant circadian variation in end-tidal PCO2(PET,CO2; ±0.6 mmHg; ±1.5 % of 24 h mean). The circadian minima of the group-averaged respiratory variables occurred 6-8 h earlier than CBTmin, suggesting that endogenous changes in CBT across the circadian cycle have less of an effect on respiration than equivalent experimentally induced changes in CBT. Throughout these circadian changes, there were no correlations between HCVR parameters (slope or x-axis intercept) and either resting ventilation or resting PET,CO2. This suggests that ventilation and PET,CO2 are little influenced by central chemosensory respiratory control in awake humans even when at rest under constant environmental and behavioural conditions. The characteristic change in PET,CO2 during non-rapid eye movement sleep was shown to be independent of circadian variations in PET,CO2, and probably reflects a change from predominantly behavioural to predominantly chemosensory respiratory control. This study has documented the existence and magnitude of circadian variations in respiration and respiratory control in awake humans for the first time under constant behavioural and environmental conditions. These results provide unique insights into respiratory control in awake humans, and highlight the importance of considering the phase of the circadian cycle in studies of respiratory control. PMID:10922018

Spengler, Christina M; Czeisler, Charles A; Shea, Steven A

2000-01-01

127

Absence of Circadian Rhythms of Gonadotropin Secretion in Women  

PubMed Central

Context: Diurnal rhythms of LH and FSH have been reported in normal women, but it is unclear whether these reflect underlying circadian control from the suprachiasmatic nucleus and/or external influences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous circadian rhythms of LH, FSH, and the glycoprotein free ?-subunit (FAS) are present in reproductive-aged women. Design and Setting: Subjects were studied in the early follicular phase using a constant routine protocol in a Clinical Research Center at an academic medical center. Subjects: Subjects were healthy, normal-cycling women aged 23–29 yr (n = 11). Main Outcome Measures: Temperature data were collected, and blood samples were assayed for LH, FSH, FAS, and TSH. Results: Core body temperature and TSH were best fit by a sinusoid model, indicating that known circadian rhythms were present in this population. However, the patterns of FSH, LH, and FAS over 24 h were best fit by a linear model. Furthermore, there were no differences in LH and FAS interpulse intervals or pulse amplitudes between evening, night, and morning. Conclusions: Under conditions that control for sleep/wake, light/dark, activity, position, and nutritional cues, there is no circadian rhythm of LH, FSH, or FAS in women during the early follicular phase despite the presence of endogenous rhythms of TSH and core body temperature. These studies indicate that endogenous circadian control does not contribute to previously reported diurnal rhythms in reproductive-aged women and emphasizes the importance of environmental cues in controlling normal reproductive function. PMID:21346063

Klingman, Kara M.; Marsh, Erica E.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Anderson, Ellen J.

2011-01-01

128

Circadian rhythms in human performance and mood under constant conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study explored the relationship between circadian performance rhythms and rhythms in rectal temperature, plasma cortisol, plasma melatonin, subjective alertness and well-being. Seventeen healthy young adults were studied under 36 h of 'unmasking' conditions (constant wakeful bedrest, temporal isolation, homogenized 'meals') during which rectal temperatures were measured every minute, and plasma cortisol and plasma melatonin measured every 20 min. Hourly subjective ratings of global vigour (alertness) and affect (well-being) were obtained followed by one of two performance batteries. On odd-numbered hours performance (speed and accuracy) of serial search, verbal reasoning and manual dexterity tasks was assessed. On even-numbered hours, performance (% hits, response speed) was measured at a 25-30 min visual vigilance task. Performance of all tasks (except search accuracy) showed a significant time of day variation usually with a nocturnal trough close to the trough in rectal temperature. Performance rhythms appeared not to reliably differ with working memory load. Within subjects, predominantly positive correlations emerged between good performance and higher temperatures and better subjective alertness; predominantly negative correlations between good performance and higher plasma levels of cortisol and melatonin. Temperature and cortisol rhythms correlated with slightly more performance measures (5/7) than did melatonin rhythms (4/7). Global vigour correlated about as well with performance (5/7) as did temperature, and considerably better than global affect (1/7). In conclusion: (1) between-task heterogeneity in circadian performance rhythms appeared to be absent when the sleep/wake cycle was suspended; (2) temperature (positively), cortisol and melatonin (negatively) appeared equally good as circadian correlates of performance, and (3) subjective alertness correlated with performance rhythms as well as (but not better than) body temperature, suggesting that performance rhythms were not directly mediated by rhythms in subjective alertness.

Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Berga, S. L.; Jarrett, D. B.; Begley, A. E.; Kupfer, D. J.

1997-01-01

129

Cryptochrome restores dampened circadian rhythms and promotes healthspan in aging Drosophila.  

PubMed

Circadian clocks generate daily rhythms in molecular, cellular, and physiological functions providing temporal dimension to organismal homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests two-way relationship between circadian clocks and aging. While disruption of the circadian clock leads to premature aging in animals, there is also age-related dampening of output rhythms such as sleep/wake cycles and hormonal fluctuations. Decay in the oscillations of several clock genes was recently reported in aged fruit flies, but mechanisms underlying these age-related changes are not understood. We report that the circadian light-sensitive protein CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is significantly reduced at both mRNA and protein levels in heads of old Drosophila melanogaster. Restoration of CRY using the binary GAL4/UAS system in old flies significantly enhanced the mRNA oscillatory amplitude of several genes involved in the clock mechanism. Flies with CRY overexpressed in all clock cells maintained strong rest/activity rhythms in constant darkness late in life when rhythms were disrupted in most control flies. We also observed a remarkable extension of healthspan in flies with elevated CRY. Conversely, CRY-deficient mutants showed accelerated functional decline and accumulated greater oxidative damage. Interestingly, overexpression of CRY in central clock neurons alone was not sufficient to restore rest/activity rhythms or extend healthspan. Together, these data suggest novel anti-aging functions of CRY and indicate that peripheral clocks play an active role in delaying behavioral and physiological aging. PMID:23692507

Rakshit, Kuntol; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

2013-10-01

130

Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens *, R. Akiyamab  

E-print Network

Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens K. Moriyaa *, R. Akiyamab , E.M. Dzialowskic, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA ABSTRACT In chick embryos, various instantaneous heart rate of mean heart rate (MHR) have been elucidated. IHR changes have also measured in newly hatched and young

Burggren, Warren

131

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS: Daily Watch on Metabolism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Plants and animals adjust responses to their environments through small molecules, including metabolites, which interact with their circadian clocks.

Takato Imaizumi (University of California, San Diego;Section of Cell and Developmental Biology); Steve A. Kay (University of California, San Diego;Section of Cell and Developmental Biology); Julian I. Schroeder (University of California, San Diego;Section of Cell and Developmental Biology)

2007-12-14

132

Wavelet analysis of circadian and ultradian behavioral rhythms  

PubMed Central

We review time-frequency methods that can be useful in quantifying circadian and ultradian patterns in behavioral records. These records typically exhibit details that may not be captured through commonly used measures such as activity onset and so may require alternative approaches. For instance, activity may involve multiple bouts that vary in duration and magnitude within a day, or may exhibit day-to-day changes in period and in ultradian activity patterns. The discrete Fourier transform and other types of periodograms can estimate the period of a circadian rhythm, but we show that they can fail to correctly assess ultradian periods. In addition, such methods cannot detect changes in the period over time. Time-frequency methods that can localize frequency estimates in time are more appropriate for analysis of ultradian periods and of fluctuations in the period. The continuous wavelet transform offers a method for determining instantaneous frequency with good resolution in both time and frequency, capable of detecting changes in circadian period over the course of several days and in ultradian period within a given day. The discrete wavelet transform decomposes a time series into components associated with distinct frequency bands, thereby facilitating the removal of noise and trend or the isolation of a particular frequency band of interest. To demonstrate the wavelet-based analysis, we apply the transforms to a numerically-generated example and also to a variety of hamster behavioral records. When used appropriately, wavelet transforms can reveal patterns that are not easily extracted using other methods of analysis in common use, but they must be applied and interpreted with care. PMID:23816159

2013-01-01

133

Renal electrolyte circadian rhythms - Independence from feeding and activity patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted on six unanesthetized chair-acclimatized adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) weighing 600-900 g to determine whether internal synchronization is the result of simple passive dependence of renal excretory rhythms on endogenous rhythms of those variable that influence electrolyte excretion such as dietary intake and muscular activity. Independence of the urinary rhythms from diurnal variations in feeding, drinking, and activity was secured by depriving the animals of food, water, and training them to perform a two-hourly schedule of feeding, drinking, and activity throughout day and night. Results indicate that the internal synchronization which is normally observed between the behavioral and urinary rhythms cannot be explained by any direct dependence of renal function on behavioral patterns. The most probable mechanism for circadian internal synchronization is that the various behavioral and renal rhythms are controlled by potentially independent separate oscillators which are normally kept in synchrony with one another.

Moore-Ede, M. C.; Herd, J. A.

1977-01-01

134

Neurophysiological Analysis of Circadian Rhythm Entrainment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Loss of melatonin secretion in hamsters can alter the rhythm of melatonin sensitivity in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) as tested in an in-vitro slice preparation. The effect on melatonin sensitivity depended on whether pinealectomy or brief constant li...

B. Rusak

1994-01-01

135

A Flexible Model For Human Circadian Rhythms Yuedong Wang and Morton B. Brown  

E-print Network

A Flexible Model For Human Circadian Rhythms Yuedong Wang and Morton B. Brown Department. In this paper we describe a semi­parametric periodic spline function that can be fit to circadian rhythms physiological processes vary in a circadian pattern. Although a sine/cosine function can be used to model

Wang, Yuedong

136

Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

2011-10-01

137

Functional absence of brain photoreceptors mediating entrainment of circadian rhythms in the adult rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The photic energy penetrating into the brain was increased in adult rats sustaining craniotomies sealed with transparent plastic. After blinding, these animals failed to entrain their circadian food intake rhythm to light-dark cycles. Short pulses of light did not phase-shift the freerunning rhythm. We conclude that adult rats lack brain photoreceptors mediating entrainment of circadian rhythms.

G. A. Groos; D. van der Kooy

1981-01-01

138

Circadian Rhythm of Plasma 11-Hydroxycorticosteroids in Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Studies of the circadian rhythm in plasma 11-O.H.C.S. levels showed that a subgroup of affective psychotics had higher plasma 11-OHCS values as compared with schizophrenic and other psychotic subgroups, and a somewhat less regular rhythm. One patient with depression who was studied over 48-hour periods showed a reduction in plasma 11-OHCS levels with clinical recovery. An accentuated fall and rise in plasma 11-OHCS values in the night and early morning samples, respectively, was observed in the schizophrenic subgroup. PMID:5667319

Conroy, R. T. W. L.; Hughes, B. D.; Mills, J. N.

1968-01-01

139

Circadian rhythms of gastrointestinal function are regulated by both central and peripheral oscillators  

PubMed Central

Circadian clocks are responsible for daily rhythms in a wide array of processes, including gastrointestinal (GI) function. These are vital for normal digestive rhythms and overall health. Previous studies demonstrated circadian clocks within the cells of GI tissue. The present study examines the roles played by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), master circadian pacemaker for overt circadian rhythms, and the sympathetic nervous system in regulation of circadian GI rhythms in the mouse Mus musculus. Surgical ablation of the SCN abolishes circadian locomotor, feeding, and stool output rhythms when animals are presented with food ad libitum, while restricted feeding reestablishes these rhythms temporarily. In intact mice, chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine has no effect on feeding and locomotor rhythmicity in light-dark cycles or constant darkness but attenuates stool weight and stool number rhythms. Again, however, restricted feeding reestablishes rhythms in locomotor activity, feeding, and stool output rhythms. Ex vivo, intestinal tissue from PER2::LUC transgenic mice expresses circadian rhythms of luciferase bioluminescence. Chemical sympathectomy has little effect on these rhythms, but timed administration of the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol causes a phase-dependent shift in PERIOD2 expression rhythms. Collectively, the data suggest that the SCN are required to maintain feeding, locomotor, and stool output rhythms during ad libitum conditions, acting at least in part through daily activation of sympathetic activity. Even so, this input is not necessary for entrainment to timed feeding, which may be the province of oscillators within the intestines themselves or other components of the GI system. PMID:22723262

Malloy, Jaclyn N.; Paulose, Jiffin K.; Li, Ye

2012-01-01

140

Modulation of plant immunity by light, circadian rhythm, and temperature.  

PubMed

Plants perceive and integrate intrinsic and extrinsic signals to execute appropriate responses for maximal survival and reproductive success. Plant immune responses are tightly controlled to ensure effective defenses against pathogens while minimizing their adverse effects on plant growth and development. Plant defenses induced in response to pathogen infection are modulated by abiotic signals such as light, circadian rhythm, and temperature. The modulation occurs on specific key components of plant immunity, indicating an intricate integration of biotic and abiotic signals. This review will summarize very recent studies revealing the intersection of plant defenses with light, circadian rhythm and temperature. In addition, it will discuss the adaptive value and evolutionary constraints of abiotic regulation of plant immunity. PMID:23856082

Hua, Jian

2013-08-01

141

Constitutive Expression of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 ( CCA1) Gene Disrupts Circadian Rhythms and Suppresses Its Own Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) gene encodes a MYB-related transcription factor involved in the phytochrome induction of a light-harvesting chlorophyll a\\/b-protein (Lhcb) gene. Expression of the CCA1 gene is transiently induced by phytochrome and oscillates with a circadian rhythm. Constitutive expression of CCA1 protein in transgenic plants abolished the circadian rhythm of several genes with dramatically different phases. These

Zhi-Yong Wang; Elaine M. Tobin

1998-01-01

142

Circadian and ultradian rhythms in period mutants of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using digital techniques for signal analysis—the correlogram and a high-resolution analysis of time series, maximum-entropy spectral analysis (MESA)—we have detected both circadian and ultradian rhythms in the locomotor activity of free-runningper0 males and in females lacking theper locus (per-; heterozygous for two deficiencies, each of which deletes the gene). Over half theper0 individuals and half theper- individuals tested were rhythmically

Harold B. Dowse; Jeffrey C. Hall; John M. Ringo

1987-01-01

143

Entrainment of Circadian Rhythms by Sound in Passer domesticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circadian locomotor rhythm of house sparrows was entrained by a sound stimulus. The birds were maintained at a constant temperature in dim green light. The entraining agent was 41\\/2 hours of tape-recorded bird song played each day. Variations in the response to this stimulus have been correlated with individual variations in free-running period. This is the first clear demonstration

Michael Menaker; Arnold Eskin

1966-01-01

144

Cell-autonomous circadian clock of hepatocytes drives rhythms in transcription and polyamine synthesis  

E-print Network

Cell-autonomous circadian clock of hepatocytes drives rhythms in transcription and polyamine profiling in Met murine hepatocytes (MMH)-D3, we identified over 1,000 transcripts that ex- hibit circadian

145

Circadian Rhythm of Osteocalcin in the Maxillomandibular Complex  

PubMed Central

The human body displays central circadian rhythms of activity. Recent findings suggest that peripheral tissues, such as bone, possess their own circadian clocks. Studies have shown that osteocalcin protein levels oscillate over a 24-hour period, yet the specific skeletal sites involved and its transcriptional profile remain unknown. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that peripheral circadian mechanisms regulate transcription driven by the osteocalcin promoter. Transgenic mice harboring the human osteocalcin promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene were used. Mice of both genders and various ages were analyzed non-invasively at sequential times throughout 24-hour periods. Statistical analyses of luminescent signal intensity of osteogenic activity from multiple skeletal sites indicated a periodicity of ~ 24 hrs. The maxillomandibular complex displayed the most robust oscillatory pattern. These findings have implications for dental treatments in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery, as well as for the mechanisms underlying bone remodeling in the maxillomandibular complex. PMID:19131316

Gafni, Y.; Ptitsyn, A.A.; Zilberman, Y.; Pelled, G.; Gimble, J.M.; Gazit, D.

2009-01-01

146

Familial Circadian Rhythm Disorder in the Diurnal Primate, Macaca mulatta  

PubMed Central

In view of the inverse temporal relationship of central clock activity to physiological or behavioral outputs in diurnal and nocturnal species, understanding the mechanisms and physiological consequences of circadian disorders in humans would benefit from studies in a diurnal animal model, phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report the discovery of the first intrinsic circadian disorder in a family of diurnal non-human primates, the rhesus monkey. The disorder is characterized by a combination of delayed sleep phase, relative to light-dark cycle, mutual desynchrony of intrinsic rhythms of activity, food intake and cognitive performance, enhanced nighttime feeding or, in the extreme case, intrinsic asynchrony. The phenotype is associated with normal length of intrinsic circadian period and requires an intact central clock, as demonstrated by an SCN lesion. Entrainment to different photoperiods or melatonin administration does not eliminate internal desynchrony, though melatonin can temporarily reinstate intrinsic activity rhythms in the animal with intrinsic asynchrony. Entrainment to restricted feeding is highly effective in animals with intrinsic or SCN lesion-induced asynchrony. The large isolated family of rhesus macaques harboring the disorder provides a powerful new tool for translational research of regulatory circuits underlying circadian disorders and their effective treatment. PMID:22413014

Zhdanova, Irina V.; Masuda, Ken; Bozhokin, Sergey V.; Rosene, Douglas L.; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Schettler, Steven; Samorodnitsky, Eric

2012-01-01

147

Circadian rhythms affect electroretinogram, compound eye color, striking behavior and locomotion of the praying mantis Hierodula patellifera.  

PubMed

Many behaviors and physiological processes oscillate with circadian rhythms that are synchronized to environmental cues (e.g. light onset), but persist with periods of ~24 h in the absence of such cues. We used a multilevel experimental approach to assess whether circadian rhythms modulate several aspects of the visual physiology and behavior of the praying mantis Hierodula patellifera. We used electroretinograms (ERGs) to assess compound eye sensitivity, colorimetric photographic analyses to assess compound eye color changes (screening pigment migration), behavioral assays of responsiveness to computer-generated prey-like visual stimuli and analyses of locomotor activity patterns on a modified treadmill apparatus. Our results indicate that circadian clocks control and/or modulate each of the target behaviors. Strong rhythms, persisting under constant conditions, with periods of ~24 h were evident in photoreceptor sensitivity to light, appetitive responsiveness to prey-like stimuli and gross locomotor activity. In the first two cases, responsiveness was highest during the subjective night and lowest during the subjective day. Locomotor activity was strongly clustered around the transition time from day to night. In addition, pigment migration and locomotor behavior responded strongly to light:dark cycles and anticipated the light-dark transition, suggesting that the circadian clocks modulating both were entrained to environmental light cues. Together, these data indicate that circadian rhythms operate at the cellular, cellular systems and organismal level in H. patellifera. Our results represent an intriguing first step in uncovering the complexities of circadian rhythms in the Mantodea. PMID:25214491

Schirmer, Aaron E; Prete, Frederick R; Mantes, Edgar S; Urdiales, Andrew F; Bogue, Wil

2014-11-01

148

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN PLANTS: MA-CHINE LEARNING MODELS AND BIOIN-  

E-print Network

TH E U N I V E R S ITY OF E D I N B U R G H CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN PLANTS: MA- CHINE LEARNING MODELS.trejo-banos@sms.ed.ac.uk http://www.inf.ed.ac.uk/people/students/Daniel_Trejo_Banos.html Introduction Circadian Rhythms and mathematical methodologies, in order to help biologists study and analyse data produced by circadian rhythm

Chaudhuri, Surajit

149

Implicit Associations Have a Circadian Rhythm  

PubMed Central

The current study shows that people's ability to inhibit implicit associations that run counter to their explicit views varies in a circadian pattern. The presence of this rhythmic variation suggests the involvement of a biological process in regulating automatic associations—specifically, with the current data, associations that form undesirable social biases. In 1998, Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz introduced the Implicit Association Test as a means of measuring individual differences in implicit cognition. The IAT is a powerful tool that has become widely used. Perhaps most visibly, studies employing the IAT demonstrate that people generally hold implicit biases against social groups, which often conflict with their explicitly held views. The IAT engages inhibitory processes similar to those inherent in self-control tasks. Because the latter processes are known to be resource-limited, we considered whether IAT scores might likewise be resource dependent. Analyzing IAT performance from over a million participants across all times of day, we found a clear circadian pattern in scores. This finding suggests that the IAT measures not only the strength of implicit associations, but also the effect of variations in the physiological resources available to inhibit their undesirable influences on explicit behavior. PMID:25365254

Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

2014-01-01

150

Circadian rhythm dissociation in an environment with conflicting temporal information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative contributions of light-dark (LD) cycles and eating-fasting (EF) cycles in providing temporal information to the circadian time-keeping system were examined in chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). The circadian rhythms of drinking, colonic temperature, urine volume, and urinary potassium excretion were measured with the LD and EF cycles providing either conflicting phases or periods. In conflicting phase experiments, animals were exposed to 24-hr LD cycles consisting of 12 hr of 600 lx followed by 12 hr of less than 1 lx and concurrent 24-hr EF cycles in which the animals ate for 3 hr and then fasted for 21 hr. One group had food available at the beginning and a second group at the end of the light period. In conflicting period experiments, monkeys were exposed to 23-hr LD cycles and 24-hr EF cycles. Analysis of the rhythms showed that both phase and period information were conveyed to the drinking and urinary rhythms by the EF cycle, and to the temperature rhythm by the LD cycle.

Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Hiles, L. G.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

1978-01-01

151

cap alpha. -Methyl-p-tyrosine shifts circadian temperature rhythms  

SciTech Connect

..cap alpha..-Methyl-p-tyrosine shifts the acrophase (time of highest temperature) of the circadian temperature rhythm of the rat to earlier or later times of day depending on the phase of the cicadian cycle at which the drug is administered. When ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester HCl is injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg late in the projected 8-h light phase, the acrophase of the intraperitoneal temperature rhythm is delayed by up to 3 h.However, when the same dose of drug is given 9-10 h into the projected 16-h dark phase of the daily cycle, the acrophase of the temperature rhythm occurs about 2 h earlier than expected. The times of ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine administration leading to maximal phase delays or advances are correlated with the times of minimal and maximal turnover of norepinephrine in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that changing rates of norepinephrine turnover in the hypothalamus may regulate the circadian temperature rhythm in rats. The results also emphasize the fact that the effects of drugs may vary as a function of the time of administration. This fact must be taken into account in pharmacologic testing.

Cahill, A.L.; Ehret, C.F.

1982-09-01

152

JO URN ALOF BIO LOGI CAL RHYTHMS / February 1999Krieg sf eld et al. /CIRCADIAN LOCOMOTOR ANALYSIS Circadian Locomotor Analysis of  

E-print Network

JO URN ALOF BIO LOGI CAL RHYTHMS / February 1999Krieg sf eld et al. /CIRCADIAN LOCOMOTOR ANALYSIS revealed that NO might be necessary for photic entrainment of circadian rhythms; general NOS inhibitors the specific role of nNOS in mediating entrainment of circadian rhythms, mice with targeted deletion

Demas, Greg

153

An allele of the crm gene blocks cyanobacterial circadian rhythms.  

PubMed

The SasA-RpaA two-component system constitutes a key output pathway of the cyanobacterial Kai circadian oscillator. To date, rhythm of phycobilisome associated (rpaA) is the only gene other than kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, which encode the oscillator itself, whose mutation causes completely arrhythmic gene expression. Here we report a unique transposon insertion allele in a small ORF located immediately upstream of rpaA in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 termed crm (for circadian rhythmicity modulator), which results in arrhythmic promoter activity but does not affect steady-state levels of RpaA. The crm ORF complements the defect when expressed in trans, but only if it can be translated, suggesting that crm encodes a small protein. The crm1 insertion allele phenotypes are distinct from those of an rpaA null; crm1 mutants are able to grow in a light:dark cycle and have no detectable oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, whereas low-amplitude KaiC phosphorylation rhythms persist in the absence of RpaA. Levels of phosphorylated RpaA in vivo measured over time are significantly altered compared with WT in the crm1 mutant as well as in the absence of KaiC. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Crm polypeptide modulates a circadian-specific activity of RpaA. PMID:23918383

Boyd, Joseph S; Bordowitz, Juliana R; Bree, Anna C; Golden, Susan S

2013-08-20

154

An allele of the crm gene blocks cyanobacterial circadian rhythms  

PubMed Central

The SasA-RpaA two-component system constitutes a key output pathway of the cyanobacterial Kai circadian oscillator. To date, rhythm of phycobilisome associated (rpaA) is the only gene other than kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, which encode the oscillator itself, whose mutation causes completely arrhythmic gene expression. Here we report a unique transposon insertion allele in a small ORF located immediately upstream of rpaA in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 termed crm (for circadian rhythmicity modulator), which results in arrhythmic promoter activity but does not affect steady-state levels of RpaA. The crm ORF complements the defect when expressed in trans, but only if it can be translated, suggesting that crm encodes a small protein. The crm1 insertion allele phenotypes are distinct from those of an rpaA null; crm1 mutants are able to grow in a light:dark cycle and have no detectable oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, whereas low-amplitude KaiC phosphorylation rhythms persist in the absence of RpaA. Levels of phosphorylated RpaA in vivo measured over time are significantly altered compared with WT in the crm1 mutant as well as in the absence of KaiC. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Crm polypeptide modulates a circadian-specific activity of RpaA. PMID:23918383

Boyd, Joseph S.; Bordowitz, Juliana R.; Bree, Anna C.; Golden, Susan S.

2013-01-01

155

Circadian rhythm abnormalities of melatonin in Smith-Magenis syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome associated with a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 17, band p11.2. Characteristic features include neurobehavioural abnormalities such as aggressive and self-injurious behaviour and significant sleep disturbances. The majority of patients have a common deletion characterised at the molecular level. Physical mapping studies indicate that all patients with the common deletion are haploinsufficient for subunit 3 of the COP9 signalosome (COPS3), which is conserved from plants to humans, and in the plant Arabidopis thaliana regulates gene transcription in response to light. Haploinsufficiency of this gene is hypothesised to be potentially involved in the sleep disturbances seen in these patients. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. SMS patients are reported to have fewer sleep disturbances when given a night time dose of this sleep inducing hormone.?METHODS—Urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the major hepatic metabolite of melatonin, in 19 SMS patients were measured in conjunction with 24 hour sleep studies in 28 SMS patients. Five of the 28 patients did not have the common SMS deletion. To investigate a potential correlation of COPS3 haploinsufficiency and disturbed melatonin excretion, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using two BACs containing coding exons of COPS3.?RESULTS—All SMS patients show significant sleep disturbances when assessed by objective criteria. Abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of aMT6s were observed in all but one SMS patient. Interestingly this patient did not have the common deletion. All patients studied, including the one patient with a normal melatonin rhythm, were haploinsufficient for COPS3.?CONCLUSIONS—Our data indicate a disturbed circadian rhythm in melatonin and document the disturbed sleep pattern in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Our findings suggest that the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of melatonin and altered sleep patterns could be secondary to aberrations in the production, secretion, distribution, or metabolism of melatonin; however, a direct role for COPS3 could not be established.???Keywords: melatonin; circadian rhythms; Smith-Magenis syndrome; COPS3 PMID:10851253

Potocki, L.; Glaze, D.; Tan, D.; Park, S.; Kashork, C.; Shaffer, L.; Reiter, R.; Lupski, J.

2000-01-01

156

Comparison of circadian rhythms in male and female humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) data were obtained from 12 female and 27 male subjects. The subjects were housed in a facility where the environment was controlled. Human male and female RT and HR exhibit a circadian rhythm with an excursion of about 1.2 C and 30 beats/min, respectively. The acrophases, amplitudes, and level crossings are only slightly different between the sexes. The male HR and RT circadian wave forms are more stable than those of the females. However, the actual RT and HR of males were always lower than that of females at all time points around the clock. The HR during sleep in females is 15 per cent below the daily mean heart rate and in males, 22 per cent.

Winget, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Rosenblatt, W. S.; Hetherington, N. W.

1977-01-01

157

Effects of intergeniculate leaflet lesions on circadian rhythms in Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) modulates photic and nonphotic entrainment of circadian rhythms in nocturnal species, but nothing is known about its role in diurnal species. We investigated the significance of the IGL for circadian rhythm function in the diurnal rodent, Octodon degus, by determining the effects of bilateral electrolytic IGL lesions (IGLX) on: (i) photic entrainment; (ii) reentrainment rates to

Namni Goel; Marcia M. Governale; Tammy J. Jechura; Theresa M. Lee

2000-01-01

158

Individual neurons dissociated from rat suprachiasmatic nucleus express independently phased circadian firing rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the mammalian hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains a circadian clock for timing of diverse neuronal, endocrine, and behavioral rhythms. By culturing cells from neonatal rat SCN on fixed microelectrode arrays, we have been able to record spontaneous action potentials from individual SCN neurons for days or weeks, revealing prominent circadian rhythms in firing rate. Despite abundant functional synapses,

David K. Welsh; Diomedes E. Logothetis; Markus Meister; Steven M. Reppert

1995-01-01

159

The prediction of the adaptation of circadian rhythms to rapid time zone changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to find out which factors could explain individual differences in the resynchronization speed of circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and subjective alertness after transmeridian flights over 10 time zones. The mean age of the 40 female subjects was 33·0 ±6·9 years. The data were gathered by measurements of the circadian rhythms of melatonin excretion

S. SUVANTO; M. HÄRMA; J. T. LAJTINEN

1993-01-01

160

Aging, circadian rhythms and depressive disorders: a review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aging is typically associated with impairing behavioral patterns that are frequently and inappropriately seen as normal. Circadian rhythm changes and depressive disorders have been increasingly proposed as the two main overlapping and interpenetrating changes that take place in older age. This study aims to review the state of the art on the subject concerning epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, clinical findings and relevance, as well as available treatment options. Materials and Methods: A nonsystematic review of all English language PubMed articles published between 1995 and December 2012 using the terms “circadian rhythms”, “mood disorders”, “depression”, “age”, “aging”, “elderly” and “sleep”. Discussion and conclusion: Sleep disorders, mainly insomnia, and depression have been demonstrated to be highly co-prevalent and mutually precipitating conditions in the elderly population. There is extensive research on the pathophysiological mechanisms through which age conditions circadian disruption, being the disruption of the Melatonin system one of the main changes. However, research linking clearly and unequivocally circadian disruption and mood disorders is still lacking. Nonetheless, there are consistently described molecular changes on shared genes and also several proposed pathophysiological models linking depression and sleep disruption, with clinical studies also suggesting a bi-directional relationship between these pathologies. In spite of this suggested relation, clinical evaluation of these conditions in elderly patients consistently reveals itself rather complicated due to the frequently co-existing co-morbidities, some of them having been demonstrated to alter sleep and mood patters. This is the case of strokes, forms of dementia such as Alzheimer and Parkinson, several neurodegenerative disorders, among others. Although there are to the present no specific treatment guidelines, available treatment options generally base themselves on the premise that depression and sleep disturbances share a bidirectional relationship and so, the adoption of measures that address specifically one of the conditions will reciprocally benefit the other. Treatment options range from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Chronotherapy, and Light therapy, to drugs such as Melatonin/Melatonin agonists, antidepressants and sedatives. PMID:24319642

Campos Costa, Ines; Nogueira Carvalho, Hugo; Fernandes, Lia

2013-01-01

161

A molecular explanation for the long-term suppression of circadian rhythms by a single light pulse  

E-print Network

A molecular explanation for the long-term suppression of circadian rhythms by a single light pulse explanation for the long-term suppression of circadian rhythms by a single light pulse. Am J Physiol-term suppression of circadian rhythms observed in a variety of organisms in response to a single light pulse

Goldbeter, Albert

162

The influence of circadian rhythms on pre-and post-prandial metabolism in the snake Lamprophis fuliginosus  

E-print Network

The influence of circadian rhythms on pre- and post-prandial metabolism in the snake Lamprophis energy cost of circadian rhythms. To estimate SMR, SDA, and identify metabolic variation associated% of their body mass. Circadian rhythms in metabolism were perceptible in the V O2 data during fasting and after

Hopkins, William A.

163

Effect of hypergravity on the circadian rhythms of white rats.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of artificial gravity on the circadian rhythm of white rats was observed by comparing feeding activity at 1.0 and 1.75 g. The feeding cycle data were obtained by observing the number of feeding switch responses, as well as the amount of food obtained, as a function of time. One of the three subjects clearly established a free-running cycle with a period of 24.742 hr. During a 40-day exposure to the 1.75 g environment, the subjects maintained the same feeding cycle period which was established at 1.0 g. While the results of this study indicate that the activity rhythms of rats are insensitive to gravity levels between 1.0 and 1.75 g, the effects of gravity levels below 1.0 g are yet to be determined.

Lafferty, J. F.

1972-01-01

164

Experiment K-7-35: Circadian Rhythms and Temperature Regulation During Spaceflight. Part 1; Circadian Rhythms and Temperature Regulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mammals have developed the ability to adapt to most variations encountered in their everyday environment. For example, homeotherms have developed the ability to maintain the internal cellular environment at a relatively constant temperature. Also, in order to compensate for temporal variations in the terrestrial environment, the circadian timing system has evolved. However, throughout the evolution of life on earth, living organisms have been exposed to the influence of an unvarying level of earth's gravity. As a result changes in gravity produce adaptive responses which are not completely understood. In particular, spaceflight has pronounced effects on various physiological and behavioral systems. Such systems include body temperature regulation and circadian rhythms. This program has examined the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in Rhesus monkeys. Animals flown on the Soviet Biosatellite, COSMOS 2044, were exposed to 14 days of microgravity while constantly monitoring the circadian patterns temperature regulation, heart rate and activity. This experiment has extended our previous observations from COSMOS 1514, as well as providing insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.

Fuller, C. A.; Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.

1994-01-01

165

A neural theory of circadian rhythms: Aschoff s rule in diurnal and nocturnal mammals  

E-print Network

"" , - , ,\\i', (-\\' A neural theory of circadian rhythms: Aschoff s rule in diurnal and nocturnal- theory of circadian rhythms: A~choff's rule in diurnal and nr:c- mals, including the "dead zone" of phase.lcnuclelsuggest~h°v.:beha":lor~lac~lvIty,rest, of the pacemaker by high light intensities (3,11). Due to and circadian period depend on light intensity In diurnal

Grossberg, Stephen

166

Effect of circadian rhythm on CNS oxygen toxicity.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The circadian rhythm in susceptibility to oxygen toxicity seizures was investigated by using six groups of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats (101-196 gm.). The animals were given standard chow, exposed to standard diurnal conditions of light (0700-1900 hr) and dark (1900-0700 hr), and fasted for 15-16 hr prior to exposure to hyperbaric oxygen. The animals were placed in a previously oxygen flushed chamber and raised to 60 psi (gauge) oxygen at a rate of 3 psi/min. Time of exposure started with attainment of 60 psi. End point was first convulsion. The animals' weights were equally distributed within the groups, and the groups were defined by hour of exposure. Time of exposure in minutes prior to seizure was significantly longer in those exposed at 0700-0800 hr and 1000-1100 hr than in four other groups. There was no relationship between animals' weights and time of exposure to seizures. All R values were negative, and the highest R value was -035. These data suggest a definite circadian rhythm in susceptibility to oxygen toxicity seizures.

Hof, D. G.; Dexter, J. D.; Mengel, C. E.

1971-01-01

167

Circadian rhythms in Limulus photoreceptors. I. Intracellular studies  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity of the lateral eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is modulated by efferent optic nerve impulses transmitted from a circadian clock located in the brain (Barlow, R. B., Jr., S. J. Bolanowski, and M. L. Brachman. 1977. Science. 197:86-89). At night, the efferent impulses invade the retinular, eccentric, and pigment cells of every ommatidium, inducing multiple anatomical and physiological changes that combine to increase retinal sensitivity as much as 100,000 times. We developed techniques for recording transmembrane potentials from a single cell in situ for several days to determine what circadian changes in retinal sensitivity originate in the primary phototransducing cell, the retinular cell. We found that the direct efferent input to the photoreceptor cell decreases its noise and increases its response. Noise is decreased by reducing the rate of spontaneous bumps by up to 100%. The response is increased by elevating photon catch (photons absorbed per flash) as much as 30 times, and increasing gain (response per absorbed photon) as much as 40%. The cellular mechanism for reducing the rate of spontaneous quantum bumps is not known. The mechanism for increasing gain appears to be the modulation of ionic conductances in the photoreceptor cell membrane. The mechanism for increasing photon catch is multiple changes in the anatomy of retinal cells. We combine these cellular events in a proposed scheme for the circadian rhythm in the intensity coding of single photoreceptors. PMID:3559515

1987-01-01

168

Rhythms of locomotion expressed by Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab: II. Relationship to circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.  

PubMed

In the laboratory, horseshoe crabs express a circadian rhythm of visual sensitivity as well as daily and circatidal rhythms of locomotion. The major goal of this investigation was to determine whether the circadian clock underlying changes in visual sensitivity also modulates locomotion. To address this question, we developed a method for simultaneously recording changes in visual sensitivity and locomotion. Although every animal (24) expressed consistent circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity, rhythms of locomotion were more variable: 44% expressed a tidal rhythm, 28% were most active at night, and the rest lacked statistically significant rhythms. When exposed to artificial tides, 8 of 16 animals expressed circatidal rhythms of locomotion that continued after tidal cycles were stopped. However, rhythms of visual sensitivity remained stable and showed no tendency to be influenced by the imposed tides or locomotor activity. These results indicate that horseshoe crabs possess at least two biological clocks: one circadian clock primarily used for modulating visual sensitivity, and one or more clocks that control patterns of locomotion. This arrangement allows horseshoe crabs to see quite well while mating during both daytime and nighttime high tides. PMID:18723636

Watson, Winsor H; Bedford, Lisa; Chabot, Christopher C

2008-08-01

169

The dependence of onset and duration of sleep on the circadian rhythm of rectal temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sleep-wake cycle and the circadian rhythm of rectal temperature were recorded in subjects who lived singly in an isolation unit. In 10 subjects, the freerunning rhythms remained internally synchronized, 10 other subjects showed internal desynchronization. Times of onset and end of bedrest (“sleep”) were determined in each cycle and referred to the phase of the temperature rhythm. In the

Jtirgen Zulley; Riitger Wever; Jiirgen Aschoff

1981-01-01

170

Circadian rhythm and fast responses to blue light of photosynthesis in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngb. under continuous saturating red irradiation follows a circadian rhythm. Blue-light pulses rapidly stimulate photosynthesis with high effectiveness in the troughs of this rhythm but the effectiveness of such pulses is much lower at its peaks. In an attempt to understand how blue light and the rhythm affected photosynthesis, the effects of inorganic carbon on

Rainer Schmid; Rodney Forster; Matthew J. Dring

1992-01-01

171

Metabolic heat production, heat loss and the circadian rhythm of body temperature in the rat.  

PubMed

Metabolic heat production (calculated from oxygen consumption), dry heat loss (measured in a calorimeter) and body temperature (measured by telemetry) were recorded simultaneously at 6 min intervals over five consecutive days in rats maintained in constant darkness. Robust circadian rhythmicity (confirmed by chi square periodogram analysis) was observed in all three variables. The rhythm of heat production was phase-advanced by about half an hour in relation to the body temperature rhythm, whereas the rhythm of heat loss was phase-delayed by about half an hour. The balance of heat production and heat loss exhibited a daily oscillation 180 deg out of phase with the oscillation in body temperature. Computations indicated that the amount of heat associated with the generation of the body temperature rhythm (1.6 kJ) corresponds to less than 1 % of the total daily energy budget (172 kJ) in this species. Because of the small magnitude of the fraction of heat balance associated with the body temperature rhythm, it is likely that the daily oscillation in heat balance has a very slow effect on body temperature, thus accounting for the 180 deg phase difference between the rhythms of heat balance and body temperature. PMID:12719767

Refinetti, Roberto

2003-05-01

172

Interactions between Cognition and Circadian Rhythms: Attentional Demands Modify Circadian Entrainment  

PubMed Central

Animals and humans are able to predict and synchronize their daily activity to signals present in their environments. Environmental cues are most often associated with signaling the beginning or the end of a daily activity cycle but they can also be used to time the presentation or availability of scarce resources. If the signal occurs consistently, animals can begin to anticipate its arrival and ultimately become entrained to its presence. While many stimuli can produce anticipation for a daily event, these events rarely lead to changes in activity patterns during the rest of the circadian cycle. We demonstrate that performance of a task requiring sustained attention not only produces entrainment, but produces a robust modification in the animals’ activity throughout the entire circadian cycle. In particular, normally nocturnal rats, when trained during the light phase (ZT 4) adopted a significant and reversible diurnal activity pattern. Importantly, control experiments demonstrated that this entrainment could not be attributed to the non-cognitive components of task performance, such as handling, water deprivation, access to water used as a reward, or animal activity associated with operant training. These findings additionally indicate that levels of cognitive performance are modulated by the circadian cycle and that such activity can act as a highly effective entrainment signal. These results form the basis for future research on the role of neuronal systems mediating interactions between cognitive activity and circadian rhythms. PMID:19824760

Gritton, Howard J.; Sutton, Blair C.; Martinez, Vicente; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

2010-01-01

173

Alterations in circadian rhythms are associated with increased lipid peroxidation in females with bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Disturbances in both circadian rhythms and oxidative stress systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), yet no studies have investigated the relationship between these systems in BD. We studied the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on lipid damage in 52 depressed or euthymic BD females, while controlling for age, severity of depressive symptoms and number of psychotropic medications, compared to 30 healthy controls. Circadian rhythm disruption was determined by a self-report measure (Biological Rhythm Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; BRIAN), which measures behaviours such as sleep, eating patterns, social rhythms and general activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as a proxy of lipid peroxidation. We also measured the activity of total and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Multiple linear regressions showed that circadian rhythm disturbance was independently associated with increased lipid peroxidation in females with BD (p < 0.05). We found decreased extracellular SOD (p < 0.05), but no differences in total SOD, CAT or GST activity between bipolar females and controls. Circadian rhythms were not associated with lipid peroxidation in healthy controls, where aging was the only significant predictor. These results suggest an interaction between the circadian system and redox metabolism, in that greater disruption in daily rhythms was associated with increased lipid peroxidation in BD only. Antioxidant enzymes have been shown to follow a circadian pattern of expression, and it is possible that disturbance of sleep and daily rhythms experienced in BD may result in decreased antioxidant defence and therefore increased lipid peroxidation. This study provides a basis for further investigation of the links between oxidative stress and circadian rhythms in the neurobiology of BD. PMID:24438530

Cudney, Lauren E; Sassi, Roberto B; Behr, Guilherme A; Streiner, David L; Minuzzi, Luciano; Moreira, Jose C F; Frey, Benicio N

2014-05-01

174

[Circadian blood pressure rhythm and its characterization in isolated systolic hypertension (ISH)].  

PubMed

Twenty-four-hour noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was performed in 131 consecutive elderly subjects (61 with isolated systolic hypertension, ISH; 19 with mixed/diastolic hypertension, MDH; 29 with borderline hypertension, BLH; 23 in the normotensive group, NT). It was found that in ISH blood pressure rised during awaking period and fell during sleeping period (P < 0.05); the circadian systolic blood pressure rhythm was similar to ones in MDH, BLH and NT. However, the circadian diastolic blood pressure rhythm was attenuated in ISH. We conclude that circadian blood pressure rhythm alters in ISH, which may be related to the ischemia in organs, especially cerebral ischemia. PMID:1306816

Jian, M

1992-10-01

175

Gravity and thermoregulation: metabolic changes and circadian rhythms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity appears to alter thermoregulation through changes in both the regulated level of body temperature and the rhythmic organization of temperature regulation. Gravity has been hypothesized to have an associated metabolic cost. Increased resting energy expenditure and dietary intake have been observed in animals during centrifuge experiments at hypergravity. Thus far, only animals have shown a corresponding reduction in metabolism in microgravity. Altered heat loss has been proposed as a response to altered gravitational environments, but remains documented only as changes in skin temperature. Changes in circadian timing, including the body temperature rhythm, have been shown in both hypergravity and microgravity, and probably contribute to alterations in sleep and performance. Changes in body temperature regulation may result from circadian disturbance, from the direct or indirect actions of gravity on the regulated temperature, or from changes in thermoregulatory effectors (heat production and heat loss) due to altered gravitational load and convective changes. To date, however, we have little data on the underlying thermoregulatory changes in altered gravity, and thus the precise mechanisms by which gravity alters temperature regulation remain largely unknown.

Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

2000-01-01

176

Circadian Rhythms in Acute Intermittent Porphyria--a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited disorder of heme synthesis wherein a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen [PBG] deaminase [PBGD], with other factors may give rise to biochemical and clinical manifestations of disease. The biochemical hallmarks of active AIP are relative hepatic heme deficiency and uncontrolled up-regulation of hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA] synthase-1 [ALAS1] with overproduction of ALA and PBG. The treatment of choice is intravenous heme, which restores the deficient regulatory heme pool of the liver and represses ALAS1. Recently, heme has been shown to influence circadian rhythms by controlling their negative feedback loops. We evaluated whether subjects with AIP exhibited an altered circadian profile. Over a 21 h period, we measured levels of serum cortisol, melatonin, ALA, PBG, and mRNA levels [in peripheral blood mononuclear cells] of selected clock-controlled genes and genes involved in heme synthesis in 10 Caucasian [European-American] women who were either post-menopausal or had been receiving female hormone therapy, 6 of whom have AIP and 4 do not and are considered controls. Four AIP subjects with biochemical activity exhibited higher levels of PBG and lower levels and dampened oscillation of serum cortisol, and a trend for lower levels of serum melatonin, than controls or AIP subjects without biochemical activity. Levels of clock-controlled gene mRNAs showed significant increases over baseline in all subjects at 5 am and 11 pm, whereas mRNA levels of ALAS1, ALAS2, and PBGD were increased only at 11 pm in subjects with active AIP. This pilot study provides evidence for disturbances of circadian markers in women with active AIP that may trigger or sustain some common clinical features of AIP. PMID:23650938

Larion, Sebastian; Caballes, F. Ryan; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Gyun; Rossman, Whitney Ellefson; Parsons, Judy; Steuerwald, Nury; Li, Ting; Maddukuri, Vinaya; Groseclose, Gale; Finkielstein, Carla V.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

2013-01-01

177

Effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives on alertness, cognitive performance, and circadian rhythms during sleep deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use on neurobehavioral function and circadian rhythms were studied in healthy young women (n=25) using a modified constant routine procedure during 24 h of sleep deprivation. Alertness and performance worsened across sleep deprivation and also varied with circadian phase. Entrained circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature were evident in women

Kenneth P Wright; Pietro Badia

1999-01-01

178

Circadian desynchrony in the mouse: how does chronic exposure to rotating shift work-like patterns of light/dark affect circadian rhythms and neurobehavioural outcomes.  

E-print Network

??Disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with several deleterious health consequences, increased prevalence of obesity, maladaptive changes in affect, and cognitive impairment. Still it is… (more)

McGowan, Niall

2012-01-01

179

The genetics of circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa : do multiple oscillators exist?  

E-print Network

in humans, photosynthesis in some plants, to reproduction in fungus and other eukaryotes. One organism, Neurospora crassa, displays an easily observed and assayable circadian rhythm in asexual spore production, conidiation, and is an excellent model...

Kortum, Karen

2013-02-22

180

Social interaction and sex differences influence rat temperature circadian rhythm under LD cycles and constant light.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms produce an efficient organization of animal behaviour over the 24h day. In some species, social cues have been found to have a role as synchronizers of these rhythms. Here, the influence of social interaction on rat circadian behaviour was investigated, addressing the question of whether cohabitation would produce a delay in the appearance of arrhythmicity under constant light conditions. To this end, the circadian rhythms of male and female rat body temperature were studied for 10days under light-dark conditions, followed by 33days under constant bright light. Half of the animals were maintained in individual cages, whilst the others were maintained in larger cages in groups of three rats of the same sex. Results showed that individual circadian rhythms under 24hour light-dark (LD) cycles were more stable and with higher amplitude in grouped than in isolated animals, and higher in males than in females. During the first days under constant light (LL), the stability of the rhythm was also higher in males than in females, but there were no differences according to the group. Moreover, we did not find significant differences in the time of circadian rhythm loss under LL, since high individual variability was found for this variable. On the other hand, female rats living in isolation showed a delayed acrophase in the circadian rhythm under LD conditions compared with those living in groups. These results suggest that cohabitation increases the internal coherence of circadian behaviour, and could be interpreted as indicating that living in isolation may induce a level of stress that disturbs manifestation of the circadian rhythm, especially in females, which are also more reactive than males to external signals. PMID:21402091

Cambras, T; Castejón, L; Díez-Noguera, A

2011-06-01

181

KaiC CII Ring Flexibility Governs the Rhythm of the Circadian Clock of Cyanobacteria  

E-print Network

KAIC CII RING FLEXIBILITY GOVERNS THE RHYTHM OF THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK OF CYANOBACTERIA A Dissertation by NAI-WEI KUO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Biochemistry KAIC CII RING FLEXIBILITY GOVERNS THE RHYTHM OF THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK OF CYANOBACTERIA A Dissertation by NAI-WEI KUO Submitted to the Office...

Kuo, Nai-Wei

2012-07-16

182

Prokineticin 2 transmits the behavioural circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls the circadian rhythm of physiological and behavioural processes in mammals. Here we show that prokineticin 2 (PK2), a cysteine-rich secreted protein, functions as an output molecule from the SCN circadian clock. PK2 messenger RNA is rhythmically expressed in the SCN, and the phase of PK2 rhythm is responsive to light entrainment. Molecular and genetic studies

Michelle Y. Cheng; Clayton M. Bullock; Chuanyu Li; Alex G. Lee; Jason C. Bermak; James Belluzzi; David R. Weaver; Frances M. Leslie; Qun-Yong Zhou

2002-01-01

183

Circadian, or near-24-h, rhythms of biological processes that persist in the absence of environmental cues, have been  

E-print Network

3765 Circadian, or near-24-h, rhythms of biological processes that persist in the absence subjective dusk and a trough before subjective dawn. This persistent circadian rhythm in constant darkness. The molecular clocks that control these rhythms are highly conserved across a broad range of species (King et al

Beltz, Barbara S.

184

A CIRCADIAN RHYTHM IN THE LOCOMOTOR BEHAVIOUR OF THE GIANT GARDEN SLUG LIMAX MAXIMUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The locomotor activity of the garden slug Limax maximus was examined for components of circadian rhythmicity. Behavioural (running wheel) studies clearly demonstrated that the activity satisfies the principal criteria of circadian rhythmicity. In constant darkness at a constant temperature, the locomotor activity freeran with a period of about 24 h (range 23-6-24-6 h). The rhythm was also expressed in

P. G. SOKOLOVE; C. M. BEISWANGER; D. J. PRIOR

185

The Intergeniculate Leaflet Partially Mediates Effects of Light on Circadian Rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photic signals affect circadian activity rhythms by both phasic and tonic mechanisms that modulate pacemaker phase and period. In mammals, the effects of light on circadian activity are mediated by the retina, which communicates with the suprahiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by two different anatomical routes: the retino-hypothalamic tract (RHT), originating in the retina, and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract (GHT), arising from a

Gary E. Pickard; Martin R. Ralph; Michael Menaker

1987-01-01

186

Circadian-Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Persons Who Are Totally Blind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the diagnosis and management of "non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome," a form of cyclic insomnia to which people who are totally blind are prone. Covered are incidence and clinical features, formal diagnostic criteria, the biological basis of circadian sleep disorders, circadian rhythms in blind people, pharmacological entrainment, and the…

Sack, R. L.; Blood, M. L.; Hughes, R. J.; Lewy, A. J.

1998-01-01

187

Glucocorticoids mediate circadian timing in peripheral osteoclasts resulting in the circadian expression rhythm of osteoclast-related genes.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms are prevalent in bone metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, we suggested that output signals from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are transmitted from the master circadian rhythm to peripheral osteoblasts through ?-adrenergic and glucocorticoid signaling. In this study, we examined how the master circadian rhythm is transmitted to peripheral osteoclasts and the role of clock gene in osteoclast. Mice were maintained under 12-hour light/dark periods and sacrificed at Zeitgeber times 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20. mRNA was extracted from femur (cancellous bone) and analyzed for the expression of osteoclast-related genes and clock genes. Osteoclast-related genes such as cathepsin K (CTSK) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) showed circadian rhythmicity like clock genes such as period 1 (PER1), PER2 and brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1). In an in vitro study, not ?-agonist but glucocorticoid treatment remarkably synchronized clock and osteoclast-related genes in cultured osteoclasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed the interaction between BMAL1 proteins and promoter region of CTSK and NFATc1. To examine whether endogenous glucocorticoids influence the osteoclast circadian rhythms, mice were adrenalectomized (ADX) and maintained under 12-hour light/dark periods at least two weeks before glucocorticoid injection. A glucocorticoid injection restarted the circadian expression of CTSK and NFATc1 in ADX mice. These results suggest that glucocorticoids mediate circadian timing to peripheral osteoclasts and osteoclast clock contributes to the circadian expression of osteoclast-related genes such as CTSK and NFATc1. PMID:24389417

Fujihara, Yuko; Kondo, Hisataka; Noguchi, Toshihide; Togari, Akifumi

2014-04-01

188

Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain  

PubMed Central

Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc) mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin) is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b) and cryptochrome 3 (cry3), in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh) and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2), involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT) siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings. Conclusion Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks. PMID:21232144

2011-01-01

189

Robust circadian rhythms in organoid cultures from PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE mouse small intestine  

PubMed Central

Disruption of circadian rhythms is a risk factor for several human gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, ranging from diarrhea to ulcers to cancer. Four-dimensional tissue culture models that faithfully mimic the circadian clock of the GI epithelium would provide an invaluable tool to understand circadian regulation of GI health and disease. We hypothesized that rhythmicity of a key circadian component, PERIOD2 (PER2), would diminish along a continuum from ex vivo intestinal organoids (epithelial ‘miniguts’), nontransformed mouse small intestinal epithelial (MSIE) cells and transformed human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Here, we show that bioluminescent jejunal explants from PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) mice displayed robust circadian rhythms for >72 hours post-excision. Circadian rhythms in primary or passaged PER2::LUC jejunal organoids were similarly robust; they also synchronized upon serum shock and persisted beyond 2 weeks in culture. Remarkably, unshocked organoids autonomously synchronized rhythms within 12 hours of recording. The onset of this autonomous synchronization was slowed by >2 hours in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 (20 ?M). Doubling standard concentrations of the organoid growth factors EGF, Noggin and R-spondin enhanced PER2 oscillations, whereas subtraction of these factors individually at 24 hours following serum shock produced no detectable effects on PER2 oscillations. Growth factor pulses induced modest phase delays in unshocked, but not serum-shocked, organoids. Circadian oscillations of PER2::LUC bioluminescence aligned with Per2 mRNA expression upon analysis using quantitative PCR. Concordant findings of robust circadian rhythms in bioluminescent jejunal explants and organoids provide further evidence for a peripheral clock that is intrinsic to the intestinal epithelium. The rhythmic and organotypic features of organoids should offer unprecedented advantages as a resource for elucidating the role of circadian rhythms in GI stem cell dynamics, epithelial homeostasis and disease. PMID:24997189

Moore, Sean R.; Pruszka, Jill; Vallance, Jefferson; Aihara, Eitaro; Matsuura, Toru; Montrose, Marshall H.; Shroyer, Noah F.; Hong, Christian I.

2014-01-01

190

A riot of rhythms: neuronal and glial circadian oscillators in the mediobasal hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In mammals, the synchronized activity of cell autonomous clocks in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) enables this structure to function as the master circadian clock, coordinating daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, the dominance of this clock has been challenged by the observations that metabolic duress can over-ride SCN controlled rhythms, and that clock genes are expressed in many

Clare Guilding; Alun TL Hughes; Timothy M Brown; Sara Namvar; Hugh D Piggins

2009-01-01

191

Estrogen receptor 1 modulates circadian rhythms in adult female mice.  

PubMed

Estradiol influences the level and distribution of daily activity, the duration of the free-running period, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses. However, the mechanisms by which estradiol regulates daily and circadian rhythms are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that estrogens modulate daily activity patterns via both classical and "non-classical" actions at the estrogen receptor subtype 1 (ESR1). We used female transgenic mice with mutations in their estrogen response pathways; ESR1 knock-out (ERKO) mice and "non-classical" estrogen receptor knock-in (NERKI) mice. NERKI mice have an ESR1 receptor with a mutation in the estrogen-response-element binding domain, allowing only actions via "non-classical" genomic and second messenger pathways. Ovariectomized female NERKI, ERKO, and wildtype (WT) mice were given a subcutaneous capsule with low- or high-dose estradiol and compared with counterparts with no hormone replacement. We measured wheel-running activity in a light:dark cycle and constant darkness, and the behavioral phase response to light pulses given at different points during the subjective day and night. Estradiol increased average daily wheel-running, consolidated activity to the dark phase, and shortened the endogenous period in WT, but not NERKI and ERKO mice. The timing of activity onset during entrainment was advanced in all estradiol-treated animals regardless of genotype suggesting an ESR1-independent mechanism. We propose that estradiol modifies period, activity level, and distribution of activity via classical actions of ESR1 whereas an ESR1 independent mechanism regulates the phase of rhythms. PMID:24527952

Blattner, Margaret S; Mahoney, Megan M

2014-06-01

192

Longitudinal Stability and Developmental Properties of Salivary Cortisol Levels and Circadian Rhythms from Childhood to Adolescence  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to (1) identify a stable, trait-like component to cortisol and its circadian rhythm, and (2) investigate individual differences in developmental trajectories of HPA-axis maturation. Multiple salivary cortisol samples were collected longitudinally across four assessments from age 9 (3rd grade) through age 15 (9th grade) in a community sample of children (N=357). Sophisticated statistical models examined cortisol levels and its rhythm over time; effects of age, puberty and gender were primarily considered. In addition to situation-specific and stable short-term or epoch-specific cortisol components, there is a stable, trait-like component of cortisol levels and circadian rhythm across multiple years covering the transition from childhood into adolescence. Youth had higher cortisol and flatter circadian rhythms as they got older and more physically developed. Girls had higher cortisol, stronger circadian rhythms, and greater developmental influences across adolescence. Distinguishing a stable, trait-like component of cortisol level and its circadian rhythm provides the empirical foundation for investigating putative mechanisms underlying individual differences in HPA functioning. The findings also provide important descriptive information about maturational processes influencing HPA-axis development. PMID:21953537

Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Allison, Amber L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

2011-01-01

193

Longitudinal stability and developmental properties of salivary cortisol levels and circadian rhythms from childhood to adolescence.  

PubMed

This study aimed to (1) identify a stable, trait-like component to cortisol and its circadian rhythm, and (2) investigate individual differences in developmental trajectories of HPA-axis maturation. Multiple salivary cortisol samples were collected longitudinally across four assessments from age 9 (3rd grade) through age 15 (9th grade) in a community sample of children (N = 357). Sophisticated statistical models examined cortisol levels and its rhythm over time; effects of age, puberty and gender were primarily considered. In addition to situation-specific and stable short-term or epoch-specific cortisol components, there is a stable, trait-like component of cortisol levels and circadian rhythm across multiple years covering the transition from childhood into adolescence. Youth had higher cortisol and flatter circadian rhythms as they got older and more physically developed. Girls had higher cortisol, stronger circadian rhythms, and greater developmental influences across adolescence. Distinguishing a stable, trait-like component of cortisol level and its circadian rhythm provides the empirical foundation for investigating putative mechanisms underlying individual differences in HPA functioning. The findings also provide important descriptive information about maturational processes influencing HPA-axis development. PMID:21953537

Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Allison, Amber L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Essex, Marilyn J

2012-07-01

194

Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.

1977-01-01

195

The circadian rhythm of 5-HT biosynthetic and degradative enzymes in immortalized mouse neuroendocrine pineal cell line--a model for studying circadian rhythm.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in circadian rhythm and its level decreases at night and increases during day time in pineal gland. This study investigates the role of 5-HT biosynthetic and metabolic genes in the circadian rhythm using the mouse neuroendocrine pineal cell line (PT811). We first determined which type of monoamine oxdiase (MAO) was present in PT811 cells. Our results showed that only MAO A, a key which enzyme degrades 5-HT, was present in these cells because both 5-HT (the MAO A preferred substrate) and PEA (the MAO B preferred substrate) oxidation were sensitive to clorgyline but insensitive to deprenyl inhibition. This finding was supported by Northern blot analysis in which MAO A, but not MAO B, transcript was detectable. More sensitive quantitative RT-PCR showed the presence of both MAO A and MAO B, however there was no difference between day and night time. In contrast, the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH, the 5-HT synthetic enzyme), arylalklamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and Arc (activity regulated, cytoskeleton associated protein) genes showed diurnal cycle. AANAT converts 5-HT to N-acetylserotonin, leading to the synthesis of melatonin. The Arc gene is an effector early immediate gene, regulated by 5-HT. This study suggested that the 5-HT circadian rhythm is regulated by TPH and AANAT but not the MAO A gene in this cell line. This cell line will be a valuable model for studying the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythm. PMID:15474553

Yeung Lam, Philip; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C

2004-11-01

196

Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.

1987-09-01

197

A simple model of circadian rhythms based on dimerization and proteolysis of PER and TIM  

PubMed Central

Many organisms display rhythms of physiology and behavior that are entrained to the 24-h cycle of light and darkness prevailing on Earth. Under constant conditions of illumination and temperature, these internal biological rhythms persist with a period close to 1 day ("circadian"), but it is usually not exactly 24 h. Recent discoveries have uncovered stunning similarities among the molecular circuitries of circadian clocks in mice, fruit flies, and bread molds. A consensus picture is coming into focus around two proteins (called PER and TIM in fruit flies), which dimerize and then inhibit transcription of their own genes. Although this picture seems to confirm a venerable model of circadian rhythms based on time-delayed negative feedback, we suggest that just as crucial to the circadian oscillator is a positive feedback loop based on stabilization of PER upon dimerization. These ideas can be expressed in simple mathematical form (phase plane portraits), and the model accounts naturally for several hallmarks of circadian rhythms, including temperature compensation and the per(L) mutant phenotype. In addition, the model suggests how an endogenous circadian oscillator could have evolved from a more primitive, light-activated switch. PMID:20540926

Tyson, JJ; Hong, CI; Thron, CD; Novak, B

1999-01-01

198

In vivo Circadian Rhythms in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is generally accepted that the circadian clock provides a timing signal for the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, mechanistic explanations of this phenomenon remain underexplored. It is known, for example, that circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock) mutant mice have severely dampened LH surges, but whether this phenotype derives from a loss of circadian rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Jason R. Hickok; Shelley A. Tischkau

2010-01-01

199

Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands and hamster circadian wheel running rhythms.  

PubMed

The synchronization of circadian rhythms in sleep, endocrine and metabolic functions with the environmental light cycle is essential for health, and dysfunction of this synchrony is thought to play a part in the development of many neurological disorders. There is a demonstrable need to develop new therapeutics for the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, and oxytocin is currently being investigated for this purpose. There are no published reports describing activity of oxytocin receptor ligands on mammalian circadian rhythms and that, then, is the purpose of this study. Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands that cross the blood brain barrier were systemically injected in hamsters to determine their ability to modulate light-induced phase advances and delays of circadian wheel running rhythms. The oxytocin receptor agonist WAY267464 (10mg/kg) inhibited light induced phase advances of wheel running rhythms by 55%, but had no effect on light-induced phase delays. In contrast, the oxytocin receptor antagonist WAY162720 (10mg/kg) inhibited light-induced phase delays by nearly 75%, but had no effect on light-induced phase advances. Additionally, WAY162720 was able to antagonize the inhibitory effects of WAY267464 on light-induced phase advances. These results are consistent for a role of oxytocin in the phase-delaying effects of light on circadian activity rhythms early in the night. Therefore, oxytocin may prove to be useful in developing therapeutics for the treatment of mood disorders with a concomitant dysfunction in circadian rhythms. Investigators should also be cognizant that oxytocin ligands may negatively affect circadian rhythms during clinical trials for other conditions. PMID:25148710

Gannon, Robert L

2014-10-17

200

Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior  

PubMed Central

Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin

2014-01-01

201

Circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion during treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: We have reported that the circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion (U(K)V) is determined by the rhythm of urinary sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also reported that treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased the U(Na)V during the daytime, and restored the non-dipper blood pressure (BP) rhythm into a dipper pattern. However, the circadian rhythm of U(K)V during ARB treatment has not been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Circadian rhythms of U(Na)V and U(K)V were examined in 44 patients with CKD undergoing treatment with ARB. RESULTS: Whole-day U(Na)V was not altered by ARB whereas whole-day U(K)V decreased. Even during the ARB treatment, the significant relationship persisted between the night/day ratios of U(Na)V and U(K)V (r=0.56, p<0.0001). Whole-day U(K)V/U(Na)V ratio (p=0.0007) and trans-tubular potassium concentration gradient (p=0.002) were attenuated but their night/day ratios remained unchanged. The change in the night/day U(K)V ratio correlated directly with the change in night/day U(Na)V ratio (F=20.4) rather than with the changes in aldosterone, BP or creatinine clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The circadian rhythm of U(K)V was determined by the rhythm of U(Na)V even during ARB treatment. Changes in the circadian U(K)V rhythm were not determined by aldosterone but by U(Na)V. PMID:23390190

Ogiyama, Yoshiaki; Miura, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Shuichi; Fuwa, Daisuke; Tomonari, Tatsuya; Ota, Keisuke; Kato, Yoko; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Shirasawa, Yuichi; Ito, Akinori; Yoshida, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Michio; Kimura, Genjiro

2013-02-01

202

Disturbed mouse circadian rhythm before the Kobe EQ in 1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legends of macro-anomalies before large earthquakes have been passed down for generations in Asia. Most of the statements on earthquake precursors are considered unreliable afterthoughts by traditional scientists. However, disturbed biological rhythms in mice were observed before the Kobe EQ in 1995 (Yokoi et al, 2003). The records of unusual mouse behavior before the earthquake were obtained to study biological clock at Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University. It is clarified that the disturbance was very rare phenomena statistically. Similar phenomenon was observed before the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, too (Li et al, 2009). In the presentation, I will discuss the phenomena as one example of preseismic unusual animal behaviors.

Yokoi, Sayoko

2013-04-01

203

Circadian rhythm of temperature preference and its neural control in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

A daily body temperature rhythm (BTR) is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis in mammals. While mammals use internal energy to regulate body temperature, ectotherms typically regulate body temperature behaviorally [1]. Some ectotherms maintain homeostasis via a daily temperature preference rhythm (TPR) [2], but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that Drosophila exhibit a daily circadian clock dependent TPR that resembles mammalian BTR. Pacemaker neurons critical for locomotor activity are not necessary for TPR; instead, the dorsal neuron 2s (DN2s), whose function was previously unknown, is sufficient. This indicates that TPR, like BTR, is controlled independently from locomotor activity. Therefore, the mechanisms controlling temperature fluctuations in fly TPR and mammalian BTR may share parallel features. Taken together, our results reveal the existence of a novel DN2- based circadian neural circuit that specifically regulates TPR; thus, understanding the mechanisms of TPR will shed new light on the function and neural control of circadian rhythms. PMID:22981774

Kaneko, Haruna; Head, Lauren M.; Ling, Jinli; Tang, Xin; Liu, Yilin; Hardin, Paul E.; Emery, Patrick; Hamada, Fumika N.

2012-01-01

204

A circadian rhythm in the locomotive behaviour of the giant garden slug Limax maximus.  

PubMed

The locomotor activity of the garden slug Limax maximus was examined for components of circadian rhythmicity. Behavioural (running wheel) studies clearly demonstrated that the activity satisfies the principal criteria of circadian rhythmicity. In constant darkness at a constant temperature, the locomotor activity freeran with a period of about 24 h (range 23-6-24-6 h). The rhythm was also expressed in constant light with a period for individual slugs that tended to be shorter in LL than in DD. The period of the rhythm was temperature compensated (11-5-21-5 degrees C) with a Q10 approximately equal to 1-00. The locomotor rhythm could be entrained to 24 h LD cycles such that the circadian activity peak occurred during the dark. The phase angle between the onset of activity and lights-off was not fixed, but was a function of the photoperiod of the entraining light cycle. PMID:858993

Sokolove, P G; Beiswanger, C M; Prior, D J; Gelperin, A

1977-02-01

205

The possible long-term effects of early-life circadian rhythm disturbance on social behavior.  

PubMed

Sleep loss impairs brain function. As late sleep onset can reduce sleep, this sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance may cause brain impairment. Specific data on the long-term effects of sleep/circadian rhythm disturbance on subsequent brain function are lacking. Japan, a sleep-deprived society from infancy to adulthood, provides an ideal platform to investigate the association of these disturbances in early life with subsequent functioning. In this article, several current problematic behaviors among youth in Japan (dropping out from high school, school absenteeism, early resignation from employment, and suicide) are discussed in relation to early life sleep/circadian rhythm patterns. We hypothesize that daily habits of modern society during early stages of life produce unfavorable effects on brain function resulting in problematic behaviors in subsequent years. PMID:24902476

Kohyama, Jun

2014-07-01

206

A circadian rhythm in optic nerve impulses from an isolated eye in darkness.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of the circadian rhythm of optic nerve potentials recorded from the isolated eye of the sea hare Aplysia. The optic nerve activity in constant conditions is found to be clearly circadian and to obey the circadian rule for diurnal animals. In addition, the period length depends on the in vitro culturing solution. In seawater it is about 22 hr, but in culture medium it is 27 hr. The rhythm can be completely phase-shifted in one trial if the phase of the LD 12:12 Zeitgeber is advanced or delayed 4 hr. The rhythm in one eye can be phase-shifted in vivo independently of the other eye and in vitro independently of the rest of the animal. Thus, in the animal, the eye oscillators are, at most, only slightly influenced by each other or by other oscillators in the animal.

Jacklet, J. W.

1971-01-01

207

Circadian rhythms and mood: Opportunities for multi-level analyses in genomics and neuroscience  

PubMed Central

In the healthy state, both circadian rhythm and mood are stable against perturbations, yet they are capable of adjusting to altered internal cues or ongoing changes in external conditions. The dual demands of stability and flexibility are met by the collective properties of complex neural networks. Disruption of this balance underlies both circadian rhythm abnormality and mood disorders. However, we do not fully understand the network properties that govern the crosstalk between the circadian system and mood regulation. This puzzle reflects a challenge at the center of neurobiology, and its solution requires the successful integration of existing data across all levels of neural organization, from molecules, cells, circuits, network dynamics, to integrated mental function. This essay discusses several open questions confronting the cross-level synthesis, and proposes that circadian regulation, and its role in mood, stands as a uniquely tractable system to study the causal mechanisms of neural adaptation. PMID:24853393

Li, Jun Z

2014-01-01

208

September 26, 2007 22:2 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in agarwal EFFICIENT MULTISCALE SIMULATION OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS USING  

E-print Network

SIMULATION OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS USING AUTOMATED PHASE MACROMODELLING TECHNIQUES SHATAM AGARWAL Indian jr@umn.edu Circadian rhythm mechanisms involve multi-scale interactions between endogenous DNA-extracted macromodels. 1. Introduction Circadian rhythms are amongst the most fundamental of physiological processes

Roychowdhury, Jaijeet

209

differentially control circadian rhythms and synchrony in clock neuronsi/oGABA and G Sara J. Aton, James E. Huettner, Martin Straume, and Erik D. Herzog  

E-print Network

differentially control circadian rhythms and synchrony in clock neuronsi/oGABA and G Sara J. Aton, see: Notes: #12;GABA and Gi/o differentially control circadian rhythms and synchrony in clock neurons. GABAA and GABAB antagonism increased circadian peak firing rates and rhythm precision of cultured SCN

Huettner, James E.

210

Assaying Locomotor Activity to Study Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Parameters in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Most life forms exhibit daily rhythms in cellular, physiological and behavioral phenomena that are driven by endogenous circadian (?24 hr) pacemakers or clocks. Malfunctions in the human circadian system are associated with numerous diseases or disorders. Much progress towards our understanding of the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms has emerged from genetic screens whereby an easily measured behavioral rhythm is used as a read-out of clock function. Studies using Drosophila have made seminal contributions to our understanding of the cellular and biochemical bases underlying circadian rhythms. The standard circadian behavioral read-out measured in Drosophila is locomotor activity. In general, the monitoring system involves specially designed devices that can measure the locomotor movement of Drosophila. These devices are housed in environmentally controlled incubators located in a darkroom and are based on using the interruption of a beam of infrared light to record the locomotor activity of individual flies contained inside small tubes. When measured over many days, Drosophila exhibit daily cycles of activity and inactivity, a behavioral rhythm that is governed by the animal's endogenous circadian system. The overall procedure has been simplified with the advent of commercially available locomotor activity monitoring devices and the development of software programs for data analysis. We use the system from Trikinetics Inc., which is the procedure described here and is currently the most popular system used worldwide. More recently, the same monitoring devices have been used to study sleep behavior in Drosophila. Because the daily wake-sleep cycles of many flies can be measured simultaneously and only 1 to 2 weeks worth of continuous locomotor activity data is usually sufficient, this system is ideal for large-scale screens to identify Drosophila manifesting altered circadian or sleep properties. PMID:20972399

Chiu, Joanna C.; Low, Kwang Huei; Pike, Douglas H.; Yildirim, Evrim; Edery, Isaac

2010-01-01

211

Self-arrangement of cellular circadian rhythms through phase-resetting in plant roots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discovered a striped pattern of gene expression with circadian rhythms in growing plant roots using bioluminescent imaging of gene expression. Our experimental analysis revealed that the stripe wave in the bioluminescent image originated at the root tip and was caused by a continuous phase resetting of circadian oscillations. Some complex stripe waves containing arrhythmic regions were also observed. We succeeded in describing the formation mechanisms of these patterns using a growing phase oscillator network with a phase-resetting boundary condition.

Fukuda, Hirokazu; Ukai, Kazuya; Oyama, Tokitaka

2012-10-01

212

Seasonal effects on the freerunning rhythm of circadian activity of longnose dace ( Rhinichthys cataractae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Freerunning circadian rhythms of locomotor activity in individual longnose dace sampled from a population at 41°N latitude were recorded under constant darkness throughout the year. There was an annual cycle in the length of the circadian period, with maximum and minimum lengths of mean period of 23.6 and 21.6 h recorded during summer (June) and winter (December), respectively. These

Martin Kavaliers

1981-01-01

213

Circadian Rhythm Hypotheses of Mixed Features, Antidepressant Treatment Resistance, and Manic Switching in Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Numerous hypotheses have been put forth over the years to explain the development of bipolar disorder. Of these, circadian rhythm hypotheses have gained much importance of late. While the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivation hypothesis and the monoamine hypothesis somewhat explain the pathogenic mechanism of depression, they do not provide an explanation for the development of mania/hypomania. Interestingly, all patients with bipolar disorder display significant disruption of circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycles throughout their mood cycles. Indeed, mice carrying the Clock gene mutation exhibit an overall behavioral profile that is similar to human mania, including hyperactivity, decreased sleep, lowered depression-like behavior, and lower anxiety. It was recently reported that monoamine signaling is in fact regulated by the circadian system. Thus, circadian rhythm instability, imposed on the dysregulation of HPA axis and monoamine system, may in turn increase individual susceptibility for switching from depression to mania/hypomania. In addition to addressing the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the manic switch, circadian rhythm hypotheses can explain other bipolar disorder-related phenomena such as treatment resistant depression and mixed features. PMID:24302944

Son, Gi-Hoon; Geum, Dongho

2013-01-01

214

Circadian Rhythms of PER2::LUC in Individual Primary Mouse Hepatocytes and Cultures  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of the liver, express core clock genes, such as Period2 and Cryptochrome2, which are involved in the transcriptional/translational feedback loop of the circadian clock. Whether or not the liver is capable of sustaining rhythms independent of a central pacemaker is controversial. Whether and how circadian information may be shared among cells in the liver in order to sustain oscillations is currently unknown. Results In this study we isolated primary hepatocytes from transgenic Per2Luc mice and used bioluminescence as a read-out of the state of the circadian clock. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen gel sandwich configuration exhibited persistent circadian rhythms for several weeks. The amplitude of the rhythms damped, but medium changes consistently reset the phase and amplitude of the cultures. Cry2?/? Per2Luc cells oscillated robustly and expressed a longer period. Co-culturing with wildtype cells did not significantly shorten the period, indicating that coupling among hepatocytes is insufficient to synchronize cells with significantly differing periods. However, spatial patterns revealed by cellular imaging of wildtype cultures provided evidence of weak local coupling among the hepatocytes. Conclusions Our results with primary hepatocyte cultures demonstrate that cultured hepatocytes are weakly coupled. While this coupling is not sufficient to sustain global synchrony, it does increase local synchrony, which may stabilize the circadian rhythms of peripheral oscillators, such as the liver, against noise in the entraining signals. PMID:24498336

Molyneux, Penny C.; Yu, Jimmy K.; Li, Alexander S.; Leise, Tanya L.; Harrington, Mary E.

2014-01-01

215

Regulation of Drosophila circadian rhythms by miRNA let-7 is mediated by a regulatory cycle.  

PubMed

MicroRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulations are increasingly recognized as important components of the circadian rhythm. Here we identify microRNA let-7, part of the Drosophila let-7-Complex, as a regulator of circadian rhythms mediated by a circadian regulatory cycle. Overexpression of let-7 in clock neurons lengthens circadian period and its deletion attenuates the morning activity peak as well as molecular oscillation. Let-7 regulates the circadian rhythm via repression of CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO). Conversely, upregulated cwo in cwo-expressing cells can rescue the phenotype of let-7-Complex overexpression. Moreover, circadian prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and CLOCK-regulated 20-OH ecdysteroid signalling contribute to the circadian expression of let-7 through the 20-OH ecdysteroid receptor. Thus, we find a regulatory cycle involving PTTH, a direct target of CLOCK, and PTTH-driven miRNA let-7. PMID:25417916

Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Zhenxing; Li, Tianjiao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Xue, Yongbo; Zhong, Yang; Bai, Weiwei; Zhou, Dasen; Zhao, Zhangwu

2014-01-01

216

The Neurospora crassa OS MAPK Pathway-Activated Transcription Factor ASL-1 Contributes to Circadian Rhythms In Pathway Responsive Clock-Controlled Genes  

PubMed Central

The OS-pathway mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade of Neurospora crassa is responsible for adaptation to osmotic stress. Activation of the MAPK, OS-2, leads to the transcriptional induction of many genes involved in the osmotic stress response. We previously demonstrated that there is a circadian rhythm in the phosphorylation of OS-2 under constant non-stress inducing conditions. Additionally, several osmotic stress-induced genes are known to be regulated by the circadian clock. Therefore, we investigated if rhythms in activation of OS-2 lead to circadian rhythms in other known stress responsive targets. Here we identify three more osmotic stress induced genes as rhythmic: cat-1, gcy-1, and gcy-3. These genes encode a catalase and two predicted glycerol dehydrogenases thought to be involved in the production of glycerol. Rhythms in these genes depend upon the oscillator component FRQ. To investigate how the circadian signal is propagated to these stress induced genes, we examined the role of the OS-responsive transcription factor, ASL-1, in mediating circadian gene expression. We find that while the asl-1 transcript is induced by several stresses including an osmotic shock, asl-1 mRNA accumulation is not rhythmic. However, we show that ASL-1 is required for generating normal circadian rhythms of some OS-pathway responsive transcripts (bli-3, ccg-1, cat-1, gcy-1 and gcy-3) in the absence of an osmotic stress. These data are consistent with the possibility that post-transcriptional regulation of ASL-1 by the rhythmically activated OS-2 MAPK could play a role in generating rhythms in downstream targets. PMID:22240319

Lamb, Teresa M.; Finch, Katelyn E.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah

2012-01-01

217

Cortisol-mediated synchronization of circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conscious chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) studied with lights on (600 lx) from 0800 to 2000 hr daily (LD 12:12) display a prominent circadian rhythm in renal potassium excretion. The characteristics of this rhythm were reproduced in adrenalectomized monkeys by infusing 5 mg cortisol and 0.001 mg aldosterone, or 5 mg cortisol alone, between 0800 and 0900 kr daily. When the timing of cortisol administration (with or without aldosterone) was phase-delayed by 8 hr, the urinary potassium rhythm resynchronized by 80% of the cortisol phase shift, but only after a transient response lasting 3-4 days. With the same daily dose of adrenal steroids given as a continuous infusion throughout each 24 hr, urinary potassium excretion showed free-running oscillations no longer synchronized to the light-dark cycle. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol concentration acts as an internal mediator in the circadian timing system, synchronizing a potentially autonomous oscillation in renal potassium excretion to environmental time cues and to other circadian rhythms within the animal.

Moore-Ede, M. C.; Schmelzer, W. S.; Kass, D. A.; Herd, J. A.

1977-01-01

218

Comparison of normal and asthmatic circadian rhythms in peak expiratory flow rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer technique (cosinor analysis) has been used to evaluate circadian rhythms in airway calibre in normals and asthmatics. Two hundred and twenty-one normal subjects recorded peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) at home four times a day for seven days. Rhythm detection was statistically significant in 145 of them (65.6%) who showed a mean amplitude of 8.3% of individual mean

M R Hetzel; T J Clark

1980-01-01

219

Influence of the circadian rhythm in cell division on radiation-induced mitotic delay in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Mitotic delay is described as a classical response to radiation; however, circadian rhythmicity in cell division in vivo has not been considered by many authors. The present study investigated the relation between fluctuations reported as mitotic delay and recovery in vivo and circadian oscillations in mitotic index in mouse corneal epithelium. One aspect involved single doses (approximately 600 rad) given to mice at different circadian stages. The normal circadian rhythm in cell division was never obliterated. Inhibition of mitosis was evident but unpredictable, ranging from 6 to 15 hr after irradiation. Recovery was evident only during the daily increase in mitotic index of controls. The classical interpretation of recovery from mitotic delay may be in an in vitro phenomenon not reflecting in vivo responses, which are apparently strongly circadian stage dependent. The second portion of the study demonstrated a dose-response effect on length of mitotic delay and, to a lesser extent, degree of recovery.

Rubin, N.H.

1982-01-01

220

Standards of evidence in chronobiology: critical review of a report that restoration of Bmal1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is sufficient to restore circadian food anticipatory rhythms in Bmal1-/- mice  

PubMed Central

Daily feeding schedules generate food anticipatory rhythms of behavior and physiology that exhibit canonical properties of circadian clock control. The molecular mechanisms and location of food-entrainable circadian oscillators hypothesized to control food anticipatory rhythms are unknown. In 2008, Fuller et al reported that food-entrainable circadian rhythms are absent in mice bearing a null mutation of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 and that these rhythms can be rescued by virally-mediated restoration of Bmal1 expression in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (site of the master light-entrainable circadian pacemaker). These results, taken together with controversial DMH lesion results published by the same laboratory, appear to establish the DMH as the site of a Bmal1-dependent circadian mechanism necessary and sufficient for food anticipatory rhythms. However, careful examination of the manuscript reveals numerous weaknesses in the evidence as presented. These problems are grouped as follows and elaborated in detail: 1. data management issues (apparent misalignments of plotted data), 2. failure of evidence to support the major conclusions, and 3. missing data and methodological details. The Fuller et al results are therefore considered inconclusive, and fail to clarify the role of either the DMH or Bmal1 in the expression of food-entrainable circadian rhythms in rodents. PMID:19323828

Mistlberger, Ralph E; Buijs, Ruud M; Challet, Etienne; Escobar, Carolina; Landry, Glenn J; Kalsbeek, Andries; Pevet, Paul; Shibata, Shigenobu

2009-01-01

221

The circadian cycle: daily rhythms from behaviour to genes  

PubMed Central

The daily recurrence of activity and rest are so common as to seem trivial. However, they reflect a ubiquitous temporal programme called the circadian clock. In the absence of either anatomical clock structures or clock genes, the timing of sleep and wakefulness is disrupted. The complex nature of circadian behaviour is evident in the fact that phasing of the cycle during the day varies widely for individuals, resulting in extremes colloquially called 'larks' and 'owls'. These behavioural oscillations are mirrored in the levels of physiology and gene expression. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms will provide important insights into how the circadian clock affects health and disease. PMID:16222241

Merrow, Martha; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Roenneberg, Till

2005-01-01

222

Automated sampling and RNA isolation at room temperature for measurements of circadian rhythms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of techniques allowing the unattended collection of RNA from cell samples at room temperature makes practical accurate and facile monitoring of circadian rhythms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The utility of these methods was demonstrated by collecting RNA samples for three days from cells maintained in continuous darkness. Every hour, cells were automatically collected and lysed with buffer containing SDS

Selene S. Nikaido; Chad R. Locke

1994-01-01

223

Effects of early weaning on the circadian rhythm and behavioral satiety sequence in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to study the effect of early weaning on circadian rhythm and the behavioral satiety sequence in adult rats. Male Wistar rat pups were weaned for separation from the mother at 15 (D15), 21 (D21) and 30 (D30) days old. Body weight and food intake was measured every 30 days until pups were 150 days

Lisiane dos Santos Oliveira; Ligia Pereira da Silva; Aline Isabel da Silva; Carolina Peixoto Magalhães; Sandra Lopes de Souza; Raul Manhães de Castro

2011-01-01

224

A Mutant Drosophila Homolog of Mammalian Clock Disrupts Circadian Rhythms and Transcription of period and timeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the identification, characterization, and cloning of a novel Drosophila circadian rhythm gene, dClock. The mutant, initially called Jrk, manifests dominant effects: heterozygous flies have a period alteration and half are arrhythmic, while homozygous flies are uniformly arrhythmic. Furthermore, these flies express low levels of the two clock proteins, PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM), due to low per and

Ravi Allada; Neal E White; W. Venus So; Jeffrey C Hall; Michael Rosbash

1998-01-01

225

Olfactory Bulbectomy Impedes Social but Not Photic Reentrainment of Circadian Rhythms in Female Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies demonstrated that nonphotic (social) cues markedly accelerate reentrainment to large phase shifts of the light-dark (LD) cycle in female Octodon degus and that such changes are likely effected by chemosensory stimuli. This experiment investigated the effects of olfactory bulbectomies on (1) socially facilitated reentrainment rates of circadian rhythms following a 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle, (2)

Namni Goel; Theresa M. Lee

1997-01-01

226

Modeling the influence of circadian rhythms on the acute inflammatory response  

E-print Network

Modeling the influence of circadian rhythms on the acute inflammatory response Jeremy D. Scheff-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Clinical Academic Building, 125 Patterson Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA c Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

227

Multiple Amidated Neuropeptides Are Required for Normal Circadian Locomotor Rhythms in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila, the amidated neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) is expressed by the ventral subset of lateral pace- maker neurons and is required for circadian locomotor rhythms. Residual rhythmicity in pdf mutants likely reflects the activity of other neurotransmitters. We asked whether other neuropep- tides contribute to such auxiliary mechanisms. We used the gal4\\/UAS system to create mosaics for the

Paul H. Taghert; Randall S. Hewes; Jae H. Park; Martha A. O'Brien; Mei Han; Molly E. Peck

2001-01-01

228

Twelve-Hour Phase Shifts of Hamster Circadian Rhythms Elicited by Voluntary Wheel Running  

Microsoft Academic Search

Running in a novel wheel can serve as a nonphotic zeitgeber to entrain or phase shift circadian rhythms in hamsters. In this study, hamsters were entrained to a light:dark schedule of 14:10 h but had no access to running wheels. At four different phase points of the light cycle, hamsters were transferred to constant darkness and provided with running wheels.

Robert L. Gannon; Michael A. Rea

1995-01-01

229

Free-running circadian activity rhythms in free-living beaver ( Castor canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The members of a beaver family studied under natural conditions in SW Alberta, Canada (115 °03' W, 51 °02' N) displayed a free-running circadian rhythm of activity with a period length of about 27 hours in winter, at a time when they were living under ice and had no access to land (Fig. 1, A and C). In summer, the

Jacques Bovet; Erwin F. Oertli

1974-01-01

230

Urinary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm in a Group of High-Functioning Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found no evidence for abnormal temporal placement of the basal urinary cortisol circadian rhythm in a group of 18 high-functioning children (ages 4-14) with autism. There was a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion during the day, predominantly in autistic children who were integrated into the normal school system. (Author/JDD)

Richdale, Amanda L.; Prior, Margot R.

1992-01-01

231

Loss of Circadian Behavioral Rhythms and per RNA Oscillations in the Drosophila Mutant timeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eclosion, or emergence of adult flies from the pupa, and locomotor activity of adults occur rhythmically in Drosophila melanogaster, with a circadian period of about 24 hours. Here, a clock mutation, timeless (tim), is described that produces arrhythmia for both behaviors. The effects of tim on behavioral rhythms are likely to involve products of the X chromosome-linked clock gene period

Amita Sehgal; Jeffrey L. Price; Bernice Man; Michael W. Young

1994-01-01

232

Circadian rhythm and fast responses to blue light of photosynthesis in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic oxygen production of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngb. under continuous high irradiances of red light displayed a circadian rhythm with maxima at about noon. Pulses of blue light induced rapid transient increases in the rate of photosynthesis. The increases started about 15 s after the beginning of blue light and reached their maxima after 3–4 min. This was followed

Rainer Schmid I; Matthew J. Dring

1992-01-01

233

Effects of pinealectomy on circadian locomotor activity rhythms in european starlings, Sturnus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of the pineal organ from starlings had drastic effects on their freerunning circadian activity rhythms; in birds kept in continuous darkness the period (t) shortened and the activity time (a) lengthened. Concomitantly botht anda became relatively unstable and the separation between activity and rest time was obscured. In a few birds activity became continuous and apparently arrhythmic. The activity

Eberhard Gwinner

1978-01-01

234

Circadian Rhythm in Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that most suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons express the neurotransmitter GABA and are likely to use this neurotransmitter to regulate excitability within the SCN. To evaluate the possibility that inhibitory synaptic transmission varies with a circadian rhythm within the mouse SCN, we used whole cell patch-clamp recording in an acute brain slice preparation to record GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). We found that the sIPSC frequency in the dorsal SCN (dSCN) exhibited a TTX-sensitive daily rhythm that peaked during the late day and early night in mice held in a light:dark cycle. We next evaluated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was responsible for the observed rhythm in IPSC frequency. Pretreatment of SCN slices with VPAC1/VPAC2- or VPAC2-specific receptor antagonists prevented the increase in sIPSC frequency in the dSCN. The rhythm in sIPSC frequency was absent in VIP/peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI)-deficient mice. Finally, we were able to detect a rhythm in the frequency of inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice held in constant darkness that was also dependent on VIP and the VPAC2 receptor. Overall, these data demonstrate that there is a circadian rhythm in GABAergic transmission in the dorsal region of the mouse SCN and that the VIP is required for expression of this rhythm. PMID:14973316

Itri, Jason; Michel, Stephan; Waschek, James A.; Colwell, Christopher S.

2008-01-01

235

Circadian Rhythm of Redox State Regulates Excitability in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neurons  

PubMed Central

Daily rhythms of mammalian physiology, metabolism, and behavior parallel the day-night cycle. They are orchestrated by a central circadian clock in the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Transcription of clock genes is sensitive to metabolic changes in reduction and oxidation (redox); however, circadian cycles in protein oxidation have been reported in anucleate cells, where no transcription occurs. We tested whether the SCN also expresses redox cycles and how such metabolic oscillations might affect neuronal physiology. We detected self-sustained circadian rhythms of SCN redox state that required the molecular clockwork. The redox oscillation could determine the excitability of SCN neurons through non-transcriptional modulation of multiple K+ channels. Thus, dynamic regulation of SCN excitability appears to be closely tied to metabolism that engages the clockwork machinery. PMID:22859819

Wang, Tongfei A.; Yu, Yanxun V.; Govindaiah, Gubbi; Ye, Xiaoying; Artinian, Liana; Coleman, Todd P.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Cox, Charles L.; Gillette, Martha U.

2012-01-01

236

Circadian rhythm of redox state regulates excitability in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.  

PubMed

Daily rhythms of mammalian physiology, metabolism, and behavior parallel the day-night cycle. They are orchestrated by a central circadian clock in the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Transcription of clock genes is sensitive to metabolic changes in reduction and oxidation (redox); however, circadian cycles in protein oxidation have been reported in anucleate cells, where no transcription occurs. We investigated whether the SCN also expresses redox cycles and how such metabolic oscillations might affect neuronal physiology. We detected self-sustained circadian rhythms of SCN redox state that required the molecular clockwork. The redox oscillation could determine the excitability of SCN neurons through nontranscriptional modulation of multiple potassium (K(+)) channels. Thus, dynamic regulation of SCN excitability appears to be closely tied to metabolism that engages the clockwork machinery. PMID:22859819

Wang, Tongfei A; Yu, Yanxun V; Govindaiah, Gubbi; Ye, Xiaoying; Artinian, Liana; Coleman, Todd P; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Cox, Charles L; Gillette, Martha U

2012-08-17

237

Circadian rhythms and sleep—the metabolic connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circadian system coordinates mammalian physiology and behavior with the environmental light–dark cycle. It allocates sleep\\u000a to the inactivity phase using various mechanisms involving neurotransmitters, nuclear receptors, and protein kinases. These\\u000a pathways are related to metabolism, indicating that the circadian system and sleep are connected via metabolic parameters.\\u000a This suggests that organs other than the brain may “sleep.” A hypothetic

Urs Albrecht

238

Drosophila TRPA1 functions in temperature control of circadian rhythm in pacemaker neurons  

PubMed Central

Most animals from flies to humans count on circadian clocks to synchronize their physiology and behaviors. Daily light cycles are well-known environmental cues for setting circadian rhythms. Warmer and cooler temperatures that mimic day and night are also effective in entraining circadian activity in most animals. Even vertebrate organisms can be induced to show circadian responses through exposure to temperature cycles. In poikilothermic animals such as Drosophila, temperature differences of only 2–3°C are sufficient to synchronize locomotor rhythms. However, the molecular sensors that participate in temperature regulation of circadian activity in fruit flies or other animals are enigmatic. It is also unclear whether such detectors are limited to the periphery or may be in the central brain. Here, we showed that Drosophila TRPA1 (Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel A1) was necessary for normal activity patterns during temperature cycles. The trpA1 gene was expressed in a subset of pacemaker neurons in the central brain. In response to temperature entrainment, loss of trpA1 impaired activity, and altered expression of the circadian clock protein Period (Per) in a subset of pacemaker neurons. These findings underscore a role for a thermoTRP in temperature regulation that extends beyond avoidance of noxious or suboptimal temperatures. PMID:23595730

Lee, Youngseok; Montell, Craig

2013-01-01

239

Light pulses entrain the circadian activity rhythm of a diurnal rodent (Ammospermophilus leucurus).  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity of the antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus) were entrained by light-dark cycles (LD: 100 1x vs total darkness) with periods (T) between ca 23.75 and 24.75 hr. Two 1-hr light pulses per cycle ('skeleton photoperiods') with T = 24.25 hr as well as one 1-hr light pulse per cycle with Ts of 23.75 and 24.25 hr were effective in entraining the circadian activity rhythms in at least 50% of the antelope ground squirrels. Phase and period responses to single 1-hr light pulses were measured which depend on the initial phase and period of the rhythm. It is concluded that discrete (phasic) light input contributes to the mechanism of entrainment to LD cycles in diurnal rodents. PMID:6661897

Pohl, H

1983-01-01

240

Alteration of Daily and Circadian Rhythms following Dopamine Depletion in MPTP Treated Non-Human Primates  

PubMed Central

Disturbances of the daily sleep/wake cycle are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of dopamine (DA) depletion on circadian rhythms in PD patients or non-human primate (NHP) models of the disorder have not been investigated. We evaluated alterations of circadian rhythms in NHP following MPTP lesion of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal system. DA degeneration was assessed by in vivo PET ([11C]-PE2I) and post-mortem TH and DAT quantification. In a light?dark cycle, control and MPTP-treated NHP both exhibit rest-wake locomotor rhythms, although DA-depleted NHP show reduced amplitude, decreased stability and increased fragmentation. In all animals, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin peaks at night and cortisol in early morning. When the circadian system is challenged by exposure to constant light, controls retain locomotor rest-wake and hormonal rhythms that free-run with stable phase relationships whereas in the DA-depleted NHP, locomotor rhythms are severely disturbed or completely abolished. The amplitude and phase relations of hormonal rhythms nevertheless remain unaltered. Use of a light-dark masking paradigm shows that expression of daily rest-wake activity in MPTP monkeys requires the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of light and darkness. These results suggest that following DA lesion, the central clock in the SCN remains intact but, in the absence of environmental timing cues, is unable to drive downstream rhythmic processes of striatal clock gene and dopaminergic functions that control locomotor output. These findings suggest that the circadian component of the sleep-wake disturbances in PD is more profoundly affected than previously assumed. PMID:24465981

Fifel, Karim; Vezoli, Julien; Dzahini, Kwamivi; Claustrat, Bruno; Leviel, Vincent; Kennedy, Henry; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M.

2014-01-01

241

Toward the Beginning of Time: Circadian Rhythms in Metabolism Precede Rhythms in Clock Gene Expression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The appearance, progression, and potential role for circadian rhythms during early development have previously focused mainly on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peri- and postnatal expression of canonical clock genes. More recently, gene expression studies in embryonic stem cells have shown that some clock genes are expressed in undifferentiated cells; however rhythmicity was only established when cells are directed toward a neural fate. These studies also concluded that a functional clock is not present in ESCs, based solely on their gene expression. The null hypothesis underlying the present study is that embryonic stem cells become rhythmic in both clock gene expression and glucose utilization only when allowed to spontaneously differentiate. Undifferentiated stem cells (ESCs, n?=?6 cultures/timepoint for all experiments) were either maintained in their pluripotent state or released into differentiation (dESCs, n?=?6 cultures/timepoint for all experiments). Glucose utilization was assayed through 2-deoxyglucose uptake measurement, and clock gene and glucose transporter expression was assayed every 4 hours for 2 days in ESCs and dESCs by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the same cell lysates. Undifferentiated stem cells expressed a self-sustained rhythm in glucose uptake that was not coincident with rhythmic expression of clock genes. This physiological rhythm was paralleled by glucose transporter mRNA expression. Upon differentiation, circadian patterns of some but not all clock genes were expressed, and the amplitude of the glucose utilization rhythm was enhanced in dESCs. These data provide the earliest evidence of a functional circadian clock, in addition to further challenging the idea that rhythmic transcription of clock genes are necessary for rhythmic physiological output and suggest a role for a clock-controlled physiology in the earliest stages of development. PMID:23155474

Paulose, Jiffin K.; Rucker, Edmund B.; Cassone, Vincent M.

2012-01-01

242

The relationship between dementia severity and rest/activity circadian rhythms  

PubMed Central

Patients with dementia have been shown to have disturbed sleep/wake rhythms. There is evidence of impairment in endogenous generation of rhythms and deficient environmental cues in this population. This study sought to examine patterns of rest/activity rhythms as they relate to dementia severity. Three days of actigraphy were collected from 150 nursing-home patients with dementia and used to compute rhythm parameters. Dementia severity was estimated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The relationship between rhythm parameters and dementia severity was examined. Rhythm parameters were not associated with dementia in the sample as a whole, but relationships emerged when the sample was divided on the basis of overall rhythm robustness (F-statistic). Within the group with less robust rhythms, those with stronger rhythms had less severe dementia. In the group with more robust rhythms, milder dementia was associated with having an earlier acrophase (timing of the peak of the rhythm) and narrower peak of the rhythm (shorter duration of peak activity). These results suggested a three-stage model of rest/activity rhythm changes in dementia in which dementia patients have a rapid decline in rhythmicity followed by a slight return to stronger rhythms. In the later stages of dementia, rhythms decline even further. PMID:18568061

Gehrman, Phil; Marler, Matthew; Martin, Jennifer L; Shochat, Tamar; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

2005-01-01

243

Animal activity around the clock with no overt circadian rhythms: patterns, mechanisms and adaptive value  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in many organisms. Animals that are forced to be active around the clock typically show reduced performance, health and survival. Nevertheless, we review evidence of animals showing prolonged intervals of activity with attenuated or nil overt circadian rhythms and no apparent ill effects. We show that around-the-clock and ultradian activity patterns are more common than is generally appreciated, particularly in herbivores, in animals inhabiting polar regions and habitats with constant physical environments, in animals during specific life-history stages (such as migration or reproduction), and in highly social animals. The underlying mechanisms are diverse, but studies suggest that some circadian pacemakers continue to measure time in animals active around the clock. The prevalence of around-the-clock activity in diverse animals and habitats, and an apparent diversity of underlying mechanisms, are consistent with convergent evolution. We suggest that the basic organizational principles of the circadian system and its complexity encompass the potential for chronobiological plasticity. There may be trade-offs between benefits of persistent daily rhythms versus plasticity, which for reasons still poorly understood make overt daily arrhythmicity functionally adaptive only in selected habitats and for selected lifestyles. PMID:23825202

Bloch, Guy; Barnes, Brian M.; Gerkema, Menno P.; Helm, Barbara

2013-01-01

244

Pharmacological modulation of circadian rhythms by synthetic activators of the deacetylase SIRT1  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms govern a wide variety of physiological and metabolic functions in many organisms, from prokaryotes to humans. We previously reported that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, contributes to circadian control. In addition, SIRT1 activity is regulated in a cyclic manner in virtue of the circadian oscillation of the coenzyme NAD+. Here we used specific SIRT1 activator compounds both in vitro and in vivo. We tested a variety of compounds to show that the activation of SIRT1 alters CLOCK:BMAL1-driven transcription in different systems. Activation of SIRT1 induces repression of circadian gene expression and decreases H3 K9/K14 acetylation at corresponding promoters in a time-specific manner. Specific activation of SIRT1 was demonstrated in vivo using liver-specific SIRT1-deficient mice, where the effect of SIRT1 activator compounds was shown to be dependent on SIRT1. Our findings demonstrate that SIRT1 can fine-tune circadian rhythm and pave the way to the development of pharmacological strategies to address a broad range of therapeutic indications. PMID:23341587

Bellet, Marina M.; Nakahata, Yasukazu; Boudjelal, Mohamed; Watts, Emma; Mossakowska, Danuta E.; Edwards, Kenneth A.; Cervantes, Marlene; Astarita, Giuseppe; Loh, Christine; Ellis, James L.; Vlasuk, George P.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

2013-01-01

245

Circadian rhythms in the cell cycle and biomass composition of Neochloris oleoabundans under nitrogen limitation.  

PubMed

The circadian clock schedules processes in microalgae cells at suitable times in the day/night cycle. To gain knowledge about these biological time schedules, Neochloris oleoabundans was grown under constant light conditions and nitrogen limitation. Under these constant conditions, the only variable was the circadian clock. The results were compared to previous work done under nitrogen-replete conditions, in order to determine the effect of N-limitation on circadian rhythms in the cell cycle and biomass composition of N. oleoabundans. The circadian clock was not affected by nitrogen-limitation, and cell division was timed in the natural night, despite of constant light conditions. However, because of nitrogen-limitation, not the entire population was able to divide every day. Two subpopulations were observed, which divided alternately every other day. This caused oscillations in biomass yield and composition. Starch and total fatty acids (TFA) were accumulated during the day. Also, fatty acid composition changed during the cell cycle. Neutral lipids were built up during the day, especially in cells that were arrested in their cell cycle (G2 and G3). These findings give insight in the influence of circadian rhythms on the cell cycle and biomass composition. PMID:25062660

de Winter, Lenneke; Schepers, Lutz W; Cuaresma, Maria; Barbosa, Maria J; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

2014-10-10

246

Hypertension and disrupted blood pressure circadian rhythm in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.  

PubMed

Human Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased incidence of hypertension and disrupted blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythm. Db/db mice have been used extensively as a model of Type 2 diabetes, but their BP is not well characterized. In this study, we used radiotelemetry to define BP and the circadian rhythm in db/db mice. We found that the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were each significantly increased by 11, 8, and 9 mmHg in db/db mice compared with controls. In contrast, no difference was observed in pulse pressure or heart rate. Interestingly, both the length of time db/db mice were active (locomotor) and the intensity of locomotor activity were significantly decreased in db/db mice. In contrast to controls, the 12-h light period average BP in db/db mice did not dip significantly from the 12-h dark period. A partial Fourier analysis of the continuous 72-h BP data revealed that the power and the amplitude of the 24-h period length rhythm were significantly decreased in db/db mice compared with the controls. The acrophase was centered at 0141 in control mice, but became scattered from 1805 to 0236 in db/db mice. In addition to BP, the circadian rhythms of heart rate and locomotor activity were also disrupted in db/db mice. The mean arterial pressure during the light period correlates with plasma glucose, insulin, and body weight. Moreover, the oscillations of the clock genes DBP and Bmal1 but not Per1 were significantly dampened in db/db mouse aorta compared with controls. In summary, our data show that db/db mice are hypertensive with a disrupted BP, heart rate, and locomotor circadian rhythm. Such changes are associated with dampened oscillations of clock genes DBP and Bmal1 in vasculature. PMID:18708447

Su, Wen; Guo, Zhenheng; Randall, David C; Cassis, Lisa; Brown, David R; Gong, Ming C

2008-10-01

247

Circadian Rhythms of Isoprene Biosynthesis in Grey Poplar Leaves1  

PubMed Central

Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission varies diurnally in different species. In poplar (Populus spp.), it has recently been shown that the gene encoding the synthesizing enzyme for isoprene, isoprene synthase (ISPS), displays diurnal variation in expression. Working on shoot cultures of Grey poplar (Populus × canescens) placed under a different light regime in phytochambers, we showed that these variations in PcISPS gene expression, measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, are not only due to day-night changes, but also are linked to an internal circadian clock. Measurement of additional selected isoprenoid genes revealed that phytoene synthase (carotenoid pathway) displays similar fluctuations, whereas 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, possibly the first committed enzyme of the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway, only shows light regulation. On the protein level, it appeared that PcISPS activity and protein content became reduced under constant darkness, whereas under constant light, activity and protein content of this enzyme were kept high. In contrast, isoprene emission rates under continuous irradiation displayed circadian changes as is the case for gene expression of PcISPS. Furthermore, binding assays with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) late elongated hypocotyl, a transcription factor of Arabidopsis involved in circadian regulation, clearly revealed the presence of circadian-determining regulatory elements in the promoter region of PcISPS. PMID:17122071

Loivamäki, Maaria; Louis, Sandrine; Cinege, Gyöngyi; Zimmer, Ina; Fischbach, Robert J.; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

2007-01-01

248

GABA and $G_{io}$ Differentially Control Circadian Rhythms and Synchrony in Clock Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurons in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) generate daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, but it is unclear how they maintain and synchronize these rhythms in vivo. We hypothesized that parallel signaling pathways in the SCN are required to synchronize rhythms in these neurons for coherent output. We recorded firing and clock-gene expression patterns while blocking candidate signaling pathways for

Sara J. Aton; James E. Huettner; Martin Straume; Erik D. Herzog

2006-01-01

249

Entrainment of the mammalian cell cycle by the circadian clock: modeling two coupled cellular rhythms.  

PubMed

The cell division cycle and the circadian clock represent two major cellular rhythms. These two periodic processes are coupled in multiple ways, given that several molecular components of the cell cycle network are controlled in a circadian manner. For example, in the network of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) that governs progression along the successive phases of the cell cycle, the synthesis of the kinase Wee1, which inhibits the G2/M transition, is enhanced by the complex CLOCK-BMAL1 that plays a central role in the circadian clock network. Another component of the latter network, REV-ERB?, inhibits the synthesis of the Cdk inhibitor p21. Moreover, the synthesis of the oncogene c-Myc, which promotes G1 cyclin synthesis, is repressed by CLOCK-BMAL1. Using detailed computational models for the two networks we investigate the conditions in which the mammalian cell cycle can be entrained by the circadian clock. We show that the cell cycle can be brought to oscillate at a period of 24 h or 48 h when its autonomous period prior to coupling is in an appropriate range. The model indicates that the combination of multiple modes of coupling does not necessarily facilitate entrainment of the cell cycle by the circadian clock. Entrainment can also occur as a result of circadian variations in the level of a growth factor controlling entry into G1. Outside the range of entrainment, the coupling to the circadian clock may lead to disconnected oscillations in the cell cycle and the circadian system, or to complex oscillatory dynamics of the cell cycle in the form of endoreplication, complex periodic oscillations or chaos. The model predicts that the transition from entrainment to 24 h or 48 h might occur when the strength of coupling to the circadian clock or the level of growth factor decrease below critical values. PMID:22693436

Gérard, Claude; Goldbeter, Albert

2012-05-01

250

Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in social jetlag and mental illness.  

PubMed

Sleep and wake represent two profoundly different states of physiology that arise within the brain from a complex interaction between multiple neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems. These neural networks are, in turn, adjusted by three key drivers that collectively determine the duration, quality, and efficiency of sleep. Two of these drivers are endogenous, namely, the circadian system and a homeostatic hourglass oscillator, while the third is exogenous-our societal structure (social time). In this chapter, we outline the neuroscience of sleep and highlight the links between sleep, mood, cognition, and mental health. We emphasize that the complexity of sleep/wake generation and regulation makes this behavioral cycle very vulnerable to disruption and then explore this concept by examining sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) when the exogenous and endogenous drivers of sleep are in conflict. SCRD can be particularly severe when social timing forces an abnormal pattern of sleep and wake upon our endogenous sleep biology. SCRD is also very common in mental illness, and although well known, this association is poorly understood or treated. Recent studies suggest that the generation of sleep and mental health shares overlapping neural mechanisms such that defects in these endogenous pathways result in pathologies to both behaviors. The evidence for this association is examined in some detail. We conclude this review by suggesting that the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of sleep/wake behavior, and of the health consequences of sleep disruption, will provide new ways to decrease the conflict between biological and societal timing in both the healthy and individuals with mental illness. PMID:23899602

Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Wulff, Katharina; Winnebeck, Eva; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

2013-01-01

251

CRY, a Drosophila Clock and Light-Regulated Cryptochrome, Is a Major Contributor to Circadian Rhythm Resetting and Photosensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light is a major environmental signal for circadian rhythms. We have identified and analyzed cry, a novel Drosophila cryptochrome gene. All characterized family members are directly photosensitive and include plant blue light photoreceptors. We show that cry transcription is under circadian regulation, influenced by the Drosophila clock genes period, timeless, Clock, and cycle. We also show that cry protein levels

Patrick Emery; W. Venus So; Maki Kaneko; Jeffrey C Hall; Michael Rosbash

1998-01-01

252

OsELF3-1, an Ortholog of Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING 3, Regulates Rice Circadian Rhythm and Photoperiodic  

E-print Network

-1 is essential for circadian regulation and photoperiodic flowering in rice. Citation: Zhao J, Huang X, Ouyang XOsELF3-1, an Ortholog of Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING 3, Regulates Rice Circadian Rhythm,2 , Ling Zhu1,2 , Shiguang Wang1,2 , Xing Wang Deng4 , Shigui Li1,2 * 1 Rice Research Institute, Sichuan

Deng, Xing-Wang

253

Circadian locomotor activity rhythms of the burbot, Lota lota : Seasonal differences in period length and the effect of pinealectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burbot,Lota lota, displayed a freerunning circadian locomotor activity rhythm under constant darkness. There was a seasonal change in the length of the circadian period (t). Fish captured during winter had a meant of 21.2±0.30 h as opposed to at of 23.5±0.25 in summer. Removal of the pineal organ had significant effects on the length and stability of the circadian

Martin Kavaliers

1980-01-01

254

A time to think: Circadian rhythms in human cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although peaks and troughs in cognitive performance characterize our daily functioning, time-of-day fluctuations remain marginally considered in the domain of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Here, we attempt to summarize studies looking at the effects of sleep pressure, circadian variations, and chronotype on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects. The picture that emerges from this assessment is that beyond physiological variables, time-of-day

Christina Schmidt; Fabienne Collette; Christian Cajochen; Philippe Peigneux

2007-01-01

255

The selective tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, GR 205,171, stereospecifically inhibits light-induced phase advances of hamster circadian activity rhythms.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms in mammals are generated by master pacemaker cells located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nucleus contains a small collection of cells immunoreactive for substance P, the endogenous ligand of tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. In addition, two other nuclei which form part of the circadian system, the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus and the raphe nuclei, also contain fibers and/or cell bodies immunoreactive for substance P. In light of these observations, we evaluated the influence of the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, GR 205,171, upon circadian activity rhythms in the hamster. Systemic injection of GR 205,171 dose-dependently (2.5-40.0 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited light-induced phase advances in hamster circadian wheel running activity rhythms by approximately 50%. In contrast, GR 226,206, the less active enantiomer of GR 205,171, failed to affect light-induced phase advances. In addition, we examined the potential ability of GR 205,171 to induce non-photic phase shifts in hamster wheel running rhythms when injected at mid-day to late night circadian times. However, GR 205,171 (40 mg/kg) did not elicit non-photic phase shifts at these times indicating that tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists are only effective when a light stimulus is applied to the pacemaker. Although GR 205,171 may, in theory, activate several sites within the circadian system, we suggest that GR 205,171 acts in the raphe nuclei to increase inhibitory serotonergic input to pacemaker cells in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, thereby suppressing photic modulation of the pacemaker. These findings have important implications for the use of tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists in the treatment of depression and other central nervous system disorders. PMID:16307740

Gannon, Robert L; Millan, Mark J

2005-12-19

256

Disrupted reproduction, estrous cycle, and circadian rhythms in female mice deficient in vasoactive intestinal Peptide.  

PubMed

The female reproductive cycle is gated by the circadian timing system and may be vulnerable to disruptions in the circadian system. Prior work suggests that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are one pathway by which the circadian clock can influence the estrous cycle, but the impact of the loss of this peptide on reproduction has not been assessed. In the present study, we first examine the impact of the genetic loss of the neuropeptide VIP on the reproductive success of female mice. Significantly, mutant females produce about half the offspring of their wild-type sisters even when mated to the same males. We also find that VIP-deficient females exhibit a disrupted estrous cycle; that is, ovulation occurs less frequently and results in the release of fewer oocytes compared with controls. Circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity are disrupted in the female mutant mice, as is the spontaneous electrical activity of dorsal SCN neurons. On a molecular level, the VIP-deficient SCN tissue exhibits lower amplitude oscillations with altered phase relationships between the SCN and peripheral oscillators as measured by PER2-driven bioluminescence. The simplest explanation of our data is that the loss of VIP results in a weakened SCN oscillator, which reduces the synchronization of the female circadian system. These results clarify one of the mechanisms by which disruption of the circadian system reduces female reproductive success. PMID:25252712

Loh, D H; Kuljis, D A; Azuma, L; Wu, Y; Truong, D; Wang, H B; Colwell, C S

2014-10-01

257

A statistical model of the human core-temperature circadian rhythm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We formulate a statistical model of the human core-temperature circadian rhythm in which the circadian signal is modeled as a van der Pol oscillator, the thermoregulatory response is represented as a first-order autoregressive process, and the evoked effect of activity is modeled with a function specific for each circadian protocol. The new model directly links differential equation-based simulation models and harmonic regression analysis methods and permits statistical analysis of both static and dynamical properties of the circadian pacemaker from experimental data. We estimate the model parameters by using numerically efficient maximum likelihood algorithms and analyze human core-temperature data from forced desynchrony, free-run, and constant-routine protocols. By representing explicitly the dynamical effects of ambient light input to the human circadian pacemaker, the new model can estimate with high precision the correct intrinsic period of this oscillator ( approximately 24 h) from both free-run and forced desynchrony studies. Although the van der Pol model approximates well the dynamical features of the circadian pacemaker, the optimal dynamical model of the human biological clock may have a harmonic structure different from that of the van der Pol oscillator.

Brown, E. N.; Choe, Y.; Luithardt, H.; Czeisler, C. A.

2000-01-01

258

Modeling Circadian Rhythms of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Glutamine Synthetase Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Purpose The circadian rhythm of endogenous corticosterone (CS) may produce fluctuations of downstream gene expression in normal rats. This study examined changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in rat skeletal muscle in relation to plasma CS over a 24-h period. Methods Fifty-four normal male Wistar rats were sacrificed at 18 time points (n = 3) over 24 h. Plasma CS concentrations and gastrocnemius muscle GR and GS mRNA and GS activity were measured. Results The circadian rhythm of plasma CS was captured by a two-harmonic function. The expression of GR and GS mRNA and GS activity follow a circadian rhythm in normal rat skeletal muscle. GR mRNA reaches a trough at 4 h after the peak of plasma CS and it fluctuates between 0.55 and 0.9 fmol g tissue?1. GS mRNA and activity reach peaks at 6 and 12 h after the endogenous CS peak. GS mRNA oscillates between 3 and 6 fmol g tissue?1, whereas GS activity fluctuates between 17 and 23 µmol min?1 g protein?1. Mechanistic receptor/gene-mediated pharmacodynamic models were applied to describe the temporal patterns of GR mRNA, GS mRNA, and GS activity within the circadian cycle. Conclusions The integrated models were able to capture the circadian expression patterns of plasma CS, and GR and GS in normal rat skeletal muscle showing a dependence of tissue gene expression on plasma CS. PMID:16673181

Yao, Zhenling; DuBois, Debra C.; Almon, Richard R.; Jusko, William J.

2014-01-01

259

Circadian Rhythm in the Cardiovascular System: Considerations in Non-Invasive Electrophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cardiovascular activities show a circadian rhythm, as do electrophysiological phenomenon. Under theinfluence of both external stimuli and endogenous homoeostatic mechanisms, cardiac electrophysiologicalproperties change diurnally and enable the cardiovascular system adapt to rest-exercise cycles. According torecent reports, almost all non-invasive electrophysiological phenomena, such as electrocardiographic indices,cardiac refractoriness and conduction, pacing and defibrillation threshold, heart rate variability indices, andeven Q-T dispersion

Yi-Fang Guo; Phyllis K. Stein

2002-01-01

260

Circadian rhythms of melatonin and serotonin- N-acetyltransferase activity in Procambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrates have circadian rhythms and exhibit photoperiodism and colour changes. While they lack pineal glands, those that have been investigated contain melatonin. Until now, melatonin has been shown to be present in the photoreceptor organs of this species, but the presence of the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis, serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT, EC 2.3.1.87) has not been investigated. We report here the

M. T. Agapito; B. Herrero; M. I. Pablos; J. L. Miguel; J. M. Recio

1995-01-01

261

Toward a classification of medications for sleep and circadian rhythm disorders  

PubMed Central

While some systems classify medications according to therapeutic class, others are based on the mechanism of action of the drugs. The two main classifications of medications used to treat patients in the United States are those of the United States Pharmacopeia and US Food and Drug Administration, and they vary in their organization of the medication categories. Here we propose a taxonomy for medications used to treat sleep and circadian rhythm disorders based on symptoms and disorders. PMID:24363563

Thorpy, Michael J; Roth, Thomas

2013-01-01

262

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is Essential for Circadian Body Temperature Rhythms in Hibernating Ground Squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body temperature (Tb) was recorded at 10 min intervals over 2.5 years in female golden-mantled ground squirrels that sus- tained complete ablation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCNx). Animals housed at an ambient temperature (Ta )o f 6.5°C were housed in a 12 hr light\\/dark cycle for 19 months followed by 11 months in constant light. The circadian rhythm of Tb

Norman F. Ruby; John Dark; D. Erik Burns; H. Craig Heller; Irving Zucker

2002-01-01

263

Lifelines Episode 16: Circadian Rhythm and Jet Lag; Exercise and Appetite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking the "collection" tab in the left hand column. Interviews with Clifford Saper on circadian rhythm and jet lag (begins at 3:14) and David J. Stensel on exercise and appetite (begins at 11:54). Click here for the full study by David Stensel. The Buzz in Physiology (Begins at 1:25) Total Time: 20:27

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Clifford Saper (Beth Isreal Hospital); David J Stensel (Loughborough University)

2008-12-01

264

Assessment of circadian rhythms in humans: comparison of real-time fibroblast reporter imaging with plasma melatonin  

PubMed Central

We compared the period of the rhythm of plasma melatonin, driven by the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker, to in vitro periodicity in cultured peripheral fibroblasts to assess the effects on these rhythms of a polymorphism of PER3 (rs57875989), which is associated with sleep timing. In vitro circadian period was determined using luminometry of cultured fibroblasts, in which the expression of firefly luciferase was driven by the promoter of the circadian gene Arntl (Bmal1). The period of the melatonin rhythm was assessed in a 9-d forced desynchrony protocol, minimizing confounding effects of sleep-wake and light-dark cycles on circadian rhythmicity. In vitro periods (32 participants, 24.61±0.33 h, mean±sd) were longer than in vivo periods (31 participants, 24.16±0.17 h; P<0.0001) but did not differ between PER3 genotypes (P>0.4). Analyses of replicate in vitro assessments demonstrated that circadian period was reproducible within individuals (intraclass correlation=0.62), but in vivo and in vitro period assessments did not correlate (P>0.9). In accordance with circadian entrainment theory, in vivo period correlated with the timing of melatonin (P<0.05) at baseline and with diurnal preference (P<0.05). Individual circadian rhythms can be reliably assessed in fibroblasts but may not correlate with physiological rhythms driven by the central circadian pacemaker.—Hasan, S., Santhi, N., Lazar, A.S., Slak, A., Lo, J., von Schantz, M., Archer, S. N., Johnston, J. D., Dijk, D.-J. Assessment of circadian rhythms in humans: comparison of real-time fibroblast reporter imaging with plasma melatonin. PMID:22371527

Hasan, Sibah; Santhi, Nayantara; Lazar, Alpar S.; Slak, Ana; Lo, June; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Johnston, Jonathan D.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

2012-01-01

265

Cognitive performance as a zeitgeber: cognitive oscillators and cholinergic modulation of the SCN entrain circadian rhythms.  

PubMed

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior. PMID:23441168

Gritton, Howard J; Stasiak, Ashley M; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M

2013-01-01

266

Circadian Rhythms Differ between Sexes and Closely Related Species of Nasonia Wasps  

PubMed Central

Activity rhythms in 24 h light-dark cycles, constant darkness, and constant light conditions were analyzed in four different Nasonia species for each sex separately. Besides similarities, clear differences are evident among and within Nasonia species as well as between sexes. In all species, activity in a light-dark cycle is concentrated in the photophase, typical for diurnal organisms. Contrary to most diurnal insect species so far studied, Nasonia follows Aschoff's rule by displaying long (>24 h) internal rhythms in constant darkness but short (<24 h) in constant light. In constant light, N. vitripennis males display robust circadian activity rhythms, whereas females are usually arrhythmic. In contrast to other Nasonia species, N. longicornis males display anticipatory activity, i.e. activity shortly before light-on in a light-dark cycle. As expected, N. oneida shows activity patterns similar to those of N. giraulti but with important differences in key circadian parameters. Differences in circadian activity patterns and parameters between species may reflect synchronization of specific life-history traits to environmental conditions. Scheduling mating or dispersion to a specific time of the day could be a strategy to avoid interspecific hybridization in Nasonia species that live in sympatry. PMID:23555911

Bertossa, Rinaldo C.; van Dijk, Jeroen; Diao, Wenwen; Saunders, David; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Beersma, Domien G. M.

2013-01-01

267

Demonstration of Circadian Rhythm in Heart Rate Turbulence using Novel Application of Correlator Functions  

E-print Network

Background: It has been difficult to demonstrate circadian rhythm in the two parameters of heart rate turbulence, turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS). Objective: To devise a new method for detecting circadian rhythm in noisy data, and apply it to selected Holter recordings from two post-myocardial infarction databases, Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST, n=684) and Innovative Stratification of Arrhythmic Risk (ISAR, n=327). Methods: For each patient, TS and TO were calculated for each hour with >4 VPCs. An autocorrelation function Corr(Delta t) = was then calculated, and averaged over all patients. Positive Corr(Delta t) indicates that TS at a given hour and Delta t hours later are similar. TO was treated likewise. Simulations and mathematical analysis showed that circadian rhythm required Corr(Delta t) to have a U-shape consisting of positive values near Delta t=0 and 23, and negative values for intermediate Delta t. Significant deviation of Corr(Delta t) from the correlator function of ...

Watanabe, M; Barthel, P; Bauer, A; Schmidt, G; Schneider, R; Stein, P; Alford, Mark; Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Schmidt, Georg; Schneider, Raphael; Stein, Phyllis; Watanabe, Mari

2006-01-01

268

Eyeless Mexican Cavefish Save Energy by Eliminating the Circadian Rhythm in Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The eyed surface form and eyeless cave form of the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus experience stark differences in the daily periodicities of light, food and predation, factors which are likely to have a profound influence on metabolism. We measured the metabolic rate of Pachón cave and surface fish at a fixed swimming speed under light/dark and constant dark photoperiods. In constant darkness surface forms exhibited a circadian rhythm in metabolism with an increase in oxygen demand during the subjective daytime, whereas cave forms did not. The lack of circadian rhythm in metabolism leads to a 27% energy savings for Pachón cave fish compared to surface fish when comparing both forms in their natural photoperiods. When surface forms were tested under constant dark conditions they expended 38% more energy than cave forms under equivalent conditions. Elimination of the circadian rhythm in metabolism may be a general feature of animals that live in perpetually dark food-limited environments such as caves or the deep sea. PMID:25251018

Moran, Damian; Softley, Rowan; Warrant, Eric J.

2014-01-01

269

Cognitive Performance as a Zeitgeber: Cognitive Oscillators and Cholinergic Modulation of the SCN Entrain Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior. PMID:23441168

Gritton, Howard J.; Stasiak, Ashley M.; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

2013-01-01

270

Assessment of circadian rhythms by actimetry in healthy subjects and patients with advanced colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms can be altered in severe illness such as cancer; the rest-activity circadian cycle has been used as a reference for the administration of chemotherapy at specific times in order to improve tolerability and efficacy. We assessed the feasibility of the method in our center in a sample of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer selected for chronomodulated chemotherapy. Activity of the circadian rhythms were measured non-invasively in 10 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer by wrist actimetry, and compared to healthy subjects. Patients and healthy subjects were requested to wear an actigraph, a wristwatch that records the number of accelerations per minute, for 3 days. Healthy subjects exhibited high activity levels during daytime, followed by low activity levels during the night. In patients, the contrast between daytime activity and nocturnal sleep was noticeably less marked, and a wide inter-patient variability was observed. All the patients wore the actigraph with a total compliance. Actimetry may provide a simple and innovative tool to study the circadian system and may be considered as an objective and accurate method to evaluate the individual health status ("conditions of life") in cancer patients, independently of all ("quality of life" questionnaires. PMID:12684651

Chevalier, Virginie; Mormont, Marie-Christine; Curé, Hervé; Chollet, Philippe

2003-01-01

271

Dissociation of body-temperature and melatonin secretion circadian rhythms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed

Many patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) display features of hypothalamic dysfunction. We have investigated aspects of circadian rhythmicity, an important hypothalamic function, in 20 CFS patients and in 17 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. There were no differences between the two groups in the amplitude, mesor (mean value) or timing of the peak (acrophase) of the circadian rhythm of core temperature, or in the timing of the onset of melatonin secretion. However, the CFS patients showed no significant correlation between the timing of the temperature acrophase and the melatonin onset (P < 0.5), whereas the normal significant correlation was observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Dissociation of circadian rhythms could be due to the sleep deprivation and social disruption, and/or the reduction in physical activity which typically accompany CFS. By analogy with jet-lag and shift-working, circadian dysrhythmia could be an important factor in initiating and perpetuating the cardinal symptoms of CFS, notably tiredness, impaired concentration and intellectual impairment. PMID:8842569

Williams, G; Pirmohamed, J; Minors, D; Waterhouse, J; Buchan, I; Arendt, J; Edwards, R H

1996-07-01

272

Changing the Waveform of Circadian Rhythms: Considerations for Shift-Work  

PubMed Central

Circadian disruption in shift-work is common and has deleterious effects on health and performance. Current efforts to mitigate these harms reasonably focus on the phase of the circadian pacemaker, which unfortunately in humans, shifts slowly and often incompletely. Temporal reorganization of rhythmic waveform (i.e., the shape of its 24?h oscillation), rather than phase, however, may better match performance demands of shift-workers and can be quickly and feasibly implemented in animals. In fact, a bifurcated pacemaker waveform may permit stable entrainment of a bimodal sleep/wake rhythm promoting alertness in both night and daylight hours. Although bifurcation has yet to be formally assessed in humans, evidence of conserved properties of circadian organization and plasticity predict its occurrence: humans respond to conventional manipulations of waveform (e.g., photoperiodism); behaviorally, the sleep/wake rhythm is adaptable; and finally, the human circadian system likely derives from the same multiple cellular oscillators that permit waveform flexibility in the rodent pacemaker. In short, investigation into untried manipulations of waveform in humans to facilitate adjustment to challenging schedules is justified. PMID:22557994

Harrison, Elizabeth M.; Gorman, Michael R.

2012-01-01

273

The circadian rest-activity rhythm, a potential safety pharmacology endpoint of cancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed

The robustness of the circadian timing system (CTS) was correlated to quality of life and predicted for improved survival in cancer patients. However, chemotherapy disrupted the CTS according to dose and circadian timing in mice. A continuous and repeated measures longitudinal design was implemented here to characterize CTS dynamics in patients receiving a fixed circadian-based chemotherapy protocol. The rest-activity rhythm of 49 patients with advanced cancer was monitored using a wrist actigraph for 13 days split into four consecutive spans of 3-4 days each, i.e., before, during, right after and late after a fixed chronotherapy course. The relative amount of activity in bed vs. out of bed (ICircadian disruption (Irhythm parameters being worsened in the whole group of patients (p < 0.05). Mean parameter values subsequently recovered to near baseline values. The occurrence of circadian disruption on chemotherapy was associated with a higher risk of clinically relevant fatigue (p = 0.028) or body weight loss (p = 0.05). Four CTS dynamic patterns characterized treatment response including no change (9.5% of the patients); improvement (14.3%); alteration and complete recovery (31%) or sustained deterioration (45%), possibly due to inadequate chronotherapy dosing and/or timing. Improved clinical tolerability could result from the minimization of circadian disruption through the personalization of chronotherapy delivery. PMID:24510611

Ortiz-Tudela, Elisabet; Iurisci, Ida; Beau, Jacques; Karaboue, Abdoulaye; Moreau, Thierry; Rol, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Lévi, Francis; Innominato, Pasquale F

2014-06-01

274

Masking of the circadian rhythms of heart rate and core temperature by the rest-activity cycle in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to estimate the magnitude of the masking effect produced in humans by alternate periods of physical activity and rest or sleep on the circadian rhythms of heart rate and core temperature. The heart rate, rectal temperature, and nondominant wrist activity were monitored in 12 male subjects during 6 days of normal routine at home and during 6 days of controlled bed-rest regimen. The comparisons of averaged waveforms for the activity, heart rate, and temperature indicated that about 45 percent of the range of the circadian heart rate rhythm during normal routine and about 14 percent of the range of the circadian temperature rhythm were attributable to the effects of activity. The smaller effect of activity on the temperature rhythm may be partially attributable to the fact that core temperature is being more rigorously conserved than heart rate, at least during moderate exercise.

Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Graeber, R. Curtis

1986-01-01

275

Manipulating the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms to improve clinical management of major depression  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical psychiatry has always been limited by the lack of objective tests to substantiate diagnoses and a lack of specific treatments that target underlying pathophysiology. One area in which these twin failures has been most frustrating is major depression. Due to very considerable progress in the basic and clinical neurosciences of sleep-wake cycles and underlying circadian systems this situation is now rapidly changing. Discussion The development of specific behavioral or pharmacological strategies that target these basic regulatory systems is driving renewed clinical interest. Here, we explore the extent to which objective tests of sleep-wake cycles and circadian function - namely, those that measure timing or synchrony of circadian-dependent physiology as well as daytime activity and nighttime sleep patterns - can be used to identify a sub-class of patients with major depression who have disturbed circadian profiles. Summary Once this unique pathophysiology is characterized, a highly personalized treatment plan can be proposed and monitored. New treatments will now be designed and old treatments re-evaluated on the basis of their effects on objective measures of sleep-wake cycles, circadian rhythms and related metabolic systems. PMID:23521808

2013-01-01

276

Circadian rhythm. Dysrhythmia in the suprachiasmatic nucleus inhibits memory processing.  

PubMed

Chronic circadian dysfunction impairs declarative memory in humans but has little effect in common rodent models of arrhythmia caused by clock gene knockouts or surgical ablation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). An important problem overlooked in these translational models is that human dysrhythmia occurs while SCN circuitry is genetically and neurologically intact. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) are particularly well suited for translational studies because they can be made arrhythmic by a one-time photic treatment that severely impairs spatial and recognition memory. We found that once animals are made arrhythmic, subsequent SCN ablation completely rescues memory processing. These data suggest that the inhibitory effects of a malfunctioning SCN on cognition require preservation of circuitry between the SCN and downstream targets that are lost when these connections are severed. PMID:25395537

Fernandez, Fabian; Lu, Derek; Ha, Phong; Costacurta, Patricia; Chavez, Renee; Heller, H Craig; Ruby, Norman F

2014-11-14

277

[Peculiarities of circadian rhythms in plants from different geographical latitudes].  

PubMed

1 Two species of plants (Taraxacum arcticum and Arnica angustifolia), collected in Spitsbergen (geogr. latitude 76-80 degrees) exhibit endogenous circadian leaf movements but also movements with shorter periods. Astragalus frigidus, A. alpinus and Hedysarum hedysaroides, collected in arctic regions of continental Europe, also show endogenous diurnal leaf movements. 2. In most of the species tested, there was no difference in the length of the free running periods of plants from arctic and Central-European regions. This is also the case when individuals of the same species collected in different regions are compared. However, in Taraxacum arcticum the period is shorter than in T. officinale In general, under constant conditions the circadian oscillations of arctic plants persist for a shorter period than those of other plants. 3. The free running periods of several of the investigated species from tropical regions are much longer than 24 hours, i.e., much longer than those of species from Central-European and arctic regions. 4. The free running periods of several tropical species are temperature-independent (Erythrina senegalensis, Albizzia lophanta, Rhynchosia memmonia, Vigna catjang, Phaseolus multiflorus). In other tropical species, however, the periods decrease rather strongly with increasing temperature (Phaseolus mungo, Canavalia obtusifolia, Clitoria ternatea, Dolichos lablab, Vigna sesquipedalis, Dolichos zebra). The temperature does not influence the amplitudes in Phaseolus mungo and Vigna sesquipedalis, but it strongly influences the amplitudes in Erythrina senegalensis, in LD-cycles as well as in continuous light. 5. The arctic plant Astragalus frigidus still shows free running oscillations at 12°C, whereas several tropical species oscillate only at temperatures above 17°C. 6. The differences in the periods of tropical and non-tropical species (see under [3]) disappear if the plants are compared not at the same temperature but at temperatures which are optimal for them. If tropical plants are tested 27°C and Central-European and arctic species at 17°C, the periods always approach the value of 24 hours. PMID:24557984

Mayer, W

1966-09-01

278

A Study of Circadian Rhythm and Meteorological Factors Influencing Acute Myocardial Infarction  

E-print Network

The circadian rhythm in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was assessed in three hundred and twenty three patients admitted with AMI during the two-year period June 1992 to May 1994. The influence of the following meteorological, solar-geophysical and cosmic parameters in the causation of an infarct was also considered : (1) surface pressure (2) maximum temperature (3) minimum temperature (4) relative humidity (5) cosmic ray index (6) geomagnetic aa index (7) solar flares and (8) sunspot number. A well pronounced diurnal variability in AMI with a peak in the morning hours (6-12 a.m.) was seen. Further analysis of the data by considering one-hour periods revealed the presence of a smaller evening (10 p.m.) increase in incidence, i.e., the existence of a bimodal circadian rhythm. The simultaneous occurrence of the well documented semi-diurnal rhythm in surface pressure and incidence of acute myocardial infarction were evident. This may be one of the factors involved in the causation of the smaller evening peak-the reasons for which were unclear till now. Month-to-month variation in surface pressure was also found to be significantly correlated with incidence of acute myocardial infarction. Recognition of a circadian rhythm in the onset of AMI suggests the need for enhanced pharmacological protection during the vulnerable periods. Significant correlations were also found between monthly incidence of AMI and month-to-month variation of cosmic ray index and solar flare counts. The pattern of incidence of AMI was seen to be modified by full moon and new moon. There was no association between maximum temperature, minimum temperature or relative humidity and incidence of AMI.

A. M. Selvam; D. Sen; S. M. S. Mody

1998-12-08

279

Effects of bile acid administration on bile acid synthesis and its circadian rhythm in man  

SciTech Connect

In man bile acid synthesis has a distinct circadian rhythm but the relationship of this rhythm to feedback inhibition by bile acid is unknown. We measured bile acid synthesis as release of 14CO2 from (26-14C)cholesterol every 2 hr in three normal volunteers during five separate 24-hr periods. Data were fitted by computer to a cosine curve to estimate amplitude and acrophase of the circadian rhythm. In an additional six volunteers, we measured synthesis every 2 hr from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. only. During the control period, amplitude (expressed as percentage of mean synthesis) averaged 52% and acrophase averaged 6:49 a.m. During administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 126% of baseline (p less than 0.1), amplitude averaged 43% and acrophase averaged 6:20 a.m. During administration of chenodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 43% of baseline (p less than 0.001), amplitude averaged 53% and acrophase averaged 9:04 a.m. Addition of prednisone to this regimen of chenodeoxycholic acid to eliminate release of 14CO2 from corticosteroid hormone synthesis resulted in a mean amplitude of 62% and a mean acrophase of 6:50 a.m., values very similar to those in the baseline period. Administration of prednisone alone also did not significantly alter the baseline amplitude (40%) or acrophase (6:28 a.m.). We conclude that neither chenodeoxycholic acid nor ursodeoxycholic acid significantly alters the circadian rhythm of bile acid synthesis in man.

Pooler, P.A.; Duane, W.C.

1988-09-01

280

The Transcription Factor DBP Affects Circadian Sleep Consolidation and Rhythmic EEG Activity  

E-print Network

of the molecular basis of circadian rhythm generation in mice. Thus, several clock elements have been identified; Fonjallaz et al., 1996), DBP mRNA also displays a strong circadian rhythm in the SCN, and the lack of DBP results in a shortening of the period of the circadian free-running rhythm and in a reduction of locomo

Halazonetis, Thanos

281

Improvement of Circadian Rhythm of Heart Rate Variability by Eurythmy Therapy Training  

PubMed Central

Background. Impairment of circadian rhythm is associated with various clinical problems. It not only has a negative impact on quality of life but can also be associated with a significantly poorer prognosis. Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is an anthroposophic movement therapy aimed at reducing fatigue symptoms and stress levels. Objective. This analysis of healthy subjects was conducted to examine whether the improvement in fatigue symptoms was accompanied by improvements in the circadian rhythm of heart rate variability (HRV). Design. Twenty-three women performed 10 hours of EYT over six weeks. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before and after the EYT trial. HRV was quantified by parameters of the frequency and time domains and the nonlinear parameters of symbolic dynamics. Results. The day-night contrast with predominance of vagal activity at night becomes more pronounced after the EYT training, and with decreased Ultralow and very low frequencies, the HRV shows evidence of calmer sleep. During the night, the complexity of the HRV is significantly increased indicated by nonlinear parameters. Conclusion. The analysis of the circadian patterns of cardiophysiological parameters before and after EYT shows significant improvements in HRV in terms of greater day-night contrast caused by an increase of vagal activity and calmer and more complex HRV patterns during sleep. PMID:23533496

Seifert, Georg; Kanitz, Jenny-Lena; Pretzer, Kim; Henze, Gunter; Witt, Katharina; Reulecke, Sina; Voss, Andreas

2013-01-01

282

Effects of square-wave and simulated natural light-dark cycles on hamster circadian rhythms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circadian rhythms of activity (Act) and body temperature (Tb) were recorded from male Syrian hamsters under square-wave (LDSq) and simulated natural (LDSN, with dawn and dusk transitions) light-dark cycles. Light intensity and data sampling were under the synchronized control of a laboratory computer. Changes in reactive and predictive onsets and offsets for the circadian rhythms of Act and Tb were examined in both lighting conditions. The reactive Act onset occurred 1.1 h earlier (P < 0.01) in LDSN than in LDSq and had a longer alpha-period (1.7 h; P < 0.05). The reactive Tb onset was 0.7 h earlier (P < 0.01) in LDSN. In LDSN, the predictive Act onset advanced by 0.3 h (P < 0.05), whereas the Tb predictive onset remained the same as in LDSq. The phase angle difference between Act and Tb predictive onsets decreased by 0.9 h (P < 0.05) in LDSN, but the offsets of both measures remained unchanged. In this study, animals exhibited different circadian entrainment characteristics under LDSq and LDSN, suggesting that gradual and abrupt transitions between light and dark may provide different temporal cues.

Tang, I. H.; Murakami, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

1999-01-01

283

Pigment dispersing hormone modulates spontaneous electrical activity of the cerebroid ganglion and synchronizes electroretinogram circadian rhythm in crayfish Procambarus clarkii.  

PubMed

In crayfish, one very well-studied circadian rhythm is that of electroretinogram (ERG) amplitude. The cerebroid ganglion has been considered a plausible site for the circadian pacemaker of this rhythm and for the retinular photoreceptors, as the corresponding effectors. The pigment dispersing hormone (PDH) appears to synchronize ERG rhythm, but its characterization as a synchronizer cue remains incomplete. The main purposes of this work were a) to determine whether PDH acts on the cerebroid ganglion, and b) to complete its characterization as a non-photic synchronizer. Here we show that PDH increases the number of the spontaneous potentials of the cerebroid ganglion, reaching 149.92±6.42% of the activity recorded in the controls, and that daily application of PDH for 15 consecutive days adjusts the ERG circadian rhythm period to 24.0±0.2h and the end of the activity period of the rhythm coincides with the injection of the hormone. In this work, we hypothesized that in crayfish, PDH transmits the "day" signal to the ERG circadian system and acts upon both the presumptive circadian pacemaker and the corresponding effectors to reinforce the synchronization of the system. PMID:22252127

Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Alvarado, Ramón; Figueroa, Alejandra; Mendoza-Vargas, Leonor; Fuentes-Pardo, Beatriz

2012-04-01

284

A single generalized seizure alters the amplitude, but not phase, of the circadian activity rhythm of the hamster.  

PubMed

People with epilepsy exhibit high rates of sleep disturbances. In many cases, these sleep disruptions appear to be related to the occurrence of the seizures themselves. Changes in sleep structure may reflect underlying changes in the circadian clock, as circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, body temperature, and hormone release are disrupted following a seizure. The present study was designed to determine if a single generalized seizure could alter the phase and waveform of the circadian rhythm of wheel-running behavior in the Syrian hamster. Animals were housed in constant darkness, and were administered either a sham treatment or a maximal electroconvulsive shock at one of three time-points: 6 h before activity onset, 1 h after activity onset, or 6 h after activity onset. Seizures at all of these phases did not significantly affect the phase of the circadian activity rhythm. The circadian locomotor activity levels were significantly attenuated following seizures at all three phases. This attenuation was prominent over the 24 h following the seizure, and was also evident over the three post-seizure days. These data suggest that while seizures do not affect phase, they may alter the amplitude of the circadian clock. Because the amplitude of the circadian clock affects sleep quality, these findings suggest one mechanism by which persistent seizures may decrease the quality of sleep in patients with epilepsy. PMID:19142754

Smith, Victoria M; Baserman, Jason N; Hagel, Kimberly; Teskey, G Campbell; Antle, Michael C

2009-01-01

285

Magel2, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, modulates the activities of circadian rhythm proteins in cultured cells  

PubMed Central

Background The Magel2 gene is most highly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, where its expression cycles in a circadian pattern comparable to that of clock-controlled genes. Mice lacking the Magel2 gene have hypothalamic dysfunction, including circadian defects that include reduced and fragmented total activity, excessive activity during the subjective day, but they have a normal circadian period. Magel2 is a member of the MAGE family of proteins that have various roles in cellular function, but the specific function of Magel2 is unknown. Methods We used a variety of cell-based assays to determine whether Magel2 modifies the properties of core circadian rhythm proteins. Results Magel2 represses the activity of the Clock:Bmal1 heterodimer in a Per2-luciferase assay. Magel2 interacts with Bmal1 and with Per2 as measured by co-immunoprecipitation in co-transfected cells, and exhibits a subcellular distribution consistent with these interactions when visualized by immunofluorescence. As well, Magel2 induces the redistribution of the subcellular localization of Clock towards the cytoplasm, in contrast to the nucleus-directed effect of Bmal1 on Clock subcellular localization. Conclusion Consistent with the blunted circadian rhythm observed in Magel2-null mice, these data suggest that Magel2 normally promotes negative feedback regulation of the cellular circadian cycle, through interactions with key core circadian rhythm proteins. PMID:22208286

2011-01-01

286

Corkscrews and singularities in fruitflies - Resetting behavior of the circadian eclosion rhythm.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of experiments undertaken to define the phase-resetting behavior of the circadian rhythm of pupal eclosion in populations of fruitflies. An attempt is made to determine how and why the resetting response depends on the duration of a standard perturbation as well as on the time at which it is given. Plotting a three-dimensional graph of the measured emergence centroids vs the stimulus variables, the data are found to spiral up around a vertical rotation axis. Using a computer, a smooth surface, called the resetting surface, which approximately fits the helicoidal cloud of data points, is obtained and is shown to be best described as a vertical corkscrew linking together tilted planes. This corkscrew feature of the resetting surface is taken to indicate that there is an isolated perturbation following which there is either no circadian rhythm of emergence in the steady state, or one of unpredictable phase. A hypothesis concerning the clock dynamics underlying the eclosion rhythm is briefly sketched which encompasses the main features of known resetting data using single discrete pulses of any perturbing agent.

Winfree, A. T.

1971-01-01

287

The parathyroid hormone circadian rhythm is truly endogenous--a general clinical research center study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While circulating levels of PTH follow a diurnal pattern, it has been unclear whether these changes are truly endogenous or are dictated by external factors that themselves follow a diurnal pattern, such as sleep-wake cycles, light-dark cycles, meals, or posture. We evaluated the diurnal rhythm of PTH in 11 normal healthy male volunteers in our Intensive Physiologic Monitoring Unit. The first 36 h spent under baseline conditions were followed by 28-40 h of constant routine conditions (CR; enforced wakefulness in the strict semirecumbent position, with the consumption of hourly snacks). During baseline conditions, PTH levels followed a bimodal diurnal rhythm with an average amplitude of 4.2 pg/mL. A primary peak (t1max) occurred at 0314 h, and the secondary peak (t2max) occurred at 1726 h, whereas the primary and secondary nadirs (t1min and t2min) took place, on the average, at 1041 and 2103 h, respectively. This rhythm was preserved under CR conditions, albeit with different characteristics, thus confirming its endogenous nature. The serum ionized calcium (Cai) demonstrated a rhythm in 3 of the 5 subjects studied that varied widely between individuals and did not have any apparent relation to PTH. Urinary calcium/creatinine (UCa/Cr), phosphate/Cr (UPO4/Cr), and sodium/Cr (UNa/Cr) ratios all followed a diurnal rhythm during the baseline day. These rhythms persisted during the CR, although with different characteristics for the first two parameters, whereas that of UNa/Cr was unchanged. In general, the temporal pattern for the UCa/Cr curve was a mirror image of the PTH curve, whereas the UPO4/Cr pattern moved in parallel with the PTH curve. In conclusion, PTH levels exhibit a diurnal rhythm that persists during a CR, thereby confirming that a large component of this rhythm is an endogenous circadian rhythm. The clinical relevance of this rhythm is reflected in the associated rhythms of biological markers of PTH effect at the kidney, namely UCa/Cr and UPO4/Cr.

el-Hajj Fuleihan, G.; Klerman, E. B.; Brown, E. N.; Choe, Y.; Brown, E. M.; Czeisler, C. A.

1997-01-01

288

Influences of horizontal hypokinesia on performance and circadian physiological rhythms in female humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight females from 35-45 yr of age were subjected to seven days of ambulatory control, seven days of bed rest, and a five day recovery period, with 30 min of centrifugation on day seven of bedrest to determine the effects of weightlessness on the circadian rhythms of females in that age group. Heart rate and rectal temperature (RT) were monitored and each subject was tested in a flight simulator twice a day in conditions of varying levels of turbulence. The flight simulations were run during the morning and acrophase of the circadian RT and performance errors wery monitored for 6 min. No significant differences were detected in the group performance data pre-, during, and post-bedrest, although better performance in the simulator was observed after the centrifuge exposure. An RT phase shift was statistically significant between pre- and during bedrest stages.

Winget, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Sandler, H.

1982-01-01

289

Circadian rhythms of hydraulic conductance and growth are enhanced by drought and improve plant performance.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms enable plants to anticipate daily environmental variations, resulting in growth oscillations under continuous light. Because plants daily transpire up to 200% of their water content, their water status oscillates from favourable during the night to unfavourable during the day. We show that rhythmic leaf growth under continuous light is observed in plants that experience large alternations of water status during an entrainment period, but is considerably buffered otherwise. Measurements and computer simulations show that this is due to oscillations of plant hydraulic conductance and plasma membrane aquaporin messenger RNA abundance in roots during continuous light. A simulation model suggests that circadian oscillations of root hydraulic conductance contribute to acclimation to water stress by increasing root water uptake, thereby favouring growth and photosynthesis. They have a negative effect in favourable hydraulic conditions. Climate-driven control of root hydraulic conductance therefore improves plant performances in both stressed and non-stressed conditions. PMID:25370944

Caldeira, Cecilio F; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

2014-01-01

290

Hopf Bifurcations in a Model for Circadian Rhythms in Arabidopsis Thaliana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arabidopsis thaliana is a plant used for many fundamental studies, including circadian rhythms. Numerically integrating the 7-equation kinetic model of Locke et al. [J. Theor. Bio. 234 (2005) 383], we have mapped regions of parameter space where circadian expression of key mRNA and proteins undergoes limit cycle oscillation. We seek to relate this to the work of Fukuda et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007) 098102], where a coupled system of cells individually described by Stuart-Landau equations is used phenomenologically to describe experimentally observed spatio-temporal patterns in the plant leaves. To that end we have done a weakly nonlinear analysis of the system of kinetic equations. We also comment on possible experimental directions to further connect the kinetic models to dynamics in this multi-cellular system.

Shindell, Orrin; Tagg, Randall

2011-03-01

291

Control mechanisms of circadian rhythms in body composition: Implications for manned spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanisms that underlie the circadian variations in electrolyte content in body fluid compartments were investigated, and the mechanisms that control the oscillations were studied in order to investigate what effects internal desynchronization in such a system would have during manned space flight. The studies were performed using volunteer human subjects and squirrel monkeys. The intercompartmental distribution of potassium was examined when dietary intake, activity, and posture are held constant throughout each 24-hour day. A net flux of potassium was observed out of the body cell mass during the day and a reverse flux from the extracellular fluid into the body cell mass during the night, counterbalanced by changes in urinary potassium excretion. Experiments with monkeys provided evidence for the synchronization of renal potassium excretion by the rhythm of cortisol secretion with the light-dark cycle. Three models of the circadian timing system were formalized.

Ede, M. C. M.

1975-01-01

292

Angiotensin receptor blockers shift the circadian rhythm of blood pressure by suppressing tubular sodium reabsorption.  

PubMed

Recently, we found that an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) restored the circadian rhythm of the blood pressure (BP) from a nondipper to a dipper pattern, similar to that achieved with sodium intake restriction and diuretics (Fukuda M, Yamanaka T, Mizuno M, Motokawa M, Shirasawa Y, Miyagi S, Nishio T, Yoshida A, Kimura G. J Hypertens 26: 583-588, 2008). ARB enhanced natriuresis during the day, while BP was markedly lower during the night, resulting in the dipper pattern. In the present study, we examined whether the suppression of tubular sodium reabsorption, similar to the action of diuretics, was the mechanism by which ARB normalized the circadian BP rhythm. BP and glomerulotubular balance were compared in 41 patients with chronic kidney disease before and during ARB treatment with olmesartan once a day in the morning for 8 wk. ARB increased natriuresis (sodium excretion rate; U(Na)V) during the day (4.5 ± 2.2 to 5.5 ± 2.1 mmol/h, P = 0.002), while it had no effect during the night (4.3 ± 2.0 to 3.8 ± 1.6 mmol/h, P = 0.1). The night/day ratios of both BP and U(Na)V were decreased. The decrease in the night/day ratio of BP correlated with the increase in the daytime U(Na)V (r = 0.42, P = 0.006). Throughout the whole day, the glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.0006) and tubular sodium reabsorption (P = 0.0005) were both reduced significantly by ARB, although U(Na)V remained constant (107 ± 45 vs. 118 ± 36 mmol/day, P = 0.07). These findings indicate that the suppression of tubular sodium reabsorption, showing a resemblance to the action of diuretics, is the primary mechanism by which ARB can shift the circadian BP rhythm into a dipper pattern. PMID:21865265

Fukuda, Michio; Wakamatsu-Yamanaka, Tamaki; Mizuno, Masashi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Tomonari, Tatsuya; Kato, Yoko; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Miyagi, Sota; Shirasawa, Yuichi; Ito, Akinori; Yoshida, Atsuhiro; Kimura, Genjiro

2011-11-01

293

Effect of feeding and temperature on the circadian rhythms of cortisol, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in pigs  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the circadian rhythms of cortisol, thyroxine (T/sub 4/) and triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) in pigs under two temperature and feeding regimes. Twenty-eight barrows were randomly assigned to one of the following: 1) ad-libitum fed at 5/sup 0/C(AL-5); 2) ad-libitum fed at 20/sup 0/C(AL-20); 3) meal fed at 5/sup 0/C(M-5); and 4) meal fed at 20/sup 0/C(M-20). M-5 and M-20 animals were fed at 0730 and 1400 hrs. Lights were on from 0600 to 2000 hrs. After 5 wks, blood samples were collected for 27 hrs. Serum cortisol, T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentrations were determined by RIA. No significant differences were found in the mesors, amplitudes or acrophases for cortisol. The mesors for T/sub 4/ (p<.01) were 60.6 +/- 5.6, 40.2 +/- 5.6, 61.2 +/- 5.6 and 49.1 +/- 5.0 ng/ml for AL-5, AL-20, M-5, and M-20, respectively. The mesors for T/sub 3/ (p<.01) were .85 +/- .06, .69 +/- .06, .92 +/- .06 and .66 +/- .05 ng/ml for AL-5, AL-20, M-5, and M-20 respectively. No differences in the amplitudes or acrophases for T/sub 3/ or T/sub 4/ were found. These data show that temperature and feeding regimes do not entrain the circadian rhythm of cortisol in pigs. The circadian rhythms of T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ are also not altered by feeding regimes but are affected by temperature.

Becker, B.A.; Nienaber, J.A.; Ford, J.J.; Hahn, G.L.

1986-03-05

294

Pharmacology of Myopia and Potential Role for Intrinsic Retinal Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

Despite the high prevalence and public health impact of refractive errors, the mechanisms responsible for ametropias are poorly understood. Much evidence now supports the concept that the retina is central to the mechanism(s) regulating emmetropization and underlying refractive errors. Using a variety of pharmacologic methods and well-defined experimental eye growth models in laboratory animals, many retinal neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been implicated in this process. Nonetheless, an accepted framework for understanding the molecular and/or cellular pathways that govern postnatal eye development is lacking. Here, we review two extensively studied signaling pathways whose general roles in refractive development are supported by both experimental and clinical data: acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and retinal dopamine pharmacology. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine was first studied as an anti-myopia drug some two centuries ago, and much subsequent work has continued to connect muscarinic receptors to eye growth regulation. Recent research implicates a potential role of nicotinic acetycholine receptors; and the refractive effects in population surveys of passive exposure to cigarette smoke, of which nicotine is a constituent, support clinical relevance. Reviewed here, many puzzling results inhibit formulating a mechanistic framework that explains acetylcholine’s role in refractive development. How cholinergic receptor mechanisms might be used to develop acceptable approaches to normalize refractive development remains a challenge. Retinal dopamine signaling not only has a putative role in refractive development, its upregulation by light comprises an important component of the retinal clock network and contributes to the regulation of retinal circadian physiology. During postnatal development, the ocular dimensions undergo circadian and/or diurnal fluctuations in magnitude; these rhythms shift in eyes developing experimental ametropia. Long-standing clinical ideas about myopia in particular have postulated a role for ambient lighting, although molecular or cellular mechanisms for these speculations have remained obscure. Experimental myopia induced by the wearing of a concave spectacle lens alters the retinal expression of a significant proportion of intrinsic circadian clock genes, as well as genes encoding a melatonin receptor and the photopigment melanopsin. Together this evidence suggests a hypothesis that the retinal clock and intrinsic retinal circadian rhythms may be fundamental to the mechanism(s) regulating refractive development, and that disruptions in circadian signals may produce refractive errors. Here we review the potential role of biological rhythms in refractive development. While much future research is needed, this hypothesis could unify many of the disparate clinical and laboratory observations addressing the pathogenesis of refractive errors. PMID:23313151

Stone, Richard A.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Khurana, Tejvir S.

2013-01-01

295

Abstract: This paper considers an analysis of a domain of attraction within interlocked feedback model. First, we confirm that the interlocked feedback model expresses circadian rhythms. Next, we search a  

E-print Network

feedback model. First, we confirm that the interlocked feedback model expresses circadian rhythms. Next, we search a domain of attraction and responses of circadian rhythms to pulse in one or some of m of Drosophila circadian rhythm," Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 210, pp. 401-406, 2001. [3] , , , , 1999

296

Striatal plasticity and motor learning-importance of circadian rhythms, sleep stages and dreaming....  

PubMed

In this brief comment, we emphasize the importance of circadian rhythms, sleep stages and especially REM sleep for motor and procedural learning which needs to be taken into account when studying striatal plasticity. Mode and timing of application could also play a crucial role for long-term dopaminergic therapies and behavioural and other changes. We further propose a model where the brain, during REM sleep/dreaming, by random recombinations of small pieces of past experiences, tries to anticipate situations not yet experienced and to prepare it-self, in an 'off' situation, for adequate new motor procedural responses. PMID:15196511

Horowski, R; Benes, H; Fuxe, K

2004-07-01

297

The pineal clock affects behavioral circadian rhythms but not photoperiodic induction in the Indian weaver bird ( Ploceus philippinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether pineal is part of the circadian clock system which regulates circadian rhythms of activity and photosensitivity\\u000a in the Indian weaver bird (Ploceus philippinus). Two experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the induction of testicular growth, and androgen-dependent\\u000a beak pigmentation and luteinizing hormone (LH)-specific plumage coloration in pinealectomised (pinx) and sham-operated (sham)\\u000a birds exposed to short day

Sangeeta Rani; Sudhi Singh; Vinod Kumar

2005-01-01

298

A Novel Quantitative Trait Locus on Mouse Chromosome 18, “era1,” Modifies the Entrainment of Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The mammalian circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus conveys 24-h rhythmicity to sleep-wake cycles, locomotor activity, and other behavioral and physiological processes. The timing of rhythms relative to the light/dark (LD12:12) cycle is influenced in part by the endogenous circadian period and the time of day specific sensitivity of the clock to light. We now describe a novel circadian rhythm phenotype, and a locus influencing that phenotype, in a segregating population of mice. Methods: By crossbreeding 2 genetically distinct nocturnal strains of mice (Cast/Ei and C57BL/6J) and backcrossing the resulting progeny to Cast/Ei, we have produced a novel circadian phenotype, called early runner mice. Results: Early runner mice entrain to a light/dark cycle at an advanced phase, up to 9 hours before dark onset. This phenotype is not significantly correlated with circadian period in constant darkness and is not associated with disruption of molecular circadian rhythms in the SCN, as assessed by analysis of period gene expression. We have identified a genomic region that regulates this phenotype—a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 18 (near D18Mit184) that we have named era1 for Early Runner Activity locus one. Phase delays caused by light exposure early in the subjective night were of smaller magnitude in backcross offspring that were homozygous Cast/Ei at D18Mit184 than in those that were heterozygous at this locus. Conclusion: Genetic variability in the circadian response to light may, in part, explain the variance in phase angle of entrainment in this segregating mouse population. Citation: Wisor JP; Striz M; DeVoss J; Murphy GM; Edgar DM; O'Hara BF. A novel quantitative trait locus on mouse chromosome 18, “era1,” modifies the entrainment of circadian rhythms. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1255-1263. PMID:17969459

Wisor, Jonathan P.; Striz, Martin; DeVoss, Jason; Murphy, Greer M.; Edgar, Dale M.; O'Hara, Bruce F.

2007-01-01

299

Melatonin and the circadian rhythms of feeding and perch-hopping in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of melatonin plasma titers in the control of free-running circadian rhythms was investigated in European starlings,Sturnus vulgaris, held in continuous dim light. Simultaneous recordings of plasma melatonin, perch-hopping and feeding activity revealed synchronous circadian variations in all three functions with high melatonin titers during resting and low titers during activity periods. Implanting birds with melatonin silastic capsules resulted

Hans J. A. Beldhuis; John P. Dittami; Eberhard Gwinner

1988-01-01

300

Circadian Rhythms of Sense and Antisense Transcription in Sugarcane, a Highly Polyploid Crop  

PubMed Central

Commercial sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) is a highly polyploid and aneuploid grass that stores large amounts of sucrose in its stem. We have measured circadian rhythms of sense and antisense transcription in a commercial cultivar (RB855453) using a custom oligoarray with 14,521 probes that hybridize to sense transcripts (SS) and 7,380 probes that hybridize to antisense transcripts (AS).We estimated that 32% of SS probes and 22% AS probes were rhythmic. This is a higher proportion of rhythmic probes than the usually found in similar experiments in other plant species. Orthologs and inparalogs of Arabidopsis thaliana, sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum were grouped in ortholog clusters. When ortholog clusters were used to compare probes among different datasets, sugarcane also showed a higher proportion of rhythmic elements than the other species. Thus, it is possible that a higher proportion of transcripts are regulated by the sugarcane circadian clock. Thirty-six percent of the identified AS/SS pairs had significant correlated time courses and 64% had uncorrelated expression patterns. The clustering of transcripts with similar function, the anticipation of daily environmental changes and the temporal compartmentation of metabolic processes were some properties identified in the circadian sugarcane transcriptome. During the day, there was a dominance of transcripts associated with photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, including sucrose and starch synthesis. During the night, there was dominance of transcripts associated with genetic processing, such as histone regulation and RNA polymerase, ribosome and protein synthesis. Finally, the circadian clock also regulated hormone signalling pathways: a large proportion of auxin and ABA signalling components were regulated by the circadian clock in an unusual biphasic distribution. PMID:23936527

Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Nishiyama, Milton Yutaka; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

2013-01-01

301

Postnatal constant light compensates Cryptochrome1 and 2 double deficiency for disruption of circadian behavioral rhythms in mice under constant dark.  

PubMed

Clock genes Cryptochrome (Cry1) and Cry2 are essential for expression of circadian rhythms in mice under constant darkness (DD). However, circadian rhythms in clock gene Per1 expression or clock protein PER2 are detected in the cultured suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of neonatal Cry1 and Cry2 double deficient (Cry1 (-/-)/Cry2 (-/-)) mice. A lack of circadian rhythms in adult Cry1 (-/-)/Cry2 (-/-) mice is most likely due to developmentally disorganized cellular coupling of oscillating neurons in the SCN. On the other hand, neonatal rats exposed to constant light (LL) developed a tenable circadian system under prolonged LL which was known to fragment circadian behavioral rhythms. In the present study, Cry1 (-/-)/Cry2 (-/-) mice were raised under LL from postnatal day 1 for 7 weeks and subsequently exposed to DD for 3 weeks. Spontaneous movement was monitored continuously after weaning and PER2::LUC was measured in the cultured SCN obtained from mice under prolonged DD. Surprisingly, Chi square periodogram analysis revealed significant circadian rhythms of spontaneous movement in the LL-raised Cry1 (-/-)/Cry2 (-/-) mice, but failed to detect the rhythms in Cry1 (-/-)/Cry2 (-/-) mice raised under light-dark cycles (LD). By contrast, prolonged LL in adulthood did not rescue the circadian behavioral rhythms in the LD raised Cry1 (-/-)/Cry2 (-/-) mice. Visual inspection disclosed two distinct activity components with different periods in behavioral rhythms of the LL-raised Cry1(-/-)/Cry2(-/-) mice under DD: one was shorter and the other was longer than 24 hours. The two components repeatedly merged and separated. The patterns resembled the split behavioral rhythms of wild type mice under prolonged LL. In addition, circadian rhythms in PER2::LUC were detected in some of the LL-raised Cry1(-/-)/Cry2(-/-) mice under DD. These results indicate that neonatal exposure to LL compensates the CRY double deficiency for the disruption of circadian behavioral rhythms under DD in adulthood. PMID:24278295

Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

2013-01-01

302

Circadian rhythms in diving behavior and ventilatory response to asphyxia in canvasback ducks.  

PubMed

Underwater feeding behavior was measured in 10 captive canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria) for 12 days under a 12:12-h light-dark photoperiod. Feeding activity exhibited a daily rhythm, with 76% of dives occurring at night. In separate experiments on six of these ducks, a circadian rhythm was observed in the duration of voluntary dives. Dives at night (14.7 +/- 0.7 s) were significantly longer than those during the day (10.7 +/- 0.7 s). These day-night differences in diving behavior were accompanied by day-night differences in respiratory responses to progressive asphyxia. In the same six ducks, ventilation increased exponentially as a function of inspired CO2 concentration during rebreathing in a closed-circuit barometric plethysmograph. The exponential rate constant for inspired ventilation was significantly smaller at night (0.23 +/- 0.02) than during the day (0.26 +/- 0.01). We suggest that intermittent apneic exercise is facilitated by reduced respiratory chemosensitivity and that the respiratory and behavioral control systems are synchronized by the circadian timing system in diving ducks. PMID:9530234

Woodin, M; Stephenson, R

1998-03-01

303

Light masking of circadian rhythms of heat production, heat loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.

Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

1999-01-01

304

A circadian rhythm in skill-based errors in aviation maintenance.  

PubMed

In workplaces where activity continues around the clock, human error has been observed to exhibit a circadian rhythm, with a characteristic peak in the early hours of the morning. Errors are commonly distinguished by the nature of the underlying cognitive failure, particularly the level of intentionality involved in the erroneous action. The Skill-Rule-Knowledge (SRK) framework of Rasmussen is used widely in the study of industrial errors and accidents. The SRK framework describes three fundamental types of error, according to whether behavior is under the control of practiced sensori-motor skill routines with minimal conscious awareness; is guided by implicit or explicit rules or expertise; or where the planning of actions requires the conscious application of domain knowledge. Up to now, examinations of circadian patterns of industrial errors have not distinguished between different types of error. Consequently, it is not clear whether all types of error exhibit the same circadian rhythm. A survey was distributed to aircraft maintenance personnel in Australia. Personnel were invited to anonymously report a safety incident and were prompted to describe, in detail, the human involvement (if any) that contributed to it. A total of 402 airline maintenance personnel reported an incident, providing 369 descriptions of human error in which the time of the incident was reported and sufficient detail was available to analyze the error. Errors were categorized using a modified version of the SRK framework, in which errors are categorized as skill-based, rule-based, or knowledge-based, or as procedure violations. An independent check confirmed that the SRK framework had been applied with sufficient consistency and reliability. Skill-based errors were the most common form of error, followed by procedure violations, rule-based errors, and knowledge-based errors. The frequency of errors was adjusted for the estimated proportion of workers present at work/each hour of the day, and the 24 h pattern of each error type was examined. Skill-based errors exhibited a significant circadian rhythm, being most prevalent in the early hours of the morning. Variation in the frequency of rule-based errors, knowledge-based errors, and procedure violations over the 24 h did not reach statistical significance. The results suggest that during the early hours of the morning, maintenance technicians are at heightened risk of "absent minded" errors involving failures to execute action plans as intended. PMID:20653456

Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann; Van Dongen, Hans P A

2010-07-01

305

Single-cell resolution fluorescence imaging of circadian rhythms detected with a Nipkow spinning disk confocal system.  

PubMed

Single-point laser scanning confocal imaging produces signals with high spatial resolution in living organisms. However, photo-induced toxicity, bleaching, and focus drift remain challenges, especially when recording over several days for monitoring circadian rhythms. Bioluminescence imaging is a tool widely used for this purpose, and does not cause photo-induced difficulties. However, bioluminescence signals are dimmer than fluorescence signals, and are potentially affected by levels of cofactors, including ATP, O(2), and the substrate, luciferin. Here we describe a novel time-lapse confocal imaging technique to monitor circadian rhythms in living tissues. The imaging system comprises a multipoint scanning Nipkow spinning disk confocal unit and a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera mounted on an inverted microscope with auto-focusing function. Brain slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian clock, were prepared from transgenic mice expressing a clock gene, Period 1 (Per1), and fluorescence reporter protein (Per1::d2EGFP). The SCN slices were cut out together with membrane, flipped over, and transferred to the collagen-coated glass dishes to obtain signals with a high signal-to-noise ratio and to minimize focus drift. The imaging technique and improved culture method enabled us to monitor the circadian rhythm of Per1::d2EGFP from optically confirmed single SCN neurons without noticeable photo-induced effects or focus drift. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we also monitored calcium circadian rhythms at a single-cell level in a large population of SCN neurons. Thus, the Nipkow spinning disk confocal imaging system developed here facilitates long-term visualization of circadian rhythms in living cells. PMID:22480987

Enoki, Ryosuke; Ono, Daisuke; Hasan, Mazahir T; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

2012-05-30

306

ESR1 and ESR2 differentially regulate daily and circadian activity rhythms in female mice.  

PubMed

Estrogenic signaling shapes and modifies daily and circadian rhythms, the disruption of which has been implicated in psychiatric, neurologic, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease, among others. However, the activational mechanisms contributing to these effects remain poorly characterized. To determine the activational impact of estrogen on daily behavior patterns and differentiate between the contributions of the estrogen receptors ESR1 and ESR2, ovariectomized adult female mice were administered estradiol, the ESR1 agonist propylpyrazole triol, the ESR2 agonist diarylpropionitrile, or cholesterol (control). Animals were singly housed with running wheels in a 12-hour light, 12-hour dark cycle or total darkness. Estradiol increased total activity and amplitude, consolidated activity to the dark phase, delayed the time of peak activity (acrophase of wheel running), advanced the time of activity onset, and shortened the free running period (?), but did not alter the duration of activity (?). Importantly, activation of ESR1 or ESR2 differentially impacted daily and circadian rhythms. ESR1 stimulation increased total wheel running and amplitude and reduced the proportion of activity in the light vs the dark. Conversely, ESR2 activation modified the distribution of activity across the day, delayed acrophase of wheel running, and advanced the time of activity onset. Interestingly, ? was shortened by estradiol or either estrogen receptor agonist. Finally, estradiol-treated animals administered a light pulse in the early subjective night, but no other time, had an attenuated response compared with controls. This decreased phase response was mirrored by animals treated with diarylpropionitrile, but not propylpyrazole triol. To conclude, estradiol has strong activational effects on the temporal patterning and expression of daily and circadian behavior, and these effects are due to distinct mechanisms elicited by ESR1 and ESR2 activation. PMID:24735329

Royston, S E; Yasui, N; Kondilis, A G; Lord, S V; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Mahoney, M M

2014-07-01

307

Circadian rhythm of extracellular pH in crayfish at different levels of oxygenation.  

PubMed

The extracellular pH regulation was studied in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (a night animal) as a function of circadian rhythm. The venous acid-base balance (ABB) was determined in the morning (10 a.m.-12 a.m.) and in the evening (10 p.m.-12 p.m.) at PO2 ranging from 29 to 6 kPa and constant ABB in the water at 13 degrees C. In the morning the venous pH (pHv) was maintained constant by metabolic means independently of PO2 from 29 to 10 kPa. In the evening pHv again was constant and independent of PO2 but it was more alkaline by 0.1 unit corresponding to a shift along the in vitro buffer line. At that time, the ventilation required for providing a unit quantity of O2 (i.e. the ventilatory requirement) increased more than for simply providing O2. The related circadian changes of sensitivity of the ventilatory control system were assessed by comparing morning and evening ventilatory responses to 1-h periods of hypoxia and then hypercapnia. In the evening, the amplitude of the responses to both O2 and CO2 increased but the increase in CO2 sensitivity was proportionally more important. This is consistent with the increase of ventilatory requirement and the related decrease of hemolymph PCO2 during this period. It is concluded that in this animal there exists a circadian rhythm of extracellular pH that is achieved by controlling the CO2 partial pressure in the hemolymph. Results are discussed in terms of O2 transport processes and metabolic modulation through pH adjustments. PMID:3659603

Sakakibara, Y; Burtin, B; Massabuau, J C

1987-09-01

308

PDP1? functions downstream of the circadian oscillator to mediate behavioral rhythms Abbreviated title: PDP1? function in the circadian clock  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila circadian oscillator is comprised of autoregulatory period/timeless (per/tim) and Clock (Clk) feedback loops that control rhythmic transcription. In the Clk loop, CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers activate vrille (vri) and PAR domain protein 1? (Pdp1?) transcription, then sequential repression by VRI and activation by PDP1? mediate rhythms in Clk transcription. Since VRI and PDP1? bind the same regulatory element, the VRI/PDP1? ratio is thought to control the level of Clk transcription. Thus, constant high or low PDP1? levels in clock cells should eliminate Clk mRNA cycling and disrupt circadian oscillator function. Here we show that reducing PDP1? levels in clock cells by ~70% via RNA interference or increasing PDP1? levels by ~10-fold in clock cells does not alter Clk mRNA cycling or circadian oscillator function. However, constant low or high PDP1? levels in clock cells disrupt locomotor activity rhythms despite persistent circadian oscillator function in brain pacemaker neurons that extend morphologically normal projections into the dorsal brain. These results demonstrate that the VRI/PDP1? ratio neither controls Clk mRNA cycling nor circadian oscillator function, and argue that PDP1? is not essential for Clk activation. PDP1? is nevertheless required for behavioral rhythmicity, which suggests that it functions to regulate oscillator output. PMID:17344391

Benito, Juliana; Zheng, Hao; Hardin, Paul E.

2007-01-01

309

An investigation of natural genetic variation in the circadian system of Drosophila melanogaster: rhythm characteristics and methods of quantification.  

PubMed

Variation in four characteristics of the circadian locomotor activity rhythm was investigated in 24 true-breeding strains of Drosophila melanogaster with a view to establishing methods of phenotypic measurement sufficiently robust to allow subsequent biometric analysis. Between them, these strains formed a representative sample of the genetic variability of a natural population. Period, phase, definition (the degree to which a rhythmic signal was obscured by noise), and rhythm waveform were all found to vary continuously among the strains, although within each strain the rhythm phenotype was remarkably consistent. Each characteristic was found to be sufficiently robust to permit objective measurement using several different methods of quantification, which were then compared. PMID:8033244

Emery, P T; Morgan, E; Birley, A J

1994-04-01

310

Tonic Neuromodulation of the Inspiratory Rhythm Generator  

PubMed Central

The generation of neural network dynamics relies on the interactions between the intrinsic and synaptic properties of their neural components. Moreover, neuromodulators allow networks to change these properties and adjust their activity to specific challenges. Endogenous continuous (“tonic”) neuromodulation can regulate and sometimes be indispensible for networks to produce basal activity. This seems to be the case for the inspiratory rhythm generator located in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). This neural network is necessary and sufficient for generating inspiratory rhythms. The preBötC produces normal respiratory activity (eupnea) as well as sighs under normoxic conditions, and it generates gasping under hypoxic conditions after a reconfiguration process. The reconfiguration leading to gasping generation involves changes of synaptic and intrinsic properties that can be mediated by several neuromodulators. Over the past years, it has been shown that endogenous continuous neuromodulation of the preBötC may involve the continuous action of amines and peptides on extrasynaptic receptors. I will summarize the findings supporting the role of endogenous continuous neuromodulation in the generation and regulation of different inspiratory rhythms, exploring the possibility that these neuromodulatory actions involve extrasynaptic receptors along with evidence of glial modulation of preBötC activity. PMID:22934010

Peña-Ortega, Fernando

2012-01-01

311

Stochastic models of cellular circadian rhythms in plants help to understand the impact of noise on robustness and clock structure  

PubMed Central

Rhythmic behavior is essential for plants; for example, daily (circadian) rhythms control photosynthesis and seasonal rhythms regulate their life cycle. The core of the circadian clock is a genetic network that coordinates the expression of specific clock genes in a circadian rhythm reflecting the 24-h day/night cycle. Circadian clocks exhibit stochastic noise due to the low copy numbers of clock genes and the consequent cell-to-cell variation: this intrinsic noise plays a major role in circadian clocks by inducing more robust oscillatory behavior. Another source of noise is the environment, which causes variation in temperature and light intensity: this extrinsic noise is part of the requirement for the structural complexity of clock networks. Advances in experimental techniques now permit single-cell measurements and the development of single-cell models. Here we present some modeling studies showing the importance of considering both types of noise in understanding how plants adapt to regular and irregular light variations. Stochastic models have proven useful for understanding the effect of regular variations. By contrast, the impact of irregular variations and the interaction of different noise sources are less well studied. PMID:25374576

Guerriero, Maria L.; Akman, Ozgur E.; van Ooijen, Gerben

2014-01-01

312

Circadian Rhythms in Executive Function during the Transition to Adolescence: The Effect of Synchrony between Chronotype and Time of Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the influence of circadian rhythms on executive function during early adolescence, we administered a battery of executive function measures (including a Go-Nogo task, the Iowa Gambling Task, a Self-ordered Pointing task, and an Intra/Extradimensional Shift task) to Morning-preference and Evening-preference participants (N = 80) between…

Hahn, Constanze; Cowell, Jason M.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Goldstein, David; Ralph, Martin; Hasher, Lynn; Zelazo, Philip David

2012-01-01

313

Circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and hippocampal clock genes expression are dampened in vitamin A-deficient rats.  

PubMed

The main external time giver is the day-night cycle; however, signals from feeding and the activity/rest cycles can entrain peripheral clocks, such as the hippocampus, in the absence of light. Knowing that vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, may act as regulators of the endogenous clock activity, we hypothesized that the nutritional deficiency of vitamin A may influence the locomotor activity rhythm as well as the endogenous circadian patterns of clock genes in the rat hippocampus. Locomotor activity was recorded during the last week of the treatment period. Circadian rhythms of clock genes expression were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in hippocampus samples that were isolated every 4 hours during a 24-hour period. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were also determined by a kinetic assay. Regulatory regions of clock PER2, CRY1, and CRY2 genes were scanned for RXRE, RARE, and RORE sites. As expected, the locomotor activity pattern of rats shifted rightward under constant dark conditions. Clock genes expression and GSH levels displayed robust circadian oscillations in the rat hippocampus. We found RXRE and RORE sites on regulatory regions of clock genes. Vitamin A deficiency dampened rhythms of locomotor activity as well as modified endogenous rhythms of clock genes expression and GSH levels. Thus, vitamin A may have a role in endogenous clock functioning and participate in the circadian regulation of the cellular redox state in the hippocampus, a peripheral clock with relevant function in memory and learning. PMID:24774069

Navigatore-Fonzo, Lorena S; Delgado, Silvia M; Golini, Rebeca S; Anzulovich, Ana C

2014-04-01

314

Dopamine receptor 1 neurons in the dorsal striatum regulate food anticipatory circadian activity rhythms in mice.  

PubMed

Daily rhythms of food anticipatory activity (FAA) are regulated independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which mediates entrainment of rhythms to light, but the neural circuits that establish FAA remain elusive. In this study, we show that mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R KO mice) manifest greatly reduced FAA, whereas mice lacking the dopamine D2 receptor have normal FAA. To determine where dopamine exerts its effect, we limited expression of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum of dopamine-deficient mice; these mice developed FAA. Within the dorsal striatum, the daily rhythm of clock gene period2 expression was markedly suppressed in D1R KO mice. Pharmacological activation of D1R at the same time daily was sufficient to establish anticipatory activity in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that dopamine signaling to D1R-expressing neurons in the dorsal striatum plays an important role in manifestation of FAA, possibly by synchronizing circadian oscillators that modulate motivational processes and behavioral output. PMID:25217530

Gallardo, Christian M; Darvas, Martin; Oviatt, Mia; Chang, Chris H; Michalik, Mateusz; Huddy, Timothy F; Meyer, Emily E; Shuster, Scott A; Aguayo, Antonio; Hill, Elizabeth M; Kiani, Karun; Ikpeazu, Jonathan; Martinez, Johan S; Purpura, Mari; Smit, Andrea N; Patton, Danica F; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Palmiter, Richard D; Steele, Andrew D

2014-01-01

315

Dopamine receptor 1 neurons in the dorsal striatum regulate food anticipatory circadian activity rhythms in mice  

PubMed Central

Daily rhythms of food anticipatory activity (FAA) are regulated independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which mediates entrainment of rhythms to light, but the neural circuits that establish FAA remain elusive. In this study, we show that mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R KO mice) manifest greatly reduced FAA, whereas mice lacking the dopamine D2 receptor have normal FAA. To determine where dopamine exerts its effect, we limited expression of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum of dopamine-deficient mice; these mice developed FAA. Within the dorsal striatum, the daily rhythm of clock gene period2 expression was markedly suppressed in D1R KO mice. Pharmacological activation of D1R at the same time daily was sufficient to establish anticipatory activity in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that dopamine signaling to D1R-expressing neurons in the dorsal striatum plays an important role in manifestation of FAA, possibly by synchronizing circadian oscillators that modulate motivational processes and behavioral output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03781.001 PMID:25217530

Gallardo, Christian M; Darvas, Martin; Oviatt, Mia; Chang, Chris H; Michalik, Mateusz; Huddy, Timothy F; Meyer, Emily E; Shuster, Scott A; Aguayo, Antonio; Hill, Elizabeth M; Kiani, Karun; Ikpeazu, Jonathan; Martinez, Johan S; Purpura, Mari; Smit, Andrea N; Patton, Danica F; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Palmiter, Richard D; Steele, Andrew D

2014-01-01

316

Drosophila cryb mutation reveals two circadian clocks that drive locomotor rhythm and have different responsiveness to light.  

PubMed

Cryptochrome (CRY) is a blue-light-absorbing protein involved in the photic entrainment of the circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster. We have investigated the locomotor activity rhythms of flies carrying cryb mutant and revealed that they have two separate circadian oscillators with different responsiveness to light. When kept in constant light conditions, wild-type flies became arrhythmic, while cryb mutant flies exhibited free-running rhythms with two rhythmic components, one with a shorter and the other with a longer free-running period. The rhythm dissociation was dependent on the light intensities: the higher the light intensities, the greater the proportion of animals exhibiting the two oscillations. External photoreceptors including the compound eyes and the ocelli are the likely photoreceptors for the rhythm dissociation, since rhythm dissociation was prevented in so1;cryb and norpAP41;cryb double mutant flies. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the PERIOD expression rhythms in ventrally located lateral neurons (LNvs) occurred synchronously with the shorter period component, while those in the dorsally located per-expressing neurons showed PER expression most likely related to the longer period component, in addition to that synchronized to the LNvs. These results suggest that the Drosophila locomotor rhythms are driven by two separate per-dependent clocks, responding differentially to constant light. PMID:15183277

Yoshii, Taishi; Funada, Yuriko; Ibuki-Ishibashi, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Akira; Tanimura, Teiichi; Tomioka, Kenji

2004-06-01

317

Hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts the balance of the expression of circadian rhythm genes in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The human circadian rhythm is controlled by at least eight circadian clock genes and disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with cancer development. The present study aims to elucidate the association between the expression of circadian clock genes and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and also to reveal whether the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is the major regulator that contributes to the disturbance of circadian clock gene expression. The mRNA levels of circadian clock genes in 30 HCC and the paired peritumoral tissues were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A stable HBx-expressing cell line, Bel-7404-HBx, was established through transfection of HBx plasmids. The mRNA level of circadian clock genes was also detected by RT-qPCR in these cells. Compared with the paired peritumoral tissues, the mRNA levels of the Per1, Per2, Per3 and Cry2 genes in HCC tissue were significantly lower (P<0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the expression levels of CLOCK, BMAL1, Cry1 and casein kinase 1? (CK1?; P>0.05). Compared with Bel-7404 cells, the mRNA levels of the CLOCK, Per1 and Per2 genes in Bel-7404-HBx cells were significantly increased, while the mRNA levels of the BMAL1, Per3, Cry1, Cry2 and CKI? genes were decreased (P<0.05). Thus, the present study identified that disturbance of the expression of circadian clock genes is common in HCC. HBx disrupts the expression of circadian clock genes and may, therefore, induce the development of HCC. PMID:25360177

YANG, SHENG-LI; YU, CHAO; JIANG, JIAN-XIN; LIU, LI-PING; FANG, XIEFAN; WU, CHAO

2014-01-01

318

Circadian Rhythms  

MedlinePLUS

... reviewed November 2012 Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Highlight Body Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on August 08, 2014 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

319

Effects of Exposure to Intermittent versus Continuous Red Light on Human Circadian Rhythms, Melatonin Suppression, and Pupillary Constriction  

PubMed Central

Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n?=?24, 21–28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm?2 s?1), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n?=?8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P?=?0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light. PMID:24797245

Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

320

Respiratory rhythms in stingless bee workers: circadian and ultradian components throughout adult development.  

PubMed

The workers of the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata, assume different tasks during their adult life. Newly emerged individuals remain inside the nest, without contact with the external environment. Maturing workers go to more peripheral regions and only the oldest, the foragers, leave the nest. As this diversity of activities implies different metabolic patterns, oxygen consumption has been measured in workers of three different ages: 24-48 h (nurses), 10-15 days (builders), and older than 25 days (foragers). Oxygen consumption of individually isolated workers was determined by intermittent respirometry, under constant darkness and temperature of 25±1 °C. Sets of 24-h measurements were obtained from individuals belonging to each of the three worker groups. Rhythmicity has been assessed in the daily (24 h) and ultradian (5-14 h) domains. This experimental design allowed detection of endogenous rhythms without the influence of the social group and without inflicting stress on the individuals, as would be caused by their longer isolation from the colony. Significant 24-h rhythms in oxygen consumption were present in nurses, builders and foragers; therefore, workers are rhythmic from the age of 24-48 h. However, the amplitude of the circadian rhythm changed according to age: nurses showed the lowest values, while foragers consistently presented the largest ones, about ten times larger than the amplitude of nurses' respiratory rhythm. Ultradian frequencies were detected for all worker groups, the power and frequencies of which varied little with age. This means that the ultradian strength was relatively larger in nurses and apparently maintains some relationship with the queen's oviposition episodes. PMID:21221597

Teixeira, Laura V; Waterhouse, Jim M; Marques, Mirian D

2011-04-01

321

Euchronism, allochronism, and dyschronism: is internal desynchronization of human circadian rhythms a sign of illness?  

PubMed

The authors define a subject as euchronic when the circadian parameters--tau (tau=period), Ø (acrophse or peak time), A (amplitude), and M (MESOR=24 h rhythm-adjusted mean)--of a set of circadian variables are within the confidence limits of appropriate reference values of healthy subjects (HS). We define internal desynchronization as a state in which the circadian tau of a set of rhythms differs from 24 h and when the tau of a given variable differs from that of other variables. Such a state was first observed in singly isolated HS without access to time cues and clues. Herein, data and analyses are presented demonstrating that internal desynchronization appears to be a rather common phenomenon in HS dwelling in their natural environment (i.e., in the presence of usual zeitgebers). This has been documented by longitudinal studies (n approximately=15 days) of the circadian rhythm in sleep-wakefulness, body temperature, right- and left-hand-grip strength, and reaction time involving a total of 246 HS and 134 shift workers (SW), with 45.5% showing good and 54.5% poor SW tolerance. The presence of internal desynchronization observed in SW was associated SW intolerance, with symptoms being sleep alteration/disturbances, sleeping-pill dependence, persisting fatigue (asthenia), mood alteration, and digestive complaints. Internal desynchronization was also documented in groups of HS and tolerant SW, though it was almost the rule among the intolerant SW. The authors introduce two new terms: allochronism to describe the time organization of those SW who evidence internal desynchronization without detectable clinical symptoms, and dyschronism to describe the time organization of those SW who exhibit internal desynchrobization plus the symptoms of SW intolerance or medical illness. The condition of allochronism is not restricted only to SW tolerance, as it was detected in 112 HS without medical complains when exposed to various experimental conditions, including medications and placebos, sojourn in the high Arctic summer, intensive sport training, and task-loaded cognitive performance testing. Dyschronism in SW who are sleep-deprived is associated with persisting fatigue. An unpublished Gallup survey found that 47% of 2478 respondents experienced a state of asthenia during the previous 12 months, with symptoms mimicking those of SW intolerance. In one-third of the cases, the origin of the asthenia was undetermined. Taking into account the high incidence of internal desynchronization found in past investigations and the clinical observation that sleep deprivation is a consequence of many acute and chronic medical conditions (nocturnal pain, nocturnal asthma, etc.), it is suggested that dyschronism may be responsible for the asthenia of unknown origin, at least for some persons. The interindividual (including sex-related) variability in the propensity to exhibit an altered temporal organization, whether it be transient or persistent (i.e., reversible or non-reversible) suggests the involvement of genetic factors. The Dian-Circadian genetic model previously proposed by the authors seems pertinent to conceptualize and explain the various levels and output of internal desynchronization. PMID:17701673

Reinberg, Alain E; Ashkenazi, Israel; Smolensky, Michael H

2007-01-01

322

Effect of bedrest on circadian rhythms of plasma renin, aldosterone, and cortisol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies of normal men after 5 d of bedrest showed that circulatory instability on head-up tilt or standing is preceded by increased plasma renin activity (PRA) at bedrest. In the present study, the circadian rhythms of PRA, aldosterone, and cortisol have been observed in five normal men on a constant diet. In ambulatory controls, PRA and aldosterone increased normally after standing. On the third morning of bedrest, PRA was higher than before, and at noon, PRA was higher than in standing controls. The nocturnal peaks of PRA resulting from episodic renin secretion during sleep were higher after bedrest. Plasma aldosterone was also increased by bedrest. The findings are compatible with the theory that intermittent beta-adrenergic nerve activity during sleep is increased after bedrest, but other factors, such as loss of body sodium and a lower plasma volume, may also be involved.

Chavarri, M.; Ganguly, A.; Luetscher, J. A.; Zager, P. G.

1977-01-01

323

Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms.  

PubMed

A diary-like instrument to measure lifestyle regularity (the 'Social Rhythm Metric'-SRM) was given to 96 subjects (48 women, 48 men), 39 of whom repeated the study after at least one year, with additional objective measures of rest/activity. Lifestyle regularity as measured by the SRM related to age, morningness, subjective sleep quality and time-of-day variations in alertness, but not to gender, extroversion or neuroticism. Statistically significant test-retest correlations of about 0.4 emerged for SRM scores over the 12-30 month delay. Diary-based estimates of bedtime and waketime appeared fairly reliable. In a further study of healthy young men, 4 high SRM scorers ('regular') had a deeper nocturnal body temperature trough than 5 low SRM scorers ('irregular'), suggesting a better functioning circadian system in the 'regular' group. PMID:10607126

Monk, T H; Petrie, S R; Hayes, A J; Kupfer, D J

1994-12-01

324

Melatonin Regulates Aging and Neurodegeneration through Energy Metabolism, Epigenetics, Autophagy and Circadian Rhythm Pathways  

PubMed Central

Brain aging is linked to certain types of neurodegenerative diseases and identifying new therapeutic targets has become critical. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, associates with molecules and signaling pathways that sense and influence energy metabolism, autophagy, and circadian rhythms, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Forkhead box O (FoxOs), sirtuins and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. This review summarizes the current understanding of how melatonin, together with molecular, cellular and systemic energy metabolisms, regulates epigenetic processes in the neurons. This information will lead to a greater understanding of molecular epigenetic aging of the brain and anti-aging mechanisms to increase lifespan under healthy conditions. PMID:25247581

Jenwitheesuk, Anorut; Nopparat, Chutikorn; Mukda, Sujira; Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Govitrapong, Piyarat

2014-01-01

325

A circadian clock in Antarctic krill: an endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba.  

PubMed

Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (?9-12 h period) in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ?9-12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle. PMID:22022521

Teschke, Mathias; Wendt, Sabrina; Kawaguchi, So; Kramer, Achim; Meyer, Bettina

2011-01-01

326

No endogenous circadian rhythm in resting plasma Hsp72 concentration in humans  

PubMed Central

Extra-cellular (e) heat shock protein (Hsp)72 has been shown to be elevated in a number of clinical conditions and has been proposed as a potential diagnostic marker. From a methodological and diagnostic perspective, it is important to investigate if concentrations of eHsp72 fluctuate throughout the day; hence, the purpose of the study was to measure resting concentrations of plasma eHsp72 throughout a 24-h period. Blood samples were taken every hour from 1200–2100 hours and from 0700–1200 hours the following day from seven healthy recreationally active males. Participants remained in the laboratory throughout the trial, performed light sedentary activities and were provided with standardised meals and fluids. Physical activity was quantified throughout by the use of an accelerometer. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were analysed for eHsp72 concentration using a commercially available high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (intra-assay coefficient of variation?=?1.4%). One-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that measures of physiological stress such as heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure remained stable throughout the trial and subjects remained sedentary throughout (mean activity energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate—35.7?±?10.0 kcal?h?1). Plasma Hsp72 concentration did not fluctuate significantly throughout the day and showed no apparent endogenous circadian rhythm in absolute (P?=?0.367) or plasma volume change corrected data (P?=?0.380). Individual coefficients of variation ranged from 3.8–7.7% (mean 5.4%). Mean Hsp72 concentration across all subjects and time points was 1.49?±?0.08 ng?ml?1. These data show that in a rested state, plasma eHsp72 concentration shows no apparent endogenous circadian rhythm. PMID:18839337

Fortes, Matthew B.

2008-01-01

327

The effects of feedback lighting on the circadian drinking rhythm in the diurnal new world primate Saimiri sciureus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feedback lighting provides illumination primarily during the subjective night (i.e., the photosensitive portion of the circadian cycle) in response to a given behavior. This technique has previously been used to test the nonparametric model of entrainment in nocturnal rodents. In three species (Rattus norvegicus, Mesocricetus auratus, and Mus musculus), the free-running period of the locomotor activity rhythm was similar whether the animals were exposed to continuous light or discrete light pulses occurring essentially only during the subjective night (i.e., feedback lighting). In the current experiments, feedback lighting was presented to squirrel monkeys so that light fell predominantly during the subjective night. Feedback lighting was linked to the drinking behavior in this diurnal primate so that when the animal drank, the lights went out. Despite the seemingly adverse predicament, the monkeys maintained regular circadian drinking rhythms. Furthermore, just as the period of the free-running activity rhythms of nocturnal rodents exposed to continuous light or feedback lighting were similar, the period of the drinking rhythms of the squirrel monkeys in continuous light and feedback lighting were comparable (25.6 +/- 0.1 and 25.9 +/- 0.1 hours, respectively), despite a substantial decrease in the total amount of light exposure associated with feedback lighting. The free-running period of monkeys exposed to continuous dark (24.5 +/- 0.1 hours) was significantly shorter than either of the two lighting conditions (P < 0.001). The results presented for the drinking rhythm were confirmed by examination of the temperature and activity rhythms. Therefore, discrete light pulses given predominately during the subjective night are capable of simulating the effects of continuous light on the free-running period of the circadian rhythms of a diurnal primate. The response of squirrel monkeys to feedback lighting thus lends further support for the model and suggests that the major entrainment mechanisms are similar in nocturnal rodents and diurnal primates.

Ferraro, J. S.; Sulzman, F. M.

1988-01-01

328

Influence of pulsatile and nonpulsatile left heart bypass on the hormonal circadian rhythm.  

PubMed

We investigated endocrine circadian rhythm (CR) during pulsatile and nonpulsatile left heart bypass (PLHB and NLHB). A ventricular assist device (VAD) was installed in five goats. After 2 weeks of PLHB, NLHB was subsequently conducted for 4 weeks. The levels of melatonin, cortisol, and renin activity were measured every 2 hours for 24 hours on the last day of the second PLHB week and the second and fourth NLHB weeks. Acquired data were compared with those of the normal control goats (Cont) to determine the presence or absence of CR, as well as the timing, acrophase, amplitude, and mesor of CR. Variations in melatonin, CR were consistently detected at all sampling points. In contrast, CR of cortisol during PLHB and NLHB was observed in a few cases, although considerable CR was noted in most of the Cont cases. The variations in renin activity indicated CR in most of the Cont cases and in all cases at all sampling points during PLHB and NLHB, whereas their acrophases were diversified. In conclusion, the CR of melatonin, reflecting the fundamental circadian clock, was maintained during both PLHB and NLHB, while it could be modified for stress sensitive cortisol and hemodynamic responsive renin during these bypass modalities. PMID:11016512

Nishinaka, T; Tatsumi, E; Taenaka, Y; Takano, H; Koyanagi, H

2000-01-01

329

Jet lag, circadian rhythm sleep disturbances, and depression: the role of melatonin and its analogs.  

PubMed

Traveling through several time zones results in a constellation of symptoms known as jet lag. These include reduced alertness, daytime fatigue, loss of appetite, reduced cognitive skills, and disruption of the sleep/wake cycle. In susceptible air travel passengers, jet lag may exacerbate affective illness and result in psychiatric morbidity. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms and melatonin secretion represent the common underlying factor in jet lag and other circadian disorders. Recent studies have established the effectiveness of strategically timed administration of melatonin and appropriate timed exposure to environmental schedules including light in counteracting the dysregulation (chronobiologic actions). With the introduction of melatonergic agonists such as ramelteon and tasimelteon, which have both a stronger affinity for MT? and MT? melatonin receptors and a longer half-life, new therapeutic options now exist for treating the sleep disturbances associated with jet lag. The melatonin analogs are unique inasmuch as they can also enhance daytime alertness. The recently introduced melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine, which has established its supremacy over other antidepressants in having a significant chronobiologic activity, represents a good choice for treating depressive symptoms that are associated with jet lag. PMID:20827520

Srinivasan, Venkatramanujam; Singh, Jarnail; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Brown, Gregory M; Spence, David Warren; Cardinali, Daniel P

2010-11-01

330

Alterations in endogenous circadian rhythm of core temperature in senescent Fischer 344 rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We assessed whether alterations in endogenous circadian rhythm of core temperature (CRT) in aging rats are associated with chronological time or with a biological marker of senescence, i.e., spontaneous rapid body weight loss. CRT was measured in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats beginning at age 689 days and then continuously until death. Young rats were also monitored. The rats were housed under constant dim red light at 24-26 degrees C, and core temperature was recorded every 10 min via biotelemetry. The CRT amplitude of the body weight-stable (presenescent) old rats was significantly less than that of young rats at all analysis periods. At the onset of spontaneous rapid weight loss (senescence), all measures of endogenous CRT differed significantly from those in the presenescent period. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (a circadian pacemaker) of the senescent rats maintained its light responsiveness as determined by an increase in c-fos expression after a brief light exposure. These data demonstrate that some characteristics of the CRT are altered slowly with chronological aging, whereas others occur rapidly with the onset of senescence.

McDonald, R. B.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Ruhe, R. C.; Fuller, C. A.; Horwitz, B. A.

1999-01-01

331

Prolonged Bioluminescence Monitoring in Mouse Ex Vivo Bone Culture Revealed Persistent Circadian Rhythms in Articular Cartilages and Growth Plates  

PubMed Central

The bone is a metabolically active organ which undergoes repeated remodeling cycles of bone resorption and formation. In this study, we revealed a robust and extremely long-lasting circadian rhythm in ex vivo culture maintained for over six months from the femoral bone of a PERIOD2Luciferase mouse. Furthermore, we also identified robust circadian clocks in flat bones. High- or low-magnification real-time bioluminescence microscopic imaging revealed that the robust circadian rhythms emanated from the articular cartilage and the epiphyseal cartilage within the growth plate of juvenile animals. Stimulation by forskolin or dexamethasone treatment caused type 0 phase resetting, indicating canonical entraining properties of the bone clock. Together, our findings from long-term ex vivo culture revealed that “tissue-autonomous” circadian rhythm in the articular cartilage and the growth plate of femoral bone functions for several months even in an organ culture condition, and provided a useful in vitro assay system investigating the role of the biological clock in bone formation or development. PMID:24223788

Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Umemura, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Shirai, Toshiharu; Oda, Ryo; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yagita, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

332

The biological clock of an hematophagous insect: locomotor activity rhythms, circadian expression and downregulation after a blood meal.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of circadian rhythms in vector-borne disease transmission, very little is known about its molecular control in hematophagous insect vectors. In Drosophila melanogaster, a negative feedback loop of gene expression has been shown to contribute to the clock mechanism. Here, we describe some features of the circadian clock of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Compared to D. melanogaster, sandfly period and timeless, two negative elements of the feedback loop, show similar peaks of mRNA abundance. On the other hand, the expression of Clock (a positive transcription factor) differs between the two species, raising the possibility that the different phases of Clock expression could be associated with the observed differences in circadian activity rhythms. In addition, we show a reduction in locomotor activity after a blood meal, which is correlated with downregulation of period and timeless expression levels. Our results suggest that the circadian pacemaker and its control over the activity rhythms in this hematophagous insect are modulated by blood intake. PMID:16337945

Meireles-Filho, Antonio C A; da S Rivas, Gustavo B; Gesto, João S M; Machado, Ricardo C; Britto, Constança; de Souza, Nataly A; Peixoto, Alexandre A

2006-01-01

333

Biochemical genetics of the circadian rhythm in Neurospora crassa: studies on the cel strain  

SciTech Connect

In Neurospora crassa, the cel mutation lengthens the period of the circadian rhythm when the medium is supplemented with linoleic acid (18:2). Double mutant strains were constructed between cel and the clock mutants prd-1 and four alleles at the frq locus. It was found that: (1) the effect of 18:2 on cel was blocked by prd-1, i.e., prd-1 is epistatic to cel. (2) cel and frq interact such that the percent increase in the period produced by 18:2 was inversely proportional to the period of the frq parent. (3) Data from the literature on period effects in double mutant strains support a multiplicative rather than an additive model. A biochemical interpretation of these interactions is discussed, based on the control of flux through metabolic pathways. Because the cel strain is known to be deficient in the pantothenate derivative normally attached to the fatty acid synthetase (FAS) complex, the possibility that cel may affect other pantothenate-modified proteins was investigated. It was found that in the cel/sup +/ strain, five proteins of molecular weights (M/sub r/) 9000, 19,000, 22,000, 140,000, and 200,000 were labelled with (/sup 14/C)pantothenate. In the cel strain, only the 200 k (FAS) label was reduced in amount. Therefore, there is no evidence that cel affects circadian rhythmicity through any deficiency other than FAS. A biochemical model for circadian rhythmicity in Neurospora is presented. Oscillations in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca/sup 2 +/ are proposed; clock mutations are postulated to affect Ca/sup 2 +/ transporters and the mitochondrial membrane; and phase-shifting effects are accounted for by changes in Ca/sup 2 +/ or ATP levels.

Lakin-Thomas, P.L.

1985-01-01

334

Cocaine sensitization and reward are under the influence of circadian genes and rhythm.  

PubMed

Investigations using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the circadian clock gene period (Per) can influence behavioral responses to cocaine. Here we show that the mouse homologues of the Drosophila Per gene, mPer1 and mPer2, modulate cocaine sensitization and reward, two phenomena extensively studied in humans and animals because of their importance for drug abuse. In response to an acute cocaine injection mPer1 and mPer2 mutant mice as well as wild-type mice exhibited an approximately 5-fold increase in activity compared with saline control levels, showing that there is no initial difference in sensitivity to acute cocaine administration in Per mutants. After repeated cocaine injections wild-type mice exhibited a sensitized behavioral response that was absent in mPer1 knockout mice. In contrast, mPer2 mutant mice exhibited a hypersensitized response to cocaine. Conditioned place preference experiments revealed similar behavioral reactions: mPer1 knockout mice showed a complete lack of cocaine reward whereas mPer2 mutants showed a strong cocaine-induced place preference. In another set of experiments, we tested C57/BL6J mice at different Zeitgeber times and found that cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and place preference are under the control of the circadian clock. In conclusion, we demonstrate that processes involved in cocaine addiction depend on the circadian rhythm and are modulated in an opposing manner by mPer1 and mPer2 genes. PMID:12084940

Abarca, Carolina; Albrecht, Urs; Spanagel, Rainer

2002-06-25

335

Neurons of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus show a circadian rhythm in membrane properties that is lost during prolonged whole-cell recording 1 Published on the World Wide Web on 20 October 1998. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suprachiasmatic nucleus is commonly considered to contain the main pacemaker of behavioral and hormonal circadian rhythms. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, the membrane properties of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons were investigated in order to get more insight in membrane physiological mechanisms underlying the circadian rhythm in firing activity. Circadian rhythmicity could not be detected either in spontaneous firing rate or in

Jeroen Schaap; Nico P. A Bos; Marcel T. G de Jeu; Alwin M. S Geurtsen; Johanna H Meijer; Cyriel M. A Pennartz

1999-01-01

336

Maximum entropy spectral analysis for circadian rhythms: theory, history and practice  

PubMed Central

There is an array of numerical techniques available to estimate the period of circadian and other biological rhythms. Criteria for choosing a method include accuracy of period measurement, resolution of signal embedded in noise or of multiple periodicities, and sensitivity to the presence of weak rhythms and robustness in the presence of stochastic noise. Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA) has proven itself excellent in all regards. The MESA algorithm fits an autoregressive model to the data and extracts the spectrum from its coefficients. Entropy in this context refers to “ignorance” of the data and since this is formally maximized, no unwarranted assumptions are made. Computationally, the coefficients are calculated efficiently by solution of the Yule-Walker equations in an iterative algorithm. MESA is compared here to other common techniques. It is normal to remove high frequency noise from time series using digital filters before analysis. The Butterworth filter is demonstrated here and a danger inherent in multiple filtering passes is discussed. PMID:23844660

2013-01-01

337

Circadian rhythms in peak expiratory flow rate in workers exposed to cotton dust.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and sixty two people working in various departments of cotton spinning and weaving mills measured and recorded their own peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) at two hourly intervals during Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday of the same work week, from waking in the morning throughout the day until going to bed and a last time the following morning after waking. The circadian rhythm in PEFR was computed by the Halberg program. The mean amplitude of the rhythm in the group was found to be 3.3% and the acrophase fell approximately in the middle of the waking hours. Older workers and those claiming to suffer from symptoms of chronic bronchitis were found to have an amplitude significantly higher (4.1% and 3.9% respectively) than their younger or symptom free counterparts (2.6% and 2.9% respectively; p less than 0.03). The amplitude of cardroom workers (2.4%), workers with byssinosis (2.7%), and those with much exposure to airborne cotton dust (3.3%) and bacteria (2.9%) tended to be lower than that of less exposed groups such as office staff (3.9%), though the difference was significant only in the case of cardroom workers (p less than 0.04). This may be due to airborne contaminants in the working environment. PMID:6495244

Cinkotai, F F; Sharpe, T C; Gibbs, A C

1984-01-01

338

Characterization of a circadian rhythm mutant identified in a genetic screen in Neurospora crassa  

E-print Network

timekeeper called the circadian clock. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, asexual spore formation, known as conidiation, is under control of the circadian clock. Neurospora is a premier organism for the study of the circadian clock because...

Keasler, Victor Vasco

2013-02-22

339

The Effects of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Work Schedule Regime on Locomotor Activity Circadian Rhythms, Sleep and Fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study assessed human adaptation to a Mars sol by evaluating sleep metrics obtained by actigraphy and subjective responses in 22 participants, and circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity in 9 participants assigned to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) operational work schedules (24.65 hour days) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2004. During MER operations, increased work shift durations and reduced sleep durations and time in bed were associated with the appearance of pronounced 12-hr (circasemidian) rhythms with reduced activity levels. Sleep duration, workload, and circadian rhythm stability have important implications for adaptability and maintenance of operational performance not only of MER operations personnel but also in space crews exposed to a Mars sol of 24.65 hours during future Mars missions.

DeRoshia, Charles W.; Colletti, Laura C.; Mallis, Melissa M.

2008-01-01

340

Health Impact of Fasting in Saudi Arabia during Ramadan: Association with Disturbed Circadian Rhythm and Metabolic and Sleeping Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Muslims go through strict Ramadan fasting from dawn till sunset for one month yearly. These practices are associated with disturbed feeding and sleep patterns. We recently demonstrated that, during Ramadan, circadian cortisol rhythm of Saudis is abolished, exposing these subjects to continuously increased cortisol levels. Hypothesis Secretory patterns of other hormones and metabolic parameters associated with cortisol, and insulin resistance, might be affected during Ramadan. Protocol Ramadan practitioners (18 males, 5 females; mean age ±SEM?=?23.16±1.2 years) were evaluated before and two weeks into Ramadan. Blood was collected for measurements of endocrine and metabolic parameters at 9 am (±1 hour) and again twelve hours later. Results In Ramadan, glucose concentration was kept within normal range, with a significant increase in the morning. Mean morning concentration of leptin was significantly higher than pre-Ramadan values (p?=?0.001), in contrast to that of adiponectin, which was significantly lower (p<0.001). These changes were associated with increased insulin resistance in morning and evening. Concentrations of hsCRP were lower during Ramadan than those during regular living conditions, however, normal circadian fluctuation was abolished (p?=?0.49). Even though means of liver enzymes, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin were all decreased during Ramadan, statistically lower means were only noted for GGT, total protein, and albumin (p?=?0.018, 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). Discussion Saudi Ramadan practitioners have altered adipokine patterns, typical of insulin resistance. The noted decreases of hsCRP, liver enzymes, total protein, and albumin, are most likely a result of fasting, while loss of circadian rhythmicity of hsCRP is probably due to loss of circadian cortisol rhythm. Conclusions Modern Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia, which are associated with evening hypercortisolism, are also characterized by altered adipokines patterns, and an abolished hsCRP circadian rhythm, all likely to increase cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24810091

Ajabnoor, Ghada M.; Bahijri, Suhad; Borai, Anwar; Abdulkhaliq, Altaf A.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Chrousos, George P.

2014-01-01

341

[Changes in the circadian rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system at lengthy intervals after irradiation].  

PubMed

The disturbance of circadian rhythm of the hypophysis-adrenal system (e. g. the absence of an evening fall in the corticosterone content of blood) was observed 3, 6 and 12 months after irradiation of rats (1186 X 10(-4) Ci/kg). Similar changes were noted in the control group of animals of the same age after 6 and 12 months. In the exposed animals, however, these changes were more frequent. PMID:6647785

Prokudina, E A

1983-01-01

342

Effects of 10 h time zone changes on female flight attendants' circadian rhythms of body temperature, alertness, and visual search  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of rapid time zone changes on the circadian rhythms of flight attendants. The mean age of the 40 female subjects was 30·0 (SD=6·9) years. Measurements of oral temperature, alertness, and visual search were performed at two hour intervals two days before the flight from Helsinki to Los Angeles, during the

S. SUVANTO; M. HÄRMÄ; J. ILMARINEN; M. PARTINEN

1993-01-01

343

Effects of season and external testosterone on the freerunning circadian activity rhythm of european starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Results obtained from activity recordings of birds living under natural photoperiodic conditions have suggested the hypothesis that the daily activity-time (a) and the period (t) of the circadian locomotor activity rhythm are affected not only by external variables but also by internal changes in the hormonal balance related to the annual cycle of reproduction.2.To test this hypothesis, in experiment 1,

Eberhard Gwinner

1975-01-01

344

Melatonin in the Afternoons of a Gradually Advancing Sleep Schedule Enhances the Circadian Rhythm Phase Advance  

PubMed Central

Rationale We test methods to advance (shift earlier) circadian rhythms without producing misalignment between rhythms and sleep. We previously tested 1) a gradually advancing sleep/dark schedule plus morning bright light and afternoon/evening melatonin; and 2) the same sleep schedule with only morning bright light. Now we report on the same sleep schedule with only afternoon/evening melatonin. Objectives To examine phase advances, sleepiness and performance in response to melatonin compared to placebo. Methods Twelve adults (5 female) aged 20–45 years (mean ± SD = 28.3 ± 7.3 years) completed this within-subjects placebo-controlled counterbalanced study. Participants slept on fixed 8-hour sleep schedules for 9 baseline days. Then, sleep/dark was advanced by 1 h/day for 3 consecutive days of treatment. Participants took 3 mg of melatonin or placebo 11 hours before baseline sleep midpoint (the optimal time to produce phase advances) on the first treatment day and 1 hour earlier each subsequent day. We measured the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) before and after treatment. Participants rated subjective symptoms throughout the study. They completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and rated sleepiness from 1 h before pill ingestion until bedtime each treatment day. Results Melatonin produced significantly larger advances (1.3 ± 0.7 h) compared to placebo (0.7 ± 0.7 h); however, in the hours between melatonin ingestion and bed, melatonin caused sleepiness and performance decrements. Conclusions Adding afternoon/evening melatonin to the gradually advancing sleep schedule increased the phase advance, but given the side effects, like sleepiness, it is better to use morning bright light and perhaps a lower dose of melatonin. PMID:23001190

Crowley, Stephanie J.; Eastman, Charmane I.

2012-01-01

345

Circadian and ultradian extrasystole rhythms in healthy individuals at elevated versus lowland altitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We defined chronobiologic norms for supraventricular and ventricular single extrasystoles (SV and VE, respectively) in healthy older males in lowland areas. The study was extended to higher altitudes, where hypobaric hypoxia was expected to increase extrasystole frequency, while perhaps not changing rhythmicity. In healthy men (lowland n = 37, altitude n = 22), aged 49-72 years, mean numbers of SVs and VEs were counted over a 24-h period. Cosinor regression was used to test the 24-h rhythm and its 2nd-10th harmonics. The resulting approximating function for either extrasystole type includes its point, 95% confidence interval of the mean, and 95% tolerance for single measurement estimates. Separate hourly differences (delta) between altitude and lowland ( n = 59) were also analysed. Hourly means were significantly higher in the mountains versus lowland, by +0.8 beats/h on average for SVs, and by +0.9 beats/h for VEs. A relatively rich chronogram for VEs in mountains versus lowland exists. Delta VEs clearly display a 24-h component and its 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 7th harmonics. This results in significantly higher accumulation of VEs around 8.00 a.m., 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. in the mountains. The increase in extrasystole occurrence in the mountains is probably caused by higher hypobaric hypoxia and resulting sympathetic drive. Healthy men at elevated altitudes show circadian and several ultradian rhythms of single VEs dependent on the hypoxia level. This new methodological approach—evaluating the differences between two locations using delta values—promises to provide deeper insight into the occurrence of premature beats.

Kujanik, Stefan; Mikulecky, Miroslav

2010-09-01

346

Disruption of behavioral circadian rhythms induced by psychophysiological stress affects plasma free amino acid profiles without affecting peripheral clock gene expression in mice.  

PubMed

Disordered circadian rhythms are associated with various psychiatric conditions and metabolic diseases. We recently established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by reduced amplitude of circadian wheel-running activity and sleep-wake cycles, sleep fragmentation and hyperphagia. Here, we evaluate day-night fluctuations in plasma concentrations of free amino acids (FAA), appetite hormones and prolactin as well as the hepatic expression of circadian clock-related genes in mice with CSD (CSD mice). Nocturnal increases in wheel-running activity and circadian rhythms of plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly disrupted in CSD mice. Hyperphagia with a decreased leptin/ghrelin ratio was found in CSD mice. Day-night fluctuations in plasma FAA contents were severely disrupted without affecting total FAA levels in CSD mice. Nocturnal increases in branched-chain amino acids such as Ile, Leu, and Val were further augmented in CSD mice, while daytime increases in Gly, Ala, Ser, Thr, Lys, Arg, His, Tyr, Met, Cys, Glu, and Asn were significantly attenuated. Importantly, the circadian expression of hepatic clock genes was completely unaffected in CSD mice. These findings suggest that circadian clock gene expression does not always reflect disordered behavior and sleep rhythms and that plasma FFA profiles could serve as a potential biomarker of circadian rhythm disorders. PMID:24971530

Oishi, Katsutaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Itoh, Nanako; Miyazaki, Koyomi; Nemoto, Tadashi; Nakakita, Yasukazu; Kaneda, Hirotaka

2014-07-18

347

UNC79 and UNC80, Putative Auxiliary Subunits of the NARROW ABDOMEN Ion Channel, Are Indispensable for Robust Circadian Locomotor Rhythms in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a network of circadian pacemaker neurons drives daily rhythms in rest and activity. The ion channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA), orthologous to the mammalian sodium leak channel NALCN, functions downstream of the molecular circadian clock in pacemaker neurons to promote behavioral rhythmicity. To better understand the function and regulation of the NA channel, we have characterized two putative auxiliary channel subunits in Drosophila, unc79 (aka dunc79) and unc80 (aka CG18437). We have generated novel unc79 and unc80 mutations that represent strong or complete loss-of-function alleles. These mutants display severe defects in circadian locomotor rhythmicity that are indistinguishable from na mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific RNA interference and rescue analyses indicate that UNC79 and UNC80 likely function within pacemaker neurons, with similar anatomical requirements to NA. We observe an interdependent, post-transcriptional regulatory relationship among the three gene products, as loss of na, unc79, or unc80 gene function leads to decreased expression of all three proteins, with minimal effect on transcript levels. Yet despite this relationship, we find that the requirement for unc79 and unc80 in circadian rhythmicity cannot be bypassed by increasing NA protein expression, nor can these putative auxiliary subunits substitute for each other. These data indicate functional requirements for UNC79 and UNC80 beyond promoting channel subunit expression. Immunoprecipitation experiments also confirm that UNC79 and UNC80 form a complex with NA in the Drosophila brain. Taken together, these data suggest that Drosophila NA, UNC79, and UNC80 function together in circadian clock neurons to promote rhythmic behavior. PMID:24223770

Lear, Bridget C.; Darrah, Eric J.; Aldrich, Benjamin T.; Gebre, Senetibeb; Scott, Robert L.; Allada, Ravi

2013-01-01

348

Why the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) should be measured before treatment of patients with circadian rhythm sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) may include light therapy, chronotherapy and melatonin. Exogenous melatonin is increasingly being used in patients with insomnia or CRSD. Although pharmacopoeias and the European food safety authority (EFSA) recommend administering melatonin 1-2 h before desired bedtime, several studies have shown that melatonin is not always effective if administered according to that recommendation. Crucial for optimal treatment of CRSD, melatonin and other treatments should be administered at a time related to individual circadian timing (typically assessed using the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO)). If not administered according to the individual patient's circadian timing, melatonin and other treatments may not only be ineffective, they may even result in contrary effects. Endogenous melatonin levels can be measured reliably in saliva collected at the patient's home. A clinically reliably DLMO can be calculated using a fixed threshold. Diary and polysomnographic sleep-onset time do not reliably predict DLMO or circadian timing in patients with CRSD. Knowing the patient's individual circadian timing by assessing DLMO can improve diagnosis and treatment of CRSD with melatonin as well as other therapies such as light or chronotherapy, and optimizing treatment timing will shorten the time required to achieve results. PMID:24388969

Keijzer, Henry; Smits, Marcel G; Duffy, Jeanne F; Curfs, Leopold M G

2014-08-01

349

Action Spectrum for Resetting the Circadian Phototaxis Rhythm in the CW15 Strain of Chlamydomonas1  

PubMed Central

We have developed protocols for phase shifting the circadian rhythm of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by light pulses. This paper describes the photobiology of phase-resetting the Chlamydomonas clock by brief (3 seconds to 15 minutes) light pulses administered during a 24 hour dark period. Its action spectrum exhibited two prominent peaks, at 520 and 660 nanometers. The fluence at 520 nanometers required to elicit a 4 hour phase shift was 0.2 millimole photon per square meter, but the pigment that is participating in resetting the clock under these conditions is unknown. The fluence needed at 660 nanomoles to induce a 4 hour phase shift was 0.1 millimole photon per square meter, which is comparable with that needed to induce the typical low fluence rate response of phytochrome in higher plants. However, the phase shift by red light (660 nanometers) was not diminished by subsequent administration of far-red light (730 nanometers), even if the red light pulse was as short as 0.1 second. This constitutes the first report of a regulatory action by red light in Chlamydomonas. PMID:16667951

Kondo, Takao; Johnson, Carl Hirschie; Hastings, John Woodland

1991-01-01

350

Involvement of urinary bladder Connexin43 and the circadian clock in coordination of diurnal micturition rhythm  

PubMed Central

Summary Nocturnal enuresis in children and nocturia in the elderly are two highly prevalent clinical conditions characterized by a mismatch between urine production rate in the kidneys and storage in the urinary bladder during the sleep phase. Here we demonstrate, using a novel method for automated recording of mouse micturition, that connexin43 (Cx43), a bladder gap junction protein, is a negative regulator of functional bladder capacity. Bladder Cx43 levels and functional capacity show circadian oscillations in wild-type mice, but such rhythms are completely lost in Cry-null mice having a dysfunctional biological clock. Bladder muscle cells have an internal clock, and show oscillations of Cx43 and gap junction function. A clock regulator, Rev-erb?, upregulates Cx43 transcription as a co-factor of Sp1 using Sp1 cis-elements of the promoter. Therefore, circadianoscillation of Cx43 is associated with the biological clock and contributes to diurnal changes in bladder capacity, which avoids disturbance of sleep by micturition. PMID:22549838

Negoro, Hiromitsu; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Doi, Masao; Suadicani, Sylvia O.; Matsuo, Masahiro; Imamura, Masaaki; Okinami, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Nobuyuki; Oura, Tomonori; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Seo, Kazuyuki; Tainaka, Motomi; Urabe, Shoichi; Kiyokage, Emi; Todo, Takeshi; Okamura, Hitoshi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ogawa, Osamu

2012-01-01

351

Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance, and circadian rhythms in the elderly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a 90-minute afternoon nap regimen on nocturnal sleep, circadian rhythms, and evening alertness and performance levels in the healthy elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine healthy elderly subjects (4m, 5f, age range 74y-87y) each experienced both nap and no-nap conditions in two studies each lasting 17 days (14 at home, 3 in the laboratory). In the nap condition a 90-minute nap was enforced between 13:30 and 15:00 every day, in the no-nap condition daytime napping was prohibited, and activity encouraged in the 13:30-15:00 interval. The order of the two conditions was counterbalanced. PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS: Diary measures, pencil and paper alertness tests, and wrist actigraphy were used at home. In the 72 hour laboratory studies, these measures were augmented by polysomnographic sleep recording, continuous rectal temperature measurement, a daily evening single trial of a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and computerized tests of mood, activation and performance efficiency. RESULTS: By the second week in the "at home" study, an average of 58 minutes of sleep was reported per siesta nap; in the laboratory, polysomnography confirmed an average of 57 minutes of sleep per nap. When nap and no-nap conditions were compared, mixed effects on nocturnal sleep were observed. Diary measures indicated no significant difference in nocturnal sleep duration, but a significant increase (of 38 mins.) in 24-hour Total Sleep Time (TST) when nocturnal sleeps and naps were added together (p<0.025). The laboratory study revealed a decrease of 2.4% in nocturnal sleep efficiency in the nap condition (p<0.025), a reduction of nocturnal Total Sleep Time (TST) by 48 mins. in the nap condition (p<0.001) which resulted primarily from significantly earlier waketimes (p<0.005), but no reliable effects on Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), delta sleep measures, or percent stages 1 & 2. Unlike the diary study, the laboratory study yielded no overall increase in 24-hour TST consequent upon the siesta nap regimen. The only measure of evening alertness or performance to show an improvement was sleep latency in a single-trial evening MSLT (nap: 15.6 mins., no nap: 11.5 mins., p<0.005). No significant change in circadian rhythm parameters was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy seniors were able to adopt a napping regimen involving a 90-minute siesta nap each day between 13:30 and 15:00, achieving about one hour of actual sleep per nap. There were some negative consequences for nocturnal sleep in terms of reduced sleep efficiency and earlier waketimes, but also some positive consequences for objective evening performance and (in the diary study) 24-hour sleep totals. Subjective alertness measures and performance measures showed no reliable effects and circadian phase parameters appeared unchanged.

Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Carrier, J.; Billy, B. D.; Rose, L. R.

2001-01-01

352

l-5-hydroxytryptophan resets the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a serotonin precursor, resets the overt circadian rhythm in the Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor, in a phase- and dose-dependent manner. We used wheel running to assess phase shifts in the free-running locomotor activity rhythm. Following entrainment to a 12:12 h light-dark cycle, 5-HTP (100 mg/kg in saline) was intraperitoneally administered in complete darkness at circadian time (CT)s 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21, and the ensuing phase shifts in the locomotor activity rhythm were calculated. The results show that 5-HTP differentially shifts the phase of the rhythm, causing phase advances from CT 0 to CT 12 and phase delays from CT 12 to CT 21. Maximum advance phase shift was at CT 6 (1.18 ± 0.37 h) and maximum delay was at CT 18 (-2.36 ± 0.56 h). No extended dead zone is apparent. Vehicle (saline) at any CT did not evoke a significant phase shift. Investigations with different doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of 5-HTP revealed that the phase resetting effect is dose-dependent. The shape of the phase-response curve (PRC) has a strong similarity to PRCs obtained using some serotonergic agents. There was no significant increase in wheel-running activity after 5-HTP injection, ruling out behavioral arousal-dependent shifts. This suggests that this phase resetting does not completely depend on feedback of the overt rhythmic behavior on the circadian clock. A mechanistic explanation of these shifts is currently lacking.

Basu, Priyoneel; Singaravel, Muniyandi; Haldar, Chandana

2012-03-01

353

Organization of the circadian clock and control of rhythmicity in fungi  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythms in biological processes occur in a wide range of organisms and are generated by endogenous oscillators. In Neurospora crassa, the FRQ-oscillator (comprised of FRQ, WC-1 and WC-2) is essential for rhythms in asexual sporulation...

Greene, Andrew Vanderford

2006-10-30

354

Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats  

PubMed Central

The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups. PMID:23762462

Stryjek, Rafal; Modlinska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

355

Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS), albino and pigmented laboratory rats.  

PubMed

The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups. PMID:23762462

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modli?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

356

The circatidal rhythm persists without the optic lobe in the mangrove cricket Apteronemobius asahinai.  

PubMed

Whether the circatidal rhythm is generated by a machinery common to the circadian clock is one of the important and interesting questions in chronobiology. The mangrove cricket Apteronemobius asahinai shows a circatidal rhythm generating active and inactive phases and a circadian rhythm modifying the circatidal rhythm by inhibiting activity during the subjective day simultaneously. In the previous study, RNA interference of the circadian clock gene period disrupted the circadian rhythm but not the circatidal rhythm, suggesting a difference in molecular mechanisms between the circatidal and circadian rhythms. In the present study, to compare the neural mechanisms of these 2 rhythms, we observed locomotor activity in the mangrove cricket after surgical removal of the optic lobe, which has been shown to be the locus of the circadian clock in other crickets. We also noted the pigment-dispersing factor immunoreactive neurons (PDF-IRNs) in the optic lobe, because PDF is a key output molecule in the circadian clock system in some insects. The results showed that the circadian modulation was disrupted after the removal of the optic lobes but that the circatidal rhythm was maintained with no remarkable changes in its free-running period. Even in crickets in which some PDF-immunoreactive somata remained after removal of the optic lobe, the circadian rhythm was completely disrupted. The remnants of PDF-IRNs were not correlated to the occurrence and free-running period of the circatidal rhythm. These results indicate that the principal circatidal clock is located in a region(s) different from the optic lobe, whereas the circadian clock is located in the optic lobe, as in other crickets, and PDF-IRNs are not important for circatidal rhythm. Therefore, it is suggested that the circatidal rhythm of A. asahinai is driven by a neural basis different from that driving the circadian rhythm. PMID:24492880

Takekata, Hiroki; Numata, Hideharu; Shiga, Sakiko

2014-02-01

357

The effects of aging and chronic fluoxetine treatment on circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus expression of neuropeptide genes and 5-HT1B receptors  

PubMed Central

Age-related changes in circadian rhythms, including attenuation of photic phase shifts, are associated with changes in the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Aging decreases expression of mRNA for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a key neuropeptide for rhythm generation and photic phase shifts, and increases expression of serotonin transporters and 5-HT1B receptors, whose activation inhibits these phase shifts. Here we describe studies in hamsters showing that aging decreases SCN expression of mRNA for gastrin-releasing peptide, which also modulates photic phase resetting. Because serotonin innervation trophically supports SCN VIP mRNA expression, and serotonin transporters decrease extracellular serotonin, we predicted that chronic administration of the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, would attenuate the age-related changes in SCN VIP mRNA expression and 5-HT1B receptors. In situ hybridization studies showed that fluoxetine treatment does not alter SCN VIP mRNA expression, in either age group, at zeitgeber time (ZT)6 or 13 (ZT12 corresponds to lights off). However, receptor autoradiographic studies showed that fluoxetine prevents the age-related increase in SCN 5-HT1B receptors at ZT6, and decreases SCN 5-HT1B receptors in both ages at ZT13. Therefore, aging effects on SCN VIP mRNA and SCN 5-HT1B receptors are differentially regulated; the age-related increase in serotonin transporter sites mediates the latter but not the former. The studies also showed that aging and chronic fluoxetine treatment decrease total daily wheel running without altering the phase of the circadian wheel running rhythm, in contrast to previous reports of phase resetting by acute fluoxetine treatment. PMID:20525077

Duncan, Marilyn J.; Hester, James M.; Hopper, Jason A.; Franklin, Kathleen M.

2010-01-01

358

Sleep and circadian rhythm regulate circulating complement factors and immunoregulatory properties of C5a.  

PubMed

The sleep-wake cycle is characterized by complex interactions among the central nervous, the endocrine and the immune systems. Continuous 24-h wakefulness prevents sleep-associated hormone regulation resulting in impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, cytokines and hormones also modulate the complement system, which in turn regulates several adaptive immune responses. However, it is unknown whether sleep affects the activation and the immunoregulatory properties of the complement system. Here, we determined whether the 24-h sleep-wake cycle has an impact on: (i) the levels of circulating complement factors; and (ii) TLR4-mediated IL-12 production from human IFN-? primed monocytes in the presence or absence of C5a receptor signaling. For this purpose, we analyzed the blood and blood-derived monocytes of 13 healthy donors during a regular sleep-wake cycle in comparison to 24 h of continuous wakefulness. We found decreased plasma levels of C3 and C4 during nighttime hours that were not affected by sleep. In contrast, sleep was associated with increased complement activation as reflected by elevated C3a plasma levels during nighttime sleep. Sleep deprivation prevented such activation. At the cellular level, C5a negatively regulated TLR4-mediated IL-12p40 and p70 production from human monocytes. Importantly, this regulatory effect of C5a on IL-12p70 production was effective only during daytime hours. Thus, similar to hormones, some complement factors and immunoregulatory properties of C5a are influenced by sleep and the circadian rhythm. Our findings that continuous wakefulness has a negative impact on complement activation may provide a rationale for the immunosupportive functions of sleep. PMID:21539909

Reis, Edimara S; Lange, Tanja; Köhl, Gabriele; Herrmann, Anne; Tschulakow, Alexander V; Naujoks, Julius; Born, Jan; Köhl, Jörg

2011-10-01

359

Increasing doxorubicin activity against breast cancer cells using PPAR?-ligands and by exploiting circadian rhythms  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Doxorubicin is effective against breast cancer, but its major side effect is cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the efficacy of doxorubicin on cancer cells could be increased in combination with PPAR? agonists or chrono-optimization by exploiting the diurnal cycle. Experimental Approach We determined cell toxicity using MCF-7 cancer cells, neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts in this study. Key Results Doxorubicin damages the contractile filaments of cardiac myocytes and affects cardiac fibroblasts by significantly inhibiting collagen production and proliferation at the level of the cell cycle. Cyclin D1 protein levels decreased significantly following doxorubicin treatment indicative of a G1/S arrest. PPAR? agonists with doxorubicin increased the toxicity to MCF-7 cancer cells without affecting cardiac cells. Rosiglitazone and ciglitazone both enhanced anti-cancer activity when combined with doxorubicin (e.g. 50% cell death for doxorubicin at 0.1 ?M compared to 80% cell death when combined with rosiglitazone). Thus, the therapeutic dose of doxorubicin could be reduced by 20-fold through combination with the PPAR? agonists, thereby reducing adverse effects on the heart. The presence of melatonin also significantly increased doxorubicin toxicity, in cardiac fibroblasts (1 ?M melatonin) but not in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions and Implications Our data show, for the first time, that circadian rhythms play an important role in doxorubicin toxicity in the myocardium; doxorubicin should be administered mid-morning, when circulating levels of melatonin are low, and in combination with rosiglitazone to increase therapeutic efficacy in cancer cells while reducing the toxic effects on the heart. PMID:23578093

Arif, I S; Hooper, C L; Greco, F; Williams, A C; Boateng, S Y

2013-01-01

360

Influence of the circadian rhythm of body temperature on the physiological response to microwaves: Day versus night exposure  

SciTech Connect

The results of this study demonstrate an influence of the circadian rhythm on the effects of microwave exposure on plasma cortisol and rectal temperature. The lower rectal temperature during night exposures was presumably due to the lower sham-condition temperature at night, since the temperature increase over sham levels was similar for either day or night exposures. The absence of a cortisol response during night exposures may be simply related to the absolute body temperature reached, although more complex circadian influences cannot be eliminated by these data. Although the results were insufficient to provide a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved, it was shown conclusively that the responses studied depended not only on the independent variables of microwave exposure selected, but also on the baseline levels of the normal physiological state that existed at the time of exposure.

Lotz, W.G.

1981-10-01

361

Effects of circadian rhythm phase alteration on physiological and psychological variables: Implications to pilot performance (including a partially annotated bibliography)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of environmental synchronizers upon circadian rhythmic stability in man and the deleterious alterations in performance and which result from changes in this stability are points of interest in a review of selected literature published between 1972 and 1980. A total of 2,084 references relevant to pilot performance and circadian phase alteration are cited and arranged in the following categories: (1) human performance, with focus on the effects of sleep loss or disturbance and fatigue; (2) phase shift in which ground based light/dark alteration and transmeridian flight studies are discussed; (3) shiftwork; (4)internal desynchronization which includes the effect of evironmental factors on rhythmic stability, and of rhythm disturbances on sleep and psychopathology; (5) chronotherapy, the application of methods to ameliorate desynchronization symptomatology; and (6) biorythm theory, in which the birthdate based biorythm method for predicting aircraft accident susceptability is critically analyzed. Annotations are provided for most citations.

Holley, D. C.; Winger, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Heinold, M. P.; Edgar, D. M.; Kinney, N. E.; Langston, S. E.; Markley, C. L.; Anthony, J. A.

1981-01-01

362

Effects of 9-hour time zone changes on fatigue and circadian rhythms of sleep/wake and core temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiological and psychological disruptions caused by transmeridian flights may affect the ability of flight crews to meet operational demands. To study these effects, 9 Royal Norwegian Airforces P3-Orion crewmembers flew from Norway to California (-9 hr), and back (+9 hr). Rectal temperature, heart rate and wrist activity were recorded every 2 min, fatigue and mood were rated every 2 hr during the waking day, and logs were kept of sleep times and ratings. Subjects also completed 4 personality inventories. The time-zone shifts produced negative changes in mood which persisted longer after westward flights. Sleep quality (subjective and objective) and duration were slightly disrupted (more after eastward flights). The circadian rhythms of sleep/wake and temperature both completed the 9-hr delay by day 5 in California, although temperature adjusted more slowly. The size of the delay shift was significantly correlated with scores on extraversion and achievement need personality scales. Response to the 9-hr advance were more variable. One subject exhibited a 15-hr delay in his temperature rhythm, and an atypical sleep/nap pattern. On average, the sleep/wake cycle (but not the temperature rhythm), completed the 9-hr advance by the end of the study. Both rhythms adapted more slowly after the eastward flight.

Gander, P. H.; Myhre, G.; Graeber, R. C.; Andersen, H. T.; Lauber, J. K.

1985-01-01

363

Effect of sleep-wake reversal and sleep deprivation on the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Albino Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in a previously O2 flushed, CO2 free chamber. The exposure began with attainment of 60 psi (gauge) and the end point was the first generalized oxygen toxicity seizure. Animals were exposed to reversal diurnal conditions since weanlings until their sleep-wake cycles had completely reversed, and then divided into four groups of 20 based on the time of day exposed. The time of exposure to oxygen at high pressure prior to seizure was now significantly longer in the group exposed from 1900 to 2000 hr and a reversal of the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility was noted. Animals maintained on normal diurnal conditions were deprived of sleep on the day of exposure for the 12 hours prior to exposure at 1900 hr, while controls were allowed to sleep. There was no significant differences in the time prior to seizure between the deprived animals and the controls with an n = 40. Thus the inherent threshold in susceptibility to high-pressure oxygen seizures seems not to be a function of sleep itself, but of some biochemical/physiologic event which manifests a circadian rhythm.

Dexter, J. D.; Hof, D. G.; Mengel, C. E.

1972-01-01

364

Diurnal and Circadian Rhythms in the Tomato Transcriptome and Their Modulation by Cryptochrome Photoreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCircadian clocks are internal molecular time-keeping mechanisms that provide living organisms with the ability to adjust their growth and physiology and to anticipate diurnal environmental changes. Circadian clocks, without exception, respond to light and, in plants, light is the most potent and best characterized entraining stimulus. The capacity of plants to respond to light is achieved through a number of

Paolo Facella; Loredana Lopez; Fabrizio Carbone; David W. Galbraith; Giovanni Giuliano; Gaetano Perrotta; Markus Grebe

2008-01-01

365

Expression profiling of skeletal muscle following acute and chronic ?2-adrenergic stimulation: implications for hypertrophy, metabolism and circadian rhythm  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic administration of ?-adrenoceptor (?-AR) agonists has been found to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and significant metabolic changes. In the context of energy homeostasis, the importance of ?-AR signaling has been highlighted by the inability of ?1-3-AR-deficient mice to regulate energy expenditure and susceptibility to diet induced obesity. However, the molecular pathways and gene expression changes that initiate and maintain these phenotypic modulations are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify differential changes in gene expression in murine skeletal muscle associated with systemic (acute and chronic) administration of the ?2-AR agonist formoterol. Results Skeletal muscle gene expression (from murine tibialis anterior) was profiled at both 1 and 4 hours following systemic administration of the ?2-AR agonist formoterol, using Illumina 46K mouse BeadArrays. Illumina expression profiling revealed significant expression changes in genes associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, myoblast differentiation, metabolism, circadian rhythm, transcription, histones, and oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes relevant to the regulation of muscle mass and metabolism (in the context of the hypertrophic phenotype) were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR to examine gene expression in response to both acute (1-24 h) and chronic administration (1-28 days) of formoterol at multiple timepoints. In terms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, attenuation of myostatin signaling (including differential expression of myostatin, activin receptor IIB, phospho-Smad3 etc) was observed following acute and chronic administration of formoterol. Acute (but not chronic) administration of formoterol also significantly induced the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism, including hexokinase 2, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1, and uncoupling protein 3. Interestingly, formoterol administration also appeared to influence some genes associated with the peripheral regulation of circadian rhythm (including nuclear factor interleukin 3 regulated, D site albumin promoter binding protein, and cryptochrome 2). Conclusion This is the first study to utilize gene expression profiling to examine global gene expression in response to acute ?2-AR agonist treatment of skeletal muscle. In summary, systemic administration of a ?2-AR agonist had a profound effect on global gene expression in skeletal muscle. In terms of hypertrophy, ?2-AR agonist treatment altered the expression of several genes associated with myostatin signaling, a previously unreported effect of ?-AR signaling in skeletal muscle. This study also demonstrates a ?2-AR agonist regulation of circadian rhythm genes, indicating crosstalk between ?-AR signaling and circadian cycling in skeletal muscle. Gene expression alterations discovered in this study provides insight into many of the underlying changes in gene expression that mediate ?-AR induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and altered metabolism. PMID:19772666

Pearen, Michael A; Ryall, James G; Lynch, Gordon S; Muscat, George EO

2009-01-01

366

Relationship of endogenous circadian melatonin and temperature rhythms to self-reported preference for morning or evening activity in young and older people  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Morningness-eveningness refers to interindividual differences in preferred timing of behavior (i.e., bed and wake times). Older people have earlier wake times and rate themselves as more morning-like than young adults. It has been reported that the phase of circadian rhythms is earlier in morning-types than in evening types, and that older people have earlier phases than young adults. These changes in phase have been considered to be the chronobiological basis of differences in preferred bed and wake times and age-related changes therein. Whether such differences in phase are associated with changes in the phase relationship between endogenous circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We investigated the association between circadian phase, the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms, and morningness-eveningness, and their interaction with aging. In this circadian rhythm study, 68 young and 40 older subjects participated. RESULTS: Among the young subjects, the phase of the melatonin and core temperature rhythms occurred earlier in morning than in evening types and the interval between circadian phase and usual wake time was longer in morning types. Thus, while evening types woke at a later clock hour than morning types, morning types actually woke at a later circadian phase. Comparing young and older morning types we found that older morning types had an earlier circadian phase and a shorter phase-wake time interval. The shorter phase-waketime interval in older "morning types" is opposite to the change associated with morningness in young people, and is more similar to young evening types. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate an association between circadian phase, the relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian phase, and morningness-eveningness in young adults. Furthermore, they demonstrate that age-related changes in phase angle cannot be attributed fully to an age-related shift toward morningness. These findings have important implications for understanding individual preferences in sleep-wake timing and age-related changes in the timing of sleep.

Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Hall, E. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

1999-01-01

367

Drosophila DBT Lacking Protein Kinase Activity Produces Long-Period and Arrhythmic Circadian Behavioral and Molecular Rhythms? †  

PubMed Central

A mutation (K38R) which specifically eliminates kinase activity was created in the Drosophila melanogaster ckI gene (doubletime [dbt]). In vitro, DBT protein carrying the K38R mutation (DBTK/R) interacted with Period protein (PER) but lacked kinase activity. In cell culture and in flies, DBTK/R antagonized the phosphorylation and degradation of PER, and it damped the oscillation of PER in vivo. Overexpression of short-period, long-period, or wild-type DBT in flies produced the same circadian periods produced by the corresponding alleles of the endogenous gene. These mutations therefore dictate an altered “set point” for period length that is not altered by overexpression. Overexpression of the DBTK/R produced effects proportional to the titration of endogenous DBT, with long circadian periods at lower expression levels and arrhythmicity at higher levels. This first analysis of adult flies with a virtual lack of DBT activity demonstrates that DBT's kinase activity is necessary for normal circadian rhythms and that a general reduction of DBT kinase activity does not produce short periods. PMID:17893330

Muskus, Michael J.; Preuss, Fabian; Fan, Jin-Yuan; Bjes, Edward S.; Price, Jeffrey L.

2007-01-01

368

Leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus integrate activity and temperature circadian rhythms and anticipatory responses to food restriction  

PubMed Central

Previously, we investigated the role of neuropeptide Y and leptin-sensitive networks in the mediobasal hypothalamus in sleep and feeding and found profound homeostatic and circadian deficits with an intact suprachiasmatic nucleus. We propose that the arcuate nuclei (Arc) are required for the integration of homeostatic circadian systems, including temperature and activity. We tested this hypothesis using saporin toxin conjugated to leptin (Lep-SAP) injected into Arc in rats. Lep-SAP rats became obese and hyperphagic and progressed through a dynamic phase to a static phase of growth. Circadian rhythms were examined over 49 days during the static phase. Rats were maintained on a 12:12-h light-dark (LD) schedule for 13 days and, thereafter, maintained in continuous dark (DD). After the first 13 days of DD, food was restricted to 4 h/day for 10 days. We found that the activity of Lep-SAP rats was arrhythmic in DD, but that food anticipatory activity was, nevertheless, entrainable to the restricted feeding schedule, and the entrained rhythm persisted during the subsequent 3-day fast in DD. Thus, for activity, the circuitry for the light-entrainable oscillator, but not for the food-entrainable oscillator, was disabled by the Arc lesion. In contrast, temperature remained rhythmic in DD in the Lep-SAP rats and did not entrain to restricted feeding. We conclude that the leptin-sensitive network that includes the Arc is required for entrainment of activity by photic cues and entrainment of temperature by food, but is not required for entrainment of activity by food or temperature by photic cues. PMID:23986359

Li, Ai-Jun; Dinh, Thu T.; Jansen, Heiko T.; Ritter, Sue

2013-01-01

369

Targeted Destruction of Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells with a Saporin Conjugate Alters the Effects of Light on Mouse Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

Non-image related responses to light, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to the day/night cycle, are mediated by classical rod/cone photoreceptors and by a small subset of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive, expressing the photopigment, melanopsin. This raises the possibility that the melanopsin cells may be serving as a conduit for photic information detected by the rods and/or cones. To test this idea, we developed a specific immunotoxin consisting of an anti-melanopsin antibody conjugated to the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. Intravitreal injection of this immunotoxin results in targeted destruction of melanopsin cells. We find that the specific loss of these cells in the adult mouse retina alters the effects of light on circadian rhythms. In particular, the photosensitivity of the circadian system is significantly attenuated. A subset of animals becomes non-responsive to the light/dark cycle, a characteristic previously observed in mice lacking rods, cones, and functional melanopsin cells. Mice lacking melanopsin cells are also unable to show light induced negative masking, a phenomenon known to be mediated by such cells, but both visual cliff and light/dark preference responses are normal. These data suggest that cells containing melanopsin do indeed function as a conduit for rod and/or cone information for certain non-image forming visual responses. Furthermore, we have developed a technique to specifically ablate melanopsin cells in the fully developed adult retina. This approach can be applied to any species subject to the existence of appropriate anti-melanopsin antibodies. PMID:18773079

Göz, Didem; Studholme, Keith; Lappi, Douglas A.; Rollag, Mark D.; Provencio, Ignacio; Morin, Lawrence P.

2008-01-01

370

[Multivariate analysis of meteorological factors and evaluation of circadian rhythm: their relation to the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction].  

PubMed

We statistically analysed the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to meteorology and circadian rhythm. The study subjects included 581 patients with AMI in Asahikawa observed for the last 10 years, and 177 in Yamagata observed for the past three years. Monthly fluctuations of AMI occurrence were not statistically significant. The expected frequency of AMI estimated by grading meteorological factors every 5 degrees C from maximum to minimum temperatures did not correlate with the real frequency. A relatively cold period was defined as a term during which mean atmospheric temperature was below 0 degrees C in Asahikawa and below 3 degrees C in Yamagata Canonical discriminatory analyses were made of 10 meterological factors between days with and without AMI occurrences during a 10-year term in Asahikawa; and between days with and without outdoor occurrences. To compare regional difference, the same analysis was performed during a three-year cold period in Yamagata. Correlations among the three analyses were negligible (0.03%, 1.53% and 0.97%, respectively); thus, the days on which AMI occurred could not be identified with the 10 meteorological factors. Circadian rhythm of two cycles/day was recognized concerning the time of occurrence by power spectral analysis in 562 patients in Asahikawa, in whom the time of onset of AMI was recorded. It was concluded that there are no external meteorological risk factors for the occurrence of AMI. However, the intrinsic biological rhythm supposedly participates in triggering the occurrence of AMI as an intrinsic transient risk factor. PMID:2133717

Hirasawa, K; Tateda, K; Shibata, J; Yokoyama, K

1990-01-01

371

Circadian activity rhythms in high-alcohol-preferring and low-alcohol-preferring mice.  

PubMed

The circadian periods of high-alcohol-preferring (HAP) and low-alcohol-preferring (LAP) selected lines of mice were compared. The mice were ethanol-naive. Circadian periods were calculated from records of running-wheel activity in constant dark. The number of daily wheel revolutions and body weights of the two lines of mice were also compared. The HAP line had a shorter period of wheel running than that of the LAP lines. The HAP mice also had a tendency to run more on wheels than did LAP mice. These findings support the suggestion that genes affecting ethanol consumption in mice have pleiotropic effects on circadian period. PMID:12878278

Hofstetter, John R; Grahame, Nicholas J; Mayeda, Aimee R

2003-05-01

372

Neurons of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus show a circadian rhythm in membrane properties that is lost during prolonged whole-cell recording.  

PubMed

The suprachiasmatic nucleus is commonly considered to contain the main pacemaker of behavioral and hormonal circadian rhythms. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, the membrane properties of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons were investigated in order to get more insight in membrane physiological mechanisms underlying the circadian rhythm in firing activity. Circadian rhythmicity could not be detected either in spontaneous firing rate or in other membrane properties when whole-cell measurements were made following an initial phase shortly after membrane rupture. However, this apparent lack of rhythmicity was not due to an unhealthy slice preparation or to seal formation, as a clear day/night difference in firing rate was found in cell-attached recordings. Furthermore, in a subsequent series of whole-cell recordings, membrane properties were assessed directly after membrane rupture, and in this series we did find a significant day/night difference in spontaneous firing rate, input resistance and frequency adaptation. As concerns the participation of different subpopulations of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons expressing circadian rhythmicity, cluster I neurons exhibited strong rhythmicity, whereas no day/night differences were found in cluster II neurons. Vasopressin-containing cells form a subpopulation of cluster I neurons and showed a more pronounced circadian rhythmicity than the total population of cluster I neurons. In addition to their strong rhythm in spontaneous firing rate they also displayed a day/night difference in membrane potential. PMID:9974136

Schaap, J; Bos, N P; de Jeu, M T; Geurtsen, A M; Meijer, J H; Pennartz, C M

1999-01-01

373

Comparison of the circadian eclosion rhythm between non-diapause and diapause pupae in the onion fly, Delia antiqua: the change of rhythmicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When pupae of Delia antiqua were transferred to constant darkness (DD) from light–dark (LD) cycles or constant light (LL), the sensitivity to light of the circadian clock controlling eclosion increased with age. The daily rhythm of eclosion appeared in both non-diapause and diapause pupae only when this transfer was made during late pharate adult development. When transferred from LL to

Y. Watari

2005-01-01

374

Drosophila doubletime Mutations Which either Shorten or Lengthen the Period of Circadian Rhythms Decrease the Protein Kinase Activity of Casein Kinase I  

PubMed Central

In both mammals and fruit flies, casein kinase I has been shown to regulate the circadian phosphorylation of the period protein (PER). This phosphorylation regulates the timing of PER's nuclear accumulation and decline, and it is necessary for the generation of circadian rhythms. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations affecting a casein kinase I (CKI) ortholog called doubletime (dbt) can produce short or long periods. The effects of both a short-period (dbtS) and long-period (dbtL) mutation on DBT expression and biochemistry were analyzed. Immunoblot analysis of DBT in fly heads showed that both the dbtS and dbtL mutants express DBT at constant levels throughout the day. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays and coimmunoprecipitation of DBT and PER showed that wild-type DBT, DBTS, and DBTL proteins can bind to PER equivalently and that these interactions are mediated by the evolutionarily conserved N-terminal part of DBT. However, both the dbtS and dbtL mutations reduced the CKI-7-sensitive kinase activity of an orthologous Xenopus laevis CKI? expressed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, expression of DBT in Drosophila S2 cells produced a CKI-7-sensitive kinase activity which was reduced by both the dbtS and dbtL mutations. Thus, lowered enzyme activity is associated with both short-period and long-period phenotypes. PMID:14701759

Preuss, Fabian; Fan, Jin-Yuan; Kalive, Madhavi; Bao, Shu; Schuenemann, Eric; Bjes, Edward S.; Price, Jeffrey L.

2004-01-01

375

Entrainment of circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal field mouse Mus booduga using daily injections of melatonin.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the effects of daily injections of melatonin on the locomotor activity rhythm of the nocturnal field mouse Mus booduga. The locomotor activity rhythm of 45 animals was first monitored in constant darkness (DD) of the laboratory for about 15 days. The animals were then divided into three groups (experimental, vehicle-treated control, and the nontreated control groups) and subjected to three different treatments. The animals from the experimental group (n=19) were administered daily a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of melatonin (1 mg/kg) for about 45 days. The vehicle treated controls (n=13) were administered daily injections of 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for about 45 days, and the nontreated controls (n=13) were handled similar to the other two groups without being administered injections. Following the treatments, the animals were maintained in DD for about 20 days, after which the experiments were terminated. A significantly larger percentage of animals from the experimental group either entrained or showed phase control to daily treatments, compared to the animals from the two control groups. These results suggest that externally administered melatonin can influence the phase of the circadian locomotor activity rhythm of M. booduga. The fact that none of the nontreated controls showed any sign of phase control to daily handling, clearly demonstrates that the entrainment or phase control in the melatonin treated group of animals is caused by melatonin alone and not due to handling. PMID:12589688

Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Chidambaram, R

2003-03-01

376

Entrainment of the circadian rhythm in the rat pineal N-acetyltransferase activity by prolonged periods of light.  

PubMed

Entertainment of the circadian rhythm in the pineal N-acetyltranferase activity by prolonged periods of light was studied in rats synchronized with a light:dark regime of 12:12 h by observing phase-shifts in rhythm after delays in switching off the light in the evening or after bringing forward of the morning onset of light. When rats were subjected to delays in switching off the light of up to 10 h and then were released into darkness, phase-delays of the evening N-acetyltransferase rise during the same night corresponded roughly to delays in the light switch off. However, phase-delays of the morning decline were much smaller. After a delay in the evening switch off of 11 h, no N-acetyltransferase rhythm was found in the subsequent darkness. The evening N-acetyltransferase rise was phase-delayed by 6.2 h at most 1 day after delays. Phase-delays of the morning N-acetyltransferase decline were shorter than phase-delays of the N-acetyltransferase rise by only 0.7 h to 0.9 h at most. Hence, 1 day after delays in the evening switch off, the period of the high night N-acetyltransferase activity may be shortened only slightly. The N-acetyltransferase rhythm was abolished only after a 12 h delay in switching off the light. Rats were subjected to a bringing forward of the morning light onset and then were released into darkness 4 h before the usual switch off of light. In the following night, the morning N-acetyltransferase decline, but not the evening rise, was phase advanced considerably. Moreover, when the onset of light was brought forward to before midnight, the N-acetyltransferase rise was even phase-delayed. Hence, 1 day after bringing forward the morning onset of light, the period of the high night N-acetyltransferase activity may be drastically reduced. When rats were subjected to a 4 h light pulse around midnight and then released into darkness, the N-acetyltransferase rhythm in the next night was abolished. The data are discussed in terms of a two-component pacemaker controlling the N-acetyltransferase rhythm. It is suggested that delays in the evening switch off of light may disturb the N-acetyltransferase rhythm the next day only a little, as the morning component may adjust to phase-delays of the evening component almost within one cycle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3668882

Illnerová, H; Van?cek, J

1987-08-01

377

The Same Core Rhythm Generator Underlies Different Rhythmic Motor Patterns  

PubMed Central

Rhythmically active motor circuits can generate different activity patterns in response to different inputs. In most systems, however, it is not known whether the same neurons generate the underlying rhythm for each different pattern. Thus far, information regarding the degree of conservation of rhythm generator neurons is limited to a few pacemaker-driven circuits, in most of which the core rhythm generator is unchanged across different output patterns. We are addressing this issue in the network-driven, gastric mill (chewing) circuit in the crab stomatogastric nervous system. We first establish that distinct gastric mill motor patterns are triggered by separate stimulation of two extrinsic input pathways, the ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and post-oesophageal commissure (POC) neurons. A prominent feature that distinguishes these gastric mill motor patterns is the LG protractor motor neuron activity pattern, which is tonic during the VCN-rhythm and exhibits fast rhythmic bursting during the POC-rhythm. These two motor patterns also differed in their cycle period and some motor neuron phase relationships, duty cycles and burst durations. Despite the POC- and VCN-motor patterns being distinct, rhythm generation during each motor pattern required the activity of the same two, reciprocally inhibitory gastric mill neurons (LG, Int1). Specifically, reversibly hyperpolarizing LG or Int1, but no other gastric mill neuron, delayed the start of the next gastric mill cycle until after the imposed hyperpolarization. Thus, the same circuit neurons can comprise the core rhythm generator during different versions of a network-driven rhythmic motor pattern. PMID:21832178

White, Rachel S.; Nusbaum, Michael P.

2011-01-01

378

Redundant Function of REV-ERB? and ? and Non-Essential Role for Bmal1 Cycling in Transcriptional Regulation of Intracellular Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

The mammalian circadian clockwork is composed of a core PER/CRY feedback loop and additional interlocking loops. In particular, the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop, consisting of ROR activators and REV-ERB repressors that regulate Bmal1 expression, is thought to “stabilize” core clock function. However, due to functional redundancy and pleiotropic effects of gene deletions, the role of the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop has not been accurately defined. In this study, we examined cell-autonomous circadian oscillations using combined gene knockout and RNA interference and demonstrated that REV-ERB? and ? are functionally redundant and are required for rhythmic Bmal1 expression. In contrast, the RORs contribute to Bmal1 amplitude but are dispensable for Bmal1 rhythm. We provide direct in vivo genetic evidence that the REV-ERBs also participate in combinatorial regulation of Cry1 and Rorc expression, leading to their phase-delay relative to Rev-erb?. Thus, the REV-ERBs play a more prominent role than the RORs in the basic clock mechanism. The cellular genetic approach permitted testing of the robustness of the intracellular core clock function. We showed that cells deficient in both REV-ERB? and ? function, or those expressing constitutive BMAL1, were still able to generate and maintain normal Per2 rhythmicity. Our findings thus underscore the resilience of the intracellular clock mechanism and provide important insights into the transcriptional topologies underlying the circadian clock. Since REV-ERB function and Bmal1 mRNA/protein cycling are not necessary for basic clock function, we propose that the major role of the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop and its constituents is to control rhythmic transcription of clock output genes. PMID:18454201

Liu, Andrew C.; Tran, Hien G.; Zhang, Eric E.; Priest, Aaron A.; Welsh, David K.; Kay, Steve A.

2008-01-01

379

Scheduled Voluntary Wheel Running Activity Modulates Free-Running Circadian Body Temperature Rhythms in Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to nonphotic stimuli, such as scheduled wheel-running activity, is well characterized in nocturnal rodents, but little is known about activity-dependent entrainment in diurnal or crepuscular species. In the present study, effects of scheduled voluntary wheel-running activity on circadian timekeeping were investigated in Octodon degus,a hystricomorph rodent that exhibits robust crepuscular patterns of wakefulness. When housed

Martien J. H. Kas; Dale M. Edgar

2001-01-01

380

The late elongated hypocotyl Mutation of Arabidopsis Disrupts Circadian Rhythms and the Photoperiodic Control of Flowering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant late elongated hypocotyl (lhy) mutation of Arabidopsis disrupted circadian clock regulation of gene expression and leaf movements and caused flowering to occur independently of photoperiod. LHY was shown to encode a MYB DNA-binding protein. In wild-type plants, the LHY mRNA showed a circadian pattern of expression with a peak around dawn but in the mutant was expressed constantly

Robert Schaffer; Nicola Ramsay; Alon Samach; Sally Corden; Joanna Putterill; Isabelle A Carré; George Coupland

1998-01-01

381

Circadian rhythm of Z- and E-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids and herniarin in leaves of Matricaria chamomilla.  

PubMed

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) in the above-ground organs synthesizes and accumulates (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acids (GMCA), the precursors of phytoanticipin herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin). The diurnal rhythmicity of the sum of GMCA (maximum before daybreak) and herniarin (acrophase at 10 h 21 min of circadian time) was observed under artificial lighting conditions LD 12:12. The acrophase is the time point of the maximum of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data. In continuous light, the circadian rhythms of both compounds were first described with similar acrophases of endogenous rhythms; a significantly different result from that in synchronized conditions. The rhythms' mesor (the mean value of the sinusoidal curve fitted to the experimental data) under free-running conditions was not influenced. Abiotic stress under synchronized conditions decreased the average content of GMCA to half of the original level and eliminated the rhythmicity. In contrast, the rhythm of herniarin continued, though its content significantly increased. Nitrogen deficiency resulted in a significant increase in GMCA content, which did not manifest any rhythmicity while the rhythm of herniarin continued. Circadian control of herniarin could be considered as a component of the plant's specialized defence mechanisms. PMID:19430793

Repcák, Miroslav; Smajda, Benadik; Kovácik, Jozef; Eliasová, Adriana

2009-07-01

382

Modulatory effects of two novel agonists for serotonin receptor 7 on emotion, motivation and circadian rhythm profiles in mice.  

PubMed

Serotonin receptor 7, i.e. 5-HT(7) protein coded by Htr7 gene, was discovered in supra-chiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus but is widespread in the forebrain. Studies have shown that this receptor is involved in learning/memory, regulation of mood and circadian rhythms. The modulatory effects of two novel agonists, LP-211 and LP-378, were assessed in male adult CD-1 mice with a battery of behavioral tests. Exp. 1 (Black/White Boxes, BWB: Adriani et al., 2009) and Exp. 2 (Dark/Light, D/L; Novelty-seeking, N-S) show: a) that LP-211 administration (acutely, at a 0.25 mg/kg dose i.p.) increases locomotion and BWB exploration; b) that the time spent away from an aversive, lit chamber (i.e., stress-induced anxiety) and in a new environment (i.e., novelty-induced curiosity) are both reduced. Sub-chronic LP-211 (at a 2.5 mg/kg dose i.p.) reveals a sensitization of locomotor-stimulant properties over 4-5 days. In Exp. 3 (BWB), a three- to four-fold dosage (acutely, at 0.83 mg/kg i.p.) is needed with LP-378 to increase locomotion and BWB exploration. In Exp. 4, mice under constant-light conditions reveal the expected spontaneous lengthening (1.5 h per day) of circadian rhythms. A significant phase advance is induced by LP-211 (at a 0.25 mg/kg dose i.p., administered around activity offset), with onset of activity taking place 6 h earlier than in controls. In summary, LP-211 is able to act consistently onto exploratory motivation, anxiety-related profiles, and spontaneous circadian rhythm. In the next future, agonist modulation of 5-HT(7) receptors might turn out to be beneficial for sleep and/or anxiety disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:21945717

Adriani, Walter; Travaglini, Domenica; Lacivita, Enza; Saso, Luciano; Leopoldo, Marcello; Laviola, Giovanni

2012-02-01

383

Silencing the circadian clock gene Clock using RNAi reveals dissociation of the circatidal clock from the circadian clock in the mangrove cricket.  

PubMed

Whether a clock that generates a circatidal rhythm shares the same elements as the circadian clock is not fully understood. The mangrove cricket, Apteronemobius asahinai, shows simultaneously two endogenous rhythms in its locomotor activity; the circatidal rhythm generates active and inactive phases, and the circadian rhythm modifies activity levels by suppressing the activity during subjective day. In the present study, we silenced Clock (Clk), a master gene of the circadian clock, in A. asahinai using RNAi to investigate the link between the circatidal and circadian clocks. The abundance of Clk mRNA in the crickets injected with double-stranded RNA of Clk (dsClk) was reduced to a half of that in control crickets. dsClk injection also reduced mRNA abundance of another circadian clock gene period (per) and weakened diel oscillation in per mRNA expression. Examination of the locomotor rhythms under constant conditions revealed that the circadian modification was disrupted after silencing Clk expression, but the circatidal rhythm remained unaffected. There were no significant changes in the free-running period of the circatidal rhythm between the controls and the crickets injected with dsClk. Our results reveal that Clk is essential for the circadian clock, but is not required for the circatidal clock. From these results we propose that the circatidal rhythm of A. asahinai is driven by a clock, the molecular components of which are distinct from that of the circadian clock. PMID:24995838

Takekata, Hiroki; Numata, Hideharu; Shiga, Sakiko; Goto, Shin G

2014-09-01

384

SRC-2 Is an Essential Coactivator for Orchestrating Metabolism and Circadian Rhythm  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Synchrony of the mammalian circadian clock is achieved by complex transcriptional and translational feedback loops centered on the BMAL1: CLOCK heterodimer. Modulation of circadian feedback loops is essential for maintaining rhythmicity, yet the role of transcriptional coactivators in driving BMAL1:CLOCK transcriptional networks is largely unexplored. Here, we show diurnal hepatic steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2) recruitment to the genome that extensively overlaps with the BMAL1 cistrome during the light phase, targeting genes that enrich for circadian and metabolic processes. Notably, SRC-2 ablation impairs wheel-running behavior, alters circadian gene expression in several peripheral tissues, alters the rhythmicity of the hepatic metabolome, and deregulates the synchronization of cell-autonomous metabolites. We identify SRC-2 as a potent coregulator of BMAL1:CLOCK and find that SRC-2 targets itself with BMAL1:CLOCK in a feedforward loop. Collectively, our data suggest that SRC-2 is a transcriptional coactivator of the BMAL1:CLOCK oscillators and establish SRC-2 as a critical positive regulator of the mammalian circa-dian clock. PMID:24529706

Stashi, Erin; Lanz, Rainer B.; Mao, Jianqiang; Michailidis, George; Zhu, Bokai; Kettner, Nicole M.; Putluri, Nagireddy; Reineke, Erin L.; Reineke, Lucas C.; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Dean, Adam; Stevenson, Connor R.; Sivasubramanian, Natarajan; Sreekumar, Arun; DeMayo, Francesco; York, Brian; Fu, Loning; O'Malley, Bert W.

2014-01-01

385

Circadian rhythms of glucocorticoid hormone actions in target tissues: potential clinical implications.  

PubMed

Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The central clock controls the HPA axis, creating the diurnal oscillation of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the HPA axis adjusts the circadian rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in response to various stressors through the GR. Further, Clock-Bmal1 regulates the response to glucocorticoids in peripheral tissues through acetylation of the GR, possibly antagonizing the biologic actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating cortisol. Importantly, dysregulation in the clock system and the HPA axis may cause similar pathologic manifestations--including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease--by uncoupling circulating cortisol concentrations from tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. PMID:23033538

Kino, Tomoshige

2012-10-01

386

Circadian rhythm of blood pressure and life style: a study of clinically healthy subjects living in rural and industrialized countries.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate how the blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythm (CR) is influenced by life style. Two groups of subjects were recruited from Nepal and Japan because of the extremely different occupational routines of these countries. The Nepalese represent a rural culture, while the Japanese reflect an industrialized civilization. Both the ethnic groups have in common a high dietary sodium intake. The BP monitoring was estimated according to chronobiological methods. Results provide evidence for a phase difference in BP CR which is coherent with the life style in the two groups. Furthermore, the estimates demonstrate that the Japanese show a higher level in daily BP which is related to the greater number of hours in which they are active. These findings may be taken into account for better deciphering of what is the role of life style on BP physiology in human beings. PMID:8817400

Kawasaki, T; Cugini, P; Itoh, K; Uezono, K; Ogaki, T; Yoshimizu, Y; Cornélissen, G

1996-05-01

387

Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats  

SciTech Connect

Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

1986-01-01

388

Circadian Rhythms in Executive Function during the Transition to Adolescence: The Effect of Synchrony between Chronotype and Time of Day  

PubMed Central

To explore the influence of circadian rhythms on executive function during early adolescence, we administered a battery of executive function measures (including a Go-Nogo Task, the Iowa Gambling Task, a Self-ordered Pointing Task, and an Intra/Extradimensional Shift Task) to Morning-preference and Evening-preference participants (N = 80) between the ages of 11 and 14 years who were tested in the morning or afternoon. Significant Chronotype × Time of Day interactions (controlling for amount of sleep the previous night) revealed that adolescents tested at their optimal times of day performed better than those tested at their nonoptimal times. Implications for our understanding of physiological arousal, sleep, and executive function during adolescence are discussed. PMID:22490180

Hahn, Constanze; Cowell, Jason M.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Goldstein, David; Ralph, Martin; Hasher, Lynn; Zelazo, Philip David

2014-01-01

389

Mammalian circadian clock system: Molecular mechanisms for pharmaceutical and medical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal circadian (from the Latin “circa” meaning “about” and “dien” meaning “day”) clock has been found across kingdoms of life, a testimony that circadian rhythms are a basic feature of life on earth. Physiologically relevant circadian time is generated at the level of transcription–(post)translation feedback loop of clock genes, which machinery can be found in most cells throughout the

Hitoshi Okamura; Masao Doi; Jean-Michel Fustin; Yoshiaki Yamaguchi; Masahiro Matsuo

2010-01-01

390

Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis of Clock, a New Circadian Rhythm Mutant in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Clock is a semidominant X-linked mutation that results in shortening the period of Drosophila melanogaster's free-running locomotor activity rhythm from ca. 24.0 to ca. 22.5 hr. This mutation similarly shortened the phase response curve, determined by resetting activity rhythms with light pulses. Eclosion peaks for Clk cultures were separated by only 22.5 hr instead of the normal 24 hr. Clk was mapped close to, but separable from, another rhythm mutation--period(01)--by recombination. The estimated distance between these two mutations was short enough to suggest that Clk could be a per allele. If this is the case, the new mutant is unique in that it, unlike other per variants, is associated with essentially normal 1-min courtship song rhythms when Clk is expressed in males. Also, the new rhythm variant could not, in contrast to a short-period per mutation, have its effects on free-running activity rhythms uncovered by deletions. This result, and the lack of coverage of Clk's effects by duplications, suggest that it is not a simple hypomorphic or amorphic mutation. PMID:2116357

Dushay, M. S.; Konopka, R. J.; Orr, D.; Greenacre, M. L.; Kyriacou, C. P.; Rosbash, M.; Hall, J. C.

1990-01-01

391

Socially synchronized circadian oscillators  

PubMed Central

Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian ‘clock’). The alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizes (entrains) these rhythms to the natural day–night cycle, and underlying mechanisms have been investigated using singly housed animals in the laboratory. But, most species ordinarily would not live out their lives in such seclusion; in their natural habitats, they interact with other individuals, and some live in colonies with highly developed social structures requiring temporal synchronization. Social cues may thus be critical to the adaptive function of the circadian system, but elucidating their role and the responsible mechanisms has proven elusive. Here, we highlight three model systems that are now being applied to understanding the biology of socially synchronized circadian oscillators: the fruitfly, with its powerful array of molecular genetic tools; the honeybee, with its complex natural society and clear division of labour; and, at a different level of biological organization, the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus, site of the brain's circadian clock, with its network of mutually coupled single-cell oscillators. Analyses at the ‘group’ level of circadian organization will likely generate a more complex, but ultimately more comprehensive, view of clocks and rhythms and their contribution to fitness in nature. PMID:23825203

Bloch, Guy; Herzog, Erik D.; Levine, Joel D.; Schwartz, William J.

2013-01-01

392

Screening of Clock Gene Polymorphisms Demonstrates Association of a PER3 Polymorphism with Morningness-Eveningness Preference and Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder.  

PubMed

A system of self-sustained biological clocks controls the 24-h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes such as the sleep-wake cycle. The circadian clock system is regulated by transcriptional and translational negative feedback loops of multiple clock genes. Polymorphisms in circadian clock genes have been associated with morningness-eveningness (diurnal) preference, familial advanced sleep phase type (ASPT), and delayed sleep phase type (DSPT). We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes in 182 DSPT individuals, 67 free-running type (FRT) individuals, and 925 controls. The clock gene polymorphisms were tested for associations with diurnal preference and circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD) phenotypes. The PER3 polymorphism (rs228697) was significantly associated with diurnal preference and the FRT phenotype. The minor allele of rs228697 was more prevalent in evening types than in morning types (sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.483, Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.012) and in FRT individuals compared with the controls (age- and sex-adjusted OR, 2.021, permutated P = 0.017). Our findings support the notion that PER3 polymorphisms could be a potential genetic marker for an individual's circadian and sleep phenotypes. PMID:25201053

Hida, Akiko; Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Kato, Mie; Ono, Hiroko; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Makoto; Ebisawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichi; Kamei, Yuichi; Okawa, Masako; Takahashi, Kiyohisa; Mishima, Kazuo

2014-01-01

393

Screening of Clock Gene Polymorphisms Demonstrates Association of a PER3 Polymorphism with Morningness-Eveningness Preference and Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder  

PubMed Central

A system of self-sustained biological clocks controls the 24-h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes such as the sleep–wake cycle. The circadian clock system is regulated by transcriptional and translational negative feedback loops of multiple clock genes. Polymorphisms in circadian clock genes have been associated with morningness–eveningness (diurnal) preference, familial advanced sleep phase type (ASPT), and delayed sleep phase type (DSPT). We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms in circadian clock genes in 182 DSPT individuals, 67 free-running type (FRT) individuals, and 925 controls. The clock gene polymorphisms were tested for associations with diurnal preference and circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD) phenotypes. The PER3 polymorphism (rs228697) was significantly associated with diurnal preference and the FRT phenotype. The minor allele of rs228697 was more prevalent in evening types than in morning types (sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.483, Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.012) and in FRT individuals compared with the controls (age- and sex-adjusted OR, 2.021, permutated P = 0.017). Our findings support the notion that PER3 polymorphisms could be a potential genetic marker for an individual's circadian and sleep phenotypes. PMID:25201053

Hida, Akiko; Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Kato, Mie; Ono, Hiroko; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Makoto; Ebisawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichi; Kamei, Yuichi; Okawa, Masako; Takahashi, Kiyohisa; Mishima, Kazuo

2014-01-01

394

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag DisordersAn American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: This the first of two articles reviewing the scientific literature on the evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs), employing the methodology of evidence-based medicine. In this first part of this paper, the general principles of circadian biology that underlie clinical evaluation and treatment are reviewed. We then report on the accumulated evidence regarding the evaluation and treatment of shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). Methods: A set of specific questions relevant to clinical practice were formulated, a systematic literature search was performed, and relevant articles were abstracted and graded. Results: A substantial body of literature has accumulated that provides a rational basis the evaluation and treatment of SWD and JLD. Physiological assessment has involved determination of circadian phase using core body temperature and the timing of melatonin secretion. Behavioral assessment has involved sleep logs, actigraphy and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Treatment interventions fall into three broad categories: 1) prescribed sleep scheduling, 2) circadian phase shifting (“resetting the clock”), and 3) symptomatic treatment using hypnotic and stimulant medications. Conclusion: Circadian rhythm science has also pointed the way to rational interventions for the SWD and JLD, and these treatments have been introduced into the practice of sleep medicine with varying degrees of success. More translational research is needed using subjects who meet current diagnostic criteria. Citation: Sack RL; Auckley D; Auger RR; Carskadon MA; Wright KP; Vitiello MV; Zhdanova IV. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: Part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1460-1483. PMID:18041480

Sack, Robert L; Auckley, Dennis; Auger, R. Robert; Carskadon, Mary A.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

2007-01-01

395

Isolation and analysis of six timeless alleles that cause short- or long-period circadian rhythms in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

In genetic screens for Drosophila mutations affecting circadian locomotion rhythms, we have isolated six new alleles of the timeless (tim) gene. Two of these mutations cause short-period rhythms of 21-22 hr in constant darkness, and four result in long-period cycles of 26-28 hr. All alleles are semidominant. Studies of the genetic interactions of some of the tim alleles with period-altering period (per) mutations indicate that these interactions are close to multiplicative; a given allele changes the period length of the genetic background by a fixed percentage, rather than by a fixed number of hours. The tim(L1) allele was studied in molecular detail. The long behavioral period of tim(L1) is reflected in a lengthened molecular oscillation of per and tim RNA and protein levels. The lengthened period is partly caused by delayed nuclear translocation of TIM(L1) protein, shown directly by immunocytochemistry and indirectly by an analysis of the phase response curve of tim(L1) flies. PMID:11014814

Rothenfluh, A; Abodeely, M; Price, J L; Young, M W

2000-01-01

396

Characteristics of the circadian rhythm in diffusive resistance of Abutilon theophrasti leaves in humid and dry environments.  

PubMed

Diffusive resistance of the upper and lower leaf surfaces of Abutilon theophrasti Medic, was measured with an automatic diffusive resistance meter. Plants were maintained in growth chambers under 4 different environments: 1. high humidity, well-watered, 2. high humidity, dry, 3. low humidity, well-watered, 4. low humidity, dry. Diffusive resistance measurements were obtained every 4 h for up to 3 days when the plants were subjected to either daily regimes consisting of 15 h of light followed by 9 h of darkness or to continuous illumination. Leaf movements were also monitored. Diffusive resistance was rhythmic (circadian) under all the environmental conditions examined. The pattern of diffusive resistance was the same regardless of whether the humidity and/or soil moisture were high or low. The rhythms of diffusive resistance of the upper and lower leaf surfaces differed, however, in amplitude and in the phase at which the minimum value was reached. Diffusive resistance of the leaf was highest (peak of the rhythm) when the leaf blade was in a nearly horizontal position. PMID:7140475

Fuhrman, M H; Koukkari, W L

1982-01-01

397

Influence of sleep-wake and circadian rhythm disturbances in psychiatric disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence shows that the temporal alignment between the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian pace- maker affects self-assessment of mood in healthy subjects. Despite the differences in affective state between healthy subjects and patients with psychiatric disorders, these results have implications for ana- lyzing diurnal variation of mood in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and sleep disturbances in other major

Diane B. Boivin

2000-01-01

398

Social Interactions and the Circadian Rhythm in Locomotor Activity in the Cockroach Leucophaea maderae  

PubMed Central

The role of social interactions in entrainment has not been extensively studied in the invertebrates. Leucophaea maderae is a gregarious species of cockroach that exhibits extensive social interactions. Social interactions associated with copulation between the sexes have been shown to be regulated by the circadian system. We show here that social interactions between males are also under circadian control. We examined the question of whether or not these rhythmic social contacts could function as zeitgebers capable of regulating circadian phase and period. Animals initially in phase that were housed as groups or pairs of single sex or mixed sex in constant darkness for 2–7 weeks were found to drift out of phase. Their behavior was not significantly different from individual animals maintained in isolation. Further, animals that were initially out of phase by 12 hours housed as groups or pairs were not significantly different in phase from animals that were isolated. The results show that the circadian clocks of cockroaches are remarkably insensitive to the extensive social interactions that occur between individuals. PMID:19360487

Knadler, Joseph J.; Page, Terry L.

2013-01-01

399

An opposite role for tau in circadian rhythms revealed by mathematical modeling  

PubMed Central

Biological clocks with a period of ?24 h (circadian) exist in most organisms and time a variety of functions, including sleep–wake cycles, hormone release, bioluminescence, and core body temperature fluctuations. Much of our understanding of the clock mechanism comes from the identification of specific mutations that affect circadian behavior. A widely studied mutation in casein kinase I (CKI), the CKI?tau mutant, has been shown to cause a loss of kinase function in vitro, but it has been difficult to reconcile this loss of function with the current model of circadian clock function. Here we show that mathematical modeling predicts the opposite, that the kinase mutant CKI?tau increases kinase activity, and we verify this prediction experimentally. CKI?tau is a highly specific gain-of-function mutation that increases the in vivo phosphorylation and degradation of the circadian regulators PER1 and PER2. These findings experimentally validate a mathematical modeling approach to a complex biological function, clarify the role of CKI in the clock, and demonstrate that a specific mutation can be both a gain and a loss of function depending on the substrate. PMID:16818876

Gallego, Monica; Eide, Erik J.; Woolf, Margaret F.; Virshup, David M.; Forger, Daniel B.

2006-01-01

400

Nuclear receptors linking circadian rhythms and cardiometabolic control Hlne Duez1,2,3,4  

E-print Network

of acute myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death and ischemic stroke is highest early in the morning, cardiometabolic disorders, nuclear receptors, Rev- erb, ROR, PPAR, PGC1, biological clock, metabolic syndrome. 1 a strong link between circadian disorders and altered metabolic responses and cardiovascular events

Paris-Sud XI, Université de