Science.gov

Sample records for generating station site

  1. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  2. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the potential for using "Limbo Lands" as sites for renewable energy generating stations. Limbo Lands are considered as underused, formerly contaminated sites, and include former Superfund sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, former industrial...

  3. Verification and Validation of the GNSS Stations at the Prototype Core Site for NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, J.; Haines, B. J.; Stowers, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Two operational GNSS stations, GODN and GODS, were established within 100 m of each other at the prototype core site of NASA's next generation Space Geodesy Network. The planned network will co-locate each of the four space geodetic techniques, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of meeting modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. This prototype site is located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two GNSS stations at the prototype site have been producing tracking data from the GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo constellations since January 17, 2012. We present results from the verification and validation of these two stations, focusing in particular on GPS-based positioning of these two sites to monitor their relative baseline vector. We compare baseline recovery from independent precise point positioning of each station to a network-based approach. We also show the impact on the baseline as well as station repeatability from various improvements to our processing approach, namely the application of empirical antenna calibrations, elevation-dependent weighting, and site-specific troposphere modeling. Together, these approaches have resulted in a factor of two improvement in the precision of the baseline length. The standard deviation of the baseline vector, when using independent precise positioning of each station, is 0.5, 0.4, 1.6, and 0.4 mm in the east, north, up, and length components. The difference between the GPS-based baseline length and that from an independent local tie survey is < 1 mm.

  4. Integrated mild gasification processing at the Homer City Electric Power Generating Station site. Final report, July 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.J.; Zawadzki, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    A new process for the production of commercial grade coke, char, and carbon products has been evaluated by Penelec/NYSEG. The process, developed by Coal Technology Corporation, CTC, utilizes a unique screw reactor to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of coals for the production of commercial grade coke for use in blast furnaces, foundries, and other processes requiring high quality coke. This process is called the CTC Mild Gasification Process (MGP). The process economics are significantly enhanced by integrating the new technology into an existing power generating complex. Cost savings are realized by the coke producer, the coke user, and the electric utility company. Site specific economic studies involving the Homer City Generating Station site in Western Pennsylvania, confirmed that an integrated MGP at the Homer City site, using coal fines produced at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant, would reduce capital and operating costs significantly and would enable the HC Owners to eliminate thermal dryers, obtain low cost fuel in the form of combustible gases and liquids, and obtain lower cost replacement coal on the spot market. A previous report, identified as the Interim Report on the Project, details the technical and economic studies.

  5. 35. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CONTROL ROOM OF ELECTRIC POWER STATION WITH DIESEL ENGINE POWERED ELECTRIC GENERATION EQUIPMENT IN BACKGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 36. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION CLOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - CLOSE UP VIEW OF 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 37. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION ELEVATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - ELEVATED VIEW OF FIVE (5) 1200 HORSEPOWER STANDBY - POWER DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SETS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 38. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION AT INTERIOR - OBLIQUE VIEW AT FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING DIESEL ENGINE/GENERATOR SET NUMBER 5. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. Dubuque generation station, Dubuque, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    Alliant Energy's Dubuque generation station is a fine example of why small does not mean insignificant in the power generation industry. This winner of the EUCG best performer award in the small plant category shows that its operating excellence towers over that of many larger and much newer coal-fired power plants. The plant has three operating units with boilers originally designed for Illinois basin coal but now Powder River Basin coal makes up 75% of the coal consumed. The boilers can also burn natural gas. 4 photos.

  10. 15. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 55° EAST AT FIVE DIESEL ENGINE/ GENERATOR SILENCER SYSTEM EXHAUST STACKS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. Developing Study Stations on Your School Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Natural Resources, Columbus. Office of Information and Education.

    The school site is a convenient location for study stations since it is available for short periods of time and can be used consistently. Special preparations, such as transportation, required for off-site fieldtrips can be eliminated. In addition, on-site activities provide students with concrete experiences necessary to understand difficult…

  12. ANSS Backbone Station Installation and Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meremonte, M.; Leeds, A.; Overturf, D.; McMillian, J.; Allen, J.; McNamara, D.

    2004-12-01

    During 2004 several new broadband seismic stations have been deployed as a part of the USGS's Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone and regional networks. New stations include: ERPA, MNTX, OGLA, AMTX, NATX, KCCO, BMO, MARC, TZTN, LAO, DGMT, REDW, KSU1, MOOW, TPAW, LOHW, RAMW. Permanent station locations were chosen to minimize the local noise conditions by recording continuous data and using a quantitative analysis of the statistical distribution of noise power estimates. For each one-hour segment of continuous data, a power spectral density (PSD) is estimated and smoothed in full octave averages at 1/8 octave intervals. Powers for each 1/8 period interval were then accumulated in one dB power bins. A statistical analysis of power bins yields probability density functions (PDFs) as a function of noise power for each of the octave bands at each station and component. Examination of earthquake signal, artifacts related to station operation and episodic cultural noise in the PDFs allow us to estimate both the overall station quality and the level of earth noise at each potential backbone site. The main function of a seismic network, such as the ANSS, is to provide high quality data for earthquake monitoring, source studies, and Earth structure research. The utility of seismic data is greatly increased when noise levels are reduced. A good quantification and understanding of seismic noise is a first step at reducing noise levels in seismic data and improving overall data quality from the ANSS backbone network.

  13. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  14. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project.

  15. 14. SITE BUILDING 004 ELECTRIC POWER STATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SITE BUILDING 004 - ELECTRIC POWER STATION - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 70 EAST AT SW CORNER OF BUILDING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH; IN THE CENTER, BEHIND THE STACK IS THE GENERATING STATION BUILT IN 1959; THE TALL METAL-CLAD BUILDING CONTAINS A COAL BUNKER, COAL PULVERIZER, FURNACE, BOILER, SUPER-HEATER, STEAM PIPES, AND HOT-AIR DUCTS. TO THE RIGHT OF THIS 1959 GENERATING STATION IS THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 76 FR 79227 - Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company... Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station...

  18. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATING STATION AS SEEN FROM FLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF GENERATING STATION AS SEEN FROM FLY ASH STORAGE TANKS; WEST FACADE OF POWERHOUSE AND BOILER BUILDING (FRONT) - Commonwlth Edison Company, Crawford Electrical Genrating Station, 3501 South Pulaski Road, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. 34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Site Plan: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Fort Custer, Michigan, Modification of Electrical Distribution, General Site Plan, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  20. Next generation SAR demonstration on space station

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, Wendy; Kim, Yunjin; Freeman, Anthony; Jordan, Rolando

    1999-01-22

    This paper describes the next generation synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that enables future low cost space-borne radar missions. In order to realize these missions, we propose to use an inflatable, membrane, microstrip antenna that is particularly suitable for low frequency science radar missions. In order to mitigate risks associated with this revolutionary technology, the space station demonstration will be very useful to test the long-term survivability of the proposed antenna. This experiment will demonstrate several critical technology challenges associated with space-inflatable technologies. Among these include space-rigidization of inflatable structures, controlled inflation deployment, flatness and uniform separation of thin-film membranes and RF performance of membrane microstrip antennas. This mission will also verify the in-space performance of lightweight, high performance advanced SAR electronics. Characteristics of this SAR instrument include a capability for high resolution polarimetric imaging. The mission will acquire high quality scientific data using this advanced SAR to demonstrate the utility of these advanced technologies. We will present an inflatable L-band SAR concept for commercial and science applications and a P-band design concept to validate the Biomass SAR mission concept. The ionospheric effects on P-band SAR images will also be examined using the acquired data.

  1. Next-Generation GPS Station for Hazards Mitigation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. The same technology developed under NASA funding can be applied to enhance monitoring of large engineering structures such as bridges, hospitals and other critical infrastructure. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS/GNSS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS/GNSS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can then provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. We have developed a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a strong-motion accelerometer module, and a meteorological sensor package, for deployment at existing continuous GPS stations in southern California; fifteen stations have already been upgraded. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. New on-the-fly data products are estimated with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional seismogeodetic displacements for earthquake, tsunami and structural monitoring and precipitable water for forecasting extreme weather events such as summer monsoons and atmospheric rivers experienced in California. Unlike more

  2. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  3. 33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Site Plan: Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, FD Radar Facilities-FPS-27, Electrical Plot Plan and Duet Details, USACOE, not date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  4. 7. Overview of site, looking southwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Overview of site, looking southwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. 2. Overview of site, looking southeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of site, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. 8. Overview of site, looking northeast Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Overview of site, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  7. 1. Overview of site, looking northwest Naval Air Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Overview of site, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  8. Improving the efficiency of a four-unit generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kornegay, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing the efficiency of hydro generating stations is gaining importance as more and more power stations become automated. The increase in annual revenues due to efficiency improvements is one factor in evaluating the cost justification of an automation project. Several previous works have stated that the efficiency of a generating can be improved by using certain generation dispatching methods. The purpose of this study is to quantify the gain in annual revenues for a four-unit hydro generating station, using actual data from an existing station. The method used in this study does not require a rigorous analytical study. It should, however, provide a reasonably accurate estimate of the potential revenue gain achievable by using an automated generation dispatching control. This method is adaptable to stations with any number of units.

  9. Cofiring at the Seward Generating Station -- A long term demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.; Tillman, D.; Hughes, E.

    1999-07-01

    GPU Genco, supported by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office and the Federal Energy Technology Center, is demonstrating cofiring of wood waste with coal using separate injection of prepared wood waste at its Seward Generating Station. The program is based upon 3 previous tests: a program of parametric testing at Shawville Generating Station and two parametric test programs at Seward Generating Station. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is the primary contractor for the demonstration. The physical plant installed at Seward Generating Station includes a pole barn, a trommel screen, a fuel storage silo, and a pneumatic transport system. Testing of cofiring has been at the 5 to 10% heat input level. This paper summarizes the progression of cofiring testing at GPU Genco, details the facility design and equipment installed at the Seward Generation Station.

  10. 76 FR 19148 - PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PSEG Nuclear, LLC, Hope Creek Generating Station and Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Availability of the Final Supplement 45 to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants Notice...

  11. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-10-01

    During the period July 1, 2001--September 30, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) continued construction of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the installation of the fuel storage facility, the fuel receiving facility, and the processing building. All mechanical equipment has been installed and electrical construction has proceeded. During this time period significant short term testing of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed, and the 100-hour test was planned for early October. The testing demonstrated that cofiring at the Albright Generating Station could contribute to a ''4P Strategy''--reduction of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, mercury, and greenhouse gas emissions. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the construction activities at both sites along with the combustion modeling at the Willow Island site.

  12. VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 51 MOTT STREET GENERATING STATION (1897) RIGHTBUILDING 57 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 51 MOTT STREET GENERATING STATION (1897) RIGHT-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO.1 (1905) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. INVESTIGATION OF WASTE RAG GENERATION AT NAVAL STATION MAYPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of an investigation examining pollution prevention alternatives for reducing the volume of waste rags generated at Naval Station Mayport, located near Jacksonville Beach, Florida. he report recommends five specific pollution prevention alternative...

  14. 75 FR 33656 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment....2, as requested by Exelon Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster...

  15. Methane generation at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The methane generation at Grand Gulf has been brought to light twice. The initial event occurred in February 1990 and the second in December 1993. Both events involved the receipt of a cask at Barnwell Waste Management Facility that when opened indicated a gas escaping. The gas was subsequently sampled and indicated a percentage of explosive gas. Both events involved powdered resin and indicated that the generation was from a bacterial attack of the organic materials (cellulose in the powdered resin mixture). The first event occurred and was believed to be isolated in a particular waste stream. The situation was handled and a biocide was found to be effective in treatment of liners until severe cross contamination of another waste stream occurred. This allowed the shipment of a liner that was required to be sampled for explosive gases. The biocide used by GGNS was allowed reintroduction into the floor drains and this allowed the buildup of immunity of the bacterial population to this particular biocide. The approval of a new biocide has currently allowed GGNS to treat liners and ship them offsite.

  16. 88. Photocopied August 1978. STATION GENERATORS LOOKING EAST FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Photocopied August 1978. STATION GENERATORS LOOKING EAST FROM THE CENTRAL GALLERY, AUGUST 11, 1914. BY THIS DATE MICHIGAN NORTHERN HAD COMPLETED THE INSTALLATION OF GENERATORS IN THE EASTERN HALF OF THE POWER HOUSE AND HAD BEGUN WORK ON THE WEST. THE MOTOR-GENERATORS PURSHASED BY THE M.L.S.P.C. IN 1902 CAN BE SEEN ON THE LEFT BY THE LINE OF COLUMNS. (910) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  17. ISSLIVE! Bringing the Space Station to Every Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Severance, Mark; Blue, Regina; Khan, Ahmed; Healy, Matthew D.; Ehlinger, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    Just 200 miles above us, the International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting. Each day, the astronauts on board perform a variety of activities from exercise, science experiments, and maintenance. Yet, many on the ground don?t know about these daily activities. ISSLive! - an education project - is working to bridge this knowledge gap with traditional education channels such as schools, but also non-traditional channels with the non-technical everyday public. ISSLive! provides a website that seamlessly integrates planning and telemetry data, video feeds, 3D models, and iOS and android applications. Through the site, users are able to view astronauts? daily schedules, in plain English alongside the original data. As an example, when an astronaut is working with a science experiment, a user will be able to read about the activity and for more detailed activities follow provided links to view more information -- all integrated into the same site. Live telemetry data from a predefined set can also be provided alongside the activities. For users to learn more, 3D models of the external and internal parts of the ISS are available, allowing users to explore the station and even select sensors, such as temperature, and view a real-time chart of the data. Even ground operations are modelled with a 3D mission control center, providing users information on the various flight control disciplines and showing live data that they would be monitoring. Some unique activities are also highlighted, and have dedicated spaces to explore in more detail. Education is the focus of ISSLive!, even from the beginning when university students participated in the development process as part of their master?s projects. Focus groups at a Houston school showed interest in the project, and excitement towards including ISSLive! in their classroom. Through this inclusion, student?s knowledge can be assessed with projects, oral presentations, and other assignments. For the public citizens outside of the

  18. 78 FR 782 - Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Energy Northwest (the... that granting of the licensee's proposed exemption will not result in a violation of the Atomic Energy.... Therefore, the Commission hereby grants Energy Northwest a one-time exemption from 10 CFR Part 50,...

  19. STRUCTURE OF CORTICOLOUS LICHEN COMMUNITIES BEFORE AND AFTER EXPOSURE TO EMISSIONS FROM A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED GENERATING STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lichen communities of black oak group (Quercus (Erythrobalanus) spp.) tree trunks in 29 study sites near the rural Columbia generating station, Portage, Wisconsin, were surveyed before (1974) and three years after (1978) station operations began, to determine if SO2 air pollution...

  20. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  1. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2008-07-08

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (V{sub s30}) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, V{sub s30} an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of V{sub s30} are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review)

  2. Arra-Funded Geotechnical Characterization of Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, W. S.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K. H.; Diehl, J.; Martin, A. J.; Jack, S.

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the USGS allocated funding to help support research capabilities, as well as improve and upgrade facilities in the bureau. As part of this effort, the USGS contracted a consortium consisting of principals from academia and commerce to perform geotechnical site characterization at 189 seismographic station sites—185 in California and four in the central U.S. In this pilot project of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), site characterizations will be conducted at: 130 Southern California Seismographic Network (SCSN), 25 California Geological Survey (CGS), 30 Northern California Seismographic Network (NCSN), and four Central U.S. (CEUS) sites. Each site investigation, involving passive and active surface-wave techniques, includes one or more of established approaches such as the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), 2-D array microtremor, 1-D refraction microtremor (ReMi), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), and multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) methods. From this multi-method approach, we determine Vs (shear-wave velocity) profiles and the calculated Vs30 (the average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth) for each site. In general, preliminary results based on field reports indicate observed records match expected values for surficial geologic conditions. Unexpected results are typically attributable to inaccurate or coarse map information and alternative explanations are verified through interpretations of local geologic structure observed during field investigations. For example, we find map-based geology to be consistent with observed records at the SCSN station CI.PLS, but not the case for CI.CWC, where inaccurate map information are at odds with our recorded velocities. At station CI.TIN (near edge of basalt outcrop) and NCSN station NC.MMLB (on rhyolite outcrop), the records observed in the shallow surface do not match expected rock values. Our pilot

  3. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2002-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2001--December 31, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) completed construction of the Willow Island cofiring project. This included completion of the explosion proof electrical wiring, the control system, and the control software. Procedures for system checkout, shakedown, and initial operation were initiated during this period. During this time period the 100-hour test of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed. The testing demonstrated that cofiring at the Albright Generating Station could reliably contribute to a ''4P Strategy''--reduction of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, mercury, and greenhouse gas emissions over a significant load range. During this period of time Allegheny Energy conducted facility tours of both Albright and Willow Island for the Biomass Interest Group of the Electric Power Research Institute. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the completion of construction activities at the Willow Island site along with the 100-hr test at the Albright site.

  4. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  5. 76 FR 19488 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon or the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-16 that authorizes operation of the...

  6. 76 FR 19795 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon or the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-16 that authorizes operation of the...

  7. 75 FR 33366 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Amendment published in the Federal Register on June 3, 2008 (73 FR 31719). However, by letter dated April 21... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of...) has granted the request of Exelon Generation Company, LLC, (Exelon), to withdraw its November 2,...

  8. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  9. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  10. PROGRESS REPORT: COFIRING PROJECTS FOR WILLOW ISLAND AND ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2001--June 30, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) accelerated construction of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the installation of foundations for the fuel storage facility, the fuel receiving facility, and the processing building. Allegheny received all processing equipment to be installed at Willow Island. Allegheny completed the combustion modeling for the Willow Island project. During this time period construction of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed, with few items left for final action. The facility was dedicated at a ceremony on June 29. Initial testing of cofiring at the facility commenced. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the construction activities at both sites along with the combustion modeling at the Willow Island site.

  11. Climatographic analysis of the Zion nuclear power station site

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Venne, M.G.; Keen, C.S.; Miller, C.W.; Whitcomb, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example, a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities.

  12. Climatographic analysis of the Zion Nuclear Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Whitcomb, R.C. ); Lyons, W.A.; Venne, M.G.; Keen, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this papers is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities. A conceptual framework for allocating resources in developing an adequate emergency response system includes three major factors: (1) frequency of the mesoscale regimes; (2) extent to which the regime can result in high concentrations/doses; (3) ease with which it can be modeled, with due consideration given for input data requirements.

  13. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this... Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations,'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  14. Main Generator Seal Oil Supply Reliability Improvements at Southern California Edison's San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Simma, Fred Y.; Chetwynd, Russell J.; Rowe, Stuart A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the justification for the approach, details and results of the Main Generator Seal Oil System reliability enhancements on the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, SONGS. The SONGS, Unit 3 experienced substantial turbine damage in early 2001 after the turbine bearings lubrication oil supply failed. During a loss of off-site power incident, power was lost to the two AC powered turbine lubrication oil pumps due to a breaker failure in the switchgear and the DC powered emergency bearing lubricating oil pump failed to start due to a breaker trip. The SONGS turbine generators coasted down from full speed to a full stop without lubricating oil. This resulted in significant bearing, journal and steam path damage that required a four-month duration repair outage during a time period where electricity was in short supply in the State of California. The generator hydrogen sealing system remained operable during this event, however it was recognized during the event follow up investigation that this system had vulnerabilities to failure similar to the bearing lubrication system. In order to prevent a reoccurrence of this extremely costly event, SONGS has taken actions to modify both of these critical turbine generator systems by adding additional, continuously operating pumps with a new, independent power source and independently routed cables. The main challenge was to integrate the additional equipment into the existing lubrication and seal oil systems. The lubrication Oil System was the first system to be retro-fitted and these results already have been presented. Reference 2. This paper provides the result of the reliability enhancements for the Main Generator Seal Oil System, which concludes the turbine/generator critical oil systems reliability improvements, performed by SONGS. It is worth noting that the design team discovered and corrected a number of other significant operational issues, which had been present from the early days and also learned

  15. Modelling continuous fumigation of Nanticoke generating station plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, P. K.; Onlock, S.

    A shoreline fumigation model is verified with the data from two studies conducted for the Ontario Hydro generating station plumes at Nanticoke. The model reproduces the physical system of continuous fumigation reasonably well. Predictions are shown to agree with observed values within the framework of the uncertainties in various input parameters. As expected, the parameters defining the state of the onshore air mass are critical in the estimate of ground level concentrations inside the fumigation zone. Also, sampling time plays an important role, even though data from the averaging of three to four helicopter passes conform to half hourly average concentration data and model predictions very well.

  16. Engineer and technical training at GPUN's nuclear generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P. )

    1993-01-01

    GPU Nuclear (GPUN) owns and operates the Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island (TMI) unit I nuclear generating stations. They also continue the recovery efforts of the damaged reactor at TMI-2. Technical training for engineers and support staff is managed by the GPUN Corporate Training Department. The group also manages the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO)-accredited Engineering Support Personnel (ESP) Training Program and the GPUN New Engineer Training Program. The New Engineer Training Program has been in existence since 1982 and has trained and oriented [approximately]100 new college graduates to the nuclear industry.

  17. 17. TOP 3/1. Site plan of the woodward pumping station. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TOP 3/1. Site plan of the woodward pumping station. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  18. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  19. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  20. The meteorological advisor in a nuclear generation station emergency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, R.

    1985-01-01

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) has developed an extensive emergency response plan for the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station, located near Oswego, New York, in response to requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). If an emergency involving actual or potential release of radioactivity occurs, meteorological conditions in the vicinity of the plant are an extremely important factor in the emergency response. In recognition of this, NMPC has included a Meteorological Advisor position in its Technical Support Center (TSC)/Emergency Operations Facility (HOF) support staffing plans. The Meteorological Advisor is responsible for verification of meteorological measurements, interpretation and dissemination of weather forecasts, dose projection verification, and monitoring team direction. This paper describes those responsibilities as they are integrated into the emergency plan.

  1. Tracy Generating Station main plant DCS control upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, N.T.; Cowle, E.S.; Salibi, A.; Turcotte, C.; Setrakian, V.

    1995-09-01

    Hydro Quebec (HQ) and Bechtel teamed together to assess the potential rehabilitation, modification, and upgrade projects necessary to meet Hydro Quebec`s goals for the Tracy Generating Station (TGS), which included extending the operating life of the units by an additional 25 years. Built in the mid 1960s, TGS is a 4 x 150 MW oil-fired conventional power plant, located 45 miles northeast of Montreal and is presently utilized to provide seasonal peak power generation requirements. Over recent years, HQ has experienced difficulties in obtaining replacement parts for the control system hardware. Additionally, there is a concern with the control system with respect to safety and reliability of plant operation since most of the plant control loops are on a manual mode of control. One of the major projects pursued was the main plant control system upgrade. This paper discusses the project team strategy utilized to perform a cost-effective distributed control system (DCS) upgrade to the main plant controls.

  2. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FISH NEAR A COAL-FIRED GENERATING STATION AND RELATED LABORATORY STUDIES. WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Construction of a coal-fired electric generating station on wetlands adjacent to the Wisconsin River has permanently altered about one-half of the original 1,104-ha site. Change in the remaining wetlands continues as a result of waste heat and ashpit effluent produced by the stat...

  3. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  4. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2003-December 31, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) continued with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations, including evaluating new sources of biomass supply. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR SITING AIR MONITORING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews relevant research findings for the purpose of establishing a set of uniform national criteria for designating locations of air monitoring stations. Data first are presented showing the difficulty, in the absence of uniform criteria, of interpreting measurements...

  6. Impact of air pollution on vegetation near the Columbia Generating Station - Wisconsin power plant impact study

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Will-Wolf, S.; Karnowsky, D.F.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was undertaken before and after initiation of generating station operations. Controlled environmental exposures were undertaken with separate cultivars of crop species grown in the vicinity of the generating station. Alfalfa, carrots, mint, peas, beans, and trembling aspen were exposed to SO2 and O3 to establish minimum threshold pollutant levels for injury from these pollutants.

  7. 76 FR 9379 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Lasalle County Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...-38, ``Storage of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes at Power Reactor Sites'' and to meet the radiation...-Level Radioactive Wastes at Power Reactor Sites'' and to meet the radiation protection standards in 10... radioactive waste (LLRW), from the following Exelon owned nuclear power stations: Braidwood Station, Units...

  8. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-04-30

    During the period January 1, 2003--March 31, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with improvements to both the Willow Island and Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. These improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  9. Potential Release Site Sediment Concentrations Correlated to Storm Water Station Runoff through GIS Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C.T. McLean

    2005-06-01

    DOE DWDCG. Tables were then created for each analyte that listed the PRSs average value by storm water station allowing a tabular view of the mapped data. The final table that was created listed the number of high erosion PRSs and regular PRSs over background values that were contained in each watershed. An overall relationship between the high erosion PRSs or the regular PRSs and the storm water stations was not identified through the methods used in this research. However, the Arc Hydro data models created for this analysis were used to track possible sources of contamination found through sampling at the storm water gaging stations. This geometric network tracing was used to identify possible relationships between the storm water stations and the PRSs. The methods outlined for the geometric network tracing could be used to find other relationships between the sites. A cursory statistical analysis was performed which could be expanded and applied to the data sets generated during this research to establish a broader relationship between the PRSs and storm water stations.

  10. Site Effects Estimation by a Transfer-Station Generalized Inversion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Yu, Xiangwei

    2016-04-01

    Site effect is one of the essential factors in characterizing strong ground motion as well as in earthquake engineering design. In this study, the generalized inversion technique (GIT) is applied to estimate site effects. Moreover, the GIT is modified to improve its analytical ability.GIT needs a reference station as a standard. Ideally the reference station is located at a rock site, and its site effect is considered to be a constant. For the same earthquake, the record spectrum of an interested station is divided by that of the reference station, and the source term is eliminated. Thus site effects and the attenuation can be acquired. In the GIT process, the amount of earthquake data available in analysis is limited to that recorded by the reference station, and the stations of which site effects can be estimated are also restricted to those stations which recorded common events with the reference station. In order to improve the limitation of the GIT, a modified GIT is put forward in this study, namely, the transfer-station generalized inversion method (TSGI). Comparing with the GIT, this modified GIT can be used to enlarge data set and increase the number of stations whose site effects can be analyzed. And this makes solution much more stable. To verify the results of GIT, a non-reference method, the genetic algorithms (GA), is applied to estimate absolute site effects. On April 20, 2013, an earthquake with magnitude of MS 7.0 occurred in the Lushan region, China. After this event, more than several hundred aftershocks with ML<3.0 occurred in this region. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the site effects and Q factor for this area based on the aftershock strong motion records from the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System. Our results show that when the TSGI is applied instead of the GIT, the total number of events used in the inversion increases from 31 to 54 and the total number of stations whose site effect can be estimated

  11. Staff Draft Report. Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, Magdy; Benjamin, Richard

    2003-02-11

    This Energy Commission staff draft report presents preliminary levelized cost estimates for several generic central-station electricity generation technologies. California has traditionally adopted energy policies that balance the goals of supporting economic development, improving environmental quality and promoting resource diversity. In order to be effective, such policies must be based on comprehensive and timely gathering of information. With this goal in mind, the purpose of the report is to provide comparative levelized cost estimates for a set of renewable (e.g., solar) and nonrenewable (e.g., natural gas-fired) central-station electricity generation resources, based on each technology's operation and capital cost. Decision-makers and others can use this information to compare the generic cost to build specific technology. These costs are not site specific. If a developer builds a specific power plant at a specific location, the cost of siting that plant at that specific location must be considered. The Energy Commission staff also identifies the type of fuel used by each technology and a description of the manner in which the technology operates in the generation system. The target audiences of this report are both policy-makers and anyone wishing to understand some of the fundamental attributes that are generally considered when evaluating the cost of building and operating different electricity generation technology resources. These costs do not reflect the total cost to consumers of adding these technologies to a resources portfolio. These technology characterizations do not capture all of the system, environmental or other relevant attributes that would typically be needed by a portfolio manager to conduct a comprehensive ''comparative value analysis''. A portfolio analysis will vary depending on the particular criteria and measurement goals of each study. For example, some form of firm capacity is typically needed with wind generation to support

  12. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker.

  13. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  14. 26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  16. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  17. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  18. 33 CFR 165.554 - Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station, Susquehanna River, Dauphin County...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Three Mile Island... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.554 Security Zone; Three Mile Island Generating Station... waters of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island Generating Station bounded by...

  19. IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON VEGETATION NEAR THE COLUMBIA GENERATING STATION - WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of air pollution from the coal-fired Columbia Generating Station upon vegetation was investigated. Air monitoring of 03 and 02 documented levels that occurred before and with operation of the generating station. Field sampling of alfalfa, lichens, and white pines was u...

  20. 28. Site Plan: AF Station P67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan: AF Station P-67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot Plan (to accompany FY 1956 project planning report), USACOE, 22 July 1954. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  1. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-04-01

    During the period January 1, 2001-March 31, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) finalized the engineering of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the fuel characterizations for both the Willow Island and Albright Generating Station projects, and initiated construction of both projects. Allegheny and its contractor, Foster Wheeler, selected appropriate fuel blends and issued purchase orders for all processing and mechanical equipment to be installed at both sites. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The third quarter of the project involved completing the detailed designs for the Willow Island Designer Fuel project. It also included complete characterization of the coal and biomass fuels being burned, focusing upon the following characteristics: proximate and ultimate analysis; higher heating value; carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance testing for aromaticity, number of aromatic carbons per cluster, and the structural characteristics of oxygen in the fuel; drop tube reactor testing for high temperature devolatilization kinetics and generation of fuel chars; thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) for char oxidation kinetics; and related testing. The construction at both sites commenced during this quarter, and was largely completed at the Albright Generating Station site.

  2. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-10-01

    During the period July 1, 2003-September 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of bio mass cofiring into commercial operations, including evaluating new sources of biomass supply. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. During this period, a major presentation summarizing the program was presented at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  3. Next-Generation Real-Time Geodetic Station Sensor Web for Natural Hazards Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.; Clayton, R. W.; Fang, P.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Kedar, S.; Laber, J. L.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.; Webb, F.; Yu, E.

    2012-12-01

    We report on a NASA AIST project focused on better forecasting, assessing, and mitigating natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station, and a Geodetic Sensor Web to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. The project encompasses the following tasks, including hardware and software components: (1) Development of a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a MEMS accelerometer package, and a MEMS meteorological sensor package, for deployment at 26 existing continuous GPS stations in southern California. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. (2) Estimation of new on-the-fly data products with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional broadband displacements and precipitable water, by new software embedded in the Geodetic Module's processor, rather than at a central processing facility. (3) Development of a Geodetic Sensor Web to allow the semi-autonomous sensors to transmit and receive information in real time by means of redundant sensor proxy

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-DR-1, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-035

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-09-22

    Radiological characterization, decommissioning and demolition of the 132-DR-1 site, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1987. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  5. Temporal reduction of repeat-station measurements by using on-site variometer records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadasz, Gergely; Csontos, Andras; Heilig, Balazs; Kovacs, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The temporal reduction of repeat-station (RS) data is usually carried out by the use of the variometer records of observatories. In stations located far from reference observatories, the accuracy of the reduction can be eventually increased by the installation of an on-site variometer. The site of the variometer station must be carefully selected in order to ensure low level of magnetic and mechanical noise, as well as temperature stability. The variometer record is referenced to the repeat station by carrying out the absolute measurements. In order to collect enough data from quiet geomagnetic condition, the variometer recording must be operated for at least one or two months. Thus, the station operates as a temporal observatory whose records can also improve the accuracy of global models of the geomagnetic field inferred from satellite data. During the last two repeat-station campaigns of Hungary carried out in 2012 and 2014, a three-component DIDD magnetometer was installed in the Baradla cave, near to our Aggtelek repeat station. In the poster, we present the variometer site, the installation of the DIDD variometer and the results of the recordings. The improvement of the reduction accuracy is also shown by comparing the reduced RS magnetic components obtained with and without the use of the DIDD variometer records.

  6. Innovative wet FGD design features at Kentucky Utilities` Ghent Generating Station, Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, M.A.; Mitchell, D.

    1995-06-01

    To meet Phase I requirements of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments, Kentucky Utilities (KU) elected to retrofit a wet limestone, forced oxidized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on their Ghent Generating Station, Unit 1 (500 MW). This FGD system has been designed with several innovative features to enhance SO{sub 2} removal and reduce overall project cost. Organic acids have been incorporated to increase SO{sub 2} removal from 90% to 95%. Also, this Phase I project is designed to accommodate a second FGD to be built at the same site. This will allow both units to share common spare equipment, including a common spare absorber. A wet gypsum stack-out pond is being used in lieu of dewatering equipment. This paper discusses these innovative features from both a performance and an economic standpoint.

  7. 75 FR 38845 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 36700). This exemption is effective upon issuance... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... No. DPR-50 which authorizes operation of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (TMI-1)....

  8. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  9. Inspiring the Next Generation: The International Space Station Education Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Hasbrook, Pete; Knowles, Carolyn; Chicoine, Ruth Ann; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Koyama, Masato; Savage, Nigel; Zell, Martin; Biryukova, Nataliya; Pinchuk, Vladimir; Odelevsky, Vladimir; Firsyuk, Sergey; Alifanov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has a unique ability to capture the imagination of both students and teachers worldwide. Since 2000, the presence of humans onboard ISS has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over 43 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related educational activities. Projects such as YouTube Space Lab, Sally Ride Earth Knowledge-based Acquired by Middle Schools (EarthKAM), SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) Zero-Robotics, Tomatosphere, and MAI-75 events among others have allowed for global student, teacher and public access to space through student classroom investigations and real-time audio and video contacts with crewmembers. Educational activities are not limited to STEM but encompass all aspects of the human condition. This is well illustrated in the Uchu Renshi project, a chain poem initiated by an astronaut while in space and continued and completed by people on Earth. With ISS operations now extended to 2024, projects like these and their accompanying educational materials are available to more students around the world. From very early on in the program's history, students have been provided with a unique opportunity to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects. Many of these projects support inquiry-based learning that allows students to ask questions, develop hypothesis-derived experiments, obtain supporting evidence and identify solutions or explanations. This approach to learning is well-published as one of the most effective ways to inspire students to pursue careers in scientific and technology fields. Ever since the first space station element was launched, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed, both individually and collaboratively, by all the

  10. Site-optimization of wind turbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

  11. 77 FR 22361 - Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Final Supplement 47 to the Generic Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... action (license renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources. ADDRESSES: Please... COMMISSION Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Final Supplement 47 to the Generic Environmental...: Discussion The NRC received an application, dated January 19, 2010, from Energy Northwest (EN),...

  12. 76 FR 54502 - Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Notice of Availability of Draft Supplement 47 to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... renewal) include no action and reasonable alternative energy sources. Any interested party may submit... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Energy Northwest, Columbia Generating Station; Notice of Availability of Draft Supplement 47...

  13. A description of the index of active Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized index of water-data collection activities and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the index is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Accuracy of site coordinates obtainable by a mobile lunar laser station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loumos, G. L.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Silverberg, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy with which a mobile lunar laser station can be located was the subject of a modeling study. The influence of the number and accuracy of fixed lunar ranging stations, the uncertainty in polar motion, and data loss due to weather and similar factors were considered, and the results are given in a cartographic form. In general, all three coordinates (for coordinates to latitude + or - 60 deg) were determined to better than the pole uncertainty, given three or more fixed sites and reasonable weather. This result indicates that one or more mobile stations would be suitable for the study of geotectonics.

  15. Next-Generation Geodetic Station for Natural Hazards Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.; Melgar-Moctezuma, D.; Crowell, B. W.; Webb, F.; Moore, A. W.; Kedar, S.; Owen, S. E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The last few years have seen an apparent increase in natural disasters worldwide and certainly an increase in disaster-related loss of life and property due to earthquakes, tsunamis, severe storms, and flooding. The latest example is the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake and ensuing tsunami and nuclear meltdown, whose devastating humanitarian and socio-economic effects still ripple throughout Japan and the world. Enhanced in situ geodetic monitoring has been shown to be a critical element in mitigating the effects of these types of natural disasters. For example, it took Japanese authorities relying solely on seismic instruments about 20 minutes to determine that a great earthquake had occurred on March 11. Initial estimates by the Japan Meteorological Agency were of a magnitude 6.8 earthquake after 3 minutes, and a magnitude 7.9 after 10-20 minutes. Using the existing real-time high-rate GPS network in Japan (GEONET) in a simulated real-time mode, we demonstrate that it would have taken only 2-3 minutes to determine that the magnitude was 9.0. Early detection of this great earthquake was of the essence, since the first tsunami waves hit the coastline after only 30 minutes. We describe the components of a next-generation in situ geodetic observatory, one of whose primary applications is to forecast, assess, and mitigate these types of natural hazards as part of an information system for scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. To provide meaningful early warnings for earthquakes (up to several minutes in advance), for tsunamis (several tens of minutes), and for major storms and flooding (up to 24 hours), future geodetic observatories will require continuous displacement and precipitable water estimates, with mm-level precision and accuracy. To achieve this in an efficient manner will require on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and

  16. Is central station generation becoming a white elephant

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1985-03-21

    Cost increases encourage the development of alternative sources of energy, and some of the alternatives currently under development lend themselves to moving the generation location back to load centers. In addition, some alternative sources have short lead times and minimal environmental impact, and are being subsidized through income tax policy. Alternative sources of energy have the potential for beginning to affect the usefulness of electric-generating plants and their high-voltage transmission networks before the end of this century. If this comes about, the electric utility industry may find its position similar to that of the telephone industry - with obsolete facilities not fully depreciated. The scenario discussed here would not come about all at once and may not come about at all. But it is the authors opinion that the chances are greater than fifty-fifty that it or something similar will affect the usefulness of bulk power supply systems sometime during the lifetime of generating units installed during the past ten years.

  17. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2002--December 31, 2002, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) completed the first year of testing at the Willow Island cofiring project. This included data acquisition and analysis associated with certain operating parameters and environmental results. Over 2000 hours of cofiring operation were logged at Willow Island, and about 4,000 tons of sawdust were burned along with slightly more tire-derived fuel (TDF). The results were generally favorable. During this period, also, a new grinder was ordered for the Albright Generating Station to handle oversized material rejected by the disc screen. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the test results at Willow Island and summarizes the grinder program at Albright.

  18. Investigation of waste rag generation at Naval Station Mayport. Project report, May 1990-July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The report presents the results of an investigation examining pollution prevention alternatives for reducing the volume of waste rags generated at Naval Station Mayport, located near Jacksonville Beach, Florida. The report recommends five specific pollution prevention alternatives: better operating practices, installation of equipment cleaning stations to remove contaminants normally removed with rags; replacement of SERVE MART rags with disposable wipers; use of recyclable rats for oil and great removal; and confirmation that used rags are fully contaminated prior to disposal.

  19. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  20. Performance of radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux stations at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Lesht, B.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Holdridge, D.J.; Martin, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The performance of several routinely operating observational systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been evaluated. The results of a few specific investigations are shown here for Radar Wind Profilers (RWPs) and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASSs), Balloon-Borne Sounding Systems (BBSSs), and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) stations.

  1. International Space Station United States Oxygen Generator Development Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Mason, Richard K.

    2000-01-01

    A life test of a liquid anode feed oxygen generator assembly (OGA) using SPE(R) (United Technologies Corporation, Hamilton Sundstrand Division) membrane technology was terminated in June of 1999. In the total 15,658 hours of operation at MSFC since delivery in 1995, the OGA has produced 2,103 kilograms (kg) (4,632 pounds mass (lbm)) of oxygen, and 263 kg (579 lbm) of hydrogen. Evaluation of cell stack characteristics and oxygen and hydrogen hydrophilic/hydrophobic membrane separators will be discussed.

  2. Modeling of a horizontal steam generator for the submerged nuclear power station concept

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    A submerged nuclear power station has been proposed as an alternative power station with a relatively low environmental impact for use by both industrialized and developing countries. The station would be placed 10 m above the seabed at a depth of 30--100 m and a distance of 10--30 km from shore. The submerged nuclear power station would be manufactured and refueled in a central facility, thus gaining the economies of factoryfabrication and the flexibility of short-lead-time deployment. To minimize the size of the submerged hull, horizontal steam generators are proposed for the primary-to-secondary heat transfer, instead of the more traditional vertical steam generators. The horizontal steam generators for SNPS would be similar in design to the horizontal steam generators used in the N-Reactors except the tube orientation is horizontal (the tube`s inlet and outlet connection points on the tubesheet are at the same elevation). Previous RELAP5 input decks for horizontal steam generators have been either very simplistic (Loviisa PWR) or used a vertical tube orientation (N-Reactor). This paper will present the development and testing of a RELAP5 horizontal steam generator model, complete with a simple secondary water level control system, that accounts for the dynamic flow conditions which exist inside horizontal steam generators.

  3. Site selection for the future stations of the french permanent broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jérôme; Charade, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    RESIF (REseau SIsmologique et géodésique Français) is a new French research infrastructure dedicated to the observation of earth deformation based on seismic and geodetic instruments mainly located in France. One of its major component, called RESIF-CLB (Construction Large Bande), is devoted to the evolution of the permanent seismic broadband network in metropolitan France with the objective to complement the 45 existing stations with ~155 new stations within the next eight years. This network will be used for various scientific objectives including deep structures imaging and national seismicity monitoring. The chosen network topology consists in a backbone of homogeneously distributed stations (long wavelength array) completed by additional stations in seismically active regions. Management of the RESIF-CLB project is carried out by the technical division of INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers) who will rely on eight regional observatories and the CEA-LDG for the construction and operation of the stations. To optimize the performance of the network, we put a strong emphasis on the standardization of the stations in term of vault types, scientific and technical instrumentation and operation procedures. We also set up a procedure for site selection requiring that every potential site has to be tested for at least 3 weeks with a minimalist installation. Analysis of the continuous ambient noise records is then included in a standardized report submitted to all committed partners for acceptance. During the last two years, about 60 potential new sites have been tested, spanning various places and environments. We present a review of the seismic noise measurements at these sites and discuss the influence of different types of noise sources depending on the frequency band of interest. For example, we show that regional population distribution can be used as a proxy to infer the noise level at frequencies higher than 1 Hz. Based on similar noise analyses

  4. Numerical simulation of the operation of a MHD generator in transient regimes in MHD power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bityurin, V.A.; Ivanov, P.P.; Koryagina, G.M.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Medin, S.A.; Morozov, G.N.; Prokop, A.S.

    1982-09-01

    Transient regimes of a MHD generator operating in combination with equipment in a MHD power station are analzyed with the help of a numerical model. The MHD generator, whose flow-through part consists of a nozzle, a channel, and a diffuser, is regulated by changing the flow rate and the load. Three types of MHD channels are studied: Faraday supersonic and subsonic, and diagonal supersonic. Their characteristics are presented and the efficiency of the MHD power station under nonrated regimes is determined. It is established that a MHD generator and the MHD power station as a whole admit quite efficient and deep regulation of the change in the flow rate of the working body.

  5. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  6. Thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidenko, N. N.; Trunov, N. B.; Saakov, E. S.; Berezanin, A. A.; Bogomolov, I. N.; Derii, V. P.; Nemytov, D. S.; Usanov, D. A.; Shestakov, N. B.; Shchelik, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    The results obtained from combined thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station are summarized. The obtained data are compared with the results of thermal and chemical tests carried out on steam generators at other nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors, and recommendations on selecting the steam-generator blowdown schedule are given.

  7. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  8. EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

  9. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive... no significant impact [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental...

  10. 75 FR 36700 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an exemption from Title 10 of the...

  11. 78 FR 52913 - Allegany Generating Station LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Allegany Generating Station LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding...

  12. 75 FR 61225 - Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering changes to the Emergency Plan, pursuant to 10 CFR 50.54, ``Conditions...

  13. 75 FR 10834 - Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... impact [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926 (March 27, 2009)]. The NRC staff's... COMMISSION Energy Northwest; Columbia Generating Station; Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

  14. 75 FR 12580 - Southern California Edison Company, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... impact [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926 (March 27, 2009)]. With its request to... Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3 (SONGS 2 and 3), located in San Diego County,...

  15. 75 FR 69136 - Southern California Edison Company, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Register notice dated March 27, 2009; 74 FR 13926. There will be no change to radioactive effluents or... 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, March 27, 2009; 74 FR 13926). Thus, through the proposed... Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3 (SONGS 2 and 3), located in San Diego County,...

  16. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation. 49.5513 Section 49.5513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Implementation Plans...

  17. Using MapReduce to Improve the Power Generation of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, William R., II

    The International Space Station (ISS) spends approximately 98% of its time in orbits that experience Earth eclipse. Since the station's solar arrays produce no power when in Earth's shadow, the total power generated decreases substantially, lowering the power budget available to experimental payloads. Therefore, increasing the power output during these eclipsed orbits would be of great benefit to the space station's scientific endeavors. The ISS's current solar array configuration tracks the Sun throughout each orbit, keeping each of its 16 solar panels perpendicular to the Sun at all times. While this is the optimal orientation for solar panels with unobstructed views of the Sun, the space station's solar arrays experience shadowing from the spacecraft's structure as well as from the other solar panels. Deviating from the Sun-tracking scheme at strategic points in certain orbits can provide an increase in power output. The goal of this research was to provide a programmatic solution that increases the power generation capabilities of the ISS in orbits experiencing Earth-eclipse without requiring any physical modifications to the space station's structure. To achieve this goal, a simulator was developed to model the ISS-Earth-Sun environment and calculate the power output of the station's solar arrays based on each panel's orientation and shadowing. Many combinations of array configurations were analyzed, taking into account the physical constraints of the gimbals responsible for rotating the solar panels. The power output of the ISS was improved for the subset of Earth-eclipsed orbits that experience a high degree of shadowing from the station's structure, resulting in an average energy increase of 1.08 kWh per orbit. The power gains were achieved by quickly rotating the solar arrays through the points in each orbit that experienced the highest degree of shadowing.

  18. Explosion site recognition; neural net discriminator using single three-component stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, Yu. V.; Husebye, Eystein S.; Ruud, Bent O.

    1999-06-01

    In monitoring of local seismicity, the occurrence of many chemical explosions poses sever practical problems of two kinds: (i) such recordings add significantly to the analyst workload and (ii) in extreme cases, pollute the seismicity data base to the extent of rendering it useless for serious scientific studies. In some countries, the local seismicity is equivalent to felt earthquakes but the problem remains since both earthquakes and explosions are and will be recorded by local stations. These events will therefore enter the network data center processing system, and thus, be subjected to further analysis. Source classification schemes are not always well suited for this kind of needed analysis at local distance ranges (not easily transportable). Besides, epicenter determinations may be less accurate in cases of few station reportings. The common denominator for failures is the modest usages of the information potential contained in seismic recordings being represented by a few time/amplitude parameters for the Pn- and Lg-phases. On the other hand, seismic waveform similarities for closely spaced earthquakes and explosions in particular are well established observationally. In this study period, we explore the possibility of using single station three-component (3C) covariance matrix traces from a priori known explosion sites (learning) for automatically recognizing subsequent explosions from the same site. To ensure adequate sampling, we used the nine different complex covariance time domain elements in combination with a suit of 12 bandpass filters equivalent to 108 observation pieces for a single event recording. We used a neural net scheme for teaching the computer to recognize new explosion recordings from a specific site through scanning of hundreds of detector segmented waveform files. No epicenter information was used in this analysis. The output was a single number between Zero and Four (log-scale) with an acceptance threshold (repeated explosion) of 1

  19. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  20. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-07-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  1. Effects of a clean coal-fired power generating station on four common Wisconsin lichen species

    SciTech Connect

    Will-Wolf, S.

    1980-01-01

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana Muell. Arg., P. caperata (L.) Ach., P. rudecta Ach., and Physcia millegrana Degel. were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO/sup 2/ levels were 389 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, maximum 1 hr level, and 5-9 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, annual averages. Parmelia bolliana and P. caperata showed evidence of morphological alterations near the station; P. rudecta and Physcia millegrana did not.

  2. Radwaste (DAW) volume reduction cost initiative at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generation Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wacha, A.H.

    1995-05-01

    Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station is a General Electric Mark 1, 620 MWe (Net) Boiling Water Reactor operated by GPU Nuclear Corporation and located in Forked River, New Jersey. The plant began commercial operation on December 23, 1969, and achieved its longest continuous run during cycle 14 (413 days) 2-16-93 to 9-11-94. As part of the industry-wide initiative to reduce nuclear plant O&M costs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was asked by GPU Nuclear to assist the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) in identifying opportunities for reducing the costs associated with its Radwaste Minimization Program for Dry Active Waste (DAW). The purpose of the project was to evaluate the existing generation, minimization, processing and disposal programs and to identify a wide variety of potential mechanisms for reducing waste volumes and associated costs.

  3. Siting of USArray Seismic Stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia: Experience of NC-1 Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Howard, J.; Horne, T.

    2012-12-01

    The USArray component of the EarthScope, a transportable array of 400 seismometers installed in a grid about 70 km apart, is in the next two years entering its final stage with station deployment along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Here, we present the experience of the student-faculty team from North Carolina Central University (NCCU) in finding and documenting the suitable sites for the twenty five USArray stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia. The ideal sites are easily accessible yet far from traffic and other sources of noise, with good cell phone coverage, sun exposure and out of flood-prone areas. Although the initial selection of potential locations was done using geospatial mapping and analysis software provided by EarthScope, finding and finalizing the sites involved driving more then 1,000 miles each week for over two months inspecting possible site locations. Aside from driving, the majority of time was spent talking about the EarthScope project and hosting of USArray stations to mostly reluctant landowners. In addition to facing various challenges in finding appropriate sites due to land use issues, such as suburban sprawl of central North Carolina, or topography factors, such as low lying flood prone coastal areas, by far the major challenge was finding the landowners willing to host the seismic station for the necessary three years. In addition to involving students from an HBCU in seismology related project and increasing the visibility of NCCU geophysics program in the University and local community through publicity releases in local media and on university web site, the project had an important outreach component. As North Carolina is located along the seismically quiet, passive Atlantic margin, most residents are not familiar with earthquakes and seismology and the siting experience provided students an opportunity to practice explaining the earthquake research to the general public. The dialog also highlighted science

  4. A combined source and site-effect study of ground motions generated by an earthquake in Port au Prince (Haiti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Fleur, Sadrac; Courboulex, Francoise; Bertrand, Etienne; Deschamps, Anne; Mercier de Lepinay, Bernard; Prepetit, Claude; Hough, Suzan

    2013-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of a study with the aim of understanding how some combinations of source and site effects can generate extreme ground motions in the city of Port au Prince. For this study, we have used the recordings of several tens of earthquakes with magnitude larger than 3.0 at 3 to 14 stations from three networks: 3 stations of the Canadian Broad-band network (RNCan), 2 stations of the educational French network (SaE) and 9 stations of the accelerometric network (Bureau des Mines et de l'Energie of Port au Prince and US Geological survey). In order to estimate site effects under each station, we have applied classical spectral ratio methods: The H/V (Horizontal/Vertical) method was first used to select a reference station, which was itself used in a site/reference method. Because a true reference station was not available, we have used successively stations HCEA, then station PAPH, then an average value of 3 stations. In the frequency range studied (0.5 - 20 Hz), we found a site-to-reference ratio up to 3 to 8. However, these values present a large variability, depending on the earthquake recordings. This may indicate that the observed amplification from one station to the other depends not only from the local site effect but also from the source. We then used the same earthquake recordings as Empirical Green's Functions (EGF) in order to simulate the ground motions generated by a virtual earthquake. For this simulation, we have used a stochastic EGF summation method. We have worked on the simulation of a magnitude Mw=6.8 using successively 2 smaller events that occurred on the Leogane fault as EGF. The results obtained using the two events are surprisingly very different. Using the first EGF, we obtained almost the same ground motion values at each station in Port au Prince, whereas with the second EGF, the results highlight large differences. The large variability obtained in the results indicates that a particular combination of site and

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-D-3, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-033

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-09

    Decommissioning and demolition of the 132-D-3 site, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1986. Decommissioning included removal of equipment, water, and sludge for disposal as radioactive waste. The at- and below-grade structure was demolished to at least 1 m below grade and the resulting rubble buried in situ. The area was backfilled to grade with at least 1 m of clean fill and contoured to the surrounding terrain. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  6. Site surveys at the fundamental geodetic station in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierulf, H. P.; Bockmann, L.; Kristiansen, O.; Plag, H.-P.

    2003-04-01

    The Space-Geodetic Observatory at Ny-Ålesund, Kings Bay, Svalbard, which is operated by the Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), has developed over recent years into a fundamental geodetic station. The geodetic infrastructure at the observatory, includes a 20-m VLBI-antenna, several GPS and GPS/GLONASS receivers, a tide gauge, a super-conducting gravimeter and a co-located DORIS station. Repeated absolute gravity measurements complement the observations. At such fundamental sites, detailed knowledge of the stability of the station is essential for geodetic and geophysical applications of the observations. The foot-print is determined by the stability of the monument with respect to the surrounding ground, but also by the representativity of the location with respect to the surrounding area and even region. The extensive foot-print study carried out over the past five years includes repeated GPS campaigns on a 50 km by 30 km control network. These GPS campaigns indicates relative movements of the campaign stations and consequently neo-tectonic activity in the area. The observed movements are in good accordance with the complex fault system in the Kings Bay area.

  7. Surface meteorological conditions during the Winter 1990 Navajo Generating Station Visibility Impairment Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, R.K. California State Univ., Chico, CA . Dept. of Geology and Physical Science); Whiteman, C.D. ); Sutherland, J.L. Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ )

    1991-03-01

    Surface weather conditions are measured during the Winter 1990 Navajo Generating Station Visibility Impairment Contribution Study (NGS Visibility Study for brevity) by means of a special-purpose set of weather stations on short towers. The data from these stations document conditions in the surface layer of air and offer an opportunity for studies both of wind flows in complex terrain and of the temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation conditions in the Colorado Plateaus region of northern Arizona and southern Utah. This paper describes the location and setting of the weather stations, the sensors and their exposure, the data acquisition methods, and the resulting data sets. The 70 kPa geopotential heights and wind speeds that are routinely measured by the Winslow upper-air observing stations are used to describe the overall nature of the 1990 winter season, to chart the passage of major upper-air features and to stratify the surface transport winds. Hodograms are presented which show the diurnal influence of nearby slope, wall and channel topography on local winds. 11 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  9. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  10. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  11. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  12. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  13. An autodissemination station for the transfer of an insect growth regulator to mosquito oviposition sites.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, R; Suman, D; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    A prototype autodissemination station to topically contaminate oviposition-seeking container-dwelling mosquitoes with the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, was developed and tested in the laboratory. Our test subject was the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), an urban species that colonizes small-volume cryptic larval habitats and is a skip ovipositor that visits multiple containers. The station consists of a water reservoir to attract gravid females, which is joined to a transfer chamber designed to contaminate visiting mosquitoes. The unit is easily constructed by moulding wet shredded cardboard using corn starch as a binder. The essential criteria that must be met to prove the efficacy of an autodissemination station require it to demonstrate effectiveness in attracting the target insect, in transferring the toxicant to the insect that will disperse the agent, and in facilitating the subsequent transfer of the toxicant from the insect to target habitats at a lethal concentration. Cage experiments demonstrated that the unit was readily accepted by gravid females as an oviposition site. A powder formulation of pyriproxyfen-impregnated silica particles adhered to visiting Ae. albopictus females (mean: 66 particles/female), although particles were lost over time. In cage (2.2 m(3) ) trials, pyriproxyfen-charged stations resulted in 100% inhibition of adult emergence, whereas in small-room (31.1 m(3) ) trials, 81% emergence inhibition was recorded. The venereal transfer of pyriproxyfen from contaminated males to virgin females was also observed, and pyriproxyfen was subsequently transferred to water-holding containers at concentrations that inhibited emergence. Key autodissemination station features include lack of maintenance requirements, biodegradable construction, low cost and low risk. PMID:21689125

  14. Search for an Astronomical Site in Kenya (SASKYA) update: Installation of on-site automatic meteorological stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Edward; Vaughan, Richard; Buckley, David; Tirima, Koi

    2015-04-01

    At present, there are few large telescopes (1-metre diameter mirror or larger) in subSaharan Africa, and the objective of the Search for an Astronomical Site in Kenya (“SASKYA”) project has been find the best possible sites in Kenya for such an observatory. An initial study using ERA-interim reanalyses and high resolution meteorological model output identified three preferential sites, based on a selection of thirteen candidate mountain peaks across Kenya. These three sites are Mount Kulal (2.72°N, 36.93°E, 2293m); OlDonyoNyiro (2.09°N, 36.85°E, 2752m) and Warges (0.95°N, 37.40°E, 2688m). Recently (as of Spring 2014), an automatic meteorological station has been installed on the summit of Warges mountain, but security issues have prevented the installation of one on Mount Kulal. Furthermore, at the former site, the lack of suitable roadway through the heavily forested mountain-side will probably preclude further investigation. Hence, an additional but lower site, near to Warges (Ololokwe mountain, 0.83°N, 37.53°E, 1920m), which has a road to the summit, will be investigated for suitability in the near future. Following a period of successful meteorological observation at either or all of the above-mentioned sites, comparison and validation studies will be enacted using climate reanalyses. If further funding permits, all-sky cameras will be installed and high resolution EUMETSAT satellite imagery will also be consulted to determine local cloudiness coefficients.

  15. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the "anti-wind" lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called "3G" technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its "2G" counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  16. Selection and investigation of supports of the underground generator hall of the Rogun hydroelectric station

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotov, O.N.; Ilyushin, V.F.; Mostkov, V.M.

    1988-07-01

    This paper describes the selection, design, and construction of a yielding support for the arch of the generator hall of the Rogun hydroelectric station which provides reliable roof support under conditions of large tectonic stresses. Compared with more technologically efficient rigid structures, the proposed structure makes it possible to obtain a technical-economic effect due to a reduction of the volume of works on rock excavation and underground reinforced concrete because of an allowed reduction in the thickness of the arch.

  17. Confirmatory Survey Results for the Reactor Building Dome Upper Surfaces, Rancho Saco Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wade C. Adams

    2006-10-25

    Results from a confirmatory survey of the upper structural surfaces of the Reactor Building Dome at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station (RSNGS) performed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the NRC. Also includes results of interlaboratory comparison analyses on several archived soil samples that would be provided by RSNGS personnel. The confirmatory surveys were performed on June 7 and 8, 2006.

  18. Preliminary data on boulders at station 6, Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G. H.; Butler, P., Jr.; Simonds, C. H.; Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J.; Schmitt, H. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Pearce, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cluster of boulders at Station 6 (Apollo 17 landing site) consists of breccias derived from the North Massif. Three preliminary lithologic units were established, on the basis of photogeologic interpretations; all lithologies identified photogeologically were sampled. Breccia clasts and matrices studied petrographically and chemically fall into two groups by modal mineralogy: (1) low-K Fra Mauro or high basalt composition, consisting of 50-60% modal feldspar, approximately 45% orthopyroxene and 1-7% Fe-Ti oxide; (2) clasts consisting of highland basalt composition, consisting of 70% feldspar, 30% orthopyroxene and olivine and a trace of Fe-Ti oxide.

  19. Seismic risk assessment as applied to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.

    1984-08-01

    To assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its licensing and evaluation role, the NRC funded the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of developing tools and data bases to evaluate the risk of earthquake caused radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. This paper describes the SSMRP risk assessment methodology and the results generated by applying this methodology to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station. In addition to describing the failure probabilities and risk values, the effects of assumptions about plant configuration, plant operation, and dependence will be given.

  20. Near Surface Characterization and Estimated Site-Response at POLARIS Seismograph Stations in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C.; Eaton, D.

    2002-12-01

    Shallow seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been collected in southern Ontario, Canada near current and planned seismograph stations for the POLARIS network. All five of the sites are characterized by glaciolacustrine overburden, consisting of silt, sand, and/or clay, on the order of a few metres to ten's of metres. Bedrock at all of the sites is mapped as Paleozoic limestone and shale, and is located at depths ranging from a few metres to ten's of metres. The objectives of these surveys are to obtain shallow velocity models (P and S-wave) at each site for earthquake site-response determination, and to investigate the utility of GPR data for siting underground vaults. The seismic surveys were acquired using 24- or 48-channel systems, with several different sources (an in-hole shotgun or a sledge hammer). The use of a twelve pound sledge hammer to strike a steel I-beam perpendicular to its length, oriented in-line with the geophone spread, was found to produce strong SH waves. In order to constrain the velocities at both very shallow (< 4 m) and deeper (4-30 m) depth intervals, two geophone spreads were collected, one with a one metre geophone spacing and another with a five metre geophone spacing. Velocity models derived by refraction analysis provide the basis for classification of each site according to the NEHRP scheme. In addition, a comparison of the response at each site is being undertaken by visco-elastic finite-difference modeling of the ground motion induced by incident wavefields of various types (both regional and teleseismic). Where possible, these results are compared with empirical site-response determined from regional events using the H/V method. The site response obtained for each station will be used in the future for calibration of the POLARIS network. In one case, the GPR data led to the discovery of a probable underground drainage channel that would have been an inappropriate location for a seismograph vault.

  1. FluxSuite: a New Scientific Tool for Advanced Network Management and Cross-Sharing of Next-Generation Flux Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Forgione, A.; Begashaw, I.; Allyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    Significant increases in data generation and computing power in recent years have greatly improved spatial and temporal flux data coverage on multiple scales, from a single station to continental flux networks. At the same time, operating budgets for flux teams and stations infrastructure are getting ever more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. This would help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data processing, quality control and station management. Cross-sharing the stations with external institutions may also help leverage available funding, increase scientific collaboration, and promote data analyses and publications. FluxSuite, a new advanced tool combining hardware, software and web-service, was developed to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: Each next-generation station measures all parameters needed for flux computations Field microcomputer calculates final fully-corrected flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data are merged into a single quality-controlled file Multiple flux stations are linked into an automated time-synchronized network Flux network manager, or PI, can see all stations in real time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts PI can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from

  2. Recent Experience Using Active Love Wave Techniques to Characterize Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Salomone, L.

    2014-12-01

    Active-source Love waves recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2011, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 189 seismographic stations—185 in California and 4 in the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in the investigation it became evident that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not effective at characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. The MASLW technique was deployed at a total of 38 sites, in addition to other methods, and used as the primary technique to characterize 22 sites, 5 of which were also characterized using Rayleigh wave techniques. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites—the remaining 9 sites and 2 overlapping sites were characterized by University of Texas, Austin. Of the 24 sites characterized by GEOVision, 16 were characterized using MASLW data, 4 using both MASLW and MASRW data and 4 using MASRW data. Love wave techniques were often found to perform better, or at least yield phase velocity data that could be more readily modeled using the fundamental mode assumption, at shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in Love wave data. At such sites, it may be possible

  3. Characterization of potential zones of dust generation at eleven stations in the southern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, I.; Assamoi, P.; Bertrand, J.; Giorgi, F.

    Synoptic wind data for multi-decadal periods at eleven stations located in the southern Sahara region (Agadez, Atar, Bilma, Dori, Gao, Kayes, Nema, Niamey, Nouadhibou, Ouagadougou and Tessalit) are used to study the monthly dust deflation power over the region. We found that, regardless of the conditions of the soil, the deflation power (or wind efficiency) is not sufficient to generate significant amounts of aerosols south of 15°N. North of this latitude, the deflation power is much larger, with potential zones of either very strong deflation (Nouadhibou and Bilma) or severe deflation (Gao, Tessalit, Nema, Atar, Agadez). Stations in the Sahel region such as Gao, Agadez and Tessalit are characterized by a gradual reinforcement of the deflation power between 1970 and 1984 in correspondence of increasing desertification over the region. During this same period, Bilma, a well know region of dust source, experienced a major reduction in deflation power due to shifts in large scale wind patterns.

  4. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  5. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 20744). However, by letter dated January 19, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and...

  6. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  7. Surface definition and grid generation about an Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Everton, E. L.; Weilmuenster, K. J.; Weise, M. R.; Farr, N.

    1990-01-01

    The surface definition and grid generation about an Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) for the Space Station Freedom are described. The purpose of the surface definition and grid generation is to provide the necessary geometry information for CFD calculations about the vehicle. There are two salient features in this description. The first is that the numerical model representing the ACRV configuration is obtained from the measurement of an existing wind tunnel model. The method for smoothing the measured data and obtaining the numerical model is described. The second feature is the description of the algebraic grid generation method and software to compute volume grids about the ACRV. The methods and software allow rapid computation of volume grids for a wide range of flow conditions.

  8. Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

  9. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey. 165.553 Section 165.553 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation...

  10. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey. 165.553 Section 165.553 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation...

  11. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey. 165.553 Section 165.553 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation...

  12. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey. 165.553 Section 165.553 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation...

  13. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey. 165.553 Section 165.553 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation...

  14. Hydrological modeling using a multi-site stochastic weather generator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weather data is usually required at several locations over a large watershed, especially when using distributed models for hydrological simulations. In many applications, spatially correlated weather data can be provided by a multi-site stochastic weather generator which considers the spatial correl...

  15. Status of the International Space Station Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Cloud, Dale

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc., while the UPA and PSM are developed in- house by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The assemblies have completed the manufacturing phase and are in various stages of testing and integration into the flight racks. This paper summarizes the status as of April 2005 and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  17. Environmental radiological studies in 1989 near the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Wong, Kai M.; Jones, H.E.

    1990-11-01

    In December 1988, the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) asked the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Sciences Division (ENV) to collect sediment, water,and fish samples downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station for analysis of radionuclides to compare with results from earlier surveys in 1984 through 1987 (1--8). ENV was, however, asked to reduce the total number of sample collections to a minimum in this study because of financial constraints. The proposal ENV submitted for the 1989 Environmental Radiological Studies downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station reflected this reduction, but we believe, nevertheless, the 1989 efforts do allow us to make some meaningful comparisons with the previous studies. Cesium-137 is the most significant radionuclide still observed downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant. Only occasionally is {sup 134}Cs or {sup 60}CO observed. In 1989, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the water and fish decreased with distance from the plant to the same level that is was in 1987, and was lower than it had been from 1984 through 1986. The concentration ratio (CR) for {sup 137}Cs in fish is between 1000 and 1500, which is below the NRC default value of 2000. Physical mixing in the creek environment has moved the {sup 137}Cs deeper into the sediment column, thereby reducing the concentration in the top 12 cm relative to that in previous years. 8 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  19. Optical ground station site diversity for Deep Space Optical Communications the Mars Telecom Orbiter optical link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K.; Parvin, B.; Fugate, R.; Kervin, P.; Zingales, S.

    2003-01-01

    Future NASA deep space missions will fly advanced high resolution imaging instruments that will require high bandwidth links to return the huge data volumes generated by these instruments. Optical communications is a key technology for returning these large data volumes from deep space probes. Yet to cost effectively realize the high bandwidth potential of the optical link will require deployment of ground receivers in diverse locations to provide high link availability. A recent analysis of GOES weather satellite data showed that a network of ground stations located in Hawaii and the Southwest continental US can provide an average of 90% availability for the deep space optical link. JPL and AFRL are exploring the use of large telescopes in Hawaii, California, and Albuquerque to support the Mars Telesat laser communications demonstration. Designed to demonstrate multi-Mbps communications from Mars, the mission will investigate key operational strategies of future deep space optical communications network.

  20. Structure of the lunar crust at highland site Apollo Station 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The seismic crustal structure of the moon is known in the region of Oceanus Procellarum from the analysis of artificial impact data. To extend this knowledge we have used data from natural lunar seismic events to search for secondary seismic wave arrivals in the form of peg-leg multiples caused by reflections at crustal interfaces and converted arrivals caused by refractions at crustal interfaces. A polarization filter has been applied to the data to enhance the rectilinear particle motion expected for the onset of these body wave arrivals in the scattered coda of lunar seismograms. The results of this work tentatively indicate that the highland site at station 16 has a 75 km thick crust with an intermediate 20 km interface, compared to the 60 km crust and 20 km interface in Oceanus Procellarum, a mare region. Since the 20 km upper crust appears to exist at both highland and mare sites, it probably does not represent a mare basalt layer but rather a more general feature of the crust. Crustal thickness may partially control elevation by isostasy.

  1. Multi Station Frequency Response and Polarization of ELF/VLF Signals Generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, Ashanthi; Golkowski, Mark; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    ELF/VLF wave generation via HF modulated ionospheric heating has been practiced for many years as a unique way to generate waves in the ELF/VLF band (3 Hz - 30 kHz). This paper presents experimental results and associated theoretical modeling from work performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. An experiment was designed to investigate the modulation frequency dependence of the generated ELF/VLF signal amplitudes and polarization at multiple sites at distances of 37 km, 50 km and 99 km from the facility. While no difference is observed for X mode versus O mode modulation of the heating wave, it is found that ELF/VLF amplitude and polarization as a function of modulated ELF/VLF frequency is different for each site. An ionospheric heating code is used to determine the primary current sources leading to the observations.

  2. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station - An option for future power generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept in nuclear power generation is being explored which essentially eliminates major objections to nuclear power. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station, remotely operated in synchronous orbit, would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space and no radioactive materials would ever be returned to earth. Even the worst possible accident to such a plant should have negligible effect on the earth. An exploratory study of a satellite nuclear power station to provide 10,000 MWe to the earth has shown that the system could weigh about 20 million pounds and cost less than $1000/KWe. An advanced breeder reactor operating with an MHD power cycle could achieve an efficiency of about 50% with a 1100 K radiator temperature. If a hydrogen moderated gas core reactor is used, its breeding ratio of 1.10 would result in a fuel doubling time of a few years. A rotating fluidized bed or NERVA type reactor might also be used. The efficiency of power transmission from synchronous orbit would range from 70% to 80%.

  3. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  4. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  5. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-03-22

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the /sup 137/Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984.

  6. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  7. Methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Appella, Ettore; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents. More specifically, a phosphopeptide mimetic is incorporated into a polypeptide in place of a phosphorylated amino acid. The polypeptide is used as antigen by standard methods to generate either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies which cross-react with the naturally phosphorylated polypeptide. The phosphopeptide mimetic preferably contains a non-hydrolyzable linkage from the appropriate carbon atom of the amino acid residue to a phosphate group. A preferred linkage is a CF.sub.2 group. Such a linkage is used to generate the phosphoserine mimetic F.sub.2 Pab, which is incorporated into a polypeptide sequence derived from p53 to produce antibodies which recognize a specific phosphorylation state of p53. A CF.sub.2 group linkage is also used to produce the phosphothreonine mimetic F.sub.2 Pmb, and to produce the phosphotyrosine mimetic, F.sub.2 Pmp.

  8. Fault identification using multidisciplinary techniques at the Mars/Uranus Station antenna sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santo, D. S.; Schluter, M. B.; Shlemon, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A fault investigation was performed at the Mars and Uranus antenna sites at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in the Mojave desert. The Mars/Uranus Station consists of two large-diameter reflector antennas used for communication and control of deep-space probes and other missions. The investigation included interpretation of Landsat thematic mapper scenes, side-looking airborne radar transparencies, and both color-infrared and black-and-white aerial photography. Four photolineaments suggestive of previously undocumented faults were identified. Three generally discrete morphostratigraphic alluvial-fan deposits were also recognized and dated using geomorphic and soil stratigraphic techniques. Fourteen trenches were excavated across the four lineaments; the trenches show that three of the photolineaments coincide with faults. The last displacement of two of the faults occurred between about 12,000 and 35,000 years ago. The third fault was judged to be older than 12,000 years before present (ybp), although uncertainty remains. None of the surface traces of the three faults crosses under existing antennas or structures; however, their potential activity necessitates appropriate seismic retrofit designs and loss-prevention measures to mitigate potential earthquake damage to facilities and structures.

  9. An astronomical site survey at the Barcroft Facility of the White Mountain Research Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvil, J.; Ansmann, M.; Childers, J.; Cole, T.; Davis, G. V.; Hadjiyska, E.; Halevi, D.; Heimberg, G.; Kangas, M.; Levy, A.; Leonardi, R.; Lubin, P.; Meinhold, P.; O'Neill, H.; Parendo, S.; Quetin, E.; Stebor, N.; Villela, T.; Williams, B.; Wuensche, C. A.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a distillation of weather and sky condition data collected from September 2001 to November 2004 at the University of California White Mountain Research Station, Barcroft Facility. Our conclusion is that Barcroft is an excellent site for microwave observation because of a cold microwave zenith temperature, low precipitable water, and a high percentage of clear days. The solar intensity was above 80% of the theoretical maximum 66% of the time. About 71% of the daytime, the cloud cover was acceptable for observing. Median precipitable water vapor was estimated to be 1.75 mm. We measure a median opacity at 225 GHz of 0.11, which corresponds to a transmission of 89.6%. Zenith sky temperatures were determined to be 9.0 ± 0.2 K and 10.0 ± 0.6 K in Q-band (38-46 GHz) and W-band (81-98 GHz), respectively. We also demonstrate a correlation between measurements of precipitable water vapor from a weatherstation and a 225 GHz radiometer.

  10. Geologic setting of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17 landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Boulder 1 at Station 2 is one of three boulders sampled by Apollo 17 at the base of the South Massif, which rises 2.3 km above the floor of a linear valley interpreted as a graben formed by deformation related to the southern Serenitatis impact. The boulders probably rolled from the upper part of the massif after emplacement of the light mantle. Orbital gravity data and photogeologic reinterpretation suggest that the Apollo 17 area is located approximately on the third ring of the southern Serenitatis basin, approximately 1.25 times larger than the analogous but fresher Orientale basin structure. The massif exposures are interpreted to represent the upper part of thick ejecta deposited by the southern Serenitatis impact near the rim of the transient cavity. Basin ring structure and the radial grabens that give the massifs definition were imposed on this ejecta at a slightly later stage in the basin-forming process. There is no clear-cut compositional, textural, or photogeologic evidence that Imbrium ejecta was collected at the Apollo 17 site. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.

  11. A Second-Generation Volatile Organic Analyzer for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Peters, Randy; James, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Early in the development of the Crew Health Care System (CHECS) for the International Space Station (ISS), it was recognized that detection of target volatile organic compounds would be a key component of the air monitoring strategy. Experiences during the NASA/Mir program supported the decision to include a real-time volatile organic analyzer (VOA) aboard ISS to help assess the impact of air quality events on crew health and determine the effectiveness of decontamination efforts. Toward this end, a joint development by the Toxicology Laboratory at Johnson Space Center and Graseby Dynamics produced a VOA that has been delivered and is ready for the first 5 years of ISS operation. The first-generation VOA selection criteria included minimizing size, weight, and power consumption while maintaining analytical performance. Measuring available technologies against these criteria, a VOA system based upon gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) was selected in the mid-90's. However, as NASA looks forward to later-stage ISS operations and to new frontiers such as human exploration of Mars, the ISS VOA (weighing 43 kg and consuming 160 watts) must be replaced by a smaller, less resource-intensive device. This paper will present a possible second-gene ration VOA based upon the same technology as the first-generation unit. Utilizing GC/IMS technology again will permit the instrumental data and experience gained during the initial phase of ISS to be applied to later ISS phases and advanced spacecraft missions. During the past 3 years, efforts to reduce the size of ion mobility spectrometers have been pursued by Graseby Dynamics, the manufacturer of the first-generation VOA. The concept of operation, expected analytical performance, and estimated size of a fully functional second-generation VOA based upon GC/mini-IMS technology will be presented. Furthermore, results of initial laboratory evaluations will be shown.

  12. Development of the Second Generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Stinson, Richard G.; VanWie, Michael; Warren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The second generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer s (TOCA) function is to monitor concentrations of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in ISS water samples. TOC is one measurement that provides a general indication of overall water quality by indicating the potential presence of hazardous chemicals. The data generated from the TOCA is used as a hazard control to assess the quality of the reclaimed and stored water supplies on-orbit and their suitability for crew consumption. This paper details the unique ISS Program requirements, the design of the ISS TOCA, and a brief description of the on-orbit concept-of-operations. The TOCA schematic will be discussed in detail along with specific information regarding key components. The ISS TOCA was designed as a non-toxic TOC analyzer that could be deployed in a flight ready package. This basic concept was developed through laboratory component level testing, two moderate fidelity integrated system breadboard prototypes, a flight-like full scale prototype, as well as lessons learned from the inadequacies of the first unit. The result: a new TOCA unit that is robust in design and includes special considerations to microgravity and the on-orbit ISS environment. TOCA meets the accuracy needs of the ISS Program with a 1,000 to 25,000 g/L range, accurate to within +/-25%.

  13. Development of the Next Generation Gas Trap for the Space Station Internal Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Spelbring, Chris; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Design goals are to meet or exceed the current requirements to (1) include greater operating ranges and conditions, (2) eliminate reliance on the current hydrophilic tube fabrication process, and (3) increase operational life and tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling. In addition, the next generation gas trap will essentially be a 'dropin" design such that no modifications to the ITCS pump package assembly (PPA) will be required, and the implementation of the new design will not affect changes to the ITCS operational conditions, interfaces, or software. This paper will present the initial membrane module design and development work which has included (1) a trade study among several conceptual designs, (2) performance modeling of a hydrophobic-only design, and (3) small-scale development test data for the hydrophobic-only design. Testing has shown that the hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal.

  14. Evaluating PRISM precipitation grid data as possible surrogates for station data at four sites in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of climate-sensitive decision support for agriculture or water resource management requires long time series of monthly precipitation for specific locations. Archived station data for many locations is available, but time continuity, quality, and spatial coverage of station data rem...

  15. Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwongsa, Praitoon; Pornsuwancharoen, Nithiroth; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2009-07-01

    We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage of the hydrogen combines gasoline for small engine saving the gasoline 25%. Furthermore, the new concept of hydrogen combination for diesel engine, bio-diesel engine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas vehicle (NGV), which is discussed in details.

  16. Robotic camera for automatic localization of steam generator tubes in nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cers, Philippe; Garnero, Marie-Agnes

    1994-11-01

    Maintenance of steam generators occupies a substantial proportion of scheduled shutdowns at nuclear power stations. Maintenance operations are broken down into a number of distinct phases; these are performed separately to ensure accountability for the work carried out at each stage, thereby guaranteeing the quality of the maintenance process as a whole. One of these phases, known as `marking,' consists in locating certain tubes in the steam generator tube plate and marking them using a suitable system. The list of tubes for marking may be determined on the basis of prior tests. Marked tubes will undergo subsequent operations as required, such as plugging for example. Clearly, the quality of the marking process will have a significant impact on all subsequent maintenance operations on tubes in the secondary bundle. Present-day marking tools make little use of automation, and over-reliance on human judgement means that the marking phase is liable to error. Moreover, depending on the number of tubes to mark, this phase can be long and fastidious. With these considerations in mind, the EDF Research Division has developed a display system for locating steam generator tubes, with the main purpose of facilitating marking operations. Following an initialization phase, this system (named LUCANER) provides the operator with a simple, reliable and fully automatic method for locating tubes in the tube plate. Besides reducing the risk of error, the system also reduces the time required for the marking phase. The system can also be used for complementary phases involving checks on markings, checks on plugging, etc. In a wider context, it provides visual inspection capabilities over a large part of the bowl.

  17. Multi-site, multivariate weather generator using maximum entropy bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastav, Roshan K.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2014-05-01

    Weather generators are increasingly becoming viable alternate models to assess the effects of future climate change scenarios on water resources systems. In this study, a new multisite, multivariate maximum entropy bootstrap weather generator (MEBWG) is proposed for generating daily weather variables, which has the ability to mimic both, spatial and temporal dependence structure in addition to other historical statistics. The maximum entropy bootstrap (MEB) involves two main steps: (1) random sampling from the empirical cumulative distribution function with endpoints selected to allow limited extrapolation and (2) reordering of the random series to respect the rank ordering of the original time series (temporal dependence structure). To capture the multi-collinear structure between the weather variables and between the sites, we combine orthogonal linear transformation with MEB. Daily weather data, which include precipitation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature from 27 years of record from the Upper Thames River Basin in Ontario, Canada, are used to analyze the ability of MEBWG based weather generator. Results indicate that the statistics from the synthetic replicates were not significantly different from the observed data and the model is able to preserve the 27 CLIMDEX indices very well. The MEBWG model shows better performance in terms of extrapolation and computational efficiency when compared to multisite, multivariate K-nearest neighbour model.

  18. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption 1... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56, which authorizes operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  19. 75 FR 8149 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an exemption...

  20. 75 FR 71152 - Southern California Edison; San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 2 and Unit 3; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern California Edison; San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 2 and Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Southern California Edison (SCE, the licensee) is the holder of the Facility Operating License Nos. NPF-10 and NPF-15, which...

  1. 75 FR 14211 - Southern California Edison, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 2 and Unit 3; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern California Edison, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 2 and Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Southern California Edison (SCE, the licensee) is the holder of the Facility Operating License Nos. NPF-10 and NPF-15, which...

  2. 78 FR 47800 - License Renewal Application for Byron Station, Units 1 and 2; Exelon Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Register on June 13, 2013 (78 FR 35646). A notice of acceptance for docketing of the application and... the Federal Register (78 FR 44603). The purpose of this notice is to inform the public that the NRC... COMMISSION License Renewal Application for Byron Station, Units 1 and 2; Exelon Generation Company,...

  3. 78 FR 46379 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, License Renewal Application for Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Register on June 13, 2013 (78 FR 35646). A notice of acceptance for docketing of the application and... July 24, 2013 (78 FR 44603). The purpose of this notice is to inform the public that the NRC will be... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, License Renewal Application for Braidwood Station, Units 1 and...

  4. 75 FR 43579 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Victoria County Station, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... receipt and availability of this application was published in the Federal Register (73 FR 56867) on September 30, 2008. On November 6, 2008, a subsequent notice was published in the Federal Register (73 FR... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Victoria County Station, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal...

  5. 78 FR 32278 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... 13, 2012 (77 FR 67685). The supplements had no effect on the no significant hazards consideration... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to Information in Tier 1, Table 3.3-1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Exemption and...

  6. Elimination of redundant thermoluminescent dosemeter monitoring at Oyster Creek nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Oyster Creek direct radiation monitoring network has long been operating using several time-scale measurements. This network is used to assess the radiation levels during normal plant operations as well as to set the background radiation levels used to determine the radiological impact of a nonroutine release of radioactivity from the plant. Through analysis of the behavior of the monthly and quarterly activity of several types of direct radiation monitoring, the successful elimination of redundant and artificially high measurement techniques has been done in concert with providing the community with most efficient direct radiation monitoring methods. Dose rates from external radiation sources are measured around licensed U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) facilities using passive detectors known as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). These detectors provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the are in which they are placed. The detected radiation could be the result of cosmic or naturally occurring origin in the air and on the ground, prior nuclear weapons testing, and activity from a nuclear facility. This paper describes the TLD network placed around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) and the comparisons between TLDs of different manufacturers and of different resident times and the successful elimination of the less accurate monthly TLD for the purpose of cost containment.

  7. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  8. Structural integrity analysis of the degraded drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear generating station.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the degradation experienced in the steel drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Specifically, the structural integrity of the containment shell is examined in terms of the stress limits using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section III, Division I, Subsection NE, and examined in terms of buckling (stability) using the ASME B&PV Code Case N-284. Degradation of the steel containment shell (drywell) at Oyster Creek was first observed during an outage in the mid-1980s. Subsequent inspections discovered reductions in the shell thickness due to corrosion throughout the containment. Specifically, significant corrosion occurred in the sandbed region of the lower sphere. Since the presence of the wet sand provided an environment which supported corrosion, a series of analyses were conducted by GE Nuclear Energy in the early 1990s. These analyses examined the effects of the degradation on the structural integrity. The current study adopts many of the same assumptions and data used in the previous GE study. However, the additional computational recourses available today enable the construction of a larger and more sophisticated structural model.

  9. Systematic Site Characterization at Seismic Stations combined with Empirical Spectral Modeling: critical data for local hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Clotaire; Hobiger, Manuel; Edwards, Benjamin; Poggi, Valerio; Burjanek, Jan; Cauzzi, Carlo; Kästli, Philipp; Fäh, Donat

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service operates one of the densest national seismic networks in the world, still rapidly expanding (see http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/monitor/index_EN). Since 2009, every newly instrumented site is characterized following an established procedure to derive realistic 1D VS velocity profiles. In addition, empirical Fourier spectral modeling is performed on the whole network for each recorded event with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Besides the source characteristics of the earthquakes, statistical real time analyses of the residuals of the spectral modeling provide a seamlessly updated amplification function w.r. to Swiss rock conditions at every station. Our site characterization procedure is mainly based on the analysis of surface waves from passive experiments and includes cross-checks of the derived amplification functions with those obtained through spectral modeling. The systematic use of three component surface-wave analysis, allowing the derivation of both Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves, also contributes to the improved quality of the retrieved profiles. The results of site characterisation activities at recently installed strong-motion stations depict the large variety of possible effects of surface geology on ground motion in the Alpine context. Such effects range from de-amplification at hard-rock sites to amplification up to a factor of 15 in lacustrine sediments with respect to the Swiss reference rock velocity model. The derived velocity profiles are shown to reproduce observed amplification functions from empirical spectral modeling. Although many sites are found to exhibit 1D behavior, our procedure allows the detection and qualification of 2D and 3D effects. All data collected during the site characterization procedures in the last 20 years are gathered in a database, implementing a data model proposed for community use at the European scale through NERA and EPOS (www.epos-eu.org). A web stationbook derived from it

  10. Revised description of index of Florida water data collection active stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, Linda H.

    1983-01-01

    The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative index of active data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. District offices with extensive data-collection activities will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The index is updated routinely. (USGS)

  11. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  12. Launching the Next Generation IODP Site Survey Data Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Helly, J.; Clark, D.; Eakins, B.; Sutton, D.; Weatherford, J.; Thatch, G.; Miville, B.; Zelt, B.

    2005-12-01

    The next generation all-digital Site Survey Data Bank (SSDB) became operational on August 15, 2005 as an online resource for Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) proponents, reviewers, panels and operations, worldwide. There are currently 123 active proposals for drilling at sites distributed across the globe, involving nearly 1000 proponents from more than 40 countries. The goal is to provide an authoritative, persistent, secure, password-controlled and easily-used home for contributed data objects, as proposals evolve through their life cycle from preliminary phases to planned drilling expeditions. Proposal status can be monitored graphically by proposal number, data type or date. A Java SSDBviewer allows discovery of all proposal data objects, displayed over a basemap of global topography, crustal age or other custom maps. Data can be viewed or downloaded under password control. Webform interfaces assist with the uploading of data and metadata. Thirty four different standard data types are currently supported. The system was designed as a fully functioning digital library, not just a database or a web archive, drawing upon the resources of the SIOExplorer Digital Library project. Blocks of metadata are organized to support discovery and use, as appropriate for each data type. The SSDB has been developed by a UCSD team of researchers and computer scientists at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the San Diego Supercomputer Center, under contract with IODP Management International Inc., supported by NSF OCE 0432224.

  13. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  14. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    microzonation map based on generalized velocity profiles, where the amplifications were computed using Shake (Schnable and others, 1972), along with an assumed input ground motion. The velocities were constrained by only a few local measurements associated with the Central Artery/Tunnel project. The additional VS measurements presented in this report provide a number of benefits. First, these measurements provide improved spatial coverage. Second, the larger sample size provides better constraints on the mean and variance of the VS distribution for each layer, which may be paired with a three-dimensional (3D) model of the stratigraphy to generate one-dimensional (1D) profiles for use in a standard site-response analysis (for example, Britton, 2003). Third, the velocity profiles may also be used, along with a 3D model of the stratigraphy, as input into a 3D simulation of the ground motion to investigate the effects of basin-generated surface waves and the potential focusing of seismic waves.This report begins with a short review of the geology of the study area and the field methods that we used to estimate the velocity profiles. The raw data, processed data, and the interpreted VS profiles are given in appendix 1. Photographs and descriptions of the sites are provided in appendix 2.

  15. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.

  16. 77 FR 33004 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Company, LLC (the licensee, EGC) for operation of the Clinton Power Station, Unit 1 (CPS), located in De... EGC, from CPS to Creek Township to expand the Lisenby Cemetery. Before acceptance of the partial...

  17. Initial field trials of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station waste oil and solvents disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.S.; Douglas, D.H.; Sharp, M.K.; Olsen, R.A.; Comes, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    At the request of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Southern Division, Charleston, SC, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted the initial field trial of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS), Jacksonville FL. This work was carried out by a field crew consisting of personnel from WES and the Naval Ocean Systems Center during the period of 16 July 1990 to 14 August 1990. The SCAPS investigation at the Jacksonville NAS has two primary objectives: (a) to provide data that could be useful in formulating remediation plans for the facility and (b) to provide for the initial field trial of the SCAPS currently under development by WES for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), now the U.S. Army Environmental Center. The original concepts for the SCAPS was to develop an integrated site screening characterization system whose capabilities would include (a) surface mapping, (b) geophysical surveys using magnetic, induced electromagnetic, and radar instruments, (c) measurements of soil strength, soil electrical resistivity, and laser-induced soil fluorometry Cone penetrometer, Site Characterization and Analysis Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF), Penetrometer System(SCAPS) POL Contamination, using screening instrumentation mounted in a soil penetrometer, (d) soil and fluid samplers, and (e) computerized data acquisition, interpretation, and visualization. The goal of the SCAPS program is to provide detailed, rapid, and cost-effective surface and subsurface data for input to site assessment/remediation efforts.

  18. Sterling landing fuel tanks site environmental baseline survey: Tatalina Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of the environmental baselines survey (EBS) was to document the existence of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and to identify potential environmental liabilities to the US. Air Force (USAF) associated with the fuel storage tanks at Sterling Landing on the Tatalina Long Range Radar Station (LRRS).

  19. The installation campaign of 9 seismic stations around the KTB site to test anisotropy detection by the Receiver Function Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Gribovski, K.; Bokelmann, G.

    2015-09-01

    The project at hand is a field test around the KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz, Southeastern Germany, at the northwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif. The region has been extensively studied through the analysis of several seismic reflection lines deployed around the drilling site. The deep borehole had been placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and it descended down to a depth of 9101 m. In our experiment, we aim to recover structural information as well as anisotropy of the upper crust using the receiver function technique. This retrieved information is the basis for comparing the out-coming anisotropy amount and orientation with information of rock samples from up to 9 km depth, and with high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. For that purpose, we installed 9 seismic stations, and recorded seismicity continuously for two years from June 2012 to July 2014.

  20. Progress in energy generation for Canadian remote sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Y.; Younes, R.; Abboudi, S.; Ilinca, A.; Nohra, C.

    2016-07-01

    Many remote areas around the world are isolated, for various reasons, from electricity networks. They are usually supplied with electricity through diesel generators. The cost of operation and transportation of diesel fuel in addition to its price have led to the procurement of a more efficient and environmentally greener method of supply. Various studies have shown that a wind-diesel hybrid system with compressed air storage (WDCAS) seems to be one of the best solutions, and presents itself as an optimal configuration for the electrification of isolated sites. This system allows significant fuel savings to be made because the stored compressed air is used to supercharge the engine. In order to optimize system performance and minimize fuel consumption, installation of a system for recovering and storing the heat of compression (TES) seems necessary. In addition, the use of hydro-pneumatic energy storage systems that use the same machine as the hydraulic pump and turbine allow us to store energy in tight spaces and, if possible, contribute to power generation. The scrupulous study of this technical approach will be the focus of our research which will validate (or not) the use of such a system for the regulation of frequency of electrical networks. In this article we will skim through the main research that recently examined the wind-diesel hybrid system which addressed topics such as adiabatic compression and hydro-pneumatic storage. Instead, we will offer (based on existing studies) a new ACP-WDCAS (wind-diesel hybrid system with adiabatic air compression and storage at constant pressure), which combines these three concepts in one system for the optimization of wind-diesel hybrid system.

  1. The generation of simple compliance boundaries for mobile communication base station antennas using formulae for SAR estimation.

    PubMed

    Thors, B; Hansson, B; Törnevik, C

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a procedure is proposed for generating simple and practical compliance boundaries for mobile communication base station antennas. The procedure is based on a set of formulae for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) in certain directions around a class of common base station antennas. The formulae, given for both whole-body and localized SAR, require as input the frequency, the transmitted power and knowledge of antenna-related parameters such as dimensions, directivity and half-power beamwidths. With knowledge of the SAR in three key directions it is demonstrated how simple and practical compliance boundaries can be generated outside of which the exposure levels do not exceed certain limit values. The conservativeness of the proposed procedure is discussed based on results from numerical radio frequency (RF) exposure simulations with human body phantoms from the recently developed Virtual Family. PMID:19531847

  2. 12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOMRCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF OPERATING ROOM-RCA COMMUNICATION REC STATION (THIS ROOM WAS ORIGINALLY A MOTOR GENERATOR FACILITY AND SUPPLIED DC POWER TO AN EARLIER GENERATION OF POINT-TO-POINT RECEIVERS ON SECOND FLOOR). VIEW SHOWS TRANSMITTER CONTROL STATION AND AUDIO CONTROL STATION (LEFT, WATKINS-JOHNSON WJ-8718-23. HP RECEIVERS AND KENWOOD R-5000 COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVERS (220 DEGREES). - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  3. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the Space Station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, H. K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the low earth orbital environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low earth orbital environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the Space Station with the desired life are also summarized.

  4. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  5. The new 2nd-generation laser station at Santiago de Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masevich, A. G.; Chepurnov, B. D.; Fundora, M.; del Pino, J.; Kautzleben, H.

    The new laser-radar station at Santiago de Cuba was equipped in cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR, Cuba and the G.D.R. The system is based on a modified satellite-tracking camera (SBG). Its basic concept and the technical performance are similar to the laser-radar station of the Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam. During a first 6-weeks-observation campaign (Dec. 1985 - Jan. 1986), 70 satellite passes (including 40 passes of the geodynamical satellite LAGEOS) were obtained.

  6. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, IRP sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 106th Civil Engineering Flight, New York Air National Guard, Roslyn Air National Guard Station, Roslyn, New York. Volume 1. Site Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Site Investigation (SI) conducted at IRP Sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 at the 106th Civil Engineering Flight (CEF) located at Roslyn Air National Guard Station (ANGS), Roslyn, Long Island, New York. A Preliminary Assessment (PA) (AD-A238 847) of the 106th CEF resulted in the identification of two potentially contaminated waste holding areas and a waste sludge application site. These sites were identified as IRP Site No. 1 (Access Road to Aerospace Ground Equipment `AGE` Shop), IRP Site No. 2 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 1), and IRP Site No. 3 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 2) and recommended for further investigation under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  7. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.J.; Fusegni, L.J.; McFarland, W.J.; Andreone, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ``Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment`` to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG`s at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem.

  8. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  9. Goal-driven Automation of a Deep Space Communications Station: A Case Study in Knowledge Engineering for Plan Generation and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R. W., Jr.; Chien, S. A.; Fayyad, K. V.; Chien, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of Artificial Intelligence techniques for plan generation, plan execution, and plan monitoring to automate a Deep Space Communication Station. This automation allows a Communication station to respond to a set of tracking goals by appropriately reconfiguring the communications hardware and software to provide the requested communications services.

  10. Preliminary site characterization summary and engineering evaluation/cost analysis for Site 2, New Fuel Farm, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. ); Schlosser, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    This report addresses subsurface contamination associated with Site 2, the New Fuel Farm at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada and is an integral part of Phase 2 of the Installation Restoration Program (IR Program) currently underway at the facility. This report: (1) reviews and assesses environmental information characterizing Site 2; (2) determine if site-characterization information is sufficient to design and evaluate removal actions; and, (3) investigates, develops, and describes any removal actions deemed feasible. Previous environmental investigations at Site 2 indicate the presence of floating product (primarily JP-5, jet fuel) on the water table underlying the facility. While the extent of floating-produce plumes has been characterized, the degree of associated soil and groundwater contamination remains uncertain. A comprehensive characterization of soil and groundwater contamination will be completed as the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study progresses. Corrective actions are recommended at this time to remove free-phase floating product. Implementing these removal actions will also provide additional information which will be used to direct further investigations of the extent, mobility, and potential environmental threat from soil and groundwater contaminants at this side.

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  12. Biotechnological generation of plants resistant to mine-site pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dashek, W.V.; Williams, A.L. )

    1989-04-01

    The United States Department of Interior maintains a program designed to reclaim the land occupied by abandoned mine sites. These can be contaminated with pollutant levels of Zn{sup ++}. The quantities of this element required to adequately sustain plant growth and development are 0.065-0.250 ppm. However, various metal-tolerant plants (e.g., Agrostis tenuis) have been discovered making cleansing of abandoned mine site lands possible through seeding of the sites with clones of the tolerant plants. Here, we suggest that these sites be seeded with Agrostis tenuis, Rhode Island bentgrass, and that DNA fragments be excised from the genome of pollen of the survivors by restriction endonucleases followed by characterization of the fragments and their insertions into appropriate vectors (Ti plasmids). The vectors could be employed to transfer DNA fragments carrying the information for pollutant resistance to Agrostis pollen to possibly achieve super-resistance.

  13. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  14. Building the Next Generation of Scientific Explorers through Active Engagement with STEM Experts and International Space Station Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.; Stefanov, W. L.; Rampe, E.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity for all. These experts can share the benefits and utilization of resources from the International Space Station (ISS) while sharing and "translating" exciting science being conducted by professional scientists. Active engagement with these STEM experts involves students in the journey of science and exploration in an enthralling and understandable manner. This active engagement, connecting classrooms with scientific experts, helps inspire and build the next generation of scientific explorers in academia, private industry, and government.

  15. A preliminary study on the effects of combined halogenation and thermal recirculation at a coal-fired generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Schnelle, R.C.; Strimple, P.D.

    1995-06-01

    East Bend Station is a single-unit, 650 megawatt, coal-fired generating station, located at Ohio River mile 510, near Rabbit Hash, Kentucky. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers were first detected at East Bend on 23 July 1992. Since then, the station has adopted a plan for preventing the settlement of zebra mussel veligers, by utilizing a combined halogenation and thermal recirculation treatment regime. A backflush pipeline was constructed, allowing 100% of the heated service water to be recycled through the intake well. During weekly treatments, the service water return to the river is valved out and water temperature is ramped up to between 31{degrees} - 35{degrees}C. HTH (calcium hypochlorite @65% available chlorine) is then slug-fed directly into the intake well. The temperature is maintained until the chlorine residual is below detectable limits. In addition to the weekly combined treatments, the service water system is also brominated for two hours, three times weekly, to 0.5 mg/1 TRO. Treatment efficacy is monitored, using a plexiglas biobox, seeded with adult mussels obtained from a substrate monitor attached to a barge cell and submerged to a depth of 3 meters. Preliminary results show both treatments to be ineffective for adult kill, however, it is believed that any newly-settle juveniles are being killed. Intake and equipment inspections during an upcoming unit outage will provide further verification. Additional testing, using various halogenation techniques, will be conducted during 1995.

  16. Meteorological Processes Affecting the Transport of Emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Charles G.; Chen, Jun; Dye, Timothy S.; Willard Richards, L.; Blumenthal, Donald L.

    1999-08-01

    During the 1990 Navajo Generating Station (NGS) Winter Visibility Study, a network of surface and upper-air meteorological measurement systems was operated in and around Grand Canyon National Park to investigate atmospheric processes in complex terrain that affected the transport of emissions from the nearby NGS. This network included 15 surface monitoring stations, eight balloon sounding stations (equipped with a mix of rawinsonde, tethersonde, and Airsonde sounding systems), three Doppler radar wind profilers, and four Doppler sodars. Measurements were made from 10 January through 31 March 1990. Data from this network were used to prepare objectively analyzed wind fields, trajectories, and streak lines to represent transport of emissions from the NGS, and to prepare isentropic analyses of the data. The results of these meteorological analyses were merged in the form of a computer animation that depicted the streak line analyses along with measurements of perfluorocarbon tracer, SO2, and sulfate aerosol concentrations, as well as visibility measurements collected by an extensive surface monitoring network. These analyses revealed that synoptic-scale circulations associated with the passage of low pressure systems followed by the formation of high pressure ridges accompanied the majority of cases when NGS emittants appeared to be transported to the Grand Canyon. The authors' results also revealed terrain influences on transport within the topography of the study area, especially mesoscale flows inside the Lake Powell basin and along the plain above the Marble Canyon.

  17. Inspiring the Next Generation: Student Experiments and Educational Activities on the International Space Station, 2000-2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Donald A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    One important objective of NASA has always been to inspire the next generation. NASA and human space flight have a unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers. The presence of humans onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for more than five years now has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing the interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet even before the Expedition 1 crew arrived at station in November 2000, experiments with student participation were being conducted onboard ISS in support of NASA missions. One of NASA's protein crystal growth experiments had been delivered to station by the shuttle Atlantis during STS-106 in September 2000 and was returned to Earth six weeks later aboard the shuttle Discovery during the STS-92 mission. From very early on it was recognized that students would have a strong interest in the ISS, and that this would provide a unique opportunity for them to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects on ISS. It should be noted that participation is not limited to U.S. students but involves the 16 International Partner countries and various other countries under special commercial agree

  18. Potential availability of diesel waste heat at Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy consumption at the Goldstone Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12) is predicted and quantified for a future station configuration which will involve implementation of proposed energy conservation modifications. Cogeneration by the utilization of diesel waste-heat to satisfy site heating and cooling requirements of the station is discussed. Scenarios involving expanded use of on-site diesel generators are presented.

  19. Application of index of biotic integrity (IBI) to fixed station water quality monitoring sites

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Biological monitoring aspects of Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (SWMS) Fixed Station Ambient Monitoring Network include sampling and analysis of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The principal objective of the biological monitoring portions of SWMS is to assess the health'' or quality of the aquatic environment in given stream reaches. This report deals with two aspects of biological monitoring, structural and physical characteristics of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities. These are considered relative to physical and chemical aquatic environmental conditions in an attempt to identify likely causes of any recognizable perturbations of the aquatic biological communities. Specifically, fish are sampled to measure species richness, species composition, trophic structure, fish abundance, and condition. Benthic macroinvertebrates are sampled to allow an assessment of species richness, taxonomic composition, and community structure. Biological monitoring, incorporated into SWMS in 1986, was continued for the third year in 1988 with a repeat of 1986 sampling. This report presents 1988 findings and discusses differences between 1988 and 1987 findings. 21 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  20. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  1. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined.

  2. 77 FR 61645 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Victoria County Station Site; Notice of Withdrawal of Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ...), ``Licenses, Certifications and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' A notice acknowledging receipt and availability of this application was published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22434). On June 14, 2010 (75 FR 33653), a subsequent notice was published in the Federal Register announcing...

  3. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION POWER UNITS AT MARGINAL OIL WELL SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Carl

    2003-10-29

    The CEC approved funding on April 9, 2003 for $1,000,000.00 instead of the $1,500,000.00 COPE requested for the project. A kickoff meeting with the California Energy Commission (CEC) was held on Monday, April 14, 2003, in their Sacramento, CA offices. Mark Carl, IOGCC project manager for the DOE grant, attended this meeting, along with Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu, Mike Merlo and CEC officials. The change in funding by the CEC required a modification in the scope of work and an amended form DOE F 4600.1. The modifications were completed and the IOGCC received approval to commence work on the project on May 9, 2003. On May 29, 2003, Virginia Weyland with DOE/NETL, Mark Carl with IOGCC, and Bob Fickes with COPE, Edan Prabhu and Mike Merlo, consultants with COPE, participated in a teleconference kick-off meeting. During May, 2003, COPE canvassed its membership for potential locations for the four test sites. They received a very good response and have identified at least two potential sites for each of the four test sites. COPE has been obtaining gas samples from the various potential lease sites for analyses to verify the chemical properties analyses which the oil and gas producers provided during the initial contact period. The St. James project located at 814 W. 23 rd Street in Los Angeles, California, was selected as the first test site for the project. A Project Advisory Committee (PAC) was established in May, 2003. The following representatives from each of the following areas of expertise comprise the PAC membership. Acquisition of permits for the initial test site has required drawn out negotiations with CEC which has hindered progress on the technical aspects of the project. The technical aspects will begin aggressively beginning in October, 2003. The Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) donated three Capstone micro-turbines to the project. These micro-turbines will be utilized at the St. James Project site located in Los Angeles

  4. A multi-site stochastic weather generator of daily precipitation and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stochastic weather generators are used to generate time series of climate variables that have statistical properties similar to those of observed data. Most stochastic weather generators work for a single site, and can only generate climate data at a single point, or independent time series at sever...

  5. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health. PMID:24289020

  6. 40 CFR 49.24 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the fossil fuel-fired, steam-generating equipment designated as Units 1, 2, and 3, equipment... 40 CFR 81.270). (b) Compliance dates. Compliance with the requirements of this section is required... supervises the NGS, any of the fossil fuel-fired, steam-generating equipment at the NGS, or the...

  7. Site Characteristics Of Chia-Yi City, Taiwan, Estimated from Array And Single-Station Records Of Microtremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.

    2003-12-01

    The site characteristics in the Chia-Yi City of Taiwan were investigated using the H/V ratios of microtremors. Only five strong-motion stations were deployed in Chia-Yi City, the microtremor measurements at 94 points and the microtremor array measurements at four sites therefore are necessary to conduct in the study. The predominant frequencies obtained from H/V ratios of earthquake recordings are consistent with those from microtremor data although the amplification factors of microtremors are underestimated. On the basis of the H/V ratios of microtremors, the site response can be divided into three groups by shape and match well with the geological condition. Basically, the western area of Chia-Yi City is composed of alluvial structure with higher amplification factors and lower predominant frequencies (1.1-1.9Hz) while the eastern side is the mountainous area with unclear or higher predominant frequency. It indicates that the depths of the alluvium gradually increase from the eastern side to the western side. Besides, the highest ground vulnerability index (Kg) values appear in the southwestern part of the Chia-Yi City.

  8. Principal facts of gravity stations with gravity and magnetic profiles from the Southwest Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, as of January, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jansma, P.E.; Snyder, D.B.; Ponce, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Three gravity profiles and principal facts of 2,604 gravity stations in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site are documented in this data report. The residual gravity profiles show the gravity measurements and the smoothed curves derived from these points that were used in geophysical interpretations. The principal facts include station label, latitude, longitude, elevation, observed gravity value, and terrain correction for each station as well as the derived complete Bouguer and isostatic anomalies, reduced at 2.67 g/cm 3. Accuracy codes, where available, further document the data.

  9. Water supply for the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard Arden

    1972-01-01

    The Nuclear Rocket Development Station, in Jackass Flats, occupies about 123 square miles in the southwestern part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site. Jackass Flats, an intermontane valley bordered by highlands on all sides except for a drainage outlet in the southwestern corner, has an average annual rainfall of 4 inches. Jackass Flats is underlain by alluvium, colluvium, and volcanic rocks of Cenozoic age and, at greater depth, by sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The alluvium and the colluvium lie above the saturated zone throughout nearly all of Jackass Flats. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks contain limestone and dolomite units that are excellent water producers elsewhere ; however, these units are too deep in Jackass Flats to be economic sources of water. The only important water-producing unit known in the vicinity of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is a welded-tuff aquifer, the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, which receives no significant recharge. This member contains about 500 feet of highly fractured rock underlying an area 11 miles long and 3 miles wide in western Jackass Flats. Permeability of the aquifer is derived mostly from joints and fractures; however, some permeability may be derived from gas bubbles in the upper part of the unit. Transmissivity, obtained from pumping tests, ranges from 68,000 to 488,000 gallons per day per foot. Volume of the saturated part of the aquifer is about 3.5 cubic miles, and the average specific yield probably ranges from 1 to 5 percent. The volume of ground water in storage is probably within the range of 37-187 billion gallons. This large amount of water should be sufficient to supply the needs of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station for many years. Water at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is used for public supply, construction, test-cell coolant, exhaust cooling, and thermal shielding during nuclear reactor and engine testing, and washdown. Present (1967) average

  10. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  11. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  12. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  13. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  14. Mapping Homing Endonuclease Cleavage Sites Using In Vitro Generated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the precise position of endonucleolytic cleavage sites is a fundamental experimental technique used to describe the function of a homing endonuclease. However, these proteins are often recalcitrant to cloning and over-expression in biological systems because of toxicity induced by spurious DNA cleavage events. In this chapter we outline the steps to successfully express a homing endonuclease in vitro and use this product in nucleotide-resolution cleavage assays. PMID:24510259

  15. On-site production of electrolytic hydrogen for generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, B. R.

    Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis could be cost effective over the merchant hydrogen used for generator cooling. Advanced water electrolyzers are being developed specifically for this utility application. These designs are based on solid-polymer-electrolyte and alkaline water electrolysis technologies. This paper describes the status of electrolyzer development and demonstration projects.

  16. Generation of novel radiolabeled opiates through site-selective iodination

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Susruta; Burgman, Maxim; Haselton, Nathan; Grinnell, Steven; Ocampo, Julia; Pasternak, Anna Rose; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-01-01

    Tritiated opioid radioligands have proven valuable in exploring opioid binding sites. However, tritium has many limitations. Its low specific activity and limited counting efficiency makes it difficult to examine low abundant, high affinity sites and its disposal is problematic due to the need to use organic scintillants and its relatively long half-life. To overcome these issues, we have synthesized both unlabeled and carrier-free radioiodinated iodobenzoyl derivatives of 6β-naltrexamine (125I-BNtxA, 18), 6β-naloxamine (125I-BNalA, 19) and 6β-oxymorphamine (125I-BOxyA, 20) with specific activities of 2100 Ci/mmol. To optimize the utility of the radioligand, we designed a synthesis in which the radiolabel is incorporated in the last synthetic step, which required the selective iodination of the benzoyl moiety without incorporation into the phenolic A ring. Competition studies demonstrated high affinity of the unlabelled compounds for opioid receptors in transfected cell lines, as did the direct binding of the 125I-ligands to the opioid receptors. The radioligand displayed very high sensitivity, enabling a marked reduction in tissue, as well as excellent signal/noise characteristics. These new 125I-radioligands should prove valuable in future studies of opioid binding sites. PMID:21621410

  17. Generation of novel radiolabeled opiates through site-selective iodination.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Susruta; Burgman, Maxim; Haselton, Nathan; Grinnell, Steven; Ocampo, Julia; Pasternak, Anna Rose; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-07-01

    Tritiated opioid radioligands have proven valuable in exploring opioid binding sites. However, tritium has many limitations. Its low specific activity and limited counting efficiency makes it difficult to examine low abundant, high affinity sites and its disposal is problematic due to the need to use organic scintillants and its relatively long half-life. To overcome these issues, we have synthesized both unlabeled and carrier-free radioiodinated iodobenzoyl derivatives of 6β-naltrexamine ((125)I-BNtxA, 18), 6β-naloxamine ((125)I-BNalA, 19) and 6β-oxymorphamine ((125)I-BOxyA, 20) with specific activities of 2100Ci/mmol. To optimize the utility of the radioligand, we designed a synthesis in which the radiolabel is incorporated in the last synthetic step, which required the selective iodination of the benzoyl moiety without incorporation into the phenolic A ring. Competition studies demonstrated high affinity of the unlabelled compounds for opioid receptors in transfected cell lines, as did the direct binding of the (125)I-ligands to the opioid receptors. The radioligand displayed very high sensitivity, enabling a marked reduction in tissue, as well as excellent signal/noise characteristics. These new (125)I-radioligands should prove valuable in future studies of opioid binding sites. PMID:21621410

  18. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Adams, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Botkin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle Program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up-mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that a wide variability exists with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants; therefore, baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on the ISS.

  19. Equating minimalist snowmelt and runoff generation models via validation with a wireless weather station network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, C. C.; Schaefli, B.; Nicotina, L.; Simoni, S.; Barrenetxea, G.; Parlange, M. B.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    A wireless network of 12 weather stations in the Val Ferret watershed (approximately 21 km2) in the Swiss Alps was used to validate snowmelt models with distributed temperature and radiation data. Using this extensive dataset, an improved yet simplistic degree-day method was compared with a radiation-based method proposed by Hock et al., 1999. The original degree-day approach is a widely used snowmelt model, relating snowmelt directly to air temperature. Numerous hydrological models use this minimalist approach due to its equivalent simplicity. Modifications of this simple method have been proposed in the past which typically incorporate local radiation conditions. However, these modifications generally require more data and/or a finer hydrological grid resolution. Results herein as well as theoretical considerations illustrate that the Hock point or grid-scale method is not always a robust method when combined with spatially explicit rainfall-runoff transformation models. This generalized hydrological application suggests that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter has the potential to outperform the Hock local radiation-based approach for sub-daily melt simulations. We therefore suggest that the improved degree-day method enables a flexible melt modeling approach, which can be easily adapted into spatially-explicit hydrological models of varying complexity. Furthermore, as this new degree-day method is based upon solely daily temperature extremes, this approach is capable of being adapted for climate change predictions.

  20. Space Station Power Generation Investigated in Support of the Beta Gimbal Anomaly Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Propp, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex spacecraft ever assembled and operated in orbit. The first U.S. photovoltaic module, containing two solar arrays, was launched, installed, and activated in early December 2000. After the first week of continuously rotating the U.S. solar arrays, engineering personnel in the ISS Mission Evaluation Room observed higher than expected electrical currents on the drive motor in one of the Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGA), the mechanism used to maneuver a U.S. solar array (see the on-orbit photograph). The magnitude of the motor currents continued to increase over time on both BGAs, creating concerns about the ability of the gimbals to continue pointing the solar arrays towards the Sun, a function critical for continued assembly of the ISS. The BGA provides two critical capabilities to the ISS: (1) transfer of electrical power across a rotating joint and (2) positioning of the solar arrays. A number of engineering disciplines convened in May 2001 to address this on-orbit hardware anomaly. Over the course of a year, many scenarios were developed and used. Only two are discussed here: parked arrays and dual-angle mode.

  1. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vega, Leticia; Aber, Gregory; Adam, Niklas; Clements, Anna; Modica, Catherine; Younker, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems which are less dependent on hardware that would need to be launched on a regular basis. Three systems for electrochemical production of potable water disinfectants are being assessed for use on the International Space Station (ISS). Since there is a wide variability in the literature with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, there is a need to establish baseline efficacy values. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria and to determine whether these electrochemical disinfection devices are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  2. Space Station Power Generation in Support of the Beta Gimbal Anomaly Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Propp, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex spacecraft ever assembled and operated in orbit. The first U.S. photovoltaic (PV) module, containing two solar arrays, was launched, installed, and activated in early December 2000. After the first week of continuously rotating the U.S. solar arrays, engineering personnel in the ISS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) observed higher than expected electrical currents on the drive motor in one of the Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGA), the mechanism used to maneuver a U.S. solar array. The magnitude of the motor currents continued to increase over time on both BGA's, creating concerns about the ability of the gimbals to continue pointing the solar arrays towards the sun, a function critical for continued assembly of the ISS. A number of engineering disciplines convened in May 2001 to address this on-orbit hardware anomaly. This paper reviews the ISS electrical power system (EPS) analyses performed to develop viable operational workarounds that would minimize BGA use while maintaining sufficient solar array power to continue assembly of the ISS. Additionally, EPS analyses performed in support of on-orbit BGA troubleshooting exercises is reviewed. EPS capability analyses were performed using SPACE, a computer code developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the ISS program office.

  3. Evaluation of Electrochemically Generated Potable Water Disinfectants for Use on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Anderson, Molly; Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Vega, Leticia; Modica, Catherine; Bodkin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Microbial contamination and subsequent growth in spacecraft water systems are constant concerns for missions involving human crews. The current potable water disinfectant for the International Space Station (ISS) is iodine; however, with the end of the Space Shuttle program, there is a need to develop redundant biocide systems that do not require regular up ]mass dependencies. Throughout the course of a year, four different electrochemical systems were investigated as a possible biocide for potable water on the ISS. Research has indicated that there is a wide variability with regards to efficacy in both concentration and exposure time of these disinfectants, therefore baseline efficacy values were established. This paper describes a series of tests performed in order to establish optimal concentrations and exposure times for four disinfectants against single and mixed species planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Results of the testing determined whether these electrochemical disinfection systems are able to produce a sufficient amount of chemical in both concentration and volume to act as a biocide for potable water on ISS.

  4. Subsidence in geopressured geothermal resource test sites: Monitoring assessment combining geodetic leveling and tidal control stations in southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; John, C.J. ); Trahan, D.B. )

    1989-09-01

    The Louisiana Geological Survey has an ongoing environmental monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, at geopressured geothermal prospect well sites in southwestern Louisiana. This paper presents the results from monitoring subsidence at some of these reservoir sites. Over 1,000 km of first-order surveys and data from several NOAA and US Army Corps of Engineers tidal control stations were examined to determine regional trends. Tidal records were used to examine the history of sea level with respect to the land surface. Relative rates of land subsidence can be determined by comparing rates of water level rise over time with rates of rise from a stable craton. Regional subsidence ranges from 3 to 5 mm/year. First-order bench-mark networks established at Parcperdue, Sweet Lake, and Gladys McCall prospects were used to determine local trends of subsidence. Repeated leveling surveys before, during, and after fluid withdrawal from Parcperdue and Gladys McCall indicate that an increase in subsidence was observed during the drilling of the wells. Data suggest subsidence was possibly due to surface loading by heavy drilling equipment. Historical leveling in the Sweet Lake region indicates differential compaction between sediments as a possible cause for subsidence. However, in all cases, virtually no increase in subsidence was observed during and after times of fluid withdrawal.

  5. 76 FR 75876 - Record of Decision for the Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (74 FR 48067). On June 3, 2011, the Notice of... was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 32198). Western considered the environmental impacts and... Area Power Administration Record of Decision for the Modification of the Groton Generation...

  6. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply to each owner or operator of the fossil fuel-fired... located in the Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (see 40 CFR 81.270). (b) Compliance... the fossil fuel-fired, steam-generating equipment at the NGS, or the auxiliary steam boilers at...

  7. Specific features of corrosion damage to heat-transfer tubes of steam generators used at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemytov, D. S.; Tyapkov, V. F.

    2009-07-01

    Specific features of corrosion damage occurring to the heat-transfer tubes of steam generators used at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are considered. The results obtained from metallographic studies of flaws found in samples cut out from steam-generator tubes are analyzed. Regularities with which flaws of steam-generator tubes are distributed over the tube bundle volume are discussed. Approaches for assessing the technical state and remaining service life of steam-generator tubes are presented.

  8. Development of a System to Generate Near Real Time Tropospheric Delay and Precipitable Water Vapor in situ at Geodetic GPS Stations, to Improve Forecasting of Severe Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. W.; Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Laber, J. L.; Morris, T.; Offield, D. G.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a system under development for generating ultra-low latency tropospheric delay and precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates in situ at a prototype network of geodetic GPS sites in southern California, and demonstrating their utility in forecasting severe storms commonly associated with flooding and debris flow events along the west coast of North America through infusion of this meteorological data at NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Forecast Offices and the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). The first continuous geodetic GPS network was established in southern California in the early 1990s and much of it was converted to real-time (latency <1s) high-rate (1Hz) mode over the following decades. GPS stations are multi-purpose and can also provide estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV using collocated pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology (Bevis et al. 1992, 1994; Duan et al. 1996) as implemented by NOAA with a nationwide distribution of about 300 GPS-Met stations providing PW estimates at subhourly resolution currently used in operational weather forecasting in the U.S. We improve upon the current paradigm of transmitting large quantities of raw data back to a central facility for processing into higher-order products. By operating semi-autonomously, each station will provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of the narrow communications bandwidth that often occurs in the aftermath of natural disasters. The onsite ambiguity-resolved precise point positioning solutions are enabled by a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS and a low-cost MEMS meteorological sensor package. The decreased latency (~5 minutes) PW estimates will provide the detailed knowledge of the distribution and magnitude of PW that NWS forecasters require to monitor and predict severe winter

  9. Automated visual inspection stations for next-generation semiconductor package quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYong, Mark R.; Eskridge, Thomas C.; Grace, John W.; Newberry, Jeff E.; Jones, J. H.; Hart, B. E.

    1996-09-01

    In the last several years, the semiconductor industry has come to the realization that the package into which a die is placed is at least as critical to the performance of the complete electronic system as the die itself. This realization has led to an explosive effort across the entire industry to advance the state-of-the-art in semiconductor packaging. To date, this effort has already produced semiconductor packaging options on the scale of the die (i.e., chip scale packaging -- CSP). While CSPs and other advanced packaging techniques provide improved electronic system performance, they also increase the quality control burden (despite the highly automated processes used to manufacture the packages, quality control remains, for the most part, a manual operation). This paper addresses the necessary requirements of automated visual inspection (AVI) for quality control of current and future semiconductor packaging. The necessary requirements of the station are subdivided into two categories: those pertaining to the hardware platform, and those pertaining to the software reasoning engine. Hardware requirements are discussed in terms of finding the best match between commercial, off-the- shelf, hardware components and a given inspection application. Components reviewed include: imagers, optics, illumination systems, auto-focus/alignment systems, material handlers, parallel image preprocessors, and host computers. Applications reviewed include: pin grid array (PGA), ball grid array (BGA), and flip-chip package inspection. Also discussed in the hardware section are options that may be used when commercial components are not adequate. Software requirements are discussed in terms of the functionality required to provide accurate, real-time characterization of package quality, to gain operator acceptance, and to produce meaningful statistics for use in process control.

  10. Remote-site power generation opportunities for Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working with the Federal Energy Technology Center in Morgantown, West Virginia, to assess options for small, low-cost, environmental acceptable power generation for application in remote areas of Alaska. The goal of this activity was to reduce the use of fuel in Alaskan villages by developing small, low-cost power generation applications. Because of the abundance of high-quality coal throughout Alaska, emphasis was placed on clean coal applications, but other energy sources, including geothermal, wind, hydro, and coalbed methane, were also considered. The use of indigenous energy sources would provide cheaper cleaner power, reduce the need for PCE (Power Cost Equalization program) subsidies, increase self-sufficiency, and retain hard currency in the state while at the same time creating jobs in the region. The introduction of economical, small power generation systems into Alaska by US equipment suppliers and technology developers aided by the EERC would create the opportunities for these companies to learn how to engineer, package, transport, finance, and operate small systems in remote locations. All of this experience would put the US developers and equipment supply companies in an excellent position to export similar types of small power systems to rural areas or developing countries. Thus activities in this task that relate to determining the generic suitability of these technologies for other countries can increase US competitiveness and help US companies sell these technologies in foreign countries, increasing the number of US jobs. The bulk of this report is contained in the two appendices: Small alternative power workshop, topical report and Global market assessment of coalbed methane, fluidized-bed combustion, and coal-fired diesel technologies in remote applications.

  11. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  12. Solar repowering for electric generation. Northeastern Station Unit 1, Public Service Company of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    This plant was selected because it is representative of candidate plants for repowering and for solar fossil hybrid operation; it is located in a moderate insolation region, utilizes an efficient reheat cycle with steam conditions characteristic of modern power plants, and has sufficient land for repowering. NES-1 has a subcritical, single reheat turbine generator and a gas fired steam generator. The basic repowering configuration was established through a series of trade studies and the criterion that proven technology be used. The system selected has a water/steam receiver which supplies superheated steam to the turbine at a design point flow rate sufficient to displace 20 percent of the unit's fossil fuel consumption.

  13. Single-sited catalysis leads next polyolefin generation

    SciTech Connect

    Montagna, A.A.; Floyd, J.C. )

    1994-03-01

    New catalyst families are broadening product opportunities for polyolefins. An updated catalyst system, metallocene, has entered the technology race. This catalyst offers single-site activity, which narrows molecular weight and gives molecular weight distribution control for ethylene and propylene-based polymers. A comparative history details how metallocene-based polymers stack up to conventional Ziegler-Natta catalyst-produced resins. In the 1990s, catalytic and reaction-engineering developments will change polyolefin production. The pros and cons for each catalyst-based system must be examined by potential licensors before setting their product course. The paper discusses the history of polyolefin technologies, characteristics of polyolefins, new species of catalysts, comparison of old and new catalysts, low-density polymers, new comonomers, other polymer options, end user concerns, costs, and future developments.

  14. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  15. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981-February 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the winter of 1981, the generating station experienced a prolonged outage. The reproductive cycle of the shipworms was not extended. Teredo bartschi was very abundant at one station in Oyster Creek and moderately abundant at a second, but did not exist elsewhere in Barnegat Bay. Some specimens of Teredo bartschi contained larvae in the gills in February. According to laboratory experiments, Teredo navalis is able to remain active at temperatures as low as 4/sup 0/C, whereas T. bartschi ceases activity (withdraws its siphons) at about 13/sup 0/C. 12 tables.

  16. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult population of Teredo bartschi survived the winter and spring of 1981-1982 better than it did previous cold periods without a thermal effluent. Lack of an effluent was due to a prolonged outage of the generating station. There was no spring outbreak of shipworms. The introduced species appears established at one station near but outside of Oyster Creek. Three teredinid species coexist in Oyster Creek. Larvae of T. bartschi and T. navalis have similar responses to reduced salinity. Bankia gouldi is the fastest-growing of the teredinids found in New Jersey, and as the lowest annual mortality.

  17. Toxic effects of wastewaters collected at upstream and downstream sites of a purification station in cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Risso-de Faverney, C; Devaux, A; Lafaurie, M; Girard, J P; Rahmani, R

    2001-08-01

    The toxic effects of wastewater samples, collected in December 1998, from upstream (U) and downstream (D) sites of the purification station of the town of Nice (South-East France on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) were assessed undiluted and at various dilutions (75%, 50%, and 25% of collected water sample), on trout hepatocyte cultures treated for 48 or 72 h. Chemical contamination (PCBs, PAHs, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) was also evaluated by chemical analysis. The water samples from the upstream site were more cytotoxic than those from the downstream site. The induction of CYP1A enzyme and metallothioneins (MTs) were selected as specific indicators of exposure to organic contaminants and metals, respectively. CYP1A-related EROD activity as well as protein expression were found to be greatly induced after 72 h exposure of the hepatocytes to the undiluted water samples (U(100%) and D(100%)), but CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly overexpressed only by samples from the upstream site. Maximal MT levels were reached after 48 h of treatment with the least concentrated water samples (U(25%) and D(25%)). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were similarly increased under the same conditions. On the other hand, there was no significant glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity response. Induction of apoptosis was analyzed by using as markers both the fragmentation of the nuclear DNA into oligonucleosomal-length fragments recognized as a "DNA ladder" and the activation of DEVD (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp)-dependent protease considered as the central mediator of programmed cell death. Significant DNA cleavage was only detectable after 72-h exposure to the most concentrated water samples from upstream sites (U(75%) and U(100%)). DEVD-dependent protease activities were significantly increased, mainly in cells exposed to U(75%) and D(25%) for 72 h. In addition, pollution-related DNA damage assessed by using the Comet assay was approximatively 1.5 times greater than that of the control level

  18. Seismic structural fragility investigation for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (Project I); SONGS-1 AFWS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, D.A.; Hashimoto, P.S.

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of the seismic capacities of several of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (SONGS-1) structures was conducted to determine input to the overall probabilistic methodology developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Seismic structural fragilities to be used as input consist of median seismic capacities and their variabilities due to randomness and uncertainty. Potential failure modes were identified for each of the SONGS-1 structures included in this study by establishing the seismic load-paths and comparing expected load distributions to available capacities for the elements of each load-path. Particular attention was given to possible weak links and details. The more likely failure modes were screened for more detailed investigation.

  19. Environmental radiological studies downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1986-02-06

    Information compiled in 1985 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides previously discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant is presented. In October 1984, the quantities of gamma-emitting radionuclides in water discharged to Clay Creek from the plant were reduced below operationally defined detection limits for liquid effluents. However, radionuclides previously discharged persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of different fish, crayfish, and frogs. Coefficients for exponential equations are generated, from a least square analysis, that relate the change in concentration of /sup 137/Cs in fish to distance downstream and time between March and October 1985. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in surface creek sediments also decreased in the downstream direction much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. However, there was no significant difference in the radiocesium concentrations in surface sediements collected from comparable locations during both 1984 and 1985.

  20. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during February 1999. Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method. Soil samples were collected at 0.6-m (2-ft) intervals from the surface to 1.8 m (6 ft) below ground surface. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1999b). Soil sample results indicated that two locations in the bermed area contain total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel at concentrations of 124 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 377 mg/kg. This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). The TPH-impacted soil will be removed and disposed as part of the corrective action.

  2. Metal amounts in the lichen Ramalina duriaei (De Not. ) Bagl. transplanted at biomonitoring sites around a new coal-fired power station after 1 year of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.

    1987-06-01

    The lichen Ramalina duriaei (De Not.) Bagl. was transplanted to 22 biomonitoring sites for 1 year (1981-1982). The amounts of Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe in the lichen material were measured at the end of the transplantation period and the data were compared with the amounts of five of these metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb) which were detected in the same lichen species transplanted in the same study area during the 1979-1980 period. The differences between the amounts of the five metals detected during the two periods are discussed. The increase in amounts of some of the metals in the 1981-1982 lichen material (Pb, Ni, and probably Cr) reflects the increase in the total number of motor vehicles between the two periods within the study area. The decrease of Zn in the lichen after the second period reflects a decrease in the use of Zn as a constituent of foliar nutrients in agriculture used for crop spraying. The increase of Cr and Ni in the transplanted lichen after the 1981-1982 period probably also reflects, apart from vehicle pollution, a certain emission from the 250-m-high stacks of a new coal-fired electricity-generating power station.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  5. Candidate wind turbine generator site annual data summary for January 1979 through December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.

    1981-03-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for fifteen candidate and wind turbine generator sites are presented in this report. These data are collected for the Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, data are given in eight tables and one figure. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

  6. Candidate wind turbine generator site: annual data summary, January 1981-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.

    1982-07-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 34 candidate and wind turbine generator sites for calendar year 1981 are presented. These data are collected for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, wind speed, direction, and distribution data are given in eight tables. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

  7. Structure of the lambda att sites generated by int-dependent deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Hoess, R H; Landy, A

    1978-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda integrates into the chromosome of its Escherichia coli host by means of a site-specific recombination between a locus on the phage chromosome (phage att site) and a locus on the bacterial chromosome (bacterial att site). The nucleotide sequence of four lambda att sites altered in site-specific recombination has been determined. The int-dependent deletions that generated these att sites have one end point within the phage att site and extend either to the left or to the right. As a result of the new internucleotide bond created by deletion formation, these phage have alterations in the 15-base-pair common core region. The new DNA sequences brought to the att sites by the deletions, designated delta for regions to the left and delta' for regions to the right, do not share any discernible homology with their analogous counterparts in the phage att site arms, P and P', respectively, or with the bacterial att site arms, B and B', respectively. The finding of alterations in the 15-base-pair common core region necessitates a reinterpretation of the genetic properties of these att sites in site-specific recombination. The structure of these sites in relation to their genetic properties can be viewed as being consistent with a model in which the only specificity elements in int-dependent site-specific recombination are the common core region, O, and the phage arms, P and P'. Images PMID:364480

  8. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  9. Spaceflight effects on consecutive generations of peas grown onboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Gostimsky, Sergey A.; Bingham, Gail E.; Podolsky, Igor G.

    2007-02-01

    In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations. According to our results, pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis (from seed to seed) taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants. In addition, four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds. Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the "space" and "ground" seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of chromosomal aberrations count and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (molecular method). No genetic polymorphism was found either in the experimental or control crops. This can serve as a sound argument for the supposition that the genetic apparatus of plants is not impacted by exposure of several successive generations to the conditions of space flight.

  10. Privacy and Generation Y: Applying Library Values to Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Librarians face many challenges when dealing with issues of privacy within the mediated space of social networking sites. Conceptually, social networking sites differ from libraries on privacy as a value. Research about Generation Y students, the primary clientele of undergraduate libraries, can inform librarians' relationship to this important…

  11. A Three Corner Hat-based analysis of station position time series for the assessment of inter-technique precision at ITRF co-located sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Hurst, K. J.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.; Altamimi, Z.

    2012-12-01

    to the data set used for generating the ITRF2008 realization: GPS, DORIS, VLBI and SLR solutions have been rigorously re-analyzed in order to obtain consistent and comparable non-linear-residual time series of station positions at ITRF co-locations. Particular emphasis is put on the analysis of the limiting factors which might affect the application of TCH to the space-geodetic positioning, i.e. poorness of the current co-locations resulting in a scarce number of sites having sufficient observations, dissimilar performances varying over time of the four space-geodetic techniques, different time resolution of the four techniques and effects of the data interpolation (especially on daily VLBI data), presence of non-Gaussian and time-correlated noise for which TCH is not specifically designed.

  12. Investigation of Historic Seismic and Infrasound Records from Events Occurred at the Region of Novaya Zemplya Test Site by the USSR Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Located in the north the Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used in Soviet time for conducting unique nuclear weapon tests in different mediums. 130 nuclear explosions with total yield 265 megatons were conducted at the Test Site for the period 1955-1990. During this period the following nuclear explosions were conducted: 1 surface explosion, 85 air explosions, 2 above water explosions, 3 underwater explosions and 39 underground explosions (in boreholes and tunnels). In addition, tectonic earthquakes and induced earthquakes caused by multi-megatons UNE occur near the Test Site. Unfortunately, only few seismic events occurred on the territory of the Test Site were recorded by digital stations. However, the archives of different seismological organizations of the USSR contain huge amount of analogue seismograms recorded by permanent and temporary stations. Historical seismograms of nuclear explosions and earthquakes from Novaya Zemlya Test site territory were digitized by the Complex Seismological Expedition IPE RAS and by the Institute of Geophysical Researches RK; a database of the events from the Test Site containing 470 seismograms at epicentral distance 2100-3800 was created. The database includes seismic records of air, underground nuclear explosions, and records of underwater nuclear explosion conducted within "Korall" exercise. In addition, infrasound records of waves from multi-megatons air nuclear explosions recorded by a microbarograph installed at Talgar seismic station at distance ~3600 km from the Test Site were digitized. Kinematic and dynamic parameters of nuclear explosions records conducted in different mediums (air, under water and underground) were investigated by the digitized records from events at Novaya Zemlya Test Site; specific features of wave pattern for each class of events were found.

  13. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek, at the mouth of Forked River and on the coast of the bay between the two creeks. Heavy mortality occurred in all species during winter and spring when the generating station was not operating. Temperature and salinity tolerance tests begun during April and May, 1980, were not completed by the end of May because the adult shipworms proved to be very resistant to drastic changes in these physical parameters.

  14. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.; Turner, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. Teredo bartschi caused almost complete destruction of panels in Oyster Creek during the summer of 1979. Reproduction and settlement of this species continued into October. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. The greatest shipworm damage is in Oyster Creek. Heavy mortality occurs in all species during winter, especially in winters such as 1979-80 when the generating station is not operating. Adults of all three species can survive for at least 30 days at salinities from 5 to 45 parts per thousand by weight. They can withstand abrupt salinity changes.

  15. Automated Site-Directed Drug Design: The Formation of Molecular Templates in Primary Structure Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Dean, P. M.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper the spacer skeleton concept is used to produce molecular graphs of putative ligands for binding sites. The skeletons are transformed into molecular templates within the constraints of the accessible surface of the ligand-binding site. A distance-matrix method is used to compare ligand points with vertices of the spacer skeleton through a permutation of all possible correspondences. A tolerance parameter is used to screen for poor matches. As a result. a small number of matched vertices and ligand points are produced. These are fitted into the site by a constrained optimization routine using an analytical function. Ligand points fall within the site and are optimally positioned adjacent to the corresponding site points, other vertices of the spacer skeleton lying beneath the accessible surface of the site are clipped off. A molecular template is thereby formed with its vertices linked to the ligand points. The final step is to verify that the bonding integrity of the skeleton remains. The computational methods outlined in this paper have been tested at two binding sites the pteridine binding site in dihydrofolate reductase and the amidinophenylpyruvate site of trypsin. Molecular graphs for both sites were generated automatically, they showed strong similarity to those of the natural ligands.

  16. Quantification of uncertainties in the 100-year flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station and its application in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Huidae; Bones, Emma

    2016-08-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has introduced the concept of the "1-percent plus" flow to incorporate various uncertainties in estimation of the 100-year or 1-percent flow. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no clear directions for calculating the 1-percent plus flow have been defined in the literature. Although information about standard errors of estimation and prediction is provided along with the regression equations that are often used to estimate the 1-percent flow at ungaged sites, uncertainty estimation becomes more complicated when there is a nearby gaged station because regression flows and the peak flow estimate from a gage analysis should be weighted to compute the weighted estimate of the 1-percent flow. In this study, an equation for calculating the 1-percent plus flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station is analytically derived. Also, a detailed process is introduced for calculating the 1-percent plus flow for an ungaged site near a gaged station in Georgia as an example and a case study is performed. This study provides engineers and practitioners with a method that helps them better assess flood risks and develop mitigation plans accordingly.

  17. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September-30 November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-04-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River.

  18. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-02-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. Teredo bartschi can withstand higher temperatures than the native species, but all species suffer osmotic stress at 6 parts per thousand by weight.

  19. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River. An increase in mortality occurred in January. By February, Teredo bartschi was found only at Bayside.

  20. Evaluation of the feasibility of using the data collection system to operate a network of hydrological and climatological stations at sites remote from normal communication links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The General Electric DCP has proven to be a versatile, rugged piece of hardware and has surpassed original expectation; it is very simple to use and does not require skilled staff for its use, installation, and operation. It is well suited for use in remote sites where no power is available. From this experience, it is concluded that the data collection system will be very useful in operating a network of hydrometeorological stations situated in sites remote from normal communication links.

  1. DAC-3 Pointing Stability Analysis Results for SAGE 3 and Other Users of the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Attachment Sites (PAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Rombado, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide final results of a pointing stability analysis for external payload attachment sites (PAS) on the International Space Station (ISS). As a specific example, the pointing stability requirement of the SAGE III atmospheric science instrument was examined in this paper. The instrument requires 10 arcsec stability over 2 second periods. SAGE 3 will be mounted on the ISS starboard side at the lower, outboard FIAS. In this engineering analysis, an open-loop DAC-3 finite element model of ISS was used by the Microgravity Group at Johnson Space Flight Center to generate transient responses at PAS to a limited number of disturbances. The model included dynamics up to 50 Hz. Disturbance models considered included operation of the solar array rotary joints, thermal radiator rotary joints, and control moment gyros. Responses were filtered to model the anticipated vibration attenuation effects of active control systems on the solar and thermal radiator rotary joints. A pointing stability analysis was conducted by double integrating acceleration transient over a 2 second period. Results of the analysis are tabulated for ISS X, Y, and Z Axis rotations. These results indicate that the largest excursions in rotation during pointing occurred due to rapid slewing of the thermal radiator. Even without attenuation at the rotary joints, the resulting pointing error was limited to less than 1.6 arcsec. With vibration control at the joints, to a maximum 0.5 arcsec over a 2 second period. Based on this current level of model definition, it was concluded that between 0 - 50 Hz, the pointing stability requirement for SAGE 3 will not be exceeded by the disturbances evaluated in this study.

  2. The effects of scrubber installation at the Navajo Generating Station on particulate sulfur and visibility levels in the Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark; Farber, Rob; Lien, Nghi; Gebhart, Kristi; Molenar, John; Iyer, Hari; Eatough, Delbert

    2005-11-01

    Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a mandatory Class I federal area that is afforded visibility protection under the Federal Clean Air Act. In this paper, we have examined the effects on visibility and particulate sulfur (Sp) at GCNP as a result of reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 90% from the Navajo Generating Station (NGS). Scrubbers were retrofitted to each of the three units at NGS during 1997, 1998, and 1999. The Inter-agency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments aerosol network database affords us an opportunity to examine trends in Sp and extinction both prescrubber and postscrubber. The NGS impacts GCNP primarily during the winter (December to February). During winter, at times, there are fogs, stratus, and high-relative humidity in the Grand Canyon. When the NGS plume interacts with these fogs and stratus, rapid conversion of SO2 to Sp can occur. A variety of analytical techniques were used, including cumulative frequency plots of Sp and extinction, and chemical mass balance and tracer source apportionment analysis. We also deployed P value statistical analysis of "extreme" Sp values. Before scrubbers were installed, values of Sp approaching 2 microg/m3 were occasionally observed. Because scrubbers have been installed, high levels of Sp have been markedly reduced. Statistical P value analysis suggests that these reductions were significant. Furthermore, we have also observed that Sp has been reduced throughout the cumulative frequency curve during winter by approximately 33% since scrubbers were installed. By contrast, during summer when the NGS impact on the Canyon is minimal, there has been only a relatively small decrease in Sp. PMID:16350365

  3. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Kinloch, David

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  4. Comparison of salinity and temperature at continuous monitoring stations and nearby monthly measurement sites in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, L.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Salinity and temperature are crucial state variables affecting estuarine habitat an d, thus, are measured by various San Francisco Estuary programs. This article presents a comparison of salinity and temperature data collected at seven continuo us monitoring stations throughout San Francisco Bay (Figure 1) with data collected monthly by the US Geological Survey (USGS) research vessel ( RV ) Polaris . The data comparison was done to determine if the continuous monitoring stations, which mostly are located near shore and always on structures in the water, are representative of water conditions in the main channel of the estuary where the RV Polaris collects measurements.

  5. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Distillation of Used Solvents Generated by Health Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ching-San; Ciesla, John

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the sources of contaminants found in used solvents generated by the histopathological laboratories at health care facilities and the technical problems, corrective measures, and economic analysis associated with the on-site recycling and reusing of these solvents. An appendix contains an economic analysis for a used-solvent recycling…

  6. What is the benefit of driving a hydrological model with data from a multi-site weather generator compared to data from a simple delta change approach?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Keller, Denise; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In 2011 the Swiss national consortium C2SM providednew climate change scenarios were released in Switzerland that came with a comprehensive data set of temperature and precipitation changes under climate change conditions for every a large network of meteorological stations, and for aggregated as well as regions in across Switzerland. These climate change signals were generated for three emission scenarios and three different future time-periods and designed to be used asbased on a delta change factors approach. This data set proved to be very successful in Switzerland as many different users, researchers, private companies, and societal users were able to use and interpret the climate data set. Thus, a range of applications that are all based on the same climate data set enabled a comparable view on climate change impact in several disciplines. The main limitation and criticism to this data set was the usage of the delta change approach for downscaling as it comes with severe limitations such as underestimatinges changes in extreme values and neglecting changes in variability and changes in temporal sequencesneglecting changes in variability, be it year-to-year or day-to-day, and changes in temporal sequences . lacks a change in the day-to-day-variability. One way to overcome this the latter limitation is the usage of stochastic weather generators in a downscaling context. Weather generators are known to be one suitable downscaling technique, but A common limitation of most weather generators is the absence of spatial consistency rrelation in the generated daily time-series, resulting in an underestimation of areal means over several stations that are often low-biased. refer to one point scale (single-site) and lacks the spatial representation of weather. The latter A realistic representation of the inter-station correlation in the downscaled time-series This is of high particular importance in some impact studies, especially infor any hydrological impact studiesy

  7. Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina

    2004-11-30

    While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.

  8. Simultaneous Pc 1 observations by the synchronous satellite ATS-1 and ground stations - Implications concerning IPDP generation mechanisms. [Intervals of Pulsations Diminishing by Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossen, M.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study designed to examine the properties of Pc 1 activity observed simultaneously at ATS 1 and two Canadian ground stations. The Pc 1 activity is found to follow substorm expansion phase onsets and to occur most frequently at dusk. Dynamic spectra waves at both ground stations are that of IPDP (Intervals of Pulsations Diminishing by Period) type Pc 1. A previously proposed mechanism to explain IPDP generation, which required a rapid increase in the equatorial magnetic field to produce IPDP, is inconsistent with the dynamic spectra and magnetic field observations. Either purely azimuthal or a combination of azimuthal and radial inward drift of energetic resonant protons is an equally plausible mechanism to explain IPDP generation.

  9. Solid radioactive waste management facility design for managing CANDU{sup R} 600 MW nuclear generating station re-tube/refurbishment Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pontikakis, N.; Hopkins, J.; Scott, D.; Bajaj, V.; Nosella, L.

    2007-07-01

    The main design features of the re-tube canisters, waste handling equipment and waste containers designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL{sup R}) and implemented in support of the re-tube/refurbishment activities for Candu 600 MW nuclear generating stations are described in this paper. The re-tube/refurbishment waste characterization and the waste management principles, which form the basis of the design activities, are also briefly outlined. (authors)

  10. Post-Flight Microbial Analysis of Samples from the International Space Station Water Recovery System and Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.

    2011-01-01

    The Regenerative, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS) includes the the Water Recovery System (WRS) and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS). The WRS consists of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). This report describes microbial characterization of wastewater and surface samples collected from the WRS and OGS subsystems, returned to KSC, JSC, and MSFC on consecutive shuttle flights (STS-129 and STS-130) in 2009-10. STS-129 returned two filters that contained fluid samples from the WPA Waste Tank Orbital Recovery Unit (ORU), one from the waste tank and the other from the ISS humidity condensate. Direct count by microscopic enumeration revealed 8.38 x 104 cells per mL in the humidity condensate sample, but none of those cells were recoverable on solid agar media. In contrast, 3.32 x lOs cells per mL were measured from a surface swab of the WRS waste tank, including viable bacteria and fungi recovered after S12 days of incubation on solid agar media. Based on rDNA sequencing and phenotypic characterization, a fungus recovered from the filter was determined to be Lecythophora mutabilis. The bacterial isolate was identified by rDNA sequence data to be Methylobacterium radiotolerans. Additional UPA subsystem samples were returned on STS-130 for analysis. Both liquid and solid samples were collected from the Russian urine container (EDV), Distillation Assembly (DA) and Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) for post-flight analysis. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Chaetomium brasiliense were isolated from the EDV samples. No viable bacteria or fungi were recovered from RFTA brine samples (N= 6), but multiple samples (N = 11) from the DA and RFTA were found to contain fungal and bacterial cells. Many recovered cells have been identified to genus by rDNA sequencing and carbon source utilization profiling (BiOLOG Gen III). The presence of viable bacteria and fungi from WRS

  11. Generation of Food-Grade Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacterium Strains by Site-Specific Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Alonso, Juan C.; Suárez, Juan E.; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of a delivery and clearing system for the generation of food-grade recombinant lactic acid bacterium strains, based on the use of an integrase (Int) and a resolvo-invertase (β-recombinase) and their respective target sites (attP-attB and six, respectively) is reported. The delivery system contains a heterologous replication origin and antibiotic resistance markers surrounded by two directly oriented six sites, a multiple cloning site where passenger DNA could be inserted (e.g., the cI gene of bacteriophage A2), the int gene, and the attP site of phage A2. The clearing system provides a plasmid-borne gene encoding β-recombinase. The nonreplicative vector-borne delivery system was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and, by site-specific recombination, integrated as a single copy in an orientation- and Int-dependent manner into the attB site present in the genome of the host strain. The transfer of the clearing system into this strain, with the subsequent expression of the β-recombinase, led to site-specific DNA resolution of the non-food-grade DNA. These methods were validated by the construction of a stable food-grade L. casei ATCC 393-derived strain completely immune to phage A2 infection during milk fermentation. PMID:10831443

  12. Terrestrial flora and fauna in the vicinity of the Delmarva power and light station and proposed expansion site. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Deusen, M.; Otto, R.G.

    1980-04-01

    The results of field surveys of the terrestrial vegetation, birds and mammals in the vicinity of the Delmarva Power and Light Company Vienna Steam Electric Station and proposed expansion area in Dorchester County, Maryland are presented. Four major habitats were identified: forest, oldfield, marsh and cultivated land. Qualitative surveys of flora and fauna were conducted to determine species present. Commercially important waterfowl, upland game birds and mammals and furbearers are discussed.

  13. Second Generation International Space Station (ISS) Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) Verification Testing and On-Orbit Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Nicole L.; Thomas, Evan A.; VanWie, Michael; Morrison, Chad; Stinson, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOGA) is designed to autonomously determine recovered water quality as a function of TOC. The current TOGA has been on the International Space Station since November 2008. Functional checkout and operations revealed complex operating considerations. Specifically, failure of the hydrogen catalyst resulted in the development of an innovative oxidation analysis method. This method reduces the activation time and limits the hydrogen produced during analysis, while retaining the ability to indicate TOC concentrations within 25% accuracy. Subsequent testing and comparison to archived samples returned from the Station and tested on the ground yield high confidence in this method, and in the quality of the recovered water.

  14. Adapting a GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach for Evaluating New Power Generating Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Blevins, Brandon R; Jochem, Warren C; Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Hadley, Stanton W; Harrison, Thomas J; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Neish, Bradley S; Rose, Amy N

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need to site new power generating plants that use cleaner energy sources due to increased regulations on air and water pollution and a sociopolitical desire to develop more clean energy sources. To assist utility and energy companies as well as policy-makers in evaluating potential areas for siting new plants in the contiguous United States, a geographic information system (GIS)-based multicriteria decision analysis approach is presented in this paper. The presented approach has led to the development of the Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion (OR-SAGE) tool. The tool takes inputs such as population growth, water availability, environmental indicators, and tectonic and geological hazards to provide an in-depth analysis for siting options. To the utility and energy companies, the tool can quickly and effectively provide feedback on land suitability based on technology specific inputs. However, the tool does not replace the required detailed evaluation of candidate sites. To the policy-makers, the tool provides the ability to analyze the impacts of future energy technology while balancing competing resource use.

  15. Optimized Energy Management for Large Organizations Utilizing an On-Site PHEV fleet, Storage Devices and Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dashora, Yogesh; Barnes, J. Wesley; Pillai, Rekha S; Combs, Todd E; Hilliard, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on the daily electricity management problem for organizations with a large number of employees working within a relatively small geographic location. The organization manages its electric grid including limited on-site energy generation facilities, energy storage facilities, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging stations installed in the parking lots. A mixed integer linear program (MILP) is modeled and implemented to assist the organization in determining the temporal allocation of available resources that will minimize energy costs. We consider two cost compensation strategies for PHEV owners: (1) cost equivalent battery replacement reimbursement for utilizing vehicle to grid (V2G) services from PHEVs; (2) gasoline equivalent cost for undercharging of PHEV batteries. Our case study, based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) campus, produced encouraging results and substantiates the importance of controlled PHEV fleet charging as opposed to uncontrolled charging methods. We further established the importance of realizing V2G capabilities provided by PHEVs in terms of significantly reducing energy costs for the organization.

  16. Elimination of a ligand gating site generates a supersensitive olfactory receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kanika; Ahuja, Gaurav; Hussain, Ashiq; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction poses one of the most complex ligand-receptor matching problems in biology due to the unparalleled multitude of odor molecules facing a large number of cognate olfactory receptors. We have recently deorphanized an olfactory receptor, TAAR13c, as a specific receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine. Here we have modeled the cadaverine/TAAR13c interaction, exchanged predicted binding residues by site-directed mutagenesis, and measured the activity of the mutant receptors. Unexpectedly we observed a binding site for cadaverine at the external surface of the receptor, in addition to an internal binding site, whose mutation resulted in complete loss of activity. In stark contrast, elimination of the external binding site generated supersensitive receptors. Modeling suggests this site to act as a gate, limiting access of the ligand to the internal binding site and thereby downregulating the affinity of the native receptor. This constitutes a novel mechanism to fine-tune physiological sensitivity to socially relevant odors. PMID:27323929

  17. Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste Site Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled “Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation” held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Objectives Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Discussion Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention. PMID:21205582

  18. Probing the oxygen-binding site of the human formylglycine-generating enzyme using halide ions.

    PubMed

    Roeser, Dirk; Schmidt, Bernhard; Preusser-Kunze, Andrea; Rudolph, Markus G

    2007-05-01

    The catalytic residue in sulfatases is a unique formylglycine that is post-translationally generated by oxidation of a cysteine or serine precursor. Molecular oxygen oxidizes the cysteine precursor in eukaryotic sulfatases, a reaction that is catalysed by the formylglycine-generating enzyme FGE. Previously, FGE was crystallized in complex with a chloride ion which, based on its similar polarizability and hydrophobicity, indicates the site of molecular oxygen binding. Here, two structures of FGE in complex with bromide and iodide were determined in order to further delineate the volume and stereochemical restraints of the oxygen-binding site for potential reaction intermediates. Anomalous difference density maps unambiguously assigned the nature of the halide ions. Unexpectedly, data collected at a wavelength of 1.54 A from the iodide-containing crystal and data collected at a wavelength of 0.8 A from a bromide-containing crystal were sufficient for SIRAS phasing. PMID:17452787

  19. Feasibility Evaluation of an On-site Generator Network by the Cooperative Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Taketo; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    On-site generator, such as CGS (cogeneration system), is allegedly considered to be an effective end-use energy system in order to accomplish primary energy conservation, CO2 emission mitigation and system cost reduction, which characteristics eventually improve the whole performance of an existing energy system for the future. Considering the drawback of installing an end-use CGS into the customer with small or middle scale floor space, however, it is difficult to achieve those distinctive features because the thermal-electricity ratio of CGS does not always be in agreement with that of customer energy demand. In order to overcome that matching deficiency, it is hence better to organize an on-site generator network based on mutual electricity and heating transmission. But focusing on some cogenerators underlying their behaviors on maximizing their own profits, this on-site network, which situation corresponds to a grand coalition, is not necessarily established because of each cogenerator’s motivation to form a partial coalition and acquire its own profit as much as possible. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the optimal operation of an on-site generator network and identify by applying the nucleolus of the cooperative game theory the optimal benefit allocation strategy in order for the cogenerators to construct the network. Regarding the installation site of this network, the center of Tokyo area is assumed, which locational information includes floor space and so forth through a GIS (geographic information system) database. The results from the nucleolus suggest that all districts should impartially obtain the benefit from organizing network for the purpose of jointly attaining the system total cost reduction.

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site-generated radiological waste handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. Installation of Ohio's First Electrolysis-Based Hydrogen Fueling Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Brianne T.; Lively, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes progress made towards the installation of a hydrogen fueling station in Northeast Ohio. In collaboration with several entities in the Northeast Ohio area, the NASA Glenn Research Center is installing a hydrogen fueling station that uses electrolysis to generate hydrogen on-site. The installation of this station is scheduled for the spring of 2012 at the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority s Hayden bus garage in East Cleveland. This will be the first electrolysis-based hydrogen fueling station in Ohio.

  2. What is the benefit of driving a hydrological model with data from a multi-site weather generator compared to data from a simple delta change approach?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Keller, Denise; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In 2011 the Swiss national consortium C2SM providednew climate change scenarios were released in Switzerland that came with a comprehensive data set of temperature and precipitation changes under climate change conditions for every a large network of meteorological stations, and for aggregated as well as regions in across Switzerland. These climate change signals were generated for three emission scenarios and three different future time-periods and designed to be used asbased on a delta change factors approach. This data set proved to be very successful in Switzerland as many different users, researchers, private companies, and societal users were able to use and interpret the climate data set. Thus, a range of applications that are all based on the same climate data set enabled a comparable view on climate change impact in several disciplines. The main limitation and criticism to this data set was the usage of the delta change approach for downscaling as it comes with severe limitations such as underestimatinges changes in extreme values and neglecting changes in variability and changes in temporal sequencesneglecting changes in variability, be it year-to-year or day-to-day, and changes in temporal sequences . lacks a change in the day-to-day-variability. One way to overcome this the latter limitation is the usage of stochastic weather generators in a downscaling context. Weather generators are known to be one suitable downscaling technique, but A common limitation of most weather generators is the absence of spatial consistency rrelation in the generated daily time-series, resulting in an underestimation of areal means over several stations that are often low-biased. refer to one point scale (single-site) and lacks the spatial representation of weather. The latter A realistic representation of the inter-station correlation in the downscaled time-series This is of high particular importance in some impact studies, especially infor any hydrological impact studiesy

  3. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. It did not spread to Forked River or Waretown as it had done in other years when the effluent was present. The peak in larval production and settlement of T. bartschi occurred between September and October. Settlement of shipworms occurred on no monthly panels except those in Oyster Creek during the period of this report. Laboratory experiments revealed that T. bartschi becomes inactive at 5/sup 0/C (24/sup 0///sub 00/) and T. navalis shows signs of osmotic stress below 10/sup 0///sub 00/ at 18/sup 0/C. The shipworms in Barnegat Bay do not show a preference for settling at the mudline when the substrate is not limited.

  4. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  5. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-04-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

  6. CheY’s acetylation sites responsible for generating clockwise flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fraiberg, Milana; Afanzar, Oshri; Cassidy, C. Keith; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Schulten, Klaus; Levin, Yishai; Eisenbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stimulation of Escherichia coli with acetate elevates the acetylation level of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY. This elevation, in an unknown mechanism, activates CheY to generate clockwise rotation. Here, using quantitative selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and high-resolution targeted mass spectrometry, we identified K91 and K109 as the major sites whose acetylation level in vivo increases in response to acetate. Employing single and multiple lysine replacements in CheY, we found that K91 and K109 are also the sites mainly responsible for acetate-dependent clockwise generation. Furthermore, we showed that clockwise rotation is repressed when residue K91 is non-modified, as evidenced by an increased ability of CheY to generate clockwise rotation when K91 was acetylated or replaced by specific amino acids. Using molecular dynamics simulations we show that K91 repression is manifested in the conformational dynamics of the β4α4 loop, shifted towards an active state upon mutation. Removal of β4α4 loop repression may represent a general activation mechanism in CheY, pertaining also to the canonical phosphorylation activation pathway as suggested by crystal structures of active and inactive CheY from Thermotoga maritima. By way of elimination we further suggest that K109 acetylation is actively involved in generating clockwise rotation. PMID:25388160

  7. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  8. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  9. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  10. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  11. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  12. Utilization of site-specific recombination for generating therapeutic protein producing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Margie; Corisdeo, Susanne; McGee, Clair; Kraichely, Denny

    2010-07-01

    The AttSite Recombinase Technology from Intrexon, Blacksburg, VA, utilizes specific DNA sequences and proprietary recombinase enzymes to catalyze the insertion of a gene of interest at a specific location in the host cell genome. Using this technology, we have developed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines that have incorporated attB recombination sites at highly transcriptionally active loci or 'hot spots' within the cell genome. Subsequently, these attB site containing host cell lines could then be used for the expression of future Centocor products. Candidate production cell lines would be generated by a simple recombination event. Since the therapeutic gene of interest would preferentially integrate into the pre-selected high-expressing attB site, candidate cell lines would consistently express high levels of the gene of interest. We have been able to demonstrate that the AttSite Recombinase Technology could be a valid approach for the development of high-expressing production cell lines. PMID:20300883

  13. RMAWGEN: A software project for a daily Multi-Site Weather Generator with R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.

    2012-04-01

    The modeling in in climate change applications for agricultural or hydrological purposes often requires daily time-series of precipitation and temperature. This is the case of downscaled series from monthly or seasonal predictions of Global Climate Models (GCMs). This poster presents a software project, the R package RMAWGEN (R Multi-Sites Auto-regressive Weather GENerator), to generate daily temperature and precipitation time series in several sites by using the theory of vectorial auto-regressive models (VAR). The VAR model is used because it is able to maintain the temporal and spatial correlations among the several series. In particular, observed time series of daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation are used to calibrate the parameters of a VAR model (saved as "GPCAvarest2" or "varest2" classes, which inherit the "varest" S3 class defined in the package vars [Pfaff, 2008]). Therefore the VAR model, coupled with monthly mean weather variables downscaled by GCM predictions, allows to generate several stochastic daily scenarios. The structure of the package consists in functions that transform precipitation and temperature time series into Gaussian-distributed random variables through deseasonalization and Principal Component Analysis. Then a VAR model is calibrated on transformed time series. The time series generated by VAR are then inversely re-transformed into precipitation and/or temperature series. An application is included in the software package as an example; it is presented by using a dataset with daily weather time series recorded in 59 different sites of Trentino (Italy) and its neighborhoods for the period 1958-2007. The software is distributed as a Free Software with General Public License (GPL) and is available on CRAN website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RMAWGEN/index.html)

  14. Amplification, Next-generation Sequencing, and Genomic DNA Mapping of Retroviral Integration Sites.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Erik; Cherepanov, Peter; Engelman, Alan N

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses exhibit signature integration preferences on both the local and global scales. Here, we present a detailed protocol for (1) generation of diverse libraries of retroviral integration sites using ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR) amplification and next-generation sequencing (NGS), (2) mapping the genomic location of each virus-host junction using BEDTools, and (3) analyzing the data for statistical relevance. Genomic DNA extracted from infected cells is fragmented by digestion with restriction enzymes or by sonication. After suitable DNA end-repair, double-stranded linkers are ligated onto the DNA ends, and semi-nested PCR is conducted using primers complementary to both the long terminal repeat (LTR) end of the virus and the ligated linker DNA. The PCR primers carry sequences required for DNA clustering during NGS, negating the requirement for separate adapter ligation. Quality control (QC) is conducted to assess DNA fragment size distribution and adapter DNA incorporation prior to NGS. Sequence output files are filtered for LTR-containing reads, and the sequences defining the LTR and the linker are cropped away. Trimmed host cell sequences are mapped to a reference genome using BLAT and are filtered for minimally 97% identity to a unique point in the reference genome. Unique integration sites are scrutinized for adjacent nucleotide (nt) sequence and distribution relative to various genomic features. Using this protocol, integration site libraries of high complexity can be constructed from genomic DNA in three days. The entire protocol that encompasses exogenous viral infection of susceptible tissue culture cells to integration site analysis can therefore be conducted in approximately one to two weeks. Recent applications of this technology pertain to longitudinal analysis of integration sites from HIV-infected patients. PMID:27023428

  15. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport near Jacksonville, Florida, was simulated with a two-layer finite-difference model as part of an investigation conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The model was calibrated to 229 water-level measurements from 181 wells during three synoptic surveys (July 17, 1995; July 31, 1996; and October 24, 1996). A quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer was needed to evaluate remedial-action alternatives under consideration by the Naval Station Mayport to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites on the station. Multi-well aquifer tests, single-well tests, and slug tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system, which was divided into three geohydrologic units?an S-zone and an I-zone separated by a marsh-muck confining unit. The recharge rate was estimated to range from 4 to 15 inches per year (95 percent confidence limits), based on a chloride-ratio method. Most of the simulations following model calibration were based on a recharge rate of 8 inches per year to unirrigated pervious areas. The advective displacement of saline pore water during the last 200 years was simulated using a particle-tracking routine, MODPATH, applied to calibrated steady-state and transient models of the Mayport peninsula. The surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport has been modified greatly by natural and anthropogenic forces so that the freshwater flow system is expanding and saltwater is being flushed from the system. A new MODFLOW package (VAR1) was written to simulate the temporal variation of hydraulic properties caused by construction activities at Naval Station Mayport. The transiently simulated saltwater distribution after 200 years of displacement described the chloride distribution in the I-zone (determined from measurements made during 1993 and 1996) better than the steady-state simulation. The

  16. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  17. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  18. Design of Hanford Site 4th Generation Multi Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-08-30

    This document describes the design of the fourth-generation corrosion monitoring system scheduled to be installed in DST 241-AN-104 early in fiscal year 2001. A fourth-generation multi-function corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into a DST in the 241-AN farm at the Hanford Site in FY 2001. Improvements and upgrades from the third-generation system (installed in 241-AN-105) that have been incorporated into the fourth-generation system include: Addition of a built-in water lance to assist installation of probe into tanks with a hard crust layer at the surface of the waste; and Improvement of the electrode mounting apparatus used to attach the corrosion monitoring electrodes to the stainless steel probe body (new design simplifies probe assembly/wiring). These new features improve on the third-generation design and yield a system that is easier to fabricate and install, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank.

  19. Environmental Stewardship at the Savannah River Site: Generations of Success - 13212

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Bergren, Christopher L.; Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Guevara, Karen C.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Hennessey, Brian T.; Mills, Gary L.; Blake, John I.

    2013-07-01

    Approximately sixty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. SRS production operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology, and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a commitment to environmental stewardship. The Site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major Department of Energy (DOE) facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early generation of work set the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS pro-actively identified environmental problems and developed and implemented effective and efficient environmental management and remediation solutions. This second generation, spanning the 1980's through the 2000's, is exemplified by numerous large and small cleanup actions to address metals and radionuclides, solvents and hydrocarbons, facility and area decommissioning, and ecological restoration. Recently, a third generation of environmental management was initiated as part of Enterprise SRS. This initiative to 'Develop and Deploy Next Generation Cleanup Technologies' formalizes and organizes the major technology matching, development, and implementation processes associated with historical SRS cleanup success as a resource to support future environmental management missions throughout DOE. The four elements of the current, third generation, effort relate to: 1) transition from active to passive cleanup, 2) in situ decommissioning of large nuclear facilities, 3) new long term monitoring paradigms, and 4) a major case study related to support for recovery and restoration of the Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant and surrounding environment. (authors)

  20. Use of indigenous small mammal populations to assess a National Priority List site: A case study at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island

    SciTech Connect

    Hummell, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Prior disposal activities at Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island resulted in the release of heavy metals and organic chemicals into the environment resulting in the site being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. This presentation reports an ecotoxicological study of indigenous populations of voles on the NPL site. The study attempted to provide three endpoints: (1) exposure, (2) individual effects, (3) population effects. Exposure was quantified during the study by comparing chemical concentrations in the tissues of voles live captured on site to tissue concentrations of mammals captured at site specific reference locations. Live trapped voles were also aged according to eye lens weights. Effects exerted on individuals were evaluated based on physiological measurements of the liver, kidney, and whole body as they correlated with age and chemical concentrations. Capture-recapture techniques and age structure analyses were used to develop survivorship curves and evaluate population stability and fitness. The study provides data that can be used to support ecological risk assessments required for CIRCLE investigations.

  1. 78 FR 66965 - In the Matter of Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Dresden Nuclear Power Station Confirmatory Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing... attempted to recruit him in their plans to commit a violent crime off-site. 2. A SRO, who had unescorted... attempted to recruit him in his plans to commit a violent crime off-site. 3. A SRO, who had...

  2. Generating a representative signal of coal ash content to anticipate combustion control in a thermal power station.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Fernández, Ismael; Santurio-Díaz, José M; Folgueras-Díaz, Belén; López-Bobo, M Rosario; Fernández-Viar, Pedro

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal ash in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. An installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, that could faithfully reproduce the operation of a belt feeder. In order to measure the ash content, a natural radioactivity meter was installed and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes were tested, eventually showing the possibility of achieving the objective. PMID:15082052

  3. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  4. Data quality control of ADSN Broadband stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alili, Azouaou; Yelles-chaouche, Abd el karim; Allili, Toufik; Messemen, Walid

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present the analysis of continuous waveform of the Algerian digital seismic network recorded during five years from 2008 to 2013 for twenty broadband stations using the power spectral densities (PSDs) and their corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) algorithm of McNamara, and Buland (2004). ADSN Broadband stations data quality is one main concern and interest of ADSN technical team. Indeed, the quality of the data from broadband stations is continuously controlled in quasi-realtime using "PQLX" (Pascal Quick Look eXtended) software to compute the PDFs and PSDs during the operation of the stations at different frequency range. At each station the level of noise is shown, which we can see diurnal and seasonal variation. From the data analysis, most of the ADSN Broadband stations display good records in the several frequency domains in relation with their site installation. However some of stations near the urban areas could present some noisy disturbances. This led sometimes to generate some ghost events. In the low frequency, some stations could be still influenced by the temperature variations. This long period of records from 2008 to 2013, led us to analyze and control the several stations year by year taking into account the seasons and to know about their work during five years. This analysis is also very important to improve in the future quality of station installation and choose the optimal station design in aim to reduce cultural noise and large fluctuation of temperature and pressure. Key words: PQLX, PDFs, PSDs, Broad Band

  5. Off-Gas Generation Rate during Chemical Cleaning Operations at the Savannah River Site - 12499

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Subramanian, Karthik H.; Ketusky, Edward T.

    2012-07-01

    The enhanced chemical cleaning process (ECC) is being developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove the residual radioactive sludge heel that remains in a liquid waste storage tank. Oxalic acid is the chemical agent utilized for this purpose. However, the acid also corrodes the carbon steel tank wall and cooling coils. If the oxalic acid has little interaction with the sludge, hydrogen gas could conceivably evolve at cathodic areas due to the corrosion of the carbon steel. Scenarios where hydrogen evolution could occur during ECC include the initial filling of the tank prior to agitation and near the end of the process when there is little or no sludge present. The purpose of this activity was to provide a bounding estimate for the hydrogen generation rate during the ECC process. Sealed vessel coupon tests were performed to estimate the hydrogen generation rate due to corrosion of carbon steel by oxalic acid. These tests determined the maximum instantaneous hydrogen generation rate, the rate at which the generation rate decays, and the total hydrogen generated. The tests were performed with polished ASTM A285 Grade C carbon steel coupons. This steel is representative of the Type I and II waste tanks at SRS. Bounding conditions were determined for the solution environment. The oxalic acid concentration was 2.5 wt.% and the test temperature was 75 deg. C. The test solution was agitated and contained no sludge simulant. Duplicate tests were performed and showed excellent reproducibility for the hydrogen generation rate and total hydrogen generated. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate was initially high, but decayed rapidly within a couple of days. A statistical model was developed to predict the instantaneous hydrogen generation rate as a function of exposure time by combining both sets of data. An upper bound on the maximum hydrogen generation rate was determined from the upper 95% confidence limit. The upper bound limit on the maximum

  6. A business case for on-site generation: The BD biosciences pharmingen project

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Creighton, Charles; Bailey, Owen; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Deregulation is haltingly changing the United States electricity markets. The resulting uncertainty and/or rising energy costs can be hedged by generating electricity on-site and other benefits, such as use of otherwise wasted heat, can be captured. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 first invited relatively small-scale generators ({ge} 1 MW) into the electricity market. The advent of efficient and reliable small scale and renewable equipment has spurred an industry that has, in recent years, made even smaller (business scale) electricity generation an economically viable option for some consumers. On-site energy capture and/or conversion, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as economic savings and price predictability, improved reliability, control over power quality, and emissions reductions. Despite these benefits, DER adoption can be a daunting move to a customer accustomed to simply paying a monthly utility bill. San Diego is in many ways an attractive location for DER development: It has high electricity prices typical of California and a moderate climate i.e. energy loads are consistent throughout the year. Additionally, the price shock to San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) customers during the summer of 2000 has interested many in alternatives to electricity price vulnerability. This report examines the business case for DER at the San Diego biotechnology supply company, BD Biosciences Pharmingen, which considered DER for a building with 200-300 kW base-load, much of which accommodates the refrigerators required to maintain chemicals. Because of the Mediterranean climate of the San Diego area and the high rate of air changes required due to on-site use of chemicals, modest space heating is required throughout the year. Employees work in the building during normal weekday business hours, and daily peak loads are typically about 500 kW.

  7. A case for bone canaliculi as the anatomical site of strain generated potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowin, S. C.; Weinbaum, S.; Zeng, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We address the question of determining the anatomical site that is the source of the experimentally observed strain generated potentials (SGPs) in bone tissue. There are two candidates for the anatomical site that is the SGP source, the collagen-hydroxyapatite porosity and the larger size lacunar-canalicular porosity. In the past it has been argued, on the basis of experimental data and a reasonable model, that the site of the SGPs in bone is the collagen-hydroxyapatite porosity. The theoretically predicted pore radius necessary for the SGPs to reside in this porosity is 16 nm, which is somewhat larger than the pore radii estimated from gas adsorption data where the preponderance of the pores were estimated to be in the range 5-12.5 nm. However, this pore size is significantly larger than the 2 nm size of the small tracer, microperoxidase, which appears to be excluded from the mineralized matrix. In this work a similar model, but one in which the effects of fluid dynamic drag of the cell surface matrix in the bone canaliculi are included, is used to show that it is possible for the generation of SGPs to be associated with the larger size lacunar-canalicular porosity when the hydraulic drag and electrokinetic contribution of the bone fluid passage through the cell coat (glycocalyx) is considered. The consistency of the SGP data with this model is demonstrated. A general boundary condition is introduced to allow for current leakage at the bone surface. The results suggest that the current leakage is small for the in vitro studies in which the strain generated potentials have been measured.

  8. Satellite laser station Helwan status 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, M.; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Novotny, Antonin; Prochazka, Ivan; Baghos, B. B.; Helali, Y.; Tawadros, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Satellite Laser Station Helwan has been operated jointly by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in Helwan, Egypt and the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czechslovakia. The station components have been carefully tuned to increase the systems overall stability and reliability critical for the remote location. The mount correction model based on the Gaussian smoothing has been implemented to simplify the blind satellite acquisition and tracking. The on-site normal points generation algorithm has been implemented, the station has been connected to the international information network. The ERS-1 satellite has been included into the tracking schedule. The station range capability has been verified by experimental Etalon 1 ranging by April 1992. The ranging precision of 2-3 centimeters is obtained when ranging to ERS-1, Starlette, and Lageos satellites.

  9. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, B.G.

    1998-11-16

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZAROUS NONHAZARDOUS & SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  12. Using a third tone to probe the physiological generation site of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has been summarized using a two-mechanism theory consisting of nonlinear distortion and linear coherent reflection. However, the precise generation site in the cochlea is still unclear. The current study in gerbils used a third tone in different cochlear regions to probe the cochlear origin site of DPOAEs. DPOAEs and their intracochlear sources, distortion products (DPs), were simultaneously measured. Our results suggest that the major generation site of DPOAEs evoked by an f2/f1 ratio of 1.25 extends basal to the primary f2 place, which is consistent with notions about the location of the cochlear amplifier.

  13. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  14. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).

  15. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: Power generation and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Hengst, S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  16. Virus-induced type I IFN stimulates generation of immunoproteasomes at the site of infection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eui-Cheol; Seifert, Ulrike; Kato, Takanobu; Rice, Charles M.; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Rehermann, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    IFN-γ is known as the initial and primary inducer of immunoproteasomes during viral infections. We now report that type I IFN induced the transcription and translation of immunoproteasome subunits, their incorporation into the proteasome complex, and the generation of an immunoproteasome-dependent CD8 T cell epitope in vitro and provide in vivo evidence that this mechanism occurs prior to IFN-γ responses at the site of viral infection. Type I IFN–mediated generation of immunoproteasomes was initiated by either poly(I:C) or HCV RNA in human hepatoma cells and was inhibited by neutralization of type I IFN. In serial liver biopsies of chimpanzees with acute HCV infection, increases in immunoproteasome subunit mRNA preceded intrahepatic IFN-γ responses by several weeks, instead coinciding with intrahepatic type I IFN responses. Thus, viral RNA–induced innate immune responses regulate the antigen-processing machinery, which occurs prior to the detection of IFN-γ at the site of infection. This mechanism may contribute to the high effectiveness (95%) of type I IFN–based therapies if administered early during HCV infection. PMID:17039255

  17. Automatic generation of 3D motifs for classification of protein binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Herzyk, Pawel; Gilbert, David R

    2007-01-01

    Background Since many of the new protein structures delivered by high-throughput processes do not have any known function, there is a need for structure-based prediction of protein function. Protein 3D structures can be clustered according to their fold or secondary structures to produce classes of some functional significance. A recent alternative has been to detect specific 3D motifs which are often associated to active sites. Unfortunately, there are very few known 3D motifs, which are usually the result of a manual process, compared to the number of sequential motifs already known. In this paper, we report a method to automatically generate 3D motifs of protein structure binding sites based on consensus atom positions and evaluate it on a set of adenine based ligands. Results Our new approach was validated by generating automatically 3D patterns for the main adenine based ligands, i.e. AMP, ADP and ATP. Out of the 18 detected patterns, only one, the ADP4 pattern, is not associated with well defined structural patterns. Moreover, most of the patterns could be classified as binding site 3D motifs. Literature research revealed that the ADP4 pattern actually corresponds to structural features which show complex evolutionary links between ligases and transferases. Therefore, all of the generated patterns prove to be meaningful. Each pattern was used to query all PDB proteins which bind either purine based or guanine based ligands, in order to evaluate the classification and annotation properties of the pattern. Overall, our 3D patterns matched 31% of proteins with adenine based ligands and 95.5% of them were classified correctly. Conclusion A new metric has been introduced allowing the classification of proteins according to the similarity of atomic environment of binding sites, and a methodology has been developed to automatically produce 3D patterns from that classification. A study of proteins binding adenine based ligands showed that these 3D patterns are not

  18. Heat generation and drill wear during dental implant site preparation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Modabber, A; Steiner, T; Mitchell, D A; Hölzle, F

    2015-10-01

    To identify factors that minimise damage during the drilling of sites for dental implants, we reviewed published papers on the amount of heat that is generated. We systematically searched English language studies published between January 2000 and February 2014 on MEDLINE/PubMed and found 41 articles, of which 27 related to an increase in temperature during preparation of the site. We found only basic research with a low level of evidence. Most of the studies were in vitro, and osteotomies were usually made in non-vital bone from cows or pigs. To measure heat in real time, thermocouples were used in 18 studies and infrared thermographs in 7. Three studies reported the use of immunohistochemical analysis to investigate immediate viability of cells. The highest temperature measured was 64.4°C and the lowest 28.4°C. Drill wear was reported after preparation of 50 sites, and there was a significant increase in temperature and a small change in the physiological balance of the proteins in the bone cells. Differences in the study designs meant that meta-analysis was not appropriate. For future work, we recommend the use of standard variables: an axial load of 2kg, drilling speed of 1500rpm, irrigation, standard artificial bone blocks, and the use of infrared thermography. PMID:26051868

  19. Communication across 300 generations: deterring human interference with waste deposit sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, P.H.

    1984-04-01

    The conditions attendant on the deep land burial of nuclear waste products raise a number of possible scenarios to cover the necessary 10,000 years of burial. However, no matter what kind of futuristic scenario obtains, it is desirable to develop an information system indicating the locale and nature of the deposit site and the types of materials stored, along with forewarnings not to interefere with the sites. A variety of such informational sites are suggested. Attention then turns to the recipients of such messages, recognizing from the outset that the psychological/perceptual makeup of individuals across the next 300 or so generations is virtually impossible to predict, particularly since new technologies may well alter that makeup in the furture. Nevertheless, current evidence suggests that certain human characteristics may be considered universal, and that these suggest the incorporation of selected sign signification into the message system. There are other such characteristics that, while probably not intrinsic, can probably be acquired with a minimum of formal training. That still leaves much of the message content to be deliberately created and, hence, learned. The common trefoil or other developed biohazardous signs emerge as the best candidates for a generic base symbol for the buried material.

  20. Geochemical information and isotopic ratios in pinpointing the rates of contamination processes generated at mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Kittilä, Anniina; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti; Hendriksson, Nina

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic composition of water is an important fingerprinting method for tracing recharge sources, distribution processes and possible hydraulic connections of mine waters. However, since, the isotopes alone do not indicate the contamination derived from mining activities; also a set of geochemical analysis of harmful substance in water is acquired. This complex approach will allow a detailed insight in migration of potentially harmful substances, their reactions, mixing and dilution in ground and surface waters. The data can be applied also when comparing geogenic and anthropogenic emissions. Isotopic methods are rather new approach to estimate mining related emissions in Finland and thus, a novel approach of isotopic methods for investigation and monitoring of migration of harmful substances from mine sites are tested in two mine sites in Finland. The aim of this study is to assess the emission sources, flow paths and interaction between mine waters, groundwater and surface waters. A set of isotopic data, including S, Li, Mg, U, Sr, Pb, O, and H, will be combined with chemical information and physical parameters of water in order to assess the source and extent of possible contamination as well as the rates of processes that generate or at best attenuate the contamination. The results obtained from water analyses and field measurements will be used in hydrogeochemical modelling for the prediction of chemical transformation and long-term impacts of mining at study site and its surroundings.

  1. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  2. Station descriptions and availability of discharge and water-quality data through 1985 for eastern Montana stream sites not included in the National Water Data Exchange Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groskinsky Link, B. L.; Cary, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Stations were selected to monitor water discharge and water quality of streams in eastern Montana. This report describes the stations and indicates the availability of hydrologic data through 1985. Included are stations that are operated by organizations that do not belong to the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) program operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each station description contains a narration of the station 's history including location, drainage area, elevation, operator, period of record, type of equipment and instruments used at the station, and data availability. The data collected at each station have been identified according to type: water discharge, chemical quality, and suspended sediment. Descriptions are provided for 113 stations. These data have potential uses in characterizing small hydrologic basins, as well as other uses. A map of eastern Montana shows the location of the stations selected. (USGS)

  3. On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a coastal-rural site at El Arenosillo Station (SW - Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorribas, M.; de La Morena, B. A.; Wehner, B.; López, J. F.; Prats, N.; Mogo, S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2011-11-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days). The mean total concentration (NT) was 8660 cm-3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT) and accumulation (NACC) particle size ranges were 2830 cm-3, 4110 cm-3 and 1720 cm-3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm-3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC). Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles moved offshore due to the land breeze and had an impact on the particle burden at noon, especially when the wind was blowing from the NW sector in the morning during summer time. This increased NNUC and NAIT by factors of 3

  4. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians

  5. 75 FR 15745 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... by designing and implementing comprehensive site security programs. The amendments to 10 CFR 73.55 published on March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926), establish and update generically applicable security requirements... Security Plan, Training and Qualification Plan, Safeguards Contingency Plan, and Cyber Security...

  6. Assessment of the scale effect on statistical downscaling quality at a station scale using a weather generator-based model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resolution of General Circulation Models (GCMs) is too coarse to assess the fine scale or site-specific impacts of climate change. Downscaling approaches including dynamical and statistical downscaling have been developed to meet this requirement. As the resolution of climate model increases, it...

  7. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  8. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  9. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because

  10. Clarke Stations and mercurian mass-drivers: energy for large-scale transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three-week voyages across 1 AU could be made in large sailing craft propelled by microwaves generated at power stations operating at 0.1 AU from the sun. The power stations could be built of mercurian materials launched by mass driver to building sites in solar orbit. A Clarke Station 28 km in radius could generate 64 TW of microwaves and support the operation of a 1000-tonne, 1000-passenger vessel. The ability to build near-sun power stations of mercurian materials would not only support high-speed transport but solar system development in general.

  11. NASA Education Activities on the International Space Station: A National Laboratory for Inspiring, Engaging, Educating and Employing the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severance, Mark T.; Tate-Brown, Judy; McArthur, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of students with clear educational metrics of accomplishments. This paper provides an overview of several recent ISS educational payloads and activities. The expected outcomes of the project, consistent with those of the NASA Office of Education, are also described. NASA performs numerous education activities as part of its ISS program. These cover the gamut from formal to informal educational opportunities in grades Kindergarten to grade 12, Higher Education (undergraduate and graduate University) and informal educational venues (museums, science centers, exhibits). Projects within the portfolio consist of experiments performed onboard the ISS using onboard resources which require no upmass, payloads flown to ISS or integrated into ISS cargo vehicles, and ground based activities that follow or complement onboard activities. Examples include ground based control group experiments, flight or experiment following lesson plans, ground based activities involving direct interaction with ISS or ground based activities considering ISS resources in their solution set. These projects range from totally NASA funded to projects which partner with external entities. These external agencies can be: other federal, state or local government agencies, commercial entities, universities, professional organizations or non-profit organizations. This paper will describe the recent ISS education activities and discuss the approach, outcomes and metrics associated with the projects.

  12. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-10-09

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given.

  13. Weather monitor station and 225 GHz radiometer system installed at Sierra Negra: the Large Millimeter Telescope site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50-m dish antenna designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.85 to 4 mm at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra Puebla, Mexico. The telescope has a new atmospheric monitoring system that allows technical staff and astronomers to evaluate the conditions at the site and have enough information to operate the antenna in safe conditions, atmospheric data is also useful to schedule maintenance activities and conduct scientific observations, opacity data is used to calibrate the astronomical data and evaluate the quality of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we describe the integration of a weather atmospheric monitoring system and a 225 GHz radiometer to the facilities around the telescope and also describe the hardware integration of these systems and the software methodology used to save and process the data and then make it available in real time to the astronomers and outside world through an internet connection. Finally we present a first set of atmospheric measurements and statistics taken with this new equipment during the wet and dry seasons of 2013/2014.

  14. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  15. Study of the transfer of 137Cs from fodder to cow milk in the region around Narora Atomic Power Station NPP Site, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Sharma, A K; Singh, B; Ravi, P M; Sarkar, P K

    2013-09-01

    Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the villages around Narora, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 17 y, is presented in this paper. In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, Fm, is an important parameter. The transfer coefficient value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Narora region, and the result ranged from 4.28E-03 to 3.30E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 1.15E-03 d l(-1). The highest and the lowest values were only below one order of magnitude different from the mean, regardless of the type of diet, milk yield and age of the cow. The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 6.92E-03 to 8.01E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 7.45E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large-area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Narora. The ingestion dose from fallout (137)Cs through milk intake for adult and child is also estimated. PMID:23535080

  16. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs).

  17. Fly ash leachate generation and qualitative trends at Ohio test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Foster, H.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, the environmental impact and potential contamination from landfilled fly ash (coal conversion solid residues - CCSRs) have been studied at field sites in Ohio. The progressive increase of moisture content within pilot cells over depth and time facilitated intensive chemical processes and generation of highly alkaline (pH of 10 to 12) leachate. Chemistry of pore water from lysimeters and ASTM leachate from fly ash and soil cores indicate the leachate potential to migrate out of deposit and impact the pore water quality of surrounding soils. Na, SO{sub 4} and, particularly, K, Cl, pH, and EC appeared to be valuable indicator parameters for tracking potential leachate transport both within the cells and below the ash/soil interface.

  18. Dislocation generation at near-coincidence site lattice grain boundaries during silicon directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autruffe, Antoine; Stenhjem Hagen, Vegard; Arnberg, Lars; Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2015-02-01

    Bi-crystal silicon ingots separated by near-coincident site lattice (near-CSL) grain boundaries (GBs), namely Σ9 and Σ27a, have been grown in a small scale Bridgman-type furnace at 3 μm/s. Surface observations show different microstructure developments, depending on the nature of the seed GB and initial deviation from the low energy configuration. Grain boundary structure evolution and dislocation emission sources have been assessed for both types of GBs. Topological imperfections forming at the near - Σ9 and Σ27 GBs during the growth have been found to be the major source of defect generation. These imperfections are the result of the re-arrangement of the GBs during the growth due to the seed GBs deviation from low energy configurations - i.e. Σ9{221}1/{221}2 and Σ27a{511}1/{511}2.

  19. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, B.G.

    2001-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) hogram activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the ''Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan'' (DOE-RL, 2001) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: (1) Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; (2) Budget and Staffing; (3) Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); (4) Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; and (5) WMin Certification.

  20. Molecular docking sites designed for the generation of highly crystalline covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascherl, Laura; Sick, Torben; Margraf, Johannes T.; Lapidus, Saul H.; Calik, Mona; Hettstedt, Christina; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Döblinger, Markus; Clark, Timothy; Chapman, Karena W.; Auras, Florian; Bein, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) formed by connecting multidentate organic building blocks through covalent bonds provide a platform for designing multifunctional porous materials with atomic precision. As they are promising materials for applications in optoelectronics, they would benefit from a maximum degree of long-range order within the framework, which has remained a major challenge. We have developed a synthetic concept to allow consecutive COF sheets to lock in position during crystal growth, and thus minimize the occurrence of stacking faults and dislocations. Hereby, the three-dimensional conformation of propeller-shaped molecular building units was used to generate well-defined periodic docking sites, which guided the attachment of successive building blocks that, in turn, promoted long-range order during COF formation. This approach enables us to achieve a very high crystallinity for a series of COFs that comprise tri- and tetradentate central building blocks. We expect this strategy to be transferable to a broad range of customized COFs.

  1. A Multi-Site Study Employing High Resolution HLA Genotyping by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, C. L.; Höglund, B.; Anderson, M. W.; Blake, L.A.; Böhme, I.; Egholm, M.; Ferriola, D.; Gabriel, C.; Gelber, S. E.; Goodridge, D.; Hawbecker, S.; Klein, R.; Ladner, M.; Lind, C.; Monos, D.; Pando, M. J.; Pröll, J.; Sayer, D. C.; Schmitz-Agheguian, G.; Simen, B. B.; Thiele, B.; Trachtenberg, E. A.; Tyan, D. B.; Wassmuth, R.; White, S.; Erlich, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    The high degree of polymorphism at HLA class I and class II loci makes high resolution HLA typing challenging. Current typing methods, including Sanger sequencing, yield ambiguous typing results due to incomplete genomic coverage and inability to set phase for HLA haplotype determination. The 454 Life Sciences GS FLX next generation sequencing system coupled with Conexio ATF software can provide very high resolution HLA genotyping. High throughput genotyping can be achieved by use of primers with multiplex identifier (MID) tags to allow pooling of the amplicons generated from different individuals prior to sequencing. We have conducted a double blind study in which eight laboratory sites performed amplicon sequencing using GS FLX standard chemistry and genotyped the same 20 samples for HLA-A, -B, -C, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1, DRB1, and DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5 (DRB3/4/5) in a single sequencing run. The average sequence read length was 250 base pairs (bp) and the average number of sequence reads per amplicon was 672, providing confidence in the allele assignments. Of the 1280 genotypes considered, assignment was possible in 95% of the cases. Failure to assign genotypes was the result of researcher procedural error or the presence of a novel allele rather than a failure of sequencing technology. Concordance with known genotypes, in cases where assignment was possible, ranged from 95.3% to 99.4% for the eight sites, with overall concordance of 97.2%. We conclude that clonal pyrosequencing using the GS FLX platform and Conexio ATF software allows reliable identification of HLA genotypes at high resolution. PMID:21299525

  2. Analysis of populations of boring and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report No. 12, Jun-Aug 79

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-07-01

    The growth, distribution, and species composition of marine borers (primarily shipworms) and fouling organisms are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 18 localities. Our most recent findings covering June-August, 1979, are that at least one subtropical species of the borer family Teredinidae, Teredo bartschi, continues to live in Oyster Creek and can breed in Forked River, although many die off in winter in Forked River and the species may have to recolonize. A few of the subtropical T. furcifera also survive in Oyster Creek but cause negligible damage at present, compared with T. bartschi. The summer, 1979, outbreak of T. bartschi in Oyster Creek was severe, causing nearly total destruction to wood panels. The breeding season for T. bartschi was the same as in 1978. Some fouling organisms were present in Oyster Creek that are absent in control creek stations due to low salinity.

  3. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

  4. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1983-10-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of boring and fouling organisms was examined. There is a definite correlation between the operation of the power plant and teredinid outbreaks. Increased salinity and water flow as well as temperature are responsible. After 1976, most of the damage in Oyster Creek was done by the introduced subtropical species Teredo bartschi. It can respond faster than native species to environmental change. Although Oyster Creek contributed larvae to neighboring parts of Barnegat Bay, its role as a breeding ground was limited. Some elements of the fouling community may be antagonistic to shipworm growth. Fouling was increased in both biomass and species richness in Oyster Creek when compared with creek controls, but the fouling community in Oyster Creek was less stable than that in other areas. Lower salinity limits for the teredinids were within the salinity range found in Oyster Creek but not within the range found in the control creeks. 71 references, 9 figures, 39 tables.

  5. Effect of wind turbine generator model and siting on wind power changes out of large WECS arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleuter, R. A.; Park, G. L.; Lotfalian, M.; Dorsey, J.; Shayanfar, H.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of reducing the WECS generation change through selection of the wind turbine model for each site, selection of an appropriate siting configuration, and wind array controls are discussed. An analysis of wind generation change from an echelon and a farm for passage of a thunderstorm is presented. Reduction of the wind generation change over ten minutes is shown to reduce the increase in spinning reserve, unloadable generation and load following requirements on unit commitment when significant WECS generation is present and the farm penetration constraint is satisfied. Controls on the blade pitch angle of all wind turbines in an array or a battery control are shown to reduce both the wind generation change out of an array and the effective farm penetration in anticipation of a storm so that the farm penetration constraint may be satisfied.

  6. Measures for ensuring reliable operation of the welded joint connecting the reactor coolant circuit's header to the shell of a steam generator used at a VVER-1000 reactor-based nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, S. A.; Trunov, N. B.; Korotaev, N. F.; Lyakishev, S. L.

    2011-03-01

    Problems that arose around the weld joint connecting the reactor coolant circuit's header to the steam generator shell during operation of steam generators at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are considered. Works on studying the defects occurred in the header's metal are described, and ways for preventing their development are determined.

  7. The space station integrated refuse management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  8. Comparison of hourly solar radiation from ground-based station, remote sensing sensors and weather forecast models: A preliminary study, in a coastal site of South Italy (Lamezia Terme).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Feudo, Teresa; Avolio, Elenio; Gullì, Daniel; Federico, Stefano; Sempreviva, Annamaria; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2015-04-01

    The solar radiation is a very complex parameter to cope with due to its random and nonlinear characteristics depending on changeable weather conditions and complex orography. Therefore it is a critical input parameter to address many climatic, meteorological, and solar energy issues. In this preliminary study we made an intercomparison between the hourly solar MSG SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data product DSSF(Down-welling Surface Short-wave Flux) developed by LSA SAF( Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility), a pyranometer sensor (CNR 4 Net Radiometer - Kipp&Zonen) and two weather forecast models. The solar radiation datasets were obtained from a pyranometer sensor situated in Weather Station of CNR ISAC Lamezia Terme(38,88 LAT 16,24 LON), a satellite based product DSSF with spatial resolution of 3km and outputs of two weather forecast models. Models adopted are WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting) and Rams( Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)running operatively with a 3Km horizontal resolution. Both DSSF and model outputs are extracted at Latitude and Longitude previously defined. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions clear and cloudy sky, and both conditions, additionally, for a quantitative analysis the exact acquisition times of satellite measurements was taken into account. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly, daily and monthly - averaged solar radiation are estimated including clear and sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Comparison between DSSF product, Solar Radiation ground based pyranometer measurements and output of two weather forecast models, made over the period June2013-December2013, showed a good agreement in this costal site and we demonstrated that the forecast models generally overestimate solar radiation respect the ground based sensor and DSSF product. As results in general the RMSE monthly-averaged are

  9. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the summer of 1981, Teredo bartschi occurred in large numbers at one station in Oyster Creek, but did not appear in significant numbers in Forked River.

  10. [Russian oxygen generation system "Elektron-VM": hydrogen content in electrolytically produced oxygen for breathing by International Space Station crews].

    PubMed

    Proshkin, V Yu; Kurmazenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the particulars of hydrogen content in electrolysis oxygen produced aboard the ISS Russian segment by oxygen generator "Elektron-VM" (SGK) for crew breathing. Hydrogen content was estimated as in the course of SGK operation in the ISS RS, so during the ground life tests. According to the investigation of hydrogen sources, the primary path of H2 appearance in oxygen is its diffusion through the porous diaphragm separating the electrolytic-cell cathode and anode chambers. Effectiveness of hydrogen oxidation in the SGK reheating unit was evaluated. PMID:25035898

  11. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  12. Modeling municipal solid waste collection: A generalized vehicle routing model with multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows.

    PubMed

    Son, Le Hoang; Louati, Amal

    2016-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection is a necessary process in any municipality resulting in the quality-of-life, economic aspects and urban structuralization. The intrinsic nature of MSW collection relates to the development of effective vehicle routing models that optimize the total traveling distances of vehicles, the environmental emission and the investment costs. In this article, we propose a generalized vehicle routing model including multiple transfer stations, gather sites and inhomogeneous vehicles in time windows for MSW collection. It takes into account traveling in one-way routes, the number of vehicles per m(2) and waiting time at traffic stops for reduction of operational time. The proposed model could be used for scenarios having similar node structures and vehicles' characteristics. A case study at Danang city, Vietnam is given to illustrate the applicability of this model. The experimental results have clearly shown that the new model reduces both total traveling distances and operational hours of vehicles in comparison with those of practical scenarios. Optimal routes of vehicles on streets and markets at Danang are given. Those results are significant to practitioners and local policy makers. PMID:27036996

  13. Environmental radiological studies conducted during 1986 in the vicinity of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1986 for our assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant. In October 1984, a liquid-effluent control program was initiated that significantly reduced the quantities of radionuclides discharged with liquid waste from the plant. However, results from our sampling program in 1986 indicate that previously discharged radionuclides persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components although at concentrations much lower than those measured in 1984 and 1985. The greatly reduced activities in the dietary components from the aquatic environment attest to the effectiveness of the liquid-effluent control program. Concentrations in the flesh of fish from the creeks have decreased over time and with distance from the plant outfall. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in fish collected from Laguna Creek at locations more than 7.5 km from Rancho Seco is now comparable to the concentration determined in fresh-water fish randomly selected from Chicago, Illinois, markets. By August 1986, the mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in the flesh of bluegill had fallen to 7% of the concentration measured in fish from comparable locations in 1984 and was 30% of the mean concentration measured in these fish during August 1985. Stable potassium in the water plays a major role in the accumulation of /sup 137/Cs by fish. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in the surface sections of creek sediments also declined between the end of 1984 and 1986 with an effective half-life of approximately 2 y. Surface soils collected around a perimeter 11 km from Rancho Seco and from ranchlands closer to the plant showed only concentrations of /sup 137/Cs originating from global fallout. Soils previously irrigated with Clay Creek water retain levels of both /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs.

  14. Co-transplantation of autologous MSCs delays islet allograft rejection and generates a local immunoprivileged site

    PubMed Central

    Ben Nasr, Moufida; Vergani, Andrea; Avruch, James; Liu, Liye; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; D’Addio, Francesca; Tezza, Sara; Corradi, Domenico; Bassi, Roberto; Valderrama-Vasquez, Alessandro; Usuelli, Vera; Kim, James; Azzi, Jamil; Essawy, Basset El; Markmann, James; Abdi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aims Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with immunomodulatory properties. We tested the ability of MSCs to delay islet allograft rejection. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells were generated in vitro from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice bone marrow, and their immunomodulatory properties were tested in vitro. We then tested the effect of a local or systemic administration of heterologous and autologous MSCs on graft survival in a fully allogeneic model of islet transplantation (BALB/c islets into C57BL/6 mice). Results In vitro, autologous, but not heterologous, MSCs abrogated immune cell proliferation in response to alloantigens and skewed the immune response toward a Th2 profile. A single dose of autologous MSCs co-transplanted under the kidney capsule with allogeneic islets delayed islet rejection, reduced graft infiltration, and induced long-term graft function in 30 % of recipients. Based on ex vivo analysis of recipient splenocytes, the use of autologous MSCs did not appear to have any systemic effect on the immune response toward graft alloantigens. The systemic injection of autologous MSCs or the local injection of heterologous MSCs failed to delay islet graft rejection. Conclusion Autologous, but not heterologous, MSCs showed multiple immunoregulatory properties in vitro and delayed allograft rejection in vivo when co-transplanted with islets; however, they failed to prevent rejection when injected systemically. Autologous MSCs thus appear to produce a local immunoprivileged site, which promotes graft survival. PMID:25808641

  15. The site of impulse generation in transcranial magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Rimpiläinen, I; Pyykkö, I; Blomstedt, G; Kuurne, T; Karma, P

    1993-05-01

    The facial nerve can be stimulated in its intracranial course through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We studied the site of impulse generation produced by TMS by comparing the latencies of the muscle evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with TMS and intracranial electrical stimulation (IES) of the facial nerve during neurosurgical posterior fossa procedures. In a series of 25 patients, the mean latency of the TMS elicited MEPs, recorded in the orbicularis oris muscle, was 5.0 ms (SD 0.58). Also IES of the distal part of the facial nerve in the internal acoustic meatus showed a mean latency of 5.0 ms (SD 0.68). Proximal IES in the root entry zone of the facial nerve, and intermediate IES between root entry zone and meatus, produced MEPs with significantly longer latencies compared to TMS and distal IES (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that the TMS induced facial nerve activation, leading to a MEP response, takes place within the internal acoustic meatus. PMID:8517138

  16. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  17. BMEWS Radar Beam Generation and Projection Clear Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMEWS Radar Beam Generation and Projection - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ON-SITE GENERATION OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE GENERATION SYSTEM USED FOR DISINFECTION IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA and NSF verified the performance of the ClorTec Model MC 100 System under the EPA's ETV program. The concentrated hypochlorite generator stream from the treatment system underwent a twice daily analysis from March 8 to April 6, 2000. The chlorine analyses were conducted o...

  19. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Joseph Owen; Mosey, Gail

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  1. Candidate wind-turbine-generator site summarized meteorological data for December 1976-December 1981. [Program WIND listed

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 16 of the original 17 candidate and wind turbine generator sites collected during the period from December 1976 through December 1981 are presented. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and provide data that could be considered representative of long-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and a topographic map showing the location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for long-term average wind energy production at each site.

  2. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  3. Next Generation Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip System for On-Site Detection in Oral Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulides, Nicolaos; De La Garza, Richard; Simmons, Glennon W; McRae, Michael P; Wong, Jorge; Newton, Thomas F; Kosten, Thomas R.; Haque, Ahmed; McDevitt, John T

    2016-01-01

    Current on-site drug of abuse detection methods involve invasive sampling of blood and urine specimens, or collection of oral fluid, followed by qualitative screening tests using immunochromatographic cartridges. Test confirmation and quantitative assessment of a presumptive positive are then provided by remote laboratories, an inefficient and costly process decoupled from the initial sampling. Recently, a new noninvasive oral fluid sampling approach that is integrated with the chip-based Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) platform has been developed for the rapid (~ 10 minutes), sensitive detection (~ ng/ml) and quantitation of 12 drugs of abuse. Furthermore, the system can provide the time-course of select drug and metabolite profiles in oral fluids. For cocaine, we observed three slope components were correlated with cocaine-induced impairment using this chip-based p-BNC detection modality. Thus, this p-BNC has significant potential for roadside drug testing by law enforcement officers. Initial work reported on chip-based drug detection was completed using ‘macro’ or “chip in the lab” prototypes, that included metal encased “flow cells”, external peristaltic pumps and a bench-top analyzer system instrumentation. We now describe the next generation miniaturized analyzer instrumentation along with customized disposables and sampling devices. These tools will offer real-time oral fluid drug monitoring capabilities, to be used for roadside drug testing as well as testing in clinical settings as a non-invasive, quantitative, accurate and sensitive tool to verify patient adherence to treatment. PMID:26925466

  4. Site-selective multi-porphyrin attachment enables the formation of a next-generation antibody-based photodynamic therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Maruani, Antoine; Savoie, Huguette; Bryden, Francesca; Caddick, Stephen; Boyle, Ross; Chudasama, Vijay

    2015-10-25

    Herein we present a significant step towards next-generation antibody-based photodynamic therapeutics. Site-selective modification of a clinically relevant monoclonal antibody, with a serum-stable linker bearing a strained alkyne, allows for the controlled Cu-free "click" assembly of an in vitro active antibody-based PDT agent using a water soluble azide porpyhrin. PMID:26340593

  5. Processing, packaging, and storage of non-fuel-bearing components from the rod consolidation demonstration at Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    McCarten, L.; Kapitz, J.; Kaczmarsky, M.; Rec, J.

    1988-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants are running out of space in their spent-fuel pools, and by the early 1990s, existing spent-fuel storage capacity must be supplemented at over 20 commercial nuclear plants. Rod consolidation and dry storage, either individually or in combination, are the only viable alternatives to meet the spent-fuel storage requirements until a government storage facility or repository is established. The Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station operated by Northern States Power Company (NSP) is in this predicament. To meet Prairie Island's storage needs, NSP is evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation of spent-fuel consolidation. The technical and economic success of fuel consolidation requires successful and economical processing, storage and disposal of the scrap non-fuel-bearing components (NFBC). In the fall of 1987, NSP initiated a consolidation demonstration program at Prairie Island, during which 29 equipment spent-fuel assemblies were successfully consolidated by Westinghouse. The paper discusses program scope, NFBC characterization and classification, NFBC processing and NFBC segregation and packaging.

  6. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Robert J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Diderich, Greg S.; Steele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell concentration overpotential resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid-cathode feed water electrolysis cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  7. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Steele, John W.; Van Keuren, Steven P.; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell resistance resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid cathode feed electrolyzer cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  8. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  9. Lac operator repeats generate a traceable fragile site in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Ariana; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2011-10-01

    One limitation for the study of chromosomal fragile sites is that they must be studied on metaphase spreads, after the breakage. We show here that bacterial lac operator (lacO) repeats are prone to spontaneous breakage, which when combined with a fluorescent lac repressor (lacR) has allowed us to track a fragile site through the cell cycle. By using this system, we show that Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) is already present at fragile sites during interphase, suggesting roles for this helicase beyond mitosis. In addition, we report that the oncogene Myc promotes the formation of anaphase bridges and micronuclei containing fragile-site sequences. PMID:21836640

  10. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  11. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  12. Generation of Broensted and Lewis acid sites on the surface of silica by addition of dopant cations

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, G.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Pyridine adsorption was used to study the acidic properties of silica doped with the following cations: Sc/sup 3 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, and Ga/sup 3 +/. All samples were exposed to pyridine at 423 K and subsequently evacuated at successively higher temperatures to 723 K. Infrared spectra of the adsorbed pyridine indicated that all of these cations generated Lewis acid sites. This can be explained by the presence of coordinatively unsaturated dopant cations on the surface of silica, in accord with a model based on Pauling's electrostatic bond strength rules. The infrared frequency of the 19b band of pyridine adsorbed on these Lewis acid sites was found to increase with increasing electronegativity of the dopant cation. It is suggested that both of these quantities are related to the strength of the Lewis acid sites. Broensted acid sites were also observed by infrared spectroscopy for Sc/sup 3 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, and Ga/sup 3 +/ on silica. These dopant cations are believed to be bonded tetrahedrally on the surface of silica, generating bridging hydroxyl groups between the dopant cation and Si/sup 4 +/. As for zeolite catalysts, the proton associated with these groups and required for charge neutrality is the Broensted acid site. Finally, Broensted acid sites can also be generated on silica by highly electronegative anions, such as HPO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, which generate Broensted acidity in a different manner. 55 references.

  13. Implementation and validation of a Wilks-type multi-site daily precipitation generator over a typical Alpine river catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, D. E.; Fischer, A. M.; Frei, C.; Liniger, M. A.; Appenzeller, C.; Knutti, R.

    2015-05-01

    Many climate impact assessments require high-resolution precipitation time series that have a spatio-temporal correlation structure consistent with observations, for simulating either current or future climate conditions. In this respect, weather generators (WGs) designed and calibrated for multiple sites are an appealing statistical downscaling technique to stochastically simulate multiple realisations of possible future time series consistent with the local precipitation characteristics and their expected future changes. In this study, we present the implementation and validation of a multi-site daily precipitation generator re-built after the methodology described in Wilks (1998). The generator consists of several Richardson-type WGs run with spatially correlated random number streams. This study aims at investigating the capabilities, the added value and the limitations of the precipitation generator for a typical Alpine river catchment in the Swiss Alpine region under current climate. The calibrated multi-site WG is skilful at individual sites in representing the annual cycle of the precipitation statistics, such as mean wet day frequency and intensity as well as monthly precipitation sums. It reproduces realistically the multi-day statistics such as the frequencies of dry and wet spell lengths and precipitation sums over consecutive wet days. Substantial added value is demonstrated in simulating daily areal precipitation sums in comparison to multiple WGs that lack the spatial dependency in the stochastic process. Limitations are seen in reproducing daily and multi-day extreme precipitation sums, observed variability from year to year and in reproducing long dry spell lengths. Given the performance of the presented generator, we conclude that it is a useful tool to generate precipitation series consistent with the mean climatic aspects and likely helpful to be used as a downscaling technique for climate change scenarios.

  14. Towards identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Saez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  15. A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N = 256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer…

  16. Innovative technologies for full utilization of ash generated at coal-fired thermal power stations for producing alumina and construction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsyn, L. M.; Vlasov, A. S.; Borodina, T. I.; Ezhova, N. N.; Sudareva, S. V.

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of full 100% usage of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations for producing raw materials for the cement and alumina industries is considered, and it is shown that comprehensive processing of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is required for this purpose.

  17. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  19. PLATO - the next-generation AASTINO for robotic site-testing on the Antarctic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengst, S.; Lawrence, J.; Luong-van, D.; Everett, J.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.; Hall, S.

    2006-08-01

    A new site-testing facility, PLATO (Plateau Observatory), is under development at UNSW for deployment to remote sites on the Antarctic Plateau including Dome A. The new facility will adopt many of the features of the AASTINO (Automated Astrophysical Site Testing InterNational Observatory) facility at Dome C. PLATO will autonomously control a flexible site testing and observing instrument suite, monitored via the Iridium satellite network. A challenging aspect of PLATO is to maximise the reliability of the power source while minimising fuel consumption. We are building a low pressure, low temperature environmental chamber to simulate operation at the highest altitudes (4,100 m at Dome A). Two types of engines will be tested: a single-cylinder diesel engine and a Stirling engine.

  20. A generational comparison of social networking site use: the influence of age and social identity.

    PubMed

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N=256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer communication, and social compensation. Regardless of age, participants reporting high collective self-esteem and group identity were more likely to use social networking sites for peer communication and social identity gratifications, while those reporting negative collective self-esteem were more likely to use social networking sites for social compensation. The theoretical implications of the strong relationship between social identity gratifications and social compensation are discussed. PMID:22808625

  1. 24. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, c.1960 GENERAL SITE PLAN OF STATION 'L' - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B. G.

    1997-11-25

    This document provides guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste. Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The program documentation is intended to demonstrate generator compliance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements as well as state and Federal regulations.

  3. Size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at a high-altitude site on the central Tibetan Plateau (Nam Co Station, 4730 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xin; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yuhong; Wen, Tianxue; Zhang, Guoshuai; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition and size distribution characteristics of atmospheric aerosols have important effects on the environment, human health and climate change. In this paper, we study the size distribution of carbonaceous aerosols at the remote and pristine site, Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, in the inland Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on collected size-segregated aerosols during 2012. The samples were quantified using the thermal/optical (TOR) method. The overall average concentrations of OC and EC in TSP, PM9.0, PM2.1, and PM1.0 were 4.61 μg m- 3 and 0.19 μg m- 3, 4.52 μg m- 3 and 0.18 μg m- 3, 2.72 μg m- 3 and 0.11 μg m- 3, and 2.11 μg m- 3 and 0.09 μg m- 3, respectively. Generally, the highest concentration of OC and EC in different aerosol size occurred during winter. The low level of EC indicated that direct anthropogenic disturbances in the interior of the TP still remain insignificant. The size distributions of OC and EC concentrations presented bimodal variations. In winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, the peaks for OC were in droplet mode (0.43-0.65 μm) and coarse mode (4.7-5.8 μm); while in the monsoon period, the coarse mode shifted to a smaller size bin (3.3-4.7 μm). The coarse mode may be due to dust particles while the droplet mode may be due to the growth process of particles. For EC, the peaks variations in coarse mode were as same as OC, while the other peaks were complicated: the peaks during winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon seasons exhibited in droplet mode (1.1-2.1 μm, 0.65-1.1 μm, and 0.43-0.65 μm, respectively), and in post-monsoon period, the peak located in condensation mode. The highest peak concentrations for OC and EC occurred in winter and the pre-monsoon period, while the lowest peak values in the monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The size distribution variations may be caused by deposition, gas/particles exchange, hygroscopic growth, external mixing

  4. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  5. 5. Conveyors 'C' through 'K' (built 1940) south of Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Conveyors 'C' through 'K' (built 1940) south of Station, looking northeast from hurricane barrier. - Manchester Street Generating Station, Conveyors, 460 Eddy Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  6. Technical Analysis of the Hydrogen Energy Station Concept, Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    TIAX, LLC

    2005-05-04

    Phase I Due to the growing interest in establishing a domestic hydrogen infrastructure, several hydrogen fueling stations already have been established around the country as demonstration units. While these stations help build familiarity with hydrogen fuel in their respective communities, hydrogen vehicles are still several years from mass production. This limited number of hydrogen vehicles translates to a limited demand for hydrogen fuel, a significant hurdle for the near-term establishment of commercially viable hydrogen fueling stations. By incorporating a fuel cell and cogeneration system with a hydrogen fueling station, the resulting energy station can compensate for low hydrogen demand by providing both hydrogen dispensing and combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The electrical power generated by the energy station can be fed back into the power grid or a nearby facility, which in turn helps offset station costs. Hydrogen production capacity not used by vehicles can be used to support building heat and power loads. In this way, an energy station can experience greater station utility while more rapidly recovering capital costs, providing an increased market potential relative to a hydrogen fueling station. At an energy station, hydrogen is generated on-site. Part of the hydrogen is used for vehicle refueling and part of the hydrogen is consumed by a fuel cell. As the fuel cell generates electricity and sends it to the power grid, excess heat is reclaimed through a cogeneration system for use in a nearby facility. Both the electrical generation and heat reclamation serve to offset the cost of purchasing the equivalent amount of energy for nearby facilities and the energy station itself. This two-phase project assessed the costs and feasibility of developing a hydrogen vehicle fueling station in conjunction with electricity and cogenerative heat generation for nearby Federal buildings. In order to determine which system configurations and operational

  7. Orion Navigation Sensitivities to Ground Station Infrastructure for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getchius, Joel; Kukitschek, Daniel; Crain, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the next-generation spaceship to carry humans to the International Space Station and back to the Moon for the first time since the Apollo program. As in the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, the Mission Control Navigation team will utilize radiometric measurements to determine the position and velocity of the CEV. In the case of lunar missions, the ground station infrastructure consisting of approximately twelve stations distributed about the Earth and known as the Apollo Manned Spaceflight Network, no longer exists. Therefore, additional tracking resources will have to be allocated or constructed to support mission operations for Orion lunar missions. This paper examines the sensitivity of Orion navigation for lunar missions to the number and distribution of tracking sites that form the ground station infrastructure.

  8. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  9. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  10. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  11. San Pedro Mártir Observatory: a competitive astronomical site for the next generation of telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, J.; Michel, R.; Costero, R.

    2006-08-01

    We review some of the most important aspects of the astronomical Observatory at the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir, in Baja California, México. We put particular emphasis on our own results on seeing evaluation and compare the results with what we considered the best twenty sites in the world. We also compile the results on the San Pedro Mártir site in sensitive aspects like number of clear and photometric nights, scintillation, water vapour content and seismic activity among others.

  12. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections

    PubMed Central

    Mingo, Janire; Erramuzpe, Asier; Luna, Sandra; Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Amo, Laura; Diez, Ibai; Schepens, Jan T. G.; Hendriks, Wiljan J. A. J.; Cortés, Jesús M.; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis. PMID:27548698

  13. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections.

    PubMed

    Mingo, Janire; Erramuzpe, Asier; Luna, Sandra; Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Amo, Laura; Diez, Ibai; Schepens, Jan T G; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Cortés, Jesús M; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis. PMID:27548698

  14. Leachate generated by an oil-and-gas brine pond site in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, E.C.; Kehew, A.E.; Groenewold, G.H.; Beal, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two unlined ponds were used for holding and evaporation of brines produced with oil and gas at a well site in north-central North Dakota. The brine-evaporation ponds were in use from 1959 up to the late 1970s when they were backfilled and leveled. Continued salt-water migration at this site since closure has decreased crop yields in surrounding fields and has killed trees in a shelterbelt within an area of approximately 10 acres. An apparent resistivity survey delineated a 360,000-ha area of extremely low resistivity. Isoconcentration maps indicate that a highly saline leachate plume extends laterally in a 500-foot radius around the ponds and vertically to a depth of 70 feet below the surface. Ground-water recharge at this site is low because of the semiarid climate and the low hydraulic conductivity of the near-surface sediments and, as a result, very little flushing of the brine from the sediment beneath the ponds has occurred. Pore water within the unsaturated zone beneath the reclaimed ponds contain essentially the same ionic concentrations as that of brine impounded in these pits 10 to 25 years ago. Based upon the results of this research, we estimate that brine leachate will continue to migrate at slow rates from this site for tens and possibly hundreds of years if no action is taken. The construction of a mound over the site and/or an infiltration gallery around the perimeter would minimize the spread of brine and make it possible to return this land to production in the foreseeable future.

  15. Mitigation/remediation concepts for Hanford Site flammable gas generating waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Babad, H.; Deichman, J.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Lemon, D.K.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a preliminary assessment of concepts for the mitigation and/or remediation of the hydrogen gas generation, storage, and periodic release in Tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY) and 22 other tanks. The 22 other tanks exhibit much less hydrogen generation (volume and concentration of released flammable gases) than Tank 101-SY and have not had the focus nor attention that has been given to Tank 101-SY. These tanks have been listed as potential hydrogen gas-generating tanks from analysis of tank performance and data from flowsheets and Track Radioactive Constituents Reports (TRAC). These lesser hydrogen-generating tanks will also need to be revisited and revalidated. Of the 23 hydrogen class tanks, 5 are double-shell tanks (DST) and 18 are single-shell tanks (SST). Options for mitigation or remediation are different for the two types of tanks because of age, configuration, and waste form. While this document principally focuses on Tank 101-SY, the information presented has been useful to address other tanks containing hydrogen-generating waste.

  16. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1998-04-13

    Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

  17. Rapid, large-scale generation of Ds transposant lines and analysis of the Ds insertion sites in rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Min; Piao, Hai Long; Park, Soon Ju; Chon, Nam Soo; Je, Byoung Il; Sun, Bingyao; Park, Sung Han; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Eun Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Chung, Woo Sik; Lee, Kon Ho; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jeung Joo; Won, Yong Jae; Yi, GiHwan; Nam, Min Hee; Cha, Young Soon; Yun, Doh Won; Eun, Moo Young; Han, Chang-deok

    2004-07-01

    Rapid, large-scale generation of a Ds transposant population was achieved using a regeneration procedure involving tissue culture of seed-derived calli carrying Ac and inactive Ds elements. In the F(2) progeny from genetic crosses between the same Ds and Ac starter lines, most of the crosses produced an independent germinal transposition frequency of 10-20%. Also, many Ds elements underwent immobilization even though Ac was expressed. By comparison, in a callus-derived regenerated population, over 70% of plants carried independent Ds insertions, indicating transposition early in callus formation. In the remaining population, the majority of plants carried only Ac. Most of the new Ds insertions were stably transmitted to a subsequent generation. An exceptionally high proportion of independent transposants in the regenerated population means that selection markers for transposed Ds and continual monitoring of Ac/Ds activities may not necessarily be required. By analyzing 1297 Ds-flanking DNA sequences, a genetic map of 1072 Ds insertion sites was developed. The map showed that Ds elements were transposed onto all of the rice chromosomes, with preference not only near donor sites (36%) but also on certain physically unlinked arms. Populations from both genetic crossing and tissue culture showed the same distribution patterns of Ds insertion sites. The information of these mapped Ds insertion sites was deposited in GenBank. Among them, 55% of Ds elements were on predicted open-reading frame (ORF) regions. Thus, we propose an optimal strategy for the rapid generation of a large population of Ds transposants in rice. PMID:15225289

  18. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  19. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  20. Active site diversification of P450cam with indole generates catalysts for benzylic oxidation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Herter, Susanne; Kranz, David C; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are useful biocatalysts for C–H activation, and there is a need to expand the range of these enzymes beyond what is naturally available. A panel of 93 variants of active self-sufficient P450cam[Tyr96Phe]-RhFRed fusion enzymes with a broad diversity in active site amino acids was developed by screening a large mutant library of 16,500 clones using a simple, highly sensitive colony-based colorimetric screen against indole. These mutants showed distinct fingerprints of activity not only when screened in oxidations of substituted indoles but also for unrelated oxidations such as benzylic hydroxylations. PMID:26664590

  1. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  2. Wake Studies at the Flowind Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Generator Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Robert W.; Walker, Stel Nathan; Katen, Paul C.

    1984-03-01

    In a continuing effort to study and characterize various types and sizes of wind turbine generator wakes a test program was conducted at the FloWind 170 kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) near Ellensburg, Washington. Oregon State University (OSU) scientists measured the wake behind the 90 ft. tall Darrieus VAWT using fixed place and portable kite anemometers. Downwind velocity deficits were measured from 3-9 diameters along the wake centerline at rotor midpoint (55 ft.) and perpendicular to the wake. Wake turbulence characteristics were also measured. The measured velocity deficits were compared to wake model calculations.

  3. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 1: New data, classification, and re-evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    New data are reported from five previously unanalyzed Apollo 12 mare basalts that are incorporated into an evaluation of previous petrogenetic models and classification schemes for these basalts. This paper proposes a classification for Apollo 12 mare basalts on the basis of whole-rock Mg# (molar 100*(Mg/(Mg+Fe))) and Rb/Sr ratio (analyzed by isotope dilution), whereby the ilmenite, olivine, and pigeonite basalt groups are readily distinguished from each other. Scrutiny of the Apollo 12 feldspathic 'suite' demonstrates that two of the three basalts previously assigned to this group (12031, 12038, 12072) can be reclassified: 12031 is a plagioclase-rich pigeonite basalt; and 12072 is an olivine basalt. Only basalt 12038 stands out as a unique sample to the Apollo 12 site, but whether this represents a single sample from another flow at the Apollo 12 site or is exotic to this site is equivocal. The question of whether the olivine and pigeonite basalt suites are co-magmatic is addressed by incompatible trace-element chemistry: the trends defined by these two suites when Co/Sm and Sm/Eu ratios are plotted against Rb/Sr ratio demonstrate that these two basaltic types cannot be co-magmatic. Crystal fractionation/accumulation paths have been calculated and show that neither the pigeonite, olivine, or ilmenite basalts are related by this process. Each suite requires a distinct and separate source region. This study also examines sample heterogeneity and the degree to which whole-rock analyses are representative, which is critical when petrogenetic interpretation is undertaken. Sample heterogeneity has been investigated petrographically (inhomogeneous mineral distribution) with consideration of duplicate analyses, and whether a specific sample (using average data) plots consistently upon a fractionation trend when a number of different compostional parameters are considered. Using these criteria, four basalts have been identified where reported analyses are not

  4. 1995 Annual report on waste generation and waste mainization progress as required by DOE order 5400.1, Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D.

    1996-09-24

    While waste generation numbers are important, the true measure of success is waste minimized. Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition as pollution prevention, as they have become part of a culture of best management practices. As an example, the success of the excess and reuse program, both informal and formal, documents the Wmin/P2 culture that exists in the pollution prevention representatives and employees at the facilities.

  5. Site-specific growth and density control of carbon nanotubes by direct deposition of catalytic nanoparticles generated by spark discharge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic iron nanoparticles generated by spark discharge were used to site-selectively grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and control their density. The generated aerosol nanoparticles were deposited on a cooled substrate by thermophoresis. The shadow mask on top of the cooled substrate enabled patterning of the catalytic nanoparticles and, thereby, patterning of CNTs synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The density of CNTs could be controlled by varying the catalytic nanoparticle deposition time. It was also demonstrated that the density could be adjusted by changing the gap between the shadow mask and the substrate, taking advantage of the blurring effect of the deposited nanoparticles, for an identical deposition time. As all the processing steps for the patterned growth and density control of CNTs can be performed under dry conditions, we also demonstrated the integration of CNTs on fully processed, movable silicon microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structures. PMID:24090218

  6. Next Generation Sequencing Analysis of Biofilms from Three Dogs with Postoperative Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    König, L. M.; Klopfleisch, R.; Höper, D.; Gruber, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of biofilms in chronic wound infections of dogs is unclear. In the present study, histologically identified biofilms attached to sutures in chronically infected wounds of three dogs were examined by next generation sequencing of total DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The analysis identified an inhomogeneous bacterial composition in three tissues containing biofilms. Some of the identified bacterial families such as Staphylococci and Streptococci have been found before in biofilms associated with human and canine wounds but in this study were quantitatively in the minority. The majority of the reads classified as bacterial sequences had the highest identity with sequences belonging to the Porphyromonadaceae, Deinococcaceae, Methylococcaceae, Nocardiaceae, Alteromonadaceae, and Propionibacteriaceae and thus taxons of so far minor relevance in veterinary medicine. PMID:27355023

  7. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.

  8. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  9. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

  10. New predictive equations and site amplification estimates for the next-generation Swiss ShakeMaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauzzi, Carlo; Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John; Wiemer, Stefan; Kästli, Philipp; Cua, Georgia; Giardini, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive scientific and technical update of the Swiss customization of United States Geological Survey ShakeMap, in use at the Swiss Seismological Service since 2007. The new Swiss ShakeMaps are based on predictive equations for peak ground-motions and response spectra derived from stochastic simulations tailored to Swiss seismicity. Using synthetics allows overcoming the difficulties posed by: (i) the paucity of strong-motion data recordings in Switzerland; (ii) the regional dependence of shear wave energy attenuation and focal depth distribution in the Swiss Alps and foreland; (iii) the depth dependence of stress parameters suggested by macroseismic and instrumental observations. In the new Swiss ShakeMaps, VS,30 is no longer used as proxy for site amplification at regional scale, and is replaced by macroseismic intensity increments for different soil classes, based on the recently revised earthquake catalogue of Switzerland (ECOS-09). The new implementation converts ground-motion levels into macroseismic intensity by means of ground-motion to intensity conversion equations based on the Italian strong-motion and intensity databanks and is therefore well constrained for intensities larger than VII. The new Swiss ShakeMaps show a satisfactory agreement with the macroseimic fields of both large historical events and recent well-recorded earthquakes of moderate magnitude. The new implementation is now fully consistent with the state-of-the-art in engineering seismology in Switzerland.

  11. Simulative and experimental investigation on the cleavage site that generates the soluble human LOX-1.

    PubMed

    Biocca, Silvia; Arcangeli, Tania; Tagliaferri, Elisa; Testa, Barbara; Vindigni, Giulia; Oteri, Francesco; Giorgi, Alessandra; Iacovelli, Federico; Novelli, Giuseppe; Desideri, Alessandro; Falconi, Mattia

    2013-12-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a scavenger receptor that mediates the recognition, the binding and internalization of ox-LDL. A truncated soluble form of LOX-1 (sLOX-1) has been identified that, at elevated levels, has been associated to acute coronary syndrome. Human sLOX-1 is the extracellular part of membrane LOX-1 which is cleaved in the NECK domain with a mechanism that has not yet been identified. Purification of human sLOX-1 has been carried out to experimentally identify the cleavage site region within the NECK domain. Molecular modelling and classical molecular dynamics simulation techniques have been used to characterize the structural and dynamical properties of the LOX-1 NECK domain in the presence and absence of the CTLD recognition region, taking into account the obtained proteolysis results. The simulative data indicate that the NECK domain is stabilized by the coiled-coil heptad repeat motif along the simulations, shows a definite flexibility pattern and is characterized by specific electrostatic potentials. The detection of a mobile inter-helix space suggests an explanation for the in vivo susceptibility of the NECK domain to the proteolytic cleavage, validating the assumption that the NECK domain sequence is composed of a coiled-coil motif destabilized in specific regions of functional significance. PMID:24113299

  12. Surface-wave site characterization at 53 strong-motion recording stations affected by the Parkfield, California, M6.0 earthquake of 28 September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad; Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We present one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles at 52 strong-motion sites that recorded the 28 September 2004 Magnitude 6.0 Parkfield, Calif., earthquake. We estimate the VS profiles with the Spectral Analysis of Surface-Waves (SASW) method. The SASW method is a noninvasive method that indirectly estimates the VS at depth from variations in the Rayleigh wave phase velocity at the surface. To address the uncertainty associated with these measurements, we compare the SASW profiles to surface-source downhole-receiver (SSDR) profiles at four sites. Three of the four SSDR sites are in close agreement with the adjacent SASW site, while the SASW profile is considerably slower than the SSDR profile at one site.

  13. Ground-motion site effects from multimethod shear-wave velocity characterization at 16 seismograph stations deployed for aftershocks of the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Angster, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    We characterize shear-wave velocity versus depth (Vs profile) at 16 portable seismograph sites through the epicentral region of the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral (Virginia, USA) earthquake to investigate ground-motion site effects in the area. We used a multimethod acquisition and analysis approach, where active-source horizontal shear (SH) wave reflection and refraction as well as active-source multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive-source refraction microtremor (ReMi) Rayleigh wave dispersion were interpreted separately. The time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), interpreted bedrock depth, and site resonant frequency were estimated from the best-fit Vs profile of each method at each location for analysis. Using the median Vs30 value (270–715 m/s) as representative of a given site, we estimate that all 16 sites are National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class C or D. Based on a comparison of simplified mapped surface geology to median Vs30 at our sites, we do not see clear evidence for using surface geologic units as a proxy for Vs30 in the epicentral region, although this may primarily be because the units are similar in age (Paleozoic) and may have similar bulk seismic properties. We compare resonant frequencies calculated from ambient noise horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) at available sites to predicted site frequencies (generally between 1.9 and 7.6 Hz) derived from the median bedrock depth and average Vs to bedrock. Robust linear regression of HVSR to both site frequency and Vs30 demonstrate moderate correlation to each, and thus both appear to be generally representative of site response in this region. Based on Kendall tau rank correlation testing, we find that Vs30 and the site frequency calculated from average Vs to median interpreted bedrock depth can both be considered reliable predictors of weak-motion site effects in the epicentral region.

  14. Site Selection & Characterization Status Report for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2007-09-01

    In the near future, the US Department of Energy (DOE) will need to make important decisions regarding design and construction of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). One part of making these decisions is considering the potential environmental impacts that this facility may have, if constructed here at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 provides DOE decision makers with a process to systematically consider potential environmental consequences of agency decisions. In addition, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Title VI, Subtitel C, Section 644) states that the 'Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) shall have licensing and regulatory authority for any reactor authorized under this subtitle.' This stipulates that the NRC will license the NGNP for operation. The NRC NEPA Regulations (10 CFR Part 51) require tha thte NRC prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a permit to construct a nuclear power plant. The applicant is required to submit an Environmental report (ER) to aid the NRC in complying with NEPA.

  15. Automatic generation of bioinformatics tools for predicting protein–ligand binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Masaki; Ueki, Kokoro; Saad, Gul; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Predictive tools that model protein–ligand binding on demand are needed to promote ligand research in an innovative drug-design environment. However, it takes considerable time and effort to develop predictive tools that can be applied to individual ligands. An automated production pipeline that can rapidly and efficiently develop user-friendly protein–ligand binding predictive tools would be useful. Results: We developed a system for automatically generating protein–ligand binding predictions. Implementation of this system in a pipeline of Semantic Web technique-based web tools will allow users to specify a ligand and receive the tool within 0.5–1 day. We demonstrated high prediction accuracy for three machine learning algorithms and eight ligands. Availability and implementation: The source code and web application are freely available for download at http://utprot.net. They are implemented in Python and supported on Linux. Contact: shimizu@bi.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26545824

  16. The casposon-encoded Cas1 protein from Aciduliprofundum boonei is a DNA integrase that generates target site duplications.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Alison B; Dyda, Fred

    2015-12-15

    Many archaea and bacteria have an adaptive immune system known as CRISPR which allows them to recognize and destroy foreign nucleic acid that they have previously encountered. Two CRISPR-associated proteins, Cas1 and Cas2, are required for the acquisition step of adaptation, in which fragments of foreign DNA are incorporated into the host CRISPR locus. Cas1 genes have also been found scattered in several archaeal and bacterial genomes, unassociated with CRISPR loci or other cas proteins. Rather, they are flanked by nearly identical inverted repeats and enclosed within direct repeats, suggesting that these genetic regions might be mobile elements ('casposons'). To investigate this possibility, we have characterized the in vitro activities of the putative Cas1 transposase ('casposase') from Aciduliprofundum boonei. The purified Cas1 casposase can integrate both short oligonucleotides with inverted repeat sequences and a 2.8 kb excised mini-casposon into target DNA. Casposon integration occurs without target specificity and generates 14-15 basepair target site duplications, consistent with those found in casposon host genomes. Thus, Cas1 casposases carry out similar biochemical reactions as the CRISPR Cas1-Cas2 complex but with opposite substrate specificities: casposases integrate specific sequences into random target sites, whereas CRISPR Cas1-Cas2 integrates essentially random sequences into a specific site in the CRISPR locus. PMID:26573596

  17. Late-onset spastic paraplegia: Aberrant SPG11 transcripts generated by a novel splice site donor mutation.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Toshitaka; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Mori, Atsuko; Oki, Ryosuke; Tsukamoto-Miyashiro, Ai; Matsui, Naoko; Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Orlacchio, Antonio; Izumi, Yuishin; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-12-15

    We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site donor (SSD) of intron 30 (c.5866+1G>A) in consanguineous Japanese SPG11 siblings showing late-onset spastic paraplegia using the whole-exome sequencing. Phenotypic variability was observed, including age-at-onset, dysarthria and pes cavus. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that the mutation affected the recognition of the constitutive SSD of intron 30, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSD in exon 30. The use of constitutive splice sites of intron 29 was confirmed by sequencing. The mutant transcripts are mostly subject to degradation by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay system. SPG11 transcripts, escaping from the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway, would generate a truncated protein (p.Tyr1900Phefs5X) containing the first 1899 amino acids and followed by 4 aberrant amino acids. This study showed a successful clinical application of whole-exome sequencing in spastic paraplegia and demonstrated a further evidence of allelic heterogeneity in SPG11. The confirmation of aberrant transcript by splice site mutation is a prerequisite for a more precise molecular diagnosis. PMID:26671123

  18. The casposon-encoded Cas1 protein from Aciduliprofundum boonei is a DNA integrase that generates target site duplications

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Alison B.; Dyda, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Many archaea and bacteria have an adaptive immune system known as CRISPR which allows them to recognize and destroy foreign nucleic acid that they have previously encountered. Two CRISPR-associated proteins, Cas1 and Cas2, are required for the acquisition step of adaptation, in which fragments of foreign DNA are incorporated into the host CRISPR locus. Cas1 genes have also been found scattered in several archaeal and bacterial genomes, unassociated with CRISPR loci or other cas proteins. Rather, they are flanked by nearly identical inverted repeats and enclosed within direct repeats, suggesting that these genetic regions might be mobile elements (‘casposons’). To investigate this possibility, we have characterized the in vitro activities of the putative Cas1 transposase (‘casposase’) from Aciduliprofundum boonei. The purified Cas1 casposase can integrate both short oligonucleotides with inverted repeat sequences and a 2.8 kb excised mini-casposon into target DNA. Casposon integration occurs without target specificity and generates 14–15 basepair target site duplications, consistent with those found in casposon host genomes. Thus, Cas1 casposases carry out similar biochemical reactions as the CRISPR Cas1-Cas2 complex but with opposite substrate specificities: casposases integrate specific sequences into random target sites, whereas CRISPR Cas1-Cas2 integrates essentially random sequences into a specific site in the CRISPR locus. PMID:26573596

  19. Micro-grid for on-site wind-and-hydrogen powered generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suskis, P.; Andreiciks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.; Kleperis, J.

    2014-02-01

    The authors propose a micro-grid for autonomous wind-and-hydrogen power generation thus replacing such traditional fossil-fuelled equipment as domestic diesel generators, gas micro-turbines, etc. In the proposed microgrid the excess of electrical energy from a wind turbine is spent on electrolytic production of hydrogen which is then stored under low-pressure in absorbing composite material. The electrolyser has a non-traditional feeding unit and electrode coatings. The proposed DC/DC conversion topologies for different micro-grid nodes are shown to be well-designed. The prototypes elaborated for the converters and hydrogen storage media were tested and have demonstrated a good performance. Rakstā piedāvātā mikrotīkla izpēte ir veikta ar mērķi izstrādāt autonomu, uz vēja un ūdeņraža enerģiju balstītu elektroapgādes sistēmu, kas varētu aizvietot tradicionālās fosilā kurināmā sistēmas, piemēram, mājsaimniecību dīzeļa ģeneratorus, gāzes mikroturbīnas u.c. Mikrotīkla elektroapgādes sistēmā vēja agregāta saražotā elektroenerģija tiek pārveidota atbilstoši standarta maiņsprieguma elektroapgādes parametriem un piegādāta slodzei. Pārpalikusī enerģija tiek pārveidota un uzkrāta ūdeņraža formā, izmantojot elektrolīzes iekārtu un kompozītmateriālu uzkrājēju. Ja pieejamā vēja enerģija nenosedz slodzes enerģijas patēriņu, elektroenerģijas padeves funkciju ar atbilstoša energoelektronikas pārveidotāja palīdzību pārņem ūdeņraža degvielas elements. Ja, savukārt, slodzei nav nepieciešama enerģija, no vēja saražoto enerģiju izmanto elektrolīzes iekārta un tā tiek uzkrāta ūdeņraža formā, atbilstoši uzkrājēja ietilpībai. Piedāvātajā mikrotīklā ir izmantota elektrolīzes iekārta ar netradicionāliem elektrodu pārklājumiem un barošanas bloku, kā arī zemspiediena kompozītmateriālu ūdeņraža uzkrājējs. Galvenie mikrotīkla elektriskās enerģijas pārveidošanas mezgli ir

  20. Construction of a high-density genetic map for grape using next generation restriction-site associated DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic mapping and QTL detection are powerful methodologies in plant improvement and breeding. Construction of a high-density and high-quality genetic map would be of great benefit in the production of superior grapes to meet human demand. High throughput and low cost of the recently developed next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have resulted in its wide application in genome research. Sequencing restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) might be an efficient strategy to simplify genotyping. Combining NGS with RAD has proven to be powerful for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker development. Results An F1 population of 100 individual plants was developed. In-silico digestion-site prediction was used to select an appropriate restriction enzyme for construction of a RAD sequencing library. Next generation RAD sequencing was applied to genotype the F1 population and its parents. Applying a cluster strategy for SNP modulation, a total of 1,814 high-quality SNP markers were developed: 1,121 of these were mapped to the female genetic map, 759 to the male map, and 1,646 to the integrated map. A comparison of the genetic maps to the published Vitis vinifera genome revealed both conservation and variations. Conclusions The applicability of next generation RAD sequencing for genotyping a grape F1 population was demonstrated, leading to the successful development of a genetic map with high density and quality using our designed SNP markers. Detailed analysis revealed that this newly developed genetic map can be used for a variety of genome investigations, such as QTL detection, sequence assembly and genome comparison. PMID:22908993

  1. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

  2. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of

  3. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  4. 47 CFR 25.172 - Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... case of a non-U.S.-licensed space station, prior to commencing operation with U.S. earth stations. (1... earth station(s) communicating with the space station from any site in the United States. (3) The location, by city and country, of any telemetry, tracking, and command earth station that communicates...

  5. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  6. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  7. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  8. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  9. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  10. REMEDIATION OF OIL CONTAMINATED GROUND AND SURFACE WATER USING SULFATE NANOFILTRATION COMBINED WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY ON-SITE GENERATION OF PEROXODISULFATE USING ULTRANANOCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND ELECTRODES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project will employ nanofiltration to generate sulfate ion feedstocks and high current density on-site generation (synthesis) of the powerful oxidant...

  11. Comparison of site effect values obtained by HVSR and HVSRN methods for single-station measurements in Tarnówek, South-Western Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendecki, Maciej J.; Bieta, Barbara; Mateuszów, Mateusz; Suszka, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This study compares the HVSR technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio), based on seismic event records, and the HVSRN technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio of Noise) using seismic noise registrations. Both methods allow us to study the amplification phenomenon of a horizontal component of seismic waves when the waves reach loose sediments in subsurface layers. The seismic data were measured at a three-component single seismic station located in the village of Tarnówek, in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District. The results of the study demonstrate that average HVSRN and HVSR maxima can be distinguished: for periods approximately 3.78 s (H/V = 6.2) and 3.969 s (H/V = 8.98) respectively. The evaluated share of the Rayleigh wave component in the recorded values was β = 0.58 and it can be suggested that the Love wave share in surface motion was insignificant. The Love wave share remains unknown.

  12. NOx emissions retrofit at Reliant Energy, W.A. Parish Generating Station, Unit 7: Achieving 0.15 lb/MBtu

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, T.M.; Hoh, R.H.; Ray, B.; Dorazio, T.; Jennings, P.; Sikorski, K.

    1999-07-01

    The current Clean Air Act (CAA), Title 1 regulations require States to develop implementation plans (SIPs) which address NO{sub x} emissions as part of the ozone non-attainment requirements. The EPA has recommended NO{sub x} limits of 0.15 lb/MBtu for utility boilers. In this paper, Reliant Energy and ABB C-E Services, Inc. will discuss a project where 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu can be achieved with the TFS 2000{trademark} R firing system and highly reactive Powder River Basin (PRB) fuels. Reliant Energy will retrofit their W.A. Parish Unit 7 with this system in the first quarter of 1999. This is part of Reliant Energy's drive to lower NO{sub x} emissions and meet future air quality requirements at the W.Q. Parish station.

  13. Repowering of coal-fired station moves forward

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.; Balsbaugh, R.; Korinek, K.

    1995-10-01

    This article reports on repowering challenges at the McWilliams station which include site layout restrictions, thermal discharge limitations, different steam pressures and temperatures, and 40-yr-old pneumatic controls. Equipment delivery for this bona fide repowering is scheduled for this fall; commercial operation by June. Major components to be added to the plant include a single V84.2 gas turbine, provided by Siemens AG, Power Generation Group (KWU), Erlangen, Germany, a Siemens distributed control system (DCS), a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG), supplied by Babcock and Wilcox Co, Barberton, Ohio, and a cooling tower built by Hamon Cooling Towers, Bridgewater, NJ.

  14. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  15. Pressing problems of managing the service life of tube bundles used in steam generators at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Popadchuk, V. S.; Davidenko, S. E.; Zhukov, R. Yu.

    2010-05-01

    Optimal approaches for monitoring the state and blanking of the tube bundles of horizontal tube generators are considered, and pressing problems associated with managing their service life are discussed.

  16. Multidimensional Field Mapping of Gaseous C-H-O-S Species in Hydrothermal Systems: Distinguishing Potential Sites for Hydrocarbon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Dunn, E. E.; Shock, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Organic compounds in hydrothermal gas emissions have been documented since the mid-1800's, yet their origin is still a matter of some debate. Thermal alteration such as maturation and cracking can produce thermogenic hydrocarbons from pre-existing organic matter in hydrothermal systems. Gas-phase radical reactions and catalytic hydrogenation reactions of CO2 and CO to methane and higher hydrocarbons have also been suggested as being responsible for observations of organic compounds in hydrothermal emissions. Recently published data indicated that some organic signatures in volcanic-hydrothermal systems cannot be explained by pre-existing organic matter alone, and more representative analyses are now required to shed light on this question. Choosing a representative site within a hydrothermal field for sampling is in itself a complicated task, and heterogeneities can be easily missed. Spatial analysis of the distribution of C-O-H-S species in the gas phase can potentially indicate possible sites of increased hydrocarbon generation potentials via the catalytic hydrogenation pathway. This approach offers the advantage of providing information in the field that can be used to judge appropriate sampling locations prior to the more complex and costly standard organic analyses of gaseous emissions. A portable multi-sensor system with electrochemical and infrared sensors can in a short time provide large spatial data sets that yield potential target areas for selectively sampling organic compounds. Statistical methods, including probability tests and spatial correlation of concentrations and fluxes of selected species, can be applied later to yield information on the number of populations as well as genetic relationships between different populations. This approach was tested at three acid-sulfate sites in Yellowstone National Park, USA. The chosen sites were the Greater Obsidian Pool area (GOPA, Mud Volcanoes hot spring group), the Sylvan Springs area, and the Washburn

  17. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  18. Application of Spatial Data Modeling and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for Identification of Potential Siting Options for Various Electrical Generation Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Blevins, Brandon R; Hadley, Stanton W; Harrison, Thomas J; Jochem, Warren C; Neish, Bradley S; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Rose, Amy N

    2012-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated an internal National Electric Generation Siting Study, which is an ongoing multiphase study addressing several key questions related to our national electrical energy supply. This effort has led to the development of a tool, OR-SAGE (Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion), to support siting evaluations. The objective in developing OR-SAGE was to use industry-accepted approaches and/or develop appropriate criteria for screening sites and employ an array of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data sources at ORNL to identify candidate areas for a power generation technology application. The initial phase of the study examined nuclear power generation. These early nuclear phase results were shared with staff from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which formed the genesis and support for an expansion of the work to several other power generation forms, including advanced coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS), solar, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). Wind generation was not included in this scope of work for EPRI. The OR-SAGE tool is essentially a dynamic visualization database. The results shown in this report represent a single static set of results using a specific set of input parameters. In this case, the GIS input parameters were optimized to support an economic study conducted by EPRI. A single set of individual results should not be construed as an ultimate energy solution, since US energy policy is very complex. However, the strength of the OR-SAGE tool is that numerous alternative scenarios can be quickly generated to provide additional insight into electrical generation or other GIS-based applications. The screening process divides the contiguous United States into 100 x 100 m (1-hectare) squares (cells), applying successive power generation-appropriate site selection and evaluation criteria (SSEC) to each cell. There are just under 700 million cells representing the

  19. The role of synoptic-scale features and advection in prolonged warming and generation of different forms of precipitation at Dome Fuji station, Antarctica, following a prominent blocking event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Naohiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Motoyama, Hideaki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    A blocking event over the East Antarctic ice sheet during June 1997 generated the highest surface air temperature (which increased from around -70°C to around -30°C) and pressure of that year at the Dome Fuji station (77.5°S, 40°E). Following the blocking event, the anomalously high air temperature (around -50°C to -60°C) and pressure were maintained at the surface for about 1 week. This study investigates how these warm conditions were maintained and documents the sequential occurrence of two forms of synoptic-scale high-pressure systems with conditions that produced precipitation by different processes in each case. In the first half of the warm period, a solitary high-pressure system (the Solitary High) formed over the Dome Fuji station and traveled west over East Antarctica after being cut off from the tip of the preceding blocking ridge. During this phase, tropospheric temperatures were higher, and surface-based temperature inversions were more intense than during the following period. While a dry-out developed in the troposphere below about 300 hPa, the precipitation of ice crystals in the surface-based temperature inversion layer was generated by deposition of moisture that had become trapped in the boundary layer after being transported onto the continent by the previous blocking ridge. This mechanism has not been previously reported elsewhere. During the second half of the warm period, a ridge of high pressure (the Transcontinental Ridge) traversed East Antarctica almost completely, and its western section was amplified by the merging of the Solitary High with a preceding quasi-stationary Rossby wave train propagating along the Southern Ocean. This ridge allowed an intrusion of warm, moist air from the Weddell Sea toward the station, which generated precipitation throughout the whole troposphere by orographic uplift once again, and ended the dry-out. This represents the typical mechanism of both moisture transportation and the generation of

  20. 5. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. 6. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2 INTERIOR, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2 INTERIOR, FACING WEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  2. 3. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1 INTERIOR, FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1 INTERIOR, FACING EAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  3. 2. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING NORTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING NORTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. 4. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 10. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. 9. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3 INTERIOR, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3 INTERIOR, FACING NORTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. 1. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING SOUTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING SOUTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. 12. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 INTERIOR, FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 INTERIOR, FACING SOUTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. 7. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. 8. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 11. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. 13. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 CHLORINATOR INTERIOR, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 CHLORINATOR INTERIOR, FACING NORTH - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  14. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  15. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:15 Miscellaneous Pipelines Associated with the 132-F-6, 1608-F Waste Water Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-031

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-18

    The 100-F-26:15 waste site consisted of the remnant portions of underground process effluent and floor drain pipelines that originated at the 105-F Reactor. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    The transition to hydrogen as a fuel source presents several challenges. One of the major hurdles is the cost-effective production of hydrogen in small quantities (less than 1MMscf/month). In the early demonstration phase, hydrogen can be provided by bulk distribution of liquid or compressed gas from central production plants; however, the next phase to fostering the hydrogen economy will likely include onsite generation and extensive pipeline networks to help effect a pervasive infrastructure. Providing inexpensive hydrogen at a fleet operator’s garage or local fueling station is a key enabling technology for direct hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive, turnkey, stand-alone, commercial hydrogen fueling station for FCVs with state-of-the-art technology that is cost-competitive with current hydrocarbon fuels. Such a station would promote the advent of the hydrogen fuel economy for buses, fleet vehicles, and ultimately personal vehicles. Air Products, partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), The Pennsylvania State University, Harvest Energy Technology, and QuestAir, developed a turnkey hydrogen fueling station on the Penn State campus. Air Products aimed at designing a station that would have 65% overall station efficiency, 82% PSA (pressure swing adsorption) efficiency, and the capability of producing hydrogen at $3.00/kg (gge) H2 at mass production rates. Air Products designed a fueling station at Penn State from the ground up. This project was implemented in three phases. The first phase evaluated the various technologies available in hydrogen generation, compression, storage, and gas dispensing. In the second phase, Air Products designed the components chosen from the technologies examined. Finally, phase three entailed a several-month period of data collection, full-scale operation, maintenance of the station, and optimization of system reliability and performance. Based on field data

  18. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of postulated energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Dickinson, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of postulated energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was postulated for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options. A review of the explosion scenario by the General Accounting Office (GAO) indicated that the aerosol generation and consequent radioactive doses projected for the explosion postulated in the EIS were understated by one to two orders of magnitude. The US DOE has sponsored an extensive study of the hazard posed by uncontrolled exothermic reactions in ferrocyanide waste, and results obtained during the past three years have allowed this hazard to be more realistically assessed. The objective of this report is to summarize the improved knowledge base that now indicates that explosive or vigorous chemical reactions are not credible in the ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks. This improved understanding supports the decision not to proceed with further analyses or predictions of the consequences of such an event or with aerosol tests in support of such predictions. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Investigation of the Ice-Binding Site of an Insect Antifreeze Protein Using Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meister, Konrad; Lotze, Stephan; Olijve, Luuk L C; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Voets, Ilja K; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-04-01

    We study the ice-binding site (IBS) of a hyperactive antifreeze protein from the beetle Dendroides canadensis (DAFP-1) using vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. We find that DAFP-1 accumulates at the air-water interface due to the hydrophobic character of its threonine-rich IBS while retaining its highly regular β-helical fold. We observe a narrow band at 3485 cm(-1) that we assign to the O-H stretch vibration of threonine hydroxyl groups of the IBS. The narrow character of the 3485 cm(-1) band suggests that the hydrogen bonds between the threonine residues at the IBS and adjacent water molecules are quite similar in strength, indicating that the IBS of DAFP-1 is extremely well-ordered, with the threonine side chains showing identical rotameric confirmations. The hydrogen-bonded water molecules do not form an ordered ice-like layer, as was recently observed for the moderate antifreeze protein type III. It thus appears that the antifreeze action of DAFP-1 does not require the presence of ordered water but likely results from the direct binding of its highly ordered array of threonine residues to the ice surface. PMID:26262966

  1. A ligand field chemistry of oxygen generation by the oxygen-evolving complex and synthetic active sites

    PubMed Central

    Betley, Theodore A; Surendranath, Yogesh; Childress, Montana V; Alliger, Glen E; Fu, Ross; Cummins, Christopher C; Nocera, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen–oxygen bond formation and O2 generation occur from the S4 state of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Several mechanistic possibilities have been proposed for water oxidation, depending on the formal oxidation state of the Mn atoms. All fall under two general classifications: the AB mechanism in which nucleophilic oxygen (base, B) attacks electrophilic oxygen (acid, A) of the Mn4Ca cluster or the RC mechanism in which radical-like oxygen species couple within OEC. The critical intermediate in either mechanism involves a metal oxo, though the nature of this oxo for AB and RC mechanisms is disparate. In the case of the AB mechanism, assembly of an even-electron count, high-valent metal-oxo proximate to a hydroxide is needed whereas, in an RC mechanism, two odd-electron count, high-valent metal oxos are required. Thus the two mechanisms give rise to very different design criteria for functional models of the OEC active site. This discussion presents the electron counts and ligand geometries that support metal oxos for AB and RC O–O bond-forming reactions. The construction of architectures that bring two oxygen functionalities together under the purview of the AB and RC scenarios are described. PMID:17971328

  2. Accelerating skin wound healing by M-CSF through generating SSEA-1 and -3 stem cells in the injured sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunyuan; Jalili, Reza Baradar; Ghahary, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complicated process requiring the collaborative efforts of different cell lineages. Our recent studies have found that one subset of hematopoietic cells can be induced to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem cells by means of a proliferating fibroblast releasable factor, M-CSF. Understanding the importance of stem cells on skin wound healing, here we evaluate the biological significance of M-CSF on skin wound healing. In an in vivo mouse skin excisional wound model, we found that SSEA-positive stem cells were present in wounded but not normal skin. After isolating skin cells from either normal or wounded skin by collagenase digestion, and analyzing the SSEA-1 positive cells by flow cytometry, we found a significant increase in the number of SSEA-1 positive cells in wounded skin. Topical application of M-CSF in skin wounds accelerated healing remarkably, while application of M-CSF-neutralizing antibody slowed wound healing. Furthermore, injection of EGFP-labeled hematopoietic cell-derived stem cells generated from M-CSF treated splenocytes resulted in EGFP-labeled cells being enriched in the skin wound site and further differentiated into functional organ-specific cells. Together, these data demonstrated that M-CSF makes a significant contribution to the healing process by inducing hematopoietic cell dedifferentiation into stem cells. PMID:27363517

  3. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  4. Progressive failure site generation in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress: Weibull statistics and temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Huarui Bajo, Miguel Montes; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin

    2015-01-26

    Gate leakage degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under OFF-state stress is investigated using a combination of electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The generation of leakage “hot spots” at the edge of the gate is found to be strongly temperature accelerated. The time for the formation of each failure site follows a Weibull distribution with a shape parameter in the range of 0.7–0.9 from room temperature up to 120 °C. The average leakage per failure site is only weakly temperature dependent. The stress-induced structural degradation at the leakage sites exhibits a temperature dependence in the surface morphology, which is consistent with a surface defect generation process involving temperature-associated changes in the breakdown sites.

  5. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Muhammed Hasanato, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26580639

  6. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Hasanato, Rana Muhammed

    2015-11-01

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12-16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12-17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5-6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26580639

  7. Report to the NRC on guidance for preparing scenarios for emergency preparedness exercises at nuclear generating stations. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.F.; Hickey, E.E.; Moeller, M.P.; Schultz, D.H.; Bethke, G.W.

    1986-03-01

    A scenario guidance handbook was prepared to assist emergency planners in developing scenarios for emergency preparedness exercises at nuclear power plants. The handbook provides guidance for the development of the objectives of an exercise, the descriptions of scenario events and responses, and the instructions to the participants. Information concerning implementation of the scenario, critiques and findings, and generation and format of scenario data are also included. Finally, examples of manual calculational techniques for producing radiological data are included as an appendix.

  8. Boxberg III-2 x 500 MW units: Refurbishing and environmental protection measures on the 815 T/H steam generator of works II in Boxberg Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Cossman, R.; Fritz, M.; Bauchmueller, R.

    1995-12-01

    The object of the upgrading measures on the steam generators is: (1) To comply with the requirements of the German antipollution law, which imposes a permissible NO{sub x} content in the flue gas of less than 200 Mg/m{sup 3} STP and a CO content of less than 250 Mg/m{sup 3} STP. (2) To increase the boiler efficiency and availability and the efficiency of the water/steam cycle.

  9. Strict site-occupation constraint in two-dimensional Heisenberg models and dynamical mass generation in QED{sub 3} at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dillenschneider, Raoul; Richert, Jean

    2006-06-01

    We study the effect of site occupation in two-dimensional quantum spin systems at finite temperature in a {pi}-flux state description at the mean-field level. We impose each lattice site to be occupied by a single SU(2) spin. This is realized by means of a specific prescription. We consider the low-energy Hamiltonian which is mapped into a QED{sub 3} Lagrangian of spinons. We compare the dynamically generated mass to the one obtained by means of an average site occupation constraint.

  10. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively. PMID:24056584

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF REACTOR VESSELS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.

    2010-11-10

    The R- and P-reactor vessels at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of physically isolating and stabilizing the reactor vessel by filling it with a grout material. The reactor vessels contain aluminum alloy materials, which pose a concern in that aluminum corrodes rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout. A product of the corrosion reaction is hydrogen gas and therefore potential flammability issues were assessed. A model was developed to calculate the hydrogen generation rate as the reactor is being filled with the grout material. Three options existed for the type of grout material for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options included ceramicrete (pH 6-8), a calcium aluminate sulfate (CAS) based cement (pH 10), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.4). Corrosion data for aluminum in concrete were utilized as input for the model. The calculations considered such factors as the surface area of the aluminum components, the open cross-sectional area of the reactor vessel, the rate at which the grout is added to the reactor vessel, and temperature. Given the hydrogen generation rate, the hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of the reactor vessel above the grout was calculated. This concentration was compared to the lower flammability limit for hydrogen. The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the CAS grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters did not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. Therefore, it was recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. On the other hand, the R-reactor vessel

  12. Redox Cycling of Catechol Estrogens Generating Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites and 8-oxo-Deoxyguanosine via Reactive Oxygen Species Differentiates Equine and Human Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhican; Chandrasena, Esala R.; Yuan, Yang; Peng, Kuan-wei; van Breemen, Richard B.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic activation of estrogens to catechols and further oxidation to highly reactive o-quinones generates DNA damage including apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is the major catechol metabolite of equine estrogens present in estrogen replacement formulations, known to cause DNA strand breaks, oxidized bases, and stable and depurinating adducts. However, the direct formation of AP sites by 4-OHEN has not been characterized. In the present study, the induction of AP sites in vitro by 4-OHEN and the endogenous catechol estrogen metabolite, 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE) was examined by an aldehyde reactive probe assay. Both 4-OHEN and 4-OHE can significantly enhance the levels of AP sites in calf thymus DNA in the presence of the redox cycling agents, copper ion and NADPH. The B-ring unsaturated catechol 4-OHEN induced AP sites without added copper, whereas 4-OHE required copper. AP sites were also generated much more rapidly by 4-OHEN. For both catechol estrogens, the levels of AP sites correlated linearly with 8-oxo-dG levels, implying that depuriniation resulted from reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than depurination of estrogen-DNA adducts. ROS modulators such as catalase which scavenges hydrogen peroxide and a Cu(I) chelator blocked the formation of AP sites. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, 4-OHEN significantly enhanced the formation of AP sites with added NADH. In contrast, no significant induction of AP sites was detected in 4-OHE-treated cells. The greater redox activity of the equine catechol estrogen produces rapid oxidative DNA damage via ROS, which is enhanced by redox cycling agents and interestingly by NADPH-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). PMID:20509668

  13. 50. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of scale drawing (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Contractor/ draftsman unknown, c.1930 THE TYPICAL COMPONENTS OF A STEAM GENERATED TURBINE SET - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Analysis of Background Seismic Noise Recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Aster, R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.

    2006-12-01

    A small array of high frequency seismometers was recently placed around the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in order to characterize seismic noise generated by the station during operations. This week long experiment, titled, "South Pole Analysis of Machines" or SPAM was conducted in January of 2006 using equipment provided by IRIS PASSCAL to sample the high frequency noise sources generated at the NSF's research base. These data will be correlated to those observed at the ultra quiet GSN seismic station (QSPA) located 5 miles from the base. The purpose of the experiment is to show that although the QSPA sensors are 5 miles away and nearly 1000 feet deep in the ice, there is still a risk of contamination of the signals by cultural noise from the South Pole research base. A Quiet Sector was established around the QSPA station in order to minimize vibrational noise sources, but there is interest in moving some experiments out into the Quiet Sector. Characterizing the noise sources will help us determine the potential reduction in data quality expected at the QSPA station as experiments move closer to the site. Sensors were placed next to the power generators, aircraft taxiway, large antenna towers, as well as at the base of the new station itself. Sensors were also placed between the research base and the QSPA station to get an idea of the propagation of the noise toward the QSPA station. Several high frequency noise sources are clearly seen on all array elements with a number of very clear spectral lines above 1 Hz. These are primarily associated with snow moving tractors and power generators. Smaller signals are seen that may be related to wind loading on the new South Pole elevated station along with harmonics that appear to be correlated with large air handling equipment in the station. Also evident are air operations with landings, takeoffs, taxi and idling C-130's evident. Although greatly attenuated, almost all of these signals are observed at the QSPA

  15. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  16. Deregulation and Station Trafficking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    To test whether the revocation of the Federal Communications Commission's "Anti-Trafficking" rule (requiring television station owners to keep a station for three years before transferring its license to another party) impacted station owner behavior, a study compared the behavior of television station "traffickers" (owners seeking quick turnovers…

  17. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-06-21

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymer is given. PMID:25900042

  18. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  19. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  20. Photogrammetric stations for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1992-03-01

    Photogrammetric stations are used for vision based dynamic control of 3-D related phenomena. The vision sensors are fixed solid-state cameras which are permanently mounted and set up for a specific control task. The on-site calibration of the station allows the continuous processing of the 3-D space coordinates for all object points according to their actual 2-D image locations For automated control processes the object points are targeted using predefined templates extracted from the perspective images. The precision of an object point measured by the station is better than 1:10,000 of the object volume in all three coordinates. The vision application presented here is the locating of car bodies in the 3-D space of a robotic sealing cell.