Science.gov

Sample records for generation technologies based

  1. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Nanopore-based fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  3. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  4. CRISPR-Based Typing and Next-Generation Tracking Technologies.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria occur ubiquitously in nature and are broadly relevant throughout the food supply chain, with diverse and variable tolerance levels depending on their origin, biological role, and impact on the quality and safety of the product as well as on the health of the consumer. With increasing knowledge of and accessibility to the microbial composition of our environments, food supply, and host-associated microbiota, our understanding of and appreciation for the ratio of beneficial to undesirable bacteria are rapidly evolving. Therefore, there is a need for tools and technologies that allow definite, accurate, and high-resolution identification and typing of various groups of bacteria that include beneficial microbes such as starter cultures and probiotics, innocuous commensals, and undesirable pathogens and spoilage organisms. During the transition from the current molecular biology-based PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) gold standard to the increasingly accessible omics-level whole-genome sequencing (WGS) N-gen standard, high-resolution technologies such as CRISPR-based genotyping constitute practical and powerful alternatives that provide valuable insights into genome microevolution and evolutionary trajectories. Indeed, several studies have shown potential for CRISPR-based typing of industrial starter cultures, health-promoting probiotic strains, animal commensal species, and problematic pathogens. Emerging CRISPR-based typing methods open new avenues for high-resolution typing of a broad range of bacteria and constitute a practical means for rapid tracking of a diversity of food-associated microbes. PMID:26772411

  5. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

  6. Performance characterization and optimization of microgrid-based energy generation and storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Joe David, II

    Renewable energy-powered microgrids have proven to be a valuable technology for self-contained (off-grid) energy systems. Characterizing microgrid system performance pre-deployment would allow the system to be appropriately sized to meet all required electrical loads at a given renewable source operational time frequency. A vanadium redox battery was empirically characterized to determine operating efficiency as a function of charging characteristics and parasitic load losses. A model was developed to iteratively determine system performance based on known weather conditions and load requirements. A case study was performed to compare modeled system performance to measurements taken during operation of the microgrid system. Another iterative model was developed to incrementally predict the microgrid operating performance as a function of diesel generator operating frequency. Calibration of the model was performed to determine accurate PV panel and inverter efficiencies. A case study was performed to estimate the constant loads the system could power at varying diesel generator operating frequencies. Typical Meteorological Year 3 (TMY3) data from 217 Class I locations throughout the United States was inserted into the model to determine the quantity of external AC and DC load the system could supply at intermittent diesel generator variable operational frequencies. Ordinary block Kriging analysis was performed using ArcGIS to interpolate AC and DC load power between TMY3 Class I locations for each diesel generator operating frequency. Figures representing projected AC and DC external load were then developed for each diesel generator operating frequency.

  7. Application and development of technologies for engine-condition-based maintenance of emergency diesel generators

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K. H.; Sang, G.; Choi, L. Y. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2012-07-01

    The emergency diesel generator (EDG) of a nuclear power plant has the role of supplying emergency electric power to protect the reactor core system in the event of the loss of offsite power supply. Therefore, EDGs should be subject to periodic surveillance testing to verify their ability to supply specified frequencies and voltages at design power levels within a limited time. To maintain optimal reliability of EDGs, condition monitoring/diagnosis technologies must be developed. Changing from periodic disassemble maintenance to condition-based maintenance (CBM) according to predictions of equipment condition is recommended. In this paper, the development of diagnosis technology for CBM and the application of a diesel engine condition-analysis system are described. (authors)

  8. Polarization maintaining fiber magnetic sensor based on the digital phase generated carrier technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Meng, Zhou; Hu, Zhengliang; Yang, Huayong; Song, Zhangqi; Hu, Yongming

    2008-12-01

    A polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) magnetic field sensor based on a digital phase generated carrier (PGC) technology is presented. A magnetic sensor constructed with two magnetostrictive strips attached on the sensing fiber is joined in the sensing arm of a fiber Michelson interferometer. The fiber optic interferometric system is made of all PMF, which inhibits the polarization-induced signal fading. The light source is a fiber laser which can be modulated directly. The PGC metnod is used to demodulate magnetic field signal avoiding phase induced interferometric signal fading, and ensure the sensing partto be all fiber structure. A fiber optic magnetic field sensor with appreciate size for the fiber optic hydrophone towed array is obtained, which can be used to sense the enviromental magnetic field along the sensing direction.This sensor is a good choice for the directional angle measurement through sensing the Earth magnetic field in the array shape measurement of a fiber optic hydrophone towed array.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  10. New technetium-99m generator technologies utilizing polyethylene glycol-based aqueous biphasic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; Bond, A.H.; Zhang, Jianhua; Horwitz, P.

    1995-12-31

    Two new schemes for TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}/MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} separations from OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} media using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) have been developed. The two most important salt solutions in current {sup 99m}Tc-generator technologies, OH{sup {minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, also salt out PEG to form ABS. In liquid/liquid PEG- ABS, pertechnetate can be separated from molybdate with separation factors as high as 10,000. Stripping is accomplished by reduction of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and back extraction into a salt solution. the strip solution can be the salt of an imaging agent (e.g., Na{sub 4}HEDPA) and thus may, under the appropriate conditions, be injected directly into the human body. {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can also be concentrated from a dilute load solution of {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} in NaOH using an aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic technique (ABEC). A rinse with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assures that all {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} is removed from the column and this is confirmed by a rapid drop in {sup 99}Mo activity by the fourth free column volume (fcv) of rinse. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} is then eluted with water. This chromatographic separation affords 94% of the {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} activity in 5 fcv, with the y spectrum showing less than 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of the original {sup 99}Mo activity.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) based on next-generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST) database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380) of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant. PMID:22747974

  12. Emerging Environment Friendly, Magnesium-Based Composite Technology for Present and Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenashisundaram, G. K.; Gupta, M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium is the lightest and one of the most abundant elements in the universe. In addition, magnesium possesses several other benefits like excellent castability, high damping capacity, good electromagnetic shielding, and excellent machinability. These inherent characteristics of magnesium-based materials ensure fuel economy, reduced CO2 emissions, and a greener earth. Furthermore, as magnesium-based materials are almost 35% lighter than aluminum-based materials, a tremendous surge in magnesium demand over the next 5 years is expected. One way in which the engineering capabilities of magnesium and its alloys can further be enhanced is to use composite technology. The addition of nanoparticles, for example, leads to enhanced tensile, compressive, fatigue, creep, dynamic, tribological, and corrosion properties. In addition, amorphous and hollow reinforcements can also enhance targeted mechanical/physical properties. Accordingly, the present study will highlight the key capabilities of magnesium-based composite technology. An attempt is made to summarize on the size effects and type of reinforcements such as metallic or ceramic nanoparticles, and amorphous and hollow reinforcements on the microstructural and mechanical properties of monolithic pure magnesium.

  13. Emerging Environment Friendly, Magnesium-Based Composite Technology for Present and Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenashisundaram, G. K.; Gupta, M.

    2016-02-01

    Magnesium is the lightest and one of the most abundant elements in the universe. In addition, magnesium possesses several other benefits like excellent castability, high damping capacity, good electromagnetic shielding, and excellent machinability. These inherent characteristics of magnesium-based materials ensure fuel economy, reduced CO2 emissions, and a greener earth. Furthermore, as magnesium-based materials are almost 35% lighter than aluminum-based materials, a tremendous surge in magnesium demand over the next 5 years is expected. One way in which the engineering capabilities of magnesium and its alloys can further be enhanced is to use composite technology. The addition of nanoparticles, for example, leads to enhanced tensile, compressive, fatigue, creep, dynamic, tribological, and corrosion properties. In addition, amorphous and hollow reinforcements can also enhance targeted mechanical/physical properties. Accordingly, the present study will highlight the key capabilities of magnesium-based composite technology. An attempt is made to summarize on the size effects and type of reinforcements such as metallic or ceramic nanoparticles, and amorphous and hollow reinforcements on the microstructural and mechanical properties of monolithic pure magnesium.

  14. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal- based power generation. Quarterly report, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-15

    The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  15. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal- based power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-15

    The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  16. Vibrating-mesh nebulization of liposomes generated using an ethanol-based proliposome technology.

    PubMed

    Elhissi, Abdelbary; Gill, Hardyal; Ahmed, Waqar; Taylor, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    This is the first study that evaluates the influence of the compartmental design of the micropump Aeroneb Go nebulizer and the viscosity of a proliposome hydration medium on vibrating-mesh aerosolization of liposomes. Ethanol-based proliposomes comprising soya phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (1:1 mole ratio) were hydrated by using isotonic NaCl (0.9%) or sucrose (9.25%) solutions to generate liposomes that entrapped approximately 61% of the hydrophilic drug, salbutamol sulphate. Liposomes were aerosolized by the nebulizer to a two-stage impinger. For both formulations, the aerosol mass output was higher than the phospholipid output, indicating some accumulation of large liposomes or liposome aggregate within the nebulizer. Using NaCl (0.9%) solution as the dispersion medium, aerosol droplet size was much smaller and aerosol mass and phospholipid outputs were higher. This was attributed to the lower viscosity of the NaCl solution, resulting in a reduced retention of the aerosols in the "trap" of the nebulizer. For the entrapped salbutamol sulphate, although the "fine particle fraction" was relatively high (57.44%), size reduction of the liposomes during nebulization caused marked losses of the drug originally entrapped. Overall, liposomes generated from proliposomes when using this nebulizer showed high nebulization output and small droplet size. However, further work is required to reduce the losses of the originally entrapped drug from liposomes. PMID:20684671

  17. GaN-Based Detector Enabling Technology for Next Generation Ultraviolet Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, S.; Gronoff, G.; Hewagama, T.; Janz, S.; Kotecki, C.

    2012-01-01

    The ternary alloy AlN-GaN-InN system provides several distinct advantages for the development of UV detectors for future planetary missions. First, (InN), (GaN) and (AlN) have direct bandgaps 0.8, 3.4 and 6.2 eV, respectively, with corresponding wavelength cutoffs of 1550 nm, 365 nm and 200 nm. Since they are miscible with each other, these nitrides form complete series of indium gallium nitride (In(sub l-x)Ga(sub x)N) and aluminum gallium nitride (Al(sub l-x)Ga(sub x)N) alloys thus allowing the development of detectors with a wavelength cut-off anywhere in this range. For the 2S0-365 nm spectral wavelength range AlGaN detectors can be designed to give a 1000x solar radiation rejection at cut-off wavelength of 325 nm, than can be achieved with Si based detectors. For tailored wavelength cut-offs in the 365-4S0 nm range, InGaN based detectors can be fabricated, which still give 20-40x better solar radiation rejection than Si based detectors. This reduced need for blocking filters greatly increases the Detective Quantum efficiency (DQE) and simplifies the instrument's optical systems. Second, the wide direct bandgap reduces the thermally generated dark current to levels allowing many observations to be performed at room temperature. Third, compared to narrow bandgap materials, wide bandgap semiconductors are significantly more radiation tolerant. Finally, with the use of an (AI, In)GaN array, the overall system cost is reduced by eliminating stringent Si CCD cooling systems. Compared to silicon, GaN based detectors have superior QE based on a direct bandgap and longer absorption lengths in the UV.

  18. Making Sense of Mobile- and Web-Based Wellness Information Technology: Cross-Generational Study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kalpana; Connelly, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Background A recent trend in personal health and wellness management is the development of computerized applications or information and communication technologies (ICTs) that support behavioral change, aid the management of chronic conditions, or help an individual manage their wellness and engage in a healthier lifestyle. Objective To understand how individuals across 3 generations (young, middle-aged, and older) think about the design and use of collaborative health and wellness management technologies and what roles these could take in their lives. Methods Face-to-face semistructured interviews, paper prototype systems, and video skits were used to assess how individuals from 3 age cohorts (young: 18-25 years; middle-aged: 35-50 years; and older: ≥65 years) conceptualize the role that health and wellness computing could take in their lives. Results A total of 21 participants in the 3 age cohorts took part (young: n=7; middle-aged: n=7; and older: n=7). Young adults expected to be able to actively manage the presentation of their health-related information. Middle-aged adults had more nuanced expectations that reflect their engagement with work and other life activities. Older adults questioned the sharing of health information with a larger audience, although they saw the value in 1-way sharing between family members or providing aggregated information. Conclusions Our findings inform our suggestions for improving the design of future collaborative health and wellness applications that target specific age groups. We recommend that collaborative ICT health applications targeting young adults should integrate with existing social networking sites, whereas those targeting middle-aged and older adults should support small social networks that rely on intimate personal relationships. Systems that target middle-aged adults should support episodic needs, such as time-sensitive, perhaps intermittent, goal setting. They should also have a low barrier to entry, allowing

  19. Availability study of CFD-based Mask3D simulation method for next generation lithography technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kawabata, Y.; Washitani, T.; Tanaka, S.; Maeda, S.; Mimotogi, S.

    2014-03-01

    In progress of lithography technologies, the importance of Mask3D analysis has been emphasized because the influence of mask topography effects is not avoidable to be increased explosively. An electromagnetic filed simulation method, such as FDTD, RCWA and FEM, is applied to analyze those complicated phenomena. We have investigated Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method, which is one of the Method of Characteristics (MoC), for Mask3D analysis in optical lithography. CIP method can reproduce the phase of propagating waves with less numerical error by using high order polynomial function. The restrictions of grid distance are relaxed with spatial grid. Therefore this method reduces the number of grid points in complex structure. In this paper, we study the feasibility of CIP scheme applying a non-uniform and spatial-interpolated grid to practical mask patterns. The number of grid points might be increased in complex layout and topological structure since these structures require a dense grid to remain the fidelity of each design. We propose a spatial interpolation method based on CIP method same as time-domain interpolation to reduce the number of grid points to be computed. The simulation results of two meshing methods with spatial interpolation are shown.

  20. Technology advancement of an oxygen generation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. K.; Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An oxygen generation subsystem based on water electrolysis was developed and tested to further advance the concept and technology of the spacecraft air revitalization system. Emphasis was placed on demonstrating the subsystem integration concept and hardware maturity at a subsystem level. The integration concept of the air revitalization system was found to be feasible. Hardware and technology of the oxygen generation subsystem was demonstrated to be close to the preprototype level. Continued development of the oxygen generation technology is recommended to further reduce the total weight penalties of the oxygen generation subsystem through optimization.

  1. Imaging System for a Sub-Orbital Sounding Rocket Mission Based Upon Next Generation Detector Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veach, Todd; Scowen, P.; Beasley, M.; Nikzad, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the design and preliminary results from the fabrication of a charge-coupled device (CCD) based imaging system designed using a modified modular imager cell (MIC) for use in a sounding rocket mission. The heart of the imaging system is the modified MIC, which provides the video pre-amplifier circuitry and CCD clock level filtering. The MIC is designed with a four-layer FR4 printed circuit board (PCB) with surface mount and through-hole components for ease of testing and lower fabrication cost. The imager is a delta doped 3.5k by 3.5k LBNL CCD. Delta doping the detector provides for enhanced QE response in the UV. Detector readout is performed by the recently released PCIe/104 Small-Cam imager controller from Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc (ARC). The PCIe/104 Small-Cam system has the same capabilities as its larger PCIe brethren, but in a smaller form factor, which makes it ideally suited for sub-orbital ballistic missions. The overall control is then accomplished using a PCIe/104 computer from RTD Embedded Technologies, Inc. For laboratory testing and calibration, the modified MIC is placed inside an IR Labs ND5 liquid nitrogen cooled dewar. Upon flight, the modified MIC is placed within a 6.75” diameter 10” long ultra-high vacuum (UHV) vessel. The design, fabrication, and testing is being done at the Laboratory for Astronomical and Space Instrumentation (LASI) at Arizona State University. The LASI Lab is a state of the art detector calibration facility providing calibration from the 300 nm to 2.3 microns with further capability for designing hardware for use in suborbital ballistic missions.

  2. Trends in Global Demonstrations of Carbon Management Technologies to Advance Coal- Based Power Generation With Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K. K.; Plasynski, S.; Feeley, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    conditions with geophysics. Borehole-based technologies include a novel geochemical two-phase reservoir sampler deployed at Otway, and thermal-based measurements at CO2SINK for coupled hydrologic-geochemical reservoir analyses. Seismic, geomechanical, hydrologic, geochemical, and core studies are used in a multidisciplinary approach to assess CO2 trapping and reservoir integrity at In Salah. With estimated lifetime storage of 17 MtCO2 at In Salah, this and other CCS demonstrations provide opportunities to gain commercial experience for advancing coal-based power generation-CCS for carbon management.

  3. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFCs for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-cm{sup 2} per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  4. Net Generation of Youth: A Case Study of Students in a Technology-Based Youth Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Coran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive study was to understand how students made sense of their experiences in a technology-based youth development program. This study was framed by James P. Connell and Michelle A. Gambone's, Community Action Framework for Youth Development, conceptual model for understanding youth development that identifies the…

  5. Transmission line based short pulse generation circuits in a 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Huan; Geng, Yongtao; Wang, Pingshan

    2011-02-01

    A few traditional pulse forming circuits are implemented and compared in a commercial 0.13 μm digital CMOS technology. Standard on-chip transmission lines are used as pulse forming lines (PFLs), while CMOS transistors are used as switches. The shortest output pulses of these circuits are analyzed and compared through Cadence Spectre simulations. All the CMOS circuits are fabricated in the commercial technology. Pulses of ˜170 ps durations and 120-400 mV amplitudes are obtained when the power supply is tuned from 1.2 to 2 V. The results show that these traditional PFL based circuits can be implemented in standard CMOS technology for high power short pulse generations. Furthermore, the PFL circuits significantly extend the short pulse generation capabilities of CMOS technologies.

  6. The Effect of Scaffolding Students' Context-Generating Cognitive Activity in Technology-Enhanced Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriadis, S. N.; Papadopoulos, P. M.; Stamelos, I. G.; Fischer, F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that students' learning and problem-solving performance in ill-structured domains can be improved, if elaborative question prompts are used to activate students' context-generating cognitive processes, during case study. Two groups of students used a web-based learning environment to criss-cross and study…

  7. Transcriptome sequencing of lentil based on second-generation technology permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a cool-season grain legume which provides a rich source of protein for human consumption. In terms of genomic resources, lentil is relatively underdeveloped, in comparison to other Fabaceae species, with limited available data. There is hence a significant need to enhance such resources in order to identify novel genes and alleles for molecular breeding to increase crop productivity and quality. Results Tissue-specific cDNA samples from six distinct lentil genotypes were sequenced using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, generating c. 1.38 × 106 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). De novo assembly generated a total of 15,354 contigs and 68,715 singletons. The complete unigene set was sequence-analysed against genome drafts of the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify 12,639, and 7,476 unique matches, respectively. When compared to the genome of Glycine max, a total of 20,419 unique hits were observed corresponding to c. 31% of the known gene space. A total of 25,592 lentil unigenes were subsequently annoated from GenBank. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-containing ESTs were identified from consensus sequences and a total of 2,393 primer pairs were designed. A subset of 192 EST-SSR markers was screened for validation across a panel 12 cultivated lentil genotypes and one wild relative species. A total of 166 primer pairs obtained successful amplification, of which 47.5% detected genetic polymorphism. Conclusions A substantial collection of ESTs has been developed from sequence analysis of lentil genotypes using second-generation technology, permitting unigene definition across a broad range of functional categories. As well as providing resources for functional genomics studies, the unigene set has permitted significant enhancement of the number of publicly-available molecular genetic markers as tools for improvement of this species. PMID:21609489

  8. Development and Improvement of Devices for Hydrogen Generation and Oxidation in Water Detritiation Facility Based on CECE Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenkevich, M.; Andreev, B.; Magomedbekov, E.; Park, Yu.; Sakharovsky, Yu.; Perevezentsev, A

    2005-07-15

    Water detritiation facility based on CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) technology needs an electrolyser for water conversion to hydrogen. Use of a conventional alkali electrolyser requires a very deep purification of hydrogen stream from alkali prior to injection to LPCE (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange) column. In some applications conversion of detritiated hydrogen back into water is required. This is usually performed via hydrogen catalytic oxidation in a recombiner. This paper presents results of study to improve hydrogen and oxygen purification for alkali electrolysers and develop a hydrogen recombiner based on use of hydrophobic catalyst.

  9. Photography-based image generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.

    1989-09-01

    A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).

  10. Photonic frequency-quadrupling and balanced pre-coding technologies for W-band QPSK vector mm-wave signal generation based on a single DML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyi; Yang, Chao; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-05-01

    We propose a novel scheme for high-frequency quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) photonic vector signal generation based on a single directly modulated laser (DML) employing photonic frequency quadrupling and balanced pre-coding technologies. In order to realize frequency quadrupling, a wavelength selective switch (WSS) is intruded in our experiment. The intruded WSS combined with DML can not only realize high-frequency vector signal generation but also simplify the architecture. We experimentally demonstrate 1-or 2-Gbaud QPSK vector signal generation at 88 GHz based on our proposed scheme. The generated 1-Gbaud balanced pre-coded QPSK vector signal is transmitted 0.5-m wireless distance with the bit-error-ratio (BER) below hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3. To our knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate W-band mm-wave vector signal based on a single DML with quadrupling frequency and pre-coding technologies.

  11. New-generation radiofrequency technology.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Nils; Sadick, Neil S

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) technology has become a standard treatment in aesthetic medicine with many indications due to its versatility, efficacy, and safety. It is used worldwide for cellulite reduction; acne scar revision; and treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids, rosacea, and inflammatory acne in all skin types. However, the most common indication for RF technology is the nonablative tightening of tissue to improve skin laxity and reduce wrinkles. Radiofrequency devices are classified as unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar depending on the number of electrodes used. Additional modalities include fractional RF; sublative RF; phase-controlled RF; and combination RF therapies that apply light, massage, or pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). This article reviews studies and case series on these devices. Radiofrequency technology for aesthetic medicine has seen rapid advancements since it was used for skin tightening in 2003. Future developments will continue to keep RF technology at the forefront of the dermatologist's armamentarium for skin tightening and rejuvenation. PMID:23461058

  12. Guide for the assessment of technologies for generating electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This guide provides a general understanding of electric power generation, places each technology in perspective with regard to other technologies, refers the reader to supplementary and more detailed information, and provides a framework for future updating of data bases maintained by EIA. The guide includes information on already commercialized technologies for generating electricity and technologies that have not moved beyond the prototype or demonstration state. It does not, however, include nuclear technologies or cogeneration, and does not discuss the fuel costs associated with producing electricity by each technology.

  13. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  14. Power costs of thirteen electric generation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.C.; Doyle, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study performed for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to estimate as consistently as possible the cost of future generating technologies using renewable and conventional resources and highly fuel-efficient systems. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate future generating technologies by calculating the 30-yr. levelized busbar power costs of each technology on a consistent basis. Esimates for capital costs, operating costs, project schedules, fuel costs, annual energy generation and cost uncertainty were developed for the busbar power cost analysis. The study was designed to produce the most objective and consistent cost estimates possible for all of the generating technologies. The analysis of the uncertainty in capital cost and project schedule shows that there is a high level of uncertainty in the future costs for the developing technologies. Includes 5 tables.

  15. Second generation high data-rate inter-orbit link based on diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontag, H.; Johann, U.; Pribil, K.

    1991-05-01

    The SILEX experimental program is concerned with demonstrating the technologies of an optical communications link between two satellites; in order to expand system capabilities to the high data rates required for future LEO-GEO interorbit links, a detailed design study has been conducted for a system predicated on diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser technology. Even with telescopes whose apertures are less than 10 cm on the LEO satellite, and transmitter powers of less than 1 W, system transmission performance is greater than 1 Gbit/sec.

  16. Three Generations of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to examine three generations of research on technology-mediated learning carried on by the present investigator's research group. The first generation focused on examining computer-supported collaborative learning from the cognitive perspective. The main focus was to examine to what extent knowledge-seeking…

  17. SMALL TURBOGENERATOR TECHNOLOGY FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Sy; Moritz, Bob

    2001-09-01

    in grid support. The machine is consistent with 21st century power generation objectives. It will be more efficient than a microturbine and also more cost effective because it does not require an expensive recuperator. It will produce ultra-low emissions because it has a low combustor delivery temperature. It will also avoid producing hazardous waste because it requires no lube system. These qualities are obtained by combining, and in some instances extending, the best of available technologies rather than breaking wholly new ground. Limited ''barrier technology'' rig tests of bearing systems and alternator configuration are proposed to support the extension of technology. Low combustion temperature also has merit in handling alternative fuels with minimum emissions and minimum materials degradation. Program continuation is proposed that will simultaneously provide technology support to a SECA fuel cell hybrid system and a distributed generation turbogenerator. This technology program will be led by a Rolls-Royce team based in Indianapolis with access to extensive small turbogenerator experience gathered in DOE (and other) programs by Allison Mobile Power Systems. It is intended that subsequent production will be in the U.S., but the products may have substantial export potential.

  18. Using the MCPLXS Generator for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Arlene A.; Dean, Edwin B.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to acquaint you with some of the approaches we are taking at Langley to incorporate escalations (or de-escalations) of technology when modeling futuristic systems. Since we have a short turnaround between the time we receive enough descriptive information to start estimating the project and when the estimate is needed (the "we-want-it-yesterday syndrome"), creativity is often necessary. There is not much time available for tool development. It is expedient to use existing tools in an adaptive manner to model the situation at hand. Specifically, this paper describes the use of the RCA PRICE MCPLXS Generator to incorporate technology transfer and technology escalation in estimates for advanced space systems such as Shuttle II and NASA advanced technology vehicles. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the RCA PRICE family of models as well as the RCA PRICE utility programs such as SCPLX, PARAM, PARASYN, and the MCPLXS Generator.

  19. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  20. Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

  1. Partnership for electrical generation technology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R. S.; Beaty, L.; Holman, R.

    2006-07-01

    This Engineering Technician education effort adapts an existing two-year Instrumentation and Control (I and C) education program into a model that is focused on electrical-generation technologies. It will also locally implement a program developed elsewhere with National Science Foundation funding, aimed at public schools, and adapt it to stimulate pre-college interest in pursuing energy careers in general. (authors)

  2. Mask pattern generator employing EPL technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Yamabe, Masaki; Wakamiya, Wataru; Endo, Nobuhiro

    2003-08-01

    Mask cost is one of crucial issues in device fabrication, especially in SoC (System on a Chip) with small-volume production. The cost mainly depends on productivity of mask manufacturing tools such as mask writers and defect inspection tools. EPL (Electron Projection Lithography) has been developing as a high-throughput electron beam exposure technology that will succeed optical lithography. The application of EPL technology to mask writing will result in high productivity and contribute to decrease the mask cost. The concept of a mask pattern generator employing EPL technology is proposed in this paper. It is very similar to EPL technology used for pattern printing on a wafer. The mask patterns on the glass substrate are exposed by projecting the basic circuit patterns formed on the mother EPL mask. One example of the mother EPL mask is a stencil type made with 200-mm Si wafer. The basic circuit patterns are IP patterns and logical primitive patterns such as cell libraries (AND, OR, Inverter, Flip-Flop and etc.) to express the SoC device patterns. Since the SoC patterns are exposed with its collective units such as IP and logical primitive patterns by using this method, the high throughput will be expected comparing with conventional mask E-beam writers. In this paper, the mask pattern generator with the EPL technology is proposed. The concept, its advantages and issues to be solved are discussed.

  3. Metadata based mediator generation

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T

    1998-03-01

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse, particularly one utilizing partially materialized views; they transform data from its source format to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases, requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. This maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. However, failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the m current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. This paper describes a metadata framework, and associated software designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting the schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  4. Clinical Integration of Next Generation Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gullapalli, R.R.; Lyons-Weiler, M.; Petrosko, P.; Dhir, R.; Becich, M.J.; LaFramboise, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract/Synopsis Recent technological advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods have substantially reduced cost and operational complexity leading to the production of bench top sequencers and commercial software solutions for implementation in small research and clinical laboratories. This chapter summarizes requirements and hurdles to the successful implementation of these systems including 1) calibration, validation and optimization of the instrumentation, experimental paradigm and primary readout, 2) secure transfer, storage and secondary processing of the data, 3) implementation of software tools for targeted analysis, and 4) training of research and clinical personnel to evaluate data fidelity and interpret the molecular significance of the genomic output. In light of the commercial and technological impetus to bring NGS technology into the clinical domain, it is critical that novel tests incorporate rigid protocols with built-in calibration standards and that data transfer and processing occur under exacting security measures for interpretation by clinicians with specialized training in molecular diagnostics. PMID:23078661

  5. Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model: an evidence-based framework for generating technological innovations with socio-economic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional government policies suggest that upstream investment in scientific research is necessary and sufficient to generate technological innovations. The expected downstream beneficial socio-economic impacts are presumed to occur through non-government market mechanisms. However, there is little quantitative evidence for such a direct and formulaic relationship between public investment at the input end and marketplace benefits at the impact end. Instead, the literature demonstrates that the technological innovation process involves a complex interaction between multiple sectors, methods, and stakeholders. Discussion The authors theorize that accomplishing the full process of technological innovation in a deliberate and systematic manner requires an operational-level model encompassing three underlying methods, each designed to generate knowledge outputs in different states: scientific research generates conceptual discoveries; engineering development generates prototype inventions; and industrial production generates commercial innovations. Given the critical roles of engineering and business, the entire innovation process should continuously consider the practical requirements and constraints of the commercial marketplace. The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model encompasses the activities required to successfully generate innovations, along with associated strategies for effectively communicating knowledge outputs in all three states to the various stakeholders involved. It is intentionally grounded in evidence drawn from academic analysis to facilitate objective and quantitative scrutiny, and industry best practices to enable practical application. Summary The Need to Knowledge (NtK) Model offers a practical, market-oriented approach that avoids the gaps, constraints and inefficiencies inherent in undirected activities and disconnected sectors. The NtK Model is a means to realizing increased returns on public investments in those science and technology

  6. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  7. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  8. Mars base technology program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chneg-Chih; Hayati, Samad A.; Udomkesmalee, Suraphol

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the current technology portfolio for Mars Base Technology Program. Brief descriptions of the awarded technologies and the high-priority areas in both NRAs are provided to show the current focus of MTP. We also present the approach that MTP uses to evaluate technology maturity for each of the technology tasks.

  9. FY04 Engineering Technology Reports Technology Base

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, R M

    2005-01-27

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate has two primary discretionary avenues for its investment in technologies: the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program and the ''Tech Base'' program. This volume summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts in FY2004. The Engineering Technical Reports exemplify Engineering's more than 50-year history of researching and developing (LDRD), and reducing to practice (technology-base) the engineering technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and technical resources. This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow''. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge. These require a significant level of research or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice''. Tech Base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. The objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; and (4) the initial scoping and

  10. Computer-based structure generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korytko, Andrey A.

    The program HOUDINI has been designed to construct all structures consistent with structural implications of spectroscopic and other properties of an unknown molecule. With the advent of HOUDINI, a new method of computer structure generation, called convergent structure generation, has been developed that addresses the limitations of earlier methods. Several features of HOUDINI are noteworthy: an integrated application of the collective substructural information; the use of parallel atom groups for a highly efficient handling of alternative substructural inferences; and a managed structure generation procedure designed to build required structural features early in the process. A number of complex structure elucidation problems were solved using the HOUDINI-based comprehensive structure elucidation system. The program performance suggests that convergent structure generation is effective in solving structure problems where much of the input to the structure generator is highly ambiguous, i.e., expressed as families of alternative substructural inferences.

  11. Next generation drying technologies for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert H; Bhatnagar, Bakul; Tchessalov, Serguei; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ohtake, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Drying is a commonly used technique for improving the product stability of biotherapeutics. Typically, drying is accomplished through freeze-drying, as evidenced by the availability of several lyophilized products on the market. There are, however, a number of drawbacks to lyophilization, including the lengthy process time required for drying, low energy efficiency, high cost of purchasing and maintaining the equipment, and sensitivity of the product to freezing and various other processing-related stresses. These limitations have led to the search for next-generation drying methods that can be applied to biotherapeutics. Several alternative drying methods are reviewed herein, with particular emphasis on methods that are commonly employed outside of the biopharmaceutical industry including spray drying, convective drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying, and combinations thereof. Although some of the technologies have already been implemented for processing biotherapeutics, others are still at an early stage of feasibility assessment. An overview of each method is presented, detailing the comparison to lyophilization, examining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and evaluating the potential of each to be utilized for drying biotherapeutic products. PMID:24916125

  12. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  13. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid. PMID:25906739

  14. Network Technology Based Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The fifth session of IT@EDU98 consisted of four papers and was chaired by Nguyen Thanh Son (University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Distance Education at University of Hawaii" (David Lassner) investigates the technologies in use at the University of Hawaii, including: SkyBridge; HITS (Hawaii Interactive Television System); I-Net…

  15. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  16. Wavelet-Based Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Wavelets can provide a basis set in which the basis functions are constructed by dilating and translating a fixed function known as the mother wavelet. The mother wavelet can be seen as a high pass filter in the frequency domain. The process of dilating and expanding this high-pass filter can be seen as altering the frequency range that is 'passed' or detected. The process of translation moves this high-pass filter throughout the domain, thereby providing a mechanism to detect the frequencies or scales of information at every location. This is exactly the type of information that is needed for effective grid generation. This paper provides motivation to use wavelets for grid generation in addition to providing the final product: source code for wavelet-based grid generation.

  17. Ontology-Based Multiple Choice Question Generation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

  18. Ontology-based multiple choice question generation.

    PubMed

    Al-Yahya, Maha

    2014-01-01

    With recent advancements in Semantic Web technologies, a new trend in MCQ item generation has emerged through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are knowledge representation structures that formally describe entities in a domain and their relationships, thus enabling automated inference and reasoning. Ontology-based MCQ item generation is still in its infancy, but substantial research efforts are being made in the field. However, the applicability of these models for use in an educational setting has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this paper, we present an experimental evaluation of an ontology-based MCQ item generation system known as OntoQue. The evaluation was conducted using two different domain ontologies. The findings of this study show that ontology-based MCQ generation systems produce satisfactory MCQ items to a certain extent. However, the evaluation also revealed a number of shortcomings with current ontology-based MCQ item generation systems with regard to the educational significance of an automatically constructed MCQ item, the knowledge level it addresses, and its language structure. Furthermore, for the task to be successful in producing high-quality MCQ items for learning assessments, this study suggests a novel, holistic view that incorporates learning content, learning objectives, lexical knowledge, and scenarios into a single cohesive framework. PMID:24982937

  19. Enhanced Product Generation at NASA Data Centers Through Grid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Hinke, Thomas H.; Gavali, Shradha; Seufzer, William J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes how grid technology can support the ability of NASA data centers to provide customized data products. A combination of grid technology and commodity processors are proposed to provide the bandwidth necessary to perform customized processing of data, with customized data subsetting providing the initial example. This customized subsetting engine can be used to support a new type of subsetting, called phenomena-based subsetting, where data is subsetted based on its association with some phenomena, such as mesoscale convective systems or hurricanes. This concept is expanded to allow the phenomena to be detected in one type of data, with the subsetting requirements transmitted to the subsetting engine to subset a different type of data. The subsetting requirements are generated by a data mining system and transmitted to the subsetter in the form of an XML feature index that describes the spatial and temporal extent of the phenomena. For this work, a grid-based mining system called the Grid Miner is used to identify the phenomena and generate the feature index. This paper discusses the value of grid technology in facilitating the development of a high performance customized product processing and the coupling of a grid mining system to support phenomena-based subsetting.

  20. Validation Testing of Hydrogen Generation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Barton; Toops, Todd J

    2007-12-01

    This report describes the results of testing performed by ORNL for Photech Energies, Inc. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the efficacy of Photech's hydrogen generation reactor technology, which produces gaseous hydrogen through electrolysis. Photech provided several prototypes of their proprietary reactor for testing and the ancillary equipment, such as power supplies and electrolyte solutions, required for proper operation of the reactors. ORNL measured the production of hydrogen gas (volumetric flow of hydrogen at atmospheric pressure) as a function of input power and analyzed the composition of the output stream to determine the purity of the hydrogen content. ORNL attempted measurements on two basic versions of the prototype reactors-one version had a clear plastic outer cylinder, while another version had a stainless steel outer cylinder-but was only able to complete measurements on reactors in the plastic version. The problem observed in the stainless steel reactors was that in these reactors most of the hydrogen was produced near the anodes along with oxygen and the mixed gases made it impossible to determine the amount of hydrogen produced. In the plastic reactors the production of hydrogen gas increased monotonically with input power, and the flow rates increased faster at low input powers than they did at higher input powers. The maximum flow rate from the cathode port measured during the tests was 0.85 LPM at an input power of about 1100 W, an electrolyte concentration of 20%. The composition of the flow from the cathode port was primarily hydrogen and water vapor, with some oxygen and trace amounts of carbon dioxide. An operational mode that occurs briefly during certain operating conditions, and is characterized by flashes of light and violent bubbling near the cathode, might be attributable to the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen in the electrolyte solution.

  1. {sup 99m}Tc generators for clinical use based on zirconium molybdate gel and (n, gamma) produced {sup 99}Mo: Indian experience in the development and deployment of indigenous technology and processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Saraswathy, P.; Dey, A.C.; Sarkar, S.K.; Kothalkar, C.; Naskar, P.; Arjun, G.; Arora, S.S.; Kohli, A.K.; Meera, V.; Venugopal, V.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2008-07-15

    The Indian pursuit of gel generator technology for {sup 99m}Tc was driven mainly by three considerations, namely, (i) well-established and ease of reliable production of (n, gamma)-based {sup 99}Mo in several tens of GBq quantities in the research reactors in Trombay/Mumbai, India, (ii) need for relatively low-cost alternate technology to replace the solvent (MEK) extraction generator system in use in India since 1970s and (iii) minimize dependency on weekly import of fission-produced {sup 99}Mo raw material required for alumina column generator. Extensive investigations on process standardisation for zirconium molybdate gel (ZMG) led to a steady progress, achieved both in terms of process technology and final performance of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators. The {sup 99m}Tc final product purity from the Indian gel system was comparable to that obtained from the gold-standard alumina column generators. Based on the feasibility established for reliable small-scale production, as well as satisfactory clinical experience with a number of gel generators used in collaborating hospital radiopharmacies, full-fledged mechanised processing facilities for handling up to 150 g of ZMG were set up. The indigenous design and development included setting up of shielded plant facilities with pneumatic-driven as well as manual controls and special gadgets such as, microwave heating of the zirconium molybdate cake, dispenser for gel granules, loading of gel columns into pre-assembled generator housing etc. Formal review of the safety features was carried out by the regulatory body and stage-wise clearance for processing low and medium level {sup 99}Mo activity was granted. Starting from around 70 GBq {sup 99}Mo handling, the processing facilities have since been successfully operated at a level of 740 GBq {sup 99}Mo, twice a month. In all 18 batches of gel have been processed and 156 generators produced. The individual generator capacity was 15 to 30 GBq with an elution yield of nearly 75

  2. Coal and Coal/Biomass-Based Power Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta's book, Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Coal is a key, growing component in power generation globally. It generates 50% of U.S. electricity, and criteria emissions from coal-based power generation are being reduced. However, CO2 emissions m...

  3. Quality of 3D Models Generated by SFM Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčiš, Marián

    2013-12-01

    Using various types of automation in digital photogrammetry is associated with questions such as the accuracy of a 3D model generated on various types of surfaces and textures, the financial costs of the equipment needed, and also the time costs of the processing. This topic deals with the actual technology of computer vision, which allows the automated exterior orientation of images, camera calibration, and the generation of 3D models directly from images of the object itself, based on the automatic detection of significant points. Detailed testing is done using the Agisoft PhotoScan system, and the camera configuration is solved with respect to the accuracy of the 3D model generated and the time consumption of the calculations for the different types of textures and the different settings for the processing.

  4. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  5. Summary of New Generation Technologies and Resources

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-08

    This compendium includes a PG&E R&D program perspective on the Advanced Energy Systems Technology Information Module (TIM) project, a glossary, a summary of each TIM, updated information on the status and trends of each technology, and a bibliography. The objectives of the TIMs are to enhance and document the PG&E R&D Program's understanding of the technology status, resource potential, deployment hurdles, commercial timing, PG&E applications and impacts, and R&D issues of advanced technologies for electric utility applications in Northern California. [DJE-2005

  6. Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In-Space propulsion technologies relevant to Mars presentation is for the 14.03 Emerging Technologies for Mars Exploration panel. The talk will address propulsion technology needs for future Mars science missions, and will address electric propulsion, Earth entry vehicles, light weight propellant tanks, and the Mars ascent vehicle. The second panel presentation is Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions. This talk is for 14.02 Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions panel. The talk will summarize the technology needs identified in the NAC's Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and will set the stage for the talks for the 4 other panelist.

  7. Climate regulation enhances the value of second generation biofuel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.; Tyner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial scale implementation of second generation (2G) biofuels has long been 'just over the horizon - perhaps a decade away'. However, with recent innovations, and higher oil prices, we appear to be on the verge of finally seeing commercial scale implementations of cellulosic to liquid fuel conversion technologies. Interest in this technology derives from many quarters. Environmentalists see this as a way of reducing our carbon footprint, however, absent a global market for carbon emissions, private firms will not factor this into their investment decisions. Those interested in poverty and nutrition see this as a channel for lessening the biofuels' impact on food prices. But what is 2G technology worth to society? How valuable are prospective improvements in this technology? And how are these valuations affected by future uncertainties, including climate regulation, climate change impacts, and energy prices? This paper addresses all of these questions. We employ FABLE, a dynamic optimization model for the world's land resources which characterizes the optimal long run path for protected natural lands, managed forests, crop and livestock land use, energy extraction and biofuels over the period 2005-2105. By running this model twice for each future state of the world - once with 2G biofuels technology available and once without - we measure the contribution of the technology to global welfare. Given the uncertainty in how these technologies are likely to evolve, we consider a range cost estimates - from optimistic to pessimistic. In addition to technological uncertainty, there is great uncertainty in the conditions characterizing our baseline for the 21st century. For each of the 2G technology scenarios, we therefore also consider a range of outcomes for key drivers of global land use, including: population, income, oil prices, climate change impacts and climate regulation. We find that the social valuation of 2G technologies depends critically on climate change

  8. Next Generation Launch Technology Program Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen; Tyson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In November 2002, NASA revised its Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) to evolve the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to serve as a theme for two emerging programs. The first of these, the Orbital Space Plane (OSP), was intended to provide crew-escape and crew-transfer functions for the ISS. The second, the NGLT Program, developed technologies needed for safe, routine space access for scientific exploration, commerce, and national defense. The NGLT Program was comprised of 12 projects, ranging from fundamental high-temperature materials research to full-scale engine system developments (turbine and rocket) to scramjet flight test. The Program included technology advancement activities with a broad range of objectives, ultimate applications/timeframes, and technology maturity levels. An over-arching Systems Engineering and Analysis (SE&A) approach was employed to focus technology advancements according to a common set of requirements. Investments were categorized into three segments of technology maturation: propulsion technologies, launch systems technologies, and SE&A.

  9. Developing Next Generation Natural Fracture Detection and Prediction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of the ''Next Generation'' project was to develop technology that will provide a quantitative description of natural fracture properties and locations in low-permeability reservoirs. The development of this technology has consistently been ranked as one of the highest priority needs by industry. Numerous researchers and resource assessment groups have stated that the ability to identify area where intense clusters of natural fractures co-exist with gas-charged sands, the so called ''sweet spots'', will be the key to unlocking the vast quantities of gas in-place contained in these low-permeability gas basins. To meet this technology need, the ''Next Generation'' project was undertaken with three performance criteria in mind: (1) provide an integrated assessment of the burial and tectonic stresses in a basin responsible for natural fracture genesis (using seismic data, a significantly modified application of geomechanics, and a discrete natural fracture generation model); (2) link the assessment of natural fracture properties and locations to the reservoir's fluid, storage and flow properties; and, (3) provide a reservoir simulation-based calculation of the gas (and water) production capacity of a naturally fractured reservoir system. Phase III of the ''Next Generation'' project entailed the performance of a field demonstration of the software in an ''exploration'' setting. The search for an Industry Partner willing to host an exploratory field demonstration was unsuccessful and Phase III was canceled effective May, 31, 2005. The failure to find an Industry Partner can be attributed to severe changes in the petroleum industry competitive environment between 1999 when the project was initiated and 2005 when further demonstration efforts were halted. The software was employed in portions of other, non-exploratory, projects underway during the development time period, and insights gained will be summarized here in lieu of a full field demonstration.

  10. Generation-X Mission Technology Drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Will

    2004-01-01

    Gen-X is envisioned to be an observatory with a gigantic X-ray collection area and exquisite angular resolution and energy spectral resolution. As such it presents a number of technological challenges: extremely lightweight X-ray optics, large area and fast readout imaging detectors with excellent energy resolution, and efficient gratings. These challenges call for development of both the basic technologies and large-scale precision manufacture techniques. In this paper we present and discuss these challenges and outline a plan that will address these challenges in the next two decades.

  11. WDM PONs based on colorless technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliou, Fabienne; Simon, Gael; Chanclou, Philippe; Pizzinat, Anna; Lin, Huafeng; Zhou, Enyu; Xu, Zhiguang

    2015-12-01

    Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Passive Optical Network (PON) is foreseen to be part of the Next Generation Passive Optical Networks. Business and mobile fronthaul networks already express the need to develop WDM PONs in the access segment. Fixed wavelength transceivers based on Coarse WDM are already available to respond to today's market needs but Dense WDM technologies will be needed and colorless technologies are essential to provide simple and cost-effective WDM PON systems. We propose in this paper to demonstrate the capabilities of a DWDM PON system prototype based on self-seeded RSOAs and designed to transmit CPRI over 60 km of fiber at 2.5 Gbit/s.

  12. Expression Profiling Using New Generation Sequencing Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarray hybridization technology has become widely used in parallel analysis of gene expression. Recent advances in genome sequencing platforms point to an alternate approach through digital quantitation of sequencing reads produced from cDNA samples. This presentation will compare advantages a...

  13. Next-generation air measurement technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the st...

  14. Second-generation dental laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Michael

    1993-07-01

    The first generation of dental lasers proved limited to soft tissue applications. Due to the thermal properties of these lasers, drilling of enamel and dentin is harmful to the underlying nerve tissue. As a solution to this problem, more sophisticated solidstate lasers are under commercial development for hard tissue applications. The first of these second generation lasers to emerge is the erbium:YAG now marketed in Europe by KaVo. This system relies on a cumbersome articulated arm delivery device. Other manufacturers have overcome this delivery problem with the introduction of flexible delivery methods. Another hard tissue laser that has been introduced is the short-pulsed Nd:YAG. This laser uses shaped pulses to drill teeth without thermal damage. An overview of these and other second generation dental lasers is presented.

  15. IVHM for the 3rd Generation RLV Program: Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The objective behind the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) project is to develop and integrate the technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Technological areas discussed include: developing, validating, and transfering next generation IVHM technologies to near term industry and government reusable launch systems; focus NASA on the next generation and highly advanced sensor and software technologies; and validating IVHM systems engineering design process for future programs.

  16. Technology base for microgravity horticulture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Magnuson, J. W.; Scruby, R. R.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced microgravity plant biology research and life support system development for the spacecraft environment are critically hampered by the lack of a technology base. This inadequacy stems primarily from the fact that microgravity results in a lack of convective currents and phase separation as compared to the one gravity environment. A program plan is being initiated to develop this technology base. This program will provide an iterative flight development effort that will be closely integrated with both basic science investigations and advanced life support system development efforts incorporating biological processes. The critical considerations include optimum illumination methods, root aeration, root and shoot support, and heat rejection and gas exchange in the plant canopy.

  17. Deciphering next-generation pharmacogenomics: an information technology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Potamias, George; Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Katsila, Theodora; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Topouzis, Stavros; Cooper, David N.; Patrinos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, the rapid evolution of high-throughput genotyping technologies and the increased pace of production of genetic research data are continually prompting the development of appropriate informatics tools, systems and databases as we attempt to cope with the flood of incoming genetic information. Alongside new technologies that serve to enhance data connectivity, emerging information systems should contribute to the creation of a powerful knowledge environment for genotype-to-phenotype information in the context of translational medicine. In the area of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, it has become evident that database applications providing important information on the occurrence and consequences of gene variants involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and drug toxicity will become an integral tool for researchers and medical practitioners alike. At the same time, two fundamental issues are inextricably linked to current developments, namely data sharing and data protection. Here, we discuss high-throughput and next-generation sequencing technology and its impact on pharmacogenomics research. In addition, we present advances and challenges in the field of pharmacogenomics information systems which have in turn triggered the development of an integrated electronic ‘pharmacogenomics assistant’. The system is designed to provide personalized drug recommendations based on linked genotype-to-phenotype pharmacogenomics data, as well as to support biomedical researchers in the identification of pharmacogenomics-related gene variants. The provisioned services are tuned in the framework of a single-access pharmacogenomics portal. PMID:25030607

  18. Deciphering next-generation pharmacogenomics: an information technology perspective.

    PubMed

    Potamias, George; Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Katsila, Theodora; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Topouzis, Stavros; Cooper, David N; Patrinos, George P

    2014-07-01

    In the post-genomic era, the rapid evolution of high-throughput genotyping technologies and the increased pace of production of genetic research data are continually prompting the development of appropriate informatics tools, systems and databases as we attempt to cope with the flood of incoming genetic information. Alongside new technologies that serve to enhance data connectivity, emerging information systems should contribute to the creation of a powerful knowledge environment for genotype-to-phenotype information in the context of translational medicine. In the area of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, it has become evident that database applications providing important information on the occurrence and consequences of gene variants involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and drug toxicity will become an integral tool for researchers and medical practitioners alike. At the same time, two fundamental issues are inextricably linked to current developments, namely data sharing and data protection. Here, we discuss high-throughput and next-generation sequencing technology and its impact on pharmacogenomics research. In addition, we present advances and challenges in the field of pharmacogenomics information systems which have in turn triggered the development of an integrated electronic 'pharmacogenomics assistant'. The system is designed to provide personalized drug recommendations based on linked genotype-to-phenotype pharmacogenomics data, as well as to support biomedical researchers in the identification of pharmacogenomics-related gene variants. The provisioned services are tuned in the framework of a single-access pharmacogenomics portal. PMID:25030607

  19. Airframe Technology Development for Next Generation Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airframe subproject within NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program has the responsibility to develop airframe technology for both rocket and airbreathing vehicles for access to space. The Airframe sub-project pushes the state-of-the-art in airframe technology for low-cost, reliable, and safe space transportation. Both low and medium technology readiness level (TRL) activities are being pursued. The key technical areas being addressed include design and integration, hot and integrated structures, cryogenic tanks, and thermal protection systems. Each of the technologies in these areas are discussed in this paper.

  20. NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program - Strategy and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established a new program office, Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program Office, last year to pursue technologies for future space launch systems. NGLT will fund research in key technology areas such as propulsion, launch vehicles, operations and system analyses. NGLT is part of NASA s Integrated Space Technology Plan. The NGLT Program is sponsored by NASA s Office of Aerospace Technology and is part of the Space Launch Initiative theme that includes both NGLT and Orbital Space Plane. NGLT will focus on technology development to increase safety and reliability and reduce overall costs associated with building, flying and maintaining the nation s next-generations of space launch vehicles. These investments will be guided by systems engineering and analysis with a focus on the needs of National customers.

  1. The Impact of Generational Status on Instructors' Reported Technology Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Saxon, D. Patrick; Edmonson, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of colleges and universities are equipped with the latest instructional technologies, an appreciable integration of technology has not been observed in instructional practices (Flavin, 2013; Garrison & Akyol, 2009; Salinas, 2008). The purpose of this research is to understand the impact that generational differences can…

  2. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Generational Differences in Technology Adoption in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigated the technological perceptions and expectations of community college students, faculty, administrators, and Information Technology (IT) staff. The theoretical framework is based upon two assumptions on the process of technological innovation: it can be explained by diffusion of adoption theory, and by studying the…

  4. Energy conservation technologies based on thermodynamic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Masaru

    1996-12-31

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission to prevent global warming, the most promising way for electric generation in the Northeast Asia is to introduce cogeneration and {open_quotes}repowering{close_quotes} technologies based on high temperature gas turbines fueled by natural gas. Especially the old type coal burning boiler-steam turbine plants should be retrofit by introducing gas turbines to become highly efficient combined cycle. Same technologies should be applied to the old garbage incineration plants and/or even to the nuclear power plants. The exhaust heat or steam should become much increased and it should be utilized as the process heat for industries or heat supply as the distinct heating or cooling for residential area. This paper introduces a brief survey of these new technologies.

  5. Low-Rank Coal and Advanced Technologies for Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang', Dong-ke; Jackson, Peter J.; Vuthaluru, Hari B.

    Fluidised-bed based advanced power generation technologies offer higher efficiencies than conventional pulverised fuel fired power plants and better prospects in reducing ash-related problems associated with low-rank coal in such plants. However, bed material agglomeration and bed defluidisation present significant operational difficulties for the utilisation of the low-rank coal in fluidised-bed processes. Alkali and alkaline-earth elements and sulphur compounds, often found in low-rank coals, form low melting point eutectics at typical fluidised-bed combustion and gasification operating temperatures. These low melting-point materials are subsequently transferred onto the bed material particle surfaces, and the ash-coated particles then become adhesive and agglomerate. Defluidisation can occur either as an extension of agglomeration as a rate process gradually leading to defluidisation or as an instantaneous event without agglomeration. A critical thickness of the ash coating layer on the particle surface exists, above which defluidisation occurs. This critical thickness decreases with an increase in bed temperature. Several mineral additives, alternative bed materials and pretreatment of coal have been shown to suppress, to different extents, particle agglomeration and bed defluidisation when burning a high sodium, high sulphur low-rank coal in a spouted fluidised-bed combustor. Sillimanite as an alternative bed material is found to be most effective for defluidisation control. Alternative advanced technologies such as low-temperature pyrolysis and co-production are proposed for future investigation.

  6. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  7. Low dimension structures and devices for new generation photonic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. H.; Tang, D. Y.; Chen, T. P.; Mei, T.; Yuan, X. C.

    2014-05-15

    Low dimensional structures and devices are the key technological building blocks for new generation of electronic and photonic technology. Such structures and devices show novel properties and can be integrated into systems for wide applications in many areas, including medical, biological and military and advancement of science. In this invited talk, I will present the main results achieved in our competitive research program which aims to explore the application of the mesoscopic structures in light source, manipulation and imaging and integrate them into advanced systems. In the light source aspect, we have for the first time developed graphene mode-locked lasers which are in the process of commercialization. Nanocrystal Si embedded in dielectrics was formed by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Si light emitting devices with external quantum efficiency of about 2.9×10{sup −3}% for visible emission were demonstrated at room temperature and the color of emitted light can be tuned electrically from violet to white by varying the injected current. In light manipulation, loss compensation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) using quantum well (QW) gain media was studied theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The SPP propagation length was effectively elongated several times through electrical pumping. One and two microring resonators based on silicon on insulator and III-V semiconductors technologies have been successfully fabricated and they can be used as filter and switch in the photonic circuit. In imaging, both SPP and low dimension structures are investigated and resolution far beyond diffraction limit in visible range has been realized. The integration of the components in the three aspects into complicated systems is on the way.

  8. Assessing the Long-Term System Value of Intermittent Electric Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A D

    2005-08-24

    This research investigates the economic penetration and system-wide effects of large-scale intermittent technologies in an electric generation system. The research extends the standard screening curve analysis to optimize the penetration and system structure with intermittent technologies. The analysis is based on hour-by-hour electric demands and intermittent generation. A theoretical framework is developed to find an expression for the marginal value of an intermittent technology as a function of the average system marginal cost, the capacity factor of the generator, and the covariance between the generator's hourly production and the hourly system marginal cost. A series of model runs are made examining the penetration of wind and photovoltaic in a simple electric generation system. These illustrate the conclusions in the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effects that large-scale intermittent penetration has on the structure of the generation system. In the long-term, adding intermittent generation to a system allows us to restructure the dispatchable generation capacity to a mix with lower capital cost. It is found that large scale intermittent generation tends to reduce the optimal capacity and production of baseload generators and increase the capacity and production of intermediate generators, although the extent to which this occurs depends strongly on the pattern of production from the intermediate generators. It is also shown that the marginal value of intermittent generation declines as it penetrates. The analysis investigates the specific mechanism through which this occurs.

  9. New Energy-Saving Technologies Use Induction Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two energy-saving technologies tested recently at Marshall Space Flight Center use an induction motor operated in reverse (as an induction generator). In the first, energy ordinarily dissipated during load testing of machinery is recovered and returned to powerline. In the second, efficiency of wind-driven induction generator is improved, and useful range of windspeed is broadened. Both technologies take advantage of ac voltage developed across terminals of an induction motor when rotated at higher than-synchronous speed in the direction it normally turns when power is appled.

  10. Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

  11. New Marsulex technology significantly cuts power generation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    As utility deregulation becomes reality, successful generators of electricity will significantly lower bus bar cost of power by a creative combination of low cost fuel and the application of Marsulex Environmental Technologies' (MET) patented Ammonia Scrubbing Technology. Because fuel constitutes the largest component of generation cost, substantial reductions can be achieved by firing low cost fuels such as petroleum coke. Tis option has been historically handicapped by sulfur dioxide emission limitations and related economics. MET's proprietary ammonium sulfate technology now enables the use of low cost, 5-7-% sulfur fuels without the associated sulfur penalty. The MET technology can reduce generation costs by 25% or more on a typical coal fired unit and does not require any capital outlay by the generator. In addition, this concept can also serve as the cornerstone of a Phase 2 SO{sub 2} compliance strategy, or provide the winning edge in a bid for generation assets. This paper will outline this unique commercial and technical solution and provide economic examples of this cost-cutting strategy.

  12. New Marsulex technology significantly cuts power generation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    As utility deregulation becomes reality, successful generators of electricity will significantly lower bus bar cost of power by a creative combination of low cost fuel and the application of Marsulex Environmental Technologies'(MET) patented Ammonia Scrubbing Technology. Because fuel constitutes the largest component of generation cost, substantial reductions can be achieved by firing low cost fuels such as petroleum coke. This option has been historically handicapped by sulfur dioxide emission limitations and related economics. MET's proprietary ammonium sulfate technology now enables the use of low cost, 5--7% sulfur fuels without the associated sulfur penalty. The MET technology can reduce generation costs by 25% or more on a typical coal fired unit and does not require any capital outlay by the generator. In addition, this concept can also serve as the cornerstone of a Phase 2 SO{sub 2} compliance strategy, or provide the winning edge in a bid for generation assets. This paper will outline this unique commercial and technical solution and provide economic examples of this cost-cutting strategy.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    PubMed

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs. PMID:24237029

  14. Income generation for women with renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1996-10-01

    70% of the world`s poor are women. The poverty that is especially hard hitting for rural women throughout the world has many causes. The lack of access to education, credit and new technologies make it almost impossible for women to earn an income. Yet, when women earn an income, it not only improves their lives, but also improves the lives of their children and their communities. Solar energy technologies, along with access to credit, can help rural women improve the quality of their lives through income generating enterprises. The technologies discussed are solar cooking, solar food drying, solar blenders, and photovoltaics.

  15. Computer-Based Arithmetic Test Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchi, Robert F.

    1973-01-01

    The computer can be a welcome partner in the instructional process, but only if there is man-machine interaction. Man should not compromise system design because of available hardware; the computer must fit the system design for the result to represent an acceptable solution to instructional technology. The Arithmetic Test Generator system fits…

  16. High-voltage pulsed generators for electro-discharge technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Sinebrykhov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    A high-voltage pulse technology is one of effective techniques for the disintegration and milling of rocks, separation of ores and synthesized materials, recycling of building and elastoplastic materials. We present here the design and test results of two portable HV pulsed generators, designed for materials fragmentation, though some other technological applications are possible as well. Generator #1 consists of low voltage block, high voltage transformer, high voltage capacitive storage block, two electrode gas switch, fragmentation chamber and control system block. Technical characteristics of the #1 generator: stored energy in HV capacitors can be varied from 50 to 1000 J, output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time ~ 50 ns, typical operation regime 1000 pulses bursts with a repetitive rate up to 10 Hz. Generator #2 is made on an eight stages Marx scheme with two capacitors (100 kV-400 nF) per stage, connected in parallel. Two electrode spark gap switches, operated in atmospheric air, are used in the Marx generator. Parameters of the generator: stored energy in capacitors 2÷8 kJ, amplitude of the output voltage 200÷400 kV, voltage rise time on a load 50÷100 ns, repetitive rate up to 0.5 Hz. The fragmentation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters for both generators.

  17. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advances in multidisciplinary technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the FW Project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve the challenging goals of aviation. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  18. The NASA Next Generation Stirling Technology Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J. G.; Shaltens, R. K.; Wong, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is developing the next generation Stirling technology for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for surface and deep space missions. The next generation Stirling convertor is one of two advanced power conversion technologies currently being developed for future NASA missions, and is capable of operating for both planetary atmospheres and deep space environments. The Stirling convertor (free-piston engine integrated with a linear alternator) produces about 90 We(ac) and has a specific power of about 90 We/kg. Operating conditions of Thot at 850 degree C and Trej at 90 degree C results in the Stirling convertor estimated efficiency of about 40 per cent. Using the next generation Stirling convertor in future RPS, the "system" specific power is estimated at 8 We/kg. The design lifetime is three years on the surface of Mars and fourteen years in deep space missions. Electrical power of about 160 We (BOM) is produced by two (2) free-piston Stirling convertors heated by two (2) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. This development is being performed by Sunpower, Athens, OH with Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA under contract to Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio. GRC is guiding the independent testing and technology development for the next generation Stirling generator.

  19. Terahertz wireless communications based on photonics technologies.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuma, Tadao; Horiguchi, Shogo; Minamikata, Yusuke; Yoshimizu, Yasuyuki; Hisatake, Shintaro; Kuwano, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Terada, Jun; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the application of terahertz (THz) waves to broadband wireless communications. In particular, use of frequencies above 275 GHz is one of the strong concerns among radio scientists and engineers, because these frequency bands have not yet been allocated at specific active services, and there is a possibility to employ extremely large bandwidths for ultra-broadband wireless communications. Introduction of photonics technologies for signal generation, modulation and detection is effective not only to enhance the bandwidth and/or the data rate, but also to combine fiber-optic (wired) and wireless networks. This paper reviews recent progress in THz wireless communications using telecom-based photonics technologies towards 100 Gbit/s. PMID:24104286

  20. The 1980 Large space systems technology. Volume 2: Base technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopriver, F., III (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Technology pertinent to large antenna systems, technology related to large space platform systems, and base technology applicable to both antenna and platform systems are discussed. Design studies, structural testing results, and theoretical applications are presented with accompanying validation data. A total systems approach including controls, platforms, and antennas is presented as a cohesive, programmatic plan for large space systems.

  1. Next-generation sequencing technology in clinical virology.

    PubMed

    Capobianchi, M R; Giombini, E; Rozera, G

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing technologies, referred to as 'next-generation' sequencing (NGS), have produced a true revolution and opened new perspectives for research and diagnostic applications, owing to the high speed and throughput of data generation. So far, NGS has been applied to metagenomics-based strategies for the discovery of novel viruses and the characterization of viral communities. Additional applications include whole viral genome sequencing, detection of viral genome variability, and the study of viral dynamics. These applications are particularly suitable for viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, whose error-prone replication machinery, combined with the high replication rate, results, in each infected individual, in the formation of many genetically related viral variants referred to as quasi-species. The viral quasi-species, in turn, represents the substrate for the selective pressure exerted by the immune system or by antiviral drugs. With traditional approaches, it is difficult to detect and quantify minority genomes present in viral quasi-species that, in fact, may have biological and clinical relevance. NGS provides, for each patient, a dataset of clonal sequences that is some order of magnitude higher than those obtained with conventional approaches. Hence, NGS is an extremely powerful tool with which to investigate previously inaccessible aspects of viral dynamics, such as the contribution of different viral reservoirs to replicating virus in the course of the natural history of the infection, co-receptor usage in minority viral populations harboured by different cell lineages, the dynamics of development of drug resistance, and the re-emergence of hidden genomes after treatment interruptions. The diagnostic application of NGS is just around the corner. PMID:23279287

  2. Learning Technology through Three Generations of Technology Enhanced Distance Education Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Dron, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates earlier work in which we defined three generations of distance education pedagogy. We then describe emerging technologies that are most conducive to instructional designs that evolve with each generation. Finally we discuss matching the pedagogies with learning outcomes. (Contains 3 figures.)

  3. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice. PMID:25462152

  4. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  5. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Teng; Tan, Meng-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic risk factors that underlie many rare and common neurological diseases remain poorly understood because of the multi-factorial and heterogeneous nature of these disorders. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully uncovered numerous susceptibility genes for these diseases, odds ratios associated with risk alleles are generally low and account for only a small proportion of estimated heritability. These results implicated that there are rare (present in <5% of the population) but not causative variants exist in the pathogenesis of these diseases, which usually have large effect size and cannot be captured by GWAS. With the decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) have enabled the rapid identification of rare variants with large effect size, which made huge progress in understanding the basis of many Mendelian neurological conditions as well as complex neurological diseases. In this article, recent NGS-based studies that aimed to investigate genetic causes for neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinocerebellar ataxias, have been reviewed. In addition, we also discuss the future directions of NGS applications in this article. PMID:25568878

  6. Next-generation ionomer encapsulants for thin film technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyzewicz, Robin; Smith, C. Anthony

    2011-09-01

    The characteristic properties of newly developed ionomer-based encapsulants are highlighted along with an in-depth analysis of moisture ingress, electrical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of these encapsulants with their high stiffness and strength have been found to allow the use of thinner glass and a possible shift from tempered to annealed glass. Lower-cost mounting options may be explored through full-module stress/deflection measurement capability and competencies developed in world-class finite-element modeling of system parameters. The superior electrical and moisture properties may allow modules to be produced without the use of an additional edge seal. These new materials have improved melt flow properties when compared to other encapsulant families such as EVA or PVB. This allows for faster processing which reduces production cost by shortening the lamination cycle. During the lamination process the sheets show excellent dimensional stability and low shrinkage behavior; and there is no need for curing, thus energy costs are lower due to lower lamination temperature. As advancement of technology proceeds across the entire PV industry, next generation ionomer encapsulants have been developed to keep up with the pace.

  7. Center for development technology and program in technology and human affairs. [emphasizing technology-based networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The role of technology in nontraditional higher education with particular emphasis on technology-based networks is analyzed nontraditional programs, institutions, and consortia are briefly reviewed. Nontraditional programs which utilize technology are studied. Technology-based networks are surveyed and analyzed with regard to kinds of students, learning locations, technology utilization, interinstitutional relationships, cost aspects, problems, and future outlook.

  8. Method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binhua; Song, Qian; He, Chun; Jin, Jianhui; He, Lin

    2010-07-01

    With the advance of the PFPA technology, the design methodology of digital systems is changing. In recent years we develop a method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA and VHDL. This paper presents the principles and implementation skills of the method. Taking a developed camera as an example, we introduce the structure, input and output clocks/signals of a timing generator implemented in the camera. The generator is composed of a top module and a bottom module. The bottom one is made up of 4 sub-modules which correspond to 4 different operation modes. The modules are implemented by 5 VHDL programs. Frame charts of the architecture of these programs are shown in the paper. We also describe implementation steps of the timing generator in Quartus II, and the interconnections between the generator and a Nios soft core processor which is the controller of this generator. Some test results are presented in the end.

  9. Ferroelectric Based Technologies for Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.; Jing, C.; Nenasheva, E.; Kazakov, S.; Tagantsev, A.; Yakovlev, V.

    2009-01-22

    Ferroelectrics have unique intrinsic properties that make them extremely attractive for high-energy accelerator applications. Low loss ferroelectric materials can be used as key elements in RF tuning and phase shifting components to provide fast, electronic control. These devices are under development for different accelerator applications for the X, Ka and L-frequency bands. The exact design of these devices depends on the electrical parameters of the particular ferroelectric material to be used--its dielectric constant, loss tangent and tunability. BST based ferroelectric-oxide compounds have been found to be suitable materials for a fast electrically-controlled tuners. We present recent results on the development of BST based ferroelectric compositions synthesized for use in high power technology components. The BST(M) ferroelectrics have been tested using both transverse and parallel dc bias fields to control the permittivity. Fast switching of a newly developed material has been shown and the feasibility of using of ferroelectric-based accelerator components in vacuum and in air has been demonstrated.

  10. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Next Generation Multimedia Distributed Data Base Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Stuart E.

    1997-01-01

    The paradigm of client/server computing is changing. The model of a server running a monolithic application and supporting clients at the desktop is giving way to a different model that blurs the line between client and server. We are on the verge of plunging into the next generation of computing technology--distributed object-oriented computing. This is not only a change in requirements but a change in opportunities, and requires a new way of thinking for Information System (IS) developers. The information system demands caused by global competition are requiring even more access to decision making tools. Simply, object-oriented technology has been developed to supersede the current design process of information systems which is not capable of handling next generation multimedia.

  12. Smart Home Technologies: Insights into Generation-Specific Acceptance Motives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Sylvia; Ziefle, Martina

    In this research we examine the generation specific acceptance motives of eHealth technologies in order to assess the likelihood of success for these new technologies. 280 participants (14 - 92 years of age) volunteered to participate in a survey, in which using motives and barriers toward smart home technologies were explored. The scenario envisaged was the use of a medical stent implemented into the body, which monitors automatically the health status and which is able to remotely communicate with the doctor. Participants were asked to evaluate the pros and cons of the usage of this technology, their acceptance motives and potential utilization barriers. In order to understand the complex nature of acceptance, personal variables (age, technical expertise, health status), individual's cognitive concepts toward ageing as well as perceived usefulness were related. Outcomes show that trust, believe in the reliability of technology, privacy and security as well as intimacy facets are essential for acceptance and should be considered in order to proactively design a successful rollout of smart home technologies.

  13. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  14. FY02 Engineering Technology Reports Volume 1: Technology Base

    SciTech Connect

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2003-01-28

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E. O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; and (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships. Five Centers focus and guide longer-term investments within Engineering. The Centers attract and retain top staff, develop and maintain critical core technologies, and enable programs. Through their technology-base projects, they oversee the application of known engineering approaches and techniques to scientific and technical problems.

  15. Simulation-Based Rule Generation Considering Readability

    PubMed Central

    Yahagi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, T.; Hara, T.; Ota, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rule generation method is proposed for an aircraft control problem in an airport. Designing appropriate rules for motion coordination of taxiing aircraft in the airport is important, which is conducted by ground control. However, previous studies did not consider readability of rules, which is important because it should be operated and maintained by humans. Therefore, in this study, using the indicator of readability, we propose a method of rule generation based on parallel algorithm discovery and orchestration (PADO). By applying our proposed method to the aircraft control problem, the proposed algorithm can generate more readable and more robust rules and is found to be superior to previous methods. PMID:27347501

  16. Simulation-Based Rule Generation Considering Readability.

    PubMed

    Yahagi, H; Shimizu, S; Ogata, T; Hara, T; Ota, J

    2015-01-01

    Rule generation method is proposed for an aircraft control problem in an airport. Designing appropriate rules for motion coordination of taxiing aircraft in the airport is important, which is conducted by ground control. However, previous studies did not consider readability of rules, which is important because it should be operated and maintained by humans. Therefore, in this study, using the indicator of readability, we propose a method of rule generation based on parallel algorithm discovery and orchestration (PADO). By applying our proposed method to the aircraft control problem, the proposed algorithm can generate more readable and more robust rules and is found to be superior to previous methods. PMID:27347501

  17. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  18. Staff Draft Report. Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, Magdy; Benjamin, Richard

    2003-02-11

    This Energy Commission staff draft report presents preliminary levelized cost estimates for several generic central-station electricity generation technologies. California has traditionally adopted energy policies that balance the goals of supporting economic development, improving environmental quality and promoting resource diversity. In order to be effective, such policies must be based on comprehensive and timely gathering of information. With this goal in mind, the purpose of the report is to provide comparative levelized cost estimates for a set of renewable (e.g., solar) and nonrenewable (e.g., natural gas-fired) central-station electricity generation resources, based on each technology's operation and capital cost. Decision-makers and others can use this information to compare the generic cost to build specific technology. These costs are not site specific. If a developer builds a specific power plant at a specific location, the cost of siting that plant at that specific location must be considered. The Energy Commission staff also identifies the type of fuel used by each technology and a description of the manner in which the technology operates in the generation system. The target audiences of this report are both policy-makers and anyone wishing to understand some of the fundamental attributes that are generally considered when evaluating the cost of building and operating different electricity generation technology resources. These costs do not reflect the total cost to consumers of adding these technologies to a resources portfolio. These technology characterizations do not capture all of the system, environmental or other relevant attributes that would typically be needed by a portfolio manager to conduct a comprehensive ''comparative value analysis''. A portfolio analysis will vary depending on the particular criteria and measurement goals of each study. For example, some form of firm capacity is typically needed with wind generation to support

  19. Maize transformation technology development for commercial event generation

    PubMed Central

    Que, Qiudeng; Elumalai, Sivamani; Li, Xianggan; Zhong, Heng; Nalapalli, Samson; Schweiner, Michael; Fei, Xiaoyin; Nuccio, Michael; Kelliher, Timothy; Gu, Weining; Chen, Zhongying; Chilton, Mary-Dell M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is an important food and feed crop in many countries. It is also one of the most important target crops for the application of biotechnology. Currently, there are more biotech traits available on the market in maize than in any other crop. Generation of transgenic events is a crucial step in the development of biotech traits. For commercial applications, a high throughput transformation system producing a large number of high quality events in an elite genetic background is highly desirable. There has been tremendous progress in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation since the publication of the Ishida et al. (1996) paper and the technology has been widely adopted for transgenic event production by many labs around the world. We will review general efforts in establishing efficient maize transformation technologies useful for transgenic event production in trait research and development. The review will also discuss transformation systems used for generating commercial maize trait events currently on the market. As the number of traits is increasing steadily and two or more modes of action are used to control key pests, new tools are needed to efficiently transform vectors containing multiple trait genes. We will review general guidelines for assembling binary vectors for commercial transformation. Approaches to increase transformation efficiency and gene expression of large gene stack vectors will be discussed. Finally, recent studies of targeted genome modification and transgene insertion using different site-directed nuclease technologies will be reviewed. PMID:25140170

  20. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Rich; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets.The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The paper will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe

  1. Introduction and comparison of next-generation mobile wireless technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Syed R.; Hussain, Shahab; Ali, M. A.; Sana, Ajaz; Saddawi, Samir; Carranza, Aparicio

    2010-01-01

    Mobile networks and services have gone further than voice-only communication services and are rapidly developing towards data-centric services. Emerging mobile data services are expected to see the same explosive growth in demand that Internet and wireless voice services have seen in recent years. To support such a rapid increase in traffic, active users, and advanced multimedia services implied by this growth rate along with the diverse quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by these services, mobile operator need to rapidly transition to a simple and cost-effective, flat, all IP-network. This has accelerated the development and deployment of new wireless broadband access technologies including fourth-generation (4G) mobile WiMAX and cellular Long-Term Evolution (LTE). Mobile WiMAX and LTE are two different (but not necessarily competing) technologies that will eventually be used to achieve data speeds of up to 100 Mbps. Speeds that are fast enough to potentially replace wired broadband connections with wireless. This paper introduces both of these next generation technologies and then compares them in the end.

  2. Safe Life Propulsion Design Technologies (3rd Generation Propulsion Research and Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod

    2000-01-01

    The tasks outlined in this viewgraph presentation on safe life propulsion design technologies (third generation propulsion research and technology) include the following: (1) Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) life prediction methods; (2) Life prediction methods for ultra high temperature polymer matrix composites for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and engine application; (3) Enabling design and life prediction technology for cost effective large-scale utilization of MMCs and innovative metallic material concepts; (4) Probabilistic analysis methods for brittle materials and structures; (5) Damage assessment in CMC propulsion components using nondestructive characterization techniques; and (6) High temperature structural seals for RLV applications.

  3. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  4. Homogeneous assay technology based on upconverting phosphors.

    PubMed

    Kuningas, Katri; Rantanen, Terhi; Ukonaho, Telle; Lövgren, Timo; Soukka, Tero

    2005-11-15

    Upconversion photoluminescence can eliminate problems associated with autofluorescence and scattered excitation light in homogeneous luminescence-based assays without need for temporal resolution. We have demonstrated a luminescence resonance energy-transfer-based assay utilizing inorganic upconverting (UPC) lanthanide phosphor as a donor and fluorescent protein as an acceptor. UPC phosphors are excited at near-infrared and they have narrow-banded anti-Stokes emission at visible wavelengths enabling measurement of the proximity-dependent sensitized emission with minimal background. The acceptor alone does not generate any direct emission at shorter wavelengths under near-infrared excitation. A competitive model assay for biotin was constructed using streptavidin-conjugated Er3+,Yb3+-doped UPC phosphor as a donor and biotinylated phycobiliprotein as an acceptor. UPC phosphor was excited at near-infrared (980 nm) and sensitized acceptor emission was measured at red wavelength (600 nm) by using a microtitration plate fluorometer equipped with an infrared laser diode and suitable excitation and emission filters. Lower limit of detection was in the subnanomolar concentration range. Compared to time-resolved fluorometry, the developed assay technology enabled simplified instrumentation. Excitation at near-infrared and emission at red wavelengths render the technology also suitable to analysis of strongly colored and fluorescent samples, which are often of concern in clinical immunoassays and in high-throughput screening. PMID:16285685

  5. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  6. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-12-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices. PMID:27456500

  7. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-07-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices.

  8. Homopolar artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmar, M.

    2010-05-01

    Space exploration is linked in many ways to the generation and challenges of artificial gravity. Space stations and drag-free satellite platforms are used to provide microgravity environments for scientific experiments. On the other hand, microgravity or reduced gravity environments such as on Moon and Mars are known to put limits for long-term human presence. Large centrifuges in space may provide Earth-like gravity environments during long-term travels, however, such technology certainly has its limits to provide similar environments for human outposts on other moons and planets. One can imagine a different technology using a prediction out of Einstein's general relativity theory which is called frame-dragging. In principle, frame-dragging might be used to generate artificial gravitational fields similar to electric fields generated by time-varying or moving magnetic fields. We will show that it is also possible to generate constant artificial gravitational fields that could provide microgravity or artificial gravity environments. Although such technology is possible in principle, the field strengths calculated from Einstein's theory are too small to be useful so far. However, recently detected anomalies around low-temperature spinning matter as well as fly-by anomalies point to possible enhancement mechanisms that might make an artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging a reality in the future.

  9. NASA's aeronautics research and technology base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA's research technology base in aeronautics is assessed in terms of: (1) US aeronautical technology needs and requirements in the future; (2) objectives of the aeronautics program; (3) magnitude and scope of the program; and (4) research and technology performed by NASA and other research organizations.

  10. Control System for a Diesel Generator and UPS Based Microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamar, Andriy; Pettai, Elmo; Beldjajev, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a microgrid composed of a diesel generator and two uninterruptible power supply systems with separate battery banks is introduced. The microgrid located in three academic buildings of Tallinn University of Technology. A three-level control and monitoring system for the microgrid based on the EtherNet/IP communication network is developed. In addition, a control strategy of the microgrid in the grid-connected and stand-alone mode of operation is proposed.

  11. Contributions from space technology to central power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicks, J. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The central power crisis, and the present and relatively near-time contributions that aerospace technology is making to help solve this crisis are discussed. The principal emphasis is placed on the prospects of aerospace derived magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) large scale power generation. The strides that the Soviet Union is making in this field with the startup of the new U-25 plant near Moscow, having a total power capability of 75 MW, are reviewed. A much smaller program in the U.S. is outlined, and prospects of future benefits are discussed.

  12. National solar technology roadmap: Multiple-exciton-generation PV

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Randy

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses the development of solar cells based on inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs)—such as spherical quantum dots (QDs), quantum rods (QRs), or quantum wires (QWs)—focusing on their potential to improve upon bulk semiconductor cell efficiencies by efficient multiple-exciton generation (MEG

  13. Next generation sequencing technologies and the changing landscape of phage genomics.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Jochen; Fouts, Derrick E; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2012-07-01

    The dawn of next generation sequencing technologies has opened up exciting possibilities for whole genome sequencing of a plethora of organisms. The 2nd and 3rd generation sequencing technologies, based on cloning-free, massively parallel sequencing, have enabled the generation of a deluge of genomic sequences of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin in the last seven years. However, whole genome sequencing of bacterial viruses has not kept pace with this revolution, despite the fact that their genomes are orders of magnitude smaller in size compared with bacteria and other organisms. Sequencing phage genomes poses several challenges; (1) obtaining pure phage genomic material, (2) PCR amplification biases and (3) complex nature of their genetic material due to features such as methylated bases and repeats that are inherently difficult to sequence and assemble. Here we describe conclusions drawn from our efforts in sequencing hundreds of bacteriophage genomes from a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using Sanger, 454, Illumina and PacBio technologies. Based on our experience we propose several general considerations regarding sample quality, the choice of technology and a "blended approach" for generating reliable whole genome sequences of phages. PMID:23275870

  14. Next generation sequencing technologies and the changing landscape of phage genomics

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Jochen; Fouts, Derrick E.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2012-01-01

    The dawn of next generation sequencing technologies has opened up exciting possibilities for whole genome sequencing of a plethora of organisms. The 2nd and 3rd generation sequencing technologies, based on cloning-free, massively parallel sequencing, have enabled the generation of a deluge of genomic sequences of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin in the last seven years. However, whole genome sequencing of bacterial viruses has not kept pace with this revolution, despite the fact that their genomes are orders of magnitude smaller in size compared with bacteria and other organisms. Sequencing phage genomes poses several challenges; (1) obtaining pure phage genomic material, (2) PCR amplification biases and (3) complex nature of their genetic material due to features such as methylated bases and repeats that are inherently difficult to sequence and assemble. Here we describe conclusions drawn from our efforts in sequencing hundreds of bacteriophage genomes from a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using Sanger, 454, Illumina and PacBio technologies. Based on our experience we propose several general considerations regarding sample quality, the choice of technology and a “blended approach” for generating reliable whole genome sequences of phages. PMID:23275870

  15. Engineering Technology Reports, Volume 2: Technology Base FY01

    SciTech Connect

    Minichino, C; Meeker, D

    2002-07-01

    Engineering has touched on every challenge, every accomplishment, and every endeavor of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during its fifty-year history. In this time of transition to new leadership, Engineering continues to be central to the mission of the Laboratory, returning to the tradition and core values of E.O. Lawrence: science-based engineering--turning scientific concepts into reality. This volume of Engineering Technical Reports summarizes progress on the projects funded for technology-base efforts. Technology-base projects effect the natural transition to reduction-to-practice of scientific or engineering methods that are well understood and established. They represent discipline-oriented, core competency activities that are multi-programmatic in application, nature, and scope. Objectives of technology-base funding include: (1) the development and enhancement of tools and processes to provide Engineering support capability, such as code maintenance and improved fabrication methods; (2) the support of Engineering science and technology infrastructure, such as the installation or integration of a new capability; (3) support for technical and administrative leadership through our technology Centers; (4) the initial scoping and exploration of selected technology areas with high strategic potential, such as assessment of university, laboratory, and industrial partnerships.

  16. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes highlights of exploratory research into next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of finding disruptive or ''leap frog'' technologies that may leap ahead of conventional PV in energy markets. The most recent set of 14 next-generation PV projects, termed Beyond the Horizon PV, will complete their third year of research this year. The projects tend to take two notably different approaches: high-efficiency solar cells that are presently too expensive, or organic solar cells having potential for low cost although efficiencies are currently too low. We will describe accomplishments for several of these projects. As prime examples of what these last projects have accomplished, researchers at Princeton University recently reported an organic solar cell with 5% efficiency (not yet NREL-verified). And Ohio State University scientists recently demonstrated an 18% (NREL-verified) single-junction GaAs solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon substrate. We also completed an evaluation of proposals for the newest set of exploratory research projects, but we are unable to describe them in detail until funding becomes available to complete the award process.

  17. Advanced gasification-based biomass power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.H.; Larson, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    A promising strategy for modernizing bioenergy is the production of electricity or the cogeneration of electricity and heat using gasified biomass with advanced conversion technologies. Major advances that have been made in coal gasification technology, to marry the gas turbine to coal, are readily adaptable to biomass applications. Integrating biomass gasifiers with aeroderivative gas turbines in particular makes it possible to achieve high efficiencies and low unit capital costs at the modest scales required for bioenergy systems. Electricity produced with biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) power systems not only offers major environmental benefits but also would be competitive with electricity produced from fossil fuels and nuclear energy under a wide range of circumstances. Initial applications will be with biomass residues generated in the sugarcane, pulp and paper, and other agro- and forest-product industries. Eventually, biomass grown for energy purposes on dedicated energy farms will also be used to fuel these gas turbine systems. Continuing improvements in jet engine and biomass gasification technologies will lead to further gains in the performance of BIG/GT systems over the next couple of decades. Fuel cells operated on gasified biomass offer the promise of even higher performance levels in the period beyond the turn of the century. 79 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. The Founding of Technologically-Based Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Arnold C.

    This monograph describes a study of entrepreneurship in new technologically-based firms. The work is based on empirical data gathered primarily in interviews with individuals who formed such enterprises. Most of the research was conducted in one of the nation's centers of technological entrepreneurship, the San Francisco Peninsula area around Palo…

  19. Communication Technologies Preferred by School Based Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the communication technologies preferred by school based administrators. This study surveyed and interviewed 96 school based administrators in a mid-sized suburban school system. The data show that individual emails, email lists, and cell phone technologies had the highest percentage effectiveness ratings…

  20. Consequences of Web-Based Technology Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nory; Kochtanek, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Describes the experience of a contract service business after adopting a Web-based collaborative technology to share information throughout the firm. Explored user perceptions and attitudes toward the technology and its impact on time, control, and organizational change based on qualitative interviews. (Author/LRW)

  1. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  2. NanoCrySP technology for generation of drug nanocrystals: translational aspects and business potential.

    PubMed

    Shete, Ganesh; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Drug nanocrystals have rapidly evolved into a mature drug delivery strategy in the last decade, with almost 16 products currently on the market. Several "top-down" technologies are available in the market for generation of nanocrystals. Despite several advantages, very few bottom-up technologies have been explored for commercial purpose. This short communication highlights a novel, bottom-up, spray drying based technology-NanoCrySP-to generate drug nanocrystals. Nanocrystals are generated in the presence of non-polymeric excipients that act as crystallization inducer for the drug. Excipients encourage crystallization of drug by plasticization, primary heterogeneous nucleation, and imparting physical barrier to crystal growth. Nanocrystals have shown significant improvement in dissolution and thereby oral bioavailability. NanoCrySP technology is protected through patents in India, the USA, and the European Union. NanoCrySP can be utilized for (i) pharmaceutical development of new chemical entities, (ii) differentiated products of existing molecules, and (iii) generic drug products. The aggregation of drug nanocrystals generated using NanoCrySP poses significant challenges in the nanocrystal-based product development. Addition of stabilizers either during spray drying or during dissolution has shown beneficial effects. PMID:26912190

  3. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  4. IDBA-MT: de novo assembler for metatranscriptomic data generated from next-generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Leung, Henry C M; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Parkinson, John; Chin, Francis Y L

    2013-07-01

    High-throughput next-generation sequencing technology provides a great opportunity for analyzing metatranscriptomic data. However, the reads produced by these technologies are short and an assembling step is required to combine the short reads into longer contigs. As there are many repeat patterns in mRNAs from different genomes and the abundance ratio of mRNAs in a sample varies a lot, existing assemblers for genomic data, transcriptomic data, and metagenomic data do not work on metatranscriptomic data and produce chimeric contigs, that is, incorrect contigs formed by merging multiple mRNA sequences. To our best knowledge, there is no assembler designed for metatranscriptomic data. In this article, we introduce an assembler called IDBA-MT, which is designed for assembling reads from metatranscriptomic data. IDBA-MT produces much fewer chimeric contigs (reduce by 50% or more) when compared with existing assemblers such as Oases, IDBA-UD, and Trinity. PMID:23829653

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis of mesoporous tin oxide: a new generation nanosorbent for (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator technology.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Shukla, Rakesh; Bahadur, Jitendra; Ram, Ramu; Mazumder, Subhasish; Dev Sarma, Haladhar; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-09-14

    The present article reports the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous tin oxide (MTO) nanoparticles by a solid-state mechanochemical route. The synthesized material was used as an advanced sorbent material for (68)Ge/(68)Ga radionuclide generator technology. Gallium-68 (t½ = 68 min) obtained from the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator is an important diagnostic radioisotope which holds tremendous potential in the non-invasive monitoring of various diseases, including cancer, using positron emission tomography (PET). The crystallite size of the MTO nanoparticles was in the range of 6-12 nm with a large surface area of 265 ± 16 m(2) g(-1), while the mean pore radius was found to be 2.1 ± 0.6 nm. Determination of the zeta-potential of the MTO nanoparticles dispersed in solutions at different pH values aided in understanding the sorption and separation mechanisms, which were based on the surface charge developed on the nanosorbent. The sorption capacity observed under column-flow conditions was 85 ± 5 mg Ge per g of nanosorbent. A clinical-scale (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator (740 MBq) was developed using this nanosorbent. Gallium-68 could be regularly eluted from this generator over a prolonged period of 1 year with >70% elution yield and met all the requirements for clinical use. The suitability of (68)Ga obtained from it was evaluated in preclinical settings by the preparation of a (68)Ga-labeled peptide containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of MTO nanoparticles by a mechanochemical route which could be effectively utilized for the routine preparation of clinical-scale (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators. The promising results obtained in this study would facilitate greater implementation of mechanochemistry for the synthesis of nanosorbents for radionuclide generator technology since this method is simple, economical and convenient. PMID:27482930

  6. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  7. Tax barriers to solar central receiver generation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, A.F.; Reilly, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    Tax loads and required revenues are estimated for current and future solar central receiver and gas-fired plants competing in the same market. An economic measure of tax equity is used to evaluate the equity of the tax loads under past and present tax codes. The same measure is used to devise a tax strategy which produces the following two types of equitable taxation: (1) the two plants carry nearly equal tax loads, and (2) local, state and federal governments receive the same distribution of revenues from the solar plant as from the gas-fired plant `Me results show that central receivers (and likely other capital-intensive technologies) carry higher tax loads compared to competing gasfired generation, that tax loads are highly correlated with competitiveness, and that equitable taxation is feasible within the boundaries of the study.

  8. Statistical filtering for NMR based structure generation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The constitutional assignment of natural products by NMR spectroscopy is usually based on 2D NMR experiments like COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. The difficulty of a structure elucidation problem depends more on the type of the investigated molecule than on its size. Saturated compounds can usually be assigned unambiguously by hand using only COSY and 13C-HMBC data, whereas condensed heterocycles are problematic due to their lack of protons that could show interatomic connectivities. Different computer programs were developed to aid in the structural assignment process, one of them COCON. In the case of unsaturated and substituted molecules structure generators frequently will generate a very large number of possible solutions. This article presents a "statistical filter" for the reduction of the number of results. The filter works by generating 3D conformations using smi23d, a simple MD approach. All molecules for which the generation of constitutional restraints failed were eliminated from the result set. Some structural elements removed by the statistical filter were analyzed and checked against Beilstein. The automatic removal of molecules for which no MD parameter set could be created was included into WEBCOCON. The effect of this filter varies in dependence of the NMR data set used, but in no case the correct constitution was removed from the resulting set. PMID:21835037

  9. Application of program generation technology in solving heat and flow problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shui; Wu, Bangxian; Chen, Ningning

    2007-05-01

    Based on a new DIY concept for software development, an automatic program-generating technology attached on a software system called as Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG) provides a platform of developing programs, through which a scientific researcher can submit his special physico-mathematical problem to the system in a more direct and convenient way for solution. For solving flow and heat problems by using finite element method, the stabilization technologies and fraction-step methods are adopted to overcome the numerical difficulties caused mainly due to the dominated convection. A couple of benchmark problems are given in this paper as examples to illustrate the usage and the superiority of the automatic program generation technique, including the flow in a lid-driven cavity, the starting flow in a circular pipe, the natural convection in a square cavity, and the flow past a circular cylinder, etc. They are also shown as the verification of the algorithms.

  10. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V-1. We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  11. Smooth migration technologies towards next-generation access systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Naoto

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of next-generation optical access network (NG-OAN) systems as well as the corresponding standardization activities has been steadily progressing. In the near future, whenever such a NG-OAN system is deployed to meet the bandwidth demands, the smooth migration from the existing system is indispensable because current PON systems such as 1G-EPON/G-PON have been massively deployed all over the world. NGA systems should be deployed so as not to interrupt existing system operation or degrade in-service user availability. I introduce recent technical topics related to co-existence with 1G/10G-EPON as an example. In particular, a 1G/10G dual-rate dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) technique and a 1G/10G dual-rate burst-mode transceiver are key technologies enabling 1G- and 10Gdata to be handled simultaneously. Furthermore, from the CAPEX/OPEX reduction viewpoint, longer lifetime system is preferable. NGA systems will, therefore, be more flexible to meet later bandwidth demands, wide coverage requirement, and energy-efficient operation. WDM technology is an attractive approach to meeting these goals.

  12. RAD in the realm of next-generation sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Rowe, H C; Renaut, S; Guggisberg, A

    2011-09-01

    The first North American RAD Sequencing and Genomics Symposium, sponsored by Floragenex (http://www.floragenex.com/radmeeting/), took place in Portland, Oregon (USA) on 19 April 2011. This symposium was convened to promote and discuss the use of restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing technologies. RAD sequencing is one of several strategies recently developed to increase the power of data generated via short-read sequencing technologies by reducing their complexity (Baird et al. 2008; Huang et al. 2009; Andolfatto et al. 2011; Elshire et al. 2011). RAD sequencing, as a form of genotyping by sequencing, has been effectively applied in genetic mapping and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in a range of organisms including nonmodel, genetically highly heterogeneous organisms (Table 1; Baird et al. 2008; Baxter et al. 2011; Chutimanitsakun et al. 2011; Pfender et al. 2011). RAD sequencing has recently found applications in phylogeography (Emerson et al. 2010) and population genomics (Hohenlohe et al. 2010). Considering the diversity of talks presented during this meeting, more developments are to be expected in the very near future. PMID:21991593

  13. Developing the Next Generation Shell Buckling Design Factors and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project was established in the spring of 2007 by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) in collaboration with the Constellation Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The SBKF project has the current goal of developing less-conservative, robust shell buckling design factors (a.k.a. knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for light-weight stiffened metallic launch vehicle (LV) structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s LV development and performance risks. In particular, it is expected that the results from this project will help reduce the reliance on testing, provide high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. The SBKF project objectives and approach used to develop and validate new design technologies are presented, and provide a glimpse into the future of design of the next generation of buckling-critical launch vehicle structures.

  14. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in virology

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David; Dixon, Linda; Chantrey, Julian; Darby, Alistair C.; Hall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The progress of science is punctuated by the advent of revolutionary technologies that provide new ways and scales to formulate scientific questions and advance knowledge. Following on from electron microscopy, cell culture and PCR, next-generation sequencing is one of these methodologies that is now changing the way that we understand viruses, particularly in the areas of genome sequencing, evolution, ecology, discovery and transcriptomics. Possibilities for these methodologies are only limited by our scientific imagination and, to some extent, by their cost, which has restricted their use to relatively small numbers of samples. Challenges remain, including the storage and analysis of the large amounts of data generated. As the chemistries employed mature, costs will decrease. In addition, improved methods for analysis will become available, opening yet further applications in virology including routine diagnostic work on individuals, and new understanding of the interaction between viral and host transcriptomes. An exciting era of viral exploration has begun, and will set us new challenges to understand the role of newly discovered viral diversity in both disease and health. PMID:22647373

  15. Stirling Convertor Technologies Being Developed for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA space science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. On Mars, rovers with SRGs would be used for missions that might not be able to use photovoltaic power systems, such as exploration at high Martian latitudes and missions of long duration. The projected SRG system efficiency of 23 percent will reduce the required amount of radioisotope by a factor of 4 or more in comparison to currently used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The Department of Energy recently named Lockheed Martin as the system integration contractor. Lockheed Martin has begun to develop the SRG engineering unit under contract to the Department of Energy, and has contract options to develop the qualification unit and the first flight units. The developers expect the SRG to produce about 114 Wdc at the beginning of mission, using two opposed Stirling convertors and two General Purpose Heat Source modules. STC previously developed the Stirling convertor under contract to the Department of Energy and is now providing further development as a subcontractor to Lockheed Martin. Glenn is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. A key milestone was recently reached with the accumulation of 12 000 hr of long-term aging on two types of neodymium-iron boron permanent magnets. These tests are characterizing any possible aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator. Preparations are underway for a thermal/vacuum system demonstration and unattended operation during endurance testing of the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors. In addition, Glenn is developing a

  16. Earth abundant thin film technology for next generation photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alapatt, Githin Francis

    With a cumulative generation capacity of over 100 GW, Photovoltaics (PV) technology is uniquely poised to become increasingly popular in the coming decades. Although, several breakthroughs have propelled PV technology, it accounts for only less than 1% of the energy produced worldwide. This aspect of the PV technology is primarily due to the somewhat high cost per watt, which is dependent on the efficiency of the PV cells as well as the cost of manufacturing and installing them. Currently, the efficiency of the PV conversion process is limited to about 25% for commercial terrestrial cells; improving this efficiency can increase the penetration of PV worldwide rapidly. A critical review of all possibilities pursued in the public domain reveals serious shortcomings and manufacturing issues. To make PV generated power a reality in every home, a Multi-Junction Multi-Terminal (MJMT) PV architecture can be employed combining silicon and another earth abundant material. However, forming electronic grade thin films of earth abundant materials is a non-trivial challenge; without solving this, it is impossible to increase the overall PV efficiency. Deposition of Copper (I) Oxide, an earth abundant semiconducting material, was conducted using an optimized Photo assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition process. X-Ray Diffraction, Ellipsometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Profilometry revealed that the films composed of Cu2O of about 90 nm thickness and the grain size was as large as 600 nm. This result shows an improvement in material properties over previously grown thin films of Cu2O. Measurement of I-V characteristics of a diode structure composed of the Cu2O indicates an increase in On/Off ratio to 17,000 from the previous best value of 800. These results suggest that the electronic quality of the thin films deposited using our optimized process to be better than the results reported elsewhere. Using this optimized thin film forming technique, it is now possible to

  17. Studies on Effective Utilization of SOFC Exhaust Heat Using Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terayama, Takeshi; Nagata, Susumu; Tanaka, Yohei; Momma, Akihiko; Kato, Tohru; Kunii, Masaru; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2013-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being researched around the world. In Japan, a compact SOFC system with rated alternative current (AC) power of 700 W has become available on the market, since the base load electricity demand for a standard home is said to be less than 700 W AC. To improve the generating efficiency of SOFC systems in the 700-W class, we focused on thermoelectric generation (TEG) technology, since there are a lot of temperature gradients in the system. Analysis based on simulations indicated the possibility of introducing thermoelectric generation at the air preheater, steam generator, and exhaust outlet. Among these options, incorporating a TEG heat exchanger comprising multiple CoSb3/SiGe-based TEG modules into the air preheater had potential to produce additional output of 37.5 W and an improvement in generating efficiency from 46% to 48.5%. Furthermore, by introducing thermoelectric generation at the other two locations, an increase in maximum output of more than 50 W and generating efficiency of 50% can be anticipated.

  18. Technology for the Next-Generation-Mobile User Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delagi, Greg

    specialized circuits, highly parallel architectures, and new packaging design. Another concern of the smart-mobile-companion user will be that their device is able to deliver an always-on, always-aware environment in a way that is completely seamless and transparent. These handsets will automatically determine the best and most appropriate modem link from the multiple choices on the device, including WiFi, LTE, 5G, and mmWave, based on which link will optimize performance, battery life, and network charges to deliver the best possible user experience. In the future, adaptive connectivity will require many different solutions, including the standard modem technologies of today, as well as new machine-machine interfaces and body-area-networks. All of the new and exciting applications and features of these mobile-companion devices are going to require additional energy due to added computational requirements. However, a gap in energy efficiency is quickly developing between the energy that can be delivered by today's battery technologies, and the energy needed to deliver all-day operation or 2-day always-on standby without a recharge. New innovations ranging from low-voltage digital and analog circuits, non-volatile memory, and adaptive power management, to energy harvesting, will be needed to further improve the battery life of these mobile companion devices. Increased bandwidth combined with decreased latency, higher power efficiency, energy harvesting, massive multimedia processing, and new interconnect technologies will all work together to revolutionize how we interact with our smart-companion devices. The implementation challenges in bringing these technologies to market may seem daunting and numerous at first, but with the strong collaboration in research and development from universities, government agencies, and corporations, the smart-mobile-companion devices of the future will likely become reality within 5 years!

  19. Next-generation sequencing technologies and applications for human genetic history and forensics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in the development of sequencing technologies in recent years have enabled an increasing number of applications in biology and medicine. Here, we review key technical aspects of the preparation of DNA templates for sequencing, the biochemical reaction principles and assay formats underlying next-generation sequencing systems, methods for imaging and base calling, quality control, and bioinformatic approaches for sequence alignment, variant calling and assembly. We also discuss some of the most important advances that the new sequencing technologies have brought to the fields of human population genetics, human genetic history and forensic genetics. PMID:22115430

  20. Mirror Technology Development at MSFC for the Next Generation Space Telescope and Other Space Telescope Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Smith, W. Scott; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large-aperture low-areal-density mirrors are critical to the success of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as well as other related space missions such as the Space Based Laser (SBL). Currently fabrication technology has demonstrated areal densities of 50 kg/sq m. NASA and its DOD partners are conducting a series of risk reduction projects to demonstrate mirror fabrication technology for mirror systems with areal densities of 15 kg/sq m. This talk will present an overview of these risk reduction experiments.

  1. The selection of convertible engines with current gas generator technology for high speed rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has sponsored two studies to determine the most promising convertible engine concepts for high speed rotorcraft. These studies projected year 2000 convertible technology limited to present gas generator technology. Propulsion systems for utilization on aircraft needing thrust only during cruise and those aircraft needing both power and thrust at cruise were investigated. Mission calculations for the two contractors involved were based upon the fold tilt rotor concept. Analysis and comparison of the General Electric concepts (geared UDF, clutched fan, and VIGV fan), and the Allison Gas Turbine concepts (clutched fan, VIGV fan, variable pitch fan, single rotation tractor propfan, and counter rotation tractor propfan) are presented.

  2. The selection of convertible engines with current gas generator technology for high speed rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Lewis sponsored two studies to determine the most promising convertible engine concepts for high speed rotorcraft. These studies projected year 2000 convertible technology limited to present gas generator technology. Propulsion systems for utilization on aircraft needing thrust only during cruise and those aircraft needing both power and thrust at cruise were investigated. Mission calculations for the two contractors involved were based upon the fold tilt rotor concept. Analysis and comparison of the General Electric concepts (geared UDF, clutched fan, and Variable Inlet Guide Vane (VIGV) fan), and the Allison Gas Turbine concepts (clutched fan, VIGV fan, variable pitch fan, single rotation tractor propfan, and counter rotation tractor propfan) are presented.

  3. Developing technologies for lunar-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Prospects for lunar-based astronomy and the development of the required technologies are briefly reviewed. A systematic approach to lunar-based astronomy includes a progression in capability from small automated telescopes to the 16-meter reflector on the moon. A next step beyond the 16-meter reflector will be a Lunar Optical/Ultraviolet/Infrared Synthesis Array. Intermediate steps are represented by the Lunar Transit Telescope and the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment. Priorities for the required technology development are identified.

  4. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines program data base

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    A large amount and wide variety of data on the behavior of advanced ceramic materials is currently being generated within the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Program. This paper summarizes efforts to date to develop a computer data base system for the management of those data. The system is based on the use of desktop microcomputers, which provides a maximum of efficiency, economy, and convenience in the operation of the system. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  5. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) critical technology pre-development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminou, Donny M. A.; Bézy, Jean Loup; Meynart, Roland; Blythe, Paul; Kraft, S.; Zayer, I.; Linder, M.; Falkner, M.; Luhmann, H. J.

    2009-09-01

    ESA and EUMETSAT have initiated joint preparatory activities for the formulation and definition of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) geostationary system to ensure the future continuity, and enhancement, of the current Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) system. The MTG programmatics are being established to ensure a seamless transition between the conclusion of the successful MSG operational system and the start of the new MTG operational system, with particular emphasis on continuity of the imagery missions. The MTG phase A studies were successfully concluded in December 2008 an re-consolidation phase B1 activities continued from January to July 2009. They were devoted to the MTG concept definition and requirements consolidation for meeting the User needs in the field of Nowcasting and Very Short Term Weather Forecasting (NWC), Medium/Short Range global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), Climate, Air Quality and Composition Monitoring. The following missions have been analysed, measurement techniques studied and preliminary concepts established: - High Resolution Fast Imagery Mission (improved successor to MSG SEVIRI HRV mission) - Full Disk High Spectral Resolution Imagery Mission (improved successor to SEVIRI) - Lightning Imagery Mission - IR Sounding Mission - UV-VIS-NIR Sounding Mission Both space segment architecture and preliminary satellite and instrument concepts were investigated in the course of these studies, and a dual satellite configuration established comprising the Imaging satellite (MTG-I) and the sounding satellite (MTG-S). The study covered all elements to a level of detail allowing to establish a technical baseline, conclude on the feasibility of the system requirements and undertake preliminary programmatic evaluation. Riders to the Phase A studies (Phase B1 work) have been placed to further consolidate the satellite and payload definition and development, prior to the release of the Invitation To Tender (ITT) for the full space

  6. The Mercury Laser Advances Laser Technology for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C A; Caird, J; Moses, E

    2009-01-21

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is on target to demonstrate 'breakeven' - creating as much fusion-energy output as laser-energy input. NIF will compress a tiny sphere of hydrogen isotopes with 1.8 MJ of laser light in a 20-ns pulse, packing the isotopes so tightly that they fuse together, producing helium nuclei and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. The achievement of breakeven will culminate an enormous effort by thousands of scientists and engineers, not only at Livermore but around the world, during the past several decades. But what about the day after NIF achieves breakeven? NIF is a world-class engineering research facility, but if laser fusion is ever to generate power for civilian consumption, the laser will have to deliver pulses nearly 100,000 times faster than NIF - a rate of perhaps 10 shots per second as opposed to NIF's several shots a day. The Mercury laser (named after the Roman messenger god) is intended to lead the way to a 10-shots-per-second, electrically-efficient, driver laser for commercial laser fusion. While the Mercury laser will generate only a small fraction of the peak power of NIF (1/30,000), Mercury operates at higher average power. The design of Mercury takes full advantage of the technology advances manifest in its behemoth cousin (Table 1). One significant difference is that, unlike the flashlamp-pumped NIF, Mercury is pumped by highly efficient laser diodes. Mercury is a prototype laser capable of scaling in aperture and energy to a NIF-like beamline, with greater electrical efficiency, while still running at a repetition rate 100,000 times greater.

  7. Assessing the environmental impact of energy generating clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, A.C.D.; McMillen, M.; Pell, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is a partnership between government and industry designed for cleaner and more efficient use of coal, both for electric power generation and industrial applications. Approximately seven billion dollars have been committed to the CCT program (two and half-billion dollars from DOE and the rest by industry). The potential environmental effects of CCT projects are subject to review because a proposal by DOE to cost-share a CCT project constitutes a {open_quotes}major federal action{close_quotes} under section 102(2)(c) of NEPA. Consequently, by virtue of numerous NEPA impact evaluations of CCT projects, a great deal has been learned about environmental impact analyses for coal combustion sources. In the course of NEPA review of CCT projects, air quality is often a significant environmental issue. This paper focuses on CCT air quality issues from a NEPA perspective, including Prevention of Significant Deterioration, New Source Review, atmospheric visibility, global climate change, and acidic deposition. The analyses of the impacts of the proposed action, alternative actions, and cumulative effects will be examined. (It is a {open_quotes}given{close_quotes} that any action must comply with Federal and State requirements and the provision of the Clean Air Act and other regulatory statues.) NEPA is not a permitting process, but rather it is a process to provide decision makers with the information they require make an informed decision about the potential environmental consequences of undertaking an action. The NEPA review of environmental effects has been instrumental in effectuating beneficial changes in some past CCT projects-changes that have mitigated potentially adverse environmental impacts. Accordingly, NEPA has served as a constructive analytical tool, with similar implications for other actions related to the electric power generation industry that are subject to environmental review.

  8. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-08-16

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. PMID:22895336

  9. High harmonic generation by novel fiber amplifier based sources.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, S; Rothhardt, J; Krebs, M; Tavella, F; Willner, A; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2010-09-13

    Significant progress in high repetition rate ultrashort pulse sources based on fiber technology is presented. These systems enable operation at a high repetition rate of up to 500 kHz and high average power in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range via high harmonic generation in a gas jet. High average power few-cycle pulses of a fiber amplifier pumped optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier are used to produce µW level average power for the strongest harmonic at 42.9 nm at a repetition rate of 96 kHz. PMID:20940915

  10. Multicenter clinical trial using next-generation Internet technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingeholm, Mary-Lou; Levine, Betty A.; Eichler, Florian; Tu, Huacheng; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Moser, Hugo

    2001-08-01

    The capacity to evaluate therapies in a multi-center clinical trial for a rare disease like X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) can be improved by establishing a network for transmitting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using current Internet and Next Generation Internet (NGI) technologies. A Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) 3.0 application has been installed; it functions as a storage service class provider (SCP), query/retrieve SCP and central database. Sites with query/retrieve (Q/R) service class user (SCU) applications have access to the images. Using the DICOM Q/R SCU application, timing studies of image retrieval for a standard Internet connection and an NGI connection have been conducted. Standard Internet results indicate that performance is affected by bandwidth limitation and is constrained by network traffic, inhibiting the standard Internet as a useful tool for real-time therapy evaluation. NGI results indicate a higher and more consistent data throughput. The increased transmission speed along with the promise of improved quality of service offered by the NGI connection allows for physicians to discuss the images, correlate them with other disease findings, measure disease severity, and request additional MRI studies in real-time permitting a more efficient clinical evaluation strategy. The elimination of variability of transmission speed is no less significant, allowing the physicians to reserve the time needed for such consultations.

  11. Ultrafast quantum random number generation based on quantum phase fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Xu, He; Zheng, Haoxuan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2012-05-21

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG. PMID:22714224

  12. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  13. A rainfall simulator based on multifractal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrour, Nawal; mallet, Cecile; barthes, Laurent; chazottes, Aymeric

    2015-04-01

    The Precipitations are due to complex meteorological phenomenon's and unlike other geophysical constituents such as water vapour concentration they present a relaxation behaviour leading to an alternation of dry and wet periods. Thus, precipitations can be described as intermittent process. The spatial and temporal variability of this phenomenon is significant and covers large scales. This high variability can cause extreme events which are difficult to observe properly because of their suddenness and their localized character. For all these reasons, the precipitations are therefore difficult to model. This study aims to adapt a one-dimensional time series model previously developed by the authors [Akrour et al., 2013, 2014] to a two-dimensional rainfall generator. The original time series model can be divided into 3 major steps : rain support generation, intra event rain rates generation using multifractal and finally calibration process. We use the same kind of methodology in the present study. Based on dataset obtained from meteorological radar of Météo France with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km we present the used approach : Firstly, the extraction of rain support (rain/no rain area) allowing the retrieval of the rain support structure function (variogram) and fractal properties. This leads us to use either the rain support modelisation proposed by ScleissXXX [ref] or directly real rain support extracted from radar rain maps. Then, the generation (over rain areas) of rain rates is made thanks to a 2D multifractal Fractionnally Integrated Flux (FIF) model [ref]. This second stage is followed by a calibration/forcing step (forcing average rain rate per events) added in order to provide rain rate coherent with observed rain-rate distribution. The forcing process is based on a relation identified from the average rain rate of observed events and their surfaces. The presentation will first explain the different steps presented above, then some results

  14. Proceed with Caution: Technology Fetishism and the Millennial Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvi, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the impact of information communication technology on the learning process and on the profession of teaching. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews arguments for and against the use of technology in the classroom and draws on student comments on technology use in the classroom. Findings: The paper…

  15. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  16. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: BIOQUELL, INC. CLARIS C HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Clarus C Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Generator, a biological decontamination device manufactured by BIOQUELL, Inc. The unit was tested by evaluating its ability to decontaminate seven types...

  18. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    PubMed

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants. PMID:23914512

  19. Next generation ligand binding assays-review of emerging technologies' capabilities to enhance throughput and multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Mora, Johanna; Given Chunyk, Allison; Dysinger, Mark; Purushothama, Shobha; Ricks, Claude; Osterlund, Karolina; Theobald, Valerie

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a summary of the evaluation done by the Throughput and Multiplexing subteam on five emerging technologies: Single molecule array (Simoa™), Optimiser™, CyTOF® (Mass cytometry), SQIDLite™, and iLite™. Most of the information is presented with a minimum amount of published data and much is based on discussions with users and the vendor, to help provide the reader with an unbiased assessment of where the subteam sees each technology fitting best in the bioanalysis of large molecules. The evaluation focuses on technologies with advantages in throughput and multiplexing, but is wide enough to capture their strengths in other areas. While all platforms may be suited to support bioanalysis in the discovery space, because of their emergent nature, only Optimiser and SQIDLite are currently ready to be used in the regulated space. With the exception of Optimiser, each instrument/technology requires an up-front investment from the bioanalytical lab that will need justification during capital budget discussions. Ultimately, the platform choice should be driven by the quality of data, project needs, and the intended use of the data generated. In a time- and resource-constrained environment, it is not possible to evaluate all emergent technologies available in the market; we hope that this review gives the reader some of the information needed to decide which technology he/she may want to consider evaluating to support their drug development program in comparison to the options they already have in their hands. PMID:25193269

  20. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  1. A rule-based software test data generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  2. Next-generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and their contribution to a sustainable Africa.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, W H; Chimphango, A F A; den Haan, R; Görgens, J F; Chirwa, P W C

    2011-04-01

    The world is currently heavily dependent on oil, especially in the transport sector. However, rising oil prices, concern about environmental impact and supply instability are among the factors that have led to greater interest in renewable fuel and green chemistry alternatives. Lignocellulose is the only foreseeable renewable feedstock for sustainable production of transport fuels. The main technological impediment to more widespread utilization of lignocellulose for production of fuels and chemicals in the past has been the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of its structure. Both biological and thermochemical second-generation conversion technologies are currently coming online for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol concomitantly with heat and electricity production. The latest advances in biological conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol with a focus on consolidated bioprocessing are highlighted. Furthermore, integration of cellulosic ethanol production into existing bio-based industries also using thermochemical processes to optimize energy balances is discussed. Biofuels have played a pivotal yet suboptimal role in supplementing Africa's energy requirements in the past. Capitalizing on sub-Saharan Africa's total biomass potential and using second-generation technologies merit a fresh look at the potential role of bioethanol production towards developing a sustainable Africa while addressing food security, human needs and local wealth creation. PMID:22482027

  3. Next-generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and their contribution to a sustainable Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, W. H.; Chimphango, A. F. A.; den Haan, R.; Görgens, J. F.; Chirwa, P. W. C.

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently heavily dependent on oil, especially in the transport sector. However, rising oil prices, concern about environmental impact and supply instability are among the factors that have led to greater interest in renewable fuel and green chemistry alternatives. Lignocellulose is the only foreseeable renewable feedstock for sustainable production of transport fuels. The main technological impediment to more widespread utilization of lignocellulose for production of fuels and chemicals in the past has been the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of its structure. Both biological and thermochemical second-generation conversion technologies are currently coming online for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol concomitantly with heat and electricity production. The latest advances in biological conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol with a focus on consolidated bioprocessing are highlighted. Furthermore, integration of cellulosic ethanol production into existing bio-based industries also using thermochemical processes to optimize energy balances is discussed. Biofuels have played a pivotal yet suboptimal role in supplementing Africa's energy requirements in the past. Capitalizing on sub-Saharan Africa's total biomass potential and using second-generation technologies merit a fresh look at the potential role of bioethanol production towards developing a sustainable Africa while addressing food security, human needs and local wealth creation. PMID:22482027

  4. The use of CrossMAb technology for the generation of bi- and multispecific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Regula, Jörg T

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge in the generation of bispecific IgG antibodies is enforcement of the correct heavy and light chain association. The correct association of generic light chains can be enabled using immunoglobulin domain crossover, known as CrossMAb technology, which can be combined with approaches enabling correct heavy chain association such as knobs-into-holes (KiH) technology or electrostatic steering. Since its development, this technology has proven to be very versatile, allowing the generation of various bispecific antibody formats, not only heterodimeric/asymmetric bivalent 1+1 CrossMAbs, but also tri- (2+1), tetravalent (2+2) bispecific and multispecific antibodies. Numerous CrossMAbs have been evaluated in preclinical studies, and, so far, 4 different tailor-made bispecific antibodies based on the CrossMAb technology have entered clinical studies. Here, we review the properties and activities of bispecific CrossMAbs and give an overview of the variety of CrossMAb-enabled antibody formats that differ from heterodimeric 1+1 bispecific IgG antibodies. PMID:27285945

  5. The use of CrossMAb technology for the generation of bi- and multispecific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Christian; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Regula, Jörg T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major challenge in the generation of bispecific IgG antibodies is enforcement of the correct heavy and light chain association. The correct association of generic light chains can be enabled using immunoglobulin domain crossover, known as CrossMAb technology, which can be combined with approaches enabling correct heavy chain association such as knobs-into-holes (KiH) technology or electrostatic steering. Since its development, this technology has proven to be very versatile, allowing the generation of various bispecific antibody formats, not only heterodimeric/asymmetric bivalent 1+1 CrossMAbs, but also tri- (2+1), tetravalent (2+2) bispecific and multispecific antibodies. Numerous CrossMAbs have been evaluated in preclinical studies, and, so far, 4 different tailor-made bispecific antibodies based on the CrossMAb technology have entered clinical studies. Here, we review the properties and activities of bispecific CrossMAbs and give an overview of the variety of CrossMAb-enabled antibody formats that differ from heterodimeric 1+1 bispecific IgG antibodies. PMID:27285945

  6. Technology for a NASA Space-Based Science Operations Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Redman, Sandra H.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of a proposal to develop a space-based operations grid in support of space-based science experiments. The development of such a grid would provide a dynamic, secure and scalable architecture based on standards and next-generation reusable software and would enable greater science collaboration and productivity through the use of shared resources and distributed computing. The authors propose developing this concept for use on payload experiments carried aboard the International Space Station. Topics covered include: grid definitions, portals, grid development and coordination, grid technology and potential uses of such a grid.

  7. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  8. Technology-Based Inquiry for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmann, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Activities featured in this new compendium--a collection of 26 articles published in Science Scope, NSTA's member journal for middle school teachers--will show how. Technology-Based Inquiry offers fresh approaches that teachers and students can use to explore physical science, Earth and space science, life science, and more. It covers the…

  9. Designing Personalization in Technology-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Min Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Personalization technology has the potential to optimize service for each person's unique needs and characteristics. One way to optimize service is to allow people to customize the service themselves; another is to proactively tailor services based on information provided by people or inferred from their past behaviors. These approaches function…

  10. Equipping the next Generation of Teachers: Technology Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronseth, Susie; Brush, Thomas; Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne; Strycker, Jesse; Abaci, Serdar; Easterling, Wylie; Roman, Tiffany; Shin, Sungwon; van Leusen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that all U.S. teacher preparation programs provide instruction on technology integration within coursework and related requirements. This study provides a more detailed investigation into the types and content of technology experiences U.S. teacher preparation programs offer teachers in training. The researchers…

  11. Internet-based Real Time Language Education: Towards a Fourth Generation Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping; Sun, Chengzheng

    2001-01-01

    Through examination of the development of distance education for foreign languages, puts forth a theory on the emergence of a fourth generation of distance language education, challenging the generally accepted three-generation theory. Argues that with the use of Internet-based real time technology, distance language learning becomes synchronous…

  12. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  13. Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark

    Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

  14. FPGA Implementation of Metastability-Based True Random Number Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Shuichi

    True random number generators (TRNGs) are important as a basis for computer security. Though there are some TRNGs composed of analog circuit, the use of digital circuits is desired for the application of TRNGs to logic LSIs. Some of the digital TRNGs utilize jitter in free-running ring oscillators as a source of entropy, which consume large power. Another type of TRNG exploits the metastability of a latch to generate entropy. Although this kind of TRNG has been mostly implemented with full-custom LSI technology, this study presents an implementation based on common FPGA technology. Our TRNG is comprised of logic gates only, and can be integrated in any kind of logic LSI. The RS latch in our TRNG is implemented as a hard-macro to guarantee the quality of randomness by minimizing the signal skew and load imbalance of internal nodes. To improve the quality and throughput, the output of 64-256 latches are XOR'ed. The derived design was verified on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA (XC4VFX20), and passed NIST statistical test suite without post-processing. Our TRNG with 256 latches occupies 580 slices, while achieving 12.5Mbps throughput.

  15. Clinical operations generation next… The age of technology and outsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Temkar, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Huge cost pressures and the need to drive faster approvals has driven a technology transformation in the clinical trial (CT) industry. The CT industry is thus leveraging mobile data, cloud computing, social media, robotic automation, and electronic source to drive efficiencies in a big way. Outsourcing of clinical operations support services to technology companies with a clinical edge is gaining tremendous importance. This paper provides an overview of current technology trends, applicable Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, basic challenges that the pharma industry is facing in trying to implement such changes and its shift towards outsourcing these services to enable it to focus on site operations. PMID:26623386

  16. Clinical operations generation next… The age of technology and outsourcing.

    PubMed

    Temkar, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Huge cost pressures and the need to drive faster approvals has driven a technology transformation in the clinical trial (CT) industry. The CT industry is thus leveraging mobile data, cloud computing, social media, robotic automation, and electronic source to drive efficiencies in a big way. Outsourcing of clinical operations support services to technology companies with a clinical edge is gaining tremendous importance. This paper provides an overview of current technology trends, applicable Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, basic challenges that the pharma industry is facing in trying to implement such changes and its shift towards outsourcing these services to enable it to focus on site operations. PMID:26623386

  17. The importance of knowledge-based technology.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Pamela F

    2012-01-01

    Nurse executives are responsible for a workforce that can provide safer and more efficient care in a complex sociotechnical environment. National quality priorities rely on technologies to provide data collection, share information, and leverage analytic capabilities to interpret findings and inform approaches to care that will achieve better outcomes. As a key steward for quality, the nurse executive exercises leadership to provide the infrastructure to build and manage nursing knowledge and instill accountability for following evidence-based practices. These actions contribute to a learning health system where new knowledge is captured as a by-product of care delivery enabled by knowledge-based electronic systems. The learning health system also relies on rigorous scientific evidence embedded into practice at the point of care. The nurse executive optimizes use of knowledge-based technologies, integrated throughout the organization, that have the capacity to help transform health care. PMID:22407206

  18. Project-Based Technology: Instructional Strategy for Developing Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Moti; Barzilai, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    Because we live in a society that increasingly depends upon technology, a growing number of voices are calling for the mandatory study of technology by school-aged children worldwide. Technological literacy is the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand technology, and involves the application of knowledge and abilities to real-world…

  19. Motion-to-Energy (M2E) Power Generation Technology

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2009-09-01

    INL researchers developed M2E, a new technology that converts motion to energy. M2E uses an innovative, optimized microgenerator with power management circuitry that kinetically charges mobile batteries from natural motion such as walking.

  20. Technologies for the next generation of spaceborne precipitation radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, G.; Berkun, A.; Durden, S.; Huang, J.; Im, E.; Lopez, B.; Lou, M.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Liu, F.; Rengarajan, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys the technologies for the PR-2 and describes the developments in the areas of: membrane antennas with inflatable structure, Ka-band phased arrays, and real time digital pulse compression.

  1. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists have developed a way to generate power using harmless viruses that convert mechanical energy into electricity. The milestone could lead to tiny devices that harvest electrical energy from the vibrations of everyday tasks. The first part of the video shows how Berkeley Lab scientists harness the piezoelectric properties of the virus to convert the force of a finger tap into electricity. The second part reveals the "viral-electric" generators in action, first by pressing only one of the generators, then by pressing two at the same time, which produces more current.

  2. Modeling technology innovation: How science, engineering, and industry methods can combine to generate beneficial socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Government-sponsored science, technology, and innovation (STI) programs support the socioeconomic aspects of public policies, in addition to expanding the knowledge base. For example, beneficial healthcare services and devices are expected to result from investments in research and development (R&D) programs, which assume a causal link to commercial innovation. Such programs are increasingly held accountable for evidence of impact—that is, innovative goods and services resulting from R&D activity. However, the absence of comprehensive models and metrics skews evidence gathering toward bibliometrics about research outputs (published discoveries), with less focus on transfer metrics about development outputs (patented prototypes) and almost none on econometrics related to production outputs (commercial innovations). This disparity is particularly problematic for the expressed intent of such programs, as most measurable socioeconomic benefits result from the last category of outputs. Methods This paper proposes a conceptual framework integrating all three knowledge-generating methods into a logic model, useful for planning, obtaining, and measuring the intended beneficial impacts through the implementation of knowledge in practice. Additionally, the integration of the Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model of evaluation proactively builds relevance into STI policies and programs while sustaining rigor. Results The resulting logic model framework explicitly traces the progress of knowledge from inputs, following it through the three knowledge-generating processes and their respective knowledge outputs (discovery, invention, innovation), as it generates the intended socio-beneficial impacts. It is a hybrid model for generating technology-based innovations, where best practices in new product development merge with a widely accepted knowledge-translation approach. Given the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the medical and health fields and

  3. Trial application of reliability technology to emergency diesel generators at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.M.; Boccio, J.L.; Karimian, S.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.; DeMoss, G.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a trial application of reliability technology to the emergency diesel generator system at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant is presented. An approach for formulating a reliability program plan for this system is being developed. The trial application has shown that a reliability program process, using risk- and reliability-based techniques, can be interwoven into current plant operational activities to help in controlling, analyzing, and predicting faults that can challenge safety systems. With the cooperation of the utility, Portland General Electric Co., this reliability program can eventually be implemented at Trojan to track its effectiveness.

  4. APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TO POWER GENERATION WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three membrane technlogies (reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis) for wastewater treatment and reuse at electric generating power plants were examined. Recirculating condenser water, ash sluice water, coal pile drainage, boiler blowdown and makeup treatment waste...

  5. Coming of age: ten years of next-generation sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Sara; McPherson, John D; McCombie, W Richard

    2016-05-17

    Since the completion of the human genome project in 2003, extraordinary progress has been made in genome sequencing technologies, which has led to a decreased cost per megabase and an increase in the number and diversity of sequenced genomes. An astonishing complexity of genome architecture has been revealed, bringing these sequencing technologies to even greater advancements. Some approaches maximize the number of bases sequenced in the least amount of time, generating a wealth of data that can be used to understand increasingly complex phenotypes. Alternatively, other approaches now aim to sequence longer contiguous pieces of DNA, which are essential for resolving structurally complex regions. These and other strategies are providing researchers and clinicians a variety of tools to probe genomes in greater depth, leading to an enhanced understanding of how genome sequence variants underlie phenotype and disease. PMID:27184599

  6. [Application of next-generation semiconductor sequencing technologies in genetic diagnosis of inherited cardiomyopathies].

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhao; Hong, Zhang; Xueshan, Xia

    2015-07-01

    Inherited cardiomyopathy is the most common hereditary cardiac disease. It also causes a significant proportion of sudden cardiac deaths in young adults and athletes. So far, approximately one hundred genes have been reported to be involved in cardiomyopathies through different mechanisms. Therefore, the identification of the genetic basis and disease mechanisms of cardiomyopathies are important for establishing a clinical diagnosis and genetic testing. Next-generation semiconductor sequencing (NGSS) technology platform is a high-throughput sequencer capable of analyzing clinically derived genomes with high productivity, sensitivity and specificity. It was launched in 2010 by Life Technologies of USA, and it is based on a high density semiconductor chip, which was covered with tens of thousands of wells. NGSS has been successfully used in candidate gene mutation screening to identify hereditary disease. In this review, we summarize these genetic variations, challenge and application of NGSS in inherited cardiomyopathy, and its value in disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment. PMID:26351163

  7. All Roads Lead to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: The Technologies of iPSC Generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via the ectopic expression of reprogramming factors is a simple, advanced, yet often perplexing technology due to low efficiency, slow kinetics, and the use of numerous distinct systems for factor delivery. Scientists have used almost all available approaches for the delivery of reprogramming factors. Even the well-established retroviral vectors confuse some scientists due to different tropisms in use. The canonical virus-based reprogramming poses many problems, including insertional mutagenesis, residual expression and re-activation of reprogramming factors, uncontrolled silencing of transgenes, apoptosis, cell senescence, and strong immunogenicity. To eliminate or alleviate these problems, scientists have tried various other approaches for factor delivery and transgene removal. These include transient transfection, nonintegrating viral vectors, Cre-loxP excision of transgenes, excisable transposon, protein transduction, RNA transfection, microRNA transfection, RNA virion, RNA replicon, nonintegrating replicating episomal plasmids, minicircles, polycistron, and preintegration of inducible reprogramming factors. These alternative approaches have their own limitations. Even iPSCs generated with RNA approaches should be screened for possible transgene insertions mediated by active endogenous retroviruses in the human genome. Even experienced researchers may encounter difficulty in selecting and using these different technologies. This survey presents overviews of iPSC technologies with the intention to provide a quick yet comprehensive reference for both new and experienced reprogrammers. PMID:24524728

  8. The internet based on presence system technology*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styugin, M.; Kaygorodov, A.

    2016-04-01

    In our study we analyze how to create the systems based on “communication-resource-presence”- technology. We formulate functional and architectural requirements. It is shown some new features in this systems that pertain to communication and information search on the Internet. The Internet passed three infrastructure stages from the communication between two hosts to the resource intermediation and communication in real presence systems. The systems based on the presence technologies have just started to develop. Our study shows what criteria’s they must meet. One of this criteria is the division of site resources into the "rooms" logically separated from each other. The users can see and connect to each other. The contextual data of user presence in a particular "room" can be used when searching for them in the context of professional competence.

  9. Amorphous silicon based large format uncooled FPA microbolometer technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimert, T.; Brady, J.; Fagan, T.; Taylor, M.; McCardel, W.; Gooch, R.; Ajmera, S.; Hanson, C.; Syllaios, A. J.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents recent developments in next generation microbolometer Focal Plane Array (FPA) technology at L-3 Communications Infrared Products (L-3 CIP). Infrared detector technology at L-3 CIP is based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon germanium(a-SiGe:H). Large format high performance, fast, and compact IR FPAs are enabled by a low thermal mass pixel design; favorable material properties; an advanced ROIC design; and wafer level packaging. Currently at L-3 CIP, 17 micron pixel FPA array technology including 320x240, 640 x 480 and 1024 x768 arrays is under development. Applications of these FPAs range from low power microsensors to high resolution near-megapixel imager systems.

  10. Power generation technology options for a Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, John M.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements and resultant power system performances of an aggressive Mars mission are characterized. The power system technologies discussed will support both cargo and piloted space transport vehicles as well as a six-person crew on the Martian surface for 600 days. The mission uses materials transported by cargo vehicles and materials produced using in-situ planetary feed stock to establish a life-support cache and infrastructure for the follow-on piloted lander. Numerous power system technical options are sized to meet the mission power requirements using conventional and solar, nuclear, and wireless power transmission technologies for stationary, mobile surface, and space applications. Technology selections will depend on key criteria such as mass, volume, area, maturity, and application flexibility.

  11. Structures technology for a new generation of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Felton D., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of structures research at the U. S. Army Aerostructures Directorate. The objectives of this research are to investigate, explore, and demonstrate emerging technologies that will provide lighter, safer, more survivable, and more cost-effective structures for rotorcraft in the 1990s and beyond. The emphasis of today's R&D is to contribute proven structures technology to the U. S. rotorcraft industry and Army aviation that directly impacts tomorrow's fleet readiness and mission capabilities. The primary contributor toward meeting these challenges is the development of high-strength and durable composites to minimize structural weight while maximizing cost effectiveness. Special aviation issues such as delamination of dynamic components, impact damage to thin skins, crashworthiness, and affordable manufacturing need to be resolved before the full potential of composites technology can be realized. To that end, this paper highlights research into composites structural integrity, crashworthiness, and materials applications which addresses these issues.

  12. Developing next-generation telehealth tools and technologies: patients, systems, and data perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Michael J; Filart, Rosemarie; Burgess, Lawrence P; Lee, Insup; Poropatich, Ronald K

    2010-01-01

    The major goals of telemedicine today are to develop next-generation telehealth tools and technologies to enhance healthcare delivery to medically underserved populations using telecommunication technology, to increase access to medical specialty services while decreasing healthcare costs, and to provide training of healthcare providers, clinical trainees, and students in health-related fields. Key drivers for these tools and technologies are the need and interest to collaborate among telehealth stakeholders, including patients, patient communities, research funders, researchers, healthcare services providers, professional societies, industry, healthcare management/economists, and healthcare policy makers. In the development, marketing, adoption, and implementation of these tools and technologies, communication, training, cultural sensitivity, and end-user customization are critical pieces to the process. Next-generation tools and technologies are vehicles toward personalized medicine, extending the telemedicine model to include cell phones and Internet-based telecommunications tools for remote and home health management with video assessment, remote bedside monitoring, and patient-specific care tools with event logs, patient electronic profile, and physician note-writing capability. Telehealth is ultimately a system of systems in scale and complexity. To cover the full spectrum of dynamic and evolving needs of end-users, we must appreciate system complexity as telehealth moves toward increasing functionality, integration, interoperability, outreach, and quality of service. Toward that end, our group addressed three overarching questions: (1) What are the high-impact topics? (2) What are the barriers to progress? and (3) What roles can the National Institutes of Health and its various institutes and centers play in fostering the future development of telehealth? PMID:20043711

  13. Developing Next-Generation Telehealth Tools and Technologies: Patients, Systems, and Data Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Filart, Rosemarie; Burgess, Lawrence P.; Lee, Insup; Poropatich, Ronald K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The major goals of telemedicine today are to develop next-generation telehealth tools and technologies to enhance healthcare delivery to medically underserved populations using telecommunication technology, to increase access to medical specialty services while decreasing healthcare costs, and to provide training of healthcare providers, clinical trainees, and students in health-related fields. Key drivers for these tools and technologies are the need and interest to collaborate among telehealth stakeholders, including patients, patient communities, research funders, researchers, healthcare services providers, professional societies, industry, healthcare management/economists, and healthcare policy makers. In the development, marketing, adoption, and implementation of these tools and technologies, communication, training, cultural sensitivity, and end-user customization are critical pieces to the process. Next-generation tools and technologies are vehicles toward personalized medicine, extending the telemedicine model to include cell phones and Internet-based telecommunications tools for remote and home health management with video assessment, remote bedside monitoring, and patient-specific care tools with event logs, patient electronic profile, and physician note-writing capability. Telehealth is ultimately a system of systems in scale and complexity. To cover the full spectrum of dynamic and evolving needs of end-users, we must appreciate system complexity as telehealth moves toward increasing functionality, integration, interoperability, outreach, and quality of service. Toward that end, our group addressed three overarching questions: (1) What are the high-impact topics? (2) What are the barriers to progress? and (3) What roles can the National Institutes of Health and its various institutes and centers play in fostering the future development of telehealth? PMID:20043711

  14. Development of ITM oxygen technology for integration in IGCC and other advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Phillip A.

    2015-03-31

    Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology is based on the oxygen-ion-conducting properties of certain mixed-metal oxide ceramic materials that can separate oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas, such as air, under a suitable driving force. The “ITM Oxygen” air separation system that results from the use of such ceramic membranes produces a hot, pure oxygen stream and a hot, pressurized, oxygen-depleted stream from which significant amounts of energy can be extracted. Accordingly, the technology integrates well with other high-temperature processes, including power generation. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., the Recipient, in conjunction with a dozen subcontractors, developed ITM Oxygen technology under this five-phase Cooperative Agreement from the laboratory bench scale to implementation in a pilot plant capable of producing power and 100 tons per day (TPD) of purified oxygen. A commercial-scale membrane module manufacturing facility (the “CerFab”), sized to support a conceptual 2000 TPD ITM Oxygen Development Facility (ODF), was also established and operated under this Agreement. In the course of this work, the team developed prototype ceramic production processes and a robust planar ceramic membrane architecture based on a novel ceramic compound capable of high oxygen fluxes. The concept and feasibility of the technology was thoroughly established through laboratory pilot-scale operations testing commercial-scale membrane modules run under industrial operating conditions with compelling lifetime and reliability performance that supported further scale-up. Auxiliary systems, including contaminant mitigation, process controls, heat exchange, turbo-machinery, combustion, and membrane pressure vessels were extensively investigated and developed. The Recipient and subcontractors developed efficient process cycles that co-produce oxygen and power based on compact, low-cost ITMs. Process economics assessments show significant benefits relative to state

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing: A Review of Technologies and Tools for Wound Microbiome Research

    PubMed Central

    Hodkinson, Brendan P.; Grice, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The colonization of wounds by specific microbes or communities of microbes may delay healing and/or lead to infection-related complication. Studies of wound-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) to date have primarily relied upon culture-based methods, which are known to have extreme biases and are not reliable for the characterization of microbiomes. Biofilms are very resistant to culture and are therefore especially difficult to study with techniques that remain standard in clinical settings. Recent Advances: Culture-independent approaches employing next-generation DNA sequencing have provided researchers and clinicians a window into wound-associated microbiomes that could not be achieved before and has begun to transform our view of wound-associated biodiversity. Within the past decade, many platforms have arisen for performing this type of sequencing, with various types of applications for microbiome research being possible on each. Critical Issues: Wound care incorporating knowledge of microbiomes gained from next-generation sequencing could guide clinical management and treatments. The purpose of this review is to outline the current platforms, their applications, and the steps necessary to undertake microbiome studies using next-generation sequencing. Future Directions: As DNA sequencing technology progresses, platforms will continue to produce longer reads and more reads per run at lower costs. A major future challenge is to implement these technologies in clinical settings for more precise and rapid identification of wound bioburden. PMID:25566414

  16. Pipelining flat CORDIC-based trigonometric function generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanthan, Thambipillai; Gisuthan, Bimal

    2000-10-01

    The significant advances in VLSI technology provided the impetus for porting algorithms into architectures. The CORDIC algorithm reigned supreme in this regard due to its canny ability to decimate trigonometric and hyperbolic functions with simple shift and add operations. Despite further refinements of the algorithm with the introduction of redundant arithmetic and higher radix CORDIC techniques, in terms of circuit latency and performance, the iterative nature remains to be the major bottleneck for further optimization. Although several techniques have been prosed to minimize this drawback, a technique known as flat CORDIC aims to eliminate it completely. In flat CORDIC, the conventional X and Y recurrences are successively substituted to express the final vectors in terms of the initial paper, the techniques devised for the VLSI efficient implementation of a 16-bit flat CORDIC based sine-cosine generator are presented. Three schemes for pipelining the 16-bit flat CORDIC design for high throughput solutions have been discussed. The 16-bit architecture has been synthesized using 0.35(mu) CMOS process library. Finally, a detailed comparison with other major contributions show that the flat CORDIC based size-cosine generators are, on an average, 30 percent faster with a significant 30 percent saving in silicon area.

  17. A magnetoelectric composite based signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, Y. K.; Serov, V. N.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Makovkin, S. A.; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-05-01

    Self-oscillations in an active loop consisting of a wide-band amplifier and a magnetoelectric composite in the feedback circuit have been observed. The composite with a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate bimorph and ferromagnetic Metglas serves as a resonator that determines the frequency of oscillations and provides the feedback voltage. Under amplitude balance and phase matching conditions, the device generated signals at 2.3 kHz, at the bending resonance frequency of the composite. The oscillations were observed over a specific range of magnetic bias H. The shape of the signal generated is dependent on electrical circuit parameters and magnitude and orientation of H.

  18. IRON-PEROXYMONOSULFATE: A NOVEL SULFATE RADICAL BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the degradation of recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies. Sulfate radicals are generated through coupling of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) with iron (Fe(II), Fe(III)). Sulfate radicals have very ...

  19. Next Generation Lighting Technologies (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Siminovittch, Micheal

    2014-05-06

    For the past several years, Michael Siminovittch, a researcher in the Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has worked to package efficient lighting in an easy-to-use and good-looking lamp. His immensely popular "Berkeley Lamp" has redefined how America lights its offices.

  20. E-Learning: Ageing Workforce versus Technology-Savvy Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Karen; Fleming, Julie; Keijsers, Wilhelmina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide description and analysis of how a traditional industry is currently using e-learning, and to identify how the potential of e-learning can be realised whilst acknowledging the technological divide between younger and older workers. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory qualitative methodology…

  1. Generations of Research on New Technologies in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    This article traces some of the influential ideas and motivations that have shaped a large part of the research on the use of new technologies in mathematics education over the past 40 years. Particular attention is focused on Papert's legacy, Celia's Hoyles' transformation of it, and how both relate to the current research landscape that features…

  2. Intra-generational Redistribution under Public Pension Planning Based on Generation-based Funding Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banjo, Daisuke; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Murata, Tadahiko

    In this paper, we propose a method of determining the pension in the generation-based funding scheme. In this proposal, we include two types of pensions in the scheme. One is the payment-amount related pension and the other is the payment-frequency related pension. We set the ratio of the total amount of payment-amount related pension to the total amount of both pensions, and simulate income gaps and the relationship between contributions and benefits for each individual when the proposed method is applied.

  3. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  4. Modeling Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework, using a data-augmented Gibbs sampler. An obvious…

  5. Facilitating Student-Generated Content Using Web 2.0 Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunbae

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies have created a trend of user-generated content by supporting media production, collaboration, communication, and dissemination. User-generated content is translated into student-generated content (SGC) in education. SGC engages learners in an authentic project that fosters students' autonomy, creativity, and real-world…

  6. Development of a new non-aeration-based sewage treatment technology: Performance evaluation of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge reactor employing third-generation sponge carriers.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tsutomu; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Harada, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    A practical-scale down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor using third-generation (G3) sponge carriers was applied for treatment of the effluent from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating municipal sewage. The process performance of the DHS reactor filled with G3 sponge carriers (DHS-G3) was evaluated by conducting an on-site experiment in India over one year. The performance of the DHS-G3 for removal of organic matter and ammonium-nitrogen at a relatively short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of only 0.66 h satisfied the Indian effluent quality standards except for fecal coliform. The removal rate constants for total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and fecal coliform determined based on the water quality profiles along the DHS-G3 almost reached equilibrium approximately four months after the start of operation, i.e., 2.45 h(-1) for BOD and 2.30 h(-1) for fecal coliform, respectively. The oxygen utilization activity of retained sludge was determined to assess the distribution of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria along the DHS-G3. Nitrification was promoted in the lower portion of the DHS-G3 reactor in the duration with low organic load, while it decreased when the organic load was increased, probably due to proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:27340815

  7. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  8. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  9. Next generation sequencing (NGS)technologies and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2012-09-11

    NGS technology overview: (1) NGS library preparation - Nucleic acids extraction, Sample quality control, RNA conversion to cDNA, Addition of sequencing adapters, Quality control of library; (2) Sequencing - Clonal amplification of library fragments, (except PacBio), Sequencing by synthesis, Data output (reads and quality); and (3) Data analysis - Read mapping, Genome assembly, Gene expression, Operon structure, sRNA discovery, and Epigenetic analyses.

  10. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S

    2015-07-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade-Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5-8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. PMID:25818089

  11. On the study of microbial transcriptomes using second- and third-generation sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Chul

    2016-08-01

    Second-generation sequencing technologies transformed the study of microbial transcriptomes. They helped reveal the transcription start sites and antisense transcripts of microbial species, improving the microbial genome annotation. Quantification of genome-wide gene expression levels allowed for functional studies of microbial research. Ever-evolving sequencing technologies are reshaping approaches to studying microbial transcriptomes. Recently, Oxford Nanopore Technologies delivered a sequencing platform called MinION, a third-generation sequencing technology, to the research community. We expect it to be the next sequencing technology that enables breakthroughs in life science fields. The studies of microbial transcriptomes will be no exception. In this paper, we review microbial transcriptomics studies using second- generation sequencing technology. We also discuss the prospect of microbial transcriptomics studies with thirdgeneration sequencing. PMID:27480632

  12. Information-Technology Based Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, K. H.

    2001-04-01

    Developing countries emphasize expansion of the educated population but demand for quality improvement follows later. Current science education reform is driven in part by post cold war restructuring of the global economy and associated focus on the education of a more scientifically literate society, due to the industrial change from labor-intensive to high-technology type, and the societal change inherent in the present information era. Industry needs employees of broad and flexible background with inter disciplinary training, engineers with better physics training, and well trained physicists. Education researches have proved that active-learning based methods are superior to the traditional methods and the information technology (IT) has lot to offer in this. Use of IT for improving physics education is briefly discussed with prospects for collaboration in the Asia-Pacific region via Asian Physics Education Network (ASPEN), UNESCO University Foundation Course in Physics (UUFCP), etc.

  13. Air Quality Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies in the Power Generation and Transportation Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Kinnon, Michael

    Future efforts to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change will include transitions to alternative technologies and fuels targeting reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, economic sectors of greatest concern include transportation and power generation, which combined contribute over half of total U.S. GHG emissions. In addition to GHGs, displacement of conventional energy strategies will impact the emissions of various pollutant species with human health and environmental risks due to common generation processes and sources. In order to fully investigate the air quality (AQ) impacts of deploying various GHG mitigation technologies and fuels in coming decades, spatially and temporally resolved pollutant emissions fields are developed and utilized as input for simulations of atmospheric chemistry and transport via an advanced AQ model. Three areas of the U.S. are chosen for regional analyses in the year 2055. In order to characterize the evolution of regional energy sector emission drivers from current levels, a Base Case is developed that is representative of progression in the absence of aggressive GHG mitigation efforts. To facilitate comparison, alternative scenarios are developed to explore the effects of shifts in technologies, fuels, or behavior with the potential to mitigate GHG emissions. Scenarios are represented by generated spatially and temporally resolved emission fields and evaluated for impacts on primary and secondary air pollutant concentrations. Significant variation in energy profiles, demands, and constraints (e.g., regulatory statutes) between study domains yields significant differences in regional impacts. The magnitude of AQ improvements depends on baseline emission levels and spatial and temporal emission patterns. In addition, the current focus on reducing emissions from the targeted sectors increases the importance of emissions from other areas and sectors.

  14. Router Agent Technology for Policy-Based Network Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Sudhir, Gurusham; Chang, Hsin-Ping; James, Mark; Liu, Yih-Chiao J.; Chiang, Winston

    2011-01-01

    This innovation can be run as a standalone network application on any computer in a networked environment. This design can be configured to control one or more routers (one instance per router), and can also be configured to listen to a policy server over the network to receive new policies based on the policy- based network management technology. The Router Agent Technology transforms the received policies into suitable Access Control List syntax for the routers it is configured to control. It commits the newly generated access control lists to the routers and provides feedback regarding any errors that were faced. The innovation also automatically generates a time-stamped log file regarding all updates to the router it is configured to control. This technology, once installed on a local network computer and started, is autonomous because it has the capability to keep listening to new policies from the policy server, transforming those policies to router-compliant access lists, and committing those access lists to a specified interface on the specified router on the network with any error feedback regarding commitment process. The stand-alone application is named RouterAgent and is currently realized as a fully functional (version 1) implementation for the Windows operating system and for CISCO routers.

  15. The first FDA marketing authorizations of next-generation sequencing technology and tests: challenges, solutions and impact for future assays.

    PubMed

    Bijwaard, Karen; Dickey, Jennifer S; Kelm, Kellie; Težak, Živana

    2015-01-01

    The rapid emergence and clinical translation of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies created a need to clarify the regulatory pathway for the evaluation and authorization of these unique technologies. Recently, the US FDA authorized for marketing four next generation sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostic devices which consisted of two heritable disease-specific assays, library preparation reagents and a NGS platform that are intended for human germline targeted sequencing from whole blood. These first authorizations can serve as a case study in how different types of NGS-based technology are reviewed by the FDA. In this manuscript we describe challenges associated with the evaluation of these novel technologies and provide an overview of what was reviewed. Besides making validated NGS-based devices available for in vitro diagnostic use, these first authorizations create a regulatory path for similar future instruments and assays. PMID:25370936

  16. Next Generation Astronomical Data Processing using Big Data Technologies from the Apache Software Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, Chris

    2014-04-01

    In this era of exascale instruments for astronomy we must naturally develop next generation capabilities for the unprecedented data volume and velocity that will arrive due to the veracity of these ground-based sensor and observatories. Integrating scientific algorithms stewarded by scientific groups unobtrusively and rapidly; intelligently selecting data movement technologies; making use of cloud computing for storage and processing; and automatically extracting text and metadata and science from any type of file are all needed capabilities in this exciting time. Our group at NASA JPL has promoted the use of open source data management technologies available from the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) in pursuit of constructing next generation data management and processing systems for astronomical instruments including the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) in Socorro, NM and the Atacama Large Milimetre/Sub Milimetre Array (ALMA); as well as for the KAT-7 project led by SKA South Africa as a precursor to the full MeerKAT telescope. In addition we are funded currently by the National Science Foundation in the US to work with MIT Haystack Observatory and the University of Cambridge in the UK to construct a Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Devices (RAPID) that will undoubtedly draw from the rich technology advances underway. NASA JPL is investing in a strategic initiative for Big Data that is pulling in these capabilities and technologies for astronomical instruments and also for Earth science remote sensing. In this talk I will describe the above collaborative efforts underway and point to solutions in open source from the Apache Software Foundation that can be deployed and used today and that are already bringing our teams and projects benefits. I will describe how others can take advantage of our experience and point towards future application and contribution of these tools.

  17. Novel Thermal Storage Technologies for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Neti, Sudhakar; Oztekin, Alparslan; Chen, John; Tuzla, Kemal; Misiolek, Wojciech

    2013-06-20

    The technologies that are to be developed in this work will enable storage of thermal energy in 100 MWe solar energy plants for 6-24 hours at temperatures around 300oC and 850oC using encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM). Several encapsulated phase change materials have been identified, fabricated and proven with calorimetry. Two of these materials have been tested in an airflow experiment. A cost analysis for these thermal energy storage systems has also been conducted that met the targets established at the initiation of the project.

  18. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  19. Advanced Sensor Technologies for Next-Generation Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S H; Chien, H T; Gopalsami, N; Jendrzejczyk, A; Raptis, A C

    2002-01-30

    This report summarizes the development of automobile emissions sensors at Argonne National Laboratory. Three types of sensor technologies, i.e., ultrasound, microwave, and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS), were evaluated for engine-out emissions monitoring. Two acoustic sensor technologies, i.e., surface acoustic wave and flexural plate wave, were evaluated for detection of hydrocarbons. The microwave technique involves a cavity design and measures the shifts in resonance frequency that are a result of the presence of trace organic compounds. The IMS technique was chosen for further development into a practical emissions sensor. An IMS sensor with a radioactive {sup 63}Ni ion source was initially developed and applied to measurement of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} emissions. For practical applications, corona and spark discharge ion sources were later developed and applied to NO{sub x} emission measurement. The concentrations of NO{sub 2} in dry nitrogen and in a typical exhaust gas mixture are presented. The sensor response to moisture was evaluated, and a cooling method to control the moisture content in the gas stream was examined. Results show that the moisture effect can be reduced by using a thermoelectric cold plate. The design and performance of a laboratory prototype sensor are described.

  20. Oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of hesperetin nanocrystals generated using a novel bottom-up technology.

    PubMed

    Shete, Ganesh; Pawar, Yogesh B; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline solid dispersion (NSD) was developed to enhance the release rate and oral bioavailability of hesperetin (HRN). NSD of HRN was prepared using a novel bottom-up technology platform. It is a spray drying based technology to generate solid particles, containing drug nanocrystals dispersed in small molecule excipients. HRN and mannitol were used in a 5:5 ratio, and an average crystallite size of HRN in NSD with mannitol was found to be 137.3 ± 90.0 nm. An in vitro release study revealed a statistically significant release rate enhancement for HRN nanocrystals (46.3 μg/mL/min) as compared to that of the control (29.5 μg/mL/min). Further, a comparative oral bioavailability study of NSD and control in Sprague-Dawley rats established significant improvement in Cmax and oral bioavailability (AUC0-∞) by 1.79- and 2.25-fold, respectively, for HRN nanocrystals. The findings of oral bioavailability were corroborated by intestinal uptake and Caco-2 cell uptake studies, wherein HRN, when administered in nanocrystalline form, showed higher penetration in intestinal mucosa and higher uptake in Caco-2 cells. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of HRN nanocrystals was tested by a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay and carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory model. HRN nanocrystals markedly inhibited ROS generation in MCF-7 cells, and carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. The process of NSD formation was found to be based on classical nucleation theory wherein mannitol contributed to NSD formation by acting as a plasticizer and crystallization inducer, and by providing sites for heterogeneous nucleation/crystallization. PMID:25785392

  1. A Novel Electric Thruster Based on IEC Plasma Jet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, George H.; Momota, H.; Stubbers, R.

    2004-07-01

    A novel plasma jet thruster, based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) technology, is described for orbit transfer operations. While electronically driven, it represents a fore summer of a future fusion powered unit. The IEC thruster employs a spherical configuration, wherein ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of a spherical vacuum chamber where a high-density central core region accelerated ions into an intense quasi-neutral ion jet. Compared to other high-power plasma thrusters, the IEC offers advantages in design simplicity and minimum propellant leakage, plus a high power-to-weight ratio. (authors)

  2. Meta-data based mediator generation

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlaw, T

    1998-06-28

    Mediators are a critical component of any data warehouse; they transform data from source formats to the warehouse representation while resolving semantic and syntactic conflicts. The close relationship between mediators and databases requires a mediator to be updated whenever an associated schema is modified. Failure to quickly perform these updates significantly reduces the reliability of the warehouse because queries do not have access to the most current data. This may result in incorrect or misleading responses, and reduce user confidence in the warehouse. Unfortunately, this maintenance may be a significant undertaking if a warehouse integrates several dynamic data sources. This paper describes a meta-data framework, and associated software, designed to automate a significant portion of the mediator generation task and thereby reduce the effort involved in adapting to schema changes. By allowing the DBA to concentrate on identifying the modifications at a high level, instead of reprogramming the mediator, turnaround time is reduced and warehouse reliability is improved.

  3. Realistic terrain visualization based on 3D virtual world technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fengru; Lin, Hui; Chen, Bin; Xiao, Cai

    2010-11-01

    The rapid advances in information technologies, e.g., network, graphics processing, and virtual world, have provided challenges and opportunities for new capabilities in information systems, Internet applications, and virtual geographic environments, especially geographic visualization and collaboration. In order to achieve meaningful geographic capabilities, we need to explore and understand how these technologies can be used to construct virtual geographic environments to help to engage geographic research. The generation of three-dimensional (3D) terrain plays an important part in geographical visualization, computer simulation, and virtual geographic environment applications. The paper introduces concepts and technologies of virtual worlds and virtual geographic environments, explores integration of realistic terrain and other geographic objects and phenomena of natural geographic environment based on SL/OpenSim virtual world technologies. Realistic 3D terrain visualization is a foundation of construction of a mirror world or a sand box model of the earth landscape and geographic environment. The capabilities of interaction and collaboration on geographic information are discussed as well. Further virtual geographic applications can be developed based on the foundation work of realistic terrain visualization in virtual environments.

  4. Realistic terrain visualization based on 3D virtual world technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fengru; Lin, Hui; Chen, Bin; Xiao, Cai

    2009-09-01

    The rapid advances in information technologies, e.g., network, graphics processing, and virtual world, have provided challenges and opportunities for new capabilities in information systems, Internet applications, and virtual geographic environments, especially geographic visualization and collaboration. In order to achieve meaningful geographic capabilities, we need to explore and understand how these technologies can be used to construct virtual geographic environments to help to engage geographic research. The generation of three-dimensional (3D) terrain plays an important part in geographical visualization, computer simulation, and virtual geographic environment applications. The paper introduces concepts and technologies of virtual worlds and virtual geographic environments, explores integration of realistic terrain and other geographic objects and phenomena of natural geographic environment based on SL/OpenSim virtual world technologies. Realistic 3D terrain visualization is a foundation of construction of a mirror world or a sand box model of the earth landscape and geographic environment. The capabilities of interaction and collaboration on geographic information are discussed as well. Further virtual geographic applications can be developed based on the foundation work of realistic terrain visualization in virtual environments.

  5. Next-generation biofuels: Survey of emerging technologies and sustainability issues.

    PubMed

    Zinoviev, Sergey; Müller-Langer, Franziska; Das, Piyali; Bertero, Nicolás; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Centi, Gabriele; Miertus, Stanislav

    2010-10-25

    Next-generation biofuels, such as cellulosic bioethanol, biomethane from waste, synthetic biofuels obtained via gasification of biomass, biohydrogen, and others, are currently at the center of the attention of technologists and policy makers in search of the more sustainable biofuel of tomorrow. To set realistic targets for future biofuel options, it is important to assess their sustainability according to technical, economical, and environmental measures. With this aim, the review presents a comprehensive overview of the chemistry basis and of the technology related aspects of next generation biofuel production, as well as it addresses related economic issues and environmental implications. Opportunities and limits are discussed in terms of technical applicability of existing and emerging technology options to bio-waste feedstock, and further development forecasts are made based on the existing social-economic and market situation, feedstock potentials, and other global aspects. As the latter ones are concerned, the emphasis is placed on the opportunities and challenges of developing countries in adoption of this new industry. PMID:20922754

  6. Ontodog: a web-based ontology community view generation tool.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Stoeckert, Christian J; He, Yongqun

    2014-05-01

    Biomedical ontologies are often very large and complex. Only a subset of the ontology may be needed for a specified application or community. For ontology end users, it is desirable to have community-based labels rather than the labels generated by ontology developers. Ontodog is a web-based system that can generate an ontology subset based on Excel input, and support generation of an ontology community view, which is defined as the whole or a subset of the source ontology with user-specified annotations including user-preferred labels. Ontodog allows users to easily generate community views with minimal ontology knowledge and no programming skills or installation required. Currently >100 ontologies including all OBO Foundry ontologies are available to generate the views based on user needs. We demonstrate the application of Ontodog for the generation of community views using the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations as the source ontology. PMID:24413522

  7. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  8. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  9. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China. PMID:25903190

  10. Application of next generation sequencing technology in Mendelian movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumin; Pan, Xuya; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zheng, Jiabo; Deng, Hao; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has developed very rapidly in the last decade. Compared with Sanger sequencing, NGS has the advantages of high sensitivity and high throughput. Movement disorders are a common type of neurological disease. Although traditional linkage analysis has become a standard method to identify the pathogenic genes in diseases, it is getting difficult to find new pathogenic genes in rare Mendelian disorders, such as movement disorders, due to a lack of appropriate families with high penetrance or enough affected individuals. Thus, NGS is an ideal approach to identify the causal alleles for inherited disorders. NGS is used to identify genes in several diseases and new mutant sites in Mendelian movement disorders. This article reviewed the recent progress in NGS and the use of NGS in Mendelian movement disorders from genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. A perspective on how NGS could be employed in rare Mendelian disorders is also provided. PMID:26932219