Science.gov

Sample records for generic membership function

  1. Combining belief functions and fuzzy membership functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, Mihai C.; Jousselme, Anne-Laure; Grenier, Dominic; Bosse, Eloi

    2003-04-01

    In several practical applications of data fusion and more precisely in object identification problems, we need to combine imperfect information coming from different sources (sensors, humans, etc.), the resulting uncertainty being naturally of different kinds. In particular, one information could naturally been expressed by a membership function while the other could best be represented by a belief function. Usually, information modeled in the fuzzy sets formalism (by a membership function) concerns attributes like speed, length, or Radar Cross Section whose domains of definition are continuous. However, the object identification problem refers to a discrete and finite framework (the number of objects in the data base is finite and known). This implies thus a natural but unavoidable change of domain. To be able to respect the intrinsic characteristic of uncertainty arising from the different sources and fuse it in order to identify an object among a list of possible ones in the data base, we need (1) to use a unified framework where both fuzzy sets and belief functions can be expressed, (2) to respect the natural discretization of the membership function through the change of domain (from attribute domain to frame of discernment). In this paper, we propose to represent both fuzzy sets and belief function by random sets. While the link between belief functions and random sets is direct, transforming fuzzy sets into random sets involves the use of α-cuts for the construction of the focal elements. This transformation usually generates a large number of focal elements often unmanageable in a fusion process. We propose a way to reduce the number of focal elements based on some parameters like the desired number of focal elements, the acceptable distance from the approximated random set to the original discrete one, or the acceptable loss of information.

  2. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish between generic and…

  3. Piecewise Linear Membership Function Generator-Divider Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Ron; Martinez, Gene; Yuan, Bo; Zrilic, Djuro; Ramirez, Jaime

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a simple, inexpensive, membership function circuit for fuzzy controllers is presented. The proposed circuit may be used to generate a general trapezoidal membership function. The slope and horizontal shift are fully programmable parameters.

  4. Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for A Robot Grasping System with Different Membership Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hamzah; Razali, Saifudin; Rusllim Mohamed, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the membership function to the object grasping for a three fingered gripper system. The performance of three famously used membership functions is compared to identify their behavior in lifting a defined object shape. MATLAB Simulink and SimMechanics toolboxes are used to examine the performance. Our preliminary results proposed that the Gaussian membership function surpassed the two other membership functions; triangular and trapezoid memberships especially in the context of firmer grasping and less time consumption during operations. Therefore, Gaussian membership function could be the best solution when time consumption and firmer grasp are considered.

  5. Fuzzy Number Addition with the Application of Horizontal Membership Functions.

    PubMed

    Piegat, Andrzej; Pluciński, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents addition of fuzzy numbers realised with the application of the multidimensional RDM arithmetic and horizontal membership functions (MFs). Fuzzy arithmetic (FA) is a very difficult task because operations should be performed here on multidimensional information granules. Instead, a lot of FA methods use α-cuts in connection with 1-dimensional classical interval arithmetic that operates not on multidimensional granules but on 1-dimensional intervals. Such approach causes difficulties in calculations and is a reason for arithmetical paradoxes. The multidimensional approach allows for removing drawbacks and weaknesses of FA. It is possible thanks to the application of horizontal membership functions which considerably facilitate calculations because now uncertain values can be inserted directly into equations without using the extension principle. The paper shows how the addition operation can be realised on independent fuzzy numbers and on partly or fully dependent fuzzy numbers with taking into account the order relation and how to solve equations, which can be a difficult task for 1-dimensional FAs. PMID:26199953

  6. Fuzzy Multi-Objective Transportation Planning with Modified S-Curve Membership Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peidro, D.; Vasant, P.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the S-Curve membership function methodology is used in a transportation planning decision (TPD) problem. An interactive method for solving multi-objective TPD problems with fuzzy goals, available supply and forecast demand is developed. The proposed method attempts simultaneously to minimize the total production and transportation costs and the total delivery time with reference to budget constraints and available supply, machine capacities at each source, as well as forecast demand and warehouse space constraints at each destination. We compare in an industrial case the performance of S-curve membership functions, representing uncertainty goals and constraints in TPD problems, with linear membership functions.

  7. A genetic algorithms approach for altering the membership functions in fuzzy logic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shehadeh, Hana; Lea, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Through previous work, a fuzzy control system was developed to perform translational and rotational control of a space vehicle. This problem was then re-examined to determine the effectiveness of genetic algorithms on fine tuning the controller. This paper explains the problems associated with the design of this fuzzy controller and offers a technique for tuning fuzzy logic controllers. A fuzzy logic controller is a rule-based system that uses fuzzy linguistic variables to model human rule-of-thumb approaches to control actions within a given system. This 'fuzzy expert system' features rules that direct the decision process and membership functions that convert the linguistic variables into the precise numeric values used for system control. Defining the fuzzy membership functions is the most time consuming aspect of the controller design. One single change in the membership functions could significantly alter the performance of the controller. This membership function definition can be accomplished by using a trial and error technique to alter the membership functions creating a highly tuned controller. This approach can be time consuming and requires a great deal of knowledge from human experts. In order to shorten development time, an iterative procedure for altering the membership functions to create a tuned set that used a minimal amount of fuel for velocity vector approach and station-keep maneuvers was developed. Genetic algorithms, search techniques used for optimization, were utilized to solve this problem.

  8. 43 CFR 1784.6 - Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups. 1784.6 Section 1784.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT...

  9. 43 CFR 1784.6 - Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups. 1784.6 Section 1784.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees...

  10. Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Gang Membership for Adult Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Methods. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. Results. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. Conclusions. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs. PMID:24625155

  11. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  12. Automatic redefinition of the fuzzy membership function to deal with high fluctuating phenomena in neural nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basti, Gianfranco; Castiglione, Patrizia; Casolino, Marco; Perrone, Antonio L.; Picozza, Piergiorgio

    1993-08-01

    Usually, to discriminate among particle tracks in high energy physics a set of discriminating parameters is used. To cope with the different particle behaviors these parameters are connected by the human observer with boolean operators. We tested successfully an automatic method for particle recognition using a stochastic method to pre-process the input to a back propagation algorithm. The test was made using raw experimental data of electrons and negative pions taken at CERN laboratories (Geneva). From the theoretical standpoint, the stochastic pre-processing of a back propagation algorithm can be interpreted as finding the optimal fuzzy membership function notwithstanding high fluctuating (noisy) input data.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10663 - Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Functionalized multi-walled carbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10663 Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a... generically as functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-12-44) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10663 - Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Functionalized multi-walled carbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10663 Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic). (a... generically as functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PMN P-12-44) is subject to reporting under...

  15. Construction of fuzzy membership functions using interactive self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandidge, Thomas E., Jr.; Dagli, Cihan H.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a Kohonen-like mapping that eliminates or reduces four limitations of the Kohonen maps. The described network is invariant to scale, very resistant to 'automatic selection of feature dimensions,' results in strictly ordered clusters of ascending/descending magnitude, and may allow a greater amount of information to be gleaned from high dimensional data sets. The network treats each input component separately but each map is influenced via inter-map connections. Unfortunately, processing time increases combinatorially as the number of input components and number of neurons per component increases. As a demonstration, membership functions are constructed for a four variable data set with minimal parameter setting, the most crucial being the number of classes per input component.

  16. Fuzzy modeling with multivariate membership functions: gray-box identification and control design.

    PubMed

    Abonyi, J; Babuska, R; Szeifert, F

    2001-01-01

    A novel framework for fuzzy modeling and model-based control design is described. The fuzzy model is of the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) type with constant consequents. It uses multivariate antecedent membership functions obtained by Delaunay triangulation of their characteristic points. The number and position of these points are determined by an iterative insertion algorithm. Constrained optimization is used to estimate the consequent parameters, where the constraints are based on control-relevant a priori knowledge about the modeled process. Finally, methods for control design through linearization and inversion of this model are developed. The proposed techniques are demonstrated by means of two benchmark examples: identification of the well-known Box-Jenkins gas furnace and inverse model-based control of a pH process. The obtained results are compared with results from the literature. PMID:18244840

  17. The Gaia-ESO Survey: membership and initial mass function of the γ Velorum cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisinzano, L.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonito, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Caramazza, M.; Vallenari, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Understanding the properties of young open clusters, such as the initial mass function (IMF), star formation history, and dynamic evolution, is crucial for obtaining reliable theoretical predictions of the mechanisms involved in the star formation process. Aims: We want to obtain a list that is as complete as possible of confirmed members of the young open cluster γ Velorum, with the aim of deriving general cluster properties such as the IMF. Methods: We used all available spectroscopic membership indicators within the Gaia-ESO public archive, together with literature photometry and X-ray data, and for each method, we derived the most complete list of candidate cluster members. Then, we considered photometry, gravity, and radial velocities as necessary conditions for selecting a subsample of candidates whose membership was confirmed by using the lithium and Hα lines and X-rays as youth indicators. Results: We found 242 confirmed and 4 possible cluster members for which we derived masses using very recent stellar evolutionary models. The cluster IMF in the mass range investigated in this study shows a slope of α = 2.6 ± 0.5 for 0.5

  18. Generic relation between the electron work function and Young's modulus of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Guomin; Li Dongyang

    2011-07-25

    In this study, efforts were made to establish a generic relation between the Young's modulus and the electron work function of polycrystalline metals, in which Young's Modulus was defined as the second order derivative of interaction potential with respect to the equilibrium distance. The obtained Young's modulus shows a sextic relation with the work function. Data of Young's modulus and work function of polycrystalline metals, including Alkali earth metals, transition metals, and rare earth metals, can be fitted reasonably well by this derived generic relationship.

  19. Application of the fractal method to determine the membership function parameter for geoelectrical data (case study: Hamyj copper deposit, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi Ferdows, Mohammad; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2015-12-01

    The selection of a suitable membership function and its parameters plays a critical role in the integration of layer information by the fuzzy method. In this paper, parameters of membership function for induced polarization (IP) and resistivity (RS) data (in the Hamyj copper deposit) have been determined by the threshold parameter of IP and resistivity data, already determined by expert opinion or drilling data. The Hamyj deposit is located about 80 km west of Birjand city, South Khorasan province, Iran. In this area, resistivity and induced polarization data have been surveyed by dipole-dipole array. In this paper, outlier-induced polarization data have been corrected by the Doerffel method and then IP and resistivity data have been inversed by the Newton and Gauss-Newton methods. The threshold of the IP data is recognized by statistical (gap statistic) and fractal (concentration-area) methods. The determined threshold by the fractal method is higher than the gap statistic. These two thresholds have been used to determine the S-shape function for the IP data. The thresholds of the RS data are recognized by the fractal method. These two thresholds have been used to determine the Z-shape function for the RS data. The integration of geoelectrical layer information has been carried out by the Gama method. Finally, the best drilling points were proposed based on fuzzy modelling for the area. The results show that the optimum exploration borehole is located at a depth of 25 m.

  20. Social categorization of social robots: anthropomorphism as a function of robot group membership.

    PubMed

    Eyssel, Friederike; Kuchenbrandt, Dieta

    2012-12-01

    Previous work on social categorization has shown that people often use cues such as a person's gender, age, or ethnicity to categorize and form impressions of others. The present research investigated effects of social category membership on the evaluation of humanoid robots. More specifically, participants rated a humanoid robot that either belonged to their in-group or to a national out-group with regard to anthropomorphism (e.g., mind attribution, warmth), psychological closeness, contact intentions, and design. We predicted that participants would show an in-group bias towards the robot that ostensibly belonged to their in-group--as indicated by its name and location of production. In line with our hypotheses, participants not only rated the in-group robot more favourably--importantly, they also anthropomorphized it more strongly than the out-group robot. Our findings thus document that people even apply social categorization processes and subsequent differential social evaluations to robots. PMID:22103234

  1. Towards a minimal generic set of domains of functioning and health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has argued that functioning, and, more concretely, functioning domains constitute the operationalization that best captures our intuitive notion of health. Functioning is, therefore, a major public-health goal. A great deal of data about functioning is already available. Nonetheless, it is not possible to compare and optimally utilize this information. One potential approach to address this challenge is to propose a generic and minimal set of functioning domains that captures the experience of individuals and populations with respect to functioning and health. The objective of this investigation was to identify a minimal generic set of ICF domains suitable for describing functioning in adults at both the individual and population levels. Methods We performed a psychometric study using data from: 1) the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, 2) the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007/2008, and 3) the ICF Core Set studies. Random Forests and Group Lasso regression were applied using one self-reported general-health question as a dependent variable. The domains selected were compared to those of the World Health Survey (WHS) developed by the WHO. Results Seven domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) are proposed as a minimal generic set of functioning and health: energy and drive functions, emotional functions, sensation of pain, carrying out daily routine, walking, moving around, and remunerative employment. The WHS domains of self-care, cognition, interpersonal activities, and vision were not included in our selection. Conclusions The minimal generic set proposed in this study is the starting point to address one of the most important challenges in health measurement – the comparability of data across studies and countries. It also represents the first step in developing a common metric of health to link information

  2. Pressure is not a state function for generic active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, A. P.; Fily, Y.; Baskaran, A.; Cates, M. E.; Kafri, Y.; Kardar, M.; Tailleur, J.

    2015-08-01

    Pressure is the mechanical force per unit area that a confined system exerts on its container. In thermal equilibrium, it depends only on bulk properties--such as density and temperature--through an equation of state. Here we show that in a wide class of active systems the pressure depends on the precise interactions between the active particles and the confining walls. In general, therefore, active fluids have no equation of state. Their mechanical pressure exhibits anomalous properties that defy the familiar thermodynamic reasoning that holds in equilibrium. The pressure remains a function of state, however, in some specific and well-studied active models that tacitly restrict the character of the particle-wall and/or particle-particle interactions.

  3. Council Membership Directory 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Organizations Serving the Deaf, Washington, DC.

    Information is provided on the purposes, goals, functions, membership, board of directors, calendar of events, publications, and names and addresses of the officers or executive committees of 19 national organizations serving the deaf. Organizations included are the Council of Organizations Serving the Deaf, Alexander Graham Bell Association for…

  4. Characterizing the avian gut microbiota: membership, driving influences, and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill important roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Although many studies have investigated the role of particular microbes in the guts of avian species, there has been no attempt to unify the results of previous, sequence-based studies to examine the factors that shape the avian gut microbiota as a whole. In this study, we present the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available clone-library and amplicon pyrosequencing data. We investigate community membership and structure, as well as probe the roles of some of the key biological factors that influence the gut microbiota of other vertebrates, such as host phylogeny, location within the gut, diet, and association with humans. Our results indicate that, across avian studies, the microbiota demonstrates a similar phylum-level composition to that of mammals. Host bird species is the most important factor in determining community composition, although sampling site, diet, and captivity status also contribute. These analyses provide a first integrated look at the composition of the avian microbiota, and serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:24904538

  5. Comparison of K-Means Clustering with Linear Probability Model, Linear Discriminant Function, and Logistic Regression for Predicting Two-Group Membership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Tak-Shing Harry; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    This study compared the accuracy of predicting two-group membership obtained from K-means clustering with those derived from linear probability modeling, linear discriminant function, and logistic regression under various data properties. Multivariate normally distributed populations were simulated based on combinations of population proportions,…

  6. Accuracy enhancement in a fuzzy expert decision making system through appropriate determination of membership functions and its application in a medical diagnostic decision making system.

    PubMed

    Das, Suddhasattwa; Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay

    2012-06-01

    The paper attempts to improve the accuracy of a fuzzy expert decision making system by tuning the parameters of type-2 sigmoid membership functions of fuzzy input variables and hence determining the most appropriate type-1 membership function. The current work mathematically models the variability of human decision making process using type-2 fuzzy sets. Moreover, an index of accuracy of a fuzzy expert system has been proposed and determined analytically. It has also been ascertained that there exists only one rule in the rule base whose associated mapping for the ith linguistic variable maps to the same value as the maximum value of the membership function for the ith linguistic variable. The improvement in decision making accuracy was successfully verified in a medical diagnostic decision making system for renal diagnostic applications. Based on the accuracy estimations applied over a set of pathophysiological parameters, viz. body mass index, glucose, urea, creatinine, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, appropriate type-1 fuzzy sets of these parameters have been determined assuming normal distribution of type-1 membership function values in type-2 fuzzy sets. The type-1 fuzzy sets so determined have been used to develop an FPGA based smart processor. Using the processor, renal diagnosis of patients has been performed with an accuracy of 98.75%. PMID:21107889

  7. The Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant as a functional of generic form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolksdorf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The geometrical underpinnings of a specific class of Dirac operators are discussed. It is demonstrated how this class of Dirac operators allows to relate various geometrical functionals like the Yang-Mills action and the functional of non-linear σ - models (i.e., of (Dirac) harmonic maps). These functionals are shown to be similar to the Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant (EHC). The EHC may thus be regarded as a "generic functional." As a byproduct, the geometrical setup presented also allows to avoid the issue of "fermion doubling" as usually encountered, for instance, in the geometrical discussion of the Standard Model in terms of Dirac operators. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the geometrical setup presented allows to derive the cosmological constant term of the EHC from the Einstein-Hilbert functional and the action of a purely gauge coupling Higgs field.

  8. A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2011-08-01

    The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

  9. A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young

    2011-01-01

    The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

  10. Gut Microbial Membership Modulates CD4 T Cell Reconstitution and Function after Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Babcock, Jeffrey C; Dileepan, Thamotharampillai; Murphy, Katherine A; Kucaba, Tamara A; Badovinac, Vladimir P; Griffith, Thomas S

    2016-09-01

    Transient lymphopenia is one hallmark of sepsis, and emergent data indicate the CD4 T cell compartment in sepsis survivors is numerically and functionally altered (when examined at the Ag-specific level) compared with nonseptic control subjects. Previous data from our laboratory demonstrated Ag-independent, lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation to be a contributing mechanism by which CD4 T cells numerically recover in sepsis survivors. However, we reasoned it is also formally possible that some CD4 T cells respond directly to Ag expressed by gut-resident microbes released during polymicrobial sepsis. The effect of gut microbiome leakage on CD4 T cells is currently unknown. In this study, we explored the number and function of endogenous CD4 T cells specific for segmented filamentous bacterium (SFB) after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis using mice that either contained or lacked SFB as a normal gut-resident microbe. Interestingly, SFB-specific CD4 T cells underwent Ag-driven proliferation in CLP-treated SFB(+), but not in SFB(-), mice. Moreover, CLP-treated SFB(+) mice showed resistance to secondary lethal infection with recombinant SFB Ag-expressing virulent Listeria (but not wild-type virulent Listeria), suggesting the CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis primed for a protective response by the SFB-specific CD4 T cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that the numerical recovery and functional responsiveness of Ag-specific CD4 T cells in sepsis survivors is, in part, modulated by the intestinal barrier's health discreetly defined by individual bacterial populations of the host's microbiome. PMID:27448587

  11. Big Bang Bifurcation Analysis and Allee Effect in Generic Growth Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonel Rocha, J.; Taha, Abdel-Kaddous; Fournier-Prunaret, D.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the dynamics and bifurcation properties of generic growth functions, which are defined by the population size functions of the generic growth equation. This family of unimodal maps naturally incorporates a principal focus of ecological and biological research: the Allee effect. The analysis of this kind of extinction phenomenon allows to identify a class of Allee’s functions and characterize the corresponding Allee’s effect region and Allee’s bifurcation curve. The bifurcation analysis is founded on the performance of fold and flip bifurcations. The dynamical behavior is rich with abundant complex bifurcation structures, the big bang bifurcations of the so-called “box-within-a-box” fractal type being the most outstanding. Moreover, these bifurcation cascades converge to different big bang bifurcation curves with distinct kinds of boxes, where for the corresponding parameter values several attractors are associated. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent an original contribution to clarify the big bang bifurcation analysis of continuous 1D maps.

  12. Systematic design of membership functions for fuzzy-logic control: A case study on one-stage partial nitritation/anammox treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist V; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-10-01

    A methodology is developed to systematically design the membership functions of fuzzy-logic controllers for multivariable systems. The methodology consists of a systematic derivation of the critical points of the membership functions as a function of predefined control objectives. Several constrained optimization problems corresponding to different qualitative operation states of the system are defined and solved to identify, in a consistent manner, the critical points of the membership functions for the input variables. The consistently identified critical points, together with the linguistic rules, determine the long term reachability of the control objectives by the fuzzy logic controller. The methodology is highlighted using a single-stage side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox reactor as a case study. As a result, a new fuzzy-logic controller for high and stable total nitrogen removal efficiency is designed. Rigorous simulations are carried out to evaluate and benchmark the performance of the controller. The results demonstrate that the novel control strategy is capable of rejecting the long-term influent disturbances, and can achieve a stable and high TN removal efficiency. Additionally, the controller was tested, and showed robustness, against measurement noise levels typical for wastewater sensors. A feedforward-feedback configuration using the present controller would give even better performance. In comparison, a previously developed fuzzy-logic controller using merely expert and intuitive knowledge performed worse. This proved the importance of using a systematic methodology for the derivation of the membership functions for multivariable systems. These results are promising for future applications of the controller in real full-scale plants. Furthermore, the methodology can be used as a tool to help systematically design fuzzy logic control applications for other biological processes. PMID:27390035

  13. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests. PMID:27140657

  14. Generic trend of work functions in transition-metal carbides and nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitake, Michiko

    2014-11-15

    Transition-metal carbides and nitrides (TMCs and TMNs) are promising electrode materials for various electronic devices such as metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and metal-insulator-metal capacitors. In this paper, the work functions of TMCs and TMNs are discussed systematically. Based upon the origin of the work function, the effect upon transition metal species by different periodic table groups is explained, carbides are compared with nitrides for the same transition metal, and the effect of carbon or nitrogen vacancies is discussed. In addition, a method to estimate the generic trend of the work function is proposed for TMC{sub x}, TMN{sub x}, TMC{sub 1−y}N{sub y} (transition metal carbonitrides), and TM{sub 1−z}TM′{sub z}C (alloy carbides)

  15. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  16. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area. PMID:26527325

  17. Generic functional requirements for a NASA general-purpose data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Generic functional requirements for a general-purpose, multi-mission data base management system (DBMS) for application to remotely sensed scientific data bases are detailed. The motivation for utilizing DBMS technology in this environment is explained. The major requirements include: (1) a DBMS for scientific observational data; (2) a multi-mission capability; (3) user-friendly; (4) extensive and integrated information about data; (5) robust languages for defining data structures and formats; (6) scientific data types and structures; (7) flexible physical access mechanisms; (8) ways of representing spatial relationships; (9) a high level nonprocedural interactive query and data manipulation language; (10) data base maintenance utilities; (11) high rate input/output and large data volume storage; and adaptability to a distributed data base and/or data base machine configuration. Detailed functions are specified in a top-down hierarchic fashion. Implementation, performance, and support requirements are also given.

  18. Membership generation using multilayer neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jaeseok

    1992-01-01

    There has been intensive research in neural network applications to pattern recognition problems. Particularly, the back-propagation network has attracted many researchers because of its outstanding performance in pattern recognition applications. In this section, we describe a new method to generate membership functions from training data using a multilayer neural network. The basic idea behind the approach is as follows. The output values of a sigmoid activation function of a neuron bear remarkable resemblance to membership values. Therefore, we can regard the sigmoid activation values as the membership values in fuzzy set theory. Thus, in order to generate class membership values, we first train a suitable multilayer network using a training algorithm such as the back-propagation algorithm. After the training procedure converges, the resulting network can be treated as a membership generation network, where the inputs are feature values and the outputs are membership values in the different classes. This method allows fairly complex membership functions to be generated because the network is highly nonlinear in general. Also, it is to be noted that the membership functions are generated from a classification point of view. For pattern recognition applications, this is highly desirable, although the membership values may not be indicative of the degree of typicality of a feature value in a particular class.

  19. Generic behavior of master-stability functions in coupled nonlinear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Qingfei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis M.

    2009-09-01

    Master-stability functions (MSFs) are fundamental to the study of synchronization in complex dynamical systems. For example, for a coupled oscillator network, a necessary condition for synchronization to occur is that the MSF at the corresponding normalized coupling parameters be negative. To understand the typical behaviors of the MSF for various chaotic oscillators is key to predicting the collective dynamics of a network of these oscillators. We address this issue by examining, systematically, MSFs for known chaotic oscillators. Our computations and analysis indicate that it is generic for MSFs being negative in a finite interval of a normalized coupling parameter. A general scheme is proposed to classify the typical behaviors of MSFs into four categories. These results are verified by direct simulations of synchronous dynamics on networks of actual coupled oscillators.

  20. Universal Wave-Function Overlap and Universal Topological Data from Generic Gapped Ground States.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Heidar; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-07-17

    We propose a way-universal wave-function overlap-to extract universal topological data from generic ground states of gapped systems in any dimensions. Those extracted topological data might fully characterize the topological orders with a gapped or gapless boundary. For nonchiral topological orders in (2+1)D, these universal topological data consist of two matrices S and T, which generate a projective representation of SL(2,Z) on the degenerate ground state Hilbert space on a torus. For topological orders with a gapped boundary in higher dimensions, these data constitute a projective representation of the mapping class group MCG(M^{d}) of closed spatial manifold M^{d}. For a set of simple models and perturbations in two dimensions, we show that these quantities are protected to all orders in perturbation theory. These overlaps provide a much more powerful alternative to the topological entanglement entropy and allow for more efficient numerical implementations. PMID:26230815

  1. JEA Offers Membership Rebates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Announces the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) plan to fully unify membership in state, regional, and the national JEAs by doubling the "rebate" program offered to state and regional Scholastic Press Associations for promoting JEA memberships. (MS)

  2. A Generic Model to Simulate Air-Borne Diseases as a Function of Crop Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Quesnel, Gauthier; Langlais, Michel; Faivre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a context of pesticide use reduction, alternatives to chemical-based crop protection strategies are needed to control diseases. Crop and plant architectures can be viewed as levers to control disease outbreaks by affecting microclimate within the canopy or pathogen transmission between plants. Modeling and simulation is a key approach to help analyze the behaviour of such systems where direct observations are difficult and tedious. Modeling permits the joining of concepts from ecophysiology and epidemiology to define structures and functions generic enough to describe a wide range of epidemiological dynamics. Additionally, this conception should minimize computing time by both limiting the complexity and setting an efficient software implementation. In this paper, our aim was to present a model that suited these constraints so it could first be used as a research and teaching tool to promote discussions about epidemic management in cropping systems. The system was modelled as a combination of individual hosts (population of plants or organs) and infectious agents (pathogens) whose contacts are restricted through a network of connections. The system dynamics were described at an individual scale. Additional attention was given to the identification of generic properties of host-pathogen systems to widen the model's applicability domain. Two specific pathosystems with contrasted crop architectures were considered: ascochyta blight on pea (homogeneously layered canopy) and potato late blight (lattice of individualized plants). The model behavior was assessed by simulation and sensitivity analysis and these results were discussed against the model ability to discriminate between the defined types of epidemics. Crop traits related to disease avoidance resulting in a low exposure, a slow dispersal or a de-synchronization of plant and pathogen cycles were shown to strongly impact the disease severity at the crop scale. PMID:23226209

  3. A generic model to simulate air-borne diseases as a function of crop architecture.

    PubMed

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Quesnel, Gauthier; Langlais, Michel; Faivre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a context of pesticide use reduction, alternatives to chemical-based crop protection strategies are needed to control diseases. Crop and plant architectures can be viewed as levers to control disease outbreaks by affecting microclimate within the canopy or pathogen transmission between plants. Modeling and simulation is a key approach to help analyze the behaviour of such systems where direct observations are difficult and tedious. Modeling permits the joining of concepts from ecophysiology and epidemiology to define structures and functions generic enough to describe a wide range of epidemiological dynamics. Additionally, this conception should minimize computing time by both limiting the complexity and setting an efficient software implementation. In this paper, our aim was to present a model that suited these constraints so it could first be used as a research and teaching tool to promote discussions about epidemic management in cropping systems. The system was modelled as a combination of individual hosts (population of plants or organs) and infectious agents (pathogens) whose contacts are restricted through a network of connections. The system dynamics were described at an individual scale. Additional attention was given to the identification of generic properties of host-pathogen systems to widen the model's applicability domain. Two specific pathosystems with contrasted crop architectures were considered: ascochyta blight on pea (homogeneously layered canopy) and potato late blight (lattice of individualized plants). The model behavior was assessed by simulation and sensitivity analysis and these results were discussed against the model ability to discriminate between the defined types of epidemics. Crop traits related to disease avoidance resulting in a low exposure, a slow dispersal or a de-synchronization of plant and pathogen cycles were shown to strongly impact the disease severity at the crop scale. PMID:23226209

  4. 45 CFR 1700.3 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membership. 1700.3 Section 1700.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Membership. (a) The Commission is composed of the Librarian of...

  5. 45 CFR 1700.3 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membership. 1700.3 Section 1700.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Membership. (a) The Commission is composed of the Librarian of...

  6. 45 CFR 1700.3 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membership. 1700.3 Section 1700.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Membership. (a) The Commission is composed of the Librarian of...

  7. 45 CFR 1700.3 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membership. 1700.3 Section 1700.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Membership. (a) The Commission is composed of the Librarian of...

  8. Testing and teaching functional versus generic skills in early childhood education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baine, David

    1987-06-01

    This paper critiques a number of pre-academic and readiness tasks commonly found in tests and curricula used in early childhood education in North America and Europe and frequently adopted in developing countries. Some of the tasks discussed are: putting pegs in a pegboard, reproducing bead patterns, and completing picture puzzles. Evidence is presented to challenge a number of commonly held assumptions associated with these tasks: a) that the `generic skills' acquired when children learn these tasks are prerequisite to learning higher level skills, b) that the skills acquired will generalize to the performance of more functional activities, c) that handicapped children should be taught skills corresponding to their mental age level, and d) that handicapped children in developing countries should be tested and taught skills that are frequently found in the tests and curricula of normal functioning children in North America and Europe. Although much of the evidence cited has been available for some time, it has not generally influenced testing and teaching practices in developing countries. The tragic result is that very limited economic and manpower resources are often wasted on the use of ineffective methods. The final section of the paper describes recently developed methods of conducting ecological inventories for designing ecologically valid tests and curricula of functional skills in developing countries.

  9. Sex Differences in Recall as a Function of "Generic" vs. Female-Inclusive Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Mary; English, Linda

    Many linguists have maintained that the pronouns "he,""his," and "him" and the noun "man," when used in the generic sense, legitimately refer to both males and females and effectively cue readers to think of both. Others have argued, however, that the generic terms cause readers to "filter out" or dismiss females from consideration. If generic…

  10. A generic formulation for emittance and lattice function evolution for non-Hamiltonian systems with stochastic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    I describe a generic formulation for the evolution of emittances and lattice functions under arbitrary, possibly non-Hamiltonian, linear equations of motion. The average effect of stochastic processes, which would include ionization interactions and synchrotron radiation, is also included. I first compute the evolution of the covariance matrix, then the evolution of emittances and lattice functions from that. I examine the particular case of a cylindrically symmetric system, which is of particular interest for ionization cooling.

  11. Short-range forecast of Shershnevskoie (South Ural) water-storage algal blooms: preliminary results of predictors' choosing and membership functions' construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayazova, Anna; Abdullaev, Sanjar

    2014-05-01

    Short-range forecasting of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs and other waterbodies is an actual element of water treatment system. Particularly, Shershnevskoie reservoir - the source of drinking water for Chelyabinsk city (South Ural region of Russia) - is exposed to interannual, seasonal and short-range fluctuations of blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and other dominant species abundance, which lead to technological problems and economic costs and adversely affect the water treatment quality. Whereas the composition, intensity and the period of blooms affected not only by meteorological seasonal conditions but also by ecological specificity of waterbody, that's important to develop object-oriented forecasting, particularly, search for an optimal number of predictors for such forecasting. Thereby, firstly fuzzy logic and fuzzy artificial neural network patterns for blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) blooms prediction in nearby undrained Smolino lake were developed. These results subsequently served as the base to derive membership functions for Shernevskoie reservoir forecasting patterns. Time series with the total lenght about 138-159 days of dominant species seasonal abundance, water temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, mineralization, phosphate and nitrate concentrations were obtained through field observations held at Lake Smolino (Chelyabinsk) in the warm season of 2009 and 2011 with time resolution of 2-7 days. The cross-correlation analysis of the data revealed the potential predictors of M. aeruginosa abundance quasi-periodic oscillations: green alga Pediastrum duplex (P. duplex) abundance and mineralization for 2009, P. duplex abundance, water temperature and concentration of nitrates for 2011. According to the results of cross-correlation analysis one membership function "P. duplex abundance" and one rule linking M. aeruginosa and P. duplex abundances were set up for database of 2009. Analogically, for database of 2011

  12. Why are dunkels sticky? Preschoolers infer functionality and intentional creation for artifact properties learned from generic language.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Cadena, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Artifacts pose a potential learning problem for children because the mapping between their features and their functions is often not transparent. In solving this problem, children are likely to rely on a number of information sources (e.g., others' actions, affordances). We argue that children's sensitivity to nuances in the language used to describe artifacts is an important, but so far unacknowledged, piece of this puzzle. Specifically, we hypothesize that children are sensitive to whether an unfamiliar artifact's features are highlighted using generic (e.g., "Dunkels are sticky") or non-generic (e.g., "This dunkel is sticky") language. Across two studies, older-but not younger-preschoolers who heard such features introduced via generic statements inferred that they are a functional part of the artifact's design more often than children who heard the same features introduced via non-generic statements. The ability to pick up on this linguistic cue may expand considerably the amount of conceptual information about artifacts that children derive from conversations with adults. PMID:20656283

  13. Genome wide prediction of protein function via a generic knowledge discovery approach based on evidence integration

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jianghui; Rayner, Simon; Luo, Kunyi; Li, Yinghui; Chen, Shanguang

    2006-01-01

    Background The automation of many common molecular biology techniques has resulted in the accumulation of vast quantities of experimental data. One of the major challenges now facing researchers is how to process this data to yield useful information about a biological system (e.g. knowledge of genes and their products, and the biological roles of proteins, their molecular functions, localizations and interaction networks). We present a technique called Global Mapping of Unknown Proteins (GMUP) which uses the Gene Ontology Index to relate diverse sources of experimental data by creation of an abstraction layer of evidence data. This abstraction layer is used as input to a neural network which, once trained, can be used to predict function from the evidence data of unannotated proteins. The method allows us to include almost any experimental data set related to protein function, which incorporates the Gene Ontology, to our evidence data in order to seek relationships between the different sets. Results We have demonstrated the capabilities of this method in two ways. We first collected various experimental datasets associated with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and applied the technique to a set of previously annotated open reading frames (ORFs). These ORFs were divided into training and test sets and were used to examine the accuracy of the predictions made by our method. Then we applied GMUP to previously un-annotated ORFs and made 1980, 836 and 1969 predictions corresponding to the GO Biological Process, Molecular Function and Cellular Component sub-categories respectively. We found that GMUP was particularly successful at predicting ORFs with functions associated with the ribonucleoprotein complex, protein metabolism and transportation. Conclusion This study presents a global and generic gene knowledge discovery approach based on evidence integration of various genome-scale data. It can be used to provide insight as to how certain biological processes are

  14. 77 FR 39677 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Architectural and... to a performance review board for the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board... regulations, one or more Senior Executive Service (SES) performance review boards. The function of the...

  15. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  16. Community Health Coalitions in Context: Associations between Geographic Context, Member Type and Length of Membership with Coalition Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, V.; Sanders, M.; Andrews, M. L.; Hale, R.; Carrillo, C.

    2014-01-01

    The coalition literature recognizes context (geography, demographics and history) as a variable of interest, yet few coalition evaluation studies have focused on it. This study explores the association between geographic context and structures (e.g. member type) with functional characteristics (e.g. decision making or levels of conflict) in a…

  17. Reports to the Membership.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The following are edited/abbreviated versions of the annual reports of the APA Secretary-Treasurer, CEO and Medical Director, Speaker, and Speaker-Elect and the chairpersons of the APA Committee on Bylaws, Membership Committee, Committee of Tellers, and Elections Committee. The full reports were presented at the APA Annual Business Meeting in Toronto, May 17th, 2015. PMID:26234608

  18. Reports to the Membership.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The following are edited/abbreviated versions of the annual reports of the APA Secretary, Treasurer, CEO and Medical Director, Speaker, and Speaker-Elect and the chairpersons of the APA Committee on Bylaws, Membership Committee, Committee of Tellers, and Elections Committee. The full reports were presented at the APA Annual Business Meeting in Atlanta, May 15th, 2016. PMID:27363564

  19. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation. Donald K. Balmer (H), Mark Bushnell (O), Charles J . Garcia (SS), Enzo Mantovani (S), Vicky Pease (T), James E. Quick (V), Gerard Schuster (S), Endre Skaar, Michael Underwood (T), J o hn J . Whipple (H).

  20. Metadata for selecting or submitting generic seismic vulnerability functions via GEM's vulnerability database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor

    2013-01-01

    This memo lays out a procedure for the GEM software to offer an available vulnerability function for any acceptable set of attributes that the user specifies for a particular building category. The memo also provides general guidelines on how to submit the vulnerability or fragility functions to the GEM vulnerability repository, stipulating which attributes modelers must provide so that their vulnerability or fragility functions can be queried appropriately by the vulnerability database. An important objective is to provide users guidance on limitations and applicability by providing the associated modeling assumptions and applicability of each vulnerability or fragility function.

  1. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Aubrey L. Anderson (O), Lennart A. Anderson (V), Kathleen W. Baird (V), William R. Bergmann (A), E. N. Bernard (O), Joyce R. Blueford (O), Wayne M. Brewer (T), Nancy Ann Brewster (O), Philip S. Callahan (O), Jack G. Calvert (A), Drew A. Carey (O), Benjamin Chen (O), J. W. Cole (V), George Courtney (T), Charles G. Crawford (H).

  2. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Raffi Aroian (P), David Baker (P), D. Craig Barilotti (O), Stephen J. Barnes (V), Thomas O. Barnwell (H), Robert P. Bessette (G), Brian Bicknell (H), William Blumberg (A), Michele A. Boccadoro (G), Richard Boylan (T), Robert C. Bucknam (T), Roman J. Budzianowski (H), Bruce M. Crowe (V), Charles G. Cunningham (V).

  3. 22 CFR 8.6 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.6 Membership. (a) The act requires a balanced... committee's functions and should be chosen from different vocations having knowledge in the subject. (b) It..., sex, or color. (c) The committee office will keep the Advisory Committee Management Officer...

  4. 22 CFR 8.6 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.6 Membership. (a) The act requires a balanced... committee's functions and should be chosen from different vocations having knowledge in the subject. (b) It..., sex, or color. (c) The committee office will keep the Advisory Committee Management Officer...

  5. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  6. AGU membership applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications for membership have been received from the following individuals. The letter after the name denotes the proposed primary section affiliation.Henry D. I. Abarbanel (O), Julia C. Allen (H), Gwendolyn L. Anson (GP), Andrew Bakun (O), C. A. Bengtson (T), Patricia A. Berge (S), Peter R. Betzer (O), Pierre Boivin (V), Michael V. Capobianco (P), Martin C. Chapman (S), Chu-Yung Chen (V), Timothy J. Clarke (S), Steven C. Constable (GP), Michele Dermer (H), G. M. Dow (T), Carl E. Draper (G), Dean A. Dunn (O), I. B. Everingham (S).

  7. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  8. Group Membership Based Authorization to CADC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, A.; Dowler, P.; Gaudet, S.; Hill, N.

    2012-09-01

    The Group Membership Service (GMS), implemented at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC), is a prototype of what could eventually be an IVOA standard for a distributed and interoperable group membership protocol. Group membership is the core authorization concept that enables teamwork and collaboration amongst astronomers accessing distributed resources and services. The service integrates and complements other access control related IVOA standards such as single-sign-on (SSO) using X.509 proxy certificates and the Credential Delegation Protocol (CDP). The GMS has been used at CADC for several years now, initially as a subsystem and then as a stand-alone Web service. It is part of the authorization mechanism for controlling the access to restricted Web resources as well as the VOSpace service hosted by the CADC. We present the role that GMS plays within the access control system at the CADC, including the functionality of the service and how the different CADC services make use of it to assert user authorization to resources. We also describe the main advantages and challenges of using the service as well as future work to increase its robustness and functionality.

  9. Primordial nucleosynthesis with generic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Kolb, E. W.; Turner, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    A revision of the standard model for Big Bang nucleosynthesis is discussed which allows for the presence of generic particle species. The primordial production of He-4 and D + He-3 is calculated as a function of the mass, spin degrees of freedom, and spin statistics of the generic particle for masses in the range 0.01-100 times the electron mass. The particular case of the Gelmini and Roncadelli majoron model for massive neutrinos is discussed.

  10. The Neuroscience of Group Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Samantha; Decety, Jean; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to uncover the neural activity associated with specific in-group and out-group word related stimuli, to examine the neuroanatomical basis of group membership concept representation, and investigate to what extent neural processes represent "in-group" differently from "out-group". Participants' brain activity was measured…

  11. Society Membership Survey: 1986 Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, W. Keith; And Others

    The fourth in a series of reports produced by the Education and Employment Statistics division of the American Insititute of Physics (AIP) is presented. Data are based on a stratified random sample survey of one-sixth of the U.S. and Canadian membership of the AIP member societies. In the spring of 1986, every individual in the sample received a…

  12. Predictors of Alumni Association Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Melissa D.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors associated with membership of university graduates in the dues-based alumni association of their alma mater. Logistic regression was used to analyze variables that came from survey responses and from an existing database. All participants had attended a public doctoral-granting research university in the South.…

  13. 12 CFR 575.5 - Membership rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership rights. 575.5 Section 575.5 Banks... Membership rights. (a) Depositors and borrowers of resulting associations, acquiree associations, and... existing and future depositors of the resulting association the same membership rights in the...

  14. Pupil Membership and Related Information, Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamboldt, Martina

    This document contains information about student membership in the Colorado public schools as of fall 1997. At that time, there were 687,167 students in Colorado's public schools, an increase of 2.0% over the fall 1996 membership. This increase was greater at the secondary level. Beginning in fall 1990, membership each year has surpassed the…

  15. An object relations approach to cult membership.

    PubMed

    Salande, Joseph D; Perkins, David R

    2011-01-01

    Several pieces of literature suggest that most individuals who are successfully integrated into cults do not typically manifest symptoms of mental illness. However, the public is often taken aback by the lack of autonomy displayed by cult members and is bewildered by the ability of the cult leader and other cult members to transform fundamental personality functioning in an individual Within the framework of an object relations model of personality structure and functioning as delineated by Otto Kernberg and using existing data concerning the cult experience, the authors engage in a theoretical exploration of cult membership. The authors propose that some behaviors exhibited by cult members may be a function of an object relations-level regression, which is exemplified by the activation of primitive defensive operations that are usually relegated to those suffering with severe personality disorders. PMID:22329338

  16. Fraternity membership and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship that social fraternity and sorority membership has with binge drinking incidence and frequency among 18-24 year old full-time 4-year college students who participated in the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. To net out unobserved heterogeneity, several measures of situational and total alcohol use are entered into the regressions as explanatory variables. Fraternity membership coefficients are substantially reduced in size, but remain large and highly significant, suggesting a causal effect on binge drinking. Otherwise, the estimates identify idiosyncratic selection into fraternities and binge drinking across students with similar overall drinking profiles. Particularly notable is that behavior by underage students appears to drive the relationship. PMID:17320225

  17. Generic prescribing of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Bruck, P; Antao, C A; Henry, J A

    1992-11-01

    Analysis of National Health Service prescription data for the antidepressants from 1980 to 1989 shows a consistent secular trend towards the increased use of generic names on prescriptions for this group of drugs. This apparently reflects national trends for all drugs, and was similar for most antidepressants. However, generic prescribing had by 1989 increased significantly more rapidly with fluvoxamine, which was introduced in 1987. The two drugs introduced in 1989, fluoxetine and amoxapine, also had a high generic prescribing rate in their year of introduction. Increased generic prescribing may become a feature with further new drugs. However, the use of the generic name on the prescription has relatively little influence on what is dispensed to the patient. Pharmacists may dispense a brand name when given a generic prescription. Moreover, pressures on doctors to write generic names on prescriptions may have limited relevance for some drugs; generic alternatives were available for only four out of 22 antidepressants. PMID:1474553

  18. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  19. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. IX. THE LEO REGION H I CATALOG, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, AND THE H I MASS FUNCTION FOR THE LEO I GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Kent, Brian R.; Saintonge, Amelie; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: amartin@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: amelie@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: vkarach@observ.univ.kiev.ua

    2009-08-15

    We present the catalog of H I sources extracted from the ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I line survey, found within the sky region bounded by 9{sup h}36{sup m} < {alpha} < 11{sup h}36{sup m} and +08{sup 0} < {delta} < +12{sup 0}. The H I catalog presented here for this 118 deg{sup 2} region is combined with the ones derived from surrounding regions also covered by the ALFALFA survey to examine the large-scale structure in the complex Leo region. Because of the combination of wide sky coverage and superior sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution, the ALFALFA H I catalog of the Leo region improves significantly on the numbers of low H I mass sources as compared with those found in previous H I surveys. The H I mass function of the Leo I group presented here is dominated by low-mass objects: 45 of the 65 Leo I members have M{sub H{sub l}}<10{sup 8} M-odot, yielding tight constraints on the low-mass slope of the Leo I H I mass function. The best-fit slope is {alpha} {approx_equal} -1.41 + 0.2 - 0.1. A direct comparison between the ALFALFA H I line detections and an optical search of the Leo I region proves the advantage of the ALFALFA strategy in finding low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs. These results suggest the existence of a significant population of low surface brightness, gas-rich, yet still very low H I mass galaxies, and may reflect the same type of morphological segregation as is seen in the Local Group. While the low-mass end slope of the Leo I H I mass function is steeper than that determined for luminosity functions of the group, the slope still falls short of the values predicted by simulations of structure formation in the lambda cold dark matter paradigm.

  20. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood. PMID:24883000

  1. Health and functioning among four war eras of U.S. veterans: examining the impact of war cohort membership, socioeconomic status, mental health, and disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Villa, Valentine M; Harada, Nancy D; Washington, Donna; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn

    2002-09-01

    This analysis examines the self-rated health and functioning of World War II, Vietnam era, Korean Conflict, and Persian Gulf War veterans participating in the Veteran Identity Program Survey 2001. The results indicate that although World War II veterans are more likely to report poor health status and functioning, Vietnam-era veterans report more difficulty with specific activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living than any other era of veterans. These relationships remain when controlling for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disease prevalence, and mental health status. These findings suggest that there are characteristics unique to the Vietnam experience that negatively affect this cohort of veterans. We suggest that further analysis examine the specific pathways through which the experience of being a Vietnam veteran affects health. In the meantime, health and social service planning within the Department of Veterans Affairs should explore the services that should be developed and targeted to this cohort of veterans so that they may remain independent in the community. PMID:12363172

  2. 14 CFR 1203.902 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Committee membership: (a) Associate Administrator for: (1) Aero-Space Technology. (2) Space Science. (3) Space Flight. (4) External Relations. (5) Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications. (b)...

  3. 14 CFR § 1203.902 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Committee membership: (a) Associate Administrator for: (1) Aero-Space Technology. (2) Space Science. (3) Space Flight. (4) External Relations. (5) Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications. (b)...

  4. 14 CFR 1203.902 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Committee membership: (a) Associate Administrator for: (1) Aero-Space Technology. (2) Space Science. (3) Space Flight. (4) External Relations. (5) Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications. (b)...

  5. 12 CFR 323.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership... membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and...

  6. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are...

  7. Pupil Membership and Related Information. Fall 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamboldt, Martina

    Information used to prepare this report on Colorado's public school enrollment was collected from the state's public school districts. In fall 1996, there were 673,438 students in Colorado's public schools, an increase of 17,159 students (2.6%) over the fall 1995 membership. Membership increased by 9.9% from fall 1992 to fall 1996, and this…

  8. 14 CFR 1203.902 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Committee membership: (a) Associate Administrator for: (1) Aero-Space Technology. (2) Space Science. (3... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Membership. 1203.902 Section 1203.902 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM...

  9. 5 CFR 960.104 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Membership. 960.104 Section 960.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.104 Membership. (a) Presidential Directive. The President has directed the heads of agencies to arrange for...

  10. 5 CFR 960.104 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Membership. 960.104 Section 960.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.104 Membership. (a) Presidential Directive. The President has directed the heads...

  11. 5 CFR 960.104 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Membership. 960.104 Section 960.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.104 Membership. (a) Presidential Directive. The President has directed the heads of agencies to arrange for...

  12. 5 CFR 960.104 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership. 960.104 Section 960.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.104 Membership. (a) Presidential Directive. The President has directed the heads...

  13. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their...

  14. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their...

  15. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their...

  16. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their...

  17. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board... who market their almonds through cooperative handlers; and (2) Those growers who market their...

  18. 13 CFR 120.822 - CDC membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC membership. 120.822 Section 120.822 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc Certification and Operation § 120.822 CDC membership....

  19. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are...

  20. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are...

  1. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are...

  2. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are...

  3. 14 CFR § 1209.304 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Membership. § 1209.304 Section § 1209.304 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION BOARDS AND COMMITTEES Contract Adjustment Board § 1209.304 Membership. The Board will consist of a chairperson and four other members, all of...

  4. 14 CFR 1209.304 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership. 1209.304 Section 1209.304 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION BOARDS AND COMMITTEES Contract Adjustment Board § 1209.304 Membership. The Board will consist of a chairperson and four other members, all of...

  5. 14 CFR 1209.304 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Membership. 1209.304 Section 1209.304 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION BOARDS AND COMMITTEES Contract Adjustment Board § 1209.304 Membership. The Board will consist of a chairperson and four other members, all of...

  6. 14 CFR 1209.304 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Membership. 1209.304 Section 1209.304 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION BOARDS AND COMMITTEES Contract Adjustment Board § 1209.304 Membership. The Board will consist of a chairperson and four other members, all of...

  7. 14 CFR 1209.304 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Membership. 1209.304 Section 1209.304 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION BOARDS AND COMMITTEES Contract Adjustment Board § 1209.304 Membership. The Board will consist of a chairperson and four other members, all of...

  8. 14 CFR 1203.902 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership. 1203.902 Section 1203.902 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM NASA Information Security Program Committee § 1203.902 Membership. The Committee will consist of the...

  9. 16 CFR 1018.15 - Membership composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Membership composition. 1018.15 Section 1018.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.15 Membership composition. The Toxicological Advisory Board,...

  10. 16 CFR 1018.15 - Membership composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Membership composition. 1018.15 Section 1018.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.15 Membership composition. The Toxicological Advisory Board,...

  11. 16 CFR 1018.15 - Membership composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership composition. 1018.15 Section 1018.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.15 Membership composition. The Toxicological Advisory Board,...

  12. 16 CFR 1018.15 - Membership composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Membership composition. 1018.15 Section 1018.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.15 Membership composition. The Toxicological Advisory Board,...

  13. 16 CFR 1018.15 - Membership composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Membership composition. 1018.15 Section 1018.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.15 Membership composition. The Toxicological Advisory Board,...

  14. 14 CFR § 1203.802 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Membership. § 1203.802 Section § 1203.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Delegation of Authority To Make Determinations in Original Classification Matters § 1203.802 Membership. The...

  15. 47 CFR 301.100 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membership. 301.100 Section 301.100 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RELOCATION OF AND SPECTRUM SHARING BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATIONS Technical Panel § 301.100 Membership....

  16. 47 CFR 301.100 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membership. 301.100 Section 301.100 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RELOCATION OF AND SPECTRUM SHARING BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATIONS Technical Panel § 301.100 Membership....

  17. 14 CFR 1230.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true IRB membership. 1230.107 Section 1230.107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB shall have at least five members, with varying backgrounds to promote complete and adequate review of...

  18. Regression approaches to derive generic and fish group-specific probability density functions of bioconcentration factors for metals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Taku; Ciffroy, Philippe; Stenberg, Kristofer; Capri, Ettore

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of environmental multimedia modeling studies dedicated to environmental and health risk assessments of chemicals, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is a parameter commonly used, especially for fish. As for neutral lipophilic substances, it is assumed that BCF is independent of exposure levels of the substances. However, for metals some studies found the inverse relationship between BCF values and aquatic exposure concentrations for various aquatic species and metals, and also high variability in BCF data. To deal with the factors determining BCF for metals, we conducted regression analyses to evaluate the inverse relationships and introduce the concept of probability density function (PDF) for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and As. In the present study, for building the regression model and derive the PDF of fish BCF, two statistical approaches are applied: ordinary regression analysis to estimate a regression model that does not consider the variation in data across different fish family groups; and hierarchical Bayesian regression analysis to estimate fish group-specific regression models. The results show that the BCF ranges and PDFs estimated for metals by both statistical approaches have less uncertainty than the variation of collected BCF data (the uncertainty is reduced by 9%-61%), and thus such PDFs proved to be useful to obtain accurate model predictions for environmental and health risk assessment concerning metals. PMID:20886641

  19. Generic Optimization Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-01

    GenOpt is a generic optimization program for nonlinear, constrained optimization. For evaluating the objective function, any simulation program that communicates over text files can be coupled to GenOpt without code modification. No analytic properties of the objective function are used by GenOpt. ptimization algorithms and numerical methods can be implemented in a library and shared among users. Gencpt offers an interlace between the optimization algorithm and its kernel to make the implementation of new algorithmsmore » fast and easy. Different algorithms of constrained and unconstrained minimization can be added to a library. Algorithms for approximation derivatives and performing line-search will be implemented. The objective function is evaluated as a black-box function by an external simulation program. The kernel of GenOpt deals with the data I/O, result sotrage and report, interlace to the external simulation program, and error handling. An abstract optimization class offers methods to interface the GenOpt kernel and the optimization algorithm library.« less

  20. Phenotypic Complementation Establishes Requirements for Specific POU Domain and Generic Transactivation Function of Oct-3/4 in Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Hitoshi; Masui, Shinji; Chambers, Ian; Smith, Austin G.; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi

    2002-01-01

    Transcription factors of the POU family govern cell fate through combinatorial interactions with coactivators and corepressors. The POU factor Oct-3/4 can define differentiation, dedifferentation, or self-renewal of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells in a sensitive, dose-dependent manner (H. Niwa, J.-I. Miyazali, and A. G. Smith, Nat. Genet. 24:372-376, 2000). Here we have developed a complementation assay based on the ability of Oct-3/4 transgenes to rescue self-renewal in conditionally null ES cells and used this to define which domains of Oct-3/4 are required to sustain the undifferentiated stem cell phenotype. Surprisingly, we found that molecules lacking either the N-terminal or C-terminal transactivation domain, though not both, can effectively replace full-length Oct-3/4. Furthermore, a fusion of the heterologous transactivation domain of Oct-2 to the Oct-3/4 POU domain can also sustain self-renewal. Thus, the unique function of Oct-3/4 in ES cell propagation resides in combination of the specific POU domain with a generic proline-rich transactivation domain. Interestingly, however, Oct-3/4 target gene expression elicited by the N- and C-terminal transactivation domains is not identical, indicating that at least one class of genes activated by Oct-3/4 is not required for ES cell propagation. PMID:11839818

  1. Grey-Markov model with state membership degree and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jing; Li, Bingjun; Liu, Fang

    2013-10-01

    In the Grey-Markov forecasting, the extent of a given state that a research object belongs to is expressed as state membership degree. The state membership degree can help compensate for the inaccurate states division and improve the predicted results. Based on the Grey-Markov forecasting analysis, this paper uses the central triangle albino function to calculate the state membership degrees of research objects and determine the state transition probability. Thereby, the new model achieves the improvement of conventional Grey-Markov model. Taking the grain production of Henan Province as an example, the validity and applicability of the improved model are verified.

  2. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  3. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  4. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  5. 78 FR 67333 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Department of Commerce... Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior...

  6. 75 FR 57440 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice... accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior Executive Service and...

  7. 76 FR 57712 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice...) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior ] Executive Service...

  8. 77 FR 61379 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Department of Commerce... Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior...

  9. MLA Committee Membership: Retrospect and Prospect

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. Lee

    1970-01-01

    MLA committee membership by category (medical school, society and hospital) for the past three years is examined revealing a heavy reliance upon medical school librarians for committee members. A ten-year examination of committee membership and turnover in individual committee membership rosters points out those committees whose rate of turnover is greatest. Opportunities for service by new MLA members is examined as is committee tenure as experienced during the last decade. Turnover, tenure, and frequency of leadership is examined for the ten-year period. Pointing out that only 360 individuals have served MLA in committee positions listed in the Bulletin, the Ad Hoc Committee to Review the Goals and Structure of the Medical Library Association is urged to more actively seek the opinions of the membership and to consider the service patterns of the past in recommending a course for the future. PMID:5496235

  10. Vagueness, graded membership, and conceptual spaces.

    PubMed

    Douven, Igor

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with a version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership that relies on the conceptual spaces framework. Three studies are reported, one to construct a particular shape space, one to detect which shapes representable in that space are typical for certain sorts of objects, and one to elicit degrees of category membership for the various shapes from which the shape space was constructed. Taking Kamp and Partee's proposal as given, the first two studies allowed us to predict the degrees to which people would judge shapes representable in the space to be members of certain categories. These predictions were compared with the degrees that were measured in the third study. The comparison yielded a test of the account of graded membership at issue. The outcome of this test was found to support the conceptual spaces version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership. PMID:26995187

  11. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.1 Membership. Under the JWOD Act, the Committee is...

  12. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.1 Membership. Under the JWOD Act, the Committee is...

  13. 12 CFR 722.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in... membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers...

  14. 12 CFR 564.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... APPRAISALS § 564.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations... membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers...

  15. 12 CFR 34.46 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.46 Professional association membership; competency. (a... membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and...

  16. 45 CFR 1627.4 - Membership fees or dues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membership fees or dues. 1627.4 Section 1627.4... AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.4 Membership fees or dues. (a) LSC funds may not be used to pay membership fees or dues to any private or nonprofit organization, whether on behalf of a recipient or...

  17. 12 CFR 925.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 925.26... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 925.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank...

  18. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  19. What makes a generic medication generic?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    By law, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve generic versions of brand-name drugs without requiring that research be conducted to prove them safe and effective. However, compared with a brand-name drug, a generic drug must demonstrate that it (a) contains the same active ingredients; (b) is identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration; (c) is bioequivalent; (d) has the same clinical use indications; (e) meets the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality; and (f) is manufactured according to the same FDA regulations. The most important aspect of generic drug development are the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence. According to the concept of bioequivalence, if a drug product contains an active ingredient that is chemically identical and is delivered to the site of action at the same rate and extent as another drug product, then it is considered to be clinically equivalent and can be substituted for that drug product. PMID:20000278

  20. Rehabilitation Counseling Professional Associations: Membership, Membership Intentions, and Levels of Commitment among Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Declining membership is a concerning, yet poorly understood issue affecting professional associations across many disciplines (Bauman, 2008). The discipline of rehabilitation counseling is experiencing membership decline even as the number of certified rehabilitation counselors continues to increase (Leahy, 2009). Little empirical research…

  1. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  2. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  3. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  4. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  5. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  6. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may also have…

  7. 45 CFR 86.14 - Membership practices of certain organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, the active membership of... the membership practices of voluntary youth service organizations which are exempt from taxation...

  8. 7 CFR 966.161 - Reapportionment of Committee Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Reestablishment of Districts § 966.161 Reapportionment of Committee Membership. Pursuant to § 966.25, industry membership on the Florida Tomato Committee shall...

  9. 12 CFR 925.30 - Readmission to membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and which has divested all of its shares of Bank stock, may not be readmitted to membership in any... membership terminated and it divested all of its shares of Bank stock. (b) Exceptions. An institution...

  10. 25 CFR 75.15 - Current membership roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.15 Current membership roll. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be kept current by striking therefrom the names...

  11. 25 CFR 75.17 - Relinquishment of membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.17 Relinquishment of membership. Any member of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians may relinquish his membership in the Band by filing notice...

  12. 25 CFR 75.15 - Current membership roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.15 Current membership roll. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be kept current by striking therefrom the names...

  13. 25 CFR 75.17 - Relinquishment of membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.17 Relinquishment of membership. Any member of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians may relinquish his membership in the Band by filing notice...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.940 - Changes in recipient's membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Officer within seven (7) days of any change in the corporate membership (ownership) structure of the...., Consortium Member). If NASA reasonably determines that any change in the corporate membership (ownership)...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.940 - Changes in recipient's membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Officer within seven (7) days of any change in the corporate membership (ownership) structure of the...., Consortium Member). If NASA reasonably determines that any change in the corporate membership (ownership)...

  16. Prediction of Membership in Rehabilitation Counseling Professional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Brian N.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Declining membership is a concerning yet poorly understood issue affecting professional associations across disciplines (Bauman, 2008). Rehabilitation counseling association membership is in decline even while number of certified rehabilitation counselors continues to increase (Leahy, 2009). Factors influencing rehabilitation counseling…

  17. 75 FR 70002 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... AGENCY Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the membership of the Environmental Protection... Resources Management, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC...

  18. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Membership. 51-2.1 Section 51-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  19. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Membership. 51-2.1 Section 51-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  20. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.1 Membership. Under the JWOD Act, the Committee is composed... conversant with the problems incident to the employment of blind individuals; one who is conversant with...

  1. 76 FR 65503 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Review Board (PRB) for the Department of Education for the Senior Executive Service (SES) performance... Education's PRB also makes recommendations on SES pay adjustments for career senior executives. Membership The Secretary has selected the following executives of the Department of Education for the...

  2. 45 CFR 1700.3 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membership. 1700.3 Section 1700.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE..., the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (who serves as an ex officio,...

  3. 76 FR 70428 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Department of the Army Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is given of the names of members of a Performance Review Board for the Department.... The Department of the Army Performance Review Board will be composed of a subset of the...

  4. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.4 Agent membership. (a) A central credit union or a group of... credit unions, each central credit union in the group must do each of the following except for...

  5. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  6. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  7. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  8. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.4 Agent membership. (a) A central credit union or a group of... credit unions, each central credit union in the group must do each of the following except for...

  9. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit... the credit union's paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus, as determined in accordance with §...

  10. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.4 Agent membership. (a) A central credit union or a group of... credit unions, each central credit union in the group must do each of the following except for...

  11. 77 FR 66824 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Department of the Army Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is given of the names of members of a Performance Review Board for the Department... accordance with regulations, one or more Senior Executive Service performance review boards. The boards...

  12. 75 FR 70915 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Department of the Army Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is given of the names of members of a Performance Review Board for the Department... accordance with regulations, one or more Senior Executive Service performance review boards. The boards...

  13. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... labor, two members will represent the occupational health professions, two members will represent...

  14. 29 CFR 1912a.2 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.2 Membership. The Committee is a... labor, two members will represent the occupational health professions, two members will represent...

  15. 32 CFR 270.4 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Membership. 270.4 Section 270.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN FORMER OPERATIVES INCARCERATED BY THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Commission §...

  16. 75 FR 71417 - Manufacturing Council Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council Membership AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications to fill one vacant position on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary...

  17. 21 CFR 56.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false IRB membership. 56.107 Section 56.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW... qualified persons of both sexes, so long as no selection is made to the IRB on the basis of gender. No...

  18. 78 FR 63460 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 16. LTG William N. Phillips, Deputy Assistant Secretary of... Department of the Army Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) 17. Mr. Wimpy D. Pybus, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army...

  19. 14 CFR § 1203.1001 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Membership. § 1203.1001 Section § 1203.1001 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Special Access Programs (SAP) and Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) Programs...

  20. 32 CFR 270.4 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Membership. 270.4 Section 270.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN FORMER OPERATIVES INCARCERATED BY THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Commission §...

  1. 32 CFR 270.4 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Membership. 270.4 Section 270.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN FORMER OPERATIVES INCARCERATED BY THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Commission §...

  2. 32 CFR 270.4 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Membership. 270.4 Section 270.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN FORMER OPERATIVES INCARCERATED BY THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Commission §...

  3. 32 CFR 270.4 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Membership. 270.4 Section 270.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN FORMER OPERATIVES INCARCERATED BY THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Commission §...

  4. Extended Article: Typicality, Graded Membership, and Vagueness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined…

  5. 34 CFR 300.168 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Eligibility State Advisory Panel § 300.168 Membership. (a) General. The advisory panel must... members of the panel must be individuals with disabilities or parents of children with disabilities (ages birth through 26). (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  6. 14 CFR 1230.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IRB membership. 1230.107 Section 1230.107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.107... institutional commitments and regulations, applicable law, and standards of professional conduct and...

  7. 45 CFR 690.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false IRB membership. 690.107 Section 690.107 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN... diversity of the members, including consideration of race, gender, and cultural backgrounds and...

  8. 45 CFR 690.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false IRB membership. 690.107 Section 690.107 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN... diversity of the members, including consideration of race, gender, and cultural backgrounds and...

  9. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schedule for collective membership marks. 6.4 Section 6.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on...

  10. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schedule for collective membership marks. 6.4 Section 6.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on...

  11. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule for collective membership marks. 6.4 Section 6.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on...

  12. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule for collective membership marks. 6.4 Section 6.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on...

  13. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schedule for collective membership marks. 6.4 Section 6.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on...

  14. 22 CFR 40.34 - Immigrant membership in totalitarian party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... political party or organization in power at the time of such service. (d) Voluntary Membership After Age 16... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immigrant membership in totalitarian party. 40... § 40.34 Immigrant membership in totalitarian party. (a) Definition of affiliate. The term affiliate,...

  15. 33 CFR 5.11 - Membership in military organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Membership in military... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.11 Membership in military organizations. Members of the Auxiliary may... not a bar to membership in any other naval or military organization....

  16. 33 CFR 5.11 - Membership in military organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Membership in military... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.11 Membership in military organizations. Members of the Auxiliary may... not a bar to membership in any other naval or military organization....

  17. 12 CFR 1263.2 - Membership application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Membership application requirements. 1263.2 Section 1263.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.2 Membership application requirements. (a) Application....

  18. 12 CFR 1263.30 - Readmission to membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Readmission to membership. 1263.30 Section 1263.30 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Reacquisition of Membership § 1263.30 Readmission to membership. (a) In general. An institution that...

  19. 25 CFR 75.15 - Current membership roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current membership roll. 75.15 Section 75.15 Indians... THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.15 Current membership roll. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be kept current by striking therefrom the names...

  20. 25 CFR 75.15 - Current membership roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current membership roll. 75.15 Section 75.15 Indians... THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.15 Current membership roll. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be kept current by striking therefrom the names...

  1. 25 CFR 75.15 - Current membership roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Current membership roll. 75.15 Section 75.15 Indians... THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.15 Current membership roll. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians shall be kept current by striking therefrom the names...

  2. Mixed Membership Distributions with Applications to Modeling Multiple Strategy Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyardt, April

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. "How do mixed membership models work?" and "Can mixed membership be used to model how students use multiple strategies to solve problems?". Mixed membership models have been used in thousands of applications from text and image processing to genetic microarray analysis. Yet…

  3. 33 CFR 5.11 - Membership in military organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Membership in military... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.11 Membership in military organizations. Members of the Auxiliary may... not a bar to membership in any other naval or military organization....

  4. 33 CFR 5.11 - Membership in military organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Membership in military... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.11 Membership in military organizations. Members of the Auxiliary may... not a bar to membership in any other naval or military organization....

  5. 33 CFR 5.11 - Membership in military organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Membership in military... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.11 Membership in military organizations. Members of the Auxiliary may... not a bar to membership in any other naval or military organization....

  6. 22 CFR 214.15 - Changes in membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changes in membership. 214.15 Section 214.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 214.15 Changes in membership. Changes in membership of advisory committees...

  7. 22 CFR 214.15 - Changes in membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes in membership. 214.15 Section 214.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 214.15 Changes in membership. Changes in membership of advisory committees are proposed by the Bureau of Office through...

  8. 12 CFR 323.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency. 323.6 Section 323.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations. A...

  9. 12 CFR 722.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency. 722.6 Section 722.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership...

  10. 12 CFR 564.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency. 564.6 Section 564.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal...

  11. Bioavailability and generic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Mindel, J S

    1976-01-01

    Although oral drug bioinequivalence has been attributed to a number of causes (excipients, dosage form, variation in dissolution time, and aging) less is known about bioavailability problems of topical medications in ophthalmology. Factors that can alter drug absorption from solutions (pH, partition coefficient, container impurities, contact time, etc.) are noted, and cases in which bioavailability problems should be considered as causes of therapeutic failure are discussed. Various attitudes representing pharmaceutical companies, the federal government, pharmacists, consumers and physicians toward the related problems of bioinequivalence and generic prescribing are examined. Techniques for in vivo and in vitro drug testing and for establishing uniform conditions of drug manufacture and storage can contribute to identification and minimization of bioavailability problems. A rational program based on a combination of such techniques could, ultimately, lead to establishment of the terms "generic equivalency" and "therapeutic equivalency" as synonymous. PMID:13505

  12. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  13. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  14. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  15. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  16. Membership determination of Open Clusters with CLUSTERIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezima, T.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Paunzen, E.; Jordi, C.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jilkova, L.

    2015-05-01

    The web-based application Clusterix has been developed as a collaboration between the Masaryk University (Czech Republic) and the Universitat de Barcelona (Spain) to calculate the membership probability of open clusters on the WEBDA database using a completely non parametric method (Galadí-Enríquez et al., 1998; Balaguer-Núñez et al., 2004). WEBDA is a site devoted to observational data on stars in Galactic open clusters. Clusterix is an interactive tool where the user can define the default values to configure the membership estimation for the area of a cluster. Gaia's capabilities to study the kinematics of clusters of stars with great accuracy is one of the main motivations for the development of this tool. The applet first version can be found at: http://clusterix.cerit-sc.cz/

  17. Cookies as agents for community membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2013-01-01

    When becoming a member of a community of practice, a novice must adopt certain community norms to participate, and these include the social norms of the group. Using the analytical perspective of Legitimate Peripheral Participation in a Community of Practice, this paper explores the social role of cookies as agents for community participation and membership in a physics research group. We analyze data from an ethnographic case study of a physics research group weekly research meeting. The mentors bring cookies to each meeting and view the cookies as a token of appreciation for the graduate students' work. These cookies take on a subtler role of initiating guests and students into scientific conversations and participation. Via the cookies, members also share personal histories and stories that help members strengthen their membership. The study of social norms in this research group is part of a larger study of physics expert identity development.

  18. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) standard specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1994-01-01

    This standard establishes the Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA). The SGOAA includes a generic functional model, processing structural model, and an architecture interface model. This standard defines the requirements for applying these models to the development of spacecraft core avionics systems. The purpose of this standard is to provide an umbrella set of requirements for applying the generic architecture models to the design of a specific avionics hardware/software processing system. This standard defines a generic set of system interface points to facilitate identification of critical services and interfaces. It establishes the requirement for applying appropriate low level detailed implementation standards to those interfaces points. The generic core avionics functions and processing structural models provided herein are robustly tailorable to specific system applications and provide a platform upon which the interface model is to be applied.

  19. Generic image matching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongjie T.

    1992-05-01

    The generic imaging matching system (GIMS) provides an optimal systematic solution to any problem of color image processing in printing and publishing that can be classified as or modeled to the generic image matching problem defined. Typical GIMS systems/processes include color matching from different output devices, color conversion, color correction, device calibration, colorimetric scanner, colorimetric printer, colorimetric color reproduction, and image interpolation from scattered data. GIMS makes color matching easy for the user and maximizes operational flexibility allowing the user to obtain the degree of match wanted while providing the capability to achieve the best balance with respect to the human perception of color, color fidelity, and preservation of image information and color contrast. Instead of controlling coefficients in a transformation formula, GIMS controls the mapping directly in a standard device-independent color space, so that color can be matched, conceptually, to the highest possible accuracy. An optimization algorithm called modified vector shading was developed to minimize the matching error and to perform a 'near-neighborhood' gamut compression. An automatic error correction algorithm with a multidirection searching procedure using correlated re-initialization was developed to avoid local minimum failures. Once the mapping for color matching is generated, it can be utilized by a multidimensional linear interpolator with a small look-up-table (LUT) implemented by either software, a hardware interpolator or a digital-signal-processor.

  20. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    CGBA, a facility developed by BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Space Center, allows a variety of sophisticated bioprocessing research to be performed using a common device. The Fluids Processing Apparatus is essentially a microgravity test tube that allows a variety of complex investigations to be performed in space. This is a glass barrel containing several chambers separated by rubber stoppers. Eight FPAs are placed together in a Group Activation Pack (GAP), which allows all of the research to be started simultaneously by turning a single crank. Eight GAPs, or similar-sized payloads, can be stored in a single CGBA temperature controlled locker, which now uses motor drives to automatically turn the cranks to start and stop experiments. On STS-95, research efforts cover eight major areas that will benefit Earth-based products ranging from the production of pharmaceuticals to fish hatcheries.

  1. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  2. Generic names in Magnaporthales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Luo, Jing; Rossman, Amy Y; Aoki, Takayuki; Chuma, Izumi; Crous, Pedro W; Dean, Ralph; de Vries, Ronald P; Donofrio, Nicole; Hyde, Kevin D; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Talbot, Nicholas J; Tharreau, Didier; Tosa, Yukio; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Zonghua; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The order Magnaporthales comprises about 200 species and includes the economically and scientifically important rice blast fungus and the take-all pathogen of cereals, as well as saprotrophs and endophytes. Recent advances in phylogenetic analyses of these fungi resulted in taxonomic revisions. In this paper we list the 28 currently accepted genera in Magnaporthales with their type species and available gene and genome resources. The polyphyletic Magnaporthe 1972 is proposed for suppression, and Pyricularia 1880 and Nakataea 1939 are recommended for protection as the generic names for the rice blast fungus and the rice stem rot fungus, respectively. The rationale for the recommended names is also provided. These recommendations are made by the Pyricularia/Magnaporthe Working Group established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). PMID:27433445

  3. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  4. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; van der Merwe, N A; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-03-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  5. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently, 14 AGU members who joined the Union in 1937 received their recognition pins for 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the 50- year AGU members, who are listed below by the year that they joined:1937 A.B. Bryan, Leonard B. Corwin, Tate Dalrymple, Richard H. Fleming, Harry L. Frauenthal, Konrad B. Krauskopf, J. Stuart Meyers, Brian O'Brien, Joseph F. Poland, Edward J. Rutter, Noel H. Stearn, John P. Tully, Victor Vacquier, G.H. Westby, and Harvey O. Westby.

  6. 7 CFR 930.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Cherry Industry Administrative Board, the membership of which shall be calculated in accordance...

  7. 7 CFR 966.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Committee § 966.22 Establishment and membership. (a) The Florida Tomato...

  8. 7 CFR 930.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Cherry Industry Administrative Board, the membership of which shall be calculated in accordance...

  9. 7 CFR 930.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Cherry Industry Administrative Board, the membership of which shall be calculated in accordance...

  10. 7 CFR 920.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.20 Establishment and membership. There is hereby established a Kiwifruit...

  11. 7 CFR 920.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.20 Establishment and membership. There is hereby established a Kiwifruit...

  12. 7 CFR 920.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.20 Establishment and membership. There is hereby established a Kiwifruit...

  13. 7 CFR 920.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.20 Establishment and membership. There is hereby established a Kiwifruit...

  14. 7 CFR 920.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.20 Establishment and membership. There is hereby established a Kiwifruit...

  15. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  16. Three Steps to Engage Volunteers in Membership Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossell, Tony

    2011-01-01

    There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…

  17. 76 FR 35399 - SES Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS SES Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG). ACTION: Notice of Membership of SES Performance Review Board. SUMMARY: Title 5 United States Code, Section...

  18. 77 FR 69591 - SES Performance Review Board; Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS SES Performance Review Board; Membership AGENCY: Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG). ACTION: Notice of Membership of SES Performance Review Board. SUMMARY: Title 5 United States Code, Section...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  4. 75 FR 60090 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Missile Defense Agency (MDA), DoD... Board (PRB) of the Missile Defense Agency (MDA). The publication of PRB membership is required by 5 U.S..., MDA SES Program Management, Missile Defense Agency, Arlington, Virginia, (703) 693-...

  5. 12 CFR 225.66 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency...; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations. A State certified appraiser or a State licensed...) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers performing appraisals in connection with federally...

  6. 12 CFR 614.4267 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency...; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations. A State certified appraiser or a State licensed...) Competency. All staff and fee evaluators, including appraisers, performing evaluations in connection...

  7. 49 CFR 95.7 - Industry advisory committees: Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industry advisory committees: Membership. 95.7 Section 95.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.7 Industry advisory committees: Membership. Each industry advisory committee must be reasonably representative of...

  8. 11 CFR 7.12 - Membership in associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Membership in associations. 7.12 Section 7.12... Employees or Commissioners § 7.12 Membership in associations. Commissioners or employees who are members of nongovernmental associations or organizations shall avoid activities on behalf of those associations...

  9. 17 CFR 156.4 - Disclosure of Broker Association Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Association Membership. 156.4 Section 156.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BROKER ASSOCIATIONS § 156.4 Disclosure of Broker Association Membership. Each contract market... associations which identifies for each such association the name of each person who is a member or...

  10. 17 CFR 156.4 - Disclosure of Broker Association Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Association Membership. 156.4 Section 156.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BROKER ASSOCIATIONS § 156.4 Disclosure of Broker Association Membership. Each contract market... associations which identifies for each such association the name of each person who is a member or...