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SOX9 Regulates Multiple Genes in Chondrocytes, Including Genes Encoding ECM Proteins, ECM Modification Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes. PMID:25229425

Oh, Chun-do; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo



Taste Receptor Genes  

PubMed Central

In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and T2R receptors interact with taste stimuli and with identifying their patterns of expression in taste cells sheds light on coding of taste information by the nervous system. Candidate mechanisms for detection of salts, acids, fat, complex carbohydrates, and water have also been proposed, but further studies are needed to prove their identity. PMID:17444812

Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.



Targeting gonadotropin receptor genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review highlights observations gleaned from recent reports on the deletion of FSH and LH receptors in mice. Gonadal differentiation\\u000a does not depend on the presence of gonadotropin receptors but development is affected to varying degrees in both sexes. In\\u000a both knockouts the null females are infertile with severely underdeveloped gonads and accessory structures. Sexual maturity\\u000a and\\/or pubertal delay occur

Natalia Danilovich; M. Ram Sairam



Activation of Intracellular Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in Striatal Neurons Leads to Up-regulation of Genes Associated with Sustained Synaptic Transmission Including Arc/Arg3.1 Protein*  

PubMed Central

The G-protein coupled receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), is expressed on both cell surface and intracellular membranes in striatal neurons. Using pharmacological tools to differentiate membrane responses, we previously demonstrated that cell surface mGluR5 triggers rapid, transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ rises, resulting in c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, whereas stimulation of intracellular mGluR5 induces long, sustained Ca2+ responses leading to the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Elk-1 (Jong, Y. J., Kumar, V., and O'Malley, K. L. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 35827–35838). Using pharmacological, genetic, and bioinformatics approaches, the current findings show that both receptor populations up-regulate many immediate early genes involved in growth and differentiation. Activation of intracellular mGluR5 also up-regulates genes involved in synaptic plasticity including activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Mechanistically, intracellular mGluR5-mediated Arc induction is dependent upon extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ and ERK1/2 as well as calmodulin-dependent kinases as known chelators, inhibitors, and a dominant negative Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II construct block Arc increases. Moreover, intracellular mGluR5-induced Arc expression requires the serum response transcription factor (SRF) as wild type but not SRF-deficient neurons show this response. Finally, increased Arc levels due to high K+ depolarization is significantly reduced in response to a permeable but not an impermeable mGluR5 antagonist. Taken together, these data highlight the importance of intracellular mGluR5 in the cascade of events associated with sustained synaptic transmission. PMID:22179607

Kumar, Vikas; Fahey, Paul G.; Jong, Yuh-Jiin I.; Ramanan, Narendrakumar; O'Malley, Karen L.



Virus-Induced Transcriptional Changes in the Brain Include the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Interferon, Apoptosis, Interleukin 17 Receptor A, and Glutamate Signaling as Well as Flavivirus-Specific Upregulation of tRNA Synthetases  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Flaviviruses, particularly Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), are important causes of virus-induced central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans. We used microarray analysis to identify cellular genes that are differentially regulated following infection of the brain with JEV (P3) or WNV (New York 99). Gene expression data for these flaviviruses were compared to those obtained following infection of the brain with reovirus (type 3 Dearing), an unrelated neurotropic virus. We found that a large number of genes were up-regulated by all three viruses (using the criteria of a change of >2-fold and a P value of <0.001), including genes associated with interferon signaling, the immune system, inflammation, and cell death/survival signaling. In addition, genes associated with glutamate signaling were down-regulated in infections with all three viruses (criteria, a >2-fold change and a P value of <0.001). These genes may serve as broad-spectrum therapeutic targets for virus-induced CNS disease. A distinct set of genes were up-regulated following flavivirus infection but not following infection with reovirus. These genes were associated with tRNA charging and may serve as therapeutic targets for flavivirus-induced CNS disease. PMID:24618253

Clarke, Penny; Leser, J. Smith; Bowen, Richard A.; Tyler, Kenneth L.



Expression of plasma membrane receptor genes during megakaryocyte development  

PubMed Central

Megakaryocyte (MK) development is critically informed by plasma membrane-localized receptors that integrate a multiplicity of environmental cues. Given that the current understanding about receptors and ligands involved in megakaryocytopoiesis is based on single targets, we performed a genome-wide search to identify a plasma membrane receptome for developing MKs. We identified 40 transmembrane receptor genes as being upregulated during MK development. Seven of the 40 receptor-associated genes were selected to validate the dataset. These genes included: interleukin-9 receptor (IL9R), transforming growth factor, ? receptor II (TGFBR2), interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R), colony stimulating factor-2 receptor-beta (CSFR2B), adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR2), thrombin receptor (F2R), and interleukin-21 receptor (IL21R). RNA and protein analyses confirmed their expression in primary human MKs. Matched ligands to IL9R, TGFBR2, IL4R, CSFR2B, and ADIPOR2 affected megakaryocytopoiesis. IL9 was unique in its ability to increase the number of MKs formed. In contrast, MK colony formation was inhibited by adiponectin, TGF-?, IL4, and GM-CSF. The thrombin-F2R axis affected platelet function, but not MK development, while IL21 had no apparent detectable effects. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was suppressed by IL9, TGF-?, IL4, and adiponectin. Overall, six of seven of the plasma membrane receptors were confirmed to have functional roles in MK and platelet biology. Also, results show for the first time that adiponectin plays a regulatory role in MK development. Together these data support a strong likelihood that the 40 transmembrane genes identified as being upregulated during MK development will be an important resource to the research community for deciphering the complex repertoire of environmental cues regulating megakaryocytopoiesis and/or platelet function. PMID:23321270

Sun, Sijie; Wang, Wenjing; Latchman, Yvette; Gao, Dayong; Aronow, Bruce



Characterization of the murine mu opioid receptor gene.  


The analgesic and addictive properties of morphine and other opioid drugs are thought to result from their interaction with mu opioid receptors. Using a delta opioid receptor cDNA as a probe, we have isolated a murine mu opioid receptor cDNA clone (mMOR). Stable expression of mMOR in Chinese hamster ovary cells conferred high binding affinity for mu receptor ligands including morphine and [D-Ala2,N-methyl-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin and low affinity for delta and kappa preferring ligands. Treatment of these cell lines with morphine and other mu agonists inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, demonstrating a functional coupling of mMOR to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. The predicted amino acid sequence of mMOR shares approximately 55% overall amino acid identity with the delta receptor and approximately 97% identity with the recently reported rat mu opioid receptor. Expression of the mu receptor in mouse brain as revealed by in situ hybridization parallels the reported pattern of distribution of mu-selective ligand binding sites. Chromosomal localization (to mouse chromosome 10) and Southern analysis are consistent with a single mu opioid receptor gene in the mouse genome, suggesting that the various pharmacologically distinct forms of the mu receptor arise from alternative splicing, post-translational events, or from a highly divergent gene(s). PMID:7797593

Kaufman, D L; Keith, D E; Anton, B; Tian, J; Magendzo, K; Newman, D; Tran, T H; Lee, D S; Wen, C; Xia, Y R



Contrasting Modes of Evolution Between Vertebrate Sweet\\/Umami Receptor Genes and Bitter Receptor Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Taste reception is fundamental to diet selection in many animals. The genetic basis underlying the evolution and diversity of taste reception, however, is not well understood. Recent discoveries of T1R sweet\\/umami receptor genes and T2R bitter receptor genes in humans and mice provided an opportunity to address this question.

Peng Shi; Jianzhi Zhang



Chromosome 11: gene for dopamine receptors, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Dopamine receptor Location: chromosome 11 gene name: D4DR (dopamine receptor) This gene on chromosome 11 appears to influence personality. The protein produced from this gene is a receptor for the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine pathways control many aspects of the brain, including blood flow. If this gene contains many repeated sequences the person is less responsive to dopamine and more likely to seek external "thrills" in their lives.



Candidate gene analysis of thyroid hormone receptors in metamorphosing  

E-print Network

Candidate gene analysis of thyroid hormone receptors in metamorphosing vs. nonmetamorphosing experimental approaches to test the hypothesis that thyroid hormone receptor (TR) variation is associated: Ambystoma, metamorphic failure, metamorphosis, thyroid hormone, thyroid hormone receptor. Introduction Post

Grether, Gregory


Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's  

E-print Network

Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses these differences. Replicating past research, the present study found that men's salivary testosterone and cortisol receptor gene, and lower baseline cortisol concentrations, each predicted larger testosterone responses

Cosmides, Leda


Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors Reshape Gene Ranks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) plays a key role in the control of neuronal plasticity and cell survival by modifying the activity of different signaling pathways and numerous genes. However, it remains unclear how the activation of this one class of glutamate receptors can lead to different functional consequences, such as enhancement of neuronal survival or induction of neuronal death. Recent work further refines the hypothesis that synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs have distinct roles in neuronal survival and death by showing that these two subpopulations of NMDARs differentially modify whole-genome activity.

Igor Medina (INSERM;Mediterranean Institute of Neurobiology (INMED) REV)



Evolution of an Expanded Mannose Receptor Gene Family  

PubMed Central

Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens. PMID:25390371

Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Young, John R.; Butter, Colin



Social dominance regulates androgen and estrogen receptor gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Astatotilapia burtoni, dominant males have higher levels of sex steroid hormones than subordinate males. Because of the complex regulatory interactions between steroid hormones and receptors, we asked whether dominance is also associated with variation in sex steroid receptor gene expression. Using quantitative PCR, we compared the expression of specific subtypes of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptor genes between

Sabrina S. Burmeister; Vinita Kailasanath; Russell D. Fernald



The Evolution of Mammalian Olfactory Receptor Genes  

PubMed Central

We performed a comparative study of four subfamilies of olfactory receptor genes first identified in the dog to assess changes in the gene family during mammalian evolution, and to begin linking the dog genetic map to that of humans. The human subfamilies were localized to chromosomes 7, 11, and 19. The two subfamilies that were tightly linked in the dog genome were also tightly linked in the human genome. The four subfamilies were compared in human (primate), horse (perissodactyl), and a variety of artiodactyls and carnivores. Some changes in gene number were detected, but overall subfamily size appeared to have been established before the divergence of these mammals 60-100 million years ago. PMID:9017400

Issel-Tarver, L.; Rine, J.



Gene Specific Actions of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Subtypes  

PubMed Central

There are two homologous thyroid hormone (TH) receptors (TRs ? and ?), which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) family. While TRs regulate different processes in vivo and other highly related NRs regulate distinct gene sets, initial studies of TR action revealed near complete overlaps in their actions at the level of individual genes. Here, we assessed the extent that TR? and TR? differ in target gene regulation by comparing effects of equal levels of stably expressed exogenous TRs +/? T3 in two cell backgrounds (HepG2 and HeLa). We find that hundreds of genes respond to T3 or to unliganded TRs in both cell types, but were not able to detect verifiable examples of completely TR subtype-specific gene regulation. TR actions are, however, far from identical and we detect TR subtype-specific effects on global T3 response kinetics in HepG2 cells and many examples of TR subtype specificity at the level of individual genes, including effects on magnitude of response to TR +/? T3, TR regulation patterns and T3 dose response. Cycloheximide (CHX) treatment confirms that at least some differential effects involve verifiable direct TR target genes. TR subtype/gene-specific effects emerge in the context of widespread variation in target gene response and we suggest that gene-selective effects on mechanism of TR action highlight differences in TR subtype function that emerge in the environment of specific genes. We propose that differential TR actions could influence physiologic and pharmacologic responses to THs and selective TR modulators (STRMs). PMID:23300972

Yuan, Chaoshen; Su, Jing; Arumanayagam, AnithaChristy S.; Firouzbakht, Sharareh; Cantu Pompa, Jaime J.; Reynolds, Frances Denoto; Zhou, Xiabo; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Webb, Paul



The olfactory receptor gene superfamily: data mining, classification, and nomenclature  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The vertebrate olfactory receptor (OR) subgenome harbors the largest known gene family, which has been expanded by the need\\u000a to provide recognition capacity for millions of potential odorants. We implemented an automated procedure to identify all\\u000a OR coding regions from published sequences. This led us to the identification of 831 OR coding regions (including pseudogenes)\\u000a from 24 vertebrate species.

Gustavo Glusman; Anita Bahar; Dror Sharon; Yitzhak Pilpel; Julia White; Doron Lancet



Genes affecting the activity of nicotinic receptors involved in Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying behavior.  

PubMed Central

Egg-laying behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by multiple neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine and serotonin. Agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors such as nicotine and levamisole stimulate egg laying; however, the genetic and molecular basis for cholinergic neurotransmission in the egg-laying circuitry is not well understood. Here we describe the egg-laying phenotypes of eight levamisole resistance genes, which affect the activity of levamisole-sensitive nicotinic receptors in nematodes. Seven of these genes, including the nicotinic receptor subunit genes unc-29, unc-38, and lev-1, were essential for the stimulation of egg laying by levamisole, though they had only subtle effects on egg-laying behavior in the absence of drug. Thus, these genes appear to encode components of a nicotinic receptor that can promote egg laying but is not necessary for egg-laying muscle contraction. Since the levamisole-receptor mutants responded to other cholinergic drugs, other acetylcholine receptors are likely to function in parallel with the levamisole-sensitive receptors to mediate cholinergic neurotransmission in the egg-laying circuitry. In addition, since expression of functional unc-29 in muscle cells restored levamisole sensitivity under some but not all conditions, both neuronal and muscle cell UNC-29 receptors are likely to contribute to the regulation of egg-laying behavior. Mutations in one levamisole receptor gene, unc-38, also conferred both hypersensitivity and reduced peak response to serotonin; thus nicotinic receptors may play a role in regulating serotonin response pathways in the egg-laying neuromusculature. PMID:11290716

Kim, J; Poole, D S; Waggoner, L E; Kempf, A; Ramirez, D S; Treschow, P A; Schafer, W R



Neurotensin Receptor 1 Gene (NTSR1) Polymorphism Is Associated with Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecent molecular genetics studies showed significant associations between dopamine-related genes (including genes for dopamine receptors, transporters, and degradation) and working memory, but little is known about the role of genes for dopamine modulation, such as those related to neurotensin (NT), in working memory. A recent animal study has suggested that NT antagonist administration impaired working memory in a learning task.

Jin Li; Chuansheng Chen; Chunhui Chen; Qinghua He; He Li; Jun Li; Robert K. Moyzis; Gui Xue; Qi Dong



Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphism and juvenile idiopathic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) has been suggested as a candidate gene affecting juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) course and prognosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the glucocorticoid receptor gene BclI polymorphism (rs41423247) in JIA patients, the gene's role in susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and its associations with JIA activity, course and bone mineralization. METHODS: One

Mikhail M Kostik; Alexandra A Klyushina; Mikhail V Moskalenko; Larisa A Scheplyagina; Valentina I Larionova



A Framework for Exploring Functional Variability in Olfactory Receptor Genes  

E-print Network

Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, 4 Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America Background. Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Since nearly all OR genes are orphan receptors, inference of functional

Crasto, Chiquito


Effect of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms on asthma phenotypes.  


The clinical presentation of asthma results from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The natural variability of the DNA sequence within the NR3C1 gene affects the activity of glucocorticoid receptors (GCRs). The NR3C1 gene is localized on chromosome 5q31-q32. The gene coding for the GCR comprises nine exons. The structural domains of the GCR determine the biological functions of the functional domains. The observed resistance to glucocorticosteroids and the normal metabolic profile of Tth111I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) carriers is due to the ER22/23EK polymorphism that is present in them. BclI polymorphism significantly affects the process of alternative NR3C1 gene splicing and within that mechanism increases the sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). A total of 451 subjects were enrolled in the present study, including 235 qualified to the group of bronchial asthma patients. A group of 216 healthy participants with no history of asthma or atopic conditions was qualified for the study. Genotyping was accomplished using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR-high resolution melting (HRM) methods. No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of Tth111I, BclI and ER22/23EK polymorphisms of the NR3C1 gene when comparing mild, moderate and severe asthma vs. the control group. Investigative analyses demonstrated statistically significant correlations for alleles and genotypes of Tth111I polymorphism of the NR3C1 gene between healthy subjects and patients with severe asthma characterized by a control profile corresponding to an Asthma Control Test (ACT)™ score ?20. It was established that only the Tth111I polymorphism of the NR3C1 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis leading to the development of asthma with both allergic and non-allergic etiology. PMID:23407653

Panek, Micha?; Pietras, Tadeusz; Fabijan, Artur; Mi?anowski, Maciej; Wieteska, Lukasz; Górski, Pawe?; Kuna, Piotr; Szemraj, Janusz



Effect of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms on asthma phenotypes  

PubMed Central

The clinical presentation of asthma results from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The natural variability of the DNA sequence within the NR3C1 gene affects the activity of glucocorticoid receptors (GCRs). The NR3C1 gene is localized on chromosome 5q31–q32. The gene coding for the GCR comprises nine exons. The structural domains of the GCR determine the biological functions of the functional domains. The observed resistance to glucocorticosteroids and the normal metabolic profile of Tth111I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) carriers is due to the ER22/23EK polymorphism that is present in them. BclI polymorphism significantly affects the process of alternative NR3C1 gene splicing and within that mechanism increases the sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). A total of 451 subjects were enrolled in the present study, including 235 qualified to the group of bronchial asthma patients. A group of 216 healthy participants with no history of asthma or atopic conditions was qualified for the study. Genotyping was accomplished using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR-high resolution melting (HRM) methods. No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of Tth111I, BclI and ER22/23EK polymorphisms of the NR3C1 gene when comparing mild, moderate and severe asthma vs. the control group. Investigative analyses demonstrated statistically significant correlations for alleles and genotypes of Tth111I polymorphism of the NR3C1 gene between healthy subjects and patients with severe asthma characterized by a control profile corresponding to an Asthma Control Test (ACT)™ score ?20. It was established that only the Tth111I polymorphism of the NR3C1 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis leading to the development of asthma with both allergic and non-allergic etiology. PMID:23407653




A unique secondary-structure switch controls constitutive gene repression by retinoic acid receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of ligand, some nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), act as transcriptional repressors by recruiting corepressor complexes to target genes. This constitutive repression is crucial in metazoan reproduction, development and homeostasis. However, its specific molecular determinants had remained obscure. Using structural, biochemical and cell-based assays, we show that the basal repressive activity of RAR is conferred

Albane le Maire; Catherine Teyssier; Cathie Erb; Marina Grimaldi; Susana Alvarez; Angel R de Lera; Patrick Balaguer; Hinrich Gronemeyer; Catherine A Royer; Pierre Germain; William Bourguet



Chicken interferons, their receptors and interferon-stimulated genes.  


The prevalence of pathogenic viruses is a serious issue as they pose a constant threat to both the poultry industry and to human health. To prevent these viral infections an understanding of the host-virus response is critical, especially for the development of novel therapeutics. One approach in the control of viral infections would be to boost the immune response through administration of cytokines, such as interferons. However, the innate immune response in chickens is poorly characterised, particularly concerning the interferon pathway. This review will provide an overview of our current understanding of the interferon system of chickens, including their cognate receptors and known interferon-stimulated gene products. PMID:23751330

Goossens, Kate E; Ward, Alister C; Lowenthal, John W; Bean, Andrew G D



Identification of genes expressed in C. elegans touch receptor neurons.  


The extent of gene regulation in cell differentiation is poorly understood. We previously used saturation mutagenesis to identify 18 genes that are needed for the development and function of a single type of sensory neuron--the touch receptor neuron for gentle touch in Caenorhabditis elegans. One of these genes, mec-3, encodes a transcription factor that controls touch receptor differentiation. By culturing and isolating wild-type and mec-3 mutant cells from embryos and applying their amplified RNA to DNA microarrays, here we have identified genes that are known to be expressed in touch receptors, a previously uncloned gene (mec-17) that is needed for maintaining touch receptor differentiation, and more than 50 previously unknown mec-3-dependent genes. These genes are randomly distributed in the genome and under-represented both for genes that are co-expressed in operons and for multiple members of gene families. Using regions 5' of the start codon of the first 20 genes, we have also identified an over-represented heptanucleotide, AATGCAT, that is needed for the expression of touch receptor genes. PMID:12124626

Zhang, Yun; Ma, Charles; Delohery, Thomas; Nasipak, Brian; Foat, Barrett C; Bounoutas, Alexander; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Kim, Stuart K; Chalfie, Martin



Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita



Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.  

PubMed Central

Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M



Gene conversion between mammalian CCR2 and CCR5 chemokine receptor genes: a potential mechanism for receptor dimerization.  


The chemokine receptor genes of the CCR cluster on human chromosome 3p21 play important roles in humoral and cellular immune responses. Several of these receptors have been shown to influence human immunodeficiency virus infection and progression to AIDS, and their homologues may play a role in feline immunodeficiency virus infection. We report the isolation and sequencing of a 150-kb domestic cat BAC clone containing the feline CCR genes CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR5 to further analyze these four receptor genes within the family Felidae. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses reveal evidence for historic gene conversion between the adjacent CCR2 and CCR5 genes in the Felidae and in three independent mammalian orders (Primates, Cetartiodactyla, and Rodentia), resulting in higher than expected levels of sequence similarity between the two paralogous genes within each order. The gene conversion was restricted to the structural (transmembrane) domains of the CCR2 and CCR5 genes. We also discovered a recent gene conversion event between the third extracellular loop of CCR2 and CCR5 genes that was fixed in Asian lions and found at low frequency in African lions (Panthera leo), suggesting that this domain may have an important functional role. Our results suggest that ongoing parallel gene conversion between CCR2 and CCR5 promotes receptor heterodimerization in independent evolutionary lineages and offers an effective adaptive strategy for gene editing and coevolution among interactive immune response genes in mammals. PMID:17544254

Vàzquez-Salat, Núria; Yuhki, Naoya; Beck, Thomas; O'Brien, Stephen J; Murphy, William J



Amplification and Expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene in Human Glioma Xenografts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenografts from eight malignant human gliomas were established in athymic mice and were used to study amplification and expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Tissue identity between biopsy and xenografts was confirmed by karyotypic profiles, which showed that each glioma xenograft retained structural abnormalities, including double minute chromosomes, present in the parent glioma. EGFR gene amplification was

Peter A. Humphrey; Albert J. Wong; Bert Vogelstein; Henry S. Friedman; Mark H. Werner; Dareil D. Bigner; Sandra H. Bigner


A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the progesterone receptor gene associated with endometrial cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone strongly predisposes to endometrial cancer. Because the antiproliferative effect of progesterone requires the progesterone receptor (PR), which exists in two isoforms, PR-A and -B, we reasoned that variants in the PR gene may predispose to endometrial cancer. We found six variable sites, including four polymorphisms in the hPR gene and five common haplotypes. One

Immaculata de Vivo; Gordon S. Huggins; Susan E. Hankinson; Pamela J. Lescault; Marike Boezen; Graham A. Colditz; David J. Hunter



Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. PMID:24800820

Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Francoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre



mGLU receptors antagonists for treating disorders associated with mGLU receptors including addiction and depression  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods are provided for treating disorders associated with mGlu receptors by simultaneously inhibiting at least two mGluRs belonging to at least two different groups. In one embodiment, there are provided methods for treating a disorder associated with mGlu receptors 2, 3, and 5, including administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of at least one antagonist which modulates mGluR2, mGluR3, and mGluRS. The disorders treated by the method include, for example, nicotine addiction, cocaine addiction, and depression.



Horse ( Equus caballus ) T-cell receptor alpha, gamma, and delta chain genes: nucleotide sequences and tissue-specific gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor alpha (TCRA), gamma (TCRG), and delta (TCRD) chain genes were isolated from a cDNA library and characterized. Five unique TCRAV families, including four full-length sequences, five distinct TCRAJ genes, and a single TCRAC gene were identified. TCRAV genes had closest homology with human sequences and least similarity to rat genes. Among eight horse TCRG genes,

M. D. Schrenzel; D. A. Ferrick



RESEARCH Open Access Transient receptor potential genes, smoking,  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Increased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor gene  

E-print Network

Increased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor gene Allan V. Kalue¡,1,CA Yan-Ru Lou,1 Ilkka.0000129370.04248.92 Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with many important functions in the brain, mediated through the vitamin D nuclear receptor. Nu- merous human and animal data link vitamin D dysfunctions

Kalueff, Allan V.


Altered Target Gene Regulation Controlled by Estrogen Receptor-Concentration  

E-print Network

Altered Target Gene Regulation Controlled by Estrogen Receptor- Concentration Amy M. Fowler of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Estrogen receptor- (ER ) is a transcriptional ac- tivator whose concentration is tightly regulated by the cellular environment. In breast tumors of post- menopausal women

Alarid, Elaine T.


A putative receptor protein kinase gene in Ipomoea trifida.  


We have characterized a cDNA clone, IRK1, for a putative receptor kinase from a stigma cDNA library of Ipomoea trifida. IRK1 protein contains an extracellular receptor-like domain and the consensus sequences diagnostic of serine/threonine protein kinase. Both the pattern of gene expression and the results of RFLP analysis indicate that the IRK1 gene is not primarily involved in the self-incompatibility system of Ipomoea. PMID:8819313

Kowyama, Y; Kakeda, K; Kondo, K; Imada, T; Hattori, T



Relationship between polymorphism of insulin receptor gene, and adiponectin gene with PCOS  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease having both genetic and environmental components and candidate genes on obesity and insulin metabolism have been hypothesized to be involved in its etiology. Objective: We examined the possible association of adiponectin and insulin receptor gene polymorphisms with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 186 women with PCOS using NIH criteria and 156 healthy women were recruited. Their samples were genotyped for the polymorphism in exon 17 and 8 of the insulin receptor gene or exon and intron 2 of the adiponectin gene. Results: The distributions of genotypes and alleles of both polymorphisms were not different in women with PCOS and controls. There was no significant differences on the anthropometric and hormonal profiles of various adiponectin and insulin receptor genes polymorphisms among both groups. Conclusion: Adiponectin and insulin receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with PCOS in a sample of Iranian population. PMID:24639745

Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Daneshpour, Maryam; Hashemi, Somayeh; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Feridoun



Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation in the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.

Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S. [Univ. of Bonn (Georgia); Hebebrand, J. [Univ. of Marburg (Georgia)] [and others



Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain  

SciTech Connect

In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons.

Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B. (Universite de Bordeaux II (France))



Characterisation of the legume SERK-NIK gene superfamily including splice variants: Implications for development and defence  

PubMed Central

Background SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) genes are part of the regulation of diverse signalling events in plants. Current evidence shows SERK proteins function both in developmental and defence signalling pathways, which occur in response to both peptide and steroid ligands. SERKs are generally present as small gene families in plants, with five SERK genes in Arabidopsis. Knowledge gained primarily through work on Arabidopsis SERKs indicates that these proteins probably interact with a wide range of other receptor kinases and form a fundamental part of many essential signalling pathways. The SERK1 gene of the model legume, Medicago truncatula functions in somatic and zygotic embryogenesis, and during many phases of plant development, including nodule and lateral root formation. However, other SERK genes in M. truncatula and other legumes are largely unidentified and their functions unknown. Results To aid the understanding of signalling pathways in M. truncatula, we have identified and annotated the SERK genes in this species. Using degenerate PCR and database mining, eight more SERK-like genes have been identified and these have been shown to be expressed. The amplification and sequencing of several different PCR products from one of these genes is consistent with the presence of splice variants. Four of the eight additional genes identified are upregulated in cultured leaf tissue grown on embryogenic medium. The sequence information obtained from M. truncatula was used to identify SERK family genes in the recently sequenced soybean (Glycine max) genome. Conclusions A total of nine SERK or SERK-like genes have been identified in M. truncatula and potentially 17 in soybean. Five M. truncatula SERK genes arose from duplication events not evident in soybean and Lotus. The presence of splice variants has not been previously reported in a SERK gene. Upregulation of four newly identified SERK genes (in addition to the previously described MtSERK1) in embryogenic tissue cultures suggests these genes also play a role in the process of somatic embryogenesis. The phylogenetic relationship of members of the SERK gene family to closely related genes, and to development and defence function is discussed. PMID:21385462



Comparative Genomics of Natural Killer Cell Receptor Gene Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many receptors on natural killer (NK) cells recognize major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in order to monitor unhealthy tissues, such as cells infected with viruses, and some tumors. Genes encoding families of NK receptors and related sequences are organized into two main clusters in humans: the natural killer complex on Chromosome 12p13.1, which encodes C-type lectin molecules, and the

James Kelley; Lutz Walter; John Trowsdale



Olfactory receptor gene repertoires in mammals.  


In mammals, olfaction is mediated by two distinct organs that are located in the nasal cavity: the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) that binds volatile odorants is responsible for the conscious perception of odors, and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) that binds pheromones is responsible for various behavioral and neuroendocrine responses between individuals of a same species. Odorants and pheromones bind to seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptors that permit signal transduction. These receptors are encoded by large multigene families that evolved in mammal species in function of specific olfactory needs. PMID:17166524

Rouquier, Sylvie; Giorgi, Dominique



Gene expression profiles linked to AT1 angiotensin receptors in the kidney  

PubMed Central

To characterize gene expression networks linked to AT1 angiotensin receptors in the kidney, we carried out genome-wide transcriptional analysis of RNA from kidneys of wild-type (WT) and AT1A receptor-deficient mice (KOs) at baseline and after 2 days of angiotensin II infusion (1,000 ng·kg?1·min?1). At baseline, 405 genes were differentially expressed (>1.5×) between WT and KO kidneys. Of these, >80% were upregulated in the KO group including genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation. After 2 days of angiotensin II infusion in WT mice, expression of ?805 genes was altered (18% upregulated, 82% repressed). Genes in metabolism and ion transport pathways were upregulated while there was attenuated expression of genes protective against oxidative stress including glutathione synthetase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2. Angiotensin II infusion had little effect on blood pressure in KOs. Nonetheless, expression of >250 genes was altered in kidneys from KO mice during angiotensin II infusion; 14% were upregulated, while 86% were repressed including genes involved in immune responses, angiogenesis, and glutathione metabolism. Between WT and KO kidneys during angiotensin II infusion, 728 genes were differentially expressed; 10% were increased and 90% were decreased in the WT group. Differentially regulated pathways included those involved in ion transport, immune responses, metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and oxidative stress. This genome-wide assessment should facilitate identification of critical distal pathways linked to blood pressure regulation. PMID:20807774

Makhanova, Natalia A.; Crowley, Steven D.; Griffiths, Robert C.



Cloning and Characterization of the Type I Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Gene Promoter  

PubMed Central

The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor is essential for signal Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and for capacitative Ca2+ entry. We have isolated the promoter and proximal DNA segments of the human type I InsP3 receptor gene. Transcription initiation in human G-292 osteosarcoma and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells was shown to occur predominantly from an adenine residue located 39 base pairs downstream of a consensus TATA box element. Upstream DNA including the TATA box promoted directional transcription of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene when transfected into G-292 cells. A negative regulatory element in the distal promoter and a positive element in the proximal region were identified by deletion mapping and transcription assays. The proximal region enhanced transcription in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or serum, but conferred transcriptional repression in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or 17?-estradiol. The repressive effect of 17?-estradiol was mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptor, as estrogen-dependent transcriptional repression was inhibited by the antiestrogen tamoxifen and the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. This is the first study of the type I InsP3 receptor gene promoter, and the results suggest a mechanism by which chronic estrogen treatment of osteoblasts affects type I InsP3 receptor gene expression, signal transduction, and secretion. PMID:9278393

Kirkwood, Keith L.; Homick, Kristen; Dragon, Marc B.; Bradford, Peter G.



Androgen receptor agonism promotes an osteogenic gene program in preadipocytes  

PubMed Central

Androgens regulate body composition by interacting with the androgen receptor (AR) to control gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. To identify novel regulatory roles for AR in preadipocytes, we created a 3T3-L1 cell line stably expressing human AR. We found AR expression is required for androgen-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. This inhibition is characterized by decreased lipid accumulation, reduced expression of adipogenic genes, and induction of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest androgens promote an osteogenic gene program at the expense of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23567971

Hartig, Sean M.; Feng, Qin; Ochsner, Scott A.; Xiao, Rui; McKenna, Neil J.; McGuire, Sean E.; He, Bin



Comparison of the Olfactory Receptor Genes in Canines and Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dogs are known for their acute sense of smell. Humans are not. Do dogs have a higher percentage of functional olfactory receptors as compared to humans and other primates? Students will be assigned to obtain the full length genetic sequence of five olfactory receptor (OR) genes from their assigned OR family. (See website below.) Students will determine if a functional orthologous gene is present in the human genome, in the genome of a great ape, and in the sequence of a monkey. The class will pool their data and analyze for the percentage of pseudogenes present in each group.

Gary Ogden (St. Mary's University;); Brenda Whaley (Houston Baptist University;); Donald Frohlich (University of St. Thomas;); Jae-Ho Kim (Rogers State University;)



Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR? serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPAR? binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPAR? governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPAR? is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPAR? in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPAR? target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPAR? in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Muller, Michael; Kersten, Sander



MCH receptors/gene structure-in vivo expression  

PubMed Central

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide which was originally discovered in fish to lighten skin color by affecting melanosomes aggregation. This peptide is highly conserved and also found in rodents whose gene is overexpressed upon fasting. However, the site of MCH action remained obscure until its receptor was discovered in 1999 as a G protein-coupled receptor. After this receptor structure was identified, the functional domains important for MCH-MCHR interaction were revealed. Moreover, the cloning of the MCH receptor led us to identify the in vivo sites of MCH action which suggested potential physiological functions of the MCH system. Furthermore, the MCH receptor identification allow for designing surrogate molecules which can block MCH activity. Studies using these molecules revealed various physiological functions of the MCH system not only in feeding but also in other physiological responses such as stress and emotion. This review will discuss how the MCH receptor was discovered and its impact on many studies investigating the MCH receptor’s structure, signaling pathways, and expression pattern. PMID:19647772

Chung, Shinjae; Saito, Yumiko; Civelli, Olivier



Multiple Yeast Genes, Including Paf1 Complex Genes, Affect Telomere Length via Telomerase RNA Abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomere length is a quantitative trait affected by more than 273 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1, 9, 12). To put this number into perspective, genes representing nearly 5% of the 6,000-gene yeast genome (15) influence telomeres. Some of these genes directly impact telomere homeostasis, either by contributing to the activity of the telomerase enzyme or by affecting the physical state

Amy D. Mozdy; Elaine R. Podell; Thomas R. Cech



Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor ? gene in endometrial cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) gene are involved in endometrial cancer. To test this hypothesis, the genotype distributions of six different loci (codon 10 T?C, codon 87 G?C, codon 243 C?T, codon 325 C?G, codon 594 G?A, and intron 1 C?G) of the ER? gene were investigated and their association with endometrial cancer was determined. The

Masahiro Sasaki; Yuichiro Tanaka; Masanori Kaneuchi; Noriaki Sakuragi; Rajvir Dahiya



derived growth factor ? -receptor gene predispose to human neural tube defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural tube defects (NTDs), including anencephaly and spina bifida, are multifactorial diseases that occur with an incidence of 1 in 300 births in the United Kingdom 1 . Mouse models have indicated that deregulated expression of the gene encoding the platelet-derived growth factor ? -receptor (Pdgfra) causes congenital NTDs (refs. 2-4), whereas mutant forms of Pax-1 that have been associated

Paul H. L. J. Joosten; Mascha Toepoel; Edwin C. M. Mariman; J. J. Van Zoelen


NK gene complex dynamics and selection for NK cell receptors  

PubMed Central

Natural Killer (NK) cells play important roles in innate defense against infectious agents particularly viruses and also tumors. They mediate their effects through direct cytolysis, release of cytokines and regulation of subsequent adaptive immune responses. NK cells are equipped with sophisticated arrays of inhibitory and activation receptors that regulate their function. In this review we illustrate some of the major evolutionary relationships between NK cell receptors among different animal species and what some of the major mechanisms are that give rise to this diversity in receptor families, including the potential roles of pathogens such as viruses in driving receptor evolution. PMID:18640056

Brown, Michael G.; Scalzo, Anthony A.



Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd (binding affinity) and Bmax (number of binding sites)) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism.

Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J. (Neuropsychiatric Institute, UCLA (USA))



Common Promoter Elements in Odorant and Vomeronasal Receptor Genes  

PubMed Central

In mammals, odorants and pheromones are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs) and vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs and V2Rs) expressed by sensory neurons that are respectively located in the main olfactory epithelium and in the vomeronasal organ. Even though these two olfactory systems are functionally and anatomically separate, their sensory neurons show a common mechanism of receptor gene regulation: each neuron expresses a single receptor gene from a single allele. The mechanisms underlying OR and VR gene expression remain unclear. Here we investigated if OR and V1R genes share common sequences in their promoter regions. We conducted a comparative analysis of promoter regions of 39 mouse V1R genes and found motifs that are common to a large number of promoters. We then searched mouse OR promoter regions for motifs that resemble the ones found in the V1R promoters. We identified motifs that are present in both the V1R and OR promoter regions. Some of these motifs correspond to the known O/E like binding sites while others resemble binding sites for transcriptional repressors. We show that one of these motifs specifically interacts with proteins extracted from both nuclei from olfactory and vomeronasal neurons. Our study is the first to identify motifs that resemble binding sites for repressors in the promoters of OR and V1R genes. Analysis of these motifs and of the proteins that bind to these motifs should reveal important aspects of the mechanisms of OR/V1R gene regulation. PMID:22216168

Michaloski, Jussara S.; Galante, Pedro A. F.; Nagai, Maira H.; Armelin-Correa, Lucia; Chien, Ming-Shan; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Malnic, Bettina



Refolding and characterization of a soluble ectodomain complex of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor.  


The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor is a heterodimer of two membrane proteins: calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). CLR is a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), possessing a characteristic large amino-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) important for ligand recognition and binding. Dimerization of CLR with RAMP1 provides specificity for CGRP versus related agonists. Here we report the expression, purification, and refolding of a soluble form of the CGRP receptor comprising a heterodimer of the CLR and RAMP1 ECDs. The extracellular protein domains corresponding to residues 23-133 of CLR and residues 26-117 of RAMP1 were shown to be sufficient for formation of a stable, monodisperse complex. The binding affinity of the purified ECD complex for the CGRP peptide was significantly lower than that of the native receptor (IC(50) of 12 microM for the purified ECD complex vs 233 pM for membrane-bound CGRP receptor), indicating that other regions of CLR and/or RAMP1 are important for peptide agonist binding. However, high-affinity binding to known potent and specific nonpeptide antagonists of the CGRP receptor, including olcegepant and telcagepant (K(D) < 0.02 muM), as well as N-terminally truncated peptides and peptide analogues (140 nM to 1.62 microM) was observed. PMID:20099900

Koth, Christopher M; Abdul-Manan, Norzehan; Lepre, Christopher A; Connolly, Peter J; Yoo, Sanghee; Mohanty, Arun K; Lippke, Judith A; Zwahlen, Jacque; Coll, Joyce T; Doran, John D; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Moore, Jonathan M



Mineralocorticoid receptor interaction with SP1 generates a new response element for pathophysiologically relevant gene expression.  


The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-induced transcription factor belonging to the steroid receptor family and involved in water-electrolyte homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the renocardiovascular system. The MR shares a common hormone-response-element with the glucocorticoid receptor but nevertheless elicits MR-specific effects including enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression via unknown mechanisms. The EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that leads to activation of MAP kinases, but that can also function as a signal transducer for other signaling pathways. In the present study, we mechanistically investigate the interaction between a newly discovered MR- but not glucocorticoid receptor- responsive-element (=MRE1) of the EGFR promoter, specificity protein 1 (SP1) and MR to gain general insights into MR-specificity. Biological relevance of the interaction for EGFR expression and consequently for different signaling pathways in general is demonstrated in human, rat and murine vascular smooth muscle cells and cells of EGFR knockout mice. A genome-wide promoter search for identical binding regions followed by quantitative PCR validation suggests that the identified MR-SP1-MRE1 interaction might be applicable to other genes. Overall, a novel principle of MR-specific gene expression is explored that applies to the pathophysiologically relevant expression of the EGFR and potentially also to other genes. PMID:23821666

Meinel, Sandra; Ruhs, Stefanie; Schumann, Katja; Strätz, Nicole; Trenkmann, Kay; Schreier, Barbara; Grosse, Ivo; Keilwagen, Jens; Gekle, Michael; Grossmann, Claudia



Mice with an Increased Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Dosage Show Enhanced Resistance to Stress and Endotoxic Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted mutagenesis of the glucocorticoid receptor has revealed an essential function for survival and the regulation of multiple physiological processes. To investigate the effects of an increased gene dosage of the receptor, we have generated transgenic mice carrying two additional copies of the glucocorticoid receptor gene by using a yeast artificial chromosome. Interestingly, overexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor alters the




Linkage analysis of schizophrenia with five dopamine receptor genes in nine pedigrees  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia for nearly 2 decades. Recently, the genes for five dopamine receptors have been cloned and characterized, and genetic and physical map information has become available. Using these five loci as candidate genes, the authors have tested for genetic linkage to schizophrenia in nine multigenerational families which include multiple affected individuals. In addition to testing conservative disease models, the have used a neurophysiological indicator variable, the P50 auditory evoked response. Deficits in gating of the P50 response have been shown to segregate with schizophrenia in this sample and may identify carriers of gene(s) predisposing for schizophrenia. Linkage results were consistently negative, indicating that a defect at any of the actual receptor sites is unlikely to be a major contributor to schizophrenia in the nine families studied. 47 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Coon, H.; Byerley, W.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.; Myles-Worsley, M.; Plaetke, R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Lannfelt, L. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Sokoloff, P.; Schwartz, J.C. (Unite de Neurobiologie et de Pharmacologie de l'INSERM, Paris (France)); Waldo, M.; Freedman, R. (Univ. of Colorado, Denver (United States))



Identical Splicing of Aberrant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcripts from Amplified Rearranged Genes in Human Glioblastomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal growth factor receptor gene has been found to be amplified and rearranged in human glioblastomas in vivo. Here we present the sequence across a splice junction of aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor transcripts derived from corresponding and uniquely rearranged genes that are coamplified and coexpressed with non-rearranged epidermal growth factor receptor genes in six primary human glioblastomas. Each

Noriaki Sugawa; A. Jonas Ekstrand; C. David James; V. Peter Collins



CRDB: database of chemosensory receptor gene families in vertebrate.  


Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of 'birth-and-death' evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates. PMID:22393364

Dong, Dong; Jin, Ke; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhong, Yang



Identification of chemosensory receptor genes in Manduca sexta and knockdown by RNA interference  

PubMed Central

Background Insects detect environmental chemicals via a large and rapidly evolving family of chemosensory receptor proteins. Although our understanding of the molecular genetic basis for Drosophila chemoreception has increased enormously in the last decade, similar understanding in other insects remains limited. The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, has long been an important model for insect chemosensation, particularly from ecological, behavioral, and physiological standpoints. It is also a major agricultural pest on solanaceous crops. However, little sequence information and lack of genetic tools has prevented molecular genetic analysis in this species. The ability to connect molecular genetic mechanisms, including potential lineage-specific changes in chemosensory genes, to ecologically relevant behaviors and specializations in M. sexta would be greatly beneficial. Results Here, we sequenced transcriptomes from adult and larval chemosensory tissues and identified chemosensory genes based on sequence homology. We also used dsRNA feeding as a method to induce RNA interference in larval chemosensory tissues. Conclusions We report identification of new chemosensory receptor genes including 17 novel odorant receptors and one novel gustatory receptor. Further, we demonstrate that systemic RNA interference can be used in larval olfactory neurons to reduce expression of chemosensory receptor transcripts. Together, our results further the development of M. sexta as a model for functional analysis of insect chemosensation. PMID:22646846



Pathogen recognition receptors in channel catfish: II. Identification, phylogeny and expression of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs).  


Vertebrates including teleost fish have evolved an array of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) for detecting and responding to various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs), and the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs). As a part of the series of studies targeted to characterize catfish PRRs, we described 22 NLR receptors in the sister contribution. Here in this study, we focused on cytosolic PRRs recognizing nucleotide pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of invading viruses, the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR receptors). Three RLRs with DExD/H domain containing RNA helicases, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), were identified from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The catfish RIG-I encodes 937 amino acids that contains two CARDs, a DExDc, a HELICc and a RD domains. MDA5 encodes 1005 amino acids with all the domains identified for RIG-I. LGP2 encodes 677 amino acids that contain other domains but not the CARD domain at the N-terminus. Phylogenetic analyses of the three genes of catfish showed close clustering with their counterparts from other teleost fish. All the genes were found to be constitutively expressed in various tissues of catfish with minor variations. Channel catfish ovarian cells when infected with channel catfish virus showed significant increase in the transcript abundance of all the three genes. Further, RLR genes showed significant increases in expression in the liver tissue collected at different time-points after bacterial infection as well. The results indicate that the catfish RLRs may play important roles in antiviral and anti-bacterial immune responses. PMID:22387588

Rajendran, K V; Zhang, Jiaren; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Wang, Xiuli; Liu, Hong; Wood, Theresa; Terhune, Jeffery; Liu, Zhanjiang



Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions  

PubMed Central

Background One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY) receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian lineage, based on their location on chromosomes sharing several gene families. In this study we have investigated, in five vertebrate genomes, 45 gene families with members close to the NPY receptor genes in the compact genomes of the teleost fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Takifugu rubripes. These correspond to Homo sapiens chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10. Results Chromosome regions with conserved synteny were identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses in H. sapiens, M. musculus, D. rerio, T. rubripes and T. nigroviridis. 26 gene families, including the NPY receptor genes, (plus 3 described recently by other labs) showed a tree topology consistent with duplications in early vertebrate evolution and in the actinopterygian lineage, thereby supporting expansion through block duplications. Eight gene families had complications that precluded analysis (such as short sequence length or variable number of repeated domains) and another eight families did not support block duplications (because the paralogs in these families seem to have originated in another time window than the proposed genome duplication events). RT-PCR carried out with several tissues in T. rubripes revealed that all five NPY receptors were expressed in the brain and subtypes Y2, Y4 and Y8 were also expressed in peripheral organs. Conclusion We conclude that the phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal locations of these gene families support duplications of large blocks of genes or even entire chromosomes. Thus, these results are consistent with two early vertebrate tetraploidizations forming a paralogon comprising human chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10 and one teleost tetraploidization. The combination of positional and phylogenetic data further strengthens the identification of orthologs and paralogs in the NPY receptor family. PMID:18578868



Molecular evolution of the odorant and gustatory receptor genes in lepidopteran insects: implications for their adaptation and speciation.  


Lepidoptera (comprised of butterflies and moths) is one of the largest groups of insects, including more than 160,000 described species. Chemoreception plays important roles in the adaptation of these species to a wide range of niches, e.g., plant hosts, egg-laying sites, and mates. This study investigated the molecular evolution of the lepidopteran odorant (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes using recently identified genes from Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius melpomene, Plutella xylostella, Heliothis virescens, Manduca sexta, Cydia pomonella, and Spodoptera littoralis. A limited number of cases of large lineage-specific gene expansion are observed (except in the P. xylostella lineage), possibly due to selection against tandem gene duplication. There has been strong purifying selection during the evolution of both lepidopteran odorant and gustatory genes, as shown by the low ? values estimated through CodeML analysis, ranging from 0.0093 to 0.3926. However, purifying selection has been relaxed on some amino acid sites in these receptors, leading to sequence divergence, which is a precursor of positive selection on these sequences. Signatures of positive selection were detected only in a few loci from the lineage-specific analysis. Estimation of gene gains and losses suggests that the common ancestor of the Lepidoptera had fewer Or genes compared to extant species and an even more reduced number of Gr genes, particularly within the bitter receptor clade. Multiple gene gains and a few gene losses occurred during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Gene family expansion may be associated with the adaptation of lepidopteran species to plant hosts, especially after angiosperm radiation. Phylogenetic analysis of the moth sex pheromone receptor genes suggested that chromosomal translocations have occurred several times. New sex pheromone receptors have arisen through tandem gene duplication. Positive selection was detected at some amino acid sites predicted to be in the extracellular and transmembrane regions of the newly duplicated genes, which might be associated with the evolution of the new pheromone receptors. PMID:25038840

Engsontia, Patamarerk; Sangket, Unitsa; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Satasook, Chutamas



The Cryptochrome Gene Family in Pea Includes Two Differentially Expressed CRY2 Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryptochromes are a family of blue light photoreceptors that play important roles in the control of plant development. We have characterised the cryptochrome gene family in the model legume garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). Pea contains three expressed cryptochrome genes; a single CRY1 orthologue, and two distinct CRY2 genes that we have termed CRY2a and CRY2b. Genomic southern blots indicate

J. Damien Platten; Eloise Foo; Fabrice Foucher; Valérie Hecht; James B. Reid; James L. Weller



Parallel evolution of domesticated Caenorhabditis species targets pheromone receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories1, indicating that discrete environmental shifts can select for reproducible genetic changes2-4. Conspecific individuals are an important feature of an animal's environment, and a potential source of selective pressures. We show here that adaptation of two Caenorhabditis species to growth at high density, a feature common to domestic environments, occurs by reproducible genetic changes to pheromone receptor genes. Chemical communication through pheromones that accumulate during high-density growth causes young nematode larvae to enter the long-lived but non-reproductive dauer stage. Two strains of Caenorhabditis elegans grown at high density have independently acquired multigenic resistance to pheromone-induced dauer formation. In each strain, resistance to the pheromone ascaroside C3 results from a deletion that disrupts the adjacent chemoreceptor genes serpentine receptor class g (srg)-36 and -37. Through misexpression experiments, we show that these genes encode redundant G protein-coupled receptors for ascaroside C3. Multigenic resistance to dauer formation has also arisen in high-density cultures of a different nematode species, Caenorhabditis briggsae, resulting in part from deletion of an srg gene paralogous to srg-36 and srg-37. These results demonstrate rapid remodeling of the chemoreceptor repertoire as an adaptation to specific environments, and indicate that parallel changes to a common genetic substrate can affect life history traits across species. PMID:21849976

McGrath, Patrick T.; Xu, Yifan; Ailion, Michael; Garrison, Jennifer L.; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.



The cryptochrome gene family in pea includes two differentially expressed CRY2 genes.  


The cryptochromes are a family of blue light photoreceptors that play important roles in the control of plant development. We have characterised the cryptochrome gene family in the model legume garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). Pea contains three expressed cryptochrome genes; a single CRY1 orthologue, and two distinct CRY2 genes that we have termed CRY2a and CRY2b. Genomic southern blots indicate that there are unlikely to be more CRY genes in pea. Each of the three genes encodes a full-length CRY protein that contains all the major domains characteristic of other higher plant cryptochromes. Database searches have identified Medicago truncatula expressed sequence tags (ESTs) corresponding to all three genes, whereas only a single CRY2 is represented in EST collections from the more distantly related legumes soybean and Lotus japonicus. The proteins encoded by the pea and Medicago CRY2b genes are distinguished from other CRY2 proteins by their shorter C-terminus. Expression analyses have identified marked differences in the regulation of the three genes, with CRY2b expression in particular distinguished by high-amplitude diurnal cycling and rapid repression in seedlings transferred from darkness to blue light. PMID:16244915

Platten, J Damien; Foo, Eloise; Foucher, Fabrice; Hecht, Valérie; Reid, James B; Weller, James L



Characterization of a dwarf gene in Brassica rapa , including the identification of a candidate gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwarf genes have been valuable for improving harvestable yield of several crop plants and may be useful in oilseed Brassica. We evaluated a dwarf gene, dwf2, from Brassica rapa in order to determine its phenotypic effects and genetic characteristics. The dwf2 mutant was insensitive to exogenous GA 3 for both plant height and flowering time, suggesting that it is not

A. Muangprom; T. C. Osborn



Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ?  

PubMed Central

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPCs). One agonist of PPAR? (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance (PM) including protein chaperones in the heat shock protein (Hsp) family and proteasomal genes (Psm) involved in proteolysis. We hypothesized that other PPAR? activators including diverse hypolipidemic and xenobiotic compounds also regulate PM genes in the rat and mouse liver. We examined the expression of PM genes in rat and mouse liver after exposure to 7 different PPCs (WY-14,643, clofibrate, fenofibrate, valproic acid, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctane sulfonate) using Affymetrix microarrays. In rats and mice, 174 or 380?PM genes, respectively, were regulated by at least one PPC. The transcriptional changes were, for the most part, dependent on PPAR?, as most changes were not observed in similarly treated PPAR?-null mice and the changes were not consistently observed in rats treated with activators of the nuclear receptors CAR or PXR. In rats and mice, PM gene expression exhibited differences compared to typical direct targets of PPAR? (e.g., Cyp4a family members). PM gene expression was usually delayed and in some cases, it was transient. Dose-response characterization of protein expression showed that Hsp86 and Hsp110 proteins were induced only at higher doses. These studies demonstrate that PPAR?, activated by diverse PPC, regulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in protein folding and degradation and support an expanded role for PPAR? in the regulation of genes that protect the proteome. PMID:21318169

Ren, Hongzu; Vallanat, Beena; Brown-Borg, Holly M.; Currie, Richard; Corton, J. Christopher



Intravenous RNA Interference Gene Therapy Targeting the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Prolongs Survival in Intracranial Brain Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an oncogenic role in solid cancer, including brain cancer. The present study was designed to prolong survival in mice with intracranial human brain cancer with the weekly i.v. injection of nonviral gene therapy causing RNA interference (RNAi) of EGFR gene expression. Experimental Design: Human U87 gliomas were im- planted in the

Yun Zhang; Yu-feng Zhang; Joshua Bryant; Andrew Charles; Ruben J. Boado; William M. Pardridge



Relationship between the Level of Hippocampal Leptin Receptor Gene Expression and Learning Performance in Diabetic Rats.  


Diabetes mellitus may be associated with impaired cognitive function. Decreased peripheral glucose regulation was associated with decreased general cognitive performance, memory impairments, and atrophy of the hippocampus, a brain area that is key for learning and memory. Leptin that is a peptide hormone, acts in the hippocampus where it facilitates the induction of long-term potentiation and enhances NMDA receptor mediated transmission. The aim of the present study is to investigate possible relationship between the hippocampal leptin receptor gene expression and learning performance in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In this study was conducted on a total of 40 Winstar albino female rats, including a control group consisting of 20 rats and experimental group comprising of 20 rats in which diabetes was induced by means of STZ administration. Leptin receptor gene expression was detected in hippocampal samples by using real time-PCR. According to the evaluation, the learning performance of rats with induced diabetes was found to be same throughout the first 3 days after STZ in comparison to the control group rats. End of the 45 days the learning performance of the control group was found to be better than the diabetic group (p<0.05). Hipocampal leptin receptor expression was found lower in diabetic group than the control group (p<0.05). The results provide evidence that leptin receptor gene may related to learning performance in diabetic rats. Further, detailed studies are needed to address the exact role of leptin and related molecules in learning performance. PMID:25380550

Demirel, C; Balc?, S O; Korkmaz, H; Akarsu, E



Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy of Chromosome 6 Causing a Complex Syndrome Including Complete IFN-? Receptor 1 Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with clinical disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species. Interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFN-?R1) deficiency is a genetic etiology of MSMD. We describe the clinical and genetic features of a seven-year-old Italian boy suffering from MSMD associated with a complex phenotype, including neonatal hyperglycemia, neuromuscular disease, and dysmorphic features. The child also developed necrotizing pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. The child is homozygous for a nonsense mutation in exon 3 of IFNGR1 as a result of paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of the entire chromosome 6. This is the first reported case of uniparental disomy resulting in a complex phenotype including MSMD. PMID:20186794

Prando, Carolina; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Grant, Audrey; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Bustamante, Jacinta; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Chapgier, Ariane; Rose, Yoann; Jannière, Lucile; Rizzardi, Elena; Zhang, Qiuping; Shanahan, Catherine M; Viollet, Louis; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Abel, Laurent; Ruga, Ezia Maria; Casanova, Jean-Laurent



A comparison of reptilian and avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: Species-specific expansion of group ? genes in birds  

PubMed Central

Background The detection of odorants is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs). ORs are G-protein coupled receptors that form a remarkably large protein superfamily in vertebrate genomes. We used data that became available through recent sequencing efforts of reptilian and avian genomes to identify the complete OR gene repertoires in a lizard, the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), and in two birds, the chicken (Gallus gallus) and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results We identified 156 green anole OR genes, including 42 pseudogenes. The OR gene repertoire of the two bird species was substantially larger with 479 and 553 OR gene homologs in the chicken and zebra finch, respectively (including 111 and 221 pseudogenes, respectively). We show that the green anole has a higher fraction of intact OR genes (~72%) compared with the chicken (~66%) and the zebra finch (~38%). We identified a larger number and a substantially higher proportion of intact OR gene homologs in the chicken genome than previously reported (214 versus 82 genes and 66% versus 15%, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis showed that lizard and bird OR gene repertoires consist of group ?, ? and ? genes. Interestingly, the vast majority of the avian OR genes are confined to a large expansion of a single branch (the so called ?-c clade). An analysis of the selective pressure on the paralogous genes of each ?-c clade revealed that they have been subjected to adaptive evolution. This expansion appears to be bird-specific and not sauropsid-specific, as it is lacking from the lizard genome. The ?-c expansions of the two birds do not intermix, i.e., they are lineage-specific. Almost all (group ?-c) OR genes mapped to the unknown chromosome. The remaining OR genes mapped to six homologous chromosomes plus three to four additional chromosomes in the zebra finch and chicken. Conclusion We identified a surprisingly large number of potentially functional avian OR genes. Our data supports recent evidence that avian olfactory ability may be better developed than previously thought. We hypothesize that the radiation of the group ?-c OR genes in each bird lineage parallels the evolution of specific olfactory sensory functions. PMID:19772566

Steiger, Silke S; Kuryshev, Vladimir Y; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Kempenaers, Bart; Mueller, Jakob C



Neuropeptide S Receptor 1: an Asthma Susceptibility Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positional cloning of Neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1) as an asthma susceptibility gene highlighted the notion that many\\u000a relevant disease pathways may have remained undiscovered until recently. Robust replications of the genetic effect of NPSR1\\u000a in asthma have paved a way for interaction studies. In a rapid pace, knowledge has been accumulated of the ligand and its\\u000a pharmacology as well

Juha Kere


The Estrogen Receptor ? Gene and Breast Cancer Risk (The Netherlands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate whether the PvuII, XbaI and B-variant polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor ? gene (ER-?) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and whether the effect of high estradiol (E2) levels on breast cancer risk is altered by these polymorphisms. The selection of these polymorphisms was based on

N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; Carla H. van Gils; Mark Roest; Diederick E. Grobbee; Petra H. M. Peeters



Assessing the Dynamics of Nuclear Glucocorticoid-Receptor Complex: Adding Flexibility to Gene Expression Modeling1  

PubMed Central

A retrospective analysis was performed to modify our fourth-generation pharmacodynamic model for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) dynamics with incorporation of more physiological features. This modified model was developed by integrating previously reported free cytosolic GR and GR mRNA data following single (10, 50 mg/kg) and dual (50 mg/kg at 0 and 24 hr) intravenous doses of methylprednisolone (MPL) in adrenalectomized (ADX) male Wistar rats with several in vitro studies describing real-time kinetics of the transfer of rat steroid-receptor complex from the cell cytosol to the nucleus. Additionally, free hepatic cytosolic GR and its mRNA data from a chronic infusion dosing study of MPL (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/hr) in male ADX Wistar rats were used to verify the predictability of the model. Incorporation of information regarding in vitro receptor kinetics allowed us to describe the receptor-mediated pharmacogenomic effects of MPL for a larger variety of genes in rat liver from microarray studies. These included early responsive gene like CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? (CEBP-?), a transcription factor, as well as the later responsive gene for tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), a classical biomarker of glucocorticoid (GC) genomic effects. This more mechanistic model of GR dynamics can be applied to characterize profiles for a greater number of genes in liver. PMID:17285360

Hazra, Anasuya; DuBois, Debra C.; Almon, Richard R.; Jusko, William J.



Functions of duplicated genes encoding CCAP receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.  


Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) is a nonapeptide originally isolated from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, based on its cardioacceleratory activity. This peptide is highly conserved in insects and other arthropods. In insects CCAP also has an essential role in ecdysis behavior. We previously identified two homologous genes, ccapr-1 and ccapr-2, encoding putative CCAP receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. In contrast, some insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, carry only one gene encoding a CCAP receptor. Phylogenetic analysis of putative CCAP receptor orthologs reveals a number of independent gene duplications in several insect lineages. In this study, we confirmed that CCAP activates both putative T. castaneum receptors in a heterologous expression system. RNA interference (RNAi) of ccapr-1 and ccapr-2 revealed that ccapr-2 is essential for eclosion behavior in T. castaneum, while RNAi for ccapr-1 did not result in any abnormal phenotype. In vivo cardioacceleratory activity of exogenously applied CCAP was abolished by RNAi of ccapr-2, but not by that of ccapr-1. Thus, only ccapr-2 mediates the cardioacceleratory function, ccapr-1 having apparently lost both functions for eclosion behavior and for cardioacceleration since the recent gene duplication event. PMID:21708161

Li, Bin; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong



Estradiol and selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially regulate target genes with estrogen receptors alpha and beta.  


Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) interact with estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta to activate or repress gene transcription. To understand how estrogens and SERMs exert tissue-specific effects, we performed microarray analysis to determine whether ERalpha or ERbeta regulate different target genes in response to estrogens and SERMs. We prepared human U2OS osteosarcoma cells that are stably transfected with a tetracycline-inducible vector to express ERalpha or ERbeta. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that U2OS-ERalpha cells synthesized only ERalpha and that U2OS-ERbeta cells expressed exclusively ERbeta. U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells were treated either with 17beta-estradiol (E2), raloxifene, and tamoxifen for 18 h. Labeled cRNAs were hybridized with U95Av2 GeneChips (Affymetrix). A total of 228, 190, and 236 genes were significantly activated or repressed at least 1.74-fold in U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells by E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen, respectively. Most genes regulated in ERalpha cells in response to E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen were distinct from those regulated in ERbeta cells. Only 38 of the 228 (17%) genes were regulated by E2 in both U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells. Raloxifene and tamoxifen regulated only 27% of the same genes in both the ERalpha and ERbeta cells. A subset of genes involved in bone-related activities regulated by E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen were also distinct. Our results demonstrate that most genes regulated by ERalpha are distinct from those regulated by ERbeta in response to E2 and SERMs. These results indicate that estrogens and SERMs exert tissue-specific effects by regulating unique sets of targets genes through ERalpha and ERbeta PMID:14699072

Tee, Meng Kian; Rogatsky, Inez; Tzagarakis-Foster, Christina; Cvoro, Aleksandra; An, Jinping; Christy, Robert J; Yamamoto, Keith R; Leitman, Dale C



Molecular Scanning of the Human Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor ? (hPPAR?) Gene in Diabetic Caucasians: Identification of a Pro12Ala PPAR?2 Missense Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adipocyte differentiation, and possibly lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. As such, PPAR? is a promising candidate gene for several human disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Screening for mutations in the entire coding region of the PPAR? gene (both ?1 and ?2 isoforms) was performed with DNA

Chung-Jen Yen; Brock A. Beamer; Carlo Negri; Kristi Silver; Kimberly A. Brown; David P. Yarnall; Daniel K. Burns; Jesse Roth; Alan R. Shuldiner



Genes responsive to both oxidant stress and loss of estrogen receptor function identify a poor prognosis group of estrogen receptor positive primary breast cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress can modify estrogen receptor (ER) structure and function, including induction of progesterone receptor (PR), altering the biology and clinical behavior of endocrine responsive (ER-positive) breast cancer. METHODS: To investigate the impact of oxidative stress on estrogen\\/ER-regulated gene expression, RNA was extracted from ER-positive\\/PR-positive MCF7 breast cancer cells after 72 hours of estrogen deprivation, small-interfering RNA knockdown of

Christina Yau; Christopher C Benz



Differential expression of olfactory genes in the southern house mosquito and insights into unique odorant receptor gene isoforms  

PubMed Central

The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, has one of the most acute and eclectic olfactory systems of all mosquito species hitherto studied. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to identify olfactory genes expressed predominantly in antenna, mosquito’s main olfactory organ. Less than 50% of the trimmed reads generated by high-quality libraries aligned to a transcript, but approximately 70% of them aligned to the genome. Differential expression analysis, which was validated by quantitative real-time PCR on a subset of genes, showed that approximately half of the 48 odorant-binding protein genes were enriched in antennae, with the other half being predominantly expressed in legs. Similar patterns were observed with chemosensory proteins, “plus-C” odorant-binding proteins, and sensory neuron membrane proteins. Transcripts for as many as 43 ionotropic receptors were enriched in female antennae, thus making the ionotropic receptor family the largest of antennae-rich olfactory genes, second only to odorant receptor (OR) genes. As many as 177 OR genes have been identified, including 36 unique transcripts. The unique OR genes differed from previously annotated ORs in internal sequences, splice variants, and extended N or C terminus. One of the previously unknown transcripts was validated by cloning and functional expression. When challenged with a large panel of physiologically relevant compounds, CquiOR95b responded in a dose-dependent manner to ethyl 2-phenylacteate, which was demonstrated to repel Culex mosquitoes, and secondarily to citronellal, a known insect repellent. This transcriptome study led to identification of key molecular components and a repellent for the southern house mosquito. PMID:24167245

Leal, Walter S.; Choo, Young-Moo; Xu, Pingxi; da Silva, Cherre S. B.; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos



Differential expression of olfactory genes in the southern house mosquito and insights into unique odorant receptor gene isoforms.  


The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, has one of the most acute and eclectic olfactory systems of all mosquito species hitherto studied. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to identify olfactory genes expressed predominantly in antenna, mosquito's main olfactory organ. Less than 50% of the trimmed reads generated by high-quality libraries aligned to a transcript, but approximately 70% of them aligned to the genome. Differential expression analysis, which was validated by quantitative real-time PCR on a subset of genes, showed that approximately half of the 48 odorant-binding protein genes were enriched in antennae, with the other half being predominantly expressed in legs. Similar patterns were observed with chemosensory proteins, "plus-C" odorant-binding proteins, and sensory neuron membrane proteins. Transcripts for as many as 43 ionotropic receptors were enriched in female antennae, thus making the ionotropic receptor family the largest of antennae-rich olfactory genes, second only to odorant receptor (OR) genes. As many as 177 OR genes have been identified, including 36 unique transcripts. The unique OR genes differed from previously annotated ORs in internal sequences, splice variants, and extended N or C terminus. One of the previously unknown transcripts was validated by cloning and functional expression. When challenged with a large panel of physiologically relevant compounds, CquiOR95b responded in a dose-dependent manner to ethyl 2-phenylacteate, which was demonstrated to repel Culex mosquitoes, and secondarily to citronellal, a known insect repellent. This transcriptome study led to identification of key molecular components and a repellent for the southern house mosquito. PMID:24167245

Leal, Walter S; Choo, Young-Moo; Xu, Pingxi; da Silva, Cherre S B; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos



Overexpression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 during zebrafish embryogenesis disrupts hindbrain patterning and implicates retinoic acid receptors in the control of hox gene expression.  


Nuclear receptors play key roles in anterior/posterior (A/P) axis formation during vertebrate embryogenesis. Within this gene family, retinoic acid receptors and retinoic acid itself have profound influences on the establishment of the A/P axis. Thyroid hormone receptors are expressed during early periods of development, long before the establishment of the thyroid gland, and are able to interact with retinoic acid receptors. Here we examined the ability of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 to affect early embryonic development by mRNA injection of either repressor or activator forms of the thyroid hormone receptor. Overexpression of either the thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 or a constitutive repressor form, v-erbA, caused a swelling in the rostral hindbrain. These defects were associated with disorganization and loss of rhombomere borders as well as an increase in the number of acetylcholine esterase positive cells. This phenotype correlated with a reduction in hoxa1 expression during gastrulation. Furthermore, injection of either thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 or v-erbA mRNA repressed a reporter gene that contained a retinoic acid response element, demonstrating the ability of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 to repress retinoic acid signaling during gastrulation. In contrast, embryos treated with retinoic acid alone or embryos injected with thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 and treated with the thyroid hormone analog TRIAC displayed a similar set of defects, including loss of the midbrain-hindbrain border and severe disruption of the rostral hindbrain. These studies support the involvement of retinoic acid and its receptors in the direct control of Hox gene expression and the early patterning of the zebrafish central nervous system. PMID:10448709

Essner, J J; Johnson, R G; Hackett, P B



Gene expression profiling of skeletal muscles treated with a soluble activin type IIB receptor  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of the myostatin signaling pathway is emerging as a promising therapeutic means to treat muscle wasting and degenerative disorders. Activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is the putative myostatin receptor, and a soluble activin receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) has been demonstrated to potently inhibit a subset of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members including myostatin. To determine reliable and valid biomarkers for ActRIIB-Fc treatment, we assessed gene expression profiles for quadriceps muscles from mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc compared with mice genetically lacking myostatin and control mice. Expression of 134 genes was significantly altered in mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc over a 2-wk period relative to control mice (fold change > 1.5, P < 0.001), whereas the number of significantly altered genes in mice treated for 2 days was 38, demonstrating a time-dependent response to ActRIIB-Fc in overall muscle gene expression. The number of significantly altered genes in Mstn?/? mice relative to control mice was substantially higher (360), but for most of these genes the expression levels in the 2-wk treated mice were closer to the levels in the Mstn?/? mice than in control mice (P < 10?30). Expression levels of 30 selected genes were further validated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and a correlation of ?0.89 was observed between the fold changes from the microarray analysis and the qPCR analysis. These data suggest that treatment with ActRIIB-Fc results in overlapping but distinct gene expression signatures compared with myostatin genetic mutation. Differentially expressed genes identified in this study can be used as potential biomarkers for ActRIIB-Fc treatment, which is currently in clinical trials as a therapeutic agent for muscle wasting and degenerative disorders. PMID:21266502

Rahimov, Fedik; King, Oliver D.; Warsing, Leigh C.; Powell, Rachel E.; Emerson, Charles P.; Kunkel, Louis M.



Including Receptor Flexibility and Induced Fit Effects into the Design of MMP-2 Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a class of flexible proteins required for normal tissue remodeling. Overexpression of MMPs is associated with a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including vascular disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. Nearly all MMP inhibitors have failed in clinical trials, in part due to lack of specificity. Due to the highly dynamic molecular motions of the MMP-2 binding pockets, the rational drug design of MMP inhibitors has been very challenging. To address these challenges, in the current study we combine computer docking with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to incorporate receptor-flexibility and induced-fit effects into the drug-design process. Our strategy identifies molecular fragments predicted to target multiple MMP-2 binding pockets. PMID:19882751

Durrant, Jacob D.; de Oliveira, Cesar Augusto F.; McCammon, J. Andrew



The histamine H3 receptor: from gene cloning to H3 receptor drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the cloning of the histamine H3 receptor cDNA in 1999 by Lovenberg and co-workers, this histamine receptor has gained the interest of many pharmaceutical companies as a potential drug target for the treatment of various important disorders, including obesity, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, as well as for myocardial ischaemia, migraine and inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss relevant

Remko A. Bakker; Henk Timmerman; Iwan J. P. de Esch; Rob Leurs



Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.  


Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit. PMID:23776004

Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng



Plant Receptor-Like Kinase Gene Family: Diversity, Function, and Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A basic feature of all biological systems is the ability to sense and process information from chemical signals via cell-surface receptors. One prevalent class of receptors in both plants and animals is the receptor protein kinases. These proteins contain a signal-binding region located outside the cell linked to a region inside the cell called the protein kinase domain. The protein kinase domain transmits information to other cellular components by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to an amino acid residue on the target proteins. In animals and humans, the well-studied family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) mediates a wide range of signaling events at the cell surface. The importance of receptor protein kinases in plant biology was revealed by the discovery of a family of more than 400 genes coding for receptor-like kinases (RLKs) present in the recently sequenced genome of the model plant Arabidopsis. Unlike most animal RTKs, the plant RLKs use serine and threonine residues in proteins as targets for phosphorylation. Detailed studies of a handful of plant RLK genes have implicated them in the control of plant growth and development and in responses to pathogens. Multiple signals can be sensed by different RLKs, including peptides produced by neighboring cells, steroid hormones, and pathogen cell-wall proteins and carbohydrates. Major challenges for the future will include understanding the wide range of specific signaling functions performed by this large family of receptors and discovering how the information from this multitude of signal initiation points is integrated by the plant's cells.

Shin-Han Shiu (University of Wisconsin-Madison;The Department of Botany REV); Anthony B. Bleecker (University of Wisconsin-Madison;The Department of Botany REV)



Control of transcriptional repression of the vitellogenin receptor gene in largemouth bass (micropterus salmoides) by select estrogen receptors isotypes.  


The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5' regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17?-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures. PMID:25061109

Dominguez, Gustavo A; Bisesi, Joseph H; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara



Mouse model of congenital polycythemia: Homologous replacement of murine gene by mutant human erythropoietin receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations causing truncations of the cytoplasmic domain of the human erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) result in a dominantly inherited disorderprimary familial congenital polycythemia. This disorder is characterized by increased numbers of erythrocytes (polycythemia) and by in vitro hypersensitivity of erythroid precursors to erythropoietin. The consequences of EPOR truncation in nonerythroid tissues are unknown. We replaced the murine EPOR gene with a

Vladimir Divoky; Zhiyong Liu; Thomas M. Ryan; Jaroslav F. Prchal; Tim M. Townes; Josef T. Prchal



A polymorphism in the oestrogen receptor gene explains covariance between digit ratio and mating behaviour  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, including humans, the relative length of the second to the fourth digit correlates with sex hormone-dependent behavioural, psychological and physiological traits. However, despite a decade of research, the underlying mechanism linking digit ratio to these sex hormone-dependent traits remains unclear. Previous work suggests that during embryo development, circulating levels of plasma androgens or oestrogens may act through their receptors to affect transcription levels of posterior HOX genes in the developing digits, thereby possibly influencing their relative length. The correlation between digit ratio and sex hormone-dependent traits might thus stem from variation in expression or sensitivity of the sex hormone receptors, or from variation in sex hormone levels in the embryo. Here, we show that in a population of 1156 zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a polymorphism in the oestrogen receptor ? gene (ESR1) explains 11.3 per cent of the variation in digit ratio, and is also associated with male and female-mating behaviour. By contrast, we found no associations between digit ratio or mating behaviours and polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. Thus, our results (i) provide an explanation for the observed significant genetic covariance between digit ratio and male and female mating behaviour and (ii) strongly confirm the indicator function of digit ratio through the oestrogen pathway. Finally, we note that the commonly invoked effect of foetal testosterone on human digit ratio seems to be substantially weaker than the effect described here. PMID:20534613

Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Mueller, Jakob C.; Kempenaers, Bart



Lack of association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism (BsmI) and osteomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism has been reported to be a determinant of bone formation and intestinal calcium absorption. We carried out this study to assess the role of VDR gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of osteomalacia. We investigated BsmI polymorphisms in the gene encoding the 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D receptor in 38 patients with osteomalacia and 31 healthy controls,

Hakk? Kahraman; Belgin SÜsleyici Duman; Faruk AlagÖl; Refik Tanakol; Selma Y?lmazer



Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  


Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin



Expression analysis of the estrogen receptor target genes in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and target genes of the estrogen receptor (ER) in renal cell carcinoma. The data (GSE12090) were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. Data underwent preprocessing using the affy package for Bioconductor software, then the DEGs were selected via the significance analysis of microarray algorithm within the siggenes package. Subsequently, the DEGs underwent functional and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery software. Following data analysis, transcriptional regulatory networks between the DEGs and transcription factors were constructed. Finally, the ER target genes were subjected to gene ontology enrichment analysis. A total of 215 DEGs were identified between the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma samples and the oncocytoma samples, including 126 upregulated and 89 downregulated genes. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that 25% of the DEGs were significantly enriched in functions associated with the plasma membrane. Among those DEGs, 105 were regulated by the ER. Further regulatory network analysis indicated that the ER was mainly involved in the regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, including protease serine 8, claudin 7 and Ras-related protein Rab-25. In the present study, the identified ER target genes were demonstrated to be closely associated with tumor development; this knowledge may improve the understanding of the ER regulatory mechanisms during tumor development and promote the discovery of predictive markers for renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25351113




Expression analysis of the estrogen receptor target genes in renal cell carcinoma.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and target genes of the estrogen receptor (ER) in renal cell carcinoma. The data (GSE12090) were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. Data underwent preprocessing using the affy package for Bioconductor software, then the DEGs were selected via the significance analysis of microarray algorithm within the siggenes package. Subsequently, the DEGs underwent functional and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery software. Following data analysis, transcriptional regulatory networks between the DEGs and transcription factors were constructed. Finally, the ER target genes were subjected to gene ontology enrichment analysis. A total of 215 DEGs were identified between the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma samples and the oncocytoma samples, including 126 upregulated and 89 downregulated genes. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that 25% of the DEGs were significantly enriched in functions associated with the plasma membrane. Among those DEGs, 105 were regulated by the ER. Further regulatory network analysis indicated that the ER was mainly involved in the regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, including protease serine 8, claudin 7 and Ras?related protein Rab?25. In the present study, the identified ER target genes were demonstrated to be closely associated with tumor development; this knowledge may improve the understanding of the ER regulatory mechanisms during tumor development and promote the discovery of predictive markers for renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25351113

Liu, Zhihong; Lu, You; He, Zonghai; Chen, Libo; Lu, Yiping



Evolution of Dopamine Receptor Genes of the D1 Class in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genes—D1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1E—which arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species. PMID:23197594

Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michael; Vernier, Philippe



Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3  

SciTech Connect

Centrally administered oxytocin has been reported to facilitate affiliative and social behaviors, in functional harmony with its well-known peripheral effects on uterine contraction and milk ejection. The biological effects of oxytocin could be perturbed by mutations occurring in the sequence of the oxytocin receptor gene, and it would be of interest to establish the position of this gene on the human linkage map. Therefore we identified a polymorphism at the human oxytocin receptor gene. A portion of the 3{prime} untranslated region containing a 30 bp CA repeat was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), revealing a polymorphism with two alleles occurring with frequencies of 0.77 and 0.23 in a sample of Caucasian CEPH parents (n = 70). The CA repeat polymorphism we detected was used to map the human oxytocin receptor to chromosome 3p25-3p26, in a region which contains several important genes, including loci for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and renal cell carcinoma. 53 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Michelini, S.; Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D. [National Institute of Health-National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others



Evolution and the molecular basis of somatic hypermutation of antigen receptor genes.  

PubMed Central

Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes occurs in many vertebrates including sharks, frogs, camels, humans and mice. Similarities among species reveal a common mechanism and these include the AGC/T sequence hot spot, preponderance of base substitutions, a bias towards transitions and strand bias. There are some differences among species, however, that may unveil layers of the mechanism. These include a G:C bias in frog and shark IgM but not in nurse shark antigen receptor (NAR), a high frequency of doublets in NAR hypermutation, and the co-occurrence of somatic hypermutation with gene conversion in some species. Here we argue that some of the similarities and differences among species are best explained by error-prone DNA synthesis by the translesion synthesis DNA polymerase zeta (Pol zeta) and, as suggested by others, induction of DNA synthesis by DNA breaks in antigen receptor variable genes. Finally, targeting of the variable genes is probably obtained via transcription-related elements, and it is the targeting phase of somatic hypermutation that is the most likely to reveal molecules unique to adaptive immunity. PMID:11205333

Diaz, M; Flajnik, M F; Klinman, N



The dopamine D3 receptor gene and posttraumatic stress disorder.  


The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been implicated in schizophrenia, autism, and substance use-disorders and is related to emotion reactivity, executive functioning, and stress-responding, processes impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this candidate gene study was to evaluate DRD3 polymorphisms for association with PTSD. The discovery sample was trauma-exposed White, non-Hispanic U.S. veterans and their trauma-exposed intimate partners (N = 491); 60.3% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. The replication sample was 601 trauma-exposed African American participants living in Detroit, Michigan; 23.6% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. Genotyping was based on high-density bead chips. In the discovery sample, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996, and rs9868039, showed evidence of association with PTSD and withstood correction for multiple testing. The minor alleles were associated with reduced risk for PTSD (OR range = 0.59 to 0.69). In the replication sample, rs2251177, located 149 base pairs away from the most significant SNP in the discovery sample, was nominally associated with PTSD in men (OR = 0.32). Although the precise role of the D3 receptor in PTSD is not yet known, its role in executive functioning and emotional reactivity, and the sensitivity of the dopamine system to environmental stressors could potentially explain this association. PMID:25158632

Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S; Logue, Mark W; Baldwin, Clinton T; Reardon, Annemarie F; Aiello, Alison; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Miller, Mark W



Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus  


Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

Nasrallah, June B. (Ithaca, NY); Nasrallah, Mikhail E. (Ithaca, NY); Stein, Joshua (Cortland, NY)



Estrogen receptor ? can selectively repress dioxin receptor-mediated gene expression by targeting DNA methylation  

PubMed Central

Selective inhibitory crosstalk has been known to occur within the signaling pathways of the dioxin (AhR) and estrogen (ER?) receptors. More specifically, ER? represses a cytochrome P450-encoding gene (CYP1A1) that converts cellular estradiol into a metabolite that inhibits the cell cycle, while it has no effect on a P450-encoding gene (CYP1B1) that converts estrodiol into a genotoxic product. Here we show that ER? represses CYP1A1 by targeting the Dnmt3B DNA methyltransferase and concomitant DNA methylation of the promoter. We also find that histone H2A.Z can positively contribute to CYP1A1 gene expression, and its presence at that gene is inversely correlated with DNA methylation. Taken together, our results provide a framework for how ER? can repress transcription, and how that impinges on the production of an enzyme that generates genotoxic estradiol metabolites, and potential breast cancer progression. Finally, our results reveal a new mechanism for how H2A.Z can positively influence gene expression, which is by potentially competing with DNA methylation events in breast cancer cells. PMID:23828038

Marques, Maud; Laflamme, Liette; Gaudreau, Luc



Egr1 regulates the coordinated expression of numerous EGF receptor target genes as identified by ChIP-on-chip  

PubMed Central

Background UV irradiation activates the epidermal growth factor receptor, induces Egr1 expression and promotes apoptosis in a variety of cell types. We examined the hypothesis that Egr1 regulates genes that mediate this process by use of a chip-on-chip protocol in human tumorigenic prostate M12 cells. Results UV irradiation led to significant binding of 288 gene promoters by Egr1. A major functional subgroup consisted of apoptosis related genes. The largest subgroup of 24 genes belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor-signal transduction pathway. Egr1 promoter binding had a significant impact on gene expression of target genes. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real time PCR were used to validate promoter binding and expression changes. Small interfering RNA experiments were used to demonstrate the specific role of Egr1 in gene regulation. UV stimulation promotes growth arrest and apoptosis of M12 cells and our data clearly show that a downstream target of the epidermal growth factor receptor, namely Egr1, mediates this apoptotic response. Our study also identified numerous previously unknown targets of Egr1. These include FasL, MAX and RRAS2, which may play a role in the apoptotic response/growth arrest. Conclusions Our results indicate that M12 cells undergo Egr1-dependent apoptotic response upon UV stimulation and led to the identification of downstream targets of Egr1, which mediate epidermal growth factor receptor function. PMID:19032775

Arora, Shilpi; Wang, Yipeng; Jia, Zhenyu; Vardar-Sengul, Saynur; Munawar, Ayla; Doctor, Kutbuddin S; Birrer, Michael; McClelland, Michael; Adamson, Eileen; Mercola, Dan



Glucocorticoid receptor-beta and receptor-gamma exert dominant negative effect on gene repression but not on gene induction.  


Glucocorticoid has diverse biological effects through induction or repression of its target genes via glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In addition to the wild-type GR (GR-alpha), a variety of GR variants has been reported, and these are thought to modify glucocorticoid action. Among others, GR-beta is reported be responsible for the glucocorticoid resistance frequently observed in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and hematologic tumors, although the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the function of GR-beta and some GR variants (GR-gamma and GR-Delta313-338) using GR-deficient BE(2)C and T84 cells in vitro. We found that GR-beta, when expressed alone, completely lost the capacity of both trans-activation and trans-repression on GR target genes. Interestingly, however, GR-beta showed a dominant-negative effect on GR-alpha only for its trans-repressive effects on cAMP-mediated and cAMP response element-dependent genes. Furthermore, both GR-beta and GR-gamma had dominant-negative effects on GR-alpha selectively for its trans-repressive effects on nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated and inflammation-related genes. These results suggest that 1) the GR-beta variant by itself has no receptor function, but 2) GR-beta and GR-gamma have properties to exert dominant-negative effects on the GR-alpha-mediated trans-repression, which may be responsible for the steroid resistance frequently observed in chronic inflammatory diseases under glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:20484466

Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Tsugita, Makoto; Nishiyama, Mitsuru; Taguchi, Takafumi; Okazaki, Mizuho; Nakayama, Shuichi; Kambayashi, Machiko; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio



Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads.  


The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4×44K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals. PMID:21126777

Martinovi?-Weigelt, Dalma; Wang, Rong-Lin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Bencic, David C; Lazorchak, Jim; Ankley, Gerald T



The collection of NFATc1-dependent transcripts in the osteoclast includes numerous genes non-essential to physiologic bone resorption  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts are specialized secretory cells of the myeloid lineage important for normal skeletal homeostasis as well as pathologic conditions of bone including osteoporosis, inflammatory arthritis and cancer metastasis. Differentiation of these multinucleated giant cells from precursors is controlled by the cytokine RANKL, which through its receptor RANK initiates a signaling cascade culminating in the activation of transcriptional regulators which induce the expression of the bone degradation machinery. The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1) is the master regulator of this process and in its absence osteoclast differentiation is aborted both in vitro and in vivo. Differential mRNA expression analysis by microarray is used to identify genes of potential physiologic relevance across nearly all biologic systems. We compared the gene expression profile of murine wild-type and NFATc1-deficient osteoclast precursors stimulated with RANKL and identified that the majority of the known genes important for osteoclastic bone resorption require NFATc1 for induction. Here, five novel RANKL-induced, NFATc1-dependent transcripts in the osteoclast are described: Nhedc2, Rhoc, Serpind1, Adcy3 and Rab38. Despite reasonable hypotheses for the importance of these molecules in the bone resorption pathway and their dramatic induction during differentiation, the analysis of mice with mutations in these genes failed to reveal a function in osteoclast biology. Compared to littermate controls, none of these mutants demonstrated a skeletal phenotype in vivo or alterations in osteoclast differentiation or function in vitro. These data highlight the need for rigorous validation studies to complement expression profiling results before functional importance can be assigned to highly regulated genes in any biologic process. PMID:22985540

Charles, Julia F.; Coury, Fabienne; Sulyanto, Rosalyn; Sitara, Despina; Wu, Jing; Brady, Nicholas; Tsang, Kelly; Sigrist, Kirsten; Tollefsen, Douglas M.; He, Li; Storm, Daniel; Aliprantis, Antonios O.



The Natural History of Class I Primate Alcohol Dehydrogenases Includes Gene Duplication, Gene Loss, and Gene Conversion  

PubMed Central

Background Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s), where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs) and hominoids. Methodology/Principal Findings To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines). Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM) and marmoset (a NWM). These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding) sequences and intronic sequences. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels). The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs) and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids) having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in the ancestor of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine primates, followed by the loss of an ADH1 paralog in the human lineage. PMID:22859968

Carrigan, Matthew A.; Uryasev, Oleg; Davis, Ross P.; Zhai, LanMin; Hurley, Thomas D.; Benner, Steven A.



Haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes  

PubMed Central

To dissect the haplotype structure of candidate genes for disease association studies, it is important to understand the nature of genetic variation at these loci in different populations. We present a survey of haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium of chemokine and chemokine receptor genes in 11 geographically-distinct population samples (n = 728). Chemokine proteins are involved in intercellular signalling and the immune response. These molecules are important modulators of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and the progression of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tumour development and the metastatic process of cancer. To study the extent of genetic variation in this gene family, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 chemokine and chemokine receptor genes were genotyped using the 5' nuclease assay (TaqMan). SNP haplotypes, estimated from unphased genotypes using the Expectation-Maximization-algorithm, are described in a cluster of four CC-chemokine receptor genes (CCR3, CCR2, CCR5 and CCRL2) on chromosome 3p21, and a cluster of three CC-chemokine genes [MPIF-1 (CCL23) PARC (CCL18) and MIP- 1? (CCL3)] on chromosome 17q11-12. The 32 base pair (bp) deletion in exon 4 of CCR5 was also included in the haplotype analysis of 3p21. A total of 87.5 per cent of the variation of 14 biallelic loci scattered over 150 kilobases of 3p21 is explained by 11 haplotypes which have a frequency of at least 1 per cent in the total sample. An analysis of haplotype blocks in this region indicates recombination between CCR2 and CCR5, although long-range pairwise linkage disequilibrium across the region appears to remain intact on two common haplotypes. A reduced-median network demonstrates a clear relationship between 3p21 haplotypes, rooted by the putative ancestral haplotype determined by direct sequencing of four primate species. Analysis of six SNPs on 17q11-12 indicates that 97.5 per cent of the variation is explained by 15 haplotypes, representing at least 1 per cent of the total sample. Additionally, a possible signature of selection at a non-synonymous coding SNP (M106V) in the MPIF-1 (CCL23) gene warrants further study. We anticipate that the results of this study of chemokine and chemokine receptor variation will be applicable to more extensive surveys of long-range haplotype structure in these gene regions and to association studies of HIV-1 disease and cancer. PMID:15588486



Cloning and characterization of a receptor-class phosphotyrosine phosphatase gene expressed on central nervous system axons in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned and characterized cDNAs coding for a receptor-class phosphotyrosine phosphatase gene from Drosophila melanogaster. The gene maps to the polytene chromosome bands 99A7-8. The cDNA clones code for a polypeptide of 1301 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 145 kDa. The extracellular domain includes two fibronectin-type III-like domains. The cytoplasmic region contains two tandemly repeated phosphotyrosine phosphatase-like domains. Residues shown crucial for catalytic activity are absent in the second domain. This Drosophila receptor-class phosphotyrosine phosphatase polypeptide is expressed on axons of the embryonic central nervous system. Images PMID:1662390

Hariharan, I K; Chuang, P T; Rubin, G M



The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike



Characterization of horse ( Equus caballus ) T-cell receptor beta chain genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding the horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) were cloned and characterized. Of 33 cDNA clones isolated from the mesenteric lymph node, 30 had functionally rearranged gene segments, and three contained germline sequences. Sixteen unique variable segments (TCRBV), 14 joining genes (TCRBJ), and two constant region genes (TCRBC) were identified. Horse TCRBV were grouped into nine families

Mark D. Schrenzel; Johanna L. Watson; David A. Ferrick



Evolutionary dynamics of olfactory and other chemosensory receptor genes in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numbers of functional olfactory receptor (OR) genes in humans and mice are about 400 and 1,000 respectively. In both humans and mice, these genes exist as genomic clusters and are scattered over almost all chromosomes. The difference in the number of genes between the two species is apparently caused by massive inactivation of OR genes in the human lineage

Yoshihito Niimura; Masatoshi Nei



Meltzer PS: Estrogen receptor status in breast cancer is associated with remarkably distinct gene expression patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To investigate the phenotype associated with estrogen receptor,(ER) expression in breast carcinoma, gene expression profiles of 58 node- negative breast carcinomas discordant for ER status were determined using DNA microarray technology. Using artificial neural networks as well as standard hierarchical clustering techniques, the tumors could be classified according to ER status, and a list of genes which discriminate tumors

S Gruvberger; M Ringner; Y Chen; S Panavally; Lh Saal; A Borg; M Ferno; C Peterson



Migraine association and linkage analyses of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT 2A) receptor gene  

E-print Network

Migraine association and linkage analyses of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT 2A) receptor gene. Migraine association and linkage analyses of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT2A) receptor gene linked microsatellite marker (D13S126),for linkage and association with common migraine

Nyholt, Dale R.


Melanocortin-1 Receptor Gene Variants Determine the Risk of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Independently of Fair Skin and Red Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are associated with fair skin and red hair and, independently of these, with cutaneous malignant melanoma. The association of MC1R gene variants with nonmelanoma skin cancer is largely unknown. A total of 838 subjects were included in the present study: 453 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer and 385 subjects with no skin cancer. The coding

Maarten T. Bastiaens; Jeannet A. C. ter Huurne; Christine Kielich; Nelleke A. Gruis; Rudi G. J. Westendorp; Bert Jan Vermeer; Jan Nico Bouwes Bavinck



A systematic review of association studies investigating genes coding for serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter: II. Suicidal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different serotonin (5-HT) receptors, including the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), are excellent candidate genes for suicide and suicidal behavior, and thus, they have been investigated in a large number of allelic association studies. The individual results of these studies have been inconsistent and definite conclusions are difficult to establish. A reliable method for assessing individual studies and generating combined results

M Anguelova; C Benkelfat; G Turecki



Multiple Thyrotropin ?-Subunit and Thyrotropin Receptor-Related Genes Arose during Vertebrate Evolution  

PubMed Central

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific ? subunit and an ? subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three ? subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tsh? subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tsh?2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr) gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tsh? sister gene, named Tsh?3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R) that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tsh?3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tsh?s and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tsh? and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tsh?3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated. PMID:25386660

Maugars, Gersende; Dufour, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Quérat, Bruno



5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism and eating disorders.  


Recent studies have reported a genetic association between the -1438 G/A polymorphism within the promoter region of the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene and eating disorders (ED), with conflicting results. To clarify the role of the -1438 G/A polymorphism in different ED categories we have analyzed the genotype and allele frequency distribution in 54 Italian patients with Binge ED (BED) compared to 132 obese non-BED subjects. No significant differences were found between obese BED and obese non-BED individuals, suggesting that this polymorphism does not genetically distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, the evaluation of 148 patients with anorexia nervosa and 86 patients with bulimia nervosa revealed an association of the A allele with both these disorders. PMID:11950504

Ricca, Valdo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Cellini, Elena; Di Bernardo, Milena; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Sorbi, Sandro



Respiratory Syncytial Virus Represses Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Gene Activation  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Although antiinflammatory in nature, glucocorticoids have been shown to be ineffective in the treatment of RSV-induced bronchiolitis and wheezing. In addition, the effectiveness of glucocorticoids at inhibiting RSV-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in cell culture has been questioned. In this study, we have investigated the effect of RSV infection on glucocorticoid-induced gene activation in lung epithelium-derived cells. We show that RSV infection inhibits dexamethasone induction of three glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-regulated genes (glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper, FK506 binding protein, and MAPK phosphatase 1) in A549, BEAS-2B cells, and primary small airway epithelial cells. UV irradiation of the virus prevents this repression, suggesting that viral replication is required. RSV is known to activate the nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) pathway, which is mutually antagonistic towards the GR pathway. However, specific inhibition of NF?B had no effect on the repression of GR-induced genes by RSV infection, indicating that RSV repression of GR is independent of NF?B. RSV infection of A549 cells does not alter GR protein levels or GR nuclear translocation but does reduce GR binding to the promoters of the glucocorticoid responsive genes analyzed in this study. Repression of GR by RSV infection may account for the apparent clinical ineffectiveness of glucocorticoids in RSV bronchiolitis therapy. In addition, this data adds to our previously published data suggesting that GR may be a general target for infectious agents. Identifying the mechanisms through which this suppression occurs may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21190962

Hinzey, Adam; Alexander, Jacob; Corry, Jacqueline; Adams, Kathleen M.; Claggett, Amanda M.; Traylor, Zachary P.; Davis, Ian C.



A Novel Human Gene Encoding a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPR15) Is Located on Chromosome 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used sequence similarities among G-protein-coupled receptor genes to discover a novel receptor gene. Using primers based on conserved regions of the opioid-related receptors, we isolated a PCR product that was used to locate the full-length coding region of a novel human receptor gene, which we have namedGPR15.A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the receptor encoded byGPR15with other

Michael Heiber; Adriano Marchese; Tuan Nguyen; Henry H. Q. Heng; Susan R. George; Brian F. O'Dowd



Interaction between allelic variations in vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor genes on metabolic traits  

PubMed Central

Background Low vitamin D status has been shown to be a risk factor for several metabolic traits such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The biological actions of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor, gamma (RXRG). Hence, we examined the potential interactions between the tagging polymorphisms in the VDR (22 tag SNPs) and RXRG (23 tag SNPs) genes on metabolic outcomes such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), high- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, serum triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and glycated haemoglobin in the 1958 British Birth Cohort (1958BC, up to n?=?5,231). We used Multifactor- dimensionality reduction (MDR) program as a non-parametric test to examine for potential interactions between the VDR and RXRG gene polymorphisms in the 1958BC. We used the data from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66, up to n?=?5,316) and Twins UK (up to n?=?3,943) to replicate our initial findings from 1958BC. Results After Bonferroni correction, the joint-likelihood ratio test suggested interactions on serum triglycerides (4 SNP - SNP pairs), LDL cholesterol (2 SNP - SNP pairs) and WHR (1 SNP - SNP pair) in the 1958BC. MDR permutation model testing analysis showed one two-way and one three-way interaction to be statistically significant on serum triglycerides in the 1958BC. In meta-analysis of results from two replication cohorts (NFBC66 and Twins UK, total n?=?8,183), none of the interactions remained after correction for multiple testing (Pinteraction >0.17). Conclusions Our results did not provide strong evidence for interactions between allelic variations in VDR and RXRG genes on metabolic outcomes; however, further replication studies on large samples are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24641809



Control of Energy Balance by Hypothalamic Gene Circuitry Involving Two Nuclear Receptors, Neuron-Derived Orphan Receptor 1 and Glucocorticoid Receptor  

PubMed Central

Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance. PMID:23897430

Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Soo-Kyung



Cortical synaptic NMDA receptor deficits in ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene deletion models: implications for neuropsychiatric diseases.  


Microdeletion of the human CHRNA7 gene (?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) as well as dysfunction in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been associated with cortical dysfunction in a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. However, the pathophysiological roles of synaptic vs. extrasynaptic NMDARs and their interactions with ?7 nAChRs in cortical dysfunction remain largely uncharacterized. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that ?7 nAChR gene deletion leads to specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, d-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in mouse cortex. ?7 nAChR null mice had decreased cortical NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation during postnatal development. Similar reductions in NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation were revealed in cortical cultures lacking ?7 nAChRs. Interestingly, synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, NMDAR currents were specifically diminished in cultured cortical pyramidal neurons as well as in acute prefrontal cortical slices of ?7 nAChR null mice. Moreover, d-serine responsive synaptic NMDAR-mediated currents and levels of the d-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase were both reduced in ?7 nAChR null cortical pyramidal neurons. Our findings thus identify specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, d-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in ?7 nAChR gene deletion models of cortical dysfunction, thereby implicating ?7 nAChR-mediated control of synaptic NMDARs and serine racemase/d-serine pathways in cortical dysfunction underlying many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those associated with deletion of human CHRNA7. PMID:24326163

Lin, Hong; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Baumann, Bailey H; Coulter, Douglas A; Lynch, David R



Liver X Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis: Effect on Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Liver X receptors (LXRs), Liver X receptor A (LXRA) and Liver X receptor B (LXRB), regulate lipid metabolism and antimicrobial response. LXRs have a crucial role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Lacking LXRs mice is more susceptibility to infection M.tb, developing higher bacterial burdens and an increase in the size and number of granulomatous lesions. We aimed to assess the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LXRs and risk of tuberculosis. Methods We sequenced the LXRs genes to detect SNPs and to examine genotypic frequencies in 600 patients and 620 healthy controls to investigate for associations with tuberculosis (TB) in the Chinese Han population. DNA re-sequencing revealed eight common variants in the LXRs genes. Results The G allele of rs1449627 and the T allele of rs1405655 demonstrated an increased risk of developing TB (p<0.001, p?=?0.002), and the T allele of rs3758673, the T allele of rs2279238, and the C allele of rs1449626 in LXRA and the C allele of rs17373080, the G allele of rs2248949, and the C allele of rs1052677 in LXRB were protective against TB patients compared to healthy controls (p?=?0.0002, p?=?0.006, p<0.001, p?=?0.004, p?=?0.008, p?=?0.003, respectively). All SNP genotypes were significantly associated with TB. An estimation of the frequencies of haplotypes revealed two potential risk haplotypes,GGCG in LXRB (p?=?0.004,) and TTCG in LXRA (p<0.001, p?=?0.004). Moreover, three protective haplotypes, TTAT and CCAT in LXRA and CATC in LXRB, were significantly “protective” (p?=?0.008, p<0.001, p?=?0.031) for TB. Furthermore, we determined that the LXRs SNPs were nominally associated with the clinical pattern of disease. Conclusions Our study data supported that LXRs play a fundamental role in the genetic susceptibility to TB and to different clinical patterns of disease. Thus, further investigation is required in larger populations and in additional areas. PMID:24788534

Liu, Li-rong; Yue, Jun; Zhao, Yan-lin; Xiao, He-ping



Molecular Evidence for a Link between the N363S Glucocorticoid Receptor Polymorphism and Altered Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Context A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) N363S (rs6195) has been the focus of several clinical studies, and some epidemiological data link this SNP to increased glucocorticoid sensitivity, coronary artery disease, and increased body mass index. However, molecular studies in vitro using reporter gene expression systems have failed, for the most part, to define a link between this polymorphism and altered glucocorticoid receptor function. Objective The objective of this study was to address the biological relevancy of N363S SNP in GR function by establishing stable U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines expressing wild-type hGR or N363S and examining these receptors under a variety of conditions that probe for GR activity including human gene microarray analysis. Design Functional assays with reporter gene systems, Western blotting, and human microarray analysis were used to evaluate the activity of wild-type and N363S GR in both transiently and stably expressing cells. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm the microarray analysis. Results Functional assays with reporter gene systems and homologous down-regulation revealed only minor differences between the wild-type hGR and N363S receptors in both transiently and stably expressing cell lines. However, examination of the two receptors by human gene microarray analysis revealed a unique gene expression profile for N363S. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that the N363S SNP regulates a novel set of genes with several of the regulated genes supporting a potential role for this GR polymorphism in human diseases. PMID:17535992

Jewell, Christine M.; Cidlowski, John A.



GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, the previously reported upregulation of muscimol binding sites and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding sites in the prefrontal and adjacent cingulate cortex of schizophrenics are possibly due to posttranscriptional modifications of mRNAs and their translated polypeptides.

Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)



A network of heterochronic genes including Imp1 regulates temporal changes in stem cell properties  

PubMed Central

Stem cell properties change over time to match the changing growth and regeneration demands of tissues. We showed previously that adult forebrain stem cell function declines during aging because of increased expression of let-7 microRNAs, evolutionarily conserved heterochronic genes that reduce HMGA2 expression. Here we asked whether let-7 targets also regulate changes between fetal and adult stem cells. We found a second let-7 target, the RNA binding protein IMP1, that is expressed by fetal, but not adult, neural stem cells. IMP1 expression was promoted by Wnt signaling and Lin28a expression and opposed by let-7 microRNAs. Imp1-deficient neural stem cells were prematurely depleted in the dorsal telencephalon due to accelerated differentiation, impairing pallial expansion. IMP1 post-transcriptionally inhibited the expression of differentiation-associated genes while promoting the expression of self-renewal genes, including Hmga2. A network of heterochronic gene products including Lin28a, let-7, IMP1, and HMGA2 thus regulates temporal changes in stem cell properties. DOI: PMID:24192035

Nishino, Jinsuke; Kim, Sunjung; Zhu, Yuan; Zhu, Hao; Morrison, Sean J



Modulation of nocioceptive transmission with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists in the thalamus.  


Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists are effective acute migraine treatments without the vascular contraindications associated with triptans. While it has been demonstrated that calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists act in the central nervous system, their effects in preclinical migraine models have been investigated in only the trigeminocervical complex. Migraine is a complex neurological disorder; sites in the brainstem and forebrain are clearly involved in its expression. We have performed electrophysiological recordings in thalamic neurons of rats responding to nocioceptive trigeminovascular inputs and tested the effect of olcegepant, a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, intravenously), on cell firing. We further tested the effect of microiontophoresed calcitonin gene-related peptide and the receptor antagonists calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 and olcegepant on thalamic cell firing, elicited by stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus or by microiontophoretic application of l-glutamate. Additionally, we used immunofluorescent staining to demonstrate the presence of functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus by specifically co-staining for the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subunits calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 1. Intravenously administered olcegepant significantly inhibited cell firing evoked by stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus as well as the background activity. Microiontophoresis of calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 also showed a significant inhibition of l-glutamate-evoked cell firing and firing evoked by stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the presence of the components of a functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and the receptor activity modifying protein 1, within the area of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus. This is the first report on the efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists at the level of third-order neurons in the migraine pathway, showing that the central effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists extend beyond the trigeminocervical complex at least to the sensory thalamus. PMID:20802202

Summ, Oliver; Charbit, Annabelle R; Andreou, Anna P; Goadsby, Peter J



Physical mapping of the retinoid X receptor B gene in mouse and human  

SciTech Connect

Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are zinc finger-containing nuclear transcription factors. They belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily that contains retinoid receptors, vitamin D receptors, thyroid hormone receptors, and steroid hormone receptors as well as the so-called orphan receptors. We previously mapped all three RXR genes on mouse chromosomes, using a panel of Mus spretus-Mus musculus interspecific backcross mice: namely, the RXRA-gene (Rxra) on Chr 2 near the centromere, the RXRB gene (Rxrb) on Chr 17 in the H2 region, and the RXRG gene (Rxrg) on distal Chr 1. Using cosmid clones that cover the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we determined the precise physical map positions of the gene encoding mouse and human RXRB, respectively. The mouse gene (Rxrb) maps between H2-Ke4 and H2-Ke5: namely, immediately telomeric to H2-Ke4 which encodes a histidine-rich transmembrane protein, and 12 kilobases centromeric to H2-Ke5 which is expressed in lymphoid tissues, Rxrb and H2-Ke4 are transcribed into opposite directions from a CpG-rich promoter of about 250 base pairs. This gene organization is well conserved also in the human genome at the HLA-DP subregion of Chr 6p, underscoring the strong conservation of the gene organization in the MHC region between the two mammals. 54 refs., 4 figs.

Nagata, T.; Kitagawa, K.; Taketo, M. [Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Weiss, E.H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Abe, K. [Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Ando, A.; Yara-Kikuti, Y.; Inoko, H. [Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Isehara (Japan); Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ozato, K. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)



cDNA cloning of porcine interleukin-2 receptor-? gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine interIeukin-2 receptor-a subunit (IL-2R?) cDNA was cloned from the cDNA library of Con A-stimulated PBMC. The coding sequence of porcine IL-2R?, including the signal peptide sequence, is 813 b.p. in length. The identities of the sequence when it was compared with ovine, murine, feline and human Sequences were 72.2, 62.4, 69.8 and 68.9% at nucleotide level and 58.9, 44.6,

Takehiro Kokuho; Akihiko Uchimura; Shigeki Inumaru



Characterization of horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain genes  

SciTech Connect

Genes encoding the horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) were cloned and characterized. Of 33 cDNA clones isolated from the mesenteric lymph node, 30 had functionally rearranged gene segments, and three contained germline sequences. Sixteen unique variable segments (TCRBV), 14 joining genes (TCRBJ), and two constant region genes (TCRBC) were identified. Horse TCRBV were grouped into nine families based on similarity to human sequences. TCRBV2 and TCRBV12 were the most commonly represented horse families. Analysis of predicted protein structure revealed the presence of conserved regions similar to those seen in TCRB of other species. A decanucleotide promoter sequence homologous to those found in humans and mice was located in the 5{prime} untranslated region of one horse gene. Germline sequences included the 5{prime} region of the TCRBD2 gene with flanking heptamer/nonamer recombination signals and portions of the TCRBJ2-C2 intro. Southern blot hybridizations demonstrated restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the TCRBC locus among different horse breeds.

Schrenzel, M.D.; Watson, J.L.; Ferrick, D.A. [Univ. of California, Davis (United States)



Investigation of endocannabinoid system genes suggests association between peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-? gene (PPARA) and schizophrenia.  


Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder with a large genetic burden and an estimated hereditability of 80%. A large number of neuroanatomical and psychopharmacological studies suggest a central role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the susceptibility of the disease. To further investigate this hypothesis, we performed an association study with genes codifying for key elements of the eCB system in a sample of 170 schizophrenic patients and 350 healthy controls of Italian ancestry. A total of 57 Tag SNPs (tSNPs) were selected using HapMap CEU population SNP database spanning the following genes: cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-? (PPARA), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Seven out of the 32 tSNPs within PPARA (rs4253765, rs4263776, rs6007662, rs1800206, rs4253763, rs6008197 and rs4253655) and 3 out of 12 tSNPs within CNR1 (rs1049353, rs7766029 and rs806366) were nominally associated with SZ (uncorrected p<0.05). The same pattern of association was observed in the genotype analysis, with rs4253765 showing the highest level of significance (uncorrected p=2×10(-3)). None of these associations survived after permutation test. Our findings suggest a potential role for PPARA in the susceptibility to SZ, but further studies on larger independent samples are warranted in order to clarify the involvement of this gene in the pathophysiology of SZ. PMID:22920733

Costa, Marta; Squassina, Alessio; Congiu, Donatella; Chillotti, Caterina; Niola, Paola; Galderisi, Silvana; Pistis, Marco; Del Zompo, Maria



Fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced gene regulation in striatal output pathways: Potential role for 5-HT1B receptor.  


Drug combinations that include the psychostimulant methylphenidate plus a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) such as fluoxetine are increasingly used in children and adolescents. For example, this combination is indicated in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression comorbidity and other mental disorders. Such co-exposure also occurs in patients on SSRIs who use methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer. The neurobiological consequences of these drug combinations are poorly understood. Methylphenidate alone can produce gene regulation effects that mimic addiction-related gene regulation by cocaine, consistent with its moderate addiction liability. We have previously shown that combining SSRIs with methylphenidate potentiates methylphenidate-induced gene regulation in the striatum. The present study investigated which striatal output pathways are affected by the methylphenidate + fluoxetine combination, by assessing effects on pathway-specific neuropeptide markers, and which serotonin receptor subtypes may mediate these effects. Our results demonstrate that a 5-day repeated treatment with fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) potentiates methylphenidate (5 mg/kg)-induced expression of both dynorphin (direct pathway marker) and enkephalin (indirect pathway). These changes were accompanied by correlated increases in the expression of the 5-HT1B, but not 5-HT2C, serotonin receptor in the same striatal regions. A further study showed that the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP94253 (3-10 mg/kg) mimics the fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced gene regulation. These findings suggest a role for the 5-HT1B receptor in the fluoxetine effects on striatal gene regulation. Given that 5-HT1B receptors are known to facilitate addiction-related gene regulation and behavior, our results suggest that SSRIs may enhance the addiction liability of methylphenidate by increasing 5-HT1B receptor signaling. PMID:25218038

Van Waes, Vincent; Ehrlich, Sarah; Beverley, Joel A; Steiner, Heinz



Leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in severely pre-eclamptic women.  


Variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) may modulate the effect of elevated serum leptin levels in pre-eclampsia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the LEPR gene polymorphisms Lys109Arg (A109G) and Gln223Arg (A223G) in severely pre-eclamptic women. In a case-control study, we analyzed blood samples from 124 severely pre-eclamptic patients and 107 healthy control women by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The Pearson chi2 test was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The association was adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index and primiparity with logistic regression analysis. Pregnant women with the LEPR 223G allele (223A/G or 223G/G genotype) had almost double the risk of developing severe pre-eclampsia compared with patients with the 223A/A genotype (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.07-3.41). Genotype variants of LEPR A109G alone did not affect the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. Haplotype estimation of A109G and A223G polymorphisms of the LEPR gene revealed that the G-A haplotype versus other pooled haplotypes was significantly less common in the pre-eclamptic group (p < 0.01), while the G-G haplotype versus others was overrepresented among severely pre-eclamptic patients (p < 0.01), compared with controls. In conclusion, our data indicate that LEPR A223G polymorphism may individually modify the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. PMID:17071538

Rigó, János; Szendei, György; Rosta, Klára; Fekete, Andrea; Bögi, Krisztina; Molvarec, Attila; Rónai, Zsolt; Vér, Agota



Nuclear Factor ?B Signaling in Opioid Functions and Receptor Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Opiates are the most powerful of all known analgesics. The prototype opiate morphine has been used as a painkiller for several thousand years. Chronic usage of opiates not only causes drug tolerance, dependence, and addiction, but also suppresses immune functions and affects cell proliferation and cell survival. The diverse functions of opiates underscore the complexity of opioid receptor signaling. Several downstream signaling effector systems, including adenylyl cyclase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Ca2+ channels, K+ channels, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, have been identified to be critical in opioid functions. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), one of the most diverse and critical transcription factors, is one of the downstream molecules that may either directly or indirectly transmit the receptor-mediated upstream signals to the nucleus, resulting in the regulation of the NF-?B-dependent genes, which are critical for the opioid-induced biological responses of neuronal and immune cells. In this minireview, we focus on current understanding of the involvement of NF-?B signaling in opioid functions and receptor gene expression in cells. PMID:18040804

Law, Ping-Yee; Loh, Horace H.



Genes and ligands for odorant, vomeronasal and taste receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical senses (smell and taste) have evolved complex repertoires of chemosensory receptors — G-protein coupled receptors with a seven-transmembrane domain structure. In the mouse, ?1,000 odorant receptors are dedicated to the conventional sense of smell, ?300 vomeronasal receptors mediate the detection of chemical stimuli (such as pheromones) by the vomeronasal organ, and ?40 taste receptors are implicated in bitter,

Peter Mombaerts



Transient receptor potential channel A1 involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide release in neurons  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential channel A1 is one of the important transducers of noxious stimuli in the primary afferents, which may contribute to generation of neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia. The present study was designed to investigate if activation of transient receptor potential channel A1 may induce calcitonin gene-related peptide release from the primary afferent neurons. We found that application of allyl isothiocyanate, a transient receptor potential channel A1 activator, caused calcitonin gene-related peptide release from the cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Knockdown of transient receptor potential channel A1 with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide prevented calcitonin gene-related peptide release by allyl isothiocyanate application in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Thus, we concluded that transient receptor potential channel A1 activation caused calcitonin gene-related peptide release in sensory neurons.

Ushio, Nobumasa; Dai, Yi; Wang, Shenglan; Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Noguchi, Koichi



Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist olcegepant acts in the spinal trigeminal nucleus.  


Several lines of evidence suggest a major role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of migraine and other primary headaches. Inhibition of CGRP receptors by olcegepant and telcagepant has been successfully used to treat acute migraine and to reduce the activity of spinal trigeminal neurons involved in meningeal nociception in rodents. The site of CGRP receptor inhibition is unclear, however. In adult Wistar rats anaesthetized with isofluorane systemic intravenous infusion (0.9 mg/kg) or unilateral facial injection (1 mM in 100 microl) of capsaicin was used to induce activity in the trigeminal nociceptive system. Animals were pre-treated either by saline or olcegepant. In comparison with vehicle infusion or the non-injected side of the face, capsaicin significantly increased the expression of the activation markers Fos in the spinal trigeminal nucleus and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the trigeminal ganglion. Pre-treatment with olcegepant (900 microg/kg) inhibited the capsaicin-induced expression of Fos throughout the spinal trigeminal nucleus by 57%. In contrast, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the trigeminal ganglion was not changed by olcegepant pre-treatment. CGRP receptor inhibition, which has been shown to decrease spinal trigeminal activity, is likely to occur in the central nervous system rather than in the periphery including the trigeminal ganglion. This may be important for future therapeutic interventions with CGRP receptor antagonists in migraine. PMID:19737844

Sixt, Marie-Luise; Messlinger, Karl; Fischer, Michael J M



The Emerging Role of the MORF/MRG Gene Family in Various Biological Processes Including Aging  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is the dominant phenotype over immortality. In our studies to identify senescence related genes we cloned Morf4 that induced senescence in a subset of tumor cells. Morf4 is a member of a family of 7 genes, and the Morf related genes (Mrg) on chromosomes 15 (Mrg15) and X (MrgX) are also expressed. In contrast to MORF4, MRG15 and MRGX are positive regulators of cell division. All three proteins interact with histone acetylases (HATs) and acetyltransferase (HDACs), suggesting they function in regulation of chromatin dynamics. Mrg15 knockout mice are embryonic lethal, and MEFs derived from Mrg15 null embryos proliferate poorly, enter senescence rapidly and have impaired DNA repair compared to wild type. Mrg15 null embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells also have a decreased capacity for proliferation and differentiation. Further studies are needed to determine the function of this gene family in various biological processes including neural stem/progenitor cell aging. PMID:20536842

Chen, Meizhen; Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.



Expression of fibroblast growth factor gene family and its receptor gene family in the human upper gastrointestinal tract.  


All of 13 human esophageal cancer cell lines contained mRNAs for both basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and its receptor, FGFR1/N-sam protein, while they did not have mRNAs for keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) despite the presence of mRNAs for the KGF receptor gene, K-sam. The results indicate that in human esophageal cancer, bFGF plays roles in an autocrine manner, while KGF acts as a paracrine mediator. In contrast, only one of seven human gastric cancer cell lines contained bFGF mRNAs, while three out of the seven had mRNAs for FGFR1/N-sam protein. The KGF gene was not expressed in any of the gastric cancer cell lines, while K-sam mRNAs were detected in six out of the seven. The results demonstrate that in most human gastric cancers, bFGF does not act as an autocrine mediator, while KGF acts as a paracrine factor. The mRNAs for the other four members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, including acidic FGF, int-2 protein, hst-1 protein, FGF5 protein and FGF6/hst-2 protein could not be detected in the esophageal and gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:7511892

Iida, S; Katoh, O; Tokunaga, A; Terada, M



Allergic rhinitis and genetic components: focus on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) gene polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Allergic rhinitis represents a global health issue affecting 10% to 25% of the population worldwide. Over the years, studies have found that allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, are associated with immunological responses to antigens driven by a Th2-mediated immune response. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses to a broad variety of antigens, the association between polymorphisms of TLRs and allergic diseases has been the focus in many animal and human studies. Although the etiology of allergic rhinitis is still unknown, extensive research over the years has confirmed that the underlying causes of allergic diseases are due to many genetic and environmental factors, along with the interactions among them, which include gene–environment, gene–gene, and environment–environment interactions. Currently, there is great inconsistency among studies mainly due to differences in genetic background and unique gene–environment interactions. This paper reviews studies focusing on the association between TLR polymorphisms and allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, which would help researchers better understand the role of TLR polymorphisms in the development of allergic rhinitis, and ultimately lead to more efficient therapeutic interventions being developed. PMID:23776356

Gao, Zhiwei; Rennie, Donna C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan



Phosphorylated and sumoylation-deficient progesterone receptors drive proliferative gene signatures during breast cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Introduction Progesterone receptors (PR) are emerging as important breast cancer drivers. Phosphorylation events common to breast cancer cells impact PR transcriptional activity, in part by direct phosphorylation. PR-B but not PR-A isoforms are phosphorylated on Ser294 by mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Phospho-Ser294 PRs are resistant to ligand-dependent Lys388 SUMOylation (that is, a repressive modification). Antagonism of PR small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylation by mitogenic protein kinases suggests a mechanism for derepression (that is, transcriptional activation) of target genes. As a broad range of PR protein expression is observed clinically, a PR gene signature would provide a valuable marker of PR contribution to early breast cancer progression. Methods Global gene expression patterns were measured in T47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing either wild-type (SUMOylation-capable) or K388R (SUMOylation-deficient) PRs and subjected to pathway analysis. Gene sets were validated by RT-qPCR. Recruitment of coregulators and histone methylation levels were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Changes in cell proliferation and survival were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and western blotting. Finally, human breast tumor cohort datasets were probed to identify PR-associated gene signatures; metagene analysis was employed to define survival rates in patients whose tumors express a PR gene signature. Results 'SUMO-sensitive' PR target genes primarily include genes required for proliferative and pro-survival signaling. DeSUMOylated K388R receptors are preferentially recruited to enhancer regions of derepressed genes (that is, MSX2, RGS2, MAP1A, and PDK4) with the steroid receptor coactivator, CREB-(cAMP-response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), and mixed lineage leukemia 2 (MLL2), a histone methyltransferase mediator of nucleosome remodeling. PR SUMOylation blocks these events, suggesting that SUMO modification of PR prevents interactions with mediators of early chromatin remodeling at 'closed' enhancer regions. SUMO-deficient (phospho-Ser294) PR gene signatures are significantly associated with human epidermal growth factor 2 (ERBB2)-positive luminal breast tumors and predictive of early metastasis and shortened survival. Treatment with antiprogestin or MEK inhibitor abrogated expression of SUMO-sensitive PR target-genes and inhibited proliferation in BT-474 (estrogen receptor (ER)+/PR+/ERBB2+) breast cancer cells. Conclusions We conclude that reversible PR SUMOylation/deSUMOylation profoundly alters target gene selection in breast cancer cells. Phosphorylation-induced PR deSUMOylation favors a permissive chromatin environment via recruitment of CBP and MLL2. Patients whose ER+/PR+ tumors are driven by hyperactive (that is, derepressed) phospho-PRs may benefit from endocrine (antiestrogen) therapies that contain an antiprogestin. PMID:22697792



Upregulation of vascular ET(B) receptor gene expression after chronic ET(A) receptor blockade in prediabetic NOD mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aorta of prediabetic non-obese diabetic mice, a model of human type 1 diabetes, we investigated gene expression of the endothelin receptors and contractility to big endothelin-1 and endothelin-1 at the ages of 10 and 16 weeks. A subgroup of 10- week-old animals was treated with the endothelin ETA receptor antagonist LU461314 (30 mg\\/kg per day for 6 weeks).

Jana Ortmann; Tobias Traupe; Philipp Nett; Jennifer Celeiro; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann; Melanie Lange; Wilhelm Vetter; Matthias Barton



Nonylphenol modulates expression of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor genes differently in gender types of the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To uncover the effect of estrogenic chemicals [4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BisA)] on the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?) in the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus, we cloned the full length of the cDNAs encoding AR, ER?, and ER? from gonadal tissue of R. marmoratus and analyzed the modulation of expression of these genes

Jung Soo Seo; Young-Mi Lee; Sang-Oun Jung; Il-Chan Kim; Yong-Dal Yoon; Jae-Seong Lee



Association of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor ?2 gene (GABRA2) with alcohol use disorder.  


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. GABA receptor are involved in a number of complex disorders, including substance abuse. No variants of the commonly studied GABA receptor genes that have been associated with substance dependence have been determined to be functional or pathogenic. To reconcile the conflicting associations with substance dependence traits, we performed a meta-analysis of variants in the GABAA receptor genes (GABRB2, GABRA6, GABRA1, and GABRG2 on chromosome 5q and GABRA2 on chromosome 4p12) using genotype data from 4739 cases of alcohol, opioid, or methamphetamine dependence and 4924 controls. Then, we combined the data from candidate gene association studies in the literature with two alcohol dependence (AD) samples, including 1691 cases and 1712 controls from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE), and 2644 cases and 494 controls from our own study. Using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.007, we found strong associations between GABRA2 and AD (P=9 × 10(-6) and odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.27 (1.15, 1.4) for rs567926, P=4 × 10(-5) and OR=1.21 (1.1, 1.32) for rs279858), and between GABRG2 and both dependence on alcohol and dependence on heroin (P=0.0005 and OR=1.22 (1.09, 1.37) for rs211014). Significant association was also observed between GABRA6 rs3219151 and AD. The GABRA2 rs279858 association was observed in the SAGE data sets with a combined P of 9 × 10(-6) (OR=1.17 (1.09, 1.26)). When all of these data sets, including our samples, were meta-analyzed, associations of both GABRA2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms remained (for rs567926, P=7 × 10(-5) (OR=1.18 (1.09, 1.29)) in all the studies, and P=8 × 10(-6) (OR=1.25 (1.13, 1.38)) in subjects of European ancestry and for rs279858, P=5 × 10(-6) (OR=1.18 (1.1, 1.26)) in subjects of European ancestry. Findings from this extensive meta-analysis of five GABAA receptor genes and substance abuse support their involvement (with the best evidence for GABRA2) in the pathogenesis of AD. Further replications with larger samples are warranted. PMID:24136292

Li, Dawei; Sulovari, Arvis; Cheng, Chao; Zhao, Hongyu; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel



Early duplications of opioid receptor and Peptide genes in vertebrate evolution.  


The opioid receptor family in mammals has four members called delta, kappa, mu, and NOP (the nociceptin/orphanin receptor). We show here that they arose from a common ancestral gene through quadruplication of a large chromosomal region, presumably in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations. The four opioid peptide precursor genes have a more complicated evolutionary history involving chromosomal rearrangements but nevertheless seem to have arisen in the same time period as the receptors. Thus the system of opioid peptides and receptors was already established approximately 450 Ma at the dawn of gnathostome evolution. PMID:19456384

Larhammar, Dan; Dreborg, Susanne; Larsson, Tomas A; Sundström, Görel



Allelic association of human dopamine D sub 2 receptor gene in alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

In a blinded experiment, the authors report the first allelic association of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene in alcoholism. From 70 brain samples of alcoholics and nonalcoholics, DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and probed with a clone that contained the entire 3{prime} coding exon, the polyadenylation signal, and approximately 16.4 kilobases of noncoding 3{prime} sequence of the human dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene ({lambda}hD2G1). In the present samples, the presence of A1 allele of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene correctly classified 77% of alcoholics, and its absence classified 72% of nonalcoholics. The polymorphic pattern of this receptor gene suggests that a gene that confers susceptibility to at least one form of alcoholism is located on the q22-q23 region of chromosome 11.

Blum, K.; Sheridan, P.J.; Montgomery, A.; Jagadeeswaran, P.; Nogami, H.; Briggs, A.H. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA)); Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.; Cohn, J.B. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))



Expansion of the human ?-opioid receptor gene architecture: novel functional variants  

PubMed Central

The ?-opioid receptor (OPRM1) is the principal receptor target for both endogenous and exogenous opioid analgesics. There are substantial individual differences in human responses to painful stimuli and to opiate drugs that are attributed to genetic variations in OPRM1. In searching for new functional variants, we employed comparative genome analysis and obtained evidence for the existence of an expanded human OPRM1 gene locus with new promoters, alternative exons and regulatory elements. Examination of polymorphisms within the human OPRM1 gene locus identified strong association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs563649 and individual variations in pain perception. SNP rs563649 is located within a structurally conserved internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5?-UTR of a novel exon 13-containing OPRM1 isoforms (MOR-1K) and affects both mRNA levels and translation efficiency of these variants. Furthermore, rs563649 exhibits very strong linkage disequilibrium throughout the entire OPRM1 gene locus and thus affects the functional contribution of the corresponding haplotype that includes other functional OPRM1 SNPs. Our results provide evidence for an essential role for MOR-1K isoforms in nociceptive signaling and suggest that genetic variations in alternative OPRM1 isoforms may contribute to individual differences in opiate responses. PMID:19103668

Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Gris, Pavel; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Gauthier, Josee; Shibata, Kyoko; Tchivileva, Inna E.; Belfer, Inna; Mishra, Bikashkumar; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Wallace, Margaret R.; Staud, Roland; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Max, Mitchell B.; Goldman, David; Fillingim, Roger B.; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda



Positive association between a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia and 96 normal controls were investigated for genetic association with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the serotonin receptor genes. A positive association between the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and schizophrenia was found, but not between schizophrenia and the serotonin 1A receptor gene. The positive association we report here would suggest that the DNA region with susceptibility to schizophrenia lies in the HTR2A on the long arm of chromosome 13. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

Inayama, Y.; Yoneda, H.; Sakai, T. [Osaka Medical College (Japan)] [and others] [Osaka Medical College (Japan); and others



Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of one of the human glutamate receptor genes  

SciTech Connect

Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are classified on the basis of their activation by different agonists. The agonists kainate and {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxasolepropionic acid define a class of glutamate receptors termed kainate receptors. The authors have isolated and sequenced a human glutamate receptor (GluHI) cDNA and determined the chromosomal localization of its gene. The DNA sequence of GluHI would encode a 907-amino acid protein that has a 97% identity to one of the rodent kainate receptor subunits. Many of the changes between the predicted amino acid sequence of GluHI and the most similar rodent kainate receptor (GluRI) occur in a region of the protein encoded in rodents by an alternatively spliced exon. The extreme conservation between the human and rat kainate receptor subunits suggests that a similar gene family will encode human kainate receptors. The GluHI mRNA is widely expressed in human brain. The human gene encoding the GluHI subunit is located at 5q33. While the GluHI gene is not located near a chromosomal region associated with any human neurogenetic disorders, the homologous region on mouse chromosome 11 contains the sites of five neurologic mutations.

Puckett, C.; Gomez, C.M.; Tung, H.; Meier, T.J.; Hood, L. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena (United States)); Korenberg, J.R.; Xiao Ning Chen (Cedar Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States))



Evolutionary history and functional characterization of androgen receptor genes in jawed vertebrates.  


Vertebrates show diverse sexual characters in sexually attractive and reproductive organs, which are regulated by steroid hormones, particularly androgens. However, the evolutionary history of androgen receptor (AR) gene remains largely unknown on the basis of phylogenic and functional analyses. To elucidate the evolutionary history and functional diversification of AR genes in vertebrates, we cloned the AR cDNAs from a shark, basal ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), namely bichir and sturgeon (Acipenseriformes), and teleosts including a basal teleost, arowana (Osteoglossiformes). Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene duplication event that gave rise to two different teleost ARs (alpha and beta) likely occurred in the actinopterygian lineage leading to teleosts after the divergence of Acipenseriformes but before the split of Osteoglossiformes, which is compatible with the phylogenetic timing of teleost-specific genome duplication. Searching for AR genes in the medaka genome indicated that the teleost AR gene duplication has been associated with the duplication between chromosomes 10 and 14. Our functional analysis revealed that the shark AR activates the target gene via androgen response element by classical androgens. The teleost ARalpha showed the unique intracellular localization with a significantly higher transactivating capacity than that by teleost ARbeta. These findings indicate that the most ancient type of AR, as activated by the classical androgens as ligands, emerged before the Chondrichthyes-Osteichthyes split, and the AR gene was duplicated during the teleost-specific genome duplication event. We report here for the first time the accurate evolutionary history of AR gene and functional characterization of AR duplicates in teleost lineage. PMID:19819965

Ogino, Yukiko; Katoh, Hironori; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Yamada, Gen



Glucocorticoid receptor regulates overlapping and differential gene subsets in developing and adult skin.  


We have previously shown that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is required for skin homeostasis and epidermal barrier competence. To understand the transcriptional program by which GR regulates skin development, we performed a microarray analysis using the skin of GR(-/-) and GR(+/+) mice of embryonic d 18.5 and identified 442 differentially expressed genes. Functional clustering demonstrated overrepresentation of genes involved in ectoderm/epidermis development. We found strong repression of genes encoding proteins associated with the later stages of epidermal differentiation, such as several small proline-rich proteins (Sprrs) and corneodesmosin (Cdsn). This, together with the up-regulation of genes induced earlier during epidermal development, including the epithelial-specific gene transcripts E74-like factor 5 (Elf5) and keratin 77 (Krt77), fits with the phenotype of defective epidermal differentiation observed in the GR(-/-) mice. We also found down-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide defensin ? 1 (Defb1) and FK506-binding protein 51 (Fkbp51). Skin developmental expression profiling of these genes and studies in cultured keratinocytes from GR(-/-) and wild type embryos demonstrated that gene regulation occurred in a cell-autonomous manner. To investigate the consequences of GR loss in adult epidermis, we generated mice with inducible inactivation of GR restricted to keratinocytes (K14-cre-ER(T2)//GR(loxP/loxP) mice). K14-cre-ER(T2)//GR(loxP/loxP) mice featured thickened skin with increased keratinocyte proliferation and impaired differentiation. Whereas Krt77 and Elf5 expression remained unaffected by loss of GR in adult epidermis, Fkbp51, Sprr2d, and Defb1 were strongly repressed. Importantly, we have identified both Fkbp51 and Defb1 as direct transcriptional targets of GR, and we have shown that GR-mediated regulation of these genes occurs in both developing and adult epidermis. We conclude that both overlapping and differential GR targets are regulated in developing vs. adult skin. PMID:20880987

Sevilla, Lisa M; Bayo, Pilar; Latorre, Víctor; Sanchis, Ana; Pérez, Paloma



Evolutionary History and Functional Characterization of Androgen Receptor Genes in Jawed Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates show diverse sexual characters in sexually attractive and reproductive organs, which are regulated by steroid hormones, particularly androgens. However, the evolutionary history of androgen receptor (AR) gene remains largely unknown on the basis of phylogenic and functional analyses. To elucidate the evolutionary history and functional diversification of AR genes in vertebrates, we cloned the AR cDNAs from a shark, basal ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), namely bichir and sturgeon (Acipenseriformes), and teleosts including a basal teleost, arowana (Osteoglossiformes). Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene duplication event that gave rise to two different teleost ARs (? and ?) likely occurred in the actinopterygian lineage leading to teleosts after the divergence of Acipenseriformes but before the split of Osteoglossiformes, which is compatible with the phylogenetic timing of teleost-specific genome duplication. Searching for AR genes in the medaka genome indicated that the teleost AR gene duplication has been associated with the duplication between chromosomes 10 and 14. Our functional analysis revealed that the shark AR activates the target gene via androgen response element by classical androgens. The teleost AR? showed the unique intracellular localization with a significantly higher transactivating capacity than that by teleost AR?. These findings indicate that the most ancient type of AR, as activated by the classical androgens as ligands, emerged before the Chondrichthyes-Osteichthyes split, and the AR gene was duplicated during the teleost-specific genome duplication event. We report here for the first time the accurate evolutionary history of AR gene and functional characterization of AR duplicates in teleost lineage. PMID:19819965

Ogino, Yukiko; Katoh, Hironori; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Yamada, Gen



Differential gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes exposed to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists  

PubMed Central

Background Fibrates are a unique hypolipidemic drugs that lower plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels through their action as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonists. The activation of PPAR? leads to a cascade of events that result in the pharmacological (hypolipidemic) and adverse (carcinogenic) effects in rodent liver. Results To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pleiotropic effects of PPAR? agonists, we treated mouse primary hepatocytes with three PPAR? agonists (bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643) at multiple concentrations (0, 10, 30, and 100 ?M) for 24 hours. When primary hepatocytes were exposed to these agents, transactivation of PPAR? was elevated as measured by luciferase assay. Global gene expression profiles in response to PPAR? agonists were obtained by microarray analysis. Among differentially expressed genes (DEGs), there were 4, 8, and 21 genes commonly regulated by bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 treatments across 3 doses, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments with 100 ?M of bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 resulted in 151, 149, and 145 genes altered, respectively. Among them, 121 genes were commonly regulated by at least two drugs. Many genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism including oxidative reaction. Some of the gene changes were associated with production of reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation of peroxisomes, and hepatic disorders. In addition, 11 genes related to the development of liver cancer were observed. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment of PPAR? agonists results in the production of oxidative stress and increased peroxisome proliferation, thus providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying PPAR? agonist-induced hepatic disorders and hepatocarcinomas. PMID:17118139

Guo, Lei; Fang, Hong; Collins, Jim; Fan, Xiao-hui; Dial, Stacey; Wong, Alex; Mehta, Kshama; Blann, Ernice; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Dragan, Yvonne P



Association of adenosine receptor gene polymorphisms and in vivo adenosine A1 receptor binding in the human brain.  


Adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) and the interacting adenosine A2A receptors are implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Variants within the corresponding genes ADORA1 and ADORA2A were shown associated with pathophysiologic alterations, particularly increased anxiety. It is unknown so far, if these variants might modulate the A1AR distribution and availability in different brain regions. In this pilot study, the influence of ADORA1 and ADORA2A variants on in vivo A1AR binding was assessed with the A1AR-selective positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [(18)F]CPFPX in brains of healthy humans. Twenty-eight normal control subjects underwent PET procedures to calculate the binding potential BPND of [(18)F]CPFPX in cerebral regions and to assess ADORA1 and ADORA2A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects on regional BPND data. Our results revealed SNPs of both genes associated with [(18)F]CPFPX binding to the A1AR. The strongest effects that withstood even Bonferroni correction of multiple SNP testing were found in non-smoking subjects (N=22) for ADORA2A SNPs rs2236624 and rs5751876 (corr. Pall<0.05). SNP alleles previously identified at risk for increased anxiety like the rs5751876 T-allele corresponded to consistently higher A1AR availability in all brain regions. Our data indicate for the first time that variation of A1AR availability was associated with ADORA SNPs. The finding of increased A1AR availability in regions of the fear network, particularly in ADORA2A risk allele carriers, strongly warrants evaluation and replication in further studies including individuals with increased anxiety. PMID:24943643

Hohoff, Christa; Garibotto, Valentina; Elmenhorst, David; Baffa, Anna; Kroll, Tina; Hoffmann, Alana; Schwarte, Kathrin; Zhang, Weiqi; Arolt, Volker; Deckert, Jürgen; Bauer, Andreas



A novel human gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR15) is located on chromosome 3  

SciTech Connect

We used sequence similarities among G-protein-coupled receptor genes to discover a novel receptor gene. Using primers based on conserved regions of the opioid-related receptors, we isolated a PCR product that was used to locate the full-length coding region of a novel human receptor gene, which we have named GPR15. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the receptor gene, which we have named GPR15. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the receptor encoded by GPR15 with other receptors revealed that it shared sequence identity with the angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors, the interleukin 8b receptor, and the orphan receptors GPR1 and AGTL1. GPR15 was mapped to human chromosome 3q11.2-q13.1. 12 refs., 2 figs.

Heiber, M.; Marchese, A.; O`Dowd, B.F. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others



Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Alterations in Prostate Cancer: Of Humanized Mice and Men  

PubMed Central

Germline polymorphisms and somatic mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) have been intensely investigated in prostate cancer but even with genomic approaches their impact remains controversial. To assess the functional significance of AR genetic variation, we converted the mouse gene to the human sequence by germline recombination and engineered alleles to query the role of a polymorphic glutamine (Q) tract implicated in cancer risk. In a prostate cancer model, AR Q tract length influences progression and castration response. Mutation profiling in mice provides direct evidence that somatic AR variants are selected by therapy, a finding validated in human metastases from distinct treatment groups. Mutant ARs exploit multiple mechanisms to resist hormone ablation, including alterations in ligand specificity, target gene selectivity, chaperone interaction and nuclear localization. Regardless of their frequency, these variants permute normal function to reveal novel means to target wild type AR and its key interacting partners. PMID:21689727

Robins, Diane M.



Variable regions of Ig heavy chain genes encoding antithyrotropin receptor antibodies of patients with Graves' disease.  


We have established EBV-transformed human B cell clones producing monoclonal antithyrotropin receptor antibodies from two patients with Graves' disease. We then isolated and characterized Ig H chain genes of 5 B cell clones with the thyrotropin-binding inhibitor Ig (TBII) activity and 4 B cell clones with the thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) activity. We found that VH gene families used in the 5 TBII clones were all VH-III, although those of the four TSAb clones were diverse, including VH-II, -III, -IV, all -V. Most of VH segments used in TBII and TSAb are commonly used in other autoantibodies and fetal liver repertoire. The frequency of somatic mutations in TBII was higher than that in TSAb. Inasmuch as the same germline VH segment (V3-23) was used for both TBII and TSAb, the frequency and position of somatic mutations may be important for generation of TBII and TSAb. PMID:8301147

Shin, E K; Akamizu, T; Matsuda, F; Sugawa, H; Fujikura, J; Mori, T; Honjo, T



Linkage mapping of the angiotensin AT{sub 2} receptor gene (Agtr2) to the mouse X chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Angiotensin II is a potent regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis and binds to two different G-protein-coupled receptors. While the type 1 receptor (AT{sub 1}) mediates the cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II, the function of the recently cloned type 2 receptor (AT{sub 2}) remains unknown. We have cloned the mouse AT{sub 2} receptor gene (Agtr2) and determined its map position by linkage analysis using an interspecific backcross (C57BIJ6J x Mus spretus). Agtr2 is located on the proximal mouse X chromosome between MMU85 and DMVU49, in a region of conserved synteny with a part of the human X chromosome implicated in inherited forms of premature ovarian failure. The mapping of Agtr2 may expand a region of conserved synteny with human Xq26 that includes Hprt. 24 refs., 2 figs.

Hein, L.; Dzau, V.J.; Barsh, G.S. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)



Association study of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

Several groups have reported an association between schizophrenia and the MscI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3). We studied this polymorphism using a North American sample (117 patients plus 188 controls) and an Italian sample (97 patients plus 64 controls). In the first part of the study, we compared allele frequencies of schizophrenia patients and unmatched controls and observed a significant difference in the total sample (P = 0.01). The second part of the study involved a case control approach in which each schizophrenia patient was matched to a control of the same sex, and of similar age and ethnic background. The DRD3 allele frequencies of patients and controls revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the Italian (N = 53) or the North American (N = 54) matched populations; however, when these two matched samples were combined, a significant difference was observed (P = 0.026). Our results suggest that the MscI polymorphism may be associated with schizophrenia in the populations studied. 32 refs., 2 tabs.

Kennedy, J.L.; Billett, E.A.; Macciardi, F.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others



Quinoline derivatives: candidate drugs for a class B g-protein coupled receptor, the calcitonin gene-related Peptide receptor, a cause of migraines.  


Class B G-protein coupled receptors are involved in a wide variety of diseases and are a major focus in drug design. Migraines are a common problem, and one of their major causative agents is the class B G-protein coupled receptor, Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor, a target for competitive drug discovery. The calcitonin receptor-like receptor generates complexes with a receptor activity-modifying protein, which determines the type of receptor protein formed. The CGRP receptor comprises a complex formed from the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1. In this study, an in silico docking approach was used to target the calcitonin receptor-like receptor in the bound form with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (CGRP receptor), as well as in the unbound form. In both cases, the resulting inhibitors bound to the same cavity of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor. The twelve evaluated compounds were competitive inhibitors and showed efficient inhibitory activity against the CGRP receptor and Calcitonin receptor-like receptor. The two studied quinoline derivatives demonstrated potentially ideal inhibitory activity in terms of binding interactions and low range nano-molar inhibition constants. These compounds could prove helpful in designing drugs for the effective treatment of migraines. We propose that quinoline derivatives possess inhibitory activity by disturbing CGRP binding in the trigeminovascular system and may be considered for further preclinical appraisal for the treatment of migraines. PMID:25230231

Iftikhar, Hira; Ahmad, Iqra; Gan, Siew H; Shaik, Munvar M; Iftikhar, Naveed; Nawaz, Muhammad S; Greig, Nigel H; Kamal, Mohammad A



?7 Nicotinic receptor gene delivery into mouse hippocampal neurons leads to functional receptor expression, improved spatial memory-related performance, and tau hyperphosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain ?7 nicotinic receptors have become therapeutic targets for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) based on their memory-enhancing and neuroprotective actions. This study investigated the feasibility of increasing neuronal ?7 receptor functions using a gene delivery approach based on neuron-selective recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)–derived vectors. In order to determine whether ?7 receptor-mediated cytotoxicity was dependent on receptor density, rat ?7 nicotinic receptors

K. Ren; J. Thinschmidt; J. Liu; L. Ai; R. L. Papke; M. A. King; J. A. Hughes; E. M. Meyer



Ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms and body size in children and adults Garcia Edwin A. 1 ,*  

E-print Network

adults or children.GHSR Author Keywords ghrelin ; ghrelin receptor ; body mass index ; gene ; growth ( ). In addition, -null mice have a lean phenotype ( ) and3 Ghsr 4 improvement of glycemic profiles in leptin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Observations on the evolution of the melanocortin receptor gene family: distinctive features of the melanocortin-2 receptor.  


The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are a gene family in the rhodopsin class of G protein-coupled receptors. Based on the analysis of several metazoan genome databases it appears that the MCRs are only found in chordates. The presence of five genes in the family (i.e., mc1r, mc2r, mc3r, mc4r, mc5r) in representatives of the tetrapods indicates that the gene family is the result of two genome duplication events and one local gene duplication event during the evolution of the chordates. The MCRs are activated by melanocortin ligands (i.e., ACTH, ?-MSH, ?-MSH, ?-MSH, ?-MSH) which are all derived from the polypeptide hormone/neuropeptide precursor, POMC, and as a result the functional evolution of the MCRs is intimately associated with the co-evolution of POMC endocrine and neuronal circuits. This review will consider the origin of the MCRs, and discuss the evolutionary relationship between MC2R, MC5R, and MC4R. In addition, this review will analyze the functional evolution of the mc2r gene in light of the co-evolution of the MRAP (Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein) gene family. PMID:23596380

Dores, Robert M



Establishing and maintaining gene expression patterns: insights from sensory receptor patterning  

PubMed Central

In visual and olfactory sensory systems with high discriminatory power, each sensory neuron typically expresses one, or very few, sensory receptor genes, excluding all others. Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms that generate and maintain sensory receptor expression patterns. Here, we review how this is achieved in the fly retina and compare it with the mechanisms controlling sensory receptor expression patterns in the mouse retina and in the mouse and fly olfactory systems. PMID:23293281

Rister, Jens; Desplan, Claude; Vasiliauskas, Daniel



The D2 dopamine receptor gene as a determinant of reward deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been profoundly implicated in reward mechanisms in the brain. Dysfunction of the D2 dopamine receptors leads to aberrant substance seeking behaviour (alcohol, drug, tobacco, and food) and other related behaviours (pathological gambling, Tourette's syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). We propose that variants of the D2 dopamine receptor gene are important common genetic determinants of the 'reward deficiency syndrome'. PMID:8774539

Blum, K; Sheridan, P J; Wood, R C; Braverman, E R; Chen, T J; Cull, J G; Comings, D E



Polymorphisms in the Melatonin Receptor 1B Gene and the Risk of Delirium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: A disturbed sleep-wake rhythm cycle can be seen in delirium and as melatonin regulates this cycle via melatonin receptors, genetic variations in these receptors may contribute to susceptibility to delirium. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants in the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) gene are associated with delirium. Methods: Elderly medical and hip surgery patients

A. de Jonghe; S. de Rooija; M. W. T. Tanck; E. J. G. Sijbrands; B. C. V. van Munster



Concomitant Duplications of Opioid Peptide and Receptor Genes before the Origin of Jawed Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Background The opioid system is involved in reward and pain mechanisms and consists in mammals of four receptors and several peptides. The peptides are derived from four prepropeptide genes, PENK, PDYN, PNOC and POMC, encoding enkephalins, dynorphins, orphanin/nociceptin and beta-endorphin, respectively. Previously we have described how two rounds of genome doubling (2R) before the origin of jawed vertebrates formed the receptor family. Methodology/Principal Findings Opioid peptide gene family members were investigated using a combination of sequence-based phylogeny and chromosomal locations of the peptide genes in various vertebrates. Several adjacent gene families were investigated similarly. The results show that the ancestral peptide gene gave rise to two additional copies in the genome doublings. The fourth member was generated by a local gene duplication, as the genes encoding POMC and PNOC are located on the same chromosome in the chicken genome and all three teleost genomes that we have studied. A translocation has disrupted this synteny in mammals. The PDYN gene seems to have been lost in chicken, but not in zebra finch. Duplicates of some peptide genes have arisen in the teleost fishes. Within the prepropeptide precursors, peptides have been lost or gained in different lineages. Conclusions/Significance The ancestral peptide and receptor genes were located on the same chromosome and were thus duplicated concomitantly. However, subsequently genetic linkage has been lost. In conclusion, the system of opioid peptides and receptors was largely formed by the genome doublings that took place early in vertebrate evolution. PMID:20463905

Sundstrom, Gorel; Dreborg, Susanne; Larhammar, Dan



Provisional evidence that the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor gene is associated with musical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary pilot study, 82 university students were administered an extensive battery of musical and phonological memory tasks; their scores were examined for an association with promoter repeats in the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor and serotonin transporter genes. We previously showed that these genes were associated with another music-related phenotype, creative dance. Highly significant Gene×Gene epistatic interactions were observed

Roni Y. Granot; Yoav Frankel; Vladimir Gritsenko; Elad Lerer; Inga Gritsenko; Rachel Bachner-Melman; Salomon Israel; Richard P. Ebstein



Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene Polymorphism Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene is a regulator of circadian rhythms and reproductive processes. The MTNR1A gene is also a potential candidate gene of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the MTNR1A gene polymorphism is associated with a predisposition to PCOS. Methods: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2119882 in

Chao Li; Yuhua Shi; Li You; Laicheng Wang; Zi-Jiang Chen



Transcription of the rat dopamine-D2-receptor gene from two promoters.  


Modulation of the expression of the D2-dopamine receptor gene is involved in several pathological and developmental circumstances. The gene and the corresponding promoter regions of the rat D2 receptor were isolated and partly characterized to study its regulation. The rat D2-receptor gene spans at least 50 kb, and possesses eight exons; its organization was compared to those of the other dopamine-receptor genes in a phylogenetic perspective. The gene contains two transcription-start sites: the major one is located about 320 bp upstream from the 3' end of the first exon, and a minor site is 70 bp further upstream. Transient-expression assays with fusion constructs comprising fragments of the D2-promoter region and the luciferase reporter gene confirmed the existence of two independent, TATA-lacking promoters. Both promoters separately induced transcription of the luciferase gene in C6 glioma, primary fibroblasts, GH3 and MMQ pituitary cell lines, among which only the MMQ cells normally express the D2 receptor. Transcription is enhanced by the reunion of the two promoters, and modified by the addition of upstream sequences. Thus the 1-kb promoter region analysed does not contain all the elements necessary to confer tissue-specific expression of the gene, but does carry some positive and negative regulatory elements, which remain to be characterized. PMID:8125117

Valdenaire, O; Vernier, P; Maus, M; Dumas Milne Edwards, J B; Mallet, J



The c-erb-A gene encodes a thyroid hormone receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA sequence of human c-erb-A, the cellular counterpart of the viral oncogene v-erb-A, indicates that the protein encoded by the gene is related to the steroid hormone receptors. Binding studies with the protein show it to be a receptor for thyroid hormones.

Cary Weinberger; Catherine C. Thompson; Estelita S. Ong; Roger Lebo; Donald J. Gruol; Ronald M. Evans



Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Deficits in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-? Gene Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen. Extensive in vivo studies of PDGF and its receptor (PDGFR) genes have reported that PDGF plays an important role in embryogenesis and development of the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, PDGF and the ? subunit of the PDGF receptor (PDGFR-?) have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia and autism. However, no

Phuong Thi Hong Nguyen; Tomoya Nakamura; Etsuro Hori; Susumu Urakawa; Teruko Uwano; Juanjuan Zhao; Ruixi Li; Nguyen Duy Bac; Takeru Hamashima; Yoko Ishii; Takako Matsushima; Taketoshi Ono; Masakiyo Sasahara; Hisao Nishijo



Regulation of adipocyte gene expression and differentiation by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and is expressed at high levels specifically in adipose tissue. Recent data suggest that this factor is a central regulator of adipocyte gene expression and differentiation. Fibroblastic cell lines that express PPAR? ectopically can be induced to differentiate into fat cells by a variety

Peter Tontonoz; Erding Hu; Bruce M Spiegelman



Effects of Long-Term Antipsychotic Treatment on NMDA Receptor Binding and Gene Expression of Subunits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmortem studies in schizophrenic patients revealed alterations in NMDA receptor binding and gene expression of specific subunits. Because most of the patients had been treated with antipsychotics over long periods, medication effects might have influenced those findings. We treated animals with haloperidol and clozapine in clinical doses to investigate the effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment on NMDA receptor binding and

Andrea Schmitt; Mathias Zink; Bettina Müller; Brigitte May; Anne Herb; Alexander Jatzko; Dieter F. Braus; Fritz A. Henn



Behavioural anomalies in mice evoked by ``Tokyo'' disruption of the Vitamin D receptor gene  

E-print Network

Behavioural anomalies in mice evoked by ``Tokyo'' disruption of the Vitamin D receptor gene Allan V December 2005 Available online 19 January 2006 Abstract Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with many important functions in the brain, mediated through the nuclear Vitamin D receptor (VDR). Mounting clinical data link

Kalueff, Allan V.


Polymorphisms in the leptin receptor gene, body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone involved in body weight regulation, acting through the leptin receptor, localised centrally in the hypothalamus as well as peripherally, amongst others on adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene were related to obesity and body fat distribution phenotypes, such as waist and hip

M Wauters; I Mertens; M Chagnon; T Rankinen; RV Considine; YC Chagnon; LF Van Gaal; C Bouchard



Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk – a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estrogen is an established endometrial carcinogen. One of the most important mediators of estrogenic action is the estrogen receptor alpha. We have investigated whether polymorphic variation in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) is associated with endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: In 702 cases with invasive endometrial cancer and 1563 controls, we genotyped five markers in ESR1 and used logistic

Sara Wedrén; Lovisa Lovmar; Keith Humphreys; Cecilia Magnusson; Håkan Melhus; Ann-Christine Syvänen; Andreas Kindmark; Ulf Landegren; Maria Lagerström Fermér; Fredrik Stiger; Ingemar Persson; John A Baron; Elisabete Weiderpass



A hypervariable segment in the human dopamine receptor D 4 ( DRD4 ) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human dopamine D4 receptor contains a novel polymorphism within the putative third cytoplasmic loop of the protein. The polymorphism is characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48-bp repeats in the gene. Pharmacological characterization has suggested that this receptor is the site through which the atypical neuroleptic clozapine exerts its antipsychotic action and that some polymorphic variants display

Jay B. Lichter; Cathy L. Barr; James L. Kennedy; Hubert H. M. Van Tol; Kenneth K. Kidd; Kenneth J. Livak



Involvement of a polymorphism in the 5HT2A receptor gene in impulsive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and objective  Impulsive behavior has been suggested to occur due to a dysfunction of serotonergic 5-HT neurotransmission. After evaluation by a self-reporting measure, a polymorphism in the promoter of the 5-HT2A receptor gene has been proposed to underlie the impulsive behavior; however, this hypothesis is not convincing. In this study, we examined whether this 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism is involved

Michio Nomura; Ichiro Kusumi; Masayuki Kaneko; Takuya Masui; Makoto Daiguji; Takeji Ueno; Tsukasa Koyama; Yasuyuki Nomura



Lack of association between five polymorphisms in the human glucocorticoid receptor gene and glucocorticoid resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid resistance due to mutations in the gene for the glucocorticoid receptor has been suggested to be more common\\u000a than is thought at present, owing to the relative mildness of its symptoms and the difficulty of its diagnosis. To investigate\\u000a the prevalence of mutations in the glucocorticoid receptor gene responsible for relative insensitivity to glucocorticoids,\\u000a we carried out polymerase chain

Jan W. Koper; Ronald P. Stolk; Pieter de Lange; Nannette A. T. M. Huizenga; Gerd-Jan Molijn; Huibert A. P. Pols; Diederick E. Grobbee; Michael Karl; Frank H. de Jong; Albert O. Brinkmann; Steven W. J. Lamberts



Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Southern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of inhibitory and activating receptors expressed by natural\\u000a killer (NK) cells and regulate NK cells’ activity. KIR genes are highly polymorphic markers, characterized by a wide diversity,\\u000a and can therefore be considered as good population genetic markers. The aim of this study was to determine KIR gene frequencies,\\u000a ratios of haplotypes and

Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk; Gurbuz Polat; Ugur Atik


Localization of the A{sub 3} adenosine receptor gene (ADORA3) to human chromosome 1p  

SciTech Connect

Adenosine modulates important physiologic functions involving the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys, lungs, GI tract, and immune system. To date four adenosine receptors have been identified: A{sub 1}, A{sub 2a}, A{sub 2b}, and A{sub 3}. Activation of these receptors results in inhibition (A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}) or stimulation (A{sub 2a} and A{sub 2b}) of intracellular adenyl cyclase activity, stimulation of K{sup +} flux, inhibition of Ca{sup 2+} flux, and modulation of inositol phospholipid turnover. A{sub 3} receptors have been identified and sequenced in the testes, brain, lung, liver, kidney, and heart of various species, including the rat, mouse, and human. A{sub 3} receptor activation is responsible for release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells, which can cause allergic bronchoconstriction. In addition, they can produce systemic vasodilation and locomotor depression via activation of A{sub 3} receptors in the brain. Given the potential importance of A{sub 3} receptor activity in the pathogenesis of pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous system disease states, we set out to localize the human A{sub 3} adenosine receptor gene (ADORA3). 9 refs., 1 fig.

Monitto, C.L.; Levitt, R.C.; Holroyd, K.J. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others] [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); and others



Cervical dystonia is associated with a polymorphism in the dopamine (D5) receptor gene  

PubMed Central

The objective was to assess whether polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor and transporter genes are associated with development of primary cervical dystonia.?A case-control allelic association study is described of 100 patients with cervical dystonia and 100 controls using polymorphisms within D1-5 receptor and dopamine transporter genes.?No significant association was found between patient and control allele frequencies for polymorphisms in genes for the D1 to 4 receptors and dopamine transporter. Significant associations, however, were found for alleles 2 and 6 of the D5 receptor micosatellite. Carriage of allele 2 was associated with cervical dystonia, whereas allele 6 was overrepresented in the control group, implying a possible protective effect. The association with allele 6 remained significant after Bonferroni correction.?In conclusion, the finding of a significant association with an allele in the D5 receptor gene in patients with cervical dystonia may indicate a pathogenic role of this gene (or neighbouring genes). Further studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess whether these alleles are part of distinct haplotypes associated with other polymorphisms imparting a functional effect on the D5 receptor.?? PMID:11459908

Placzek, M; Misbahuddin, A; Chaudhuri, K; Wood, N; Bhatia, K; Warner, T



Estrogen Receptor 1 Gene Expression and Its Combination with Estrogen Receptor 2 or Aromatase Expression Predicts Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

The biological roles of estrogen receptor 1 (ERS1), estrogen receptor 2 (ERS2), and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes in the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, as is the use of their expression as a prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of estrogen receptors and aromatase mRNA expression, along with aromatase protein concentration, in resected NSCLC patients. Tumor and non-tumor lung tissue samples were analyzed for the mRNA expression of ERS1, ERS2 and CYP19A1 by RT-PCR. Aromatase concentration was measured with an ELISA. A total of 96 patients were included. ERS1 expression was significantly higher in non-tumor tissue than in tumor samples. Two gene expression categories were created for each gene (and protein): high and low. ERS1 high category showed increased overall survival (OS) when compared to the low expression category. Aromatase protein concentration was significantly higher in tumor samples. Higher ERS1 expression in tumor tissues was related to longer overall survival. The analysis of gene expression combinations provides evidence for longer OS when both ERS1 and ERS2 are highly expressed. ESR1, alone or in combination with ERS2 or CYP19A1, is the most determining prognostic factor within the analyzed 3 genes. It seems that ERS1 can play a role in NSCLC prognosis, alone or in combination with other genes such as ERS2 or Cyp19a1. ERS2 in combination with aromatase concentration could have a similar function. PMID:25310221

Aresti, Unai; Carrera, Sergio; Iruarrizaga, Eluska; Fuente, Natalia; Marrodan, Ines; de Lobera, Abigail Ruiz; Munoz, Alberto; Buque, Aitziber; Condori, Elizabeth; Ugalde, Irene; Calvo, Begona; Vivanco, Guillermo Lopez



Estrogen receptor 1 gene expression and its combination with estrogen receptor 2 or aromatase expression predicts survival in non-small cell lung cancer.  


The biological roles of estrogen receptor 1 (ERS1), estrogen receptor 2 (ERS2), and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes in the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, as is the use of their expression as a prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of estrogen receptors and aromatase mRNA expression, along with aromatase protein concentration, in resected NSCLC patients. Tumor and non-tumor lung tissue samples were analyzed for the mRNA expression of ERS1, ERS2 and CYP19A1 by RT-PCR. Aromatase concentration was measured with an ELISA. A total of 96 patients were included. ERS1 expression was significantly higher in non-tumor tissue than in tumor samples. Two gene expression categories were created for each gene (and protein): high and low. ERS1 high category showed increased overall survival (OS) when compared to the low expression category. Aromatase protein concentration was significantly higher in tumor samples. Higher ERS1 expression in tumor tissues was related to longer overall survival. The analysis of gene expression combinations provides evidence for longer OS when both ERS1 and ERS2 are highly expressed. ESR1, alone or in combination with ERS2 or CYP19A1, is the most determining prognostic factor within the analyzed 3 genes. It seems that ERS1 can play a role in NSCLC prognosis, alone or in combination with other genes such as ERS2 or Cyp19a1. ERS2 in combination with aromatase concentration could have a similar function. PMID:25310221

Aresti, Unai; Carrera, Sergio; Iruarrizaga, Eluska; Fuente, Natalia; Marrodan, Ines; de Lobera, Abigail Ruiz; Muñoz, Alberto; Buque, Aitziber; Condori, Elizabeth; Ugalde, Irene; Calvo, Begoña; Vivanco, Guillermo López



Evolution of a Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Cluster in a New World Sparrow  

PubMed Central

Bitter taste perception likely evolved as a protective mechanism against the ingestion of harmful compounds in food. The evolution of the taste receptor type 2 (TAS2R) gene family, which encodes the chemoreceptors that are directly responsible for the detection of bitter compounds, has therefore been of considerable interest. Though TAS2R repertoires have been characterized for a number of species, to date the complement of TAS2Rs from just one bird, the chicken, which had a notably small number of TAS2Rs, has been established. Here, we used targeted mapping and genomic sequencing in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) and sample sequencing in other closely related birds to reconstruct the history of a TAS2R gene cluster physically linked to the break points of an evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement. In the white-throated sparrow, this TAS2R cluster encodes up to 18 functional bitter taste receptors and likely underwent a large expansion that predates and/or coincides with the radiation of the Emberizinae subfamily into the New World. In addition to signatures of gene birth-and-death evolution within this cluster, estimates of Ka/Ks for the songbird TAS2Rs were similar to those previously observed in mammals, including humans. Finally, comparison of the complete genomic sequence of the cluster from two common haplotypes in the white-throated sparrow revealed a number of nonsynonymous variants and differences in functional gene content within this species. These results suggest that interspecies and intraspecies genetic variability does exist in avian TAS2Rs and that these differences could contribute to variation in bitter taste perception in birds. PMID:20624740

Davis, Jamie K.; Lowman, Josh J.; Thomas, Pamela J.; ten Hallers, Boudewijn F. H.; Koriabine, Maxim; Huynh, Lynn Y.; Maney, Donna L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Martin, Christa L.; Thomas, James W.



The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements  

PubMed Central

Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R). One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species. PMID:23194088



An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304



Resequencing of the auxiliary GABAB receptor subunit gene KCTD12 in chronic tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus is a common and often incapacitating hearing disorder marked by the perception of phantom sounds. Susceptibility factors remain largely unknown but GABAB receptor signaling has long been implicated in the response to treatment and, putatively, in the etiology of the disorder. We hypothesized that variation in KCTD12, the gene encoding an auxiliary subunit of GABAB receptors, could help to predict the risk of developing tinnitus. Ninety-five Caucasian outpatients with a diagnosis of chronic tinnitus were systematically screened for mutations in the KCTD12 open reading frame and the adjacent 3? untranslated region by Sanger sequencing. Allele frequencies were determined for 14 known variants of which three (rs73237446, rs34544607, and rs41287030) were polymorphic. When allele frequencies were compared to data from a large reference population of European ancestry, rs34544607 was associated with tinnitus (p = 0.04). However, KCTD12 genotype did not predict tinnitus severity (p = 0.52) and the association with rs34544607 was weakened after screening 50 additional cases (p = 0.07). Pending replication in a larger cohort, KCTD12 may act as a risk modifier in chronic tinnitus. Issues that are yet to be addressed include the effects of neighboring variants, e.g., in the KCTD12 gene regulatory region, plus interactions with variants of GABAB1 and GABAB2. PMID:22654739

Sand, P. G.; Langguth, B.; Itzhacki, J.; Bauer, A.; Geis, S.; Cardenas-Conejo, Z. E.; Pimentel, V.; Kleinjung, T.



Detection of Clonal T-Cell Receptor ? Gene Rearrangements in Early Mycosis Fungoides\\/Sezary Syndrome by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR\\/DGGE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a gene amplification strategy to analyze T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements in 185 specimens, including mycosis fungoides\\/Sezary syndrome (MF\\/SS), other cutaneous neoplasms, inflammatory dermatoses, reactive lymphoid tissues,and normal skin. Genomic DNA was extracted from lesional tissues and rearrangements of the TCR-? chain gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific for rearrangements involving V?1-8

Gary S. Wood; Rosnn M. Tung; Andreas C. Heaffner; Carol F. Crooks; Shaoyi Liao; Rachaci Orozco; Hendrik Veelken; Marshall E. Kadin; Howard Koh; Peter Heald; Raymond L. Barnhill; Jeffrey Sklar



The nuclear orphan receptors COUP-TF and ARP-1 positively regulate the trout estrogen receptor gene through enhancing autoregulation.  

PubMed Central

The rainbow trout estrogen receptor (rtER) is a positively autoregulated gene in liver cells. In a previous report, we showed that upregulation is mediated by an estrogen response element (ERE) located in the proximal promoter of the gene and that a half binding site for nuclear receptors (5'-TGACCT-3') located 15 bp upstream of the ERE is involved in the magnitude of the estrogen response. We now report that the human orphan receptor COUP-TF and a COUP-TF-like protein from trout liver are able to bind to the consensus half-site. When cotransfected with the rtER gene proximal promoter, COUP-TF had no regulatory functions on its own. Interestingly, COUP-TF enhanced rtER transactivation properties in the presence of estradiol in a dose-dependent manner when cotransfected with the rtER gene promoter. Unliganded retinoid receptor heterodimers had the same helper function as COUP-TF in the presence of estradiol but were switched to repressors when the ligand all-trans-retinoic acid was added. Mutation of the consensus half-site only slightly reduced COUP-TF helper function, suggesting that it actually results from a complex mechanism that probably involves both DNA binding of COUP-TF to the promoter and protein-protein interaction with another transcription factor bound to the promoter. Nevertheless, a DNA-binding-defective mutant of COUP-TF was also defective in ER helper function. Competition footprinting analysis suggested that COUP-TF actually establishes contacts with the consensus upstream half-site and the downstream ERE half-site that would form a DR-24-like response element. Interaction of COUP-TF with the DR-24 element was confirmed in footprinting assays by using nuclear extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing COUP-TF. Finally, interaction of COUP-TF with mutants of the rtER gene promoter showed that COUP-TF recognizes the ERE when the upstream half-site is mutated. These data show that COUP-TF may activate transcription through interaction with other nuclear receptors. This cross-talk between liganded nuclear receptors and orphan receptors is likely to modulate the spectrum of action of a particular ligand-receptor complex and may participate in the cell-type specificity of the ligand effect. PMID:9271383

Lazennec, G; Kern, L; Valotaire, Y; Salbert, G



No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals???  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17? and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17? and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17?-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10?6 M for Gen and >10?5 M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17? or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of genistein and bisphenol A, respectively) would do otherwise. PMID:23747549

Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W.; Pounds, Nadine A.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J.



Expressed Sequence Tags from Cephalic Chemosensory Organs of the Northern Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis suavis, Including a Putative Canonical Odorant Receptor  

PubMed Central

Rhagoletis fruit flies are important both as major agricultural pests and as model organisms for the study of adaptation to new host plants and host race formation. Response to fruit odor plays a critical role in such adaptation. To better understand olfaction in Rhagoletis, an expressed sequence tag (EST) study was carried out on the antennae and maxillary palps of Rhagoletis suavis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a common pest of walnuts in eastern United States. After cDNA cloning and sequencing, 544 ESTs were annotated. Of these, 66% had an open reading frame and could be matched to a previously sequenced gene. Based on BLAST sequence homology, 9% (49 of 544 sequences) were nuclear genes potentially involved in olfaction. The most significant finding is a putative odorant receptor (OR), RSOr1, that is homologous to Drosophila melanogaster Or49a and Or85f. This is the first tephritid OR discovered that might recognize a specific odorant. Other olfactory genes recovered included odorant binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, and putative odorant degrading enzymes. PMID:20569128

Ramsdell, Karlene M. M.; Lyons-Sobaski, Sheila A.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Walden, Kimberly K. O.; Feder, Jeffrey L.; Wanner, Kevin; Berlocher, Stewart H.



Activated Notch1 Target Genes during Embryonic Cell Differentiation Depend on the Cellular Context and Include Lineage Determinants and Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNotch receptor signaling controls developmental cell fates in a cell-context dependent manner. Although Notch signaling directly regulates transcription via the RBP-J\\/CSL DNA binding protein, little is known about the target genes that are directly activated by Notch in the respective tissues.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo analyze how Notch signaling mediates its context dependent function(s), we utilized a Tamoxifen-inducible system to activate Notch1 in

Franziska Meier-Stiegen; Ralf Schwanbeck; Kristina Bernoth; Simone Martini; Thomas Hieronymus; David Ruau; Martin Zenke; Ursula Just; Jo-Ann L. Stanton



Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.  


Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population. PMID:24691022

Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L



Different expression of TSH receptor and NIS genes in thyroid cancer: role of epigenetics.  


The TSH receptor (TSHR) and sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) are key players in radioiodine-based treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers. While NIS (SLC5AS) expression is diminished/lost in most thyroid tumors, TSHR is usually preserved. To examine the mechanisms that regulate the expression of NIS and TSHR genes in thyroid tumor cells, we analyzed their expression after inhibition of ras-BRAF-MAPK and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways and the epigenetic control occurring at the gene promoter level in four human thyroid cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure NIS and TSHR mRNA in thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC-1, BCPAP, WRO, and FTC-133). Western blotting was used to assess the levels of total and phosphorylated ERK and Akt. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed for investigating histone post-translational modifications of the TSHR and NIS genes. ERK and Akt inhibitors elicited different responses of the cells in terms of TSHR and NIS mRNA levels. Akt inhibition increased NIS transcript levels and reduced those of TSHR in FTC-133 cells but had no significant effects in BCPAP. ERK inhibition increased the expression of both genes in BCPAP cells but had no effects in FTC-133. Histone post-translational modifications observed in the basal state of the four cell lines as well as in BCPAP treated with ERK inhibitor and FTC-133 treated with Akt inhibitor show cell- and gene-specific differences. In conclusion, our data indicate that in thyroid cancer cells the expression of TSHR and NIS genes is differently controlled by multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic events elicited by major signaling pathways involved in thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:24353283

D'Agostino, Maria; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Puppin, Cinzia; Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; Baldan, Federica; Biffoni, Marco; Bulotta, Stefania; Durante, Cosimo; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe; Russo, Diego



The ltk gene family encodes novel receptor-like kinases with temporal expression in developing maize endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the isolation and characterization of maize cDNAs that are transcribed from a small gene family and encode a novel group of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). The distinctive extracellular domain of these novel RLKs includes a unique number and arrangement of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a proline-rich region (PRR), a putative protein degradation target sequence (PEST), and a serine-rich region (SRR).

Zhaohui Li; Eleanore T. Wurtzel



PAX8 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 gene expression status in benign and malignant thyroid tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Genetic alterations involving the thyroid transcription factor PAX8 and the peroxisome pro- liferator-activated receptor gamma 1 (PPARg1) genes have been described in thyroid neoplasms. We investigated in a series of thyroid samples, including 14 normal, 13 hyperfunctioning tissues, 26 fol- licular adenomas, 21 follicular and 41 papillary carcinomas, both the frequency of the PAX8-PPARg1 rearrangement and the expression of

Ludovic Lacroix; Caterina Mian; Thierry Barrier; Monique Talbot; Bernard Caillou; Martin Schlumberger; Jean-Michel Bidart



Human gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor: Cloning of the gene (GIPR) and cDNA  

SciTech Connect

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic {Beta} cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion during the postprandial phase. We have isolated the human gene (GIPR) and cDNA encoding the GIP receptor by a combination of the conventional screening and polymerase chain reaction procedures. Human GIP receptor cDNA encodes a protein of 466 amino acids that is 81.5 and 81.2% identical to the previously cloned hamster and rat GIP receptor, respectively. Hydropathic analysis shows the presence of a signal peptide and seven potential transmembrane domains, a feature characteristic of the VIP/glucagon/secretin receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors. The human GIPR gene is about 13.8 kb long, consists of 14 exons, and carries 17 Alu repeats. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Yamada, Yuichiro; Hayami, Tadao; Nakamura, Katsuki; Kaisaki, Pamela J. [Kyoto Univ. Faculty of Medicine (Japan)] [and others



Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D sub 2 dopamine receptor  

SciTech Connect

A clone encoding a human D{sub 2} dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of only one human D{sub 2} receptor gene. Two overlapping phage containing the gene were isolated and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of these clones showed that the coding sequence is interrupted by six introns and that the additional amino acids present in the human pituitary receptor are encoded by a single exon of 87 base pairs. The involvement of this sequence in alternative splicing and its biological significance are discussed.

Grady, D.K.; Makam, H.; Stofko, R.E.; Bunzow, J.R.; Civelli, O. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (USA)); Marchionni, M.A.; Alfano, M.; Frothingham, L.; Fischer, J.B.; Burke-Howie, K.J.; Server, A.C. (Cambridge NeuroScience Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA))



Characterization and relationship of Dpp receptors encoded by the saxophone and thick veins genes in Drosophila.  


The dpp/BMP family of TGF beta-related factors controls numerous events in pattern formation and morphogenesis. How these polypeptide signals are received and transduced by target cells is largely unknown. We combine molecular and genetic approaches to establish that the Drosophila saxophone (sax) gene encodes a dpp receptor. We compare the structural properties and expression patterns of sax with a second dpp receptor encoded by the thick veins (tkv) gene. While the sax gene is expressed ubiquitously, tkv is expressed in a highly localized and dynamic pattern during development. Some, but not all, of the tkv expression pattern parallels that of dpp. Ubiquitous expression of a tkv transgene rescues both tkv and sax loss-of-function mutations. Thus, there is at least partial functional overlap of the sax and tkv receptors in vivo. We consider these observations in terms of possible ligand-receptor interactions during Drosophila development. PMID:8044839

Brummel, T J; Twombly, V; Marqués, G; Wrana, J L; Newfeld, S J; Attisano, L; Massagué, J; O'Connor, M B; Gelbart, W M



Molecular Identification and Expressive Characterization of an Olfactory Co-Receptor Gene in the Asian Honeybee, Apis cerana cerana  

PubMed Central

Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA open reading frame encoded 478 amino acid residues, including 7 putative transmembrane domains. Alignment analysis revealed that AcerOr2 shares high homology (> 74%) with similar olfactory receptors found in other Hymenoptera species. The amino acid identity with the closely related species Apis mellifera reached 99.8%. The developmental expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that the AcerOr2 transcript was expressed at a relatively low level in the larval stage, whereas it was expressed broadly in the pupal and adult stages, with a significantly high level on the days just before and after eclosion. In situ hybridization showed that AcerOr2 mRNA was expressed in sensilla placodea and on the basal region of the worker antennal cuticle, in accordance with the previous conclusions that the conserved genes are expressed in most olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24224665

Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo



Bitter Receptor Gene (TAS2R38), 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Bitterness and Alcohol Intake  

E-print Network

Bitter Receptor Gene (TAS2R38), 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Bitterness and Alcohol Intake Valerie B, sweetness) sensations from alcohol. We determined whether the TAS2R38 gene at 7q36 predicted PROP bitterness, alcohol sensation and use. Methods: Healthy adults (53 women, 31 men; mean age 36 years)--primarily light

Kidd, Kenneth


Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene rearrangements and in situ immunophenotyping in lymphoproliferative disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated for rearrangements of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain genes and of the T cell receptor? (TCRT?) andß (TCrß) genes 45 biopsy samples from a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders. They were diagnosed histopathologically and immunophenotypically as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) of the B cell type (19 cases), NHLs of the T cell type (3 cases), NHLs of “undetermined“

Antonino Carbone; Valli De Re; Annunziata Gloghini; Rachele Volpe; Manuela Tavian; Umberto Tirelli; Silvio Monfardini; Mauro Boiocchi



Gene expression profiling reveals novel regulation by bisphenol-A in estrogen receptor- ?-positive human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisphenol-A (BPA) shows proliferative actions in uterus and mammary glands and may influence the development of male and female reproductive tracts in utero or during early postnatal life. Because of its ability to function as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, BPA has the potential to disrupt normal endocrine signaling through regulation of ER target genes. Some genes are regulated by

David W. Singleton; Yuxin Feng; Jun Yang; Alvaro Puga; Adrian V. Lee; Sohaib A.. Khan



A Large Pheromone and Receptor Gene Complex Determines Multiple B Mating Type Specificities in Coprinus cinereus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone signaling plays an essential role in the mating and sexual development of mushroom fungi. Multiallelic genes encoding the peptide pheromones and their cognate 7-transmembrane helix (7-TM) receptors are sequestered in the B mating type locus. Here we describe the isolation of the B6 mating type locus of Coprinus cinereus. DNA sequencing and transformation analysis identified nine genes encoding three

Suzanne F. O'Shea; Pushpalata T. Chaure; John R. Halsall; Natalie S. Olesnicky; Andreas Leibbrandt; Ian F. Connerton; Lorna A. Casselton


T Cell Receptor Gene Deletion Circles Identify Recent Thymic Emigrants in the Peripheral T Cell Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progenitor cells undergo T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements during their intrathymic differentiation to become T cells. Rearrangements of the variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments of the TCR genes result in deletion of the intervening chromosomal DNA and the formation of circular episomes as a byproduct. Detection of these extrachromosomal excision circles in T cells located in

Fan-Kun Kong; Chen-Lo H. Chen; Adrien Six; Richard D. Hockett; Max D. Cooper



Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma Target Gene Encoding a Novel Angiopoietin-Related Protein Associated with Adipose Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g regulates adipose differentiation and systemic insulin signaling via ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of target genes. However, the iden- tities of the biologically relevant target genes are largely unknown. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel target gene induced by PPARg ligands, termed PGAR (for PPARg angiopoietin related), which encodes a novel




The human genome and sport, including epigenetics, gene doping, and athleticogenomics.  


Hugh Montgomery's discovery of the first of more than 239 fitness genes together with rapid advances in human gene therapy have created a prospect of using genes, genetic elements, and cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This brief overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and predicts a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport. PMID:20122459

Sharp, N C Craig



Localization of the adenosine A1 receptor subtype gene (ADORA1) to chromosome 1q32.1  

SciTech Connect

Adenosine, acting through its receptors, exerts effects on almost all organ systems, influencing a diversity of physiological responses, including the inhibition of neurotransmitter release, the modulation of cardiac rhythmicity and contractility, and the potentiation of IgE-dependent mediator release. Adenosine receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, a class of cell-surface receptors that, when activated, couple to a heterotrimeric G protein complex to effect signal transduction. Molecular cloning and subsequent pharmacological and biochemical analyses have led to the identification of four different subtypes of adenosine receptor. The A3 receptor has been localized to chromosome 3 in the mouse by interspecific backcross analysis, suggesting a human chromosomal localization of 1p13 from known mouse-human linkage homologies. We have previously mapped the A2b adenosine receptor subtype to chromosome 17p11.2-p12 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrid DNAs. A previous report has concluded that the Al and A2a receptor subtypes are localized on chromosome 22q11.2-q13.1 and 11q11-q13, respectively, but conflicts with that of MacCollin et al., who have mapped the A2a gene to chromosome 22. In this report, we show that the human A1 adenosine receptor subtype does not map to chromosome 22q11.2-q13.1, but is instead localized on chromosome 1q32. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Townsend-Nicholson, A.; Schofield, P.R. [Garvan Institute for Medical Research, New South Wales (Australia)] [Garvan Institute for Medical Research, New South Wales (Australia); Baker, E. [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)] [and others] [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); and others



A novel human gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR15) is located on chromosome 3.  


We used sequence similarities among G-protein-coupled receptor genes to discover a novel receptor gene. Using primers based on conserved regions of the opioid-related receptors, we isolated a PCR product that was used to locate the full-length coding region of a novel human receptor gene, which we have named GPR15. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the receptor encoded by GPR15 with other receptors revealed that it shared sequence identity with the angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors, the interleukin 8b receptor, and the orphan receptors GPR1 and AGTL1. GPR15 was mapped to human chromosome 3q11.2-q13.1. PMID:8838812

Heiber, M; Marchese, A; Nguyen, T; Heng, H H; George, S R; O'Dowd, B F



Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor gene linkage and copy number variation analysis by droplet digital PCR  

PubMed Central

The Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) gene complex has considerable biomedical importance. Patterns of polymorphism in the KIR region include variability in the gene content of haplotypes and diverse structural arrangements. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify different haplotype motifs and to enumerate KIR copy number variants (CNVs). ddPCR detected a variety of KIR haplotype configurations in DNA from well-characterized cell lines. Mendelian segregation of ddPCR-estimated KIR2DL5 CNVs was observed in Gambian families and CNV typing of other KIRs was shown to be accurate when compared to an established quantitative PCR method. PMID:24597950



Androgen Receptor Repression of GnRH Gene Transcription  

PubMed Central

Alterations in androgen levels lead to reproductive defects in both males and females, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, anovulation, and infertility. Androgens have been shown to down-regulate GnRH mRNA levels through an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent mechanism. Here, we investigate how androgen regulates expression from the GnRH regulatory region in the GT1-7 cell line, a model of GnRH neurons. A synthetic androgen, R1881, repressed transcription from the GnRH promoter (GnRH-P) in an AR-dependent manner, and liganded AR associated with the chromatin at the GnRH-P in live GT1-7 cells. The three known octamer-binding transcription factor-1 (Oct-1) binding sites in GnRH-P were required for AR-mediated repression, although other sequences were also involved. Although a multimer of the consensus Oct-1 binding site was not repressed, a multimer of the cluster of Oct-1, Pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor (Pbx)/Prep, and NK2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1) binding sites, found at ?106/?91 in GnRH-P, was sufficient for repression. In fact, overexpression of any of these factors disrupted the androgen response, indicating that a balance of factors in this tripartite complex is required for AR repression. AR bound to this region in EMSA, indicating a direct interaction of AR with DNA or with other transcription factors bound to GnRH-P at this sequence. Collectively, our data demonstrate that GnRH transcription is repressed by AR via multiple sequences in GnRH-P, including three Oct-1 binding sites, and that this repression requires the complex interaction of several transcription factors. PMID:22074952

Brayman, Melissa J.; Pepa, Patricia A.; Berdy, Sara E.



Identification of natural killer cell receptor clusters in the platypus genome reveals an expansion of C-type lectin genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer (NK) cell receptors belong to two unrelated, but functionally analogous gene families: the immunoglobulin superfamily,\\u000a situated in the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) and the C-type lectin superfamily, located in the natural killer complex\\u000a (NKC). Here, we describe the largest NK receptor gene expansion seen to date. We identified 213 putative C-type lectin NK\\u000a receptor homologs in the genome

Emily S. W. Wong; Claire E. Sanderson; Janine E. Deakin; Camilla M. Whittington; Anthony T. Papenfuss; Katherine Belov



Variants at serotonin transporter and 2A receptor genes predict cooperative behavior differentially according to presence of punishment.  


Punishment of free-riding has been implicated in the evolution of cooperation in humans, and yet mechanisms for punishment avoidance remain largely uninvestigated. Individual variation in these mechanisms may stem from variation in the serotonergic system, which modulates processing of aversive stimuli. Functional serotonin gene variants have been associated with variation in the processing of aversive stimuli and widely studied as risk factors for psychiatric disorders. We show that variants at the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) predict contributions to the public good in economic games, dependent upon whether contribution behavior can be punished. Participants with a variant at the serotonin transporter gene contribute more, leading to group-level differences in cooperation, but this effect dissipates in the presence of punishment. When contribution behavior can be punished, those with a variant at the serotonin 2A receptor gene contribute more than those without it. This variant also predicts a more stressful experience of the games. The diversity of institutions (including norms) that govern cooperation and punishment may create selective pressures for punishment avoidance that change rapidly across time and space. Variant-specific epigenetic regulation of these genes, as well as population-level variation in the frequencies of these variants, may facilitate adaptation to local norms of cooperation and punishment. PMID:23431136

Schroeder, Kari B; McElreath, Richard; Nettle, Daniel



Potential Influence of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Gene Polymorphism on Knee Osteoarthritis Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Genes encoding for cytokines have been associated with susceptibility for joint osteoarthritis (OA) and interleukin (IL)-1 gene is supposed to be involved in the cartilage destruction process. In this regard, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) competing with IL-1 for binding to its receptor may act as an inhibitor of cartilage breakdown. We assessed the association of primary knee OA with IL-1RA region as a putative factor of susceptibility to knee OA in Egyptian patients. Design and methods: Eighty patients with primary knee OA and 40 aged-matched healthy controls were included into the study. DNA samples were used to study genotypes of IL-1RN gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both groups. Results: An increased frequency of the IL-1RN*1 and IL-1RN*2 alleles was found in OA patients relative to controls (60.5% vs. 39.5%, P = 0.039, 85.4% vs. 14.6%, P = 0.002, respectively) however, only the carriage rate of IL-1RN*2 allele was found to be significant when OA patients were compared to the controls. Significant higher frequencies of IL-1RN*1/*2 and IL-1RN*2/*2 genotypes in OA patients were observed as compared with controls. Both visual analogue scale (VAS) and radiographic score revealed significant correlation with both the allelic frequency and the carriage rate of IL-1RN*2 allele. Moreover, absolute frequency of IL-1RN*1/*2 genotype OA patients revealed severe VAS and high radiographic score. Conclusion: These results suggest that IL-1RN*2 allele represent a significant factor influencing the severity and course of knee OA; thereby supporting the potential role of IL-1 in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:20592454

Swellam, Menha; Mahmoud, Magda Sayed; Samy, Nervana; Gamal, Ali Ahmed



High-Throughput Microarray Detection of Vomeronasal Receptor Gene Expression in Rodents  

PubMed Central

We performed comprehensive data mining to explore the vomeronasal receptor (V1R and V2R) repertoires in mouse and rat using the mm5 and rn3 genome, respectively. This bioinformatic analysis was followed by investigation of gene expression using a custom designed high-density oligonucleotide array containing all of these receptors and other selected genes of interest. This array enabled us to detect the specific expression of V1R and V2Rs which were previously identified solely based on computational prediction from gene sequence data, thereby establishing that these genes are indeed part of the vomeronasal system, especially the V2Rs. One hundred sixty-eight V1Rs and 98 V2Rs were detected to be highly enriched in mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO), and 108 V1Rs and 87 V2Rs in rat VNO. We monitored the expression profile of mouse VR genes in other non-VNO tissues with the result that some VR genes were re-designated as VR-like genes based on their non-olfactory expression pattern. Temporal expression profiles for mouse VR genes were characterized and their patterns were classified, revealing the developmental dynamics of these so-called pheromone receptors. We found numerous patterns of temporal expression which indicate possible behavior-related functions. The uneven composition of VR genes in certain patterns suggests a functional differentiation between the two types of VR genes. We found the coherence between VR genes and transcription factors in terms of their temporal expression patterns. In situ hybridization experiments were performed to evaluate the cell number change over time for selected receptor genes. PMID:21267422

Zhang, Xiaohong; Marcucci, Florencia; Firestein, Stuart



Precise mapping of the brain [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic receptor gene within chromosome 4p16  

SciTech Connect

The gene encoding the brain [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2C) is located on human chromosome 4. It has been circumstantially associated with a number of human disorders, including Parkinson disease, panic disorders, and Huntington disease (HD). Using somatic cell hybrids, the authors localized the gene to chromosome 4p16 distal to P8 (D4S62). To investigate this locus further, they isolated several cosmid clones covering the entire gene. The gene was found to be intronless. Two (GT)[sub n] repeats in close proximity to the ADRAC2 gene were analyzed and used to define its precise location. Linkage disequilibrium studies of one microsatellite in HD families showed strong nonrandom association to the HD mutation, indicating its tight linkage to the HD gene. The investigation of families carrying recombinant chromosomes, pulsed-field analysis, and genomic walking mapped the ADRAC2 gene adjacent to D4S81, 500 kb proximal to the HD gene. The newly defined microsatellites at the ADRAC2 locus, its precise localization within 4p16, and the detailed PCR conditions facilitate the identification of any defect caused by this gene. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Riess, O.; Siedlaczck, I.; Potisek, S.; Epplen, J.T. (Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany)); Thies, U. (Univ. of Goettingen (Germany)); Graham, R.; Theilmann, J.; Hayden, M.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Grimm, T. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany))



Development of an interleukin 2 receptor targeted gene therapy vehicle  

E-print Network

The effectiveness of most chemotherapeutic regimens is limited by the toxicity of the therapy to normal healthy cells. Therapies to selectively modulate abnormal T cells bearing the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) have been developed to treat...

Wattanakaroon, Wanida



Structure and linkage of the D2 dopamine receptor and neural cell adhesion molecule genes on human chromosome 11q23  

SciTech Connect

The gene encoding the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) is located on human chromosome 11q23 and has been circumstantially associated with a number of human disorders including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and susceptibility to alcoholism. To determine the physical structure of the DRD2 gene, the authors utilized cosmid cloning, isolation of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to construct a long-range physical map of human chromosome 11q23 linking the genes for the DRD2 and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The D2 dopamine receptor gene extends over 270 kb and includes an intron of approximately 250 kb separating the putative first exon from the exons encoding the receptor protein. The resulting physical map spans more than 1.5 mb of chromosome band 11q23 and links the DRD2 gene with the gene encoding the NCAM located 150 kb 3[prime] of the DRD2 gene and transcribed from the same DNA strand. They additionally located the sites of at least four hypomethylated HTF islands within the physical map, which potentially indicate the sites of additional genes. High-resolution fluorescent in situ suppression hybridization using cosmid and YAC clones localized this gene cluster between the ApoAI and STMY loci at the interface of bands 11q22.3 and 11q23.1. 40 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Eubanks, J.H.; Djabali, M.; Selleri, L.; McElligott, D.L.; Evans, G.A. (Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Grandy, D.K.; Civelli, O. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States))



Screening the V2R-type putative odorant receptor gene repertoire in bitterling Tanakia lanceolata.  


Fish odorant receptors comprise several distinct families of G protein-coupled receptors. The repertoires of fish vomeronasal receptor family 2 (V2R) genes differ substantially among species, which seems to be related to the different odor sensitivity among fish species. In this study, the number and diversity of V2R genes in a cyprinid fish, bitterling Tanakia lanceolata, were examined by gene cloning and genomic Southern blot analysis. Fifty-six distinct V2R partial sequences were identified by extensive cloning of degenerate PCR fragments. Phylogenetic analysis of the V2R genes in bitterling and other model fishes showed that the bitterling V2Rs were subdivided into eight subfamilies that diverged before the separation of cyprinids and other fishes. Most bitterling V2Rs belonged to two major subfamilies, while only one or a few genes were identified in the remaining six subfamilies. The repertoire of bitterling V2Rs was quite similar to that of zebrafish, although some bitterling-specific gene expansions have also occurred. Based on the genomic Southern blot analysis, the copy number of the bitterling V2R gene was estimated at least 60, similar to the number of V2R genes found in the zebrafish genome. This also suggests that bitterling has relatively larger number of V2R genes than other model fishes. PMID:18706493

Hashiguchi, Yasuyuki; Nishida, Mutsumi



Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the human [alpha][sub 7]-nicotinic receptor subunit gene (CHRNA7)  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated cDNA and genomic clones coding for the human [alpha][sub 7] neuronal nicotinic receptor subunit, the major component of brain nicotinic receptors that are blocked by [alpha]-bungarotoxin. The human [alpha][sub 7] neuronal nicotinic cDNA encodes a mature protein of 479 amino acids that is highly homologous to the rat [alpha][sub 7] neuronal nicotinic subunit (90%). The authors have mapped the human [alpha][sub 7]-nicotinic receptor subunit gene to chromosome 15, band q14, a region frequently rearranged in patients carrying a bisatellite 15 chromosome, large inv dup (15), whose clinical features include mental retardation and seizures. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Chini, B.; Raimond, E.; Moralli, D.; Balzaretti, M. (Dip. Genetica e Microbioligia, Pavia (Italy)); Elgoyhen, A.B.; Heinemann, S. (Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States))



Activation of tachykinin Neurokinin 3 receptors affects chromatin structure and gene expression by means of histone acetylation  

PubMed Central

The tachykinin, neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) is a g-protein coupled receptor that is broadly distributed in the nervous system and exerts its diverse physiological actions through multiple signaling pathways. Despite the role of the receptor system in a range of biological functions, the effects of NK3R activation on chromatin dynamics and gene expression have received limited attention. The present work determined the effects of senktide, a selective NK3R agonist, on chromatin organization, acetylation, and gene expression, using qRT-PCR, in a hypothalamic cell line (CLU 209) that expresses the NK3R. Senktide (1 nM, 10 nM) caused a relaxation of chromatin, an increase in global acetylation of histone H3 and H4, and an increase in the expression of a common set of genes involved in cell signaling, cell growth, and synaptic plasticity. Pretreatment with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor (Garcinol and 2-methylene y-butylactone), that inhibits p300, p300/CREB Binding Protein (CBP) associated factor (PCAF), and GCN 5, prevented the senktide-induced increase in expression of most, but not all, of the genes upregulated in response to 1 nM and 10 nM senktide. Treatment with 100 nM had the opposite effect: a reduction in chromatin relaxation and decreased acetylation. The expression of four genes was significantly decreased and the HAT inhibitor had a limited effect in blocking the upregulation of genes in response to 100 nM senktide. Activation of the NK3R appears to recruit multiple pathways, including acetylation, and possibly histone deactylases, histone methylases, or DNA methylases to affect chromatin structure and gene expression. PMID:22985858

Thakar, Amit; Sylar, Elise; Flynn, Francis W.



Gene Deficiency in Activating Fc? Receptors Influences the Macrophage Phenotypic Balance and Reduces Atherosclerosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Immunity contributes to arterial inflammation during atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induce an autoimmune response characterized by specific antibodies and immune complexes in atherosclerotic patients. We hypothesize that specific Fc? receptors for IgG constant region participate in atherogenesis by regulating the inflammatory state of lesional macrophages. In vivo we examined the role of activating Fc? receptors in atherosclerosis progression using bone marrow transplantation from mice deficient in ?-chain (the common signaling subunit of activating Fc? receptors) to hyperlipidemic mice. Hematopoietic deficiency of Fc? receptors significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size, which was associated with decreased number of macrophages and T lymphocytes, and increased T regulatory cell function. Lesions of Fc? receptor deficient mice exhibited increased plaque stability, as evidenced by higher collagen and smooth muscle cell content and decreased apoptosis. These effects were independent of changes in serum lipids and antibody response to oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Activating Fc? receptor deficiency reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression, nuclear factor-?B activity, and M1 macrophages at the lesion site, while increasing anti-inflammatory genes and M2 macrophages. The decreased inflammation in the lesions was mirrored by a reduced number of classical inflammatory monocytes in blood. In vitro, lack of activating Fc? receptors attenuated foam cell formation, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory gene expression, and increased M2-associated genes in murine macrophages. Our study demonstrates that activating Fc? receptors influence the macrophage phenotypic balance in the artery wall of atherosclerotic mice and suggests that modulation of Fc? receptor-mediated inflammatory responses could effectively suppress atherosclerosis. PMID:23805273

Mallavia, Benat; Oguiza, Ainhoa; Lopez-Franco, Oscar; Recio, Carlota; Ortiz-Munoz, Guadalupe; Lazaro, Iolanda; Lopez-Parra, Virginia; Egido, Jesus; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen



ADHD diagnosis may influence the association between polymorphisms in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and tobacco smoking.  


Polymorphisms in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster have been shown to be involved in tobacco smoking susceptibility. Considering that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) not only increases the risk but may also influence the molecular mechanisms of tobacco smoking, we analyzed the association between polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and tobacco smoking among individuals with or without ADHD. The sample included 1,118 subjects divided into four groups according to smoking status and ADHD diagnosis. Our results demonstrate that the minor alleles of two polymorphisms (rs578776 and rs3743078) in the CHRNA3 gene are associated with an increased risk of tobacco smoking only among patients with ADHD. These alleles have been shown in previous studies to be protective factors for smoking in subjects without ADHD. These findings add to existing evidence that ADHD may exert an important modifying effect on the genetic risk of smoking and should be considered in tobacco smoking association studies. PMID:24375168

Polina, Evelise R; Rovaris, Diego L; de Azeredo, Lucas A; Mota, Nina R; Vitola, Eduardo S; Silva, Katiane L; Guimarães-da-Silva, Paula O; Picon, Felipe A; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A; Grevet, Eugenio H; Bau, Claiton H D



Mutation analysis of androgen receptor gene: Multiple uses for a single test.  


Androgen receptor gene mutations are one of the leading causes of disorders of sex development (DSD) exhibited by sexual ambiguity or sex reversal. In this study, 2 families with patients whom diagnosed clinically as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) were physically and genetically examined. This evaluation carried out by cytogenetic and molecular analysis including karyotype and sequencing of SRY and AR genes. In family 1, two brothers and their mother were hemizygous and heterozygous respectively for c.2522G>A variant, while one of their healthy brother was a completely normal hemizygote. Family 2 assessment demonstrated the c.639G>A (rs6152) mutation in two siblings who were reared as girls. The SRY gene was intact in all of the study's participants. Our findings in family 1 could be a further proof for the pathogenicity of the c.2522G>A variant. Given the importance of AR mutations in development of problems such as sex assignment in AIS patients, definitive diagnosis and phenotype-genotype correlation could be achieved by molecular genetic tests that in turn could have promising impacts in clinical management and also in prenatal diagnosis of prospect offspring. In this regard, phenotype-genotype correlation could be helpful and achieved by molecular genetic tests. This could influence the clinical management of the patients as well as prenatal diagnosis for the prospective offspring. PMID:25241384

Shojaei, Azadeh; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal, Reza; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Derakhshandeh-Peykar, Pupak; Izadi, Pantea; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Dowlatih, Mohammad-Ali; Karami, Fatemeh; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad



Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Associated with Fairness Preference in Ultimatum Game  

PubMed Central

In experimental economics, the preference for reciprocal fairness has been observed in the controlled and incentivized laboratory setting of the ultimatum game, in which two individuals decide on how to divide a sum of money, with one proposing the share while the second deciding whether to accept. Should the proposal be accepted, the amount is divided accordingly. Otherwise, both would receive no money. A recent twin study has shown that fairness preference inferred from responder behavior is heritable, yet its neurogenetic basis remains unknown. The D4 receptor (DRD4) exon3 is a well-characterized functional polymorphism, which is known to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and personality traits including novelty seeking and self-report altruism. Applying a neurogenetic approach, we find that DRD4 is significantly associated with fairness preference. Additionally, the interaction among this gene, season of birth, and gender is highly significant. This is the first result to link preference for reciprocal fairness to a specific gene and suggests that gene × environment interactions contribute to economic decision making. PMID:21072167

Zhong, Songfa; Israel, Salomon; Shalev, Idan; Xue, Hong; Ebstein, Richard P.; Chew, Soo Hong



Investigation of the serotonin 2C receptor gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK samples  

PubMed Central

Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is more frequent in males than females. Several genes on the X chromosome have been studied as candidate risk factors for ADHD including the 5-HT2C receptor (HTR2C) gene. Association between polymorphisms in HTR2C and ADHD were reported in a recent study. Findings In this study we investigated the association between ADHD and two polymorphisms C-759T (rs3813929) and G-697C (rs518147) in the promoter region of the HTR2C gene using a sample of 180 UK ADHD probands and their parents. We have shown that the -697G allele was significantly over-transmitted to affected ADHD probands (P = 0.017). No association was detected between the C-759T polymorphism and ADHD. Haplotype analysis of the two markers revealed no significantly increased transmission of any haplotype to ADHD. Conclusion The findings provide evidence that the G-allele of the G-697C HTR2C polymorphism may be involved in the development of ADHD. The results replicate one of the findings published recently. PMID:19416518

Xu, Xiaohui; Brookes, Keeley; Sun, Bo; Ilott, Nicholas; Asherson, Philip



Global Renal Gene Expression Profiling Analysis in B2-Kinin Receptor Null Mice: Impact of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), the leading cause of end-stage renal failure, is clinically manifested by albuminuria and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate. The risk factors and mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of DN are still incompletely defined. To address the involvement of bradykinin B2-receptors (B2R) in DN, we used a genome wide approach to study the effects of diabetes on differential renal gene expression profile in wild type and B2R knockout (B2R?/?) mice. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and plasma glucose levels and albumin excretion rate (AER) were measured at predetermined times throughout the 23 week study period. Longitudinal analysis of AER indicated that diabetic B2R?/?D null mice had a significantly decreased AER levels compared to wild type B2R+/+D mice (P?=?0.0005). Results from the global microarray study comparing gene expression profiles among four groups of mice respectively: (B2R+/+C, B2R+/+D, B2R?/?C and B2R?/?D) highlighted the role of several altered pathological pathways in response to disruption of B2R and to the diabetic state that included: endothelial injury, oxidative stress, insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammatory process with a marked alteration in the pro-apoptotic genes. The findings of the present study provide a global genomics view of biomarkers that highlight the mechanisms and putative pathways involved in DN. PMID:23028588

Jaffa, Miran A.; Kobeissy, Firas; Al Hariri, Moustafa; Chalhoub, Hussein; Eid, Assaad; Ziyadeh, Fuad N.; Jaffa, Ayad A.



Tomato Ve disease resistance genes encode cell surface-like receptors  

PubMed Central

In tomato, Ve is implicated in race-specific resistance to infection by Verticillium species causing crop disease. Characterization of the Ve locus involved positional cloning and isolation of two closely linked inverted genes. Expression of individual Ve genes in susceptible potato plants conferred resistance to an aggressive race 1 isolate of Verticillium albo-atrum. The deduced primary structure of Ve1 and Ve2 included a hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide, leucine-rich repeats containing 28 or 35 potential glycosylation sites, a hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain, and a C-terminal domain with the mammalian E/DXXXL? or YXX? endocytosis signals (? is an amino acid with a hydrophobic side chain). A leucine zipper-like sequence occurs in the hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide of Ve1 and a Pro-Glu-Ser-Thr (PEST)-like sequence resides in the C-terminal domain of Ve2. These structures suggest that the Ve genes encode a class of cell-surface glycoproteins with receptor-mediated endocytosis-like signals and leucine zipper or PEST sequences. PMID:11331751

Kawchuk, Lawrence M.; Hachey, John; Lynch, Dermot R.; Kulcsar, Frank; van Rooijen, Gijs; Waterer, Doug R.; Robertson, Albert; Kokko, Eric; Byers, Robert; Howard, Ronald J.; Fischer, Rainer; Prufer, Dirk



Possible sites of action of the new calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

Migraine is considered a neurovascular disease affecting more than 10% of the general population. Currently available drugs for the acute treatment of migraine are vasoconstrictors, which have limitations in their therapeutic use. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has a key role in migraine, where levels of CGRP are increased during acute migraine attacks. CGRP is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system, consistent with control of vasodilatation and transmission of nociceptive information. In migraine, CGRP is released from the trigeminal system. At peripheral synapses CGRP results in vasodilatation via receptors on the smooth muscle cells. At central synapses, CGRP acts postjunctionally on second-order neurons to transmit pain centrally via the brainstem and midbrain to higher cortical pain regions. The recently developed CGRP-receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. A remaining question is their site of action. The CGRP-receptor components (calcitonin receptor-like receptor, receptor activity modifying protein 1 and receptor component protein) are found to colocalize in the smooth muscle cells of intracranial arteries and in large-sized neurons in the trigeminal ganglion. The CGRP receptor has also been localized within parts of the brain and the brainstem. The aim of this paper is to review recent localization studies of CGRP and its receptor components within the nervous system and to discuss whether these sites could be possible targets for the CGRP-receptor antagonists. PMID:21179597

Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Edvinsson, Lars



Episodic Positive Selection in the Evolution of Avian Toll-Like Receptor Innate Immunity Genes  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of conserved pattern-recognition molecules responsible for initiating innate and acquired immune responses. Because they play a key role in host defence, these genes have received increasing interest in the evolutionary and population genetics literature, as their variation represents a potential target of adaptive evolution. However, the role of pathogen-mediated selection (i.e. episodic positive selection) in the evolution of these genes remains poorly known and has not been examined outside of mammals. A recent increase in the number of bird species for which TLR sequences are available has enabled us to examine the selective processes that have influenced evolution of the 10 known avian TLR genes. Specifically, we tested for episodic positive selection to identify codons that experience purifying selection for the majority of their evolution, interspersed with bursts of positive selection that may occur only in restricted lineages. We included up to 23 species per gene (mean?=?16.0) and observed that, although purifying selection was evident, an average of 4.5% of codons experienced episodic positive selection across all loci. For four genes in which sequence coverage traversed both the extracellular leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) and transmembrane/intracellular domains of the proteins, increased positive selection was observed at the extracellular domain, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide evidence that episodic positive selection has played an important role in the evolution of most avian TLRs, consistent with the role of these loci in pathogen recognition and a mechanism of host-pathogen coevolution. PMID:24595315

Grueber, Catherine E.; Wallis, Graham P.; Jamieson, Ian G.



Rearrangement of Variable Region T Cell Receptor y Genes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Vy Gene Usage Differs in Mature and Immature T Cells  

E-print Network

Using probes recognizing variable regions (V gamma) and joining regions (J gamma) of the T cell receptor (TCR) gamma gene, we have analyzed the usage of V gamma genes in 24 patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia ...

Hara, Junichi; Benedict, Stephen H.; Yumura, Keiko; Ha-Kawa, Kyungsae; Gelfand, Erwin W.



Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-?, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC. PMID:24189579

IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; ISHIGAKI, Kumiko; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; WATARI, Toshihiro



Regulation of dev, an Operon That Includes Genes Essential for Myxococcus xanthus Development and CRISPR-Associated Genes and Repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 5 February 2007\\/Accepted 6 March 2007 Expression of dev genes is important for triggering spore differentiation inside Myxococcus xanthus fruiting bodies. DNA sequence analysis suggested that dev and cas (CRISPR-associated) genes are cotranscribed at the dev locus, which is adjacent to CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats). Analysis of RNA from developing M. xanthus confirmed that dev and

Poorna Viswanathan; Kimberly Murphy; Bryan Julien; Anthony G. Garza; Lee Kroos



Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales  

PubMed Central

Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin



Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor  

EPA Science Inventory

Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...


A Polymorphism in the 3' Untranslated Region of the Gene for Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Modulates Reporter Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding the human TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 con- tains polymorphisms in the 3untranslated region (UTR). Pre- vious studies have shown that some variant alleles in this region are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. However, the effect of these polymorphisms on the expression of TNFR2 has not been studied to date. To examine the role played by different

Irene Puga; Begona Lainez; JoseManuel Fernandez-Real; Maria Buxade; Montserrat Broch; Joan Vendrell; Enric Espel



Modulation of NK Cell Function by Genetically Coupled C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor/Ligand Pairs Encoded in the Human Natural Killer Gene Complex  

PubMed Central

Functional responses of natural killer (NK) cells including eradication of “harmful” cells and modulation of immune responses are regulated by a broad variety of activating and inhibitory NK receptors. Whereas the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) encodes for NK receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily, genes of C-type lectin-like NK receptors are clustered in the mammalian natural killer gene complex (NKC). Besides the thoroughly studied C-type lectin-like receptors NKG2D, CD94/NKG2x, and members of the murine Ly49 subfamily, the NKC also encodes for NK receptors of the less characterized NKRP1 subfamily. The prototypic mouse NKRP1 receptor is Nkrp1c (also known as NK1.1), while human members of the NKRP1 subfamily are NKRP1A, NKp80, and NKp65. The latter are not straight homologs of mouse NKRP1 receptors, but share distinct subfamily-specific traits classifying them as members of the NKRP1 subfamily. Ligands of the human NKPR1 receptors are likewise C-type lectin-like glycoproteins belonging to the CLEC2 subfamily (i.e., LLT1, AICL, and KACL), and are encoded in the NKC in tight genetic linkage to their respective receptors. Similarly, certain members of the mouse NKRP1 subfamily interact with genetically coupled CLEC2 glycoproteins, while the reasons for this intriguing tight genetic linkage remain unknown. Recent studies provided new and unique insights into the expression, interaction, and signaling of NKRP1 receptors and their ligands, thereby substantially advancing our understanding of their function and biology. Here, we review our current knowledge on NKRP1 receptors and their genetically linked CLEC2 ligands with an emphasis on the human receptor/ligand pairs NKRP1A-LLT1, NKp80-AICL, and NKp65-KACL. PMID:24223577

Bartel, Yvonne; Bauer, Bjorn; Steinle, Alexander



Dexamethasone Stimulated Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood is a Sensitive Marker for Glucocorticoid Receptor Resistance in Depressed Patients  

PubMed Central

Although gene expression profiles in peripheral blood in major depression are not likely to identify genes directly involved in the pathomechanism of affective disorders, they may serve as biomarkers for this disorder. As previous studies using baseline gene expression profiles have provided mixed results, our approach was to use an in vivo dexamethasone challenge test and to compare glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated changes in gene expression between depressed patients and healthy controls. Whole genome gene expression data (baseline and following GR-stimulation with 1.5?mg dexamethasone p.o.) from two independent cohorts were analyzed to identify gene expression pattern that would predict case and control status using a training (N=18 cases/18 controls) and a test cohort (N=11/13). Dexamethasone led to reproducible regulation of 2670 genes in controls and 1151 transcripts in cases. Several genes, including FKBP5 and DUSP1, previously associated with the pathophysiology of major depression, were found to be reliable markers of GR-activation. Using random forest analyses for classification, GR-stimulated gene expression outperformed baseline gene expression as a classifier for case and control status with a correct classification of 79.1 vs 41.6% in the test cohort. GR-stimulated gene expression performed best in dexamethasone non-suppressor patients (88.7% correctly classified with 100% sensitivity), but also correctly classified 77.3% of the suppressor patients (76.7% sensitivity), when using a refined set of 19 genes. Our study suggests that in vivo stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood cells could be a promising molecular marker of altered GR-functioning, an important component of the underlying pathology, in patients suffering from depressive episodes. PMID:22237309

Menke, Andreas; Arloth, Janine; Putz, Benno; Weber, Peter; Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Gonik, Mariya; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Rubel, Jennifer; Uhr, Manfred; Lucae, Susanne; Deussing, Jan M; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Holsboer, Florian; Binder, Elisabeth B



Effects of Vitamin A and D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms/Haplotypes on Immune Responses to Measles Vaccine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Vitamin A and D, and their receptors, are important regulators of the immune system, including vaccine immune response. We assessed the association between polymorphisms in the vitamin A (RARA, RARB and RARG) and vitamin D receptor (VDR)/RXRA genes and inter-individual variations in immune responses after two doses of measles vaccine in 745 subjects. METHODS Using a tagSNP approach, we genotyped 745 healthy children for the 391 polymorphisms in vitamin A and D receptor genes. RESULTS The RARB haplotype (rs6800566/rs6550976/rs9834818) was significantly associated with variations in both measles antibody (global p=0.013) and cytokine secretion levels, such as IL-10 (global p=0.006), IFN-? (global p=0.008), and TNF-? (global p=0.039) in the Caucasian subgroup. Specifically, the RARB haplotype AAC was associated with higher (t-statistic 3.27, p=0.001) measles antibody levels. At the other end of the spectrum, haplotype GG for rs6550978/rs6777544 was associated with lower antibody levels (t-statistic ?2.32, p=0.020) in the Caucasian subgroup. In a sensitivity analysis, the RARB haplotype CTGGGCAA remained marginally significant (p<0.02) when the single SNP rs12630816 was included in the model for IL-10 secretion levels. A significant association was found between lower measles-specific IFN-? Elispot responses and haplotypes rs11102986/rs11103473/rs11103482/rs10776909/rs12004589/rs35780541/rs2266677/rs875444 (global p=0.004) and rs6537944/rs3118571 (global p<0.001) in the RXRA gene for Caucasians. We also found associations between multiple RARB, VDR and RXRA SNPs/haplotypes and measles-specific IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, IFN-?, IFN?-1, and TNF-? cytokine secretion. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that specific allelic variations and haplotypes in the vitamin A and D receptor genes may influence adaptive immune responses to measles vaccine. PMID:22082653

Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; O'Byrne, Megan M.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.



Molecular Characterization of the Aphis gossypii Olfactory Receptor Gene Families  

PubMed Central

The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect. PMID:24971460

Walker, William B.; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong



The Drosophila saxophone gene: a serine-threonine kinase receptor of the TGF-beta superfamily.  


The Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene encodes a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like protein that plays a key role in several aspects of development. Transduction of the DPP signal was investigated by cloning of serine-threonine kinase transmembrane receptors from Drosophila because this type of receptor is specific for the TGF-beta-like ligands. Here evidence is provided demonstrating that the Drosophila saxophone (sax) gene, a previously identified female sterile locus, encodes a TGF-beta-like type I receptor. Embryos from sax mothers and dpp embryos exhibit similar mutant phenotypes during early gastrulation, and these two loci exhibit genetic interactions, which suggest that they are utilized in the same pathway. These data suggest that sax encodes a receptor for dpp. PMID:8134837

Xie, T; Finelli, A L; Padgett, R W



Cross talk between glucocorticoid and estrogen receptors occurs at a subset of proinflammatory genes.  


Glucocorticoids exert potent anti-inflammatory effects by repressing proinflammatory genes. We previously demonstrated that estrogens repress numerous proinflammatory genes in U2OS cells. The objective of this study was to determine if cross talk occurs between the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and estrogen receptor (ER)?. The effects of dexamethasone (Dex) and estradiol on 23 proinflammatory genes were examined in human U2OS cells stably transfected with ER? or GR. Three classes of genes were regulated by ER? and/or GR. Thirteen genes were repressed by both estradiol and Dex (ER/GR-repressed genes). Five genes were repressed by ER (ER-only repressed genes), and another five genes were repressed by GR (GR-only repressed genes). To examine if cross talk occurs between ER and GR at ER/GR-repressed genes, U2OS-GR cells were infected with an adenovirus that expresses ER?. The ER antagonist, ICI 182780 (ICI), blocked Dex repression of ER/GR-repressed genes. ICI did not have any effect on the GR-only repressed genes or genes activated by Dex. These results demonstrate that ICI acts on subset of proinflammatory genes in the presence of ER? but not on GR-activated genes. ICI recruited ER? to the IL-8 promoter but did not prevent Dex recruitment of GR. ICI antagonized Dex repression of the TNF response element by blocking the recruitment of nuclear coactivator 2. These findings indicate that the ICI-ER? complex blocks Dex-mediated repression by interfering with nuclear coactivator 2 recruitment to GR. Our results suggest that it might be possible to exploit ER and GR cross talk for glucocorticoid therapies using drugs that interact with ERs. PMID:21357268

Cvoro, Aleksandra; Yuan, Chaoshen; Paruthiyil, Sreenivasan; Miller, Oliver H; Yamamoto, Keith R; Leitman, Dale C



Characterization of SQUAMOSA-like genes in Gerbera hybrida, including one involved in reproductive transition  

PubMed Central

Background The flowering process in plants proceeds through the induction of an inflorescence meristem triggered by several pathways. Many of the genes associated with both the flowering process and floral architecture encode transcription factors of the MADS domain family. Gerbera, a member of the sunflower family, Asteraceae, bears compressed inflorescence heads (capitula) with three different flower types characterized by differences in both sexuality and floral symmetry. To understand how such a complex inflorescence structure is achieved at the molecular level, we have characterized the array of Gerbera MADS box genes. The high number of SQUAMOSA-like genes in Gerbera compared to other model species raised the question as to whether they may relate to Gerbera's complex inflorescence structure and whether or not a homeotic A function is present. Results In this paper we describe six Gerbera genes related to the SQUAMOSA/APETALA1/FRUITFULL genes of snapdragon and Arabidopsis. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the entire gene lineage, our data indicates that GSQUA1 and GSQUA3 are members of the SQUA/AP1 clade, while GSQUA2, GSQUA4, GSQUA5 and GSQUA6 are co-orthologs of the Arabidopsis FUL gene. GSQUA1/GSQUA3 and GSQUA4/GSQUA5/GSQUA6, respectively, represent several gene duplication events unknown in the model systems that may be specific to either Gerbera or Asteraceae. GSQUA genes showed specific expression profiles. GSQUA1, GSQUA2, and GSQUA5 were inflorescence abundant, while GSQUA3, GSQUA4, and GSQUA6 expression was also detected in vegetative organs. Overexpression of GSQUA2 in Gerbera led to accelerated flowering, dwarfism and vegetative abnormalities, all new and specific phenomena observed in transgenic Gerbera plants with modified MADS box gene expression. Conclusions Based on expression patterns, none of the Gerbera SQUA-like genes are likely to control flower organ identity in the sense of the floral A function. However, our data shows that the FUL-like gene GSQUA2 plays a vital role in meristem transition. The roles of other GSQUA-genes in Gerbera floral development are intriguing, but require still further study. PMID:20579337



Cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes implicated in a nicotine dependence association study targeting 348 candidate genes with 3713 SNPs  

PubMed Central

Nicotine dependence is one of the world’s leading causes of preventable death. To discover genetic variants that influence risk for nicotine dependence, we targeted over 300 candidate genes and analyzed 3713 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1050 cases and 879 controls. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) was used to assess dependence, in which cases were required to have an FTND of 4 or more. The control criterion was strict: control subjects must have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetimes and had an FTND of 0 during the heaviest period of smoking. After correcting for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate, several cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes dominated the top signals. The strongest association was from an SNP representing CHRNB3, the ?3 nicotinic receptor subunit gene (P = 9.4 × 10?5). Biologically, the most compelling evidence for a risk variant came from a non-synonymous SNP in the ?5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene CHRNA5 (P = 6.4 × 10?4). This SNP exhibited evidence of a recessive mode of inheritance, resulting in individuals having a 2-fold increase in risk of developing nicotine dependence once exposed to cigarette smoking. Other genes among the top signals were KCNJ6 and GABRA4. This study represents one of the most powerful and extensive studies of nicotine dependence to date and has found novel risk loci that require confirmation by replication studies. PMID:17135278

Saccone, Scott F.; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chase, Gary A.; Konvicka, Karel; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric O.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Pomerleau, Ovide; Swan, Gary E.; Goate, Alison M.; Rutter, Joni; Bertelsen, Sarah; Fox, Louis; Fugman, Douglas; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wang, Jen C.; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Rice, John P.; Bierut, Laura Jean



Molecular characterization of the Aedes aegypti odorant receptor gene family  

PubMed Central

The olfactory-driven blood-feeding behaviour of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the primary transmission mechanism by which the arboviruses causing dengue and yellow fevers affect over 40 million individuals worldwide. Bioinformatics analysis has been used to identify 131 putative odourant receptors from the A. aegypti genome that are likely to function in chemosensory perception in this mosquito. Comparison with the Anopheles gambiae olfactory subgenome demonstrates significant divergence of the odourant receptors that reflects a high degree of evolutionary activity potentially resulting from their critical roles during the mosquito life cycle. Expression analyses in the larval and adult olfactory chemosensory organs reveal that the ratio of odourant receptors to antennal glomeruli is not necessarily one to one in mosquitoes. PMID:17635615

Bohbot, J.; Pitts, R. J.; Kwon, H.-W.; Rützler, M.; Robertson, H. M.; Zwiebel, L. J.



Global Footprints of Purifying Selection on Toll-Like Receptor Genes Primarily Associated with Response to Bacterial Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are directly involved in host–pathogen interactions. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. To understand the influence of environment and pathogen diversity on the evolution of TLR genes, we have undertaken a large-scale population-genetic study. Our study included two hunter–gatherer tribal populations and one urbanized nontribal population from India with distinct ethnicities (n = 266) and 14 populations inhabiting four different continents (n = 1,092). From the data on DNA sequences of cell-surface TLR genes, we observed an excess of rare variants and a large number of low frequency haplotypes in each gene. Nonsynonymous changes were few in every population and the commonly used statistical tests for detecting natural selection provided evidence of purifying selection. The evidence of purifying selection acting on the cell-surface TLRs of the innate immune system is not consistent with Haldane’s theory of coevolution of immunity genes, at least of innate immunity genes, with pathogens. Our study provides evidence that genes of the cell-surface TLRs, that is, TLR2 and TLR4, have been so optimized to defend the host against microbial infections that new mutations in these genes are quickly eliminated. PMID:24554585

Mukherjee, Souvik; Ganguli, Debdutta; Majumder, Partha P.



Associations between epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation and serum tumor markers in advanced lung adenocarcinomas: a retrospective study(?).  


Objective To investigate the associations between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations and serum tumor markers in advanced lung adenocarcinomas. Methods We investigated the association between EGFR gene mutations and clinical features, including serum tumor marker levels, in 97 advanced lung adenocarcinomas patients who did not undergo the treatment of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. EGFR gene mutation was detected by real-time PCR at exons 18, 19, 20, and 21. Serum tumor marker concentrations were analyzed by chemiluminescence assay kit at the same time. Results EGFR gene mutations were detected in 42 (43%) advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Gender (P=0.003), smoking status (P=0.001), and abnormal serum status of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, P=0.028) were significantly associated with EGFR gene mutation incidence. Multivariate analysis showed the abnormal CEA level in serum was independently associated with the incidence of EGFR gene mutation (P=0.046) with an odds ratio of 2.613 (95% CI: 1.018-6.710). However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed CEA was not an ideal predictive marker for EGFR gene mutation status in advanced lung adenocarcinoma (the area under the ROC curve was 0.608, P=0.069). Conclusions EGFR gene mutation status is significantly associated with serum CEA status in advanced lung adenocarcinmoas. However, serum CEA is not an ideal predictor for EGFR mutation. PMID:25264883

Pan, Ying-Qiu; Shi, Wei-Wu; Xu, Dan-Ping; Xu, Hui-Hui; Zhou, Mei-Ying; Yan, Wei-Hua



Differential Regulation of ?7 Nicotinic Receptor Gene ( CHRNA7 ) Expression in Schizophrenic Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the ?7*\\u000a receptor, as measured by [125I]?-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill\\u000a controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression\\u000a of

Sharon Mexal; Ralph Berger; Judy Logel; Randal G. Ross; Robert Freedman; Sherry Leonard



Tuning Properties of Avian and Frog Bitter Taste Receptors Dynamically Fit Gene Repertoire sizes.  


Bitter taste perception in vertebrates relies on a variable number of bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) genes, ranging from only three functional genes in chicken to as many as approximately 50 in frogs. Humans possess a medium-sized Tas2r repertoire encoding three broadly and several narrowly tuned receptors plus receptors with intermediate tuning properties. Such tuning information is not available for bitter taste receptors of other vertebrate species. In particular it is not known, whether a small Tas2r repertoire may be compensated for by broad tuning of these receptors, and on the other side, whether a large repertoire might entail a preponderance of narrowly tuned receptors. To elucidate this question, we cloned all three chicken Tas2rs, the two turkey Tas2rs, three zebra finch Tas2rs, and six Tas2rs of the Western clawed frog representative of major branches of the phylogenetic tree, and screened them with 46 different bitter compounds. All chicken and turkey Tas2rs were broadly tuned, the zebra finch Tas2rs were narrowly tuned, and frog Tas2rs ranged from broadly to narrowly tuned receptors. We conclude that a low number of functional Tas2r genes does not imply a reduced importance of bitter taste per se, as it can be compensated by large tuning width. A high number of functional Tas2r genes appears to allow the evolution of specialized receptors, possibly for toxins with species-specific relevance. In sum, we show that variability in tuning breadth, overlapping agonist profiles, and staggered effective agonist concentration ranges are shared features of human and other vertebrate Tas2rs. PMID:25180257

Behrens, Maik; Korsching, Sigrun I; Meyerhof, Wolfgang



Working Memory Performance Is Associated with Common Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol has a modulatory influence on cognitive functions in humans. Both impairing and enhancing effects of cortisol administration have been shown for hippocampus-dependent declarative memory, and impairing effects have been shown for prefrontal-cortex-dependent working memory function. Given the high density of glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the prefrontal cortex, we investigated whether common polymorphisms of the GC receptor (GR) gene (ER22\\/23EK,

R. Kumsta; S. Entringer; J. W. Koper; E. F. C. van Rossum; D. H. Hellhammer; S. Wüst



Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene.  

PubMed Central

Prostanoid receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. By taking advantage of nucleotide sequence homology among the prostanoid receptors, we have isolated and identified a cDNA fragment and its gene encoding a mouse prostaglandin (PG) D receptor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and gene cloning. This gene codes for a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 40,012. The deduced amino acid sequence has a high degree of similarity with the mouse PGI receptor and the EP2 subtype of the PGE receptor, which together form a subgroup of the prostanoid receptors. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the gene showed a single class of binding sites for [#H]PGD2 with a Kd of 40 nM. This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist). PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and iloprost showed little displacement activity at concentrations up to 10 microM. PGD2 and BW 245C also increased cAMP levels in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner. BW A868C showed a partial agonist activity in the cAMP assay. Northern blotting analysis with mouse poly(A)+ RNA identified a major mRNA species of 3.5 kb that was most abundantly expressed in the ileum, followed by lung, stomach, and uterus. Images PMID:7972033

Hirata, M; Kakizuka, A; Aizawa, M; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S



T-cell antigen receptor genes and T-cell recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four distinct T-cell antigen receptor polypeptides (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) form two different heterodimers (alpha:beta and gamma:delta) that are very similar to immunoglobulins in primary sequence, gene organization and modes of rearrangement. Whereas antibodies have both soluble and membrane forms that can bind to antigens alone, T-cell receptors exist only on cell surfaces and recognize antigen fragments only when

Mark M. Davis; Pamela J. Bjorkman



Point Mutations in the Human Vitamin D Receptor Gene Associated with Hypocalcemic Rickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocalcemic vitamin D--resistant rickets is a human genetic disease resulting from target organ resistance to the action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Two families with affected children homozygous for this autosomal recessive disorder were studied for abnormalities in the intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its gene. Although the receptor displays normal binding of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 hormone, VDR from affected family members

Mark R. Hughes; Peter J. Malloy; Dirk G. Kieback; Robert A. Kesterson; J. Wesley Pike; David Feldman; Bert W. O'Malley



Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene\\u000a and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking has been reported in healthy subjects.\\u000a \\u000a In an attempt to replicate the previous findings, 256 healthy Caucasian volunteers were analysed for a potential relationship\\u000a between the dopamine receptor D4 exon III

M.-L. Persson; D. Wassermann; T. Geijer; A. Frisch; R. Rockah; E. Michaelovsky; A. Apter; A. Weizmann; E. G. Jönsson; H. Bergmann



Six Schizosaccharomyces pombe tRNA genes including a gene for a tRNALys with an intervening sequence which cannot base-pair with the anticodon.  

PubMed Central

We report the sequences of six S. pombe tRNA genes including two genes for tRNAArg, and one gene each for tRNAGlu, tRNAHis, tRNALys and tRNAPhe. All tRNA genes are found independently in the genome and represent individual transcription units. The gene for tRNALys has an 8 bp long intervening sequence which cannot base-pair with the tRNA anticodon. In vitro transcription studies indicate that all genes are faithfully transcribed in a yeast extract. Sequence comparison of the 5' flanking regions of the tRNA genes did not show significant homologies; however, they are very rich in AT base pairs. Images PMID:6561518

Gamulin, V; Mao, J; Appel, B; Sumner-Smith, M; Yamao, F; Soll, D



Gene Alterations of Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing Estrogen Receptors by Estrogen and Bisphenol A Using Microarray Analysis  

PubMed Central

Since endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may interfere with the endocrine system(s) of our body and have an estrogenicity, we evaluated the effect(s) of bisphenol A (BPA) on the transcriptional levels of altered genes in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BG-1 ovarian cancer cells by microarray and real-time polymerase-chain reaction. In this study, treatment with 17?-estradiol (E2) or BPA increased mRNA levels of E2-responsive genes related to apoptosis, cancer and cell cycle, signal transduction and nucleic acid binding etc. In parallel with their microarray data, the mRNA levels of some altered genes including RAB31_MEMBER RAS ONCOGENE FAMILY (U59877), CYCLIN D1 (X59798), CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 (U37022), IGF-BINDING PROTEIN 4 (U20982), and ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE (NM_000479) were significantly induced by E2 or BPA in this cell model. These results indicate that BPA in parallel with E2 induced the transcriptional levels of E2-responsive genes in an estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BG-1 cells. In conclusion, these microarray and real-time polymerase-chain reaction results indicate that BPA, a potential weak estrogen, may have estrogenic effect by regulating E2-responsive genes in ER-positive BG-1 cells and BG-1 cells would be the best in vitro model to detect these estrogenic EDCs. PMID:21826169

Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Se-Hyung; Yi, Bo-Rim



Genome-Wide Analysis of Glucocorticoid Receptor Binding Regions in Adipocytes Reveal Gene Network Involved in Triglyceride Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids play important roles in the regulation of distinct aspects of adipocyte biology. Excess glucocorticoids in adipocytes are associated with metabolic disorders, including central obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. To understand the mechanisms underlying the glucocorticoid action in adipocytes, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to isolate genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding regions (GBRs) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, gene expression analyses were used to identify genes that were regulated by glucocorticoids. Overall, 274 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain or locate nearby GBR. We found that many GBRs were located in or nearby genes involved in triglyceride (TG) synthesis (Scd-1, 2, 3, GPAT3, GPAT4, Agpat2, Lpin1), lipolysis (Lipe, Mgll), lipid transport (Cd36, Lrp-1, Vldlr, Slc27a2) and storage (S3-12). Gene expression analysis showed that except for Scd-3, the other 13 genes were induced in mouse inguinal fat upon 4-day glucocorticoid treatment. Reporter gene assays showed that except Agpat2, the other 12 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain at least one GBR that can mediate hormone response. In agreement with the fact that glucocorticoids activated genes in both TG biosynthetic and lipolytic pathways, we confirmed that 4-day glucocorticoid treatment increased TG synthesis and lipolysis concomitantly in inguinal fat. Notably, we found that 9 of these 12 genes were induced in transgenic mice that have constant elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels. These results suggested that a similar mechanism was used to regulate TG homeostasis during chronic glucocorticoid treatment. In summary, our studies have identified molecular components in a glucocorticoid-controlled gene network involved in the regulation of TG homeostasis in adipocytes. Understanding the regulation of this gene network should provide important insight for future therapeutic developments for metabolic diseases. PMID:21187916

Yu, Chi-Yi; Mayba, Oleg; Lee, Joyce V.; Tran, Joanna; Harris, Charlie; Speed, Terence P.; Wang, Jen-Chywan



Multigenic Control of Measles Vaccine Immunity Mediated by Polymorphisms in Measles Receptor, Innate Pathway, and Cytokine Genes  

PubMed Central

Measles infection and vaccine response are complex biological processes that involve both viral and host genetic factors. We have previously investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms on vaccine immune response, including measles vaccines, and have shown that polymorphisms in HLA, cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate immune response genes are associated with variation in vaccine response but do not account for all of the inter-individual variance seen in vaccinated populations. In the current study we report the findings of a multigenic analysis of measles vaccine immunity, indicating a role for the measles virus receptor CD46, innate pattern-recognition receptors (DDX58, TLR2, 4, 5,7 and 8) and intracellular signaling intermediates (MAP3K7, NFKBIA), and key antiviral molecules (VISA, OAS2, MX1, PKR) as well as cytokines (IFNA1, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL12B) and cytokine receptor genes (IL2RB, IL6R, IL8RA) in the genetic control of both humoral and cellular immune responses. This multivariate approach provided additional insights into the genetic control of measles vaccine responses over and above the information gained by our previous univariate SNP association analyses. PMID:22265947

Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; O'Byrne, Megan; Jacobson, Robert M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.



Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice  

PubMed Central

Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?), ER-beta (ER?), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ER? and ER? gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena



Molecular cloning of a gene encoding the histamine H2 receptor  

SciTech Connect

The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion, and antagonists for this receptor have proven to be effective therapy for acid peptic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The physiological action of histamine has been shown to be mediated via a guanine nucleotide-binding protein linked to adenylate cyclase activation and cellular cAMP generation. The authors capitalized on the technique of polymerase chain reaction, using degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the known homology between cellular receptors linked to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins to obtain a partial-length clone from canine gastric parietal cell cDNA. This clone was used to obtain a full-length receptor gene from a canine genomic library. Histamine increased in a dose-dependent manner cellular cAMP content in L cells permanently transfected with this gene, and preincubation of the cells with the H2-selective antagonist cimetidine shifted the dose-response curve to the right. Cimetidine inhibited the binding of the radiolabeled H2 receptor-selective ligand (methyl-{sup 3}H)tiotidine to the transfected cells in a dose-dependent fashion, but the H1-selective antagonist diphenhydramine did not. These data indicate that they have cloned a gene that encodes the H2 subclass of histamine receptors.

Gantz, I.; Schaeffer, M.; DelValle, J.; Logsdon, C.; Campbell, V.; Uhler, M.; Yamada, Tadataka (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (United States))



Gene expression signature of estrogen receptor ? status in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estrogens are known to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to modify their phenotypic properties. Identification of estrogen-regulated genes in human breast tumors is an essential step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action in cancer. To this end we generated and compared the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) profiles of 26 human breast carcinomas

Martín C Abba; Yuhui Hu; Hongxia Sun; Jeffrey A Drake; Sally Gaddis; Keith Baggerly; Aysegul Sahin; C Marcelo Aldaz



Molecular Characterization of RXR (Retinoid X Receptor) Gene Isoforms from the Bivalve Species Chlamys farreri  

PubMed Central

Background Bivalves are among the oldest classes of invertebrates, and they exhibit diverse types of sexual patterning. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in bivalves remains very limited. The retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which are members of the nuclear receptor family, are involved in sex differentiation in many organisms. Results In the present study, four full-length RXR-encoding cDNAs (CfRXRs) named CfRXRa, CfRXRb, CfRXRc and CfRXRd were retrieved from Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri). The four RXRs exhibited the conserved five-domain structure of nuclear receptor superfamily members and differed from each other only in the T-box of the C domain. The three variants, designated T (+4), T (+20) and T (+24), contained insertions of 4, 20 and 24 amino acids, respectively. The entire CfRXR gene is composed of eight exons and seven introns, and the four isoforms are generated via alternative mRNA splicing. Expression analysis showed that all four isoforms were expressed in both the testis and the ovary during the differentiation stage, whereas no expression was detected in the growth, mature or resting stages. This result suggests that CfRXRs are involved in germ cell differentiation in both sexes. The expression of the four isoforms was also detected in other tissues examined, including mantle, gill, digestive gland, and adductor muscle of sexually mature male and female Zhikong scallops, implying the multiple biological functions of CfRXRs. Conclusion Our study presents the first report of RXR isoforms in bivalves. Further investigation of the functional roles of different RXR isoforms may provide deep insights into the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation in C. farreri. PMID:24066133

Bao, Zhenmin; Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Yueyue; Jiao, Wenqian; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; He, Yan; Hu, Xiaoli



Effects of leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms on lung cancer.  


Leptin (LEP), an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has been reported to participate in carcinogenesis. Elevated levels of systemic and pulmonary LEP are associated with diseases related to lung injury and lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the LEP and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer in a cohort of Turkish population. One hundred and sixty-two lung cancer patients and 130 healthy controls were included in the study. The genotypes of LEP gene -2548G?>?A and LEPR gene Q223R polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The genotype frequencies of LEP -2548G?>?A polymorphism showed statistically significant differences between lung cancer patients and controls (p?=?0.007). GA?+?AA genotypes and A allele of LEP -2548G?>?A polymorphism was found to be susceptibility factors for lung cancer (p?=?0.003, odds ratio (OR) 2.32, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.10; p?=?0.003, OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.18-2.29, respectively). The genotype and allele frequencies of LEPR Q223R polymorphism did not show any statistically significant differences between lung cancer patients and controls (p?=?0.782 and p?=?0.762, respectively). Although AA-QQ and AA-QR combined genotypes of LEP -2548G?>?A-LEPR Q223R loci were significantly higher in lung cancer patients (p?=?0.020 and p?=?0.047, respectively), GG-QQ, GG-QR, and AA-RR combined genotypes were significantly higher in control group. As a result, susceptibility effects of LEP -2548G?>?A polymorphism alone or in combination with LEPR Q223R polymorphism on lung cancer were observed. Further studies are necessary to prove the association of LEP and LEPR gene polymorphisms with lung cancer. PMID:25027400

Unsal, Meftun; Kara, Nurten; Karakus, Nevin; Tural, Sengul; Elbistan, Mehmet



Extensive Copy-Number Variation of the Human Olfactory Receptor Gene Family  

PubMed Central

As much as a quarter of the human genome has been reported to vary in copy number between individuals, including regions containing about half of the members of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene family. We have undertaken a detailed study of copy-number variation of ORs to elucidate the selective and mechanistic forces acting on this gene family and the true impact of copy-number variation on human OR repertoires. We argue that the properties of copy-number variants (CNVs) and other sets of large genomic regions violate the assumptions of statistical methods that are commonly used in the assessment of gene enrichment. Using more appropriate methods, we provide evidence that OR enrichment in CNVs is not due to positive selection but is because of OR preponderance in segmentally duplicated regions, which are known to be frequently copy-number variable, and because purifying selection against CNVs is lower in OR-containing regions than in regions containing essential genes. We also combine multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and PCR to assay the copy numbers of 37 candidate CNV ORs in a panel of ?50 human individuals. We confirm copy-number variation of 18 ORs but find no variation in this human-diversity panel for 16 other ORs, highlighting the caveat that reported intervals often overrepresent true CNVs. The copy-number variation we describe is likely to underpin significant variation in olfactory abilities among human individuals. Finally, we show that both homology-based and homology-independent processes have played a recent role in remodeling the OR family. PMID:18674749

Young, Janet M.; Endicott, RaeLynn M.; Parghi, Sean S.; Walker, Megan; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Trask, Barbara J.



Genes Expressed in Pinus radiata Male Cones Include Homologs to Anther-Specific and Pathogenesis Response Genes1  

PubMed Central

We describe the isolation and characterization of 13 cDNA clones that are differentially expressed in male cones of Pinus radiata (D. Don). The transcripts of the 13 genes are expressed at different times between meiosis and microspore mitosis, timing that corresponds to a burst in tapetal activity in the developing anthers. In situ hybridization showed that four of the genes are expressed in the tapetum, while a fifth is expressed in tetrads during a brief developmental window. Six of the seven cDNAs identified in database searches have striking similarity to genes expressed in angiosperm anthers. Seven cDNAs are homologs of defense and pathogen response genes. The cDNAs identified are predicted to encode a chalcone-synthase-like protein, a thaumatin-like protein, a serine hydrolase thought to be a putative regulator of programmed cell death, two lipid-transfer proteins, and two homologs of the anther-specific A9 genes from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that many of the reproductive processes in the angiosperms and gymnosperms were inherited from a common ancestor. PMID:10594098

Walden, Adrian R.; Walter, Christian; Gardner, Richard C.



SUMOylation of the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Regulates the Expression of FXR Target Genes*  

PubMed Central

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) belongs to a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate many aspects of metabolism including bile acid homeostasis. Here we show that FXR is covalently modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (Sumo1), an important regulator of cell signaling and transcription. Well conserved consensus sites at lysine 122 and 275 in the AF-1 and ligand binding domains, respectively, of FXR were subject to SUMOylation in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that Sumo1 was recruited to the bile salt export pump (BSEP), the small heterodimer partner (SHP), and the OST?-OST? organic solute transporter loci in a ligand-dependent fashion. Sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-ReChIP) verified the concurrent binding of FXR and Sumo1 to the BSEP and SHP promoters. Overexpression of Sumo1 markedly decreased binding and/or recruitment of FXR to the BSEP and SHP promoters on ChIP-ReChIP. SUMOylation did not have an apparent effect on nuclear localization of FXR. Expression of Sumo1 markedly inhibited the ligand-dependent, transactivation of BSEP and SHP promoters by FXR/retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) in HepG2 cells. In contrast, mutations that abolished SUMOylation of FXR or siRNA knockdown of Sumo1 expression augmented the transactivation of BSEP and SHP promoters by FXR. Pathways for SUMOylation were significantly altered during obstructive cholestasis with differential Sumo1 recruitment to the promoters of FXR target genes. In conclusion, FXR is subject to SUMOylation that regulates its capacity to transactivate its target genes in normal liver and during obstructive cholestasis. PMID:23546875

Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Luo, Yuhuan; Sun, An-Qiang; Suchy, Frederick J.



Variation in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes is Associated with Multiple Substance Dependence Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

There is shared genetic risk for dependence on multiple substances, and the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 harbors multiple polymorphisms that associate to this risk. Here, we report the results of an association study with 21 SNPs genotyped across the CHRNA5, CHRNA3, and CHRNB4 loci on chromosome 15q25.1. The sample consists of a discovery set (N=1858) of European-American and African-American (AA) families, ascertained on the basis of a sibling pair with cocaine and/or opioid dependence, and a case–control replication sample (N=3388) collected for association studies of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid dependence. We tested the SNPs for association with lifetime cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol dependence. We replicated several previous findings, including associations between rs16969968 and nicotine dependence (P=0.002) and cocaine dependence (P=0.02), with opposite risk alleles for each substance. We observed these associations in AAs, which is a novel finding. The strongest association signal in either sample was between rs684513 in CHRNA5 and cocaine dependence (OR=1.43, P=0.0004) in the AA replication set. We also observed two SNPs associated with alcohol dependence, that is, rs615470 in CHRNA5 (OR=0.77, P=0.0006) and rs578776 (OR=0.78, P=0.001). The associations between CD and rs684513, AD and rs615470, and AD and rs578776 remained significant after a permutation-based correction for multiple testing. These data reinforce the importance of variation in the chromosome 15 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster for risk of dependence on multiple substances, although the direction of the effects may vary across substances. PMID:20485328

Sherva, Richard; Kranzler, Henry R; Yu, Yi; Logue, Mark W; Poling, James; Arias, Albert J; Anton, Raymond F; Oslin, David; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel



The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Complex and the Control of Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls the expression of a diverse set of genes. The toxicity of the potent AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is almost exclusively mediated through this receptor. However, the key alterations in gene expression that mediate toxicity are poorly understood. It has been established through characterization of AhR-null mice that the AhR has a required physiological function, yet how endogenous mediators regulate this orphan receptor remains to be established. A picture as to how the AhR/ARNT heterodimer actually mediates gene transcription is starting to emerge. The AhR/ARNT complex can alter transcription both by binding to its cognate response element and through tethering to other transcription factors. In addition, many of the coregulatory proteins necessary for AhR-mediated transcription have been identified. Cross talk between the estrogen receptor and the AhR at the promoter of target genes appears to be an important mode of regulation. Inflammatory signaling pathways and the AhR also appear to be another important site of cross talk at the level of transcription. A major focus of this review is to highlight experimental efforts to characterize nonclassical mechanisms of AhR-mediated modulation of gene transcription. PMID:18540824

Beischlag, Timothy V.; Morales, J. Luis; Hollingshead, Brett D.; Perdew, Gary H.



Use of an Activated Beta-Catenin to Identify Wnt Pathway Target Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Including a Subset of Collagen Genes Expressed in Late Larval Development  

PubMed Central

The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin?dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle. PMID:24569038

Jackson, Belinda M.; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W.; Eisenmann, David M.



Identification of small molecule antagonists of the human mas-related gene-X1 receptor.  


The recently identified mas-related-gene (MRG) family of receptors, located primarily in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion, has been implicated in the perception of pain. Thus, antagonists of this class of receptors have been postulated to be useful analgesics. Toward this end, we developed a cell-based beta-lactamase (BLA) reporter gene assay to identify small molecule antagonists of the human MRG-X1 receptor from a library of compounds. Single-cell clones expressing functional receptors were selected using the BLA reporter gene technology. The EC50 for the MRG agonist peptide, BAM15, appeared to be comparable between the BLA assay and the intracellular Ca2+ transient assays in these cells. Ultra high-throughput screening of approximately 1 million compounds in a 1.8-microl cell-based BLA reporter gene assay was conducted in a 3456-well plate format. Compounds exhibiting potential antagonist profile in the BLA assay were confirmed in the second messenger Ca2+ transient assay. A cell-based receptor trafficking assay was used to further validate the mechanism of action of these compounds. Several classes of compounds, particularly the 2,3-disubstituted azabicyclo-octanes, appear to be relatively potent antagonists at the human MRG-X1 receptors, as confirmed by the receptor trafficking assay and radioligand binding studies. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationship reveals that within this class of compounds, the diphenylmethyl moiety is constant at the 2-substituent, whereas the 3-substituent is directly correlated with the antagonist activity of the compound. PMID:16510108

Kunapuli, Priya; Lee, Seungtaek; Zheng, Wei; Alberts, Melissa; Kornienko, Oleg; Mull, Rebecca; Kreamer, Anthony; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Simon, Melvin I; Strulovici, Berta



Disease resistance signature of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase genes in four plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptor-like kinase (RLK) genes may be a potential reservoir for plant disease resistance (R) genes as defense response has been proved to be a main category of their biological functions. Although genome-wide identification of RLKs has been accomplished in various plant species, little was done to distinguish the genes related to plant disease resistance. To discover more R gene candidates

Ping Tang; Ying Zhang; Xiaoqin Sun; Dacheng Tian; Sihai Yang; Jing Ding



Differential expression of alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor genes in rat brain and pituitary.  

PubMed Central

Multiple thyroid hormone receptor cDNAs have previously been identified in rat and are classified into alpha and beta subtypes. Alternative splicing of the alpha gene gives rise to the functional receptor, rTR alpha 1, and the non-thyroid hormone-binding isotype, rTR alpha 2. Recent evidence suggests the beta gene encodes two functional receptors, rTR beta 1, and the pituitary-specific receptor, rTR beta 2. By using synthetic DNA probes common to rTR beta transcripts and specific for rTR alpha 1 and rTR alpha 2 mRNAs, we mapped the expression of these transcripts in adult rat brain and pituitary by hybridization histochemistry. We also localized mRNAs encoding the putative nuclear receptor REV-ErbA alpha, a portion of which is derived from the opposite strand of the rTR alpha gene. rTR alpha 1 and rTR alpha 2 transcripts were widely distributed in a similar, if not identical, pattern. Highest levels of rTR alpha 1 and rTR alpha 2 transcripts were found in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and granular layer of the cerebellar cortex. REV-ErbA alpha and rTR beta mRNAs were found in more restricted patterns of expression distinct from those of rTR alpha 1 and rTR alpha 2. REV-ErbA alpha mRNA was highest in the neocortex. High levels of rTR beta transcripts in the anterior pituitary and the parvocellular part of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus suggest rTR beta gene products may mediate thyroid hormone feedback regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Our results identify nuclei and structures in the mammalian central nervous system in which regulation of gene expression by specific thyroid hormone receptor subtypes may occur. Images PMID:2780568

Bradley, D J; Young, W S; Weinberger, C



Signatures of selection in the human olfactory receptor OR5I1 gene.  


The human olfactory receptor (OR) repertoire is reduced in comparison to other mammals and to other nonhuman primates. Nonetheless, this olfactory decline opens an opportunity for evolutionary innovation and improvement. In the present study, we focus on an OR gene, OR5I1, which had previously been shown to present an excess of amino acid replacement substitutions between humans and chimpanzees. We analyze the genetic variation in OR5I1 in a large worldwide human panel and find an excess of derived alleles segregating at relatively high frequencies in all populations. Additional evidence for selection includes departures from neutrality in allele frequency spectra tests but no unusually extended haplotype structure. Moreover, molecular structural inference suggests that one of the nonsynonymous polymorphisms defining the presumably adaptive protein form of OR5I1 may alter the functional binding properties of the OR. These results are compatible with positive selection having modeled the pattern of variation found in the OR5I1 gene and with a relatively ancient, mild selective sweep predating the "Out of Africa" expansion of modern humans. PMID:17981927

Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Casals, Ferran; Ramírez-Soriano, Anna; Oliva, Baldo; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena



Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and decreased risk of obesity in women  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) polymorphisms have been associated with several diseases, but whether they are associated with obesity is uncertain. To elucidate the role of genetic variation in the ESR1 gene with body mass index (BMI), 543 Caucasian women (median age 63 years) from the Women’s Health Study were examined. Most were postmenopausal (99.3%). The relationships between rs2234693 and rs9340799 genotypes and their associated haplotypes with obesity (BMI ? 30kg/m2) and overweight (BMI?25kg/m2) were evaluated. Among women with the rs2234693 TT genotype, 18.3% were obese, while only 8.2% of those with the CC genotype only were obese (p=0.04). In a logistic regression model assuming additive inheritance, rs2234693 was associated with decreased odds of obesity (BMI ? 30) (crude odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95%CI= 0.44-0.90, P=0.01). For rs9340799, only an inverse trend was observed for BMI (P=0.08). Haplotypes that included the variant C allele were associated with a reduced risk of obesity (crude OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.44-0.94, P= 0.02 for C-G). The rs2234693 C allele of ESR1 and its associated genotypes and haplotypes were inversely and consistently associated with obesity. One or more copies of the C allele were associated with decreased risk of obesity in white post-menopausal women. PMID:19375130

Goulart, Alessandra C.; Zee, Robert Y.L.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.



The discoidin domain receptor 1 as a novel susceptibility gene for schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that myelin alterations could predispose to schizophrenia. Reduced expression of several myelin genes has been observed in schizophrenia patients. Recently, we identified the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1; located at human chromosome 6p21.3) as a myelin gene in the mouse model and in a human oligodendroglial cell line. In the present study we screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms

B Roig; C Virgos; N Franco; L Martorell; J Valero; J Costas; A Carracedo; A Labad; E Vilella



Cloning and structural organization of the gene encoding the murine nuclear receptor transcription factor, NURR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

NURR1 is an immediate early gene product and a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. Using the NURR1 cDNA as a probe, we isolated the genomic DNA encoding NURR1 from a mouse 129SvEv genomic library. The NURR1 gene is approximately 6.2 kb long and is organized into 7 exons separated by 6 introns. Structural analysis of the

Odila Saucedo-Cardenas; Rachele Kardon; Tracy R. Ediger; John P. Lydon; Orla M. Conneely



Variable regions of Ig heavy chain genes encoding antithyrotropin receptor antibodies of patients with Graves' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have established EBV-transformed human B cell clones producing monoclonal antithyrotropin receptor antibodies from two patients with Graves' disease. They then isolated and characterized Ig H chain genes of 5 B cell clones with thyrotropin-binding inhibitor Ig (TBII) activity and 4 B cell clones with thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) activity. They found that V[sub H] gene families used in the

Euy Kyun Shin; Takashi Akamizu; Fumihiko Matsuda; Hideo Sugawa; Junji Fujikura; Toru Mori; Tasuku Honjo



Hippocampal Expression of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Gene hzf-3\\/nurr1 during Spatial Discrimination Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate-early gene hzf-3, also known as nurr1, is a member of the inducible orphan nuclear receptor family and is one candidate in the search for genes associated with learning and memory processes. Here we report that acquisition of a spatial food search task is accompanied by elevated levels of hzf-3 mRNA in the hippocampus. Adult male Long–Evans rats were

Sandra Peña de Ortiz; Carmen S. Maldonado-Vlaar; Yarimar Carrasquillo



Epigenetic changes in the estrogen receptor ? gene promoter: implications in sociosexual behaviors  

PubMed Central

Estrogen action through estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is involved in the control of sexual and social behaviors in adult mammals. Alteration of ER? gene activity mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications and DNA methylation, in particular brain areas appears to be crucial for determining the extents of these behaviors between the sexes and among individuals within the same sex. This review provides a summary of the epigenetic changes in the ER? gene promoter that correlate with sociosexual behaviors. PMID:25389384

Matsuda, Ken Ichi



Signal transduction through the fibronectin receptor induces collagenase and stromelysin gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effects of ligation of the fibronectin receptor (FnR) on gene expression in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to the FnR that block initial adhesion of fibroblasts to fibronectin induced the expression of genes encoding the secreted extracellular matrix-degrading metallo- proteinases collagenase and stromelysin. That induc- tion was a direct consequence of interaction with the FnR was

Zena Werb; Patrice M. Tremble; Ole Behrendtsen; Eileen Crowley; Caroline H. Damskytll



Regulation of Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Transcription and Protein Expression In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are glucocorticoid-activated transcription factors that modulate expression of a variety of neuronal genes. Appropriate control of GR expression is there- fore critical for maintenance of cellular and organismic ho- meostasis. The present study assessed glucocorticoid regula- tion of the GR at the gene, mRNA, and protein level. Removal of circulating glucocorticoids (adrenalectomy) increased GR mRNA expression in

James P. Herman; Robert Spencer



Localization of the glucagon receptor gene to human chromosome band 17q25  

SciTech Connect

The gene encoding the human glucagon receptor (GCGR) was mapped to chromosome band 17q25 by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. An Alu variable poly(A) DNA polymorphism was identified in this gene. Studies of the CEPH families showed significant evidence of linkage between this DNA polymorphism and markers localized to the distal long arm of chromosome 17. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Menzel, S.; Bell, G.I.; Stoffel, M.; Espinosa, R. III; Fernald, A.A.; Le Beau, M.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))



Polymorphism of 5'-region of the bovine growth hormone receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genes coding for growth hormone (GH) and GH receptor (GHR) are can- didates for quantitative trait markers in farm animals. This work des- cribes a search for nucleotide sequence polymorphisms within the 5¢-region of the bovine GHR gene. Two new single nucleotide polymor- phisms were found: restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at a Fnu4HI\\/TseI site (C\\/T transition at position

A. Maj; C. S. Pareek; M. Klauzinska; L. Zwierzchowski



Genetic characterization of Swedish patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: a heterogeneous pattern of mutations in the LDL receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal codominant disease, caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene. To characterize the distribution of genetic aberrations in Swedish FH-patients fulfilling the clinical criteria of FH, we have investigated 150 unrelated Swedish patients for mutations in the LDL receptor gene and for the most common mutation causing familial ligand defective apo B-100 (FDB). Of

S. Lind; E. Rystedt; M. Eriksson; O. Wiklund; B. Angelin; G. Eggertsen



The Roles of Serum Leptin Concentration and Polymorphism in Leptin Receptor Gene at Codon 109 in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We investigated the relationship between serum leptin concentrations and polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene and breast cancer. Methods: Serum leptin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 47 women with invasive breast cancer compared with 41 age-matched controls without cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotyping of the leptin receptor gene at codon 109

Chien-Liang Liu; Yuan-Ching Chang; Shih-Ping Cheng; Schu-Rern Chern; Tsen-Long Yang; Jie-Jen Lee; Ing-Cherng Guo; Chih-Ping Chen



The kinin B(2) receptor gene structure, product processing and expression in adult and fetal rats: evidence for gene evolution.  


We examined the structure of the rat kinin B2 receptor gene (KB2r) and encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) processing. Differently from the closely related mouse and rabbit genes that have three exons and two introns, the rat gene purportedly consists of four exons and three introns. There are two purported gene products; one of them contains an upstream approximately 180-bp open reading frame region ("exon-X") potentially expressed as a result of alternative processing. To examine the processing of rat KB2r mRNA, cDNA amplicons were generated using primer pairs directed towards 5' or 3' exon or intron flanking regions. Analyses of intron/exon primary cDNA amplicons showed that introns 1 to 3 are removed sequentially and that "exon-X" removal follows that of intron-3. No evidence was found for "exon-X" expression in polyadenylated (mature) mRNA of adult Wistar, Wistar Kyoto, spontaneously hypertensive or Sprague-Dawley rat tissues. Nor was "exon-X" detected in tissues subject to inflammatory stimulus expressing B1 kinin receptor mRNA or in 1- to 21-day-old rat embryos or fetuses. The lack of evidence for the expression of "exon-X" in mature mRNA indicates that the structure of the rat gene is similar to that of the mouse, rabbit and human genes, all consisting of three exons and two introns. The "exon-X" fragment may result from interstitial gene duplication, be a fragment of the ancestral gene, or most likely heterologous transposon insertion of an exon-like fragment into intron-2 of the KB2r gene. PMID:20198577

França, C E; Vicari, C F; Piza, A M; Geroldo, E A; Beçak, M L; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C; Lindsey, C J



Discovery of a novel human G protein-coupled receptor gene (GPR25) located on chromosome 1.  


We amplified human genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotides based on the primary sequence of the genes encoding the somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and the somatostatin-like receptor gene SLC-1. One resultant DNA fragment was used to screen a genomic DNA library resulting in the isolation of a gene, GPR25, encoding an additional member of the G protein-coupled receptor family (GPCR). GPR25 is intronless throughout its open reading frame (ORF) and encodes a protein of 360 amino acids. The receptor encoded by GPR25 shares highest identity to the receptor encoded by GPR15, angiotensin II type 1A receptor, and somatostatin receptor 5. Northern analysis found no transcripts expressed in liver or any of the 12 brain regions analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis localized GPR25 to chromosome 1q32.1. PMID:9020062

Jung, B P; Nguyen, T; Kolakowski, L F; Lynch, K R; Heng, H H; George, S R; O'Dowd, B F



[Triptans and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists].  


While triptans, the 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are effective and generally well-tolerated in many patients up to one-third of migraine patients either may not respond well to triptans, may not tolerate their side effects, or may have contraindications that preclude their use. Recurrence, triptan-related side effects, and cardiovascular constriction effects are demerits for acute migraine treatment. CGRP receptor antagonists, the so-called gepants, were clearely designed and expected to be better than triptans. CGRP is located in sensory nerve endings around cranial blood vessels. CGRP is a strong dilator of cerebral arteries and intravenous infusion of CGRP cause a migraine attack. Olcegepant is the first selective CGRP receptor antagonist of proven efficacy in migraine. Olcegepant could only be administered intravenously and never taken beyond Phase II. Telcagepant is orally available and several completed Phase III trials have revealed positive results. In several comparative studies of telcagepant and triptans, telcegepant did not appeared more effective than zolmitriptan or rizatriptan, although it had fewer triptan-related adverse events and drug-related adverse enents. A small number of patients taking olcegepant showed marked elevation in liver transaminase levels. It was decided to discontinue development of olcegepant. New CGRP receptor antagonists would be expected for acute migraine treatment. PMID:23196486

Negoro, Kiyoshi



Genes for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor a, and Epidermal Growth Factor and Their Expression in Human Gliomas in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, including amplification, rearrangement, and overexpression, have been reported in malignant human gliomas in t'ivo. In vitro glioma cell lines coexpress EGFR and at least one of its ligands, transforming growth factor a, suggesting the existence of an autocrine growth stimulatory loop. \\\\Ve have studied the tumor tissue from 62 human glioma

A. Jonas Ekstrand; C. David James; Webster K. Cavenee; Barbara Seliger; Ralf F. Pettersson; V. Peter Collins


Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets: Identification of a novel splice site mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene and successful treatment with oral calcium therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo study the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in a young girl with severe rickets and clinical features of hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets, including hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, partial alopecia, and elevated serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Nina S. Ma; Peter J. Malloy; Pisit Pitukcheewanont; Daina Dreimane; Mitchell E. Geffner; David Feldman



Dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptor genes in alcohol dependence.  


Hereditary factors play a substantial role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. Alcohol mediates its reinforcing effects by an activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. These findings suggest that the genes encoding the dopamine receptor (DR) subtypes represent high-ranking candidates for susceptibility genes to addictive disorders. Our present population-based association study investigated whether sequence variants of the dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptor genes confer susceptibility to alcohol dependence in 278 alcoholics, and clinically more homogeneous subgroups ascertained through positive family history, early age at onset, delirium, withdrawal seizures and antisocial tendencies. No evidence for an allelic association was found for the PCR-based TaqA RFLP fo the DRD2 gene and a Bsp1286I RFLP of the DRD1 gene. Without correction for multiple testing, we found a significantly increased allele frequency of a common DRD3 gene variant expressing a serine at position 9 in the extracellular N-terminal part of the receptor protein in 55 alcohol-dependent individuals with delirium (chi 2 = 4.1, df = 1, p = 0.042). Further studies have to examine whether this amino acid substitution or a nearby mutation confers genetic susceptibility to at least a subgroup of alcohol-dependent individuals with delirium. PMID:8750359

Sander, T; Harms, H; Podschus, J; Finckh, U; Nickel, B; Rolfs, A; Rommelspacher, H; Schmidt, L G



Regulation of the intronic promoter of rat estrogen receptor alpha gene, responsible for truncated estrogen receptor product-1 expression.  


We have characterized the intronic promoter of the rat estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene, responsible for the lactotrope-specific truncated ER product (TERP)-1 isoform expression. Transcriptional regulation was investigated by transient transfections using 5'-deletion constructs. TERP promoter constructs were highly active in MMQ cells, a pure lactotrope cell line, whereas a low basal activity was detected in alphaT3-1 gonadotrope cells or in COS-7 monkey kidney cells. Serial deletion analysis revealed that 1) a minimal -693-bp region encompassing the TATA box is sufficient to allow lactotrope-specific expression; 2) the promoter contains strong positive cis-acting elements both in the distal and proximal regions, and 3) the region spanning the -1698/-1194 region includes repressor elements. Transient transfection studies, EMSAs, and gel shifts demonstrated that estrogen activates the TERP promoter via an estrogen-responsive element (ERE1) located within the proximal region. Mutation of ERE1 site completely abolishes the estradiol-dependent transcription, indicating that ERE1 site is sufficient to confer estrogen responsiveness to TERP promoter. In addition, ERalpha action was synergized by transfection of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1. EMSAs showed that a single Pit-1 DNA binding element in the vicinity of the TATA box is sufficient to confer response by the TERP promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrated, for the first time, that TERP promoter regulation involves ERE and Pit-1 cis-elements and corresponding trans-acting factors, which could play a role in the physiological changes that occur in TERP-1 transcription in lactotrope cells. PMID:12810539

Schausi, Diane; Tiffoche, Christophe; Thieulant, Marie-Lise



Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P?=?0.029) and 3.26 (P?=?0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P?=?0.001) and 3.72 (P?=?0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko



Cognitive deficits and changes in gene expression of NMDA receptors after prenatal methylmercury exposure.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies showed learning and memory deficit in adult rats that were prenatally exposed to methylmercury chloride (MMC) in an advanced stage of pregnancy (15 days). Under these conditions, the cognitive deficits found at 60 days of age paralleled particularly changes in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor characteristics. In the present study, we report the behavioral effects of a single oral dose of MMC (8 mg/kg) administered earlier at gestational day 8. The use of different learning and memory tests (passive avoidance, object recognition, water maze) showed a general cognitive impairment in the in utero-exposed rats tested at 60 days of age compared with matched controls. Considering the importance of the glutamatergic receptor system and its endogenous ligands in learning and memory process regulation, we surmised that MMC could affect the gene expression of NMDA receptor subtypes. The use of a sensitive RNase protection assay allowed the evaluation of gene expression of two families of NMDA receptors (NR-1 and NR-2 subtypes). The result obtained in 60-day-old rats prenatally exposed to MMC, showed increased mRNA levels of the NR-2B subunit in the hippocampus but not in the frontal cortex. The data suggest that the behavioral abnormalities of MMC-exposed rats might be ascribed to a neurotoxic effect of the metal that alters the gene expression of a specific NMDA receptor subunit in the hippocampus. PMID:12426146

Baraldi, Mario; Zanoli, Paola; Tascedda, Fabio; Blom, Joan M C; Brunello, Nicoletta



Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene coding for the human platelet. cap alpha. â-adrenergic receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene for the human platelet ..cap alpha..â-adrenergic receptor has been cloned with oligonucleotides corresponding to the partial amino acid sequence of the purified receptor. The identity of this gene has been confirmed by the binding of ..cap alpha..â-adrenergic ligands to the cloned receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence is most similar to the recently

B. K. Kobilka; H. Matsui; T. S. Kobilka; T. L. Yang-Feng; U. Francke; M. G. Caron; R. J. Lefkowitz; J. W. Regan



Deletion of the NMDA-NR1 receptor subunit gene in the mouse nucleus accumbens attenuates apomorphine-induced dopamine D1 receptor trafficking and acoustic startle behavior  

PubMed Central

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) contains subpopulations of neurons defined by their receptor content and potential involvement in sensorimotor gating and other behaviors that are dysfunctional in schizophrenia. In Acb neurons, the NMDA NR1 (NR1) subunit is co-expressed not only with the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R), but also with the ?-opioid receptor (?-OR), which mediates certain behaviors that are adversely impacted by schizophrenia. The NMDA-NR1 subunit has been suggested to play a role in the D1R trafficking and behavioral dysfunctions resulting from systemic administration of apomorphine, a D1R and dopamine D2 receptor agonist that impacts prepulse inhibition (PPI) to auditory-evoked startle (AS). Together, this evidence suggests that the NMDA receptor may regulate D1R trafficking in Acb neurons, including those expressing ?-OR, in animals exposed to auditory startle and apomorphine. We tested this hypothesis by combining spatial-temporal gene deletion technology, dual labeling immunocytochemistry, and behavioral analysis. Deleting NR1 in Acb neurons prevented the increase in the dendritic density of plasma membrane D1Rs in single D1R and dual (D1R and ?-OR) labeled dendrites in the Acb in response to apomorphine and AS. Deleting NR1 also attenuated the decrease in AS induced by apomorphine. In the absence of apomorphine and startle, deletion of Acb NR1 diminished social interaction, without affecting novel object recognition, or open field activity. These results suggest that NR1 expression in the Acb is essential for apomorphine-induced D1R surface trafficking and reduction in AS, but also plays an independent role in controling social behaviors that are impaired in multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:23345061

Glass, Michael J.; Robinson, Danielle C.; Waters, Elizabeth; Pickel, Virginia M.



Gene cloning, homology comparison and analysis of the main functional structure domains of beta estrogen receptor in Jining Gray goat.  


To clarify the molecular evolution and characteristic of beta estrogen receptor (ER?) gene in Jining Gray goat in China, the entire ER? gene from Jining Gray goat ovary was amplified, identified and sequenced, and the gene sequences were compared with those of other animals. Functional structural domains and variations in DNA binding domains (DBD) and ligand binding domains (LBD) between Jining Gray goat and Boer goat were analyzed. The results indicate that the ER? gene in Jining Gray goat includes a 1584bp sequence with a complete open-reading-frame (ORF), encoding a 527 amino acid (aa) receptor protein. Compared to other species, the nucleotide homology is 73.9-98.9% and the amino acid homology is 79.5-98.5%. The main antigenic structural domains lie from the 97th aa to the 286th aa and from the 403rd aa to the 527th aa. The hydrophilicity and the surface probability of the structural domains are distributed throughout a range of amino acids. There are two different amino acids in the DBD and three different amino acids in the LBD between Jining Gray and Boer goats, resulting in dramatically different spatial structures for ER? protein. These differences may explain the different biological activities of ER? between the two goat species. This study firstly acquired the whole ER? gene sequence of Jining Gray goat with a complete open reading frame, and analyzed its gene evolutionary relationship and predicted its mainly functional structural domains, which may very help for further understanding the genome evolution and gene diversity of goat ER?. PMID:24929544

Liu, Hai-gang; Li, Hong-mei; Wang, Shu-ying; Huang, Li-bo; Guo, Hui-jun



Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.



Estrogen receptor 1 gene as a tumor suppressor gene in hepatocellular carcinoma detected by triple-combination array analysis.  


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the top five causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent developments in the treatment of HCC remain insufficient to cure unresectable disease or to prevent HCC. Consistent efforts are, therefore, needed to deepen understanding of pathogenesis of the disease. Genome-wide gene expression profile analyses can now detect various candidate genes that are modified by HCC. We have developed a new technique to identify tumor suppressor genes, triple-combination array analysis, which combines gene expression profiles, single nucleotide polymorphism and methylation arrays to identify genes with altered expression. Using HCC tissue samples, triple-combination array analysis was performed to identify a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Subsequently, samples from 48 HCC patients were subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and methylation-specific PCR to further elucidate clinical relevance of the gene. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) was detected as a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Of the 48 clinical samples, 40 (83.3%) showed ESR1 promoter hypermethylation. In 24 (50%) HCC samples, the expression levels of the ESR1 gene was decreased by >90%. The decreased expression was significantly related to high liver damage score, pathological invasion of the intrahepatic portal vein, the size of tumor (>3 cm in diameter) and hepatitis B virus infection. The present study represents another example that triple-combination array is a convenient technique for detecting genes with altered expression in disease. The ESR1 gene was identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in HCC and further validation is warranted. PMID:23695389

Hishida, Mitsuhiro; Nomoto, Shuji; Inokawa, Yoshikuni; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kanda, Mitsuro; Okamura, Yukiyasu; Nishikawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Chie; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Fujii, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Takeda, Shin; Kodera, Yasuhiro



The human insulin receptor substrate-1 gene (IRS1) is localized on 2q36  

SciTech Connect

The chromosomal localization of some of the genes participating in the insulin signaling pathway is known. The insulin and insulin receptor genes have been mapped to chromosomes 11 and 19, respectively. To identify the chromosomal localization of the human IRS1 gene, the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was employed with Genomic Clone B-10. A total of 50 metaphase cells exhibiting either single or double spots of hybridization signals were examined. Among them, 32 showed the specific signals on 2q36. Therefore, the authors assigned the human IRS1 gene to 2q36. The genes for homeobox sequence (HOX4), fibronectin 1, alkaline phosphatase (intestinal), transition protein 1, villin 1, collagen (type IV), Waardenburg syndrome (type 1), alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and glucagon have been localized in the vicinity of the IRS1 gene.

Nishiyama, Masaki; Matsufuji, Senya; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Furusaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Teruji (Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Inazawa, J.; Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan)); Ariyama, Takeshi (Kyoto Prefactural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)); Wands, J.R. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))



Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors are required for normal expression of imprinted genes  

PubMed Central

In addition to signaling through the classical tyrosine kinase pathway, recent studies indicate that insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors (IGF1Rs) can emit signals in the unoccupied state through some yet-to-be-defined noncanonical pathways. Here we show that cells lacking both IRs and IGF1Rs exhibit a major decrease in expression of multiple imprinted genes and microRNAs, which is partially mimicked by inactivation of IR alone in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in vivo in brown fat in mice. This down-regulation is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions related to these loci. Different from a loss of imprinting pattern, loss of IR and IGF1R causes down-regulated expression of both maternally and paternally expressed imprinted genes and microRNAs, including neighboring reciprocally imprinted genes. Thus, the unoccupied IR and IGF1R generate previously unidentified signals that control expression of imprinted genes and miRNAs through transcriptional mechanisms that are distinct from classical imprinting control. PMID:25246545

Boucher, Jeremie; Charalambous, Marika; Zarse, Kim; Mori, Marcelo A.; Kleinridders, Andre; Ristow, Michael; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Kahn, C. Ronald



Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to colorectal cancer risk: a two-step gene-wide case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also indicates a role of ghrelin in cancer development. Methods We conducted a case-control study to examine the association of common genetic variants in the genes coding for ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor (GHSR) with colorectal cancer risk. Pairwise tagging was used to select the 11 polymorphisms included in the study. The selected polymorphisms were genotyped in 680 cases and 593 controls from the Czech Republic. Results We found two SNPs associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer, namely SNPs rs27647 and rs35683. We replicated the two hits, in additional 569 cases and 726 controls from Germany. Conclusion A joint analysis of the two populations indicated that the T allele of rs27647 SNP exerted a protective borderline effect (Ptrend = 0.004). PMID:20920174



The Nuclear Orphan Receptor CAR-Retinoid X Receptor Heterodimer Activates the Phenobarbital-Responsive Enhancer Module of the CYP2B Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

PBREM, the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module of the cytochrome P-450 Cyp2b10 gene, contains two potential nuclear receptor binding sites, NR1 and NR2. Consistent with the finding that anti-retinoid X receptor (RXR) could supershift the NR1-nuclear protein complex, DNA affinity chromatography with NR1 oligonucleotides enriched the nuclear orphan receptor RXR from the hepatic nuclear extracts of phenobar- bital-treated mice. In addition to




An evolutionarily mobile antigen receptor variable region gene: Doubly rearranging NAR-TcR genes in sharks  

PubMed Central

Distinctive Ig and T cell receptor (TcR) chains define the two major lineages of vertebrate lymphocyte yet similarly recognize antigen with a single, membrane-distal variable (V) domain. Here we describe the first antigen receptor chain that employs two V domains, which are generated by separate VDJ gene rearrangement events. These molecules have specialized “supportive” TcR?V domains membrane-proximal to domains with most similarity to IgNAR V. The ancestral NAR V gene encoding this domain is hypothesized to have recombined with the TRD locus in a cartilaginous fish ancestor >200 million years ago and encodes the first V domain shown to be used in both Igs and TcRs. Furthermore, these data support the view that ?/? TcRs have for long used structural conformations recognizing free antigen. PMID:16549799

Criscitiello, Michael F.; Saltis, Mark; Flajnik, Martin F.



Familial glucocorticoid resistance caused by a splice site deletion in the human glucocorticoid receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical syndrome of generalized, compensated glucocorticoid resistance is characterized by increased cortisol secretion without clinical evidence of hyper- or hypocortisolism, and manifestations of androgen and\\/or mineralocorticoid excess. This condition results from partial failure of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to modulate transcription of its target genes. The authors studied the molecular mechanisms of this syndrome in a Dutch kindred, whose

M. Karl; S. W. J. Lamberts; S. D. Detera-Wadleigh; I. J. Encio; C. A. Stratakis; D. M. Hurley; D. Accili; G. P. Chrousos



Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Isoforms in Corticotropin-Secreting Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular basis of Cushing's disease is not known. One of the most characteristic features of such tumors is their resistance to corticosteroid feedback at the pituitary level. We have hypoth- esized that abnormalities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene might play a role in the development of Cushing's disease via an increase in the relative production of the nonligand-binding



Avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: evidence for a well-developed sense of smell in birds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among vertebrates, the sense of smell is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium. Comparative genomic studies suggest that the olfactory acuity of mammalian species correlates positively with both the total number and the proportion of functional OR genes encoded in their genomes. In contrast to mammals, avian olfaction is poorly understood, with birds

Silke S. Steiger; Andrew E. Fidler; Mihai Valcu; Bart Kempenaers



Studies of the potential role of the dopamine D1 receptor gene in addictive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities in the dopaminergic reward pathways have frequently been implicated in substance abuse and addictive behaviors. Recent studies by Self and coworkers have suggested an important interaction between the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in cocaine abuse. To test the hypothesis that the DRD1 gene might play a role in addictive behaviors we examined the alleles of the Dde I

D E Comings; R Gade; S Wu; C Chiu; G Dietz; D Muhleman; G Saucier; L Ferry; R J Rosenthal; H R Lesieur; L J Rugle; P MacMurray



Three Retinoid X Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Plaque Psoriasis and Psoriasis Guttata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Polymorphisms in retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are very interesting from the point of view of a possible association of their variability with psoriasis. Methods: A total of 293 patients with plaque psoriasis, 82 patients with psoriasis guttata and 202 control subjects were enrolled in this study focused on 3 polymorphisms in RXRA and RXRB gene associations. Results: A marginally

Monika Pávková Goldbergová



Mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene in Lung Cancer: Biological and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it has been reported that mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene occur in a subset of patients with lung cancer showing a dramatic response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. To gain further insights in the role of EGFR in lung carcinogenesis, we sequenced exons 18-21 of the tyrosine kinase domain using

Takayuki Kosaka; Yasushi Yatabe; Hideki Endoh; Hiroyuki Kuwano; Takashi Takahashi; Tetsuya Mitsudomi


Clinical and Biological Features Associated With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutations in Lung Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancers are associated with increased sensitivity of these can- cers to drugs that inhibit EGFR kinase activity. However, the role of such mutations in the pathogenesis of lung cancers is unclear. Methods: We sequenced exons 18 - 21 of the EGFR TK

Hisayuki Shigematsu; Li Lin; Takao Takahashi; Masaharu Nomura; Makoto Suzuki; Ignacio I. Wistuba; Kwun M. Fong; Huei Lee; Shinichi Toyooka; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Takehiko Fujisawa; Ziding Feng; Jack A. Roth; Joachim Herz; John D. Minna; Adi F. Gazdar


Variation in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? gene in elite combat athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR?) is a main regulator of energy metabolism, as it regulates the expression of genes encoding several key muscle enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Importantly for power sports, it may affect pathways of glucose metabolism, which can be critical in power-based sports. The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of the PPAR?

Pawel Cieszczyk; Marek Sawczuk; Agnieszka Maciejewska; Krzysztof Ficek; Jerzy Eider



Largest Vertebrate Vomeronasal Type 1 Receptor Gene Repertoire in the Semiaquatic Platypus  

E-print Network

LETTER Largest Vertebrate Vomeronasal Type 1 Receptor Gene Repertoire in the Semiaquatic Platypus olfaction in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, we here report the surprising finding that the platypus a remarkable expansion of the V1R repertoire and a moderate expansion of the V2R repertoire in platypus since

Zhang, Jianzhi


Global analysis of estrogen receptor beta binding to breast cancer cell genome reveals an extensive interplay with estrogen receptor alpha for target gene regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptors alpha (ER?) and beta (ER?) are transcription factors (TFs) that mediate estrogen signaling and define the hormone-responsive phenotype of breast cancer (BC). The two receptors can be found co-expressed and play specific, often opposite, roles, with ER? being able to modulate the effects of ER? on gene transcription and cell proliferation. ER? is frequently lost in BC,

Oli MV Grober; Margherita Mutarelli; Giorgio Giurato; Maria Ravo; Luigi Cicatiello; Maria Rosaria De Filippo; Lorenzo Ferraro; Giovanni Nassa; Maria Francesca Papa; Ornella Paris; Roberta Tarallo; Shujun Luo; Gary P Schroth; Vladimir Benes; Alessandro Weisz



Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine.  


The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Dongelmans, Marie-Louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frédéric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, François; Barik, Jacques



Association Pattern of Interleukin1 Receptor-Associated Kinase4 Gene Polymorphisms with Allergic Rhinitis in a Han Chinese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInterleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) encodes a kinase that is essential for NF-kB activation in Toll-like receptor and T-cell receptor signaling pathways, indicating a possible crosstalk between innate and acquired immunities. We attempted to determine whether the polymorphisms in the Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) gene are associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in the Han Chinese population.MethodsA population of 379 patients with

Yuan Zhang; Xiaoping Lin; Martin Desrosiers; Wei Zhang; Na Meng; Liping Zhao; Demin Han; Luo Zhang; Noam A. Cohen



Gene Expression of Endothelin1 and ETA and ETB Receptors in Human Cirrhosis: Relationship with Hepatic Hemodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experimental studies have suggested that the paracrine endothelin system may participate in the regulation of hepatic hemodynamics in cirrhosis. The present study assesses the relationship between increased portal pressure and preproET-1, ETA receptor and ETB receptor gene expression in human cirrhosis. PreproET-1, ETA receptor and ETB receptor mRNA abundance was estimated by quantitative PCR in human hepatic tissue from

Albert Leivas; Wladimiro Jiménez; Jordi Bruix; Loreto Boix; Jaime Bosch; Vicente Arroyo; Francisca Rivera; Joan Rodés



Adenovirus-Mediated Transfer of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Acutely Accelerates Cholesterol Clearance in Normal Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to transiently elicit production of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in mice. A recombinant adenovirus carrying the human LDL receptor cDNA restored LDL receptor function in receptor-deficient cultured cells. Intravenous injection of recombinant virus acutely lowered plasma cholesterol levels and increased the rate of 125I-labeled LDL clearance from the circulation in

Joachim Herz; Robert D. Gerard



Age at first sexual intercourse, genes, and social context: Evidence from twins and the dopamine D4 receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out two distinct types of genetic analysis with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.\\u000a The first was a non-DNA twin analysis using monozygotic (identical) and same-sex dizygotic (fraternal) twins. The second analysis\\u000a investigates the association between age at first sexual intercourse and the 48-bp repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor\\u000a D4 gene (DRD4). The twin

Guang Guo; Yuying Tong



Global analysis of estrogen receptor beta binding to breast cancer cell genome reveals an extensive interplay with estrogen receptor alpha for target gene regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Estrogen receptors alpha (ER?) and beta (ER?) are transcription factors (TFs) that mediate estrogen signaling and define the hormone-responsive phenotype of breast cancer (BC). The two receptors can be found co-expressed and play specific, often opposite, roles, with ER? being able to modulate the effects of ER? on gene transcription and cell proliferation. ER? is frequently lost in BC, where its presence generally correlates with a better prognosis of the disease. The identification of the genomic targets of ER? in hormone-responsive BC cells is thus a critical step to elucidate the roles of this receptor in estrogen signaling and tumor cell biology. Results Expression of full-length ER? in hormone-responsive, ER?-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in a marked reduction in cell proliferation in response to estrogen and marked effects on the cell transcriptome. By ChIP-Seq we identified 9702 ER? and 6024 ER? binding sites in estrogen-stimulated cells, comprising sites occupied by either ER?, ER? or both ER subtypes. A search for TF binding matrices revealed that the majority of the binding sites identified comprise one or more Estrogen Response Element and the remaining show binding matrixes for other TFs known to mediate ER interaction with chromatin by tethering, including AP2, E2F and SP1. Of 921 genes differentially regulated by estrogen in ER?+ vs ER?- cells, 424 showed one or more ER? site within 10 kb. These putative primary ER? target genes control cell proliferation, death, differentiation, motility and adhesion, signal transduction and transcription, key cellular processes that might explain the biological and clinical phenotype of tumors expressing this ER subtype. ER? binding in close proximity of several miRNA genes and in the mitochondrial genome, suggests the possible involvement of this receptor in small non-coding RNA biogenesis and mitochondrial genome functions. Conclusions Results indicate that the vast majority of the genomic targets of ER? can bind also ER?, suggesting that the overall action of ER? on the genome of hormone-responsive BC cells depends mainly on the relative concentration of both ERs in the cell. PMID:21235772



Direct Recruitment of Insulin Receptor and ERK Signaling Cascade to Insulin-Inducible Gene Loci  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Insulin receptor (IR) translocates to the nucleus, but its recruitment to gene loci has not been demonstrated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IR and its downstream mitogenic transducers are corecruited to two prototypic insulin-inducible genes: early growth response 1 (egr-1), involved in mitogenic response, and glucokinase (Gck), encoding a key metabolic enzyme. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used RNA and chromatin from insulin-treated rat hepatic tumor cell line expressing human insulin receptor (HTC-IR) and livers from lean and insulin-resistant ob/ob glucose-fed mice in quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies to determine gene expression levels and associated recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), insulin receptor, and cognate signaling proteins to gene loci, respectively. RESULTS Insulin-induced egr-1 mRNA in HTC-IR cells was associated with corecruitment of IR signaling cascade (IR, SOS, Grb2, B-Raf, MEK, and ERK) to this gene. Recruitment profiles of phosphorylated IR, B-Raf, MEK, and Erk along egr-1 transcribed region were similar to those of elongating Pol II. Glucose-feeding increased Gck mRNA expression in livers of lean but not ob/ob mice. In lean mice, there was glucose feeding-induced recruitment of IR and its transducers to Gck gene synchronized with elongating Pol II. In sharp contrast, in glucose-fed ob/ob mice, the Gck recruitment patterns of active MEK/Erk, IR, and Pol II were asynchronous. CONCLUSIONS IR and its signal transducers recruited to genes coupled to elongating Pol II may play a role in maintaining productive mRNA synthesis of target genes. These studies suggest a possibility that impaired Pol II processivity along genes bearing aberrant levels of IR/signal transducers is a previously unrecognized facet of insulin resistance. PMID:20929976

Nelson, Joel D.; LeBoeuf, Renee C.; Bomsztyk, Karol



Toll-Like Receptor Gene Variants Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis among HIV-1 Infected Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age, especially among women with HIV-1 infection. Several bacterial products including lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and peptidoglycans (PGN) are stimulatory ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and recent evidence indicates the important role of variation in TLR genes for permitting overgrowth of gram negative and BV-type flora. We assessed whether genetic polymorphisms in five TLR genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9) could be determinants of differential host immune responses to BV in 159 HIV-1-positive African American adolescents enrolled in the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) study. BV was assessed biannually and diagnosed either by a Nugent Score of at least 7 of 10, or using the Amsel Criteria. Cox-proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for concurrent Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections, douching, and absolute CD4 cell count, were used to identify host genetic factors associated with BV. Two SNPs were associated with BV as diagnosed by the Nugent Score and the combined criteria: a minor allele G of rs4986790 (frequency=0.07), which encodes a His to Tyr substitution in TLR4 (HR=1.47, 95% CI 1.15–1.87) and rs187084 (frequency=0.24) on TLR9. The minor allele of rs1898830 (frequency=0.13) was associated with an increased hazard of BV defined by the Amsel criteria (HR=1.86, 95%CI 1.17–2.95). Further studies are warranted to confirm the associations of TLR gene variants and also to understand the underlying pathways and immunogenetic correlates in the context of HIV-1 infection. PMID:23021866

Royse, Kathryn E; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; McGwin, Gerald; Wilson, Craig M; Tang, Jianming; Shrestha, Sadeep



Association between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and severe preeclampsia.  


Associations have been reported between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to investigate whether two polymorphisms of the ESR1 gene (ESR1 c.454 -397T>C: PvuII restriction site and c.454 -351A>G: XbaI restriction site) are associated with preeclampsia. In a case-control study, we analyzed blood samples from 119 severely preeclamptic patients and 103 normotensive, healthy pregnant women using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. All of the women were Caucasian. There was no association between severe preeclampsia and the PvuII and XbaI ESR1 gene polymorphisms separately. However, with the simultaneous carriage of both polymorphisms, the TT/AA genotype combination was significantly more frequent in severely preeclamptic patients than in healthy control subjects (24.4% vs. 9.7%, p=0.003), whereas the TT/AG combination was significantly less frequent in the severely preeclamptic group than in the control group (5.0% vs. 18.4%, p=0.002). According to the haplotype estimation, the homozygous T-A haplotype carriers had an increased risk of severe preeclampsia independent of maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, primiparity and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-11.53). The GG genotype of the XbaI polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of fetal growth restriction in patients with severe preeclampsia (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07-0.73). In conclusion, the homozygous T-A haplotype carriers of ESR1 PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms showed an increased risk of severe preeclampsia. In addition, the GG genotype of the XbaI polymorphism decreased the risk of fetal growth restriction in severely preeclamptic patients. PMID:17510501

Molvarec, Attila; Vér, Agota; Fekete, Andrea; Rosta, Klára; Derzbach, László; Derzsy, Zoltán; Karádi, István; Rigó, János



Concise review: androgen receptor differential roles in stem/progenitor cells including prostate, embryonic, stromal, and hematopoietic lineages.  


Stem/progenitor (S/P) cells are special types of cells that have the ability to generate tissues throughout their entire lifetime and play key roles in the developmental process. Androgen and the androgen receptor (AR) signals are the critical determinants in male gender development, suggesting that androgen and AR signals might modulate the behavior of S/P cells. In this review, we summarize the AR effects on the behavior of S/P cells, including self-renewal, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in normal S/P cells, as well as proliferation, invasion, and self-renewal in prostate cancer S/P cells. AR plays a protective role in the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in embryonic stem cells. AR inhibits the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and prostate S/P cells, but promotes their differentiation except for adipogenesis. However, AR promotes the proliferation of hematopoietic S/P cells and stimulates hematopoietic lineage differentiation. In prostate cancer S/P cells, AR suppresses their self-renewal, metastasis, and invasion. Together, AR differentially influences the characteristics of normal S/P cells and prostate cancer S/P cells, and targeting AR might improve S/P cell transplantation therapy, especially in embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells. PMID:24740898

Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Luo, Jie; Lee, Soo Ok; Chang, Chawnshang



Vasopressin up-regulates the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes via two distinct EGF receptor transactivation pathways  

PubMed Central

Activation of V1a receptor triggers the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes (IEGs), including c-Fos and Egr-1. Here we found that pre-treatment of rat vascular smooth muscle A-10 cell line with the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 or the over-expression of an EGFR dominant negative mutant (HEBCD533) blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of IEGs, suggesting that activation of these early genes mediated by V1a receptor is via transactivation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, the inhibition of the metalloproteinases, which catalyzed the shedding of the EGF receptor agonist HB-EGF, selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression c-Fos. On the other hand, the inhibition of c-Src selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of Egr-1. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression of c-Fos, the expression of Egr-1 was mediated via the Ras/MEK/MAPK-dependent signalling pathway. Vasopressin-triggered expression of both genes required the release of intracellular calcium, activation of PKC and ?-arrestin 2. These findings demonstrated that vasopressin up-regulated the expression of c-Fos and Erg-1 via transactivation of two distinct EGF receptor-dependent signalling pathways. PMID:18571897

Fuentes, Lida Q.; Reyes, Carlos E.; Sarmiento, Jose M.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; Navarro, Javier; Gonzalez, Carlos B.



Activin Regulates Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression in the Mouse Ovary*  

E-print Network

demonstrated that estrogen suppresses activin gene expression, suggesting a feedback rela- tionship between activin signaling through Smad2, and small inter- fering RNAs targeting Smad2 or Smad3 suppressed ER pro- ulating gonadotropin release, activin and inhibin have been shown to play an important role in regulating

Mayo, Kelly E.


Cancer Cell AndrogenReceptorGeneExpressioninProstateCancer  

E-print Network

-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and H3K4me1,2 demethylation. AR similarly represses expression of multiple genes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Significantly, early studies showed that AR was highly expressed have confirmed that AR mRNA is highly expressed and consistently increased in CRPC compared to levels

Liu, Xiaole Shirley


Overexpression of the IGF-II/M6P Receptor in Mouse Fibroblast Cell Lines Differentially Alters Expression Profiles of Genes Involved in Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of senile dementia affecting elderly people. The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leading to the generation of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide contributes to neurodegeneration and development of AD pathology. The endocytic trafficking pathway, which comprises of the endosomes and lysosomes, acts as an important site for A? generation, and endocytic dysfunction has been linked to increased A? production and loss of neurons in AD brains. Since insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptor plays a critical role in the transport of lysosomal enzymes from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes, it is likely that the receptor may have a role in regulating A? metabolism in AD pathology. However, very little is known on how altered levels of the IGF-II receptor can influence the expression/function of various molecules involved in AD pathology. To address this issue, we evaluated the expression profiles of 87 selected genes related to AD pathology in mouse fibroblast MS cells that are deficient in murine IGF-II receptor and corresponding MS9II cells overexpressing ?500 times the human IGF-II receptors. Our results reveal that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels alters the expression profiles of a number of genes including APP as well as enzymes regulating A? production, degradation and clearance mechanisms. Additionally, it influences the expression of various lysosomal enzymes and protein kinases that are involved in A? toxicity. IGF-II receptor overexpression also alters expression of several genes involved in intracellular signalling as well as cholesterol metabolism, which play a critical role in AD pathology. The altered gene profiles observed in this study closely match with the corresponding protein levels, with a few exceptions. These results, taken together, suggest that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels can influence the expression profiles of transcripts as well as proteins that are involved in AD pathogenesis. PMID:24846272

Wang, Yanlin; Thinakaran, Gopal; Kar, Satyabrata



Dominant mutations in the cation channel gene transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 cause an unusual spectrum of neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathies form a heterogeneous group of disorders for which over 40 causal genes have been identified to date. Recently, dominant mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene were found to be associated with three distinct neuromuscular phenotypes: hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 2C, scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy and congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 encodes a cation channel previously implicated in several types of dominantly inherited bone dysplasia syndromes. We performed DNA sequencing of the coding regions of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in a cohort of 145 patients with various types of hereditary neuropathy and identified five different heterozygous missense mutations in eight unrelated families. One mutation arose de novo in an isolated patient, and the remainder segregated in families. Two of the mutations were recurrent in unrelated families. Four mutations in transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 targeted conserved arginine residues in the ankyrin repeat domain, which is believed to be important in protein–protein interactions. Striking phenotypic variability between and within families was observed. The majority of patients displayed a predominantly, or pure, motor neuropathy with axonal characteristics observed on electrophysiological testing. The age of onset varied widely, ranging from congenital to late adulthood onset. Various combinations of additional features were present in most patients including vocal fold paralysis, scapular weakness, contractures and hearing loss. We identified six asymptomatic mutation carriers, indicating reduced penetrance of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 defects. This finding is relatively unusual in the context of hereditary neuropathies and has important implications for diagnostic testing and genetic counselling. PMID:20460441

Zimo?, Magdalena; Baets, Jonathan; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Berciano, José; Garcia, Antonio; Lopez-Laso, Eduardo; Merlini, Luciano; Hilton-Jones, David; McEntagart, Meriel; Crosby, Andrew H.; Barisic, Nina; Boltshauser, Eugen; Shaw, Christopher E.; Landouré, Guida; Ludlow, Christy L.; Gaudet, Rachelle; Houlden, Henry; Reilly, Mary M.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Timmerman, Vincent; Jordanova, Albena



Amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and oncogenes in human gastric carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  DNAs from 37 human gastric carcinomas and seven lymph node metastases were analyzed for alterations of the epidermal growth\\u000a factor receptor (EGFR) gene and oncogenes by the Southern blot hybridization method. The probes used were EGFR gene, c-Ha-ras, v-Ki-ras, N-ras, c-myc, v-myb, v-fos, c-erbB-2, v-erbA, v-abl and v-fes. Amplification of the EGFR gene was detected in only one poorly differentiated

Kazuhiro Yoshida; Toshitaka Tsuda; Takashi Matsumura; Tetsuhiro Tsujino; Takao Hattori; Hisao Ito; Eiichi Tahara



The ERBB3 receptor in cancer and cancer gene therapy  

PubMed Central

ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is unique in that its tyrosine kinase domain is functionally defective. It is activated by neuregulins, by other ERBB and nonERBB receptors as well as by other kinases, and by novel mechanisms. Downstream it interacts prominently with the phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT survival/mitogenic pathway, but also with GRB, SHC, SRC, ABL, rasGAP, SYK and the transcription regulator EBP1. There are likely important but poorly understood roles for nuclear localization and for secreted isoforms. Studies of ERBB3 expression in primary cancers and of its mechanistic contributions in cultured cells have implicated it, with varying degrees of certainty, with causation or sustenance of cancers of the breast, ovary, prostate, certain brain cells, retina, melanocytes, colon, pancreas, stomach, oral cavity and lung. Recent results link high ERBB3 activity with escape from therapy targeting other ERBBs in lung and breast cancers. Thus a wide and centrally important role for ERBB3 in cancer is becoming increasingly apparent. Several approaches for targeting ERBB3 in cancers have been tested or proposed. Small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to ERBB3 or AKT is showing promise as a therapeutic approach to treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:18404164

Sithanandam, G; Anderson, LM



Assessing hormone receptor activities of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolites in reporter gene assays.  


Pyrethroid insecticides, the most commonly used insecticides worldwide, are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. But their interactions with hormone receptors are still unclear. The present study intended to evaluate and compare the hormone receptor (estrogen receptor [ER], androgen receptor [AR], and thyroid hormone receptor [TR]) activities of nine pyrethroids (cycloprothrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, fenvalerate, permethrin, and tetramethrin) and their metabolites (3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropne carboxylic acid [DCCA] and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid [3-PBA]) using receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene assays. Of the 11 compounds tested, four showed very weak ER agonistic activities and six displayed antiestrogenic effects, among which cyhalothrin and DCCA possessed the most potent estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity respectively. Antagonistic effects to AR were found in 7 compounds, with cyfluthrin and deltamethrin exhibiting stronger AR antagonistic capacity. In the TR assay, all of tested chemicals except DCCA showed antagonistic effects. In this study, we provided evidence that a variety of pyrethroids and their metabolites might disrupt the function of multiple nuclear hormone receptors and thus have the potentials to affect the endocrine and the reproductive systems in humans. PMID:20410157

Du, Guizhen; Shen, Ouxi; Sun, Hong; Fei, Juan; Lu, Chuncheng; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Shoulin; Wang, Xinru



Distinct, genome-wide, gene-specific selectivity patterns of four glucocorticoid receptor coregulators  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which then positively or negatively regulates transcription of many genes that govern multiple important physiological pathways such as inflammation and metabolism of glucose, fat and bone. The remodeling of chromatin and regulated assembly or disassembly of active transcription complexes by GR and other DNA-binding transcription factors is mediated and modulated by several hundred transcriptional coregulator proteins. Previous studies focusing on single coregulators demonstrated that each coregulator is required for regulation of only a subset of all the genes regulated by a steroid hormone. We hypothesized that the gene-specific patterns of coregulators may correspond to specific physiological pathways such that different coregulators modulate the pathway-specificity of hormone action, thereby providing a mechanism for fine tuning of the hormone response. We tested this by direct comparison of multiple coregulators, using siRNA to deplete the products of four steroid hormone receptor coregulator genes (CCAR1, CCAR2, CALCOCO1 and ZNF282). Global analysis of glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression after siRNA mediated depletion of coregulators confirmed that each coregulator acted in a selective and gene-specific manner and demonstrated both positive and negative effects on glucocorticoid-regulated expression of different genes. We identified several classes of hormone-regulated genes based on the effects of coregulator depletion. Each coregulator supported hormonal regulation of some genes and opposed hormonal regulation of other genes (coregulator-modulated genes), blocked hormonal regulation of a second class of genes (coregulator-blocked genes), and had no effect on hormonal regulation of a third gene class (coregulator-independent genes). In spite of previously demonstrated physical and functional interactions among these four coregulators, the majority of the several hundred modulated and blocked genes for each of the four coregulators tested were unique to that coregulator. Finally, pathway analysis on coregulator-modulated genes supported the hypothesis that individual coregulators may regulate only a subset of the many physiological pathways controlled by glucocorticoids. We conclude that gene-specific actions of coregulators correspond to specific physiological pathways, suggesting that coregulators provide a potential mechanism for physiological fine tuning in vivo and may thus represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Wu, Dai-Ying; Ou, Chen-Yin; Chodankar, Rajas; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Stallcup, Michael R.



Full-Length Sequence of Mouse Acupuncture-Induced 1-L (Aig1l) Gene Including Its Transcriptional Start Site  

PubMed Central

We have been investigating the molecular efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA), which is one type of acupuncture therapy. In our previous molecular biological study of acupuncture, we found an EA-induced gene, named acupuncture-induced 1-L (Aig1l), in mouse skeletal muscle. The aims of this study consisted of identification of the full-length cDNA sequence of Aig1l including the transcriptional start site, determination of the tissue distribution of Aig1l and analysis of the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. We determined the complete cDNA sequence including the transcriptional start site via cDNA cloning with the cap site hunting method. We then analyzed the tissue distribution of Aig1l by means of northern blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to examine the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. Our results showed that the complete cDNA sequence of Aig1l was 6073?bp long, and the putative protein consisted of 962 amino acids. All seven tissues that we analyzed expressed the Aig1l gene. In skeletal muscle, EA induced expression of the Aig1l gene, with high expression observed after 3 hours of EA. Our findings thus suggest that the Aig1l gene may play a key role in the molecular mechanisms of EA efficacy. PMID:19696195

Ohta, Mika; Sugano, Aki; Goto, Shuji; Yusoff, Surini; Hirota, Yushi; Funakoshi, Kotaro; Miura, Kenji; Maeda, Eiichi; Takaoka, Nobuo; Sato, Nobuko; Ishizuka, Hiroshi; Arizono, Naoki; Nishio, Hisahide; Takaoka, Yutaka



NMDA receptor gene variations as modifiers in Huntington disease: a replication study.  


Several candidate modifier genes which, in addition to the pathogenic CAG repeat expansion, influence the age at onset (AO) in Huntington disease (HD) have already been described. The aim of this study was to replicate association of variations in the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes GRIN2A and GRIN2B in the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). The analyses did replicate the association reported between the GRIN2A rs2650427 variation and AO in the entire cohort. Yet, when subjects were stratified by AO subtypes, we found nominally significant evidence for an association of the GRIN2A rs1969060 variation and the GRIN2B rs1806201 variation. These findings further implicate the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes as loci containing variation associated with AO in HD. PMID:21989477

Saft, Carsten; Epplen, Jörg T; Wieczorek, Stefan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Roos, Raymund A C; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Dose, Matthias; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Craufurd, David; Arning, Larissa



The evolution of the Gp-Rbp-1 gene in Globodera pallida includes multiple selective replacements  

PubMed Central

The Globodera pallida SPRYSEC Gp-Rbp-1 gene encodes a secreted protein which induces effector-triggered immunity (ETI) mediated by the Solanum tuberosum disease resistance gene Gpa2. Nonetheless, it is not known how the Andes orogeny, the richness in Solanum species found along the Cordillera or the introduction of the nematode into Europe have affected the diversity of Gp-Rbp-1 and its recognition by Gpa2. We generated a dataset of 157 highly polymorphic Gp-Rbp-1 sequences and identified three Gp-Rbp-1 evolutionary pathways: the ‘Northern Peru’, ‘Peru clade I/European’ and ‘Chilean’ paths. These may have been shaped by passive dispersion of the nematode and by climatic variations that have influenced the nature and diversity of wild host species. We also confirmed that, by an analysis of the selection pressures acting on Gp-Rbp-1, this gene has evolved under positive/diversifying selection, but differently among the three evolutionary pathways described. Using this extended sequence dataset, we were able to detect eight sites under positive selection. Six sites appear to be of particular interest because of their predicted localization to the extended loops of the B30.2 domain and/or support by several computational methods. The P/S 187 position was previously identified for its effect on the interaction with GPA2. The functional importance of the other five amino acid polymorphisms observed was investigated using Agrobacterium transient transformation assays. None of these new residues, however, appears to be directly involved in Gpa2-mediated plant defence mechanisms. Thus, the P/S polymorphism observed at position 187 remains the sole variation sufficient to explain the recognition of Gp-Rbp-1 by Gpa2. PMID:22192092

Carpentier, Jean; Esquibet, Magali; Fouville, Didier; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Kerlan, Marie-Claire; Grenier, Eric



Gene Expression Regulation by Agonist-Independent Constitutive Signaling of Melanocortin-1 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Background Melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), a key signaling receptor for melanogenesis, has been reported to mediate migration of B16F10 melanoma cells. Interestingly, this activity appears to be a part of the constitutive signaling of Mc1r. Methods We carried out small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of Mc1r on murine melanoma B16F10 cells and performed microarray analysis to characterize changes in the gene expression profile. Results We isolated 22 and four genes whose expression decreased and increased, respectively, by 2.5-fold or higher as the result of Mc1r knock-down. Several down-regulated genes have been proposed to be involved in cell migration. Among these genes are several members of the chemokine gene family. Conclusion We provide a gene set for further functional analyses of Mc1r. The Mc1r target genes we present may be particularly relevant for understanding the ligand-independent activity of Mc1r. Further examination of the mode of action may lead to novel strategies in regulating the migration and metastasis of melanoma cells. PMID:25031891

Seong, Ikjoo



EIN4 and ERS2 are members of the putative ethylene receptor gene family in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene ETR1 and two related genes, ERS1 and ETR2, were identified previously. These three genes encode proteins homologous to the two-component regulators that are widely used for environment sensing in bacteria. Mutations in these genes confer ethylene insensitivity to wild-type plants. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis genes, EIN4 and ERS2, by cross-hybridizing them with ETR2. Sequence analysis showed that they are more closely related to ETR2 than they are to ETR1 or ERS1. EIN4 previously was isolated as a dominant ethylene-insensitive mutant. ERS2 also conferred dominant ethylene insensitivity when certain mutations were introduced into it. Double mutant analysis indicated that ERS2, similar to ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, and EIN4, acts upstream of CTR1. Therefore, EIN4 and ERS2, along with ETR1, ETR2, and ERS1, are members of the ethylene receptor-related gene family of Arabidopsis. RNA expression patterns of members of this gene family suggest that they might have distinct as well as redundant functions in ethylene perception. PMID:9707532

Hua, J; Sakai, H; Nourizadeh, S; Chen, Q G; Bleecker, A B; Ecker, J R; Meyerowitz, E M



Identification of an estrogen receptor gene in the natural freshwater snail Bithynia tentaculata.  


Mollusks have received increasing interest in ecotoxicological studies but so far the available scientific analyses of how their genes are affected by anthropogenic pollutants are scarce. The focus of this study is to identify an estrogen receptor (er) gene in the common prosobranch snail Bithynia tentaculata and to test a hypothesis that 17?-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) will modulate er gene expression after short-term exposure. We set up exposure experiments with a total of 144 snails, which were collected from a natural population in southern Sweden. Snails were exposed to either 10ng/L or 100ng/L EE2 during 24h and/or 72h. From the isolated B. tentaculata RNA we successfully identified and characterized a novel er gene and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Bithynia er gene is an ortholog to the human ER? (ESR1, NR3A1). We found a significant interaction between EE2-dose and exposure duration on the er's gene expression (Two-way ANOVA; p=0.04). We also found a significant difference in the gene expression of the er when comparing the control and 100ng/L treatment groups after 72h in female snails (One-way ANOVA; p=0.047). The results from this study should be useful for future field-related studies of estrogen receptors in natural populations of mollusks. PMID:24583164

Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Persson, Anders; Hansson, Maria C



Variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene ( MC1R) and P gene would be effective for estimating the population origin of an individual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population origin of an individual is often required to be determined from specimens left at a crime scene for estimating a suspect and individual identity. The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) and P gene are associated with human pigmentation. Although there have been several reports that these genes are highly polymorphic in human populations, it is unclear if the

Sosuke Masui; Masato Nakatome; Ryoji Matoba



Research Resource: Global Identification of Estrogen Receptor ? Target Genes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor ? (ER?), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 are known as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). TNBCs are associated with an overall poor prognosis because they lack expression of therapeutic targets like ER? and are biologically more aggressive. A second estrogen receptor, ER?, has been found to be expressed in 50% to 90% of ER?-negative breast cancers, and ER? expression in TNBCs has been shown to correlate with improved disease-free survival and good prognosis. To elucidate the role of ER? in regulating gene expression and cell proliferation in TNBC cells, the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-468 was engineered with inducible expression of full-length ER?. In culture, ER? expression inhibited cell growth by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest, which was further enhanced by 17?-estradiol treatment. In xenografts, ER? expression also inhibited tumor formation and growth, and 17?-estradiol treatment resulted in rapid tumor regression. Furthermore, genomic RNA sequencing identified both ligand-dependent and -independent ER? target genes, some of which were also regulated by ER? in other TNBC cell lines and correlated with ER? expression in a cohort of TNBCs from the Cancer Genome Atlas Network. ER? target genes were enriched in genes that regulate cell death and survival, cell movement, cell development, and growth and proliferation, as well as genes involved in the Wnt/?-catenin and the G1/S cell cycle phase checkpoint pathways. In addition to confirming the anti-proliferative effects of ER? in TNBC cells, these data provide a comprehensive resource of ER? target genes and suggest that ER? may be targeted with ligands that can stimulate its growth inhibitory effects. PMID:23979844

Shanle, Erin K.; Zhao, Zibo; Hawse, John; Wisinski, Kari; Keles, Sunduz; Yuan, Ming



The luteinizing hormone receptor: Insights into structure–function relationships and hormone-receptor-mediated changes in gene expression in ovarian cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), one of the three glycoprotein hormone receptors, is necessary for critical reproductive processes, including gonadal steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and ovulation, and male sex differentiation. Moreover, it has been postulated to contribute to certain neoplasms, particularly ovarian cancer. A member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, LHR contains a relatively large extracellular domain responsible for high

David Puett; Krassimira Angelova; Marcelo Rocha da Costa; Susanne W. Warrenfeltz; Francesca Fanelli



Structure and chromosomal assignment of the human lectin-like oxidized low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) gene.  

PubMed Central

We have reported the cDNA cloning of a modified low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, designated lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), which is postulated to be involved in endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we determined the organization of the human LOX-1 gene, including the 5'-regulatory region. The 5'-regulatory region contained several potential cis-regulatory elements, such as GATA-2 binding element, c-ets-1 binding element, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-responsive element and shear-stress-responsive elements, which may mediate the endothelium-specific and inducible expression of LOX-1. The major transcription-initiation site was found to be located 29 nucleotides downstream of the TATA box and 61 nucleotides upstream from the translation-initiation codon. The minor initiation site was found to be 5 bp downstream from the major site. Most of the promoter activity of the LOX-1 gene was ascribed to the region (-150 to -90) containing the GC and CAAT boxes. The coding sequence was divided into 6 exons by 5 introns. The first 3 exons corresponded to the different functional domains of the protein (cytoplasmic, transmembrane and neck domains), and the residual 3 exons encoded the carbohydrate-recognition domain similar to the case of other C-type lectin genes. The LOX-1 gene was a single-copy gene and assigned to the p12.3-p13.2 region of chromosome 12. Since the locus for a familial hypertension has been mapped to the overlapping region, LOX-1 might be the gene responsible for the hypertension. PMID:10085242

Aoyama, T; Sawamura, T; Furutani, Y; Matsuoka, R; Yoshida, M C; Fujiwara, H; Masaki, T



Chemokine receptor 4 gene silencing blocks neuroblastoma metastasis in vitro.  


This study investigated the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) on the invasion capacity of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in vitro. Three siRNAs targeting CXCR4 were chemically synthesized and individually transfected into SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of CXCR4 mRNA and protein was significantly suppressed in transfected cells by all three sequence-specific siRNAs compared with control groups. Furthermore, the invasion capacity of SH-SY5Y cells was significantly decreased following transfection with CXCR4-specific siRNA compared with the control groups. These data demonstrate that down-regulation of CXCR4 can inhibit in vitro invasion of neuroblastoma. PMID:25206760

Chen, Xin; Zhu, Yongjie; Han, Lulu; Lu, Hongting; Hao, Xiwei; Dong, Qian



Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor Genes: IMGT(®) and the Birth and Rise of Immunoinformatics.  


IMGT(®), the international ImMunoGeneTics information system(®) (1), (CNRS and Université Montpellier 2) is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989, IMGT(®) marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT(®) is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT(®) has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences, and three-dimensional (3D) structures. The concepts include the IMGT(®) standardized keywords (concepts of identification), IMGT(®) standardized labels (concepts of description), IMGT(®) standardized nomenclature (concepts of classification), IMGT unique numbering, and IMGT Colliers de Perles (concepts of numerotation). IMGT(®) comprises seven databases, 15,000 pages of web resources, and 17 tools, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for the analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary, and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma) and in antibody engineering and humanization. They include, for example IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis for nucleotide sequence analysis and their high-throughput version IMGT/HighV-QUEST for next-generation sequencing (500,000 sequences per batch), IMGT/DomainGapAlign for amino acid sequence analysis of IG and TR variable and constant domains and of MH groove domains, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB for 3D structures, contact analysis and paratope/epitope interactions of IG/antigen and TR/peptide-MH complexes and IMGT/mAb-DB interface for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immune applications (FPIA). PMID:24600447

Lefranc, Marie-Paule



Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor Genes: IMGT® and the Birth and Rise of Immunoinformatics  

PubMed Central

IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®1, (CNRS and Université Montpellier 2) is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989, IMGT® marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences, and three-dimensional (3D) structures. The concepts include the IMGT® standardized keywords (concepts of identification), IMGT® standardized labels (concepts of description), IMGT® standardized nomenclature (concepts of classification), IMGT unique numbering, and IMGT Colliers de Perles (concepts of numerotation). IMGT® comprises seven databases, 15,000 pages of web resources, and 17 tools, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for the analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary, and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma) and in antibody engineering and humanization. They include, for example IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis for nucleotide sequence analysis and their high-throughput version IMGT/HighV-QUEST for next-generation sequencing (500,000 sequences per batch), IMGT/DomainGapAlign for amino acid sequence analysis of IG and TR variable and constant domains and of MH groove domains, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB for 3D structures, contact analysis and paratope/epitope interactions of IG/antigen and TR/peptide-MH complexes and IMGT/mAb-DB interface for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immune applications (FPIA). PMID:24600447

Lefranc, Marie-Paule



Analysis of polymorphisms in RIG-I-like receptor genes in German multiple sclerosis patients.  


Variation in genes encoding retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. We investigated if polymorphisms in the IFIH1, RIG-I, LGP2 and VISA genes influence the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) in a German case-control cohort comprising 716 patients and 706 controls. Evaluation of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes did not reveal significant single-SNP associations with MS risk, but two VISA polymorphisms were modestly associated with age of onset. Further, we provide initial evidence for combinatorial effects of polymorphic variants in the RIG-I, LGP2 and IFIH1 genes on MS risk. PMID:25288302

Varzari, Alexander; Bruch, Kathrin; Deyneko, Igor V; Chan, Andrew; Epplen, Joerg T; Hoffjan, Sabine



Polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene affect antihypertensive response to angiotensin receptor blockers in hypertensive Chinese.  


The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a key role in regulating blood pressure by maintaining vascular tone and the water/sodium balance. Many antihypertensive drugs target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but the effect differs considerably among hypertensive patients. We investigated whether genetic variants of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor are associated with blood pressure response to angiotensin II receptor blockers in hypertensive Chinese patients. After a 2-week single-blind placebo run-in period, 148 patients with mild-to-moderate primary hypertension received monotherapy with 80 mg/day telmisartan and then were followed up for 8 weeks. The 1166A/C, 573T/C, -810A/T, and -521C/T polymorphisms of the AT1R gene were determined through PCR and RFLP analysis. The relationship between these polymorphisms and changes in blood pressure was observed and evaluated after 8 weeks of treatment. Patients with the AT1R -521CC genotype had a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure compared to those carrying the T allele. No significant reduction in blood pressure was found in individuals with the 1166A/C, 573T/C, or -810A/T polymorphisms of the AT1R gene. We conclude that only the AT1R -521CC genotype is associated with a significant decrease in blood pressure in response to telmisartan treatment in Chinese hypertensive patients. PMID:23913386

Gong, H T; Ma, X L; Chen, B X; Xu, X Y; Li, Q; Guo, C X; Du, F H



Drosophila Dpp signaling is mediated by the punt gene product: a dual ligand-binding type II receptor of the TGF beta receptor family.  


Signaling by TGF beta-related factors requires ligand-induced association between type I and type II transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. In Drosophila, the saxophone (sax) and thick veins (tkv) genes encode type I receptors that mediate signaling by decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup of TGF beta-type factors. In this report, we demonstrate that the Drosophila punt gene encodes atr-II, a previously described type II receptor that on its own is able to bind activin but not BMP2, a vertebrate ortholog of dpp. Mutations in punt produce phenotypes similar to those exhibited by tkv, sax, and dpp mutants. Furthermore, punt will bind BMP2 in concert with tkv or sax, forming complexes with these receptors. We suggest that punt functions as a type II receptors for dpp and propose that BMP signaling in vertebrates may also involve sharing of type II receptors by diverse ligands. PMID:7697720

Letsou, A; Arora, K; Wrana, J L; Simin, K; Twombly, V; Jamal, J; Staehling-Hampton, K; Hoffmann, F M; Gelbart, W M; Massagué, J



Evolutionary Analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Identifies Putative Novel Virulence Genes, Including a Microbial Regulator of Host Cell Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, contains a large pathogen genome (7.2 Mb) with ?2,000 genes of putative or unknown function. Interactions with potential hosts and environmental factors may induce rapid adaptations in these B. pseudomallei genes, which can be discerned through evolutionary analysis of multiple B. pseudomallei genomes. Here we show that several previously uncharacterized B. pseudomallei genes bearing genetic signatures of rapid adaptation (positive selection) can induce diverse cellular phenotypes when expressed in mammalian cells. Notably, several of these phenotypes are plausibly related to virulence, including multinuclear giant cell formation, apoptosis, and autophagy induction. Specifically, we show that BPSS0180, a type VI cluster-associated gene, is capable of inducing autophagy in both phagocytic and nonphagocytic mammalian cells. Following infection of macrophages, a B. pseudomallei mutant disrupted in BPSS0180 exhibited significantly decreased colocalization with LC3 and impaired intracellular survival; these phenotypes were rescued by introduction of an intact BPSS0180 gene. The results suggest that BPSS0180 may be a novel inducer of host cell autophagy that contributes to B. pseudomallei intracellular growth. More generally, our study highlights the utility of applying evolutionary principles to microbial genomes to identify novel virulence genes. PMID:24097950

Singh, Arvind Pratap; Lai, Shu-chin; Nandi, Tannistha; Chua, Hui Hoon; Ooi, Wen Fong; Ong, Catherine; Boyce, John D.; Adler, Ben



Co-regulated gene expression by oestrogen receptor ? and liver receptor homolog-1 is a feature of the oestrogen response in breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Oestrogen receptor ? (ER?) is a nuclear receptor that is the driving transcription factor expressed in the majority of breast cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), another nuclear receptor, regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and promotes motility and invasion. To determine the mechanisms of LRH-1 action in breast cancer, we performed gene expression microarray analysis following RNA interference for LRH-1. Interestingly, gene ontology (GO) category enrichment analysis of LRH-1–regulated genes identified oestrogen-responsive genes as the most highly enriched GO categories. Remarkably, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify genomic targets of LRH-1 showed LRH-1 binding at many ER? binding sites. Analysis of select binding sites confirmed regulation of ER??regulated genes by LRH-1 through binding to oestrogen response elements, as exemplified by the TFF1/pS2 gene. Finally, LRH-1 overexpression stimulated ER? recruitment, while LRH-1 knockdown reduced ER? recruitment to ER? binding sites. Taken together, our findings establish a key role for LRH-1 in the regulation of ER? target genes in breast cancer cells and identify a mechanism in which co-operative binding of LRH-1 and ER? at oestrogen response elements controls the expression of oestrogen-responsive genes. PMID:24049078

Lai, Chun-Fui; Flach, Koen D.; Alexi, Xanthippi; Fox, Stephen P.; Ottaviani, Silvia; Thiruchelvam, Paul T.R.; Kyle, Fiona J.; Thomas, Ross S.; Launchbury, Rosalind; Hua, Hui; Callaghan, Holly B.; Carroll, Jason S.; Charles Coombes, R.; Zwart, Wilbert; Buluwela, Laki; Ali, Simak



Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Modulate the NMDA and AMPA-Induced Gene Expression in Neocortical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIs) can be colocal- izedwithionotropicglutamatereceptorsinpostsynapticmembranes. We have investigated whether mGluRIs alter the gene transcription induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and (S)-a-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rat neocortical g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons. In cultures of dissociated interneurons, the mGluRI antagonists LY367385 and MPEP reduced the increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB induced by NMDA

Kerstin Lindemeyer; Jost Leemhuis; Steffen Loffler; Nina Grass; Wolfgang Norenberg; Dieter K. Meyer


An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease. PMID:1458680

Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K



Phosphorylation enhances the target gene sequence-dependent dimerization of thyroid hormone receptor with retinoid X receptor.  

PubMed Central

To understand the molecular basis of the phosphorylation-enhanced transcriptional activity of human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor subtype beta 1 (hTR beta 1), we studied the effect of phosphorylation on the interaction of hTR beta 1 with the retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta), we studied the effect of phosphorylation on the interaction of hTR beta 1 with the retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta). In vitro, the extent of hTR beta 1.RXR beta heterodimer bound to various thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) was compared before and after phosphorylation of hTR beta 1. Without phosphorylation, hTR beta 1.RXR beta heterodimer was barely detectable under the experimental conditions. After phosphorylation of hTR beta 1, heterodimer bound to (i) the chicken lysozyme gene TRE, (ii) a TRE consisting of direct repeats of half-site binding motifs separated by four gaps, and (iii) a palindromic TRE was enhanced by approximately 10-, 7-, and 6-fold, respectively. The effect of phosphorylation on hTR beta 1.RXR beta heterodimerization was reversible. Dephosphorylation of the phosphorylated hTR beta 1 by alkaline phosphatase led to loss of the ability of hTR beta 1 to form a heterodimer with RXR beta in either the absence or the presence of DNA. These results indicate that the heterodimerization is enhanced by phosphorylation. To evaluate the effect of phosphorylation on the interaction of hTR beta 1 with RXR beta in vivo, we cotransfected hTR beta 1, RXR beta and TRE-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression plasmids into CV-1 cells. CAT activity was assessed in the presence or absence of okadaic acid. Okadaic acid is a potent inhibitor of phosphatases 1 and 2A and increases the in vivo phosphorylation of hTR beta 1 by approximately 10-fold. Using the CAT reporter gene under control of the TRE from the malic enzyme gene, we found that RXR beta increased the okadaic acid-enhanced hTR beta 1-mediated CAT activity by 2- to 3-fold in the presence of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine. However, 9-cis-retinoic acid did not enhance the effect of okadaic acid. Our results indicate that phosphorylation is essential for the interaction of hTR beta 1 with RXR beta. Thus, phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in the gene-regulating activity of hTR beta 1. Images PMID:8058736

Bhat, M K; Ashizawa, K; Cheng, S Y



Receptor-targeted gene delivery using multivalent phagemid particles.  


Although growth factor- and antibody-targeted filamentous phage have recently been demonstrated to transduce mammalian cells, there is a significant need to increase transduction efficiency so as to improve the usefulness of targeted phage vectors for gene therapy and ligand discovery. Here, we describe the use of multivalent phagemid vectors that are specifically designed for ligand-targeted mammalian cell transduction. This phagemid system has certain advantages over phage vectors, such as larger insert size and vector stability, and it retains the multivalent display necessary for efficient cell binding and internalization. Immunoblotting revealed that the most efficient multivalent display (exceeding that of a phage vector) was achieved in the phagemid system when epidermal growth factor (EGF) was fused to the C-terminal domain of the pIII coat protein. We compared phagemid particles displaying EGF at high or low valence by rescuing the vector with R408d3 (pIII deleted) or wild-type R408 helper phage, respectively. More efficient display of EGF correlated with increased internalization, vector potency, and transduction efficiency ( approximately 9%). The findings described here support our original hypothesis that phage-based vectors can be modified for more efficient gene transfer and suggest that directed evolution may be applied to increase their potential even further. PMID:11319907

Larocca, D; Jensen-Pergakes, K; Burg, M A; Baird, A



Opioid receptor gene expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following tapentadol exposure.  


Recent studies showed that combination of mu opioid receptor (MOP) agonism and monoamine reuptake inhibition may improve the therapeutic effect of opioids by reducing requirement for MOP activation. Tapentadol, showing such a combined mechanism of action, exhibits delayed analgesic tolerance development compared to pure MOP agonists. Here we investigated how opioid receptors are regulated following different schedules (two ranges of concentrations for 24 and 48 h) of tapentadol exposure in vitro in SH-SY5Y cells. MOP and nociceptin/orphaninFQ (NOP) receptor gene expressions were quantified using qReal-Time PCR. Moreover, studies were performed in U2 cells to assess tapentadol effect on MOP internalization compared with morphine and DAMGO. Ten and 100 nM tapentadol for 48 h induced a significant increase of MOP gene expression; cells exposed to 100 ?M tapentadol for 24 and 48 h showed a significant increase of MOP mRNA levels. NOP gene expression showed a significant decrease following tapentadol at all low concentrations used after 24 h and at high concentrations (45 and 60 ?M) after 24 h and (60 ?M) after 48 h. Differently from DAMGO, tapentadol or morphine showed no effects on MOP internalization. This study suggests that tapentadol affects MOP and NOP gene expression and MOP internalization showing a pattern distinct from classical MOP agonists. Whether these differences can explain the improved therapeutic profile of tapentadol remains to be investigated. PMID:24488603

Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Carretta, Donatella; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia



Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species  

PubMed Central

Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe



Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

An intriguing property of the dopamine D4 receptor gene is a hypervariable segment in the coding region characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48 bp repeats (2-8 or 10 repeats) in the third exon of the gene. The authors analyzed 70 unrelated schizophrenics and 70 normal controls to determine the allele and genotype frequencies created by length polymorphism of dopamine D4 receptor gene. All patients and controls were unrelated and from the Japanese population. Patients were divided into three groups with regard to age at onset, familial loading, and severity of symptoms assessed strictly with Manchester scale. There were no statistically significant differences if the distributions of alleles and genotypes were analyzed in consideration of those clinical subtypes. Lichter and colleagues [1993] have reported that at least 25 haplotypes exist for this polymorphic region of the dopamine receptor D4 gene. In this study only the alleles created by length polymorphism were analyzed, and further investigation to determine the haplotypes of patients and controls on using a much larger sample size will be required. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kameda, K.; Ihda, S. [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others



Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism  

SciTech Connect

Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allele or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.

Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Maeda, Masaya [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others] [Niigata Univ. (Japan); and others




PubMed Central

The mu opioid receptor (MOR) is the principle molecular target of opioid analgesics. An appropriate understanding of MOR gene expression across species is critical for understanding its analgesic functions in humans. Here, we undertake a cross-species analysis of the polymorphic polypyrimidine/polypurine (PPy/u) motif, a key enhancer of MOR gene expression. The mouse PPy/u motif is highly homologous to those of rat (67%) and human (83%), but drives reporter gene expression tenfold and fivefold more effectively than those of rat and human, respectively. Circular dichroism profiles of PPy/u oligonucleotides from different species showed that they are primarily different in structure. Conformational studies of reporter plasmids using confocal Raman spectra, S1 nuclease and restriction enzymes demonstrated that the structural difference is the result of changes in the phosphodiester backbone. Furthermore, these conformational disparities produce differences in torsional stress, as shown by topoisomerase II relaxation and activation of different levels of gene expression under hypertonic conditions. This study demonstrates that homologous PPy/u motifs adopt unique species-specific conformations with different mechanisms and activities for gene expression. We further discuss how structural aspects of transcription regulatory elements, rather than the sequence itself, are significant when studying functional gene expression regulatory elements. PMID:20946943

Choe, Chung-youl; Dong, Jinping; Law, Ping-Yee; Loh, Horace H.



Association Study Between the Serotonin 1A Receptor (HTR1A) Gene and Neuroticism, Major Depression, and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

The serotonin neurotransmitter system in general, and the serotonin 1A receptor in particular, has been broadly implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders, although the results of genetic association studies have been mixed. In this study, we examined the serotonin 1A receptor gene, HTR1A, for its association with shared genetic risk across a range of anxiety and depression-related phenotypes. Using multivariate structural equation modeling, we selected twin pairs from the population-based Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders scoring at the extremes of a latent genetic risk factor that underlies susceptibility to neuroticism, major depression, and several anxiety disorders. One member from each selected pair was entered into a 2-stage, case-control association study for the HTR1A gene. In the resulting sample of 589 cases and 539 controls, four SNPs spanning the HTR1A locus, including the C(?1019)G functional promoter polymorphism (rs6295), were screened in stage 1, the positive results of which were tested for replication in stage 2. While one marker met threshold significance criteria in stage 1, this association was not replicated in stage 2. Post-hoc analyses did not reveal association to any of the specific psychiatric phenotypes. Our data suggests that the HTR1A gene may not play a major role in the genetic susceptibility underlying depressive and anxiety-related phenotypes. PMID:18163385

Hettema, J.M.; An, S.S.; van den Oord, E.J.C.G; Neale, M.C.; Kendler, K.S.; Chen, X.



Deletion of exon 3 of the insulin receptor gene in a kindred with a familial form of insulin resistance  

SciTech Connect

Molecular scanning techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), greatly facilitate screening candidate genes for mutations. The authors have used DGGE to screen for mutations in the insulin receptor gene in a family in which four of five daughters were affected by type A insulin resistance in association with acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. DGGE did not detect mutations in any of the 22 exons of the insulin receptor gene. Nevertheless, Southern blot analysis suggested that there was a deletion of exon 3 in the other paternal allele of the insulin receptor gene. Analysis of the father`s cDNA confirmed that exon 3 was deleted from mRNA molecules derived from one of his two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the father was found to be hemizygous for a polymorphic sequence (GAC{sup Asp} at codon 234) in exon 3 that was not inherited by any of the five daughters. Instead, all five daughters inherited the paternal allele with the deletion mutation. They did not detect mutations in the mother`s insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the clinical syndrome did not segregate with either of the mother`s two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Although the youngest daughter inherited the mutant allele from her father, she was not clinically affected. The explanation for the incomplete penetrance is not known. These results emphasize the importance of specifically searching for deletion mutations when screening candidate genes for mutations. Furthermore, the existence of apparently asymptomatic carriers of mutations in the insulin receptor gene, such as the father in the present study, suggests that the prevalence of mutations in the insulin receptor gene may be higher than would be predicted on the basis of the observed prevalence of patients with extreme insulin resistance. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Wertheimer, E.; Barbetti, F.; Accili, D.; Taylor, S.I. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Litvin, Y.; Ebstein, R.P.; Bennet, E.R.



Discovery of estrogen receptor ? target genes and response elements in breast tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background Estrogens and their receptors are important in human development, physiology and disease. In this study, we utilized an integrated genome-wide molecular and computational approach to characterize the interaction between the activated estrogen receptor (ER) and the regulatory elements of candidate target genes. Results Of around 19,000 genes surveyed in this study, we observed 137 ER-regulated genes in T-47D cells, of which only 89 were direct target genes. Meta-analysis of heterogeneous in vitro and in vivo datasets showed that the expression profiles in T-47D and MCF-7 cells are remarkably similar and overlap with genes differentially expressed between ER-positive and ER-negative tumors. Computational analysis revealed a significant enrichment of putative estrogen response elements (EREs) in the cis-regulatory regions of direct target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed ligand-dependent ER binding at the computationally predicted EREs in our highest ranked ER direct target genes, NRIP1, GREB1 and ABCA3. Wider examination of the cis-regulatory regions flanking the transcriptional start sites showed species conservation in mouse-human comparisons in only 6% of predicted EREs. Conclusions Only a small core set of human genes, validated across experimental systems and closely associated with ER status in breast tumors, appear to be sufficient to induce ER effects in breast cancer cells. That cis-regulatory regions of these core ER target genes are poorly conserved suggests that different evolutionary mechanisms are operative at transcriptional control elements than at coding regions. These results predict that certain biological effects of estrogen signaling will differ between mouse and human to a larger extent than previously thought. PMID:15345050

Lin, Chin-Yo; Ström, Anders; Vega, Vinsensius Berlian; Li Kong, Say; Li Yeo, Ai; Thomsen, Jane S; Chan, Wan Ching; Doray, Balraj; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Vergara, Liza A; Tang, Suisheng; Chong, Allen; Bajic, Vladimir B; Miller, Lance D; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Liu, Edison T



Dysregulation of the PDGFRA gene causes inflow tract anomalies including TAPVR: integrating evidence from human genetics and model organisms  

PubMed Central

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect inherited via complex genetic and/or environmental factors. We report detailed mapping in extended TAPVR kindreds and mutation analysis in TAPVR patients that implicate the PDGFRA gene in the development of TAPVR. Gene expression studies in mouse and chick embryos for both the Pdgfra receptor and its ligand Pdgf-a show temporal and spatial patterns consistent with a role in pulmonary vein (PV) development. We used an in ovo function blocking assay in chick and a conditional knockout approach in mouse to knock down Pdgfra expression in the developing venous pole during the period of PV formation. We observed that loss of PDGFRA function in both organisms causes TAPVR with low penetrance (?7%) reminiscent of that observed in our human TAPVR kindreds. Intermediate inflow tract anomalies occurred in a higher percentage of embryos (?30%), suggesting that TAPVR occurs at one end of a spectrum of defects. We show that the anomalous pulmonary venous connection seen in chick and mouse is highly similar to TAPVR discovered in an abnormal early stage embryo from the Kyoto human embryo collection. Whereas the embryology of the normal venous pole and PV is becoming understood, little is known about the embryogenesis or molecular pathogenesis of TAPVR. These models of TAPVR provide important insight into the pathogenesis of PV defects. Taken together, these data from human genetics and animal models support a role for PDGF-signaling in normal PV development, and in the pathogenesis of TAPVR. PMID:20071345

Bleyl, Steven B.; Saijoh, Yukio; Bax, Noortje A.M.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Wisse, Lambertus J.; Chapman, Susan C.; Hunter, Jennifer; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Hamada, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shigehito; Shiota, Kohei; Klewer, Scott E.; Leppert, Mark F.; Schoenwolf, Gary C.



Identification of natural killer cell receptor clusters in the platypus genome reveals an expansion of C-type lectin genes.  


Natural killer (NK) cell receptors belong to two unrelated, but functionally analogous gene families: the immunoglobulin superfamily, situated in the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) and the C-type lectin superfamily, located in the natural killer complex (NKC). Here, we describe the largest NK receptor gene expansion seen to date. We identified 213 putative C-type lectin NK receptor homologs in the genome of the platypus. Many have arisen as the result of a lineage-specific expansion. Orthologs of OLR1, CD69, KLRE, CLEC12B, and CLEC16p genes were also identified. The NKC is split into at least two regions of the genome: 34 genes map to chromosome 7, two map to a small autosome, and the remainder are unanchored in the current genome assembly. No NK receptor genes from the LRC were identified. The massive C-type lectin expansion and lack of Ig-domain-containing NK receptors represents the most extreme polarization of NK receptors found to date. We have used this new data from platypus to trace the possible evolutionary history of the NK receptor clusters. PMID:19597809

Wong, Emily S W; Sanderson, Claire E; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine



PPP3CC gene: a putative modulator of antidepressant response through the B-cell receptor signaling pathway.  


Antidepressant pharmacogenetics represents a stimulating, but often discouraging field. The present study proposes a combination of several methodologies across three independent samples. Genes belonging to monoamine, neuroplasticity, circadian rhythm and transcription factor pathways were investigated in two samples (n=369 and 88) with diagnosis of major depression who were treated with antidepressants. Phenotypes were response, remission and treatment-resistant depression. Logistic regression including appropriate covariates was performed. Genes associated with outcomes were investigated in the STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression) genome-wide study (n=1861). Top genes were further studied through a pathway analysis. In both original samples, markers associated with outcomes were concentrated in the PPP3CC gene. Other interesting findings were particularly in the HTR2A gene in one original sample and the STAR*D. The B-cell receptor signaling pathway proved to be the putative mediator of PPP3CC's effect on antidepressant response (P=0.03). Among innovative candidates, PPP3CC, involved in the regulation of immune system and synaptic plasticity, seems promising for further investigation. PMID:24709691

Fabbri, C; Marsano, A; Albani, D; Chierchia, A; Calati, R; Drago, A; Crisafulli, C; Calabrò, M; Kasper, S; Lanzenberger, R; Zohar, J; Juven-Wetzler, A; Souery, D; Montgomery, S; Mendlewicz, J; Serretti, A



Frequent expansions of the bitter taste receptor gene repertoire during evolution of mammals in the Euarchontoglires clade.  


Genome studies of mammals in the superorder Euarchontoglires (a clade that comprises the orders Primates, Dermoptera, Scandentia, Rodentia, and Lagomorpha) are important for understanding the biological features of humans, particularly studies of medical model animals such as macaques and mice. Furthermore, the dynamic ecoevolutionary signatures of Euarchontoglires genomes may be discovered because many species in this clade are characterized by their successful adaptive radiation to various ecological niches. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary trajectory of bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) in 28 Euarchontoglires species based on homology searches of 39 whole-genome assemblies. The Euarchontoglires species possessed variable numbers of intact TAS2Rs, which ranged from 16 to 40, and their last common ancestor had at least 26 intact TAS2Rs. The gene tree showed that there have been at least seven lineage-specific events involving massive gene duplications. Gene duplications were particularly evident in the ancestral branches of anthropoids (the anthropoid cluster), which may have promoted the adaptive evolution of anthropoid characteristics, such as a trade-off between olfaction and other senses and the development of herbivorous characteristics. Subsequent whole-gene deletions of anthropoid cluster TAS2Rs in hominoid species suggest ongoing ectopic homologous recombination in the anthropoid cluster. These findings provide insights into the roles of adaptive sensory evolution in various ecological niches and important clues related to the molecular mechanisms that underlie taste diversity in Euarchontoglires mammalian species, including humans. PMID:24758778

Hayakawa, Takashi; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Matsui, Atsushi; Go, Yasuhiro



Intrauterine growth retardation affects expression and epigenetic characteristics of the rat hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene.  


Studies in humans and rats suggest that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) permanently resets the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis reprogramming may involve persistently altered expression of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (hpGR), an important regulator of HPA axis reactivity. Persistent alteration of gene expression, long after the inciting event, is thought to be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that affect mRNA and mRNA variant expression. GR mRNA variants in both humans and rats include eleven 5'-end variants and GRalpha, the predominant 3'-end variant. The 3'-end variants associated with glucocorticoid resistance in humans (GRbeta, GRgamma, GRA, and GRP) have not been reported in rats. We hypothesized that in the rat hippocampus IUGR would decrease total GR mRNA, increase GRbeta, GRgamma, GRA, and GRP, and affect epigenetics of the GR gene at birth (D0) and at 21 days of life (D21). IUGR increased hpGR and exon 1.7 hpGR mRNA in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased trimethyl H3/K4 at exon 1.7 at both time points. IUGR also increased hpGRgamma in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased acetyl H3/K9 at exon 3 at both time points. hpGRA increased in female IUGR rats at D0 and D21. In addition, our data support the existence of hpGRbeta and hpGRP in the rat. IUGR has sex-specific, persistent effects on GR expression and its histone code. We speculate that postnatal changes in hippocampal GR variant and total mRNA expression may underlie IUGR-associated HPA axis reprogramming. PMID:20388836

Ke, Xingrao; Schober, Michelle E; McKnight, Robert A; O'Grady, Shannon; Caprau, Diana; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; Lane, Robert H



Mutations in tubulin genes are frequent causes of various foetal malformations of cortical development including microlissencephaly  

PubMed Central

Complex cortical malformations associated with mutations in tubulin genes are commonly referred to as “Tubulinopathies”. To further characterize the mutation frequency and phenotypes associated with tubulin mutations, we studied a cohort of 60 foetal cases. Twenty-six tubulin mutations were identified, of which TUBA1A mutations were the most prevalent (19 cases), followed by TUBB2B (6 cases) and TUBB3 (one case). Three subtypes clearly emerged. The most frequent (n?=?13) was microlissencephaly with corpus callosum agenesis, severely hypoplastic brainstem and cerebellum. The cortical plate was either absent (6/13), with a 2–3 layered pattern (5/13) or less frequently thickened (2/13), often associated with neuroglial overmigration (4/13). All cases had voluminous germinal zones and ganglionic eminences. The second subtype was lissencephaly (n?=?7), either classical (4/7) or associated with cerebellar hypoplasia (3/7) with corpus callosum agenesis (6/7). All foetuses with lissencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia carried distinct TUBA1A mutations, while those with classical lissencephaly harbored recurrent mutations in TUBA1A (3 cases) or TUBB2B (1 case). The third group was polymicrogyria-like cortical dysplasia (n?=?6), consisting of asymmetric multifocal or generalized polymicrogyria with inconstant corpus callosum agenesis (4/6) and hypoplastic brainstem and cerebellum (3/6). Polymicrogyria was either unlayered or 4-layered with neuronal heterotopias (5/6) and occasional focal neuroglial overmigration (2/6). Three had TUBA1A mutations and 3 TUBB2B mutations. Foetal TUBA1A tubulinopathies most often consist in microlissencephaly or classical lissencephaly with corpus callosum agenesis, but polymicrogyria may also occur. Conversely, TUBB2B mutations are responsible for either polymicrogyria (4/6) or microlissencephaly (2/6). PMID:25059107



Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene.  


Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic-paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including 'prosociality', 'communication', 'details/patterns' and 'imagination' in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower 'prosociality', which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower 'prosociality' also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects. PMID:23946005

Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori



Extraordinary Diversity of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Repertoires Among Vertebrates  

E-print Network

that chemoreception plays multiple important roles in a vertebrate's daily life, including food detection and pheromones. For the gustatory system, the tongue can perceive five basic tastes: sour, salty, bit- ter, sweet

Zhang, Jianzhi


Inhibition of estrogen-responsive gene activation by the retinoid X receptor beta: evidence for multiple inhibitory pathways.  

PubMed Central

The retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; H-2RIIBP) forms heterodimers with various nuclear hormone receptors and binds multiple hormone response elements, including the estrogen response element (ERE). In this report, we show that endogenous RXR beta contributes to ERE binding activity in nuclear extracts of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. To define a possible regulatory role of RXR beta regarding estrogen-responsive transcription in breast cancer cells, RXR beta and a reporter gene driven by the vitellogenin A2 ERE were transfected into estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. RXR beta inhibited ERE-driven reporter activity in a dose-dependent and element-specific fashion. This inhibition occurred in the absence of the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid. The RXR beta-induced inhibition was specific for estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated ERE activation because inhibition was observed in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only following transfection of the estrogen-activated ER. No inhibition of the basal reporter activity was observed. The inhibition was not caused by simple competition of RXR beta with the ER for ERE binding, since deletion mutants retaining DNA binding activity but lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal domain failed to inhibit reporter activity. In addition, cross-linking studies indicated the presence of an auxiliary nuclear factor present in MCF-7 cells that contributed to RXR beta binding of the ERE. Studies using known heterodimerization partners of RXR beta confirmed that RXR beta/triiodothyronine receptor alpha heterodimers avidly bind the ERE but revealed the existence of another triiodothyronine-independent pathway of ERE inhibition. These results indicate that estrogen-responsive genes may be negatively regulated by RXR beta through two distinct pathways. Images PMID:8384307

Segars, J H; Marks, M S; Hirschfeld, S; Driggers, P H; Martinez, E; Grippo, J F; Brown, M; Wahli, W; Ozato, K



Characterization of Squamate Olfactory Receptor Genes and Their Transcripts by the High-Throughput Sequencing Approach  

PubMed Central

The olfactory receptor (OR) genes represent the largest multigene family in the genome of terrestrial vertebrates. Here, the high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to characterization of OR gene repertoires in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis and the Japanese four-lined ratsnake Elaphe quadrivirgata. Tagged polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products amplified from either genomic DNA or cDNA of the two species were used for parallel pyrosequencing, assembling, and screening for errors in PCR and pyrosequencing. Starting from the lizard genomic DNA, we accurately identified 56 of 136 OR genes that were identified from its draft genome sequence. These recovered genes were broadly distributed in the phylogenetic tree of vertebrate OR genes without severe biases toward particular OR families. Ninety-six OR genes were identified from the ratsnake genomic DNA, implying that the snake has more OR gene loci than the anole lizard in response to an increased need for the acuity of olfaction. This view is supported by the estimated number of OR genes in the Burmese python's draft genome (?280), although squamates may generally have fewer OR genes than terrestrial mammals and amphibians. The OR gene repertoire of the python seems unique in that many class I OR genes are retained. The NGS approach also allowed us to identify candidates of highly expressed and silent OR gene copies in the lizard's olfactory epithelium. The approach will facilitate efficient and parallel characterization of considerable unbiased proportions of multigene family members and their transcripts from nonmodel organisms. PMID:22511035

Dehara, Yuki; Hashiguchi, Yasuyuki; Matsubara, Kazumi; Yanai, Tokuma; Kubo, Masahito; Kumazawa, Yoshinori



Effects of repeated 5-HT? receptor stimulation on BDNF gene expression and cell survival.  


In support of the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression chronic antidepressant drug treatment increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) gene expression and neurogenesis. Regarding 5-HT active drugs, the 5-HT receptor behind these effects remains unidentified. Here we report the effect of repeated 5-HT?-receptor stimulation on bdnf expression and cell survival. The previously reported acute stimulatory action of the selective 5-HT? agonist LY-586713 on hippocampal bdnf expression was still present following sub-chronic (4 days), but not chronic (14 days), treatment. The effect on 5-HT?-mediated cell survival was also dependent on a similar length of treatment. Hence, our study found no support for a primary effect of 5-HT? receptors in the mediation of chronic antidepressant drug-induced up-regulation of bdnf expression or neurogenesis. PMID:23981663

de Foubert, Georgina; Khundakar, Ahmad A; Zetterström, Tyra S



Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Long distance sexual communication in moths has fascinated biologists because of the complex, precise female pheromone signals and the extreme sensitivity of males to specific pheromone molecules. Progress has been made in identifying some genes involved in female pheromone production and in male response. However, we have lacked information on the genetic changes involved in evolutionary diversification of these mate-finding mechanisms that is critical to understanding speciation in moths and other taxa. We used a combined quantitative trait locus (QTL) and candidate gene approach to determine the genetic architecture of sexual isolation in males of two congeneric moths, Heliothis subflexa and Heliothis virescens. We report behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that differential male responses to three female-produced chemicals (Z9-14:Ald, Z9-16:Ald, Z11-16:OAc) that maintain sexual isolation of these species are all controlled by a single QTL containing at least four odorant receptor genes. It is not surprising that pheromone receptor differences could control H. subflexa and H. virescens responses to Z9-16:Ald and Z9-14:Ald, respectively. However, central rather than peripheral level control over the positive and negative responses of H. subflexa and H. virescens to Z11-16:OAc had been expected. Tight linkage of these receptor genes indicates that mutations altering male response to complex blends could be maintained in linkage disequilibrium and could affect the speciation process. Other candidate genes such as those coding for pheromone binding proteins did not map to this QTL, but there was some genetic evidence of a QTL for response to Z11-16:OH associated with a sensory neuron membrane protein gene. PMID:20404144

Gould, Fred; Estock, Marie; Hillier, N. Kirk; Powell, Bekah; Groot, Astrid T.; Ward, Catherine M.; Emerson, Jennifer L.; Schal, Coby; Vickers, Neil J.



Retinoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists cooperate to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase gene expression  

PubMed Central

Introduction We recently described the ability of retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligand LG100268 (LG268) to inhibit interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-?)-driven matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-13 gene expression in SW-1353 chondrosarcoma cells. Other investigators have demonstrated similar effects in chondrocytes treated with rosiglitazone, a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?), for which RXR is an obligate dimerization partner. The goals of this study were to evaluate the inhibition of IL-1-?-induced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13 by combinatorial treatment with RXR and PPAR? ligands and to investigate the molecular mechanisms of this inhibition. Methods We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to measure LG268- and rosiglitazone-mediated inhibition of MMP gene transcription in IL-1-?-treated SW-1353 chondrosarcoma cells. An in vitro collagen destruction assay was a functional readout of MMP collagenolytic activity. Luciferase reporter assays tested the function of a putative regulatory element in the promoters of MMP-1 and MMP-13, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays detected PPAR? and changes in histone acetylation at this site. Post-translational modification of RXR and PPAR? by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) was assayed with immunoprecipitation and Western blot. Results Rosiglitazone inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression in IL-1-?-treated SW-1353 cells at the mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels and blunted IL-1-?-induced collagen destruction in vitro. Combining LG268 and rosiglitazone had an additive inhibitory effect on MMP-1 and MMP-13 transcription and collagenolysis. IL-1-? inhibited luciferase expression in the MMP reporter assay, but rosiglitazone and LG268 had no effect. ChIP indicated that treatment with IL-1-?, but not LG268 and rosiglitazone, increased PPAR? at the proximal promoters of both MMPs. Finally, rosiglitazone or LG268 induced 'cross-SUMOylation' of both the target receptor and its binding partner, and IL-1-?-alone had no effect on SUMOylation of RXR and PPAR? but antagonized the ligand-induced SUMOylation of both receptors. Conclusions The PPAR? and RXR ligands rosiglitazone and LG268 may act through similar mechanisms, inhibiting MMP-1 and MMP-13 transcription. Combinatorial treatment activates each partner of the RXR:PPAR? heterodimer and inhibits IL-1-?-induced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13 more effectively than either compound alone. We conclude that the efficacy of combined treatment with lower doses of each drug may minimize potential side effects of treatment with these compounds. PMID:19046432

Burrage, Peter S; Schmucker, Adam C; Ren, Yanqing; Sporn, Michael B; Brinckerhoff, Constance E



The structure and organization of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene  

SciTech Connect

The structure and organization of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene were determined by either screening a phage library of human genomic DNA or applying the long PCR technique to amplify different exon pairs with their corresponding introns. The FSHR gene spans a region of 54 kb and consists of 10 exons and 9 introns. Most of the extracellular domain is encoded by 9 exons, ranging in length between 69 and 251 bp; the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular domain are encoded by the large exon 10 (1234 bp). Overall the gene encodes 695 amino acids. The structure of the human FSHR displays a striking similarity to that of the previously characterized rat FSHR gene, with a high degree of conservation in exon sizes and exon/intron junctions. 20 refs., 2 tabs.