These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

SOX9 Regulates Multiple Genes in Chondrocytes, Including Genes Encoding ECM Proteins, ECM Modification Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes. PMID:25229425

Oh, Chun-do; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

2014-01-01

2

Cooperative transcriptional activation of ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes by nuclear receptors including Liver-X-Receptor  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 form heterodimers that limit absorption of dietary sterols in the intestine and promote cholesterol elimination from the body through hepatobiliary secretion. To identify cis-regulatory elements of the two genes, we have cloned and analyzed twenty-three evolutionary conserved region (ECR) fragments using the CMV-luciferase reporter system in HepG2 cells. Two ECRs were found to be responsive to the Liver-X-Receptor (LXR). Through elaborate deletion studies, regions containing putative LXREs were identified and the binding of LXR? was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assay. When the LXREs were inserted upstream of the intergenic promoter, synergistic activation by LXR?/RXR? in combination with GATA4, HNF4?, and LRH-1, which had been shown to bind to the intergenic region, was observed. In conclusion, we have identified two LXREs in ABCG5/ABCG8 genes for the first time and propose that these LXREs, especially in the ECR20, play major roles in regulating these genes. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(6): 322-327] PMID:23790976

Back, Su Sun; Kim, Jinsu; Choi, Daehyung; Lee, Eui Sup; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

2013-01-01

3

Common Worldwide Variation Discovered in Human Taste Receptor Genes  

MedlinePLUS

... Taste Receptor Genes Common Worldwide Variation Discovered In Human Taste Receptor Genes Common Worldwide Variation Discovered In Human Taste Receptor Genes Background : Differences in our sense ...

4

Mechanics of T cell receptor gene rearrangement  

PubMed Central

Summary The four T cell receptor genes (Tcra, Tcrb, Tcrg, Tcrd) are assembled by V(D)J recombination according to distinct programs during intrathymic T cell development. These programs depend on genetic factors, including gene segment order and recombination signal sequences. They also depend on epigenetic factors. Regulated changes in chromatin structure, directed by enhancers and promoter, can modify the availability of recombination signal sequences to the RAG recombinase. Regulated changes in locus conformation may control the synapsis of distant recombination signal sequences, and regulated changes in subnuclear positioning may influence locus recombination events by unknown mechanisms. Together these influences may explain the ordered activation and inactivation of T cell receptor locus recombination events, and the phenomenon of Tcrb allelic exclusion. PMID:19362456

Krangel, Michael S.

2009-01-01

5

Chromosome 11: gene for dopamine receptors, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Dopamine receptor Location: chromosome 11 gene name: D4DR (dopamine receptor) This gene on chromosome 11 appears to influence personality. The protein produced from this gene is a receptor for the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine pathways control many aspects of the brain, including blood flow. If this gene contains many repeated sequences the person is less responsive to dopamine and more likely to seek external "thrills" in their lives.

2008-10-06

6

Acetylcholine Receptor-Inducing Activity Stimulates Expression of the ?-Subunit Gene of the Muscle Acetylcholine Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor neurons regulate the transcription of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in postsynaptic muscle fibers both through muscle electrical activity produced by motor neuron acetylcholine release and by mechanisms independent of such transmitter release. Factors secreted by the motor neuron may mediate activity-independent regulation, including the postnatal switch from alpha_2betagammadelta (embryonic type) to alpha_2beta?delta (adult type) receptors. We have investigated the

Jean-Claude Martinou; Douglas L. Falls; Gerald D. Fischbach; John P. Merlie

1991-01-01

7

Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence alignments &  

E-print Network

to perform analyses on their genes · Includes published genomes from flowering plants, mosses and several 23 plants covering 11 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses and 5 algae · Advanced panel of (inter

Gent, Universiteit

8

Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence  

E-print Network

genomes from flowering plants, (club-)mosses and several green algae · All data can be downloaded PLAZA release 2.5 · Includes >900,000 genes from 25 plants covering 13 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses

Gent, Universiteit

9

Evolution of an Expanded Mannose Receptor Gene Family  

PubMed Central

Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens. PMID:25390371

Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Young, John R.; Butter, Colin

2014-01-01

10

Evolution of an expanded mannose receptor gene family.  

PubMed

Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens. PMID:25390371

Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G; Young, John R; Butter, Colin

2014-01-01

11

Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors Reshape Gene Ranks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) plays a key role in the control of neuronal plasticity and cell survival by modifying the activity of different signaling pathways and numerous genes. However, it remains unclear how the activation of this one class of glutamate receptors can lead to different functional consequences, such as enhancement of neuronal survival or induction of neuronal death. Recent work further refines the hypothesis that synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs have distinct roles in neuronal survival and death by showing that these two subpopulations of NMDARs differentially modify whole-genome activity.

Igor Medina (INSERM;Mediterranean Institute of Neurobiology (INMED) REV)

2007-05-15

12

A gene-to-gene interaction between aromatase and estrogen receptors influences bone mineral density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aromatization of androgenic precursors is the main source of estrogens in postmenopausal women. We tested the hypothesis that allelic variants of the genes coding for aromatase and estrogen receptors (ER) could interact to determine the estrogenic signals on the bone tissue and, consequently, bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Cross-sectional study including 331 postmenopausal women. Methods: BMD was measured

JoseA Riancho; Mar a; T Zarrabeitia; Carmen Valero; Carolina Sanudo; Veronica Mijares

2006-01-01

13

Identification and analysis of additional copies of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor genes in fugu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The receptors for the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR? and PDGFR?) belong to a subfamily of protein tyrosine kinase receptors that also includes kit and the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R). In mammals, the genes encoding PDGFR? and PDGFR? are tandemly linked to the kit and CSF1R genes, respectively. Based on the structural similarity and genomic organization of these four genes,

Hawys Williams; Sydney Brenner; Byrappa Venkatesh

2002-01-01

14

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Opioid Receptor GenesPresent and Future  

PubMed Central

Three opioid receptors (ORs) are known: ? opioid receptors (MORs), ? opioid receptors (DORs), and ? opioid receptors (KORs). Each is encoded by a distinct gene, and the three OR genes share a highly conserved genomic structure and promoter features, including an absence of TATA boxes and sensitivity to extracellular stimuli and epigenetic regulation. However, each of the genes is differentially expressed. Transcriptional regulation engages both basal and regulated transcriptional machineries and employs activating and silencing mechanisms. In retinoic acidinduced neuronal differentiation, the opioid receptor genes undergo drastically different chromatin remodeling processes and display varied patterns of epigenetic marks. Regulation of KOR expression is distinctly complex, and KOR exerts a unique function in neurite extension, indicating that KOR is not simply a pharmacologic cousin of MOR and DOR. As the expression of OR proteins is ultimately controlled by extensive posttranscriptional processing, the pharmacological implication of OR gene regulation at the transcriptional level remains to be determined. PMID:20868272

Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H.

2013-01-01

15

Human specific loss of olfactory receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Olfactory receptor (OR) genes constitute the basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest mammalian gene superfamily of >1,000 genes. In humans, >60% of these are pseudogenes. In contrast, the mouse OR repertoire, although of roughly equal size, contains only ?20% pseudogenes. We asked whether the high fraction of nonfunctional OR genes is specific to humans or is a common feature of all primates. To this end, we have compared the sequences of 50 human OR coding regions, regardless of their functional annotations, to those of their putative orthologs in chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and rhesus macaques. We found that humans have accumulated mutations that disrupt OR coding regions roughly 4-fold faster than any other species sampled. As a consequence, the fraction of OR pseudogenes in humans is almost twice as high as in the non-human primates, suggesting a human-specific process of OR gene disruption, likely due to a reduced chemosensory dependence relative to apes. PMID:12612342

Gilad, Yoav; Man, Orna; Pbo, Svante; Lancet, Doron

2003-01-01

16

The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.  

PubMed Central

The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca). PMID:9399843

Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

1998-01-01

17

SMRT?, a corepressor variant, interacts with a restricted subset of nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptors ? and ?.  

PubMed

The SMRT and NCoR corepressors bind to, and mediate transcriptional repression by, many nuclear receptors. Both SMRT and NCoR are expressed by alternative mRNA splicing, generating a series of structurally and functionally distinct corepressor "variants". We report that a splice variant of SMRT, SMRT?, recognizes a restricted subset of nuclear receptors. Unlike the other corepressor variants characterized, SMRT? possesses only a single receptor interaction domain (RID) and exhibits an unusual specificity for a subset of nuclear receptors that includes the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). The ability of the single RID in SMRT? to efficiently interact with RARs appears to be enhanced by a recently recognized ?-strand/?-strand interaction between corepressor and receptor. We suggest that alternative mRNA splicing of corepressors can restrict their function to specific nuclear receptor partnerships, and we propose that this may serve to customize the transcriptional repression properties of different cell types for different biological purposes. PMID:22266197

Mengeling, Brenda J; Goodson, Michael L; Bourguet, William; Privalsky, Martin L

2012-04-01

18

Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

2011-03-01

19

T-cell receptor delta gene rearrangements in early thymocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T-cell receptor delta-chain variable region can be assembled from as many as four distinct gene segments, V, D1 D2 and J, more than any other antigen-receptor gene. In fetal thymocytes V --> D joinings are as common as D --> J or VDJ rearrangements and one V gene segment predominates. Analysis of rearrangements at TCR gamma and delta loci

Yueh-Hsiu Chiei; Makio Iwashima; Daniel A. Wettstein; Kenneth B. Kaplan; John F. Elliott; Willi Born; Mark M. Davis

1987-01-01

20

Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome.  

PubMed Central

To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), we analyzed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. We amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71 + 1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, we determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations we identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. We conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8488849

Berg, M A; Argente, J; Chernausek, S; Gracia, R; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hopp, M; Prez-Jurado, L; Rosenbloom, A; Toledo, S P; Francke, U

1993-01-01

21

Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome  

SciTech Connect

To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), the authors analysed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. They amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). They identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71+1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, they determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. The authors conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Berg, M.A.; Francke, U. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)); Gracia, R.; Rosenbloom, A.; Toledo, S.P.A. (Univ. Autonoma, Madrid (Spain)); Chernausek, S. (Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Guevara-Aguirre, J. (Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Reproduction, Quito (Ecuador)); Hopp, M. (Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Rosenbloom, A.; Argente, J. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States)); Toledo, S.P.A. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1993-05-01

22

Expression of leptin receptor gene in developing and adult zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Interactions of leptin and leptin receptors play crucial roles during animal development and regulation of appetite and energy balance. In this study we analyzed expression pattern of a zebrafish leptin receptor gene in both developing and adult zebrafish using in situ hybridization and Q-PCR methods. Zebrafish leptin receptor message (lepr) was detected in all embryonic and larval stages examined, and in adult zebrafish. In embryonic zebrafish, lepr was mainly expressed in the notochord. As development proceeded, lepr expression in the notochord decreased, while its expression in several other tissues, including the trunk muscles and gut, became evident. In both larval and adult brains, large lepr expressing cells were detected in similar regions of the hindbrain. In adult zebrafish, lepr expression was also observed in several other brain regions including the hypothalamic lateral tuberal nucleus, the fish homolog of the arcuate nucleus. Q-PCR experiments confirmed lepr expression in the adult fish brain, and also showed lepr expression in several adult tissues including liver, muscle and gonads. Our results showed that lepr expression was both spatially and temporally regulated. PMID:19941865

Liu, Qin; Chen, Yun; Copeland, Donald; Ball, Hope; Duff, Robert J.; Rockich, Briana; Londraville, Richard L.

2012-01-01

23

Transient receptor potential (TRP) gene superfamily encoding cation channels  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential (TRP) non-selective cation channels constitute a superfamily, which contains 28 different genes. In mammals, this superfamily is divided into six subfamilies based on differences in amino acid sequence homology between the different gene products. Proteins within a subfamily aggregate to form heteromeric or homomeric tetrameric configurations. These different groupings have very variable permeability ratios for calcium versus sodium ions. TRP expression is widely distributed in neuronal tissues, as well as a host of other tissues, including epithelial and endothelial cells. They are activated by environmental stresses that include tissue injury, changes in temperature, pH and osmolarity, as well as volatile chemicals, cytokines and plant compounds. Their activation induces, via intracellular calcium signalling, a host of responses, including stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, regulatory volume behaviour and the release of a host of cytokines. Their activation is greatly potentiated by phospholipase C (PLC) activation mediated by coupled GTP-binding proteins and tyrosine receptors. In addition to their importance in maintaining tissue homeostasis, some of these responses may involve various underlying diseases. Given the wealth of literature describing the multiple roles of TRP in physiology in a very wide range of different mammalian tissues, this review limits itself to the literature describing the multiple roles of TRP channels in different ocular tissues. Accordingly, their importance to the corneal, trabecular meshwork, lens, ciliary muscle, retinal, microglial and retinal pigment epithelial physiology and pathology is reviewed. PMID:21296744

2011-01-01

24

Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

1986-04-01

25

Disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in the nervous system results in reduced anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, encoded by the gene Grl1) controls transcription of target genes both directly by interaction with DNA regulatory elements and indirectly by cross-talk with other transcription factors. In response to various stimuli, including stress, glucocorticoids coordinate metabolic, endocrine, immune and nervous system responses and ensure an adequate profile of transcription. In the brain, Gr has been proposed

Franois Tronche; Christoph Kellendonk; Oliver Kretz; Peter Gass; Katrin Anlag; Paul C. Orban; Rudolf Bock; Rdiger Klein; Gnther Schtz

1999-01-01

26

Child ?-Opioid Receptor Gene Variant Influences ParentChild Relations  

PubMed Central

Variation in the ?-opioid receptor gene has been associated with early social behavior in mice and rhesus macaques. The current study tested whether the functional OPRM1 A118G predicted various indices of social relations in children. The sample included 226 subjects of self-reported European ancestry (44% female; mean age 13.6, SD=2.2) who were part of a larger representative study of children aged 917 years in rural North Carolina. Multiple aspects of recent (past 3 months) parentchild relationship were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Parent problems were coded based upon a lifetime history of mental health problems, substance abuse, or criminality. Child genotype interacted with parent behavior such that there were no genotype differences for those with low levels of parent problems; however, when a history of parent problems was reported, the G allele carriers had more enjoyment of parentchild interactions (mean ratio (MR)=3.5, 95% CI=1.6, 8.0) and fewer arguments (MR=3.1, 95% CI=1.1, 8.9). These findings suggest a role for the OPRM1 gene in the genetic architecture of social relations in humans. In summary, a variant in the ?-opioid receptor gene (118G) was associated with improved parentchild relations, but only in the context of a significant disruption in parental functioning. PMID:21326192

Copeland, William E; Sun, Hui; Costello, E Jane; Angold, Adrian; Heilig, Markus A; Barr, Christina S

2011-01-01

27

Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.  

PubMed Central

Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

2000-01-01

28

Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

Niimura, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

29

An autoregulatory loop controlling orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 gene expression by orphan nuclear receptor ERRg  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRg\\/ERR3\\/NR3B3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that activates transcription in the absence of ligand. However, the detailed mechan- ism of gene regulation by ERRg is not fully under- stood. In this study we have found that the orphan nuclear receptor ERRg activates the DAX-1 promoter, which, in turn, represses transactivation by ERRg.

Yun-Yong Park; Seung-Won Ahn; Hye-Jin Kim; Jin-Man Kim; In-Kyu Lee; Heonjoong Kang; Hueng-Sik Choi

30

Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa.  

PubMed

Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 6711 years for women and 6312 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the expressed olfactory receptors gene set. PMID:24800820

Verbeurgt, Christophe; Wilkin, Franoise; Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Franoise; Dumont, Jacques E; Chatelain, Pierre

2014-01-01

31

Horse ( Equus caballus ) T-cell receptor alpha, gamma, and delta chain genes: nucleotide sequences and tissue-specific gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor alpha (TCRA), gamma (TCRG), and delta (TCRD) chain genes were isolated from a cDNA library and characterized. Five unique TCRAV families, including four full-length sequences, five distinct TCRAJ genes, and a single TCRAC gene were identified. TCRAV genes had closest homology with human sequences and least similarity to rat genes. Among eight horse TCRG genes,

M. D. Schrenzel; D. A. Ferrick

1995-01-01

32

Constraint and Adaptation in newt Toll-Like Receptor Genes  

PubMed Central

Acute die-offs of amphibian populations worldwide have been linked to the emergence of viral and fungal diseases. Inter and intraspecific immunogenetic differences may influence the outcome of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential component of innate immunity and also prime acquired defenses. We report the first comprehensive assessment of TLR gene variation for urodele amphibians. The Lissotriton newt TLR repertoire includes representatives of 13 families and is compositionally most similar to that of the anuran Xenopus. Both ancient and recent gene duplications have occurred in urodeles, bringing the total number of TLR genes to at least 21. Purifying selection has predominated the evolution of newt TLRs in both long (?70 Ma) and medium (?18 Ma) timescales. However, we find evidence for both purifying and positive selection acting on TLRs in two recently diverged (25 Ma) allopatric evolutionary lineages (Lissotriton montandoni and L. vulgaris graecus). Overall, both forms of selection have been stronger in L. v. graecus, while constraint on most TLR genes in L. montandoni appears relaxed. The differences in selection regimes are unlikely to be biased by demographic effects because these were controlled by means of a historical demographic model derived from an independent data set of 62 loci. We infer that TLR genes undergo distinct trajectories of adaptive evolution in closely related amphibian lineages, highlight the potential of TLRs to capture the signatures of different assemblages of pathogenic microorganisms, and suggest differences between lineages in the relative roles of innate and acquired immunity. PMID:25480684

Babik, Wies?aw; Dudek, Katarzyna; Fijarczyk, Anna; Pabijan, Maciej; Stuglik, Micha?; Szkotak, Rafa?; Zieli?ski, Piotr

2015-01-01

33

Function of androgen receptor in gene regulations.  

PubMed

Most of the androgen actions are considered to be mediated by the androgen receptor (AR) of the target genes. The AR is composed of a fairly large molecule because of the long A/B domains of its N-terminal. However, the independent roles of the AR as well as those of the estrogen receptors largely remained unknown mainly due to the lack of the AR knockout (ARKO) mice line. We have succeeded in generating the ARKO mouse by means of a conditional targeting using the Cre/loxP system. The ARKO males grew healthily although they showed a typical feature of the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) and the hormonal assay revealed significantly lower serum androgen and higher LH levels in comparison with those of the wild type (WT) males. The serum estrogen levels were, however, comparable between both the ARKO and the WT. Another hallmark of the ARKO males was a state of high bone turnover osteopenia, in which the acceleration in the bone resorption clearly exceeded the bone formation. Male-typical behaviors were disrupted in male ARKO mice. Aiming at a quick differentiation of an androgen-dependent polyQ disease such as Kennedy's disease, the authors also developed the Drosophila fly-eye model in which the wild type and the polyQ-expanded human AR (hAR) was induced in the eyes of Drosophila. When androgen was administered to the flies induced with the polyQ-expanded hAR, their optical nerves were devastated. PMID:15225853

Kato, Shigeaki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Sato, Takashi; Takeyama, Ken-ichi

2004-05-01

34

First evidence for functional vomeronasal 2 receptor genes in primates.  

PubMed

Two classes of vomeronasal receptor genes, V1R and V2R, occur in vertebrates. Whereas, V1R loci are found in a wide variety of mammals, including primates, intact V2R genes have thus far only been described in rodents and marsupials. In primates, the V2R repertoire has been considered degenerate. Here, we identify for the first time two intact V2R loci in a strepsirrhine primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), and demonstrate their expression in the vomeronasal organ. Putatively functional orthologues are present in two other strepsirrhines, whereas, both loci are pseudogenes in a range of anthropoid species. The functional significance of the loci is unknown, but positive selection on one of them is consistent with an adaptive role in pheromone detection. Finally, conservation of V2R loci in strepsirrhines is notable, given their high diversity and role in MUP and MHC detection in rodents. PMID:23269843

Hohenbrink, Philipp; Mundy, Nicholas I; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

2013-02-23

35

Increased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor gene  

E-print Network

Increased anxiety in mice lacking vitamin D receptor gene Allan V. Kalue¡,1,CA Yan-Ru Lou,1 Ilkka.0000129370.04248.92 Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with many important functions in the brain, mediated through the vitamin D nuclear receptor. Nu- merous human and animal data link vitamin D dysfunctions

Kalueff, Allan V.

36

Cancer Cell AndrogenReceptorGeneExpressioninProstateCancer  

E-print Network

Cancer Cell Article AndrogenReceptorGeneExpressioninProstateCancer Is Directly Suppressed.09.001 SUMMARY Androgen receptor (AR) is reactivated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through that contribute to cellular proliferation. INTRODUCTION The standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa

Liu, Xiaole Shirley

37

Effects of a Teleost Tetraploidization on Neuropeptide Y Receptor Gene Repertoire in Ray-Finned Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancestral vertebrate repertoire for neuropeptide Y receptor genes of the Y1 subfamily probably included four subtypes: Y1, Y4, Y6, and Y8. There was probably a single gene in the Y5 category. Both Y1 and Y5 stimulate food intake in mammals. As the genome seems to have duplicated during the evolution of ray-finned fishes, we have investigated the gene repertoire

Erik Salaneck; Earl T. Larson; Tomas A. Larsson; Dan Larhammar

2005-01-01

38

Thyrotropin receptor gene alterations in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas  

SciTech Connect

Forty-four thyroid autonomously hyperfunctioning adenomas were analyzed to assess the frequency of mutations occurring in the TSH receptor (TSHR). PCR-amplified fragments encompassing the entire exon 10 of the TSHR gene were obtained from the genomic DNA extracted from the tumors and their adjacent normal tissues and were examined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Point mutations were found in 9 of 44 adenomas examined (20%). One mutation occurred in codon 619 (Asp to Gly), four in codon 623 (three were Ala to Ser, one Ala to substitution), two in codon 632 (both Thr to Ile), and two in codon 633 (Asp to Tyr or His). All the alterations were located in a part of the gene coding for an area including the third intracellular loop and the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSH receptor. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic, and none was simultaneous with alterations of ras or gsp oncogenes. Thus, our data show that in our series of 44 hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, a somatic mutation of the TSHR, responsible for the constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway, occurs in 20% of the tumors. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

Russo, D.; Arturi, F.; Filetti, S. [Universita di Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro (Italy)] [and others] [Universita di Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro (Italy); and others

1996-04-01

39

Regulation of the Oct-4 gene by nuclear receptors.  

PubMed

To unravel the network of transcription factors established during development it is important to understand how genes specifically expressed during embryogenesis are regulated. Oct-4 is a transcription factor whose expression is associated with an undifferentiated cell phenotype in the early mouse embryo and is downregulated when such cells differentiate. An enhancer in the upstream region of Oct-4 has previously been reported as being sufficient to mediate the cell-type specific expression and RA-dependent down-regulation in EC cells, although the enhancer contains no retinoic acid receptor (RAR) binding sites. Here we report the identification of promoter elements important for the regulation of the Oct-4 gene in EC cells. A region of the proximal Oct-4 promoter contains an overlapping set of regulatory elements including a high affinity binding site for Sp1 and three direct repeats of an AGGTCA-like sequence with either +1 or 0 spacing. Binding and transient transfection assays reveal that Oct-4 is subject to negative regulation by different members of the steroid-thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Specifically, important roles for ARP-1 and RAR in Oct-4 expression are indicated. PMID:8152920

Sylvester, I; Schler, H R

1994-03-25

40

Selective effects of ligands on vitamin D3 receptor- and retinoid X receptor-mediated gene activation in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Steroid/nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-regulated transcription f factors that play key roles in cell regulation, differentiation, and oncogenesis. Many nuclear receptors, including the human 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR), bind cooperatively to DNA either as homodimers or as heterodimers with the 9-cis retinoic acid (RA) receptor (retinoid X-receptor [RXR]). We have previously reported that the ligands for VDR and RXR can differentially modulate the affinity of the receptors' interaction with DNA in vitro, primarily by modulating the dimerization status of these receptors. These experiments suggested a complex interaction between VDR and RXR and their respective ligands on inducible target genes in vivo. To examine these effects in cells, we used a transient-transfection strategy whereby we simultaneously introduced two different reporter plasmids that are selectively inducible by each ligand. Although VDR can bind as a homodimer to the osteopontin gene vitamin D response element, we find that a RXR-VDR heterodimer must be the transactivating species from the element in vivo, since RXR enhances and 9-cis RA and other RXR-specific ligands attenuate this induction. Conversely, when VDR is overexpressed, vitamin D3 attenuates 9-cis RA induction from an RXR-responsive element. These effects, however, appear to be very sensitive to both the relative ratios of the two receptors and their respective target elements. Functional RXR-VDR complexes are strictly dependent on the DNA-binding polarity. Chimeric versions of VDR and RXR were also constructed to examine the putative activities of homodimeric receptors; a VDR chimera can transactivate in the absence of RXR, demonstrating that VDR has intrinsic transactivation properties. Taken together, these results establish a complex, sensitive cross talk in vivo between two ligands and their receptors that signal through two distinct endocrine pathways. PMID:8622645

Lemon, B D; Freedman, L P

1996-01-01

41

Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene  

SciTech Connect

We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others] [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); and others

1996-08-15

42

Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation in the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.

Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S. [Univ. of Bonn (Georgia); Hebebrand, J. [Univ. of Marburg (Georgia)] [and others

1994-09-01

43

Histone Methylation-Dependent Mechanisms Impose Ligand Dependency for Gene Activation by Nuclear Receptors  

PubMed Central

Summary Nuclear receptors undergo ligand-dependent conformational changes that are required for corepressor-coactivator exchange, but whether there is an actual requirement for specific epigenetic landmarks to impose ligand dependency for gene activation remains unknown. Here we report an unexpected and general strategy that is based on the requirement for specific cohorts of inhibitory histone methyltransferases (HMTs) to impose gene-specific gatekeeper functions that prevent unliganded nuclear receptors and other classes of regulated transcription factors from binding to their target gene promoters and causing constitutive gene activation in the absence of stimulating signals. This strategy, based at least in part on an HMT dependent inhibitory histone code, imposes a requirement for specific histone demethylases, including LSD1, to permit ligand- and signal dependent activation of regulated gene expression. These events link an inhibitory methylation component of the histone code to a broadly used strategy that circumvents pathological constitutive gene induction by physiologically regulated transcription factors. PMID:17289570

Telese, Francesca; Prefontaine, Gratien G.; Hutt, Kasey R.; Cheng, Christine S.; Ju, Bong-Gun; Ohgi, Kenneth A.; Wang, Jianxun; Escoubet-Lozach, Laure; Rose, David W.; Glass, Christopher K.; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

2007-01-01

44

Melanoma risk is associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of various cancers, including melanoma. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with melanoma risk, clinicopathological characteristics, and vitamin D levels. The study group included 117 patients (84 patients with superficial spreading melanoma and 33 patients with nodular melanoma). The control group included 122 sex-matched and age-matched healthy-blood donors of the same ethnicity. VDR gene polymorphisms FokI, EcoRV, TaqI, and ApaI were genotyped by real-time PCR. In 60 patients, the total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were evaluated in serum samples by direct chemiluminescence. Associations among parameters were considered to be significant if the P value was less than 0.05. Significant differences in the frequencies of VDR genotypes were observed between cases and the control group for FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (P<0.0001; P=0.005, respectively). Heterozygous Ff as well as mutant FF genotypes of the FokI polymorphism were associated with increased melanoma risk compared with the wild-type form [odds ratio (OR)=3.035, P=0.003; OR=9.276, P<0.0001, respectively]. A significantly increased melanoma risk was observed for the heterozygous Tt (OR=2.302, P=0.011) and the mutated variant tt (OR=3.697, P=0.003) of the TaqI polymorphism in comparison with the wild-type genotype. None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with clinicopathological characteristics and vitamin D serum level. Our results suggest that FokI and TaqI polymorphisms in the VDR gene may be considered as potential biomarkers for melanoma susceptibility. Low vitamin D levels in melanoma patients indicate the need for vitamin D supplementation. PMID:24638155

Zeljic, Katarina; Kandolf-Sekulovic, Lidija; Supic, Gordana; Pejovic, Janko; Novakovic, Marijan; Mijuskovic, Zeljko; Magic, Zvonko

2014-06-01

45

The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family: a cellular Swiss army knife?  

PubMed

The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family is an evolutionarily conserved group of cell-surface receptors produced by mammals and other organisms. Initially thought to be endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins, recent findings have shown that these receptors have other roles in a range of cellular processes. Among other activities, members of this family act as signal transducers in neuronal migration processes, regulate synaptic plasticity or control vitamin homeostasis. Such multifunctionality is achieved by interaction with diverse cell-surface proteins including glycolipid-anchored receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels. Here, we review the molecular interactions of this protein family with other cell-surface proteins that provide specificity and versatility - a versatility that may be reminiscent of a cellular Swiss army knife. PMID:12074887

Nykjaer, Anders; Willnow, Thomas E

2002-06-01

46

Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes  

SciTech Connect

After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C. [Unite d`Endocrinologie Moleculaire, Jouy en Josas (France)] [and others

1994-06-01

47

The genomic organization and evolution of the natural killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of polymorphic receptors which interact with specific motifs on HLA class I molecules and modulate NK cytolytic activity. In this study, we analyzed a recently sequenced subgenomic region on chromosome 19q13.4 containing eight members of the KIR receptor repertoire. Six members are clustered within a 100-kb continuous sequence. These genes include a previously unpublished member of the KIR gene family 2DS6, as well as 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL1, 2DS4, 3DL2, from centromere to telomere. Two additional KIR genes, KIRCI and 2DL3, which may be located centromeric of this cluster were also analyzed. We show that the KIR genes have undergone repeated gene duplications. Diversification between the genes has occurred postduplication primarily as a result of retroelement indels and gene truncation. Using pre- and postduplication Alu sequences identified within these genes as evolutionary molecular clocks, the evolution and duplication of this gene cluster is estimated to have occurred 30-45 million years ago, during primate evolution. A proposed model of the duplication history of the KIR gene family leading to their present organization is presented. PMID:10803839

Martin, A M; Freitas, E M; Witt, C S; Christiansen, F T

2000-04-01

48

Constraint and adaptation in newt Toll-like receptor genes.  

PubMed

Acute die-offs of amphibian populations worldwide have been linked to the emergence of viral and fungal diseases. Inter- and intra-specific immunogenetic differences may influence the outcome of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential component of innate immunity and also prime acquired defenses. We report the first comprehensive assessment of TLR gene variation for urodele amphibians. The Lissotriton newt TLR repertoire includes representatives of 13 families and is compositionally most similar to that of the anuran Xenopus. Both ancient and recent gene duplications have occurred in urodeles, bringing the total number of TLR genes to at least 21. Purifying selection has predominated the evolution of newt TLRs in both long (~70 million years ago) and medium (~18 mya) timescales. However, we find evidence for both purifying and positive selection acting on TLRs in two recently diverged (2-5 mya) allopatric evolutionary lineages (L. montandoni and L. vulgaris graecus). Overall, both forms of selection have been stronger in L. v. graecus, while constraint on most TLR genes in L. montandoni appears relaxed. The differences in selection regimes are unlikely to be biased by demographic effects because these were controlled by means of a historical demographic model derived from an independent dataset of 62 loci. We infer that TLR genes undergo distinct trajectories of adaptive evolution in closely related amphibian lineages, highlight the potential of TLRs to capture the signatures of different assemblages of pathogenic microorganisms, and suggest differences between lineages in the relative roles of innate and acquired immunity. PMID:25480684

Babik, W; Dudek, K; Fijarczyk, A; Pabijan, M; Stuglik, M; Szkotak, R; Zieli?ski, P

2014-12-01

49

Gene expression profiles linked to AT1 angiotensin receptors in the kidney  

PubMed Central

To characterize gene expression networks linked to AT1 angiotensin receptors in the kidney, we carried out genome-wide transcriptional analysis of RNA from kidneys of wild-type (WT) and AT1A receptor-deficient mice (KOs) at baseline and after 2 days of angiotensin II infusion (1,000 ngkg?1min?1). At baseline, 405 genes were differentially expressed (>1.5) between WT and KO kidneys. Of these, >80% were upregulated in the KO group including genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation. After 2 days of angiotensin II infusion in WT mice, expression of ?805 genes was altered (18% upregulated, 82% repressed). Genes in metabolism and ion transport pathways were upregulated while there was attenuated expression of genes protective against oxidative stress including glutathione synthetase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2. Angiotensin II infusion had little effect on blood pressure in KOs. Nonetheless, expression of >250 genes was altered in kidneys from KO mice during angiotensin II infusion; 14% were upregulated, while 86% were repressed including genes involved in immune responses, angiogenesis, and glutathione metabolism. Between WT and KO kidneys during angiotensin II infusion, 728 genes were differentially expressed; 10% were increased and 90% were decreased in the WT group. Differentially regulated pathways included those involved in ion transport, immune responses, metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and oxidative stress. This genome-wide assessment should facilitate identification of critical distal pathways linked to blood pressure regulation. PMID:20807774

Makhanova, Natalia A.; Crowley, Steven D.; Griffiths, Robert C.

2010-01-01

50

PERSPECTIVES ON MECHANISMS OF GENE REGULATION BY 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 AND ITS RECEPTOR  

PubMed Central

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) functions as a systemic signal in vertebrate organisms to control the expression of genes whose products are vital to the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. This regulatory capability is mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) which localizes at DNA sites adjacent to the promoter regions of target genes and initiates the complex events necessary for transcriptional modulation. Recent investigations using chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques combined with various gene scanning methodologies have revealed new insights into the location, structure and function of these regulatory regions. In the studies reported here, we utilized the above techniques to identify key enhancer regions that mediate the actions of vitamin D on the calcium ion channel gene TRPV6, the catabolic calcium-mobilizing factor gene RankL and the anabolic Wnt signaling pathway co-receptor gene LRP5. We also resolve the mechanism whereby 1,25(OH)2D3 autoregulates the expression of its own receptor. The results identify new features of vitamin D-regulated enhancers, including their locations at gene loci, the structure of the VDR binding sites located within, their modular nature and their functional activity. Our studies suggest that vitamin D enhancers regulate the expression of key target genes by facilitating the recruitment of both the basal transcriptional machinery as well as the protein complexes necessary for altered gene expression. PMID:17223545

Pike, J. Wesley; Meyer, Mark B.; Watanuki, Makoto; Kim, Sungtae; Zella, Lee A.; Fretz, Jackie A.; Yamazaki, Miwa; Shevde, Nirupama K.

2007-01-01

51

The neu Gene: An erbB-Homologous Gene Distinct from and Unlinked to the Gene Encoding the EGF Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neu oncogene, identified in ethylnitrosourea-induced rat neuroglio-blastomas, had strong homology with the erbB gene that encodes the epidermal growth factor receptor. This homology was limited to the region of erbB encoding the tyrosine kinase domain. It was concluded that the neu gene is a distinct novel gene, as it is not coamplified with sequences encoding the EGF receptor in

Alan L. Schechter; Mien-Chie Hung; Lalitha Vaidyanathan; Robert A. Weinberg; Teresa L. Yang-Feng; Uta Francke; Axel Ullrich; Lisa Coussens

1985-01-01

52

Androgen receptor agonism promotes an osteogenic gene program in preadipocytes.  

PubMed

Androgens regulate body composition by interacting with the androgen receptor (AR) to control gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. To identify novel regulatory roles for AR in preadipocytes, we created a 3T3-L1 cell line stably expressing human AR. We found AR expression is required for androgen-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. This inhibition is characterized by decreased lipid accumulation, reduced expression of adipogenic genes, and induction of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest androgens promote an osteogenic gene program at the expense of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23567971

Hartig, Sean M; Feng, Qin; Ochsner, Scott A; Xiao, Rui; McKenna, Neil J; McGuire, Sean E; He, Bin

2013-05-01

53

Isolation and characterisation of main olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene families from the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

E-print Network

receptor type 1; TM, transmembrane domain; VNO, vomeronasal organ; VNR, vomeronasal receptor geneIsolation and characterisation of main olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene families from report the isolation and characterisation of salmon olfactory receptor (SOR) and salmon vomeronasal

Neigel, Joseph E.

54

Comparison of the Olfactory Receptor Genes in Canines and Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dogs are known for their acute sense of smell. Humans are not. Do dogs have a higher percentage of functional olfactory receptors as compared to humans and other primates? Students will be assigned to obtain the full length genetic sequence of five olfactory receptor (OR) genes from their assigned OR family. (See website below.) Students will determine if a functional orthologous gene is present in the human genome, in the genome of a great ape, and in the sequence of a monkey. The class will pool their data and analyze for the percentage of pseudogenes present in each group.

Gary Ogden (St. Mary's University;); Brenda Whaley (Houston Baptist University;); Donald Frohlich (University of St. Thomas;); Jae-Ho Kim (Rogers State University;)

2005-05-25

55

Characterisation of the legume SERK-NIK gene superfamily including splice variants: Implications for development and defence  

PubMed Central

Background SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) genes are part of the regulation of diverse signalling events in plants. Current evidence shows SERK proteins function both in developmental and defence signalling pathways, which occur in response to both peptide and steroid ligands. SERKs are generally present as small gene families in plants, with five SERK genes in Arabidopsis. Knowledge gained primarily through work on Arabidopsis SERKs indicates that these proteins probably interact with a wide range of other receptor kinases and form a fundamental part of many essential signalling pathways. The SERK1 gene of the model legume, Medicago truncatula functions in somatic and zygotic embryogenesis, and during many phases of plant development, including nodule and lateral root formation. However, other SERK genes in M. truncatula and other legumes are largely unidentified and their functions unknown. Results To aid the understanding of signalling pathways in M. truncatula, we have identified and annotated the SERK genes in this species. Using degenerate PCR and database mining, eight more SERK-like genes have been identified and these have been shown to be expressed. The amplification and sequencing of several different PCR products from one of these genes is consistent with the presence of splice variants. Four of the eight additional genes identified are upregulated in cultured leaf tissue grown on embryogenic medium. The sequence information obtained from M. truncatula was used to identify SERK family genes in the recently sequenced soybean (Glycine max) genome. Conclusions A total of nine SERK or SERK-like genes have been identified in M. truncatula and potentially 17 in soybean. Five M. truncatula SERK genes arose from duplication events not evident in soybean and Lotus. The presence of splice variants has not been previously reported in a SERK gene. Upregulation of four newly identified SERK genes (in addition to the previously described MtSERK1) in embryogenic tissue cultures suggests these genes also play a role in the process of somatic embryogenesis. The phylogenetic relationship of members of the SERK gene family to closely related genes, and to development and defence function is discussed. PMID:21385462

2011-01-01

56

Natural Killer Cell Receptor Genes in the Family Equidae: Not only Ly49  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of NKR genes. PMID:23724088

Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

2013-01-01

57

Natural killer cell receptor genes in the family Equidae: not only Ly49.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of NKR genes. PMID:23724088

Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

2013-01-01

58

The S15 self-incompatibility haplotype in Brassica oleracea includes three S gene family members expressed in stigmas.  

PubMed Central

Self-incompatibility in Brassica is controlled by a single, highly polymorphic locus that extends over several hundred kilobases and includes several expressed genes. Two stigma proteins, the S locus receptor kinase (SRK) and the S locus glycoprotein (SLG), are encoded by genes located at the S locus and are thought to be involved in the recognition of self-pollen by the stigma. We report here that two different SLG genes, SLGA and SLGB, are located at the S locus in the class II, pollen-recessive S15 haplotype. Both genes are interrupted by a single intron; however, SLGA encodes both soluble and membrane-anchored forms of SLG, whereas SLGB encodes only soluble SLG proteins. Thus, including SRK, the S locus in the S15 haplotype contains at least three members of the S gene family. The protein products of these three genes have been characterized, and each SLG glycoform was assigned to an SLG gene. Evidence is presented that the S2 and S5 haplotypes carry only one or the other of the SLG genes, indicating either that they are redundant or that they are not required for the self-incompatibility response. PMID:10330480

Cabrillac, D; Delorme, V; Garin, J; Ruffio-Chble, V; Giranton, J L; Dumas, C; Gaude, T; Cock, J M

1999-01-01

59

Organization and expression of canine olfactory receptor genes.  

PubMed Central

Four members of the canine olfactory receptor gene family were characterized. The predicted proteins shared 40-64% identity with previously identified olfactory receptors. The four subfamilies identified in Southern hybridization experiments had as few as 2 and as many as 20 members. All four genes were expressed exclusively in olfactory epithelium. Expression of multiple members of the larger subfamilies was detected, suggesting that most if not all of the cross-hybridizing bands in genomic Southern blots represented actively transcribed olfactory receptor genes. Analysis of large DNA fragments using Southern blots of pulsed-field gels indicated that subfamily members were clustered together, and that two of the subfamilies were closely linked in the dog genome. Analysis of the four olfactory receptor gene subfamilies in 26 breeds of dog provided evidence that the number of genes per subfamily was stable in spite of differential selection on the basis of olfactory acuity in scent hounds, sight hounds, and toy breeds. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8855279

Issel-Tarver, L; Rine, J

1996-01-01

60

Diverse range of gene activity during Arabidopsis thaliana leaf senescence includes pathogen-independent induction of defense-related genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the range of gene activities associated with leaf senescence, we have identified genes that show preferential transcript accumulation during this developmental stage. The mRNA levels of a diverse array of gene products increases during leaf senescence, including a protease, a ribosomal protein, two cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases, a nitrilase and glyoxalase II. Two of the genes identified are known

Betania F. Quirino; Jennifer Normanly; Richard M. Amasino

1999-01-01

61

Gene number determination and genetic polymorphism of the gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1 genes  

PubMed Central

Background WC1 co-receptors belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily and are encoded by a multi-gene family. Expression of particular WC1 genes defines functional subpopulations of WC1+ ?? T cells. We have previously identified partial or complete genomic sequences for thirteen different WC1 genes through annotation of the bovine genome Btau_3.1 build. We also identified two WC1 cDNA sequences from other cattle that did not correspond to sequences in the Btau_3.1 build. Their absence in the Btau_3.1 build may have reflected gaps in the genome assembly or polymorphisms among animals. Since the response of ?? T cells to bacterial challenge is determined by WC1 gene expression, it was critical to understand whether individual cattle or breeds differ in the number of WC1 genes or display polymorphisms. Results Real-time quantitative PCR using DNA from the animal whose genome was sequenced (Dominette) and sixteen other animals representing ten breeds of cattle, showed that the number of genes coding for WC1 co-receptors is thirteen. The complete coding sequences of those thirteen WC1 genes is presented, including the correction of an error in the WC1-2 gene due to mis-assembly in the Btau_3.1 build. All other cDNA sequences were found to agree with the previous annotation of complete or partial WC1 genes. PCR amplification and sequencing of the most variable N-terminal SRCR domain (domain 1 which has the SRCR a pattern) of each of the thirteen WC1 genes showed that the sequences are highly conserved among individuals and breeds. Of 160 sequences of domain 1 from three breeds of cattle, no additional sequences beyond the thirteen described WC1 genes were found. Analysis of the complete WC1 cDNA sequences indicated that the thirteen WC1 genes code for three distinct WC1 molecular forms. Conclusion The bovine WC1 multi-gene family is composed of thirteen genes coding for three structural forms whose sequences are highly conserved among individual cattle and breeds. The sequence diversity necessary for WC1 genes to function as a multi-genic pattern recognition receptor array is encoded in the genome, rather than generated by recombinatorial diversity or hypermutation. PMID:23072335

2012-01-01

62

Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Gene Regulatory Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid regulation of transcription have been studied in detail, the global networks regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) remain unknown. To address this question, we performed an orthogonal analysis to identify direct targets of the GR. First, we analyzed the expression profile of mouse livers in the presence or absence of exogenous glucocorticoid, resulting in

Phillip Phuc Le; Joshua R Friedman; Jonathan Schug; John E Brestelli; J. Brandon Parker; Irina M Bochkis; Klaus H Kaestner

2005-01-01

63

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR? serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPAR? binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPAR? governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPAR? is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPAR? in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPAR? target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPAR? in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Mller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

2010-01-01

64

5-HT1A receptors, gene repression, and depression: guilt by association.  

PubMed

The serotonin system is implicated in major depression and suicide and is negatively regulated by somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors is implicated in the 2- to 3-week latency for antidepressant treatments. Alterations in 5-HT1A receptor levels are reported in depression and suicide, and gene knockout of the 5-HT1A receptor results in an anxiety phenotype, suggesting that abnormal transcriptional regulation of this receptor gene may underlie these disorders. The 5-HT1A receptor gene is negatively regulated in neurons by repressors including REST/NRSF, Freud-1, NUDR/Deaf-1, and Hes5. The association with major depression, suicide, and panic disorder of a new functional 5-HT1A polymorphism at C(-1019)G that selectively blocks repression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor by NUDR further suggests a causative role for altered regulation of this receptor in predisposition to mental illness. The authors review evidence that altered transcription of the 5-HT1A receptor can affect the serotonin system and limbic and cortical areas, leading to predisposition to depression. PMID:15534042

Albert, Paul R; Lemonde, Sylvie

2004-12-01

65

Androgen receptor gene mutation, rearrangement, polymorphism.  

PubMed

Genetic aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) caused by mutations, rearrangements, and polymorphisms result in a mutant receptor that has varied functions compared to wild type AR. To date, over 1,000 mutations have been reported in the AR with most of these being associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While mutations of AR associated with prostate cancer occur less often in early stage localized disease, mutations in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with anti-androgens occur more frequently with 10-30% of these patients having some form of mutation in the AR. Resistance to anti-androgen therapy usually results from gain-of-function mutations in the LBD such as is seen with bicalutamide and more recently with enzalutamide (MDV3100). Thus, it is crucial to investigate these new AR mutations arising from drug resistance to anti-androgens and other small molecule pharmacological agents. PMID:25045626

Eisermann, Kurtis; Wang, Dan; Jing, Yifeng; Pascal, Laura E; Wang, Zhou

2013-09-01

66

Androgen receptor gene mutation, rearrangement, polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Genetic aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) caused by mutations, rearrangements, and polymorphisms result in a mutant receptor that has varied functions compared to wild type AR. To date, over 1,000 mutations have been reported in the AR with most of these being associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While mutations of AR associated with prostate cancer occur less often in early stage localized disease, mutations in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with anti-androgens occur more frequently with 1030% of these patients having some form of mutation in the AR. Resistance to anti-androgen therapy usually results from gain-of-function mutations in the LBD such as is seen with bicalutamide and more recently with enzalutamide (MDV3100). Thus, it is crucial to investigate these new AR mutations arising from drug resistance to anti-androgens and other small molecule pharmacological agents. PMID:25045626

Eisermann, Kurtis; Wang, Dan; Jing, Yifeng; Pascal, Laura E.; Wang, Zhou

2014-01-01

67

Chemosensory receptor genes in the Oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta.  

PubMed

The Oriental tobacco budworm (Helicoverpa assulta) is a specialist herbivore moth and its larvae feed on Solanaceous plants. (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) is the major sex pheromone component in H.?assulta but the specific pheromone receptor (PR) against Z9-16: Ald has not yet been identified. In the present study, we integrated transcriptomic, bioinformatic and functional characterization approaches to investigate the chemosensory receptor genes of H.?assulta. We identified seven potential PRs with 44 olfactory receptors, 18 gustatory receptors and 24 ionotropic receptors, which were further studied by in silico gene expression profile, phylogenetic analysis, reverse transcription PCR and calcium imaging assays. The candidate PR, HassOR13, showed a strong response to the minor sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but not the major component, Z9-16: Ald, in calcium imaging assays. This study provides the molecular basis for comparative studies of chemosensory receptors between H.?assulta and other Helicoverpa species and will advance our understanding of the evolution and function of Lepidoptera insect chemosensation. PMID:25430896

Xu, W; Papanicolaou, A; Liu, N-Y; Dong, S-L; Anderson, A

2014-11-27

68

Expression of T cell receptor genes in human B cells  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the transcription and rearrangement of the T cell antigen receptor (Ti) genes Ti alpha and Ti beta in human B cell, T cell, and myeloid cell lines, as well as in purified tonsillar B and T cells. All four B cell lines examined, as well as one of two myeloid cell lines, expressed low levels of truncated Ti beta transcripts, as did freshly purified tonsillar B cells. Two of the B cell lines and one of the myeloid lines also expressed truncated Ti alpha transcripts, while tonsillar B cells did not. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones from a B cell line demonstrated that these truncated Ti alpha and Ti beta transcripts were composed of unrearranged J and C gene segments. Comparison of cDNA clones from T and B cells suggests that D alpha genes or N regions contribute to the formation of Ti alpha transcripts in T cells but not in B cells. None of the B cell or myeloid cell lines in this study showed evidence of Ti beta gene rearrangements by Southern blotting. Our data, and other studies of gene rearrangements in human tumors, demonstrate that the level of Ti beta transcriptional activity and the frequency of Ti beta gene rearrangements are correlated in all cell types examined. Thus, our data support the accessibility model of antigen receptor gene rearrangement, whereby the susceptibility of gene segments to recombination enzymes is correlated with their transcriptional activity. PMID:2431093

1986-01-01

69

Reciprocal activation of xenobiotic response genes by nuclear receptors SXR/PXR and CAR.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene products such as CYP3A and CYP2B are essential for the metabolism of steroid hormones and xenochemicals including prescription drugs. Nuclear receptor SXR/PXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor/pregnenolone X receptor) has been shown both biochemically and genetically to activate CYP3A genes, while similar studies have established constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) as a CYP2B regulator. The response elements in these genes are also distinct, furthering the concept of independent regulation. Unexpectedly, we found that SXR can regulate CYP2B, both in cultured cells and in transgenic mice via adaptive recognition of the phenobarbital response element (PBRE). In a type of functional symmetry, orphan receptor CAR was also found to activate CYP3A through previously defined SXR/PXR response elements. These observations not only provide a rational explanation for the activation of multiple CYP gene classes by certain xenobiotics, but also reveal the existence of a metabolic safety net that confers a second layer of protection to the harmful effects of toxic compounds and at the same time increases the propensity for drug-drug interactions. PMID:11114890

Xie, W; Barwick, J L; Simon, C M; Pierce, A M; Safe, S; Blumberg, B; Guzelian, P S; Evans, R M

2000-12-01

70

Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd (binding affinity) and Bmax (number of binding sites)) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism.

Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J. (Neuropsychiatric Institute, UCLA (USA))

1991-07-01

71

The Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene and Its Association to Metabolic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, there has been an increasing interest in the role of endogenous glucocorticoids such as cortisol in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Studies in humans have suggested a positive association between obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance, with alleles at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene. For instance, the BclI polymorphism within the intron upstream of GR exon 2 has

Roland Rosmond

2002-01-01

72

EGF receptor gene mutations are common in lung cancers from  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are reportedly associated with sensitivity of lung cancers to gefitinib (Iressa), kinase inhibitor. In-frame deletions occur in exon 19, whereas point mutations occur frequently in codon 858 (exon 21). We found from sequencing the EGFR TK domain that 7 of 10 gefitinib-sensitive tumors had

William Pao; Vincent Miller; Maureen Zakowski; Jennifer Doherty; Katerina Politi; Inderpal Sarkaria; Bhuvanesh Singh; Robert Heelan; Valerie Rusch; Lucinda Fulton; Elaine Mardis; Doris Kupfer; Richard Wilson; Mark Kris; Harold Varmus

2004-01-01

73

Characterization of the "CCR5" Chemokine Receptor Gene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life cycle of retroviruses is an essential topic of modern cell biology instruction. Furthermore, the process of HIV viral entry into the cell is a question of great interest in basic and clinical biology. This paper describes how students can easily recover their own DNA, amplify a portion of the "CCR5" chemokine receptor gene, characterize

Thomas, John C.

2004-01-01

74

EXPRESSION OF THE PROGLUCAGON AND COMPANION RECEPTOR GENES IN CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Expression of the proglucagon (PG) gene in mammals produces a single mRNA transcript that encodes glucagon and two glucagon-like peptide hormones (GLP-1 and GLP-2). Glucagon, GLP-1 and GLP-2 bind to specific receptors that are expressed in different tissues. These peptide hormones in conjunction wit...

75

Expression of histamine receptor genes Hrh3 and Hrh4 in rat brain endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Brain vascular endothelial cells express histamine H1 and H2 receptors, which regulate brain capillary permeability. We investigated whether H3 and H4 receptors are also expressed in these cells and may thus play a role in permeability regulation. Experimental Approach An immortalized rat brain endothelial cell line RBE4 was used to assess the presence of H3 and H4 receptors. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and sequencing were used to identify the receptor mRNAs. The receptors were stimulated with histamine and immepip, and specific inverse agonists/antagonists ciproxifan and JNJ 7777120 were used to block H3 and H4 receptors, respectively. Key Results RT-PCR of mRNA extracted from cultured immortalized RBE4 cells revealed two rat H4 receptor gene (Hrh4) transcripts, one full-length (coding sequence 1173 bp), and one with a 164 bp deletion. Also, two rat H3 receptor gene (Hrh3) isoform mRNAs were expressed in RBE4 cells, and sequencing showed they were the full-length H3 receptor and the 144 bp deletion form. Both histamine and immepip (H3 and H4 receptor agonists) activated the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway in the RBE4 cells and in vivo in brain blood vessels by activating H4 receptors, as the H4 receptor-specific inverse agonists/antagonist JNJ 7777120, but not ciproxifan, H3 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently blocked this effect in RBE4 cells. Conclusions and Implications Both Hrh3 and Hrh4 receptors are expressed in rat brain endothelial cells, and activation of the histamine H4 receptor activates the Erk1/2 cascade. H3 and H4 receptors in endothelial cells are potentially important for regulation of bloodbrain barrier permeability, including trafficking of immunocompetent cells. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23488566

Karlstedt, K; Jin, C; Panula, P

2013-01-01

76

Linkage analysis of schizophrenia with five dopamine receptor genes in nine pedigrees  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia for nearly 2 decades. Recently, the genes for five dopamine receptors have been cloned and characterized, and genetic and physical map information has become available. Using these five loci as candidate genes, the authors have tested for genetic linkage to schizophrenia in nine multigenerational families which include multiple affected individuals. In addition to testing conservative disease models, the have used a neurophysiological indicator variable, the P50 auditory evoked response. Deficits in gating of the P50 response have been shown to segregate with schizophrenia in this sample and may identify carriers of gene(s) predisposing for schizophrenia. Linkage results were consistently negative, indicating that a defect at any of the actual receptor sites is unlikely to be a major contributor to schizophrenia in the nine families studied. 47 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Coon, H.; Byerley, W.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.; Myles-Worsley, M.; Plaetke, R. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Lannfelt, L. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)); Sokoloff, P.; Schwartz, J.C. (Unite de Neurobiologie et de Pharmacologie de l'INSERM, Paris (France)); Waldo, M.; Freedman, R. (Univ. of Colorado, Denver (United States))

1993-02-01

77

Epigenetic Regulation of Monoallelic Rearrangement (Allelic Exclusion) of Antigen Receptor Genes  

PubMed Central

While most genes in the mammalian genome are transcribed from both parental chromosomes in cells where they are expressed, approximately 10% of genes are expressed monoallelically, so that any given cell will express either the paternal or maternal allele, but not both. The antigen receptor genes in B and T cells are well-studied examples of a gene family, which is expressed in a monoallelic manner, in a process coined allelic exclusion. During lymphocyte development, only one allele of each antigen receptor undergoes V(D)J rearrangement at a time, and once productive rearrangement is sensed, rearrangement of the second allele is prevented. In this mini review, we discuss the epigenetic processes, including asynchronous replication, nuclear localization, chromatin condensation, histone modifications, and DNA methylation, which appear to regulate the primary rearrangement of a single allele, while blocking the rearrangement of the second allele. PMID:25538709

Levin-Klein, Rena; Bergman, Yehudit

2014-01-01

78

Demethylation of the Estrogen Receptor Gene in Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer Cells Can Reactivate Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately one third of breast cancers grow independently of estrogen, lack detectable estrogen receptor (ER) protein, and rarely re spond to hormonal treatment. Previous studies correlated the lack of ER gene expression in ER-negative breast tumor cells with hypermethylation of a CpG island in the 5' region of the ER gene. In order to determine whether demethylation of the ER

Anne T. Ferguson; Rena G. Lapidus; Stephen B. Baylin; Nancy E. Davidson

1995-01-01

79

Pathogen recognition receptors in channel catfish: II. Identification, phylogeny and expression of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs).  

PubMed

Vertebrates including teleost fish have evolved an array of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) for detecting and responding to various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs), and the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs). As a part of the series of studies targeted to characterize catfish PRRs, we described 22 NLR receptors in the sister contribution. Here in this study, we focused on cytosolic PRRs recognizing nucleotide pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of invading viruses, the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR receptors). Three RLRs with DExD/H domain containing RNA helicases, retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), were identified from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The catfish RIG-I encodes 937 amino acids that contains two CARDs, a DExDc, a HELICc and a RD domains. MDA5 encodes 1005 amino acids with all the domains identified for RIG-I. LGP2 encodes 677 amino acids that contain other domains but not the CARD domain at the N-terminus. Phylogenetic analyses of the three genes of catfish showed close clustering with their counterparts from other teleost fish. All the genes were found to be constitutively expressed in various tissues of catfish with minor variations. Channel catfish ovarian cells when infected with channel catfish virus showed significant increase in the transcript abundance of all the three genes. Further, RLR genes showed significant increases in expression in the liver tissue collected at different time-points after bacterial infection as well. The results indicate that the catfish RLRs may play important roles in antiviral and anti-bacterial immune responses. PMID:22387588

Rajendran, K V; Zhang, Jiaren; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Wang, Xiuli; Liu, Hong; Wood, Theresa; Terhune, Jeffery; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-07-01

80

Gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancers are detectable in histologically normal breast epithelium  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previously, we found that gene expression in histologically normal breast epithelium (NlEpi) from women at high breast cancer risk can resemble gene expression in NlEpi from cancer-containing breasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene expression characteristic of a cancer subtype might be seen in NlEpi of breasts containing that subtype. Experimental Design We examined gene expression in 46 cases of microdissected NlEpi from untreated women undergoing breast cancer surgery. From 30 age-matched cases (15 estrogen receptor (ER)+, 15 ER-) we used Affymetryix U133A arrays. From 16 independent cases (9 ER+, 7 ER-), we validated selected genes using qPCR. We then compared gene expression between NlEpi and invasive breast cancer using 4 publicly available datasets. Results We identified 198 genes that are differentially expressed between NlEpi from breasts with ER+ (NlEpiER+) compared to ER- cancers (NlEpiER-). These include genes characteristic of ER+ and ER- cancers (e.g., ESR1, GATA3, and CX3CL1, FABP7). QPCR validated the microarray results in both the 30 original cases and the 16 independent cases. Gene expression in NlEpiER+ and NlEpiER- resembled gene expression in ER+ and ER- cancers, respectively: 25-53% of the genes or probes examined in 4 external datasets overlapped between NlEpi and the corresponding cancer subtype. Conclusions Gene expression differs in NlEpi of breasts containing ER+ compared to ER- breast cancers. These differences echo differences in ER+ and ER- invasive cancers. NlEpi gene expression may help elucidate subtype-specific risk signatures, identify early genomic events in cancer development and locate targets for prevention and therapy. PMID:21059815

Graham, Kelly; Ge, Xijin; de las Morenas, Antonio; Tripathi, Anusri; Rosenberg, Carol L.

2010-01-01

81

Identical Splicing of Aberrant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcripts from Amplified Rearranged Genes in Human Glioblastomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal growth factor receptor gene has been found to be amplified and rearranged in human glioblastomas in vivo. Here we present the sequence across a splice junction of aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor transcripts derived from corresponding and uniquely rearranged genes that are coamplified and coexpressed with non-rearranged epidermal growth factor receptor genes in six primary human glioblastomas. Each

Noriaki Sugawa; A. Jonas Ekstrand; C. David James; V. Peter Collins

1990-01-01

82

The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor contribute to the impact of fipronil on hepatic gene expression linked to thyroid hormone metabolism.  

PubMed

Fipronil is described as a thyroid disruptor in rat. Based on the hypothesis that this results from a perturbation of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism, our goal was to investigate the pathways involved in fipronil-induced liver gene expression regulations. First, we performed a microarray screening in the liver of rats treated with fipronil or vehicle. Fipronil treatment led to the upregulation of several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including the cytochrome P450 Cyp2b1, Cyp2b2 and Cyp3a1, the carboxylesterases Ces2 and Ces6, the phase II enzymes Ugt1a1, Sult1b1 and Gsta2, and the membrane transporters Abcc2, Abcc3, Abcg5, Abcg8, Slco1a1 and Slco1a4. Based on a large overlap with the target genes of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), we postulated that these two nuclear receptors are involved in mediating the effects of fipronil on liver gene expression in rodents. We controlled that liver gene expression changes induced by fipronil were generally reproduced in mice, and then studied the effects of fipronil in wild-type, CAR- and PXR-deficient mice. For most of the genes studied, the gene expression modulations were abolished in the liver of PXR-deficient mice and were reduced in the liver of CAR-deficient mice. However, CAR and PXR activation in mouse liver was not associated with a marked increase of thyroid hormone clearance, as observed in rat. Nevertheless, our data clearly indicate that PXR and CAR are key modulators of the hepatic gene expression profile following fipronil treatment which, in rats, may contribute to increase thyroid hormone clearance. PMID:23962444

Roques, Batrice B; Leghait, Julien; Lacroix, Marlne Z; Lasserre, Frdric; Pineau, Thierry; Vigui, Catherine; Martin, Pascal G P

2013-10-01

83

Molecular evolution of the odorant and gustatory receptor genes in lepidopteran insects: implications for their adaptation and speciation.  

PubMed

Lepidoptera (comprised of butterflies and moths) is one of the largest groups of insects, including more than 160,000 described species. Chemoreception plays important roles in the adaptation of these species to a wide range of niches, e.g., plant hosts, egg-laying sites, and mates. This study investigated the molecular evolution of the lepidopteran odorant (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes using recently identified genes from Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius melpomene, Plutella xylostella, Heliothis virescens, Manduca sexta, Cydia pomonella, and Spodoptera littoralis. A limited number of cases of large lineage-specific gene expansion are observed (except in the P. xylostella lineage), possibly due to selection against tandem gene duplication. There has been strong purifying selection during the evolution of both lepidopteran odorant and gustatory genes, as shown by the low ? values estimated through CodeML analysis, ranging from 0.0093 to 0.3926. However, purifying selection has been relaxed on some amino acid sites in these receptors, leading to sequence divergence, which is a precursor of positive selection on these sequences. Signatures of positive selection were detected only in a few loci from the lineage-specific analysis. Estimation of gene gains and losses suggests that the common ancestor of the Lepidoptera had fewer Or genes compared to extant species and an even more reduced number of Gr genes, particularly within the bitter receptor clade. Multiple gene gains and a few gene losses occurred during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Gene family expansion may be associated with the adaptation of lepidopteran species to plant hosts, especially after angiosperm radiation. Phylogenetic analysis of the moth sex pheromone receptor genes suggested that chromosomal translocations have occurred several times. New sex pheromone receptors have arisen through tandem gene duplication. Positive selection was detected at some amino acid sites predicted to be in the extracellular and transmembrane regions of the newly duplicated genes, which might be associated with the evolution of the new pheromone receptors. PMID:25038840

Engsontia, Patamarerk; Sangket, Unitsa; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Satasook, Chutamas

2014-08-01

84

Chromosomal localization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR3) to 1q32  

SciTech Connect

Vasopressin exerts its physiological effects on liver metabolism, fluid osmolarity, and corticotrophic response to stress through a set of at least three receptors, V1a, V2, and V3 (also called V1b), respectively. These receptors constitute a distinct group of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. When bound to vasopressin, they couple to G proteins activating phospholipase C for the V1a and V3 types and adenylate cyclase for the V2. The vasopressin receptor subfamily also includes the receptor for oxytocin, a structurally related hormone that signals through the activation of phospholipase C. The chromosomal position of the V2 receptor gene has been assigned to Xq28-qter by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrids, whereas the oxytocin receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 3q26.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The chromosomal location of the V1a gene is currently unknown. We recently cloned the cDNA and the gene coding for the human pituitary-specific V3 receptor (HGMW-approved symbol AVPR3). We report here the chromosomal localization of this gene by two distinct in situ hybridization techniques using radioactive and fluorescent probes. 11 refs., 1 fig.

Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Derre, J.; Berger, R. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

1995-11-20

85

Identification of Significant Association and Gene-Gene Interaction of GABA Receptor Subunit Genes in Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a significant genetic component. Existing research suggests that multiple genes contribute to autism and that epigenetic effects or gene-gene interactions are likely contributors to autism risk. However, these effects have not yet been identified. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, has been implicated in autism etiology. Fourteen known autosomal GABA receptor subunit genes were studied to look for the genes associated with autism and their possible interactions. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in the following genes: GABRG1, GABRA2, GABRA4, and GABRB1 on chromosome 4p12; GABRB2, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, and GABRP on 5q34-q35.1; GABRR1 and GABRR2 on 6q15; and GABRA5, GABRB3, and GABRG3 on 15q12. Intronic and/or silent mutation SNPs within each gene were analyzed in 470 white families with autism. Initially, SNPs were used in a family-based study for allelic association analysiswith the pedigree disequilibrium test and the family-based association testand for genotypic and haplotypic association analysiswith the genotype-pedigree disequilibrium test (geno-PDT), the association in the presence of linkage (APL) test, and the haplotype family-based association test. Next, with the use of five refined independent marker sets, extended multifactor-dimensionality reduction (EMDR) analysis was employed to identify the models with locus joint effects, and interaction was further verified by conditional logistic regression. Significant allelic association was found for markers RS1912960 (in GABRA4; P = .01) and HCV9866022 (in GABRR2; P = .04). The geno-PDT found significant genotypic association for HCV8262334 (in GABRA2), RS1912960 and RS2280073 (in GABRA4), and RS2617503 and RS12187676 (in GABRB2). Consistent with the allelic and genotypic association results, EMDR confirmed the main effect at RS1912960 (in GABRA4). EMDR also identified a significant two-locus gene-gene effect model involving RS1912960 in GABRA4 and RS2351299 in GABRB1. Further support for this two-locus model came from both the multilocus geno-PDT and the APL test, which indicated a common genotype and haplotype combination positively associated with disease. Finally, these results were also consistent with the results from the conditional logistic regression, which confirmed the interaction between GABRA4 and GABRB1 (odds ratio = 2.9 for interaction term; P = .002). Through the convergence of all analyses, we conclude that GABRA4 is involved in the etiology of autism and potentially increases autism risk through interaction with GABRB1. These results support the hypothesis that GABA receptor subunit genes are involved in autism, most likely via complex gene-gene interactions. PMID:16080114

Ma, D. Q.; Whitehead, P. L.; Menold, M. M.; Martin, E. R.; Ashley-Koch, A. E.; Mei, H.; Ritchie, M. D.; DeLong, G. R.; Abramson, R. K.; Wright, H. H.; Cuccaro, M. L.; Hussman, J. P.; Gilbert, J. R.; Pericak-Vance, M. A.

2005-01-01

86

Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Down Syndrome: Effects of the Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined individual differences in ADHD symptoms and executive function (EF) in children with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, a gene often linked to ADHD in people without DS. Participants included 68 individuals with DS (7-21 years), assessed through laboratory tasks, caregiver reports, and

Mason, Gina Marie; Span, Goffredina; Edgin, Jamie

2015-01-01

87

Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor genes are expressed differentially in mouse embryos during preimplantation development.  

PubMed Central

Estrogen and progesterone play an important role in the development and implantation of preimplantation embryos. However, it is controversial whether these hormones act directly on the embryos. The effects of these hormones depend on the existence of their specific receptors. To determine whether estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor genes are expressed in mouse preimplantation embryos, we examined RNA from embryos at different stages of preimplantation development by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction techniques. ER mRNA was found in oocytes and fertilized eggs. The message level began to decline at the two-cell stage and reached its lowest level at the five- to eight-cell stage. ER mRNA was not detectable at the morula stage but reappeared at the blastocyst stage. Progesterone receptor mRNA was not detectable until the blastocyst stage. The embryonic expression of ER and progesterone receptor genes in the blastocyst suggests a possible functional requirement for ER and progesterone receptor at this stage of development. These results provide a basis for determining the direct role of estrogen and progesterone in preimplantation embryos. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8415723

Hou, Q; Gorski, J

1993-01-01

88

Cell line differences in replication timing of human glutamate receptor genes and other large genes associated with neural disease.  

PubMed

There is considerable current interest in the function of epigenetic mechanisms in neuroplasticity with regard to learning and memory formation and to a range of neural diseases. Previously, we described replication timing on human chromosome 21q in the THP-1 human cell line (2n = 46, XY) and showed that several genes associated with neural diseases, such as the neuronal glutamate receptor subunit GluR-5 (GRIK1) and amyloid precursor protein (APP), were located in regions where replication timing transitioned from early to late S phase. Here, we compared replication timing of all known human glutamate receptor genes (26 genes in total) and APP in 6 different human cell lines including human neuron-related cell lines. Replication timings were obtained by integrating our previously reported data with new data generated here and information from the online database ReplicationDomain. We found that many of the glutamate receptor genes were clearly located in replication timing transition zones in neural precursor cells, but this relationship was less clear in embryonic stem cells before neural differentiation; in the latter, the genes were often located in later replication timing zones that displayed DNA hypermethylation. Analysis of selected large glutamate receptor genes (>200kb), and of APP, showed that their precise replication timing patterns differed among the cell lines. We propose that the transition zones of DNA replication timing are altered by epigenetic mechanisms, and that these changes may affect the neuroplasticity that is important to memory and learning, and may also have a role in the development of neural diseases. PMID:25437050

Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Maekawa, Masato

2014-10-01

89

Unraveling gene-gene interactions regulated by ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  

PubMed Central

The co-expression of genes coupled to additive probabilistic relationships was used to identify gene sets predictive of the complex biological interactions regulated by ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ((Italic)Ahr(/Italic)). To maximize the number of possible gene-gene combinations, data sets from murine embryonic kidney, fetal heart, and vascular smooth muscle cells challenged (Italic)in vitro(/Italic) with ligands of the (Italic)Ahr(/Italic) were used to create predictor/training data sets. Biologically relevant gene predictor sets were calculated for (Italic)Ahr(/Italic), cytochrome P450 1B1, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5, lysyl oxidase, and osteopontin. Transcript levels were categorized into ternary expressions and target genes selected from the data set and tested for all possible combinations using three gene sets as predictors of transitional level. The goodness of prediction for each set was quantified using a multivariate nonlinear coefficient of determination. Evidence is presented that predictor gene combinations can be effectively used to resolve gene-gene interactions regulated by (Italic)Ahr(/Italic) ligands. (Italic)Key words:(/Italic) aryl hydrocarbon receptor, bioinformatics, gene networks, genomics. (Italic)Environ Health Perspect (/Italic)112:403-412 (2004). [Online 14 January 2004] PMID:15033587

Johnson, Charles D; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Falahatpisheh, M Hadi; Brun, Marcel; Walker, Mary K; Dougherty, Edward R; Ramos, Kenneth S

2004-01-01

90

Association of 5HT1B receptor gene and antisocial behavior in alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The 5-HT1B receptor gene has been postulated to play a modulatory role in alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence, and was considered a candidate gene for alcoholism. More recently, the association of the 5-HT receptor gene polymorphism and antisocial personality traits in alcoholism has been discussed. This possible association was studied using material from our gene bank for alcoholism. The

M. Soyka; U. W. Preuss; G. Koller; P. Zill; B. Bondy

2004-01-01

91

Differential expression of olfactory genes in the southern house mosquito and insights into unique odorant receptor gene isoforms  

PubMed Central

The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, has one of the most acute and eclectic olfactory systems of all mosquito species hitherto studied. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to identify olfactory genes expressed predominantly in antenna, mosquitos main olfactory organ. Less than 50% of the trimmed reads generated by high-quality libraries aligned to a transcript, but approximately 70% of them aligned to the genome. Differential expression analysis, which was validated by quantitative real-time PCR on a subset of genes, showed that approximately half of the 48 odorant-binding protein genes were enriched in antennae, with the other half being predominantly expressed in legs. Similar patterns were observed with chemosensory proteins, plus-C odorant-binding proteins, and sensory neuron membrane proteins. Transcripts for as many as 43 ionotropic receptors were enriched in female antennae, thus making the ionotropic receptor family the largest of antennae-rich olfactory genes, second only to odorant receptor (OR) genes. As many as 177 OR genes have been identified, including 36 unique transcripts. The unique OR genes differed from previously annotated ORs in internal sequences, splice variants, and extended N or C terminus. One of the previously unknown transcripts was validated by cloning and functional expression. When challenged with a large panel of physiologically relevant compounds, CquiOR95b responded in a dose-dependent manner to ethyl 2-phenylacteate, which was demonstrated to repel Culex mosquitoes, and secondarily to citronellal, a known insect repellent. This transcriptome study led to identification of key molecular components and a repellent for the southern house mosquito. PMID:24167245

Leal, Walter S.; Choo, Young-Moo; Xu, Pingxi; da Silva, Cherre S. B.; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

2013-01-01

92

The human secretin receptor gene: genomic organization and promoter characterization.  

PubMed

Secretin is the most potent regulator of pancreatic bicarbonate, electrolyte and volume secretion. In this report, the organization of the human secretin receptor (hSR) gene was characterized by overlapping genomic phage clones. The hSR gene consists of 13 exons and 12 introns with all the splice donor and acceptor sites conforming to the canonical GT/AG rule. By transient reporter gene assays, the wild-type promoter, containing 3.0 kb of the hSR gene 5' flanking region, was able to drive 5.8 +/- 0.6 and 6.6 +/- 0.2-fold (P < 0.01) increases in luciferase activities in pancreatic ductule-derived PANC-1 and BPD-1 cells, respectively. By subsequent 5' and 3' deletion analysis, a promoter element was identified within -408 to -158, relative to the ATG codon. This promoter element was found to be cell-specific since it could drive reporter gene expression in PANC-1 and BPD-1 cells but not in Hs 262.St, Hs 746T and alphaT3-1 cells. The study of the transcriptional control of human secretin and its receptor should shed light on the pathological developments of pancreatic cancer and autism in the future. PMID:10437774

Ho, P K; Fong, R S; Kai, H S; Lau, E H; Ngan, E S; Cotton, C U; Chow, B K

1999-07-23

93

Ron receptor-dependent gene regulation of Kupffer cells during endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously shown that Ron receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in macrophages, including Kupffer cells and alveolar macrophages, suppresses endotoxin-induced proinflammatory chemokine/cytokine production. Further, we have also identified genes from Ron replete and Ron deplete livers that were differentially expressed during the progression of liver inflammation associated with acute liver failure in mice by microarray analyses. While important genes and signaling pathways have been identified downstream of Ron signaling during progression of inflammation by this approach, the precise role that Ron receptor plays in regulating the transcriptional landscape in macrophages, and particular in isolated Kupffer cells, has still not been investigated. Methods Kupffer cells were isolated from wild-type (TK+/+) and Ron tyrosine kinase (TK?/?) deficient mice. Ex vivo, the cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of the Ron ligand, Hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL). Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses were utilized to identify alterations in gene expression between genotypes. Results Microarray analyses identified genes expressed differentially in TK+/+ and TK?/? Kupffer cells basally as well as after HGFL and LPS treatment. Interestingly, our studies identified Mefv, a gene that codes for the anti-inflammatory protein pyrin, as an HGFL-stimulated Ron-dependent gene. Moreover, Lcn2 (Lipocalin 2), a proinflammatory gene, which is induced by LPS, was significantly suppressed by HGFL treatment. Microarray results were validated by qRT-PCR studies on Kupffer cells treated with LPS and HGFL. Conclusions The studies herein suggest a novel mechanism whereby HGFL-induced Ron receptor activation promotes the expression of anti-inflammatory genes while inhibiting genes involved in inflammation with a net effect of diminished inflammation in macrophages. PMID:24919612

Kulkarni, Rishikesh M.; Stuart, William D.; Waltz, Susan E.

2014-01-01

94

Human AT 1 receptor is a single copy gene: Characterization in a stable cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address conflicting reports concerning the number of angiotensin II (AII) receptor type 1 (AT1) coding loci in vertebrates, Southern blot analysis was used to determine the genomic representation of AT1 receptor genes in animals comprising a divergent evolutionary spectrum. The data demonstrate that the AT1 receptor gene is present as a single genomic copy in a broad spectrum of

Nambi Aiyar; Elayne Baker; Hsiao-Ling Wu; Ponnal Nambi; Richard M. Edwards; John J. Trill; Catherine Ellis; Derk J. Bergsma

1994-01-01

95

Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY) receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian

Tomas A Larsson; Frida Olsson; Gorel Sundstrom; Lars-Gustav Lundin; Sydney Brenner; Byrappa Venkatesh; Dan Larhammar

2008-01-01

96

The CAG Repeat within the Androgen Receptor Gene and its Relationship to Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The length of a polymorphic CAG repeat sequence, occurring in the androgen receptor gene, is inversely correlated with transcriptional activity by the androgen receptor. Because heightened androgenic stimulation may increase risk of prostate cancer development and progression, we examined whether shorter CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene are related to higher risk of prostate cancer. We conducted a nested

Edward Giovannucci; Meir J. Stampfer; Krishna Krithivas; Myles Brown; Adam Brufsky; James Talcott; Charles H. Hennekens; Philip W. Kantoff

1997-01-01

97

Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.  

PubMed

Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit. PMID:23776004

Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng

2013-06-01

98

Characterization of a dwarf gene in Brassica rapa , including the identification of a candidate gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwarf genes have been valuable for improving harvestable yield of several crop plants and may be useful in oilseed Brassica. We evaluated a dwarf gene, dwf2, from Brassica rapa in order to determine its phenotypic effects and genetic characteristics. The dwf2 mutant was insensitive to exogenous GA 3 for both plant height and flowering time, suggesting that it is not

A. Muangprom; T. C. Osborn

2004-01-01

99

Plant Receptor-Like Kinase Gene Family: Diversity, Function, and Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A basic feature of all biological systems is the ability to sense and process information from chemical signals via cell-surface receptors. One prevalent class of receptors in both plants and animals is the receptor protein kinases. These proteins contain a signal-binding region located outside the cell linked to a region inside the cell called the protein kinase domain. The protein kinase domain transmits information to other cellular components by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to an amino acid residue on the target proteins. In animals and humans, the well-studied family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) mediates a wide range of signaling events at the cell surface. The importance of receptor protein kinases in plant biology was revealed by the discovery of a family of more than 400 genes coding for receptor-like kinases (RLKs) present in the recently sequenced genome of the model plant Arabidopsis. Unlike most animal RTKs, the plant RLKs use serine and threonine residues in proteins as targets for phosphorylation. Detailed studies of a handful of plant RLK genes have implicated them in the control of plant growth and development and in responses to pathogens. Multiple signals can be sensed by different RLKs, including peptides produced by neighboring cells, steroid hormones, and pathogen cell-wall proteins and carbohydrates. Major challenges for the future will include understanding the wide range of specific signaling functions performed by this large family of receptors and discovering how the information from this multitude of signal initiation points is integrated by the plant's cells.

Shin-Han Shiu (University of Wisconsin-Madison; The Department of Botany REV)

2001-12-18

100

Androgen receptor gene and hormonal therapy failure of prostate cancer.  

PubMed Central

Androgen receptor (AR) is a nuclear transcription factor that binds male sex steroids and mediates the biological effects of these hormones to the target cells, such as the epithelial cells of the prostate gland, by activating transcription of androgen-dependent genes. Withdrawal of androgens or the peripheral blockade of androgen action remain the critical therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, after initial regression, many prostate cancers become hormone refractory and progress further with eventual fatal outcome. Understanding the mechanisms of tumor progression and endocrine therapy failure is an important goal. A large number of different molecular mechanisms may be responsible for development of hormone-refractory recurrent tumors. Many of these involve the AR gene and its complex downstream signaling pathways. The role of AR mutations and altered transactivational properties of the receptor have received the most attention as causative factors for progression. However, other mechanisms, such as AR gene amplification and overexpression or increased local bioconversion of androgens, may contribute to the development of progression by mechanisms that involve androgen-dependent cell growth. Here we review the role of the AR gene and its putative downstream effector pathways during human prostate cancer progression and endocrine therapy failure. PMID:9422516

Koivisto, P.; Kolmer, M.; Visakorpi, T.; Kallioniemi, O. P.

1998-01-01

101

The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family: a cellular Swiss army knife?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family is an evolutionarily conserved group of cell-surface receptors produced by mammals and other organisms. Initially thought to be endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins, recent findings have shown that these receptors have other roles in a range of cellular processes. Among other activities, members of this family act as signal transducers in

Anders Nykjaer; Thomas E. Willnow

2002-01-01

102

Control of transcriptional repression of the vitellogenin receptor gene in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by select estrogen receptors isotypes.  

PubMed

The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5' regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17?-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures. PMID:25061109

Dominguez, Gustavo A; Bisesi, Joseph H; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

2014-10-01

103

Directed evolution of specific receptor-ligand pairs for use in the creation of gene switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their versatility and power in controlling gene regulation in nature, nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) have largely eluded utility in heterologous gene regulation applications such as gene therapy and metabolic engineering. The main reason for this void is the pleiotropic interference of the receptor-ligand combination with regulatory networks in the host organism. In recent years, numerous strategies have been developed

Karuppiah Chockalingam; Zhilei Chen; John A. Katzenellenbogen; Huimin Zhao

2005-01-01

104

Expression analysis of the estrogen receptor target genes in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and target genes of the estrogen receptor (ER) in renal cell carcinoma. The data (GSE12090) were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. Data underwent preprocessing using the affy package for Bioconductor software, then the DEGs were selected via the significance analysis of microarray algorithm within the siggenes package. Subsequently, the DEGs underwent functional and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery software. Following data analysis, transcriptional regulatory networks between the DEGs and transcription factors were constructed. Finally, the ER target genes were subjected to gene ontology enrichment analysis. A total of 215 DEGs were identified between the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma samples and the oncocytoma samples, including 126 upregulated and 89 downregulated genes. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that 25% of the DEGs were significantly enriched in functions associated with the plasma membrane. Among those DEGs, 105 were regulated by the ER. Further regulatory network analysis indicated that the ER was mainly involved in the regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, including protease serine 8, claudin 7 and Ras-related protein Rab-25. In the present study, the identified ER target genes were demonstrated to be closely associated with tumor development; this knowledge may improve the understanding of the ER regulatory mechanisms during tumor development and promote the discovery of predictive markers for renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25351113

LIU, ZHIHONG; LU, YOU; HE, ZONGHAI; CHEN, LIBO; LU, YIPING

2015-01-01

105

Analysis of the murine Dtk gene identifies conservation of genomic structure within a new receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily  

SciTech Connect

The receptor tyrosine kinase Dtk/Tyro 3/Sky/rse/brt/tif is a member of a new subfamily of receptors that also includes Axl/Ufo/Ark and Eyk/Mer. These receptors are characterized by the presence of two immunoglobulin-like loops and two fibronectin type III repeats in their extracellular domains. The structure of the murine Dtk gene has been determined. The gene consists of 21 exons that are distributed over 21 kb of genomic DNA. An isoform of Dtk is generated by differential splicing of exons from the 5{prime} region of the gene. The overall genomic structure of Dtk is virtually identical to that determined for the human UFO gene. This particular genomic organization is likely to have been duplicated and closely maintained throughout evolution. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Lewis, P.M.; Crosier, K.E.; Crosier, P.S. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)] [and others] [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); and others

1996-01-01

106

Metformin suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated transactivation of CYP3A4 gene  

PubMed Central

Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The pleotropic effects of metformin on glucose and lipid metabolism have been proposed to be mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the subsequent up-regulation of small heterodimer partner (SHP). SHP suppresses the functions of several nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of hepatic metabolism, including pregnane X receptor (PXR), which is referred to as a master regulator of drug/xenobiotic metabolism. In this study, we hypothesize that metformin suppresses the expression of CYP3A4, a main detoxification enzyme and a target gene of PXR, due to SHP up-regulation. We employed various gene reporter assays in cell lines and qRT-PCR in human hepatocytes and in Pxr?/? mice. We show that metformin dramatically suppresses PXR-mediated expression of CYP3A4 in hepatocytes. Consistently, metformin significantly suppressed the up-regulation of Cyp3a11 mRNA in the liver and intestine of wild-type mice, but not in Pxr?/? mice. A mechanistic investigation of the phenomenon showed that metformin does not significantly up-regulate SHP in human hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that AMPK activation is not involved in this process. We show that metformin disrupts PXRs interaction with steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC1) in a two-hybrid assay independently of the PXR ligand binding pocket. Metformin also inhibited vitamin D receptor-, glucocorticoid receptor- and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-mediated induction of CYP3A4 mRNA in human hepatocytes. We show, therefore, a suppressive effect of metformin on PXR and other ligand-activated nuclear receptors in transactivation of the main detoxification enzyme CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. PMID:21920351

Krausova, Lucie; Stejskalova, Lucie; Wang, Hongwei; Vrzal, Radim; Dvorak, Zdenek; Mani, Sridhar; Pavek, Petr

2011-01-01

107

Evolution of Dopamine Receptor Genes of the D1 Class in Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genesD1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1Ewhich arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species. PMID:23197594

Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michal; Vernier, Philippe

2013-01-01

108

Modeling Plant Development with Gene Regulation Networks Including Signaling and Cell Division  

E-print Network

Modeling Plant Development with Gene Regulation Networks Including Signaling and Cell Division *1 how a simple model of gene regulatory networks combined with models of signaling and cell division can intercellular signaling, cell cycling, mechanical stresses, and a changing topology of neighborhood

Jönsson, Henrik

109

Enhancement of gene transactivation activity of androgen receptor by hepatitis B virus X protein  

SciTech Connect

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a regulatory protein that is required for efficient replication of HBV in its natural host. In this report, we demonstrate by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that HBx can physically bind to the androgen receptor (AR), which is a nuclear hormone receptor that is expressed in many different tissues including the liver. This observation is further supported by confocal microscopy, which reveals that HBx can alter the subcellular localization of the AR both in the presence and in the absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Further studies indicate that HBx can enhance the gene transactivation activity of AR by enhancing its DNA binding activity in a DHT-dependent manner. However, HBx does not remain associated with AR on the DNA. As AR can regulate the expression of a number of cellular genes, our results raise the possibility that HBV pathogenesis may be mediated in part via the interaction between HBx and AR.

Zheng Yanyan [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, 2011 Zonal Avenue, HMR-401, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Chen Wenling [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, 2011 Zonal Avenue, HMR-401, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Ma, W.-L. Maverick [George Whipple Lab for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, Urology, Radiation Oncology and the Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Chang Chawnshang [George Whipple Lab for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, Urology, Radiation Oncology and the Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Ou, J.-H. James [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, 2011 Zonal Avenue, HMR-401, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)]. E-mail: jamesou@hsc.usc.edu

2007-07-05

110

Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium.  

PubMed

The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPAR? in rodents increases liver cancer incidence, whereas suppression of PPAR? activity leads to hepatocellular steatosis. Analytical approaches were developed to identify biosets (i.e., gene expression differences between two conditions) in a genomic database in which PPAR? activity was altered. A gene expression signature of 131 PPAR?-dependent genes was built using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and PPAR?-null mice after exposure to three structurally diverse PPAR? activators (WY-14,643, fenofibrate and perfluorohexane sulfonate). A fold-change rank-based test (Running Fisher's test (p-value ? 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the PPAR? signature and a test set of 48 and 31 biosets positive or negative, respectively for PPAR? activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 98%. The signature was then used to identify factors that activate or suppress PPAR? in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression compendium of ~1850 biosets. In addition to the expected activation of PPAR? by fibrate drugs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorinated compounds, PPAR? was activated by benzofuran, galactosamine, and TCDD and suppressed by hepatotoxins acetaminophen, lipopolysaccharide, silicon dioxide nanoparticles, and trovafloxacin. Additional factors that activate (fasting, caloric restriction) or suppress (infections) PPAR? were also identified. This study 1) developed methods useful for future screening of environmental chemicals, 2) identified chemicals that activate or suppress PPAR?, and 3) identified factors including diets and infections that modulate PPAR? activity and would be hypothesized to affect chemical-induced PPAR? activity. PMID:25689681

Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Thomas, Russell S; Applegate, Dawn; Rosen, Mitch; Abbott, Barbara; Lau, Christopher; Guo, Grace; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Klaassen, Curtis; Corton, J Christopher

2015-01-01

111

Contrasting Modes of Evolution Between Vertebrate Sweet/Umami Receptor Genes and Bitter Receptor Genes  

E-print Network

are well documented in hummingbirds and other nectar feeders (Kare and Medway 1959; Duncan 1960; Whittow of biodiversity and adapta- tion. It would be especially illuminating if the variation and evolution of the genes

Zhang, Jianzhi

112

Isoflavones enhance interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors ? and ?.  

PubMed

The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors ? and ? (ROR? and ROR?), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of isoflavones on ROR?/? activity and the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In doxycycline-inducible CHO stable cell lines, we found that four isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), genistein, formononetin, and daidzein, enhanced ROR?- or ROR?-mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In an activation assay of the Il17a promoter using Jurkat cells, these compounds enhanced the ROR?- or ROR?-mediated activation of the Il17a promoter at concentrations of 110(-6)M to 110(-5)M. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, the four isoflavones enhanced the interaction between the ROR?- or ROR?-ligand binding domain and the co-activator LXXLL peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these isoflavones potently enhanced Il17a mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin, but showed slight enhancement of Il17a gene expression in ROR?/?-knockdown EL4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays also revealed that BA enhanced the interaction between ROR?t and SRC-1, which is a co-activator for nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the isoflavones have the ability to enhance IL-17 gene expression by stabilizing the interactions between ROR?/? and co-activators. This also provides the first evidence that dietary chemicals can enhance IL-17 gene expression in immune cells. PMID:25583575

Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Yukimasa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Hirao, Toru; Takeuchi, Shinji; Jetten, Anton M; Matsuda, Tadashi

2015-03-01

113

Novel transcripts of the estrogen receptor ?? gene in channel catfish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complementary DNA libraries from liver and ovary of an immature female channel catfish were screened with a homologous ER?? cDNA probe. The hepatic library yielded two new channel catfish ER cDNAs that encode N-terminal ER?? variants of different sizes. Relative to the catfish ER?? (medium size; 581 residues) previously reported, these new cDNAs encode Long-ER?? (36 residues longer) and Short-ER?? (389 residues shorter). The 5???-end of Long-ER?? cDNA is identical to that of Medium-ER?? but has an additional 503-bp segment with an upstream, in-frame translation-start codon. Recombinant Long-ER?? binds estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 3.4 nM), similar to that previously reported for Medium-ER?? but lower than reported for catfish ER??. Short-ER?? cDNA encodes a protein that lacks most of the receptor protein and does not bind estrogen. Northern hybridization confirmed the existence of multiple hepatic ER?? RNAs that include the size range of the ER?? cDNAs obtained from the libraries as well as additional sizes. Using primers for RT-PCR that target locations internal to the protein-coding sequence, we also established the presence of several ER?? cDNA variants with in-frame insertions in the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains and in-frame or out-of-frame deletions in the ligand-binding domain. These internal variants showed patterns of expression that differed between the ovary and liver. Further, the ovarian library yielded a full-length, ER?? antisense cDNA containing a poly(A) signal and tail. A limited survey of histological preparations from juvenile catfish by in situ hybridization using directionally synthesized cRNA probes also suggested the expression of ER?? antisense RNA in a tissue-specific manner. In conclusion, channel catfish seemingly have three broad classes of ER?? mRNA variants: those encoding N-terminal truncated variants, those encoding internal variants (including C-terminal truncated variants), and antisense mRNA. The sense variants may encode functional ER?? or related proteins that modulate ER?? or ER?? activity. The existence of ER antisense mRNA is reported in this study for the first time. Its role may be to participate in the regulation of ER gene expression. ?? 2000 Academic Press.

Patino, R.; Xia, Z.; Gale, W.L.; Wu, C.; Maule, A.G.; Chang, X.

2000-01-01

114

The ste3 pheromone receptor gene of Pneumocystis carinii is surrounded by a cluster of signal transduction genes.  

PubMed Central

Although the clinical aspects of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia are well characterized, the basic biology of the causative organism is poorly understood. Most proposed life cycles of P. carinii include both asexual and sexual replicative cycles. The two most prominent morphological forms are a trophic form, thought to undergo asexual replication by binary fission, and a cystic form or ascus containing intracystic bodies or ascospores, the products of sexual replication. To facilitate the Pneumocystis genome project, a P. carinii f. sp. carinii genomic cosmid library and an additional lambda cDNA library were generated. A partial expressed sequence tag database, created as part of the genome project, revealed the transcription of meiosis-specific genes and other genes related to sexual reproduction. The ortholog of Ste3, an a-factor pheromone receptor, was cloned and genes surrounding the ste3 locus were examined. Clustered around the ste3 gene are genes encoding elements functional in the pheromone response signal transduction cascade of model fungal organisms. These include the Ste20 protein kinase, the Ste12 homoeodomain transcriptional regulator, a potential pheromone mating factor, and other DNA-binding proteins. The genomic organization of the ste3 locus bears significant similarity to that of the mating locus recently described in Cryptococcus neoformans. The P. carinii genome contains much of the genetic machinery necessary for pheromone responsiveness, and these data support the existence of a sexual replication cycle. PMID:11238389

Smulian, A G; Sesterhenn, T; Tanaka, R; Cushion, M T

2001-01-01

115

Polymorphisms in TOLL-like receptor genes and their roles in allergic asthma and atopy.  

PubMed

Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung airways cause by genetic and environmental factors. Two quantifiable phenotypes of this disease are airway hyperresponsiveness and atopy. TOLL-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of intracellular and cell surface receptors that can respond to pathogen associated molecular patterns involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Macrophages, one of the main immune cells involved in asthma, express a variety of TLRs, including TLR 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. This review focuses on polymorphisms found in TLR genes expressed in macrophages, and their role in asthma. Human studies have detected polymorphisms in TLR genes associated with asthma phenotypes, and studies using murine models have shown that some receptors and their agonistic or antagonistic ligands are capable of modulating the cytokine profile in asthmatics in a protective manner. Therefore, certain receptors and their ligands are being explored as potential immunotherapies for asthma. Recently, several patents have been filed protecting inventions for treating asthma through the use of TLRs and their ligands. PMID:21158736

Kanagaratham, Cynthia; Camateros, Pierre; Flaczyk, Adam; Radzioch, Danuta

2011-01-01

116

Vitamin D Receptor Gene as a Candidate Gene for Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been postulated as environmental and genetic factors in neurodegeneration disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer disease (AD), and recently Parkinson disease (PD). Given the sparse data on PD and VDR, we conducted a two-stage study to evaluate the genetic effects of VDR in PD. In the discovery stage, 30 tagSNPs in VDR were tested for association with PD risk as a discrete trait and age-at-onset of PD as a quantitative trait in 770 Caucasian PD families. In the validation stage, 18 VDR SNPs were tested in an independent Caucasian cohort (267 cases and 267 controls) constructed from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the discovery dataset, SNPs in the 5? end of VDR were associated with both risk and age-at-onset with more significant evidence of association with age-at-onset (nominal p=0.0008 for the most significant SNPs). These SNPs were also associated with AD in a recent GWAS. In the validation dataset, SNPs in the 3? end of VDR were associated with age-at-onset (nominal p=0.003 for the most significant SNPs but not risk. The most significant 3?end SNP has been be associated with both MS and AD. Our findings suggest VDR as a potential susceptibility gene and support an essential role of vitamin D in PD. PMID:21309754

BUTLER, MEGAN W.; BURT, AMBER; EDWARDS, TODD L.; ZUCHNER, STEPHAN; SCOTT, WILLIAM K.; MARTIN, EDEN R.; VANCE, JEFFERY M.; WANG, LIYONG

2010-01-01

117

Constitutive expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-regulated genes in dwarf mice.  

PubMed

Defects in growth hormone secretion or signaling in mice are associated with decreased body weights (dwarfism), increased longevity, increased resistance to stress, and decreases in factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Peroxisome proliferators (PP) alter a subset of these changes in wild-type mice through activation of the nuclear receptor family member PP-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). We tested the hypothesis that an overlap in the transcriptional programs between untreated dwarf mice and PP-treated wild-type mice underlies these similarities. Using transcript profiling, we observed a statistically significant overlap in the expression of genes differentially regulated in control Snell dwarf mice (Pit-1dw) compared with phenotypically normal heterozygote (+/dw) control mice and those altered by the PP 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinyl)thioacetic acid (WY-14,643) in +/dw mice. The genes included those involved in beta- and omega-oxidation of fatty acids (Acox1, Cyp4a10, Cyp4a14) and those involved in stress responses (the chaperonin, T-complex protein1epsilon) and cardiovascular disease (fibrinogen). The levels of some of these gene products were also altered in other dwarf mouse models, including Ames, Little, and growth hormone receptor-null mice. The constitutive increases in PPARalpha-regulated genes may be partly caused by increased expression of PPARalpha mRNA and protein as observed in the livers of control Snell dwarf mice. These results indicate that some of the beneficial effects associated with the dwarf phenotype may be caused by constitutive activation of PPARalpha and regulated genes. PMID:15576629

Stauber, Anja J; Brown-Borg, Holly; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P; Laughter, Ashley; Staben, Rebecca A; Coley, Jaqueline C; Swanson, Cynthia; Voss, Kenneth A; Kopchick, John J; Corton, J Christopher

2005-03-01

118

Oxytocin receptor and vasopressin receptor 1a genes are respectively associated with emotional and cognitive empathy.  

PubMed

Empathy is the ability to recognize and share in the emotions of others. It can be considered a multifaceted concept with cognitive and emotional aspects. Little is known regarding the underlying neurochemistry of empathy and in the current study we used a neurogenetic approach to explore possible brain neurotransmitter pathways contributing to cognitive and emotional empathy. Both the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) genes contribute to social cognition in both animals and humans and hence are prominent candidates for contributing to empathy. The following research examined the associations between polymorphisms in these two genes and individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy in a sample of 367 young adults. Intriguingly, we found that emotional empathy was associated solely with OXTR, whereas cognitive empathy was associated solely with AVPR1a. Moreover, no interaction was observed between the two genes and measures of empathy. The current findings contribute to our understanding of the distinct neurogenetic pathways involved in cognitive and emotional empathy and underscore the pervasive role of both oxytocin and vasopressin in modulating human emotions. PMID:25476609

Uzefovsky, F; Shalev, I; Israel, S; Edelman, S; Raz, Y; Mankuta, D; Knafo-Noam, A; Ebstein, R P

2015-01-01

119

Alternative splicing and exon duplication generates 10 unique porcine 5-HT 4 receptor splice variants including a functional homofusion variant.  

PubMed

5-HT(4) receptors are present in human and porcine atrial myocytes while they are absent from the hearts of small laboratory animals. The pig is therefore the only available nonprimate animal model in which to study cardiac 5-HT(4) receptor function under physiological conditions. While several human splice variants of the 5-HT(4) receptor have been described, the splicing behavior of this receptor in porcine tissue is currently unknown. Here we report on the identification of nine novel COOH-terminal splice variants of the porcine 5-HT(4) receptor, which were named 5-HT(4(b2, j, k, l, m, o, p, q, r)). The internal h-variant was found in combination with several COOH-terminal exons. In addition, splice variants were found that comprised duplicated exons fused to the common region of the 5-HT(4) receptor, thereby providing evidence for a duplication of the porcine HTR4 gene. One of these variants putatively encoded a nine transmembrane-spanning domain homofusion receptor, 5-HT(4(9TM)); also the other variants with a duplicated region might translate into functional, transcriptionally fused dimeric 5-HT(4) receptor variants. The elucidation of the genomic context confirmed that the variants were not genomic artefacts but originated from alternative splicing. This was further corroborated by a functional analysis of the variants 5-HT(4(a)), 5-HT(4(r)), and 5-HT(4(9TM)). To our knowledge, our data are the first to report on a functional GPCR with more than seven predicted transmembrane domains. These findings urge for caution when interpreting data on 5-HT(4) receptor-related pharmacology obtained in the pig; validation at the molecular level might be needed before extrapolating results to human. PMID:18430808

De Maeyer, Joris H; Aerssens, Jeroen; Verhasselt, Peter; Lefebvre, Romain A

2008-06-12

120

Guggulsterone activates multiple nuclear receptors and induces CYP3A gene expression through the pregnane X receptor.  

PubMed

Gugulipid is an extract of the guggul tree, Commiphora mukul, that is used to treat hyperlipidemia in humans. The lipid-lowering activity is found in the stereoisomers and plant sterols Z-guggulsterone and E-guggulsterone. The molecular basis for the lipid-lowering action of guggulsterone has been suggested to be antagonism of the farnesoid X receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. To determine whether guggulsterone has the ability to function as an agonist of other nuclear receptor family members, we screened a panel of these proteins for their ability to transactivate reporter genes. Here, we show that guggulsterones activate the estrogen receptor alpha isoform, progesterone receptor, and pregnane X receptor. Concentration-response analysis using reporter gene assays indicate that guggulsterones activate these three receptors with EC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, we show that guggulsterone-mediated activation of the pregnane X receptor induces the expression of CYP3A genes in both rodent and human hepatocytes. Protein interaction assays indicate that guggulsterones interact directly with pregnane X receptor, thereby modulating interaction with protein cofactors. We introduce a novel method to screen herbal remedies for their ability to activate pregnane X receptor. Pregnane X receptor activation is known to cause herb-drug interactions, and our data suggest that gugulipid therapy should be used cautiously in patients taking prescription medications that are metabolized by CYP3A family members. Moreover, our data suggest the need for additional studies of guggulsterones agonist activity against estrogen receptor alpha isoform and the progesterone receptor. PMID:15075359

Brobst, Dan E; Ding, Xunshan; Creech, Katrina L; Goodwin, Bryan; Kelley, Brian; Staudinger, Jeff L

2004-08-01

121

Dopamine D1 Receptors, Regulation of Gene Expression in the Brain, and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (DA), the most abundant catecholamine in the basal ganglia, participates in the regulation of motor functions and of cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Abnormalities in dopaminergic systems are thought to be the bases for some neuropsychiatric disorders including addiction, Parkinsons disease, and Schizophrenia. DA exerts its arrays of functions via stimulation of D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) DA receptors which are located in various regions of the brain. The DA D1 and D2 receptors are very abundant in the basal ganglia where they exert their functions within separate neuronal cell types. The present paper focuses on a review of the effects of stimulation of DA D1 receptors on diverse signal transduction pathways and gene expression patterns in the brain. We also discuss the possible involvement of the DA D1 receptors in DA-mediated toxic effects observed both in vitro and in vivo. Future studies using more selective agonist and antagonist agents and the use of genetically modified animals should help to further clarify the role of these receptors in the normal physiology and in pathological events that involve DA. PMID:20632973

Cadet, Jean Lud; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; McCoy, Michael T.; Beauvais, Genevieve; Cai, Ning Sheng

2013-01-01

122

Homeodomain binding motifs modulate the probability of odorant receptor gene choice in transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Odorant receptor (OR) genes constitute with 1200 members the largest gene family in the mouse genome. A mature olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) is thought to express just one OR gene, and from one allele. The cell bodies of OSNs that express a given OR gene display a mosaic pattern within a particular region of the main olfactory epithelium. The mechanisms and cis-acting DNA elements that regulate the expression of one OR gene per OSN OR gene choice remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a reporter assay to identify minimal promoters for OR genes in transgenic mice, which are produced by the conventional method of pronuclear injection of DNA. The promoter transgenes are devoid of an OR coding sequence, and instead drive expression of the axonal marker tau-?galactosidase. For four mouse OR genes (M71, M72, MOR23, and P3) and one human OR gene (hM72), a mosaic, OSN-specific pattern of reporter expression can be obtained in transgenic mice with contiguous DNA segments of only ?300 bp that are centered around the transcription start site (TSS). The ?150 bp region upstream of the TSS contains three conserved sequence motifs, including homeodomain (HD) binding sites. Such HD binding sites are also present in the H and P elements, DNA sequences that are known to strongly influence OR gene expression. When a 19mer encompassing a HD binding site from the P element is multimerized nine times and added upstream of a MOR23 minigene that contains the MOR23 coding region, we observe a dramatic increase in the number of transgene-expressing founders and lines and in the number of labeled OSNs. By contrast, a nine-times multimerized 19mer with a mutant HD binding site does not have these effects. We hypothesize that HD binding sites in the H and P elements and in OR promoters modulate the probability of OR gene choice. PMID:21111823

Vassalli, Anne; Feinstein, Paul; Mombaerts, Peter

2013-01-01

123

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons include the ?6?4* subtype  

PubMed Central

The ?6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been implicated in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including Parkinson's disease and substance abuse. In contrast, little is known about the role of ?6* nAChRs in the peripheral nervous system (where the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits). Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are known to express nAChRs with a pharmacology consistent with an ?7, ?3?4*, and ?4?2* composition. Here we present evidence that DRG neurons also express ?6* nAChRs. We used RT-PCR to show the presence of ?6 subunit transcripts and patch-clamp electrophysiology together with subtype-selective ?-conotoxins to pharmacologically characterize the nAChRs in rat DRG neurons. ?-Conotoxin BuIA (500 nM) blocked acetylcholine-gated currents (IACh) by 90.3 3.0%; the recovery from blockade was very slow, indicating a predominance of ?x?4* nAChRs. Perfusion with either 300 nM BuIA[T5A;P6O] or 200 nM MII[E11A], ?-conotoxins that target the ?6?4* subtype, blocked IACh by 49.3 5 and 46.7 8%, respectively. In these neurons, IACh was relatively insensitive to 200 nM ArIB[V11L;V16D] (9.42.0% blockade) or 500 nM PnIA (23.04% blockade), ?-conotoxins that target ?7 and ?3?2*/?6?2* nAChRs, respectively. We conclude that ?6?4* nAChRs are among the subtypes expressed by DRG, and to our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ?6?4* in neurons outside the CNS.Hone, A. J., Meyer, E. L., McIntyre, M., McIntosh, J. M. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons include the ?6?4* subtype. PMID:22024738

Hone, Arik J.; Meyer, Erin L.; McIntyre, Melissa; McIntosh, J. Michael

2012-01-01

124

Paradata for 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'

125

The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,

van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

2011-01-01

126

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Dynamic evolution of the GnRH receptor gene  

E-print Network

RH receptor genes sequenced exhib- ited expression restricted to the pituitary gland in mice and rats [5 family. First, the "mammalian" pituitary type GnRH receptor, which is the sole GnRH receptor in humans- tide produced by neurons in the hypothalamic-preoptic area in vertebrates; it causes pituitary

Eisthen, Heather L.

127

Characterization of horse ( Equus caballus ) T-cell receptor beta chain genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding the horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) were cloned and characterized. Of 33 cDNA clones isolated from the mesenteric lymph node, 30 had functionally rearranged gene segments, and three contained germline sequences. Sixteen unique variable segments (TCRBV), 14 joining genes (TCRBJ), and two constant region genes (TCRBC) were identified. Horse TCRBV were grouped into nine families

Mark D. Schrenzel; Johanna L. Watson; David A. Ferrick

1994-01-01

128

The Emerging Role Of Nuclear Receptor ROR? And Its Crosstalk With LXR In Xeno- And Endobiotic Gene Regulation  

PubMed Central

Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs), including the ?, ? and ? isoforms (NR1F1-3), are orphan nuclear receptors that have been implicated in tissue development, immune responses, and circadian rhythm. Although ROR? and ROR? have been shown to be expressed in the liver, the hepatic function of these two RORs remains unknown. We have recently shown that loss of ROR? and/or ROR? can positively or negatively influence the expression of multiple Phase I and Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the liver. Among ROR responsive genes, we identified oxysterol 7?-hydroxylase (Cyp7b1), which plays a critical role in the homeostasis of cholesterol, as a ROR? target gene. We showed that ROR? is both necessary and sufficient for Cyp7b1 activation. Studies of mice deficient of ROR? or liver X receptors (LXRs) revealed an interesting and potentially important functional crosstalk between ROR? and LXR. The respective activation of LXR target genes and ROR target genes in ROR? null mice and LXR null mice led to our hypothesis that these two receptors are mutually suppressive in vivo. LXRs have been shown to regulate a battery of metabolic genes. We conclude that RORs participate in the xeno- and endobiotic regulatory network by regulating gene expression directly or through crosstalk with LXR, which may have broad implications in metabolic homeostasis. PMID:18535165

Wada, Taira; Kang, Hong Soon; Jetten, Anton M.; Xie, Wen

2009-01-01

129

Polymorphism of the Androgen Receptor Gene is Associated with Male Pattern Baldness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common heritable loss of scalp hair known as male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia affects up to 80% of males by age 80. A balding scalp is characterized by high levels of the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone and increased expression of the androgen receptor gene. To determine if the androgen receptor gene is associated with male pattern baldness, we compared

Justine A. Ellis; Margaret Stebbing; Stephen B. Harrap

2001-01-01

130

Polymorphisms in the Estrogen Receptor 1 and Vitamin C and Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Families Are  

E-print Network

Polymorphisms in the Estrogen Receptor 1 and Vitamin C and Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Families) and in the vitamin C receptor and matrix metalloproteinase gene families were observed. Four ESR1 SNPs were suggest a role for estrogen, vitamin C and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of NHL

California at Berkeley, University of

131

Dramatic variation of the vomeronasal pheromone receptor gene repertoire among five orders  

E-print Network

by the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Pheromone receptors in the mammalian VNO are encoded by the V1R and V2R gene by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which resides on the bottom of the nasal cavity and is anatomicallyDramatic variation of the vomeronasal pheromone receptor gene repertoire among five orders

Zhang, Jianzhi

132

Lack of association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms/haplotypes in Sjgren's syndrome.  

PubMed

The vitamin D is involved in a wide variety of biological processes including bone metabolism, modulation of the immune response, and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D has several immunomodulatory effects through vitamin D receptor (VDR). A series of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor gene have been linked to numerous of diseases, including osteoarthritis, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, tuberculosis, virus infections, urinary stones, and periodontitis. Several studies have reported that genetic variations of VDR might be a risk factor for the development of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). However, no data is available on the possible relationship between primary Sjgren's syndrome and VDR gene polymorphisms. Our aim was to determine VDR gene BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, and FokI polymorphism genotypes in pSS patients and healthy controls to analyze whether a relationship exists between polymorphisms in the VDR gene and susceptibility to Sjgren's syndrome. In the current study, 105 patients with pSS and 93 healthy controls were tested for VDR gene polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, and FokI) genotypes. There were no statistical differences in the distribution of BsmI, TaqI, ApaI, and FokI genotypes and the common haplotypes between pSS patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that the TaqI, BsmI, ApaI, and FokI polymorphisms of the VDR gene are not associated with the development of primary Sjgren's syndrome in the Hungarian population studied. PMID:24803230

Zilahi, Erika; Chen, Ji-Qing; Papp, Gbor; Sznt, Antnia; Zeher, Margit

2015-02-01

133

Molecular Cloning of Two Cannabinoid Type 1-like Receptor Genes from the Puffer Fish Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The puffer fish,Fugu rubripes(Fugu), has been proposed as a model vertebrate genome. We have characterized two putative G-protein-coupled receptor encoding genes, FCB1A and FCB1B, obtained by degenerate PCR and low-stringency hybridization of a Fugu genomic library. These two genes show high homology to the human cannabinoid receptor type 1 (HCB1), but very low homology to the type 2 receptor. The

Fuminori Yamaguchi; Alexander D. Macrae; Sydney Brenner

1996-01-01

134

The collection of NFATc1-dependent transcripts in the osteoclast includes numerous genes non-essential to physiologic bone resorption  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts are specialized secretory cells of the myeloid lineage important for normal skeletal homeostasis as well as pathologic conditions of bone including osteoporosis, inflammatory arthritis and cancer metastasis. Differentiation of these multinucleated giant cells from precursors is controlled by the cytokine RANKL, which through its receptor RANK initiates a signaling cascade culminating in the activation of transcriptional regulators which induce the expression of the bone degradation machinery. The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1) is the master regulator of this process and in its absence osteoclast differentiation is aborted both in vitro and in vivo. Differential mRNA expression analysis by microarray is used to identify genes of potential physiologic relevance across nearly all biologic systems. We compared the gene expression profile of murine wild-type and NFATc1-deficient osteoclast precursors stimulated with RANKL and identified that the majority of the known genes important for osteoclastic bone resorption require NFATc1 for induction. Here, five novel RANKL-induced, NFATc1-dependent transcripts in the osteoclast are described: Nhedc2, Rhoc, Serpind1, Adcy3 and Rab38. Despite reasonable hypotheses for the importance of these molecules in the bone resorption pathway and their dramatic induction during differentiation, the analysis of mice with mutations in these genes failed to reveal a function in osteoclast biology. Compared to littermate controls, none of these mutants demonstrated a skeletal phenotype in vivo or alterations in osteoclast differentiation or function in vitro. These data highlight the need for rigorous validation studies to complement expression profiling results before functional importance can be assigned to highly regulated genes in any biologic process. PMID:22985540

Charles, Julia F.; Coury, Fabienne; Sulyanto, Rosalyn; Sitara, Despina; Wu, Jing; Brady, Nicholas; Tsang, Kelly; Sigrist, Kirsten; Tollefsen, Douglas M.; He, Li; Storm, Daniel; Aliprantis, Antonios O.

2012-01-01

135

Gene silencing to investigate the roles of receptor-like proteins in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Receptor-like proteins (RLPs) are cell surface receptors that play important roles in various processes. In several plant species RLPs have been found to play a role in disease resistance, including the tomato Cf and Ve proteins and the apple HcrVf proteins that mediate resistance against the fungal pathogens Cladosporium fulvum, Verticillium spp., and Venturia inaequalis, respectively. The Arabidopsis genome contains 57 AtRLP genes. Two of these, CLV2 (AtRLP10) and TMM (AtRLP17), have well-characterized functions in meristem and stomatal development, respectively, while AtRLP52 is required for defense against powdery mildew. We recently reported the assembly of a genome-wide collection of T-DNA insertion lines for the Arabidopsis AtRLP genes. This collection was functionally analyzed with respect to plant growth, development and sensitivity to various stress responses including pathogen susceptibility. Only few new phenotypes were discovered; while AtRLP41 was found to mediate abscisic acid sensitivity, AtRLP30 (and possibly AtRLP18) was found to be required for full non-host resistance to a bacterial pathogen. Possibly, identification of novel phenotypes is obscured by functional redundancy. Therefore, RNA interference (RNAi) to target the expression of multiple AtRLP genes simultaneously was employed followed by functional analysis of the RNAi lines. PMID:19704533

Ellendorff, Ursula; Zhang, Zhao; Thomma, Bart Phj

2008-10-01

136

Recent advances in gene manipulation and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor biology  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological and immunological methods have been valuable for both identifying some native nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that exist in vivo and determining the neurobiological and behavioral role of certain nAChR subtypes. However, these approaches suffer from shortage of subtype specific ligands and reliable immunological reagents. Consequently, genetic approaches have been developed to complement earlier approaches to identify native nAChR subtypes and to assess the contribution of nAChRs to brain function and behavior. In this review we describe how assembly partners, knock-in mice and targeted lentiviral re-expression of genes have been utilized to improve our understanding of nAChR neurobiology. In addition, we summarize emerging genetic tools in nAChR research. PMID:21704022

Tammimki, Anne; Horton, William J.; Stitzel, Jerry A.

2011-01-01

137

Cortical synaptic NMDA receptor deficits in ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene deletion models: implications for neuropsychiatric diseases.  

PubMed

Microdeletion of the human CHRNA7 gene (?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) as well as dysfunction in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been associated with cortical dysfunction in a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. However, the pathophysiological roles of synaptic vs. extrasynaptic NMDARs and their interactions with ?7 nAChRs in cortical dysfunction remain largely uncharacterized. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that ?7 nAChR gene deletion leads to specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, d-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in mouse cortex. ?7 nAChR null mice had decreased cortical NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation during postnatal development. Similar reductions in NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation were revealed in cortical cultures lacking ?7 nAChRs. Interestingly, synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, NMDAR currents were specifically diminished in cultured cortical pyramidal neurons as well as in acute prefrontal cortical slices of ?7 nAChR null mice. Moreover, d-serine responsive synaptic NMDAR-mediated currents and levels of the d-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase were both reduced in ?7 nAChR null cortical pyramidal neurons. Our findings thus identify specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, d-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in ?7 nAChR gene deletion models of cortical dysfunction, thereby implicating ?7 nAChR-mediated control of synaptic NMDARs and serine racemase/d-serine pathways in cortical dysfunction underlying many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those associated with deletion of human CHRNA7. PMID:24326163

Lin, Hong; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Baumann, Bailey H; Coulter, Douglas A; Lynch, David R

2014-03-01

138

Variants in the vitamin D receptor gene and asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Early lifetime exposure to dietary or supplementary vitamin D has been predicted to be a risk factor for later allergy. Twin studies suggest that response to vitamin D exposure might be influenced by genetic factors. As these effects are primarily mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), single base variants in this gene may be risk factors for asthma or allergy. Results 951 individuals from 224 pedigrees with at least 2 asthmatic children were analyzed for 13 SNPs in the VDR. There was no preferential transmission to children with asthma. In their unaffected sibs, however, one allele in the 5' region was 0.5-fold undertransmitted (p = 0.049), while two other alleles in the 3' terminal region were 2-fold over-transmitted (p = 0.013 and 0.018). An association was also seen with bronchial hyperreactivity against methacholine and with specific immunoglobulin E serum levels. Conclusion The transmission disequilibrium in unaffected sibs of otherwise multiple-affected families seem to be a powerful statistical test. A preferential transmission of vitamin D receptor variants to children with asthma could not be confirmed but raises the possibility of a protective effect for unaffected children. PMID:15651992

Wjst, Matthias

2005-01-01

139

Expression of the human ABCC6 gene is induced by retinoids through the retinoid X receptor  

SciTech Connect

Mutations in the human ABCC6 gene are responsible for the disease pseudoxanthoma elasticum, although Physiological function or substrate of the gene product (an ABC transporter known also as MRP6) is not known. We found that the expression of this gene in cells of hepatic origin (where this gene is predominantly expressed in the body) is significantly upregulated by retinoids, acting as agonists of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) rather than the retinoid A receptor (RAR). The direct involvement of this nuclear receptor in the transcriptional regulation of ABCC6 gene expression was confirmed by transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This constitutes the first direct proof of previously suggested involvement of nuclear hormone receptors in ABCC6 gene expression and the first identification of a transcription factor which may be relevant to regulation of ABCC6 level in tissues and in some PXE patients.

Ratajewski, Marcin [Laboratory of Transcriptional Regulation, Centre for Medical Biology PAS, Lodz (Poland); Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Bartosz, Grzegorz [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Pulaski, Lukasz [Laboratory of Transcriptional Regulation, Centre for Medical Biology PAS, Lodz (Poland) and Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: lpulaski@cbm.pan.pl

2006-12-01

140

Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and steroid receptor status among Saudi women with breast cancer.  

PubMed

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a mediator for the cellular effects of vitamin D and interacts with other cell signaling pathways that influence cancer development. We evaluated the associations of the FOK1 and Taq1 VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and possible effect modification by steroid receptor status of the tumor. This case-control study includes 95 breast cancer patients and 100 age-matched controls. Genotyping for VDR FOK1 and Taq1 polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Level of 25(OH)D in serum was determined using ELISA. Immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). The frequencies of ff genotype were significantly increased in the breast cancer group compared to the control group. Carriers of the f allele were significantly more likely to develop BC. We observed a statistically significant interaction for the Fok1 polymorphism and ER status. Our results demonstrated that FOK1 f. genotype and f allele have an important role in breast cancer risk in Saudi patients. PMID:25560187

Nemenqani, Dalal M; Karam, Rehab A; Amer, Mona G; Abd El Rahman, Tamer M

2015-03-10

141

A large-scale candidate gene analysis of mood disorders: evidence of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor and opioid receptor signaling dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Despite proven heritability, little is known about the genetic architecture of mood disorders. Although a number of family and casecontrol studies have examined the genetics of mood disorders, none have carried out joint linkage-association studies and sought to validate the results with gene expression analyses in an independent cohort. Methods We present findings from a large candidate gene study that combines linkage and association analyses using families and singletons, providing a systematic candidate gene investigation of mood disorder. For this study, 876 individuals were recruited, including 83 families with 313 individuals and 563 singletons. This large-scale candidate gene analysis included 130 candidate genes implicated in addictive and other psychiatric disorders. These data showed significant genetic associations for 28 of these candidate genes, although none remained significant after correction for multiple testing. To evaluate the functional significance of these 28 candidate genes in mood disorders, we examined the transcriptional profiles of these genes within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate for 21 cases with mood disorders and 25 nonpsychiatric controls, and carried out a pathway analysis to identify points of high connectivity suggestive of particular molecular pathways that may be dysregulated. Results Two primary gene candidates were supported by the linkage-association, gene expression profiling, and network analysis: neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 2 (NTRK2), and the opioid receptor, ?1 (OPRK1). Conclusion This study supports a role for NTRK2 and OPRK1 signaling in the pathophysiology of mood disorder. The unique approach incorporating evidence from multiple experimental and computational modalities enhances confidence in these findings. PMID:23277131

Deo, Anthony J.; Huang, Yung-yu; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Xin, Yurong; Oquendo, Maria A.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Arango, Victoria; Brent, David A.; Goldman, David; Mann, J. John; Haghighi, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

142

Gene rearrangements in hormone receptor negative breast cancers revealed by mate pair sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Chromosomal rearrangements in the form of deletions, insertions, inversions and translocations are frequently observed in breast cancer genomes, and a subset of these rearrangements may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. To identify novel somatic chromosomal rearrangements, we determined the genome structures of 15 hormone-receptor negative breast tumors by long-insert mate pair massively parallel sequencing. Results We identified and validated 40 somatic structural alterations, including the recurring fusion between genes DDX10 and SKA3 and translocations involving the EPHA5 gene. Other rearrangements were found to affect genes in pathways involved in epigenetic regulation, mitosis and signal transduction, underscoring their potential role in breast tumorigenesis. RNA interference-mediated suppression of five candidate genes (DDX10, SKA3, EPHA5, CLTC and TNIK) led to inhibition of breast cancer cell growth. Moreover, downregulation of DDX10 in breast cancer cells lead to an increased frequency of apoptotic nuclear morphology. Conclusions Using whole genome mate pair sequencing and RNA interference assays, we have discovered a number of novel gene rearrangements in breast cancer genomes and identified DDX10, SKA3, EPHA5, CLTC and TNIK as potential cancer genes with impact on the growth and proliferation of breast cancer cells. PMID:23496902

2013-01-01

143

Physical mapping of the retinoid X receptor B gene in mouse and human  

SciTech Connect

Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are zinc finger-containing nuclear transcription factors. They belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily that contains retinoid receptors, vitamin D receptors, thyroid hormone receptors, and steroid hormone receptors as well as the so-called orphan receptors. We previously mapped all three RXR genes on mouse chromosomes, using a panel of Mus spretus-Mus musculus interspecific backcross mice: namely, the RXRA-gene (Rxra) on Chr 2 near the centromere, the RXRB gene (Rxrb) on Chr 17 in the H2 region, and the RXRG gene (Rxrg) on distal Chr 1. Using cosmid clones that cover the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we determined the precise physical map positions of the gene encoding mouse and human RXRB, respectively. The mouse gene (Rxrb) maps between H2-Ke4 and H2-Ke5: namely, immediately telomeric to H2-Ke4 which encodes a histidine-rich transmembrane protein, and 12 kilobases centromeric to H2-Ke5 which is expressed in lymphoid tissues, Rxrb and H2-Ke4 are transcribed into opposite directions from a CpG-rich promoter of about 250 base pairs. This gene organization is well conserved also in the human genome at the HLA-DP subregion of Chr 6p, underscoring the strong conservation of the gene organization in the MHC region between the two mammals. 54 refs., 4 figs.

Nagata, T.; Kitagawa, K.; Taketo, M. [Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Weiss, E.H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Abe, K. [Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Ando, A.; Yara-Kikuti, Y.; Inoko, H. [Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Isehara (Japan); Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ozato, K. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-01-11

144

Interaction between allelic variations in vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor genes on metabolic traits  

PubMed Central

Background Low vitamin D status has been shown to be a risk factor for several metabolic traits such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The biological actions of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor, gamma (RXRG). Hence, we examined the potential interactions between the tagging polymorphisms in the VDR (22 tag SNPs) and RXRG (23 tag SNPs) genes on metabolic outcomes such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), high- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, serum triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and glycated haemoglobin in the 1958 British Birth Cohort (1958BC, up to n?=?5,231). We used Multifactor- dimensionality reduction (MDR) program as a non-parametric test to examine for potential interactions between the VDR and RXRG gene polymorphisms in the 1958BC. We used the data from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66, up to n?=?5,316) and Twins UK (up to n?=?3,943) to replicate our initial findings from 1958BC. Results After Bonferroni correction, the joint-likelihood ratio test suggested interactions on serum triglycerides (4 SNP - SNP pairs), LDL cholesterol (2 SNP - SNP pairs) and WHR (1 SNP - SNP pair) in the 1958BC. MDR permutation model testing analysis showed one two-way and one three-way interaction to be statistically significant on serum triglycerides in the 1958BC. In meta-analysis of results from two replication cohorts (NFBC66 and Twins UK, total n?=?8,183), none of the interactions remained after correction for multiple testing (Pinteraction >0.17). Conclusions Our results did not provide strong evidence for interactions between allelic variations in VDR and RXRG genes on metabolic outcomes; however, further replication studies on large samples are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24641809

2014-01-01

145

Chromosome mapping of the human arrestin (SAG), β-arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and β-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of proteins play a major role in determining homologous desensitization of G-coupled receptors: β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK), which phosphorylates the agonist-occupied receptor and its functional cofactor, β-arrestin. Both βARK and β-arrestin are members of multigene families. The family of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases includes rhodopsin kinase, βARK1, βARK2, IT11-A (GRK4), GRK5, and GRK6. The arrestin\\/β-arrestin gene family includes arrestin

G. Calabrese; M. Sallese; A. Stornaiuolo

1994-01-01

146

Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

Ijichi, Nobuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Yagi, Ken [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Okazaki, Yasushi [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan) and Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)]. E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

2007-07-06

147

The androgen receptor gene mutations database: 2012 update.  

PubMed

The current version of the androgen receptor gene (AR) mutations database is described. A major change to the database is that the nomenclature and numbering scheme now conforms to all Human Genome Variation Society norms. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 605 to 1,029 since 2004. The database now contains a number of mutations that are associated with prostate cancer (CaP) treatment regimens, while the number of AR mutations found in CaP tissues has more than doubled from 76 to 159. In addition, in a number of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and CaP cases, multiple mutations have been found within the same tissue samples. For the first time, we report on a disconnect within the AIS phenotype-genotype relationship among our own patient database, in that over 40% of our patients with a classic complete AIS or partial AIS phenotypes did not appear to have a mutation in their AR gene. The implications of this phenomenon on future locus-specific mutation database (LSDB) development are discussed, together with the concept that mutations can be associated with both loss- and gain-of-function, and the effect of multiple AR mutations within individuals. The database is available on the internet (http://androgendb.mcgill.ca), and a web-based LSDB with the variants using the Leiden Open Variation Database platform is available at http://www.lovd.nl/AR. PMID:22334387

Gottlieb, Bruce; Beitel, Lenore K; Nadarajah, Abbesha; Paliouras, Miltiadis; Trifiro, Mark

2012-05-01

148

Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (AR?ZF2) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR?ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7, p57Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR?ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle. PMID:24713826

Rana, Kesha; Lee, Nicole KL; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E

2014-01-01

149

Investigation of endocannabinoid system genes suggests association between peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-? gene (PPARA) and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder with a large genetic burden and an estimated hereditability of 80%. A large number of neuroanatomical and psychopharmacological studies suggest a central role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the susceptibility of the disease. To further investigate this hypothesis, we performed an association study with genes codifying for key elements of the eCB system in a sample of 170 schizophrenic patients and 350 healthy controls of Italian ancestry. A total of 57 Tag SNPs (tSNPs) were selected using HapMap CEU population SNP database spanning the following genes: cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-? (PPARA), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Seven out of the 32 tSNPs within PPARA (rs4253765, rs4263776, rs6007662, rs1800206, rs4253763, rs6008197 and rs4253655) and 3 out of 12 tSNPs within CNR1 (rs1049353, rs7766029 and rs806366) were nominally associated with SZ (uncorrected p<0.05). The same pattern of association was observed in the genotype analysis, with rs4253765 showing the highest level of significance (uncorrected p=210(-3)). None of these associations survived after permutation test. Our findings suggest a potential role for PPARA in the susceptibility to SZ, but further studies on larger independent samples are warranted in order to clarify the involvement of this gene in the pathophysiology of SZ. PMID:22920733

Costa, Marta; Squassina, Alessio; Congiu, Donatella; Chillotti, Caterina; Niola, Paola; Galderisi, Silvana; Pistis, Marco; Del Zompo, Maria

2013-07-01

150

Transient receptor potential channel A1 involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide release in neurons.  

PubMed

Transient receptor potential channel A1 is one of the important transducers of noxious stimuli in the primary afferents, which may contribute to generation of neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia. The present study was designed to investigate if activation of transient receptor potential channel A1 may induce calcitonin gene-related peptide release from the primary afferent neurons. We found that application of allyl isothiocyanate, a transient receptor potential channel A1 activator, caused calcitonin gene-related peptide release from the cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Knockdown of transient receptor potential channel A1 with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide prevented calcitonin gene-related peptide release by allyl isothiocyanate application in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Thus, we concluded that transient receptor potential channel A1 activation caused calcitonin gene-related peptide release in sensory neurons. PMID:25206621

Ushio, Nobumasa; Dai, Yi; Wang, Shenglan; Fukuoka, Tetsuo; Noguchi, Koichi

2013-11-15

151

Circulating Her-2/Neu Extracellular Domain in Breast Cancer Patients-Correlation with Prognosis and Clinicopathological Parameters Including Steroid Receptor, Her-2/Neu Receptor Coexpression.  

PubMed

HER-2/neu extracellular domain (ECD) can be detected in blood as a soluble circulating protein. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between HER-2/neu extracellular domain in the serum and the prognosis in breast cancer patients. We also correlated HER-2/neu ECD with various clinicopathological factors including steroid receptor, HER-2/neu receptor coexpression. The serum from seventy nine patients with invasive breast cancer and twenty individuals without malignancy was analyzed using the enzyme-linked immune adsorbent assay method. The cut-off value was estimated by the ROC curve analysis (15.86?g/L). HER-2/neu ECD values in the serum of patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than in control subjects. Circulating HER-2/neu ECD was significantly associated with the histological grade of tumors and the status of axillary lymph nodes. Negative correlation was observed between HER-2/neu ECD in the serum and estrogen receptor positivity. When we analyzed HER-2/neu ECD in relation with coexpression of steroid receptor and HER-2/neu receptor in tissue, statistically higher values were found in the subgroup of patients with steroid receptor negative, HER-2/neu negative tumors than in the other subgroups. HER-2/neu ECD was not an independent factor in the univariate and multivariate analysis. However, elevated HER-2/neu ECD levels were found in patients with breast cancer possessing more aggressive phenotype. PMID:25367073

Bari?, Marina; Kuli?, Ana; Sirotkovi?-Skerlev, Maja; Dedi? Plaveti?, Natalija; Vidovi?, Marina; Horvati?-Herceg, Gordana; Vrbanec, Damir

2014-11-01

152

Genetic manipulation to analyze pheromone responses: knockouts of multiple receptor genes.  

PubMed

Gene targeting in the mouse is an essential technique to study gene function in vivo. Multigene families encoding vomeronasal receptor (VR) type 1 and type 2 consist of ~300 intact genes, which are clustered at multiple loci in the mouse genome. To understand the function of VRs and neurons expressing a particular VR in vivo, individual endogenous receptor genes can be manipulated by conventional gene targeting to create loss-of-function mutations or to visualize neurons and their axons expressing the VR. Multiple receptor genes in a cluster can also be deleted simultaneously by chromosome engineering, allowing analysis of function of a particular VR subfamily. Here, we describe protocols for conventional gene targeting and chromosome engineering for deleting a large genomic region in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. PMID:24014359

Ishii, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

153

Expansion of the human ?-opioid receptor gene architecture: novel functional variants  

PubMed Central

The ?-opioid receptor (OPRM1) is the principal receptor target for both endogenous and exogenous opioid analgesics. There are substantial individual differences in human responses to painful stimuli and to opiate drugs that are attributed to genetic variations in OPRM1. In searching for new functional variants, we employed comparative genome analysis and obtained evidence for the existence of an expanded human OPRM1 gene locus with new promoters, alternative exons and regulatory elements. Examination of polymorphisms within the human OPRM1 gene locus identified strong association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs563649 and individual variations in pain perception. SNP rs563649 is located within a structurally conserved internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5?-UTR of a novel exon 13-containing OPRM1 isoforms (MOR-1K) and affects both mRNA levels and translation efficiency of these variants. Furthermore, rs563649 exhibits very strong linkage disequilibrium throughout the entire OPRM1 gene locus and thus affects the functional contribution of the corresponding haplotype that includes other functional OPRM1 SNPs. Our results provide evidence for an essential role for MOR-1K isoforms in nociceptive signaling and suggest that genetic variations in alternative OPRM1 isoforms may contribute to individual differences in opiate responses. PMID:19103668

Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Gris, Pavel; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Gauthier, Josee; Shibata, Kyoko; Tchivileva, Inna E.; Belfer, Inna; Mishra, Bikashkumar; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Wallace, Margaret R.; Staud, Roland; Spiridonov, Nikolay A.; Max, Mitchell B.; Goldman, David; Fillingim, Roger B.; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda

2009-01-01

154

Sequence and functional analysis of the gene encoding Vibrio cholerae cAMP receptor protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the cloning, nucleotide sequence, and functional expression of the crp gene of Vibrio cholerae (Vc) encoding the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). The Vc crp gene shows 81% identity with the crp gene from Escherichia coli (Ec) and its deduced amino acid sequence shows 95% identity with the Ec protein. When expressed from inducible promoters, the cloned

Karen Skorupski; Ronald K Taylor

1997-01-01

155

MouseHuman Orthology Relationships in an Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster  

E-print Network

to construct a putative physical map of the OR gene cluster at the mouse Olfr1 locus. Several pointsMouse­Human Orthology Relationships in an Olfactory Receptor Gene Cluster Michal Lapidot,* Yitzhak gene family in mammals, disposed in clusters on numerous chromosomes. One of the best characterized

Church, George M.

156

Association of Estrogen Receptor a and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a common health problem not only in females but also in males, however, studies of osteoporosis in males are relatively rare compared to those in females. This is especially true in genetics studies. We evaluated the effects of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor a (ER-a) gene and ApaI polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor (VDR)

J. R. Long; Y. Y. Zhang; P. Y. Liu; Y. J. Liu; H. Shen; V. Dvornyk; L. J. Zhao; H. W. Deng

2004-01-01

157

Positive association between a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia and 96 normal controls were investigated for genetic association with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the serotonin receptor genes. A positive association between the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and schizophrenia was found, but not between schizophrenia and the serotonin 1A receptor gene. The positive association we report here would suggest that the DNA region with susceptibility to schizophrenia lies in the HTR2A on the long arm of chromosome 13. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

Inayama, Y.; Yoneda, H.; Sakai, T. [Osaka Medical College (Japan)] [and others] [Osaka Medical College (Japan); and others

1996-02-16

158

Evolutionary history and functional characterization of androgen receptor genes in jawed vertebrates.  

PubMed

Vertebrates show diverse sexual characters in sexually attractive and reproductive organs, which are regulated by steroid hormones, particularly androgens. However, the evolutionary history of androgen receptor (AR) gene remains largely unknown on the basis of phylogenic and functional analyses. To elucidate the evolutionary history and functional diversification of AR genes in vertebrates, we cloned the AR cDNAs from a shark, basal ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), namely bichir and sturgeon (Acipenseriformes), and teleosts including a basal teleost, arowana (Osteoglossiformes). Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene duplication event that gave rise to two different teleost ARs (alpha and beta) likely occurred in the actinopterygian lineage leading to teleosts after the divergence of Acipenseriformes but before the split of Osteoglossiformes, which is compatible with the phylogenetic timing of teleost-specific genome duplication. Searching for AR genes in the medaka genome indicated that the teleost AR gene duplication has been associated with the duplication between chromosomes 10 and 14. Our functional analysis revealed that the shark AR activates the target gene via androgen response element by classical androgens. The teleost ARalpha showed the unique intracellular localization with a significantly higher transactivating capacity than that by teleost ARbeta. These findings indicate that the most ancient type of AR, as activated by the classical androgens as ligands, emerged before the Chondrichthyes-Osteichthyes split, and the AR gene was duplicated during the teleost-specific genome duplication event. We report here for the first time the accurate evolutionary history of AR gene and functional characterization of AR duplicates in teleost lineage. PMID:19819965

Ogino, Yukiko; Katoh, Hironori; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Yamada, Gen

2009-12-01

159

TALEN-engineered AR gene rearrangements reveal endocrine uncoupling of androgen receptor in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor (AR) target genes direct development and survival of the prostate epithelial lineage, including prostate cancer (PCa). Thus, endocrine therapies that inhibit the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) are effective in treating PCa. AR transcriptional reactivation is central to resistance, as evidenced by the efficacy of AR retargeting in castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) with next-generation endocrine therapies abiraterone and enzalutamide. However, resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide limits this efficacy in most men, and PCa remains the second-leading cause of male cancer deaths. Here we show that AR gene rearrangements in CRPC tissues underlie a completely androgen-independent, yet AR-dependent, resistance mechanism. We discovered intragenic AR gene rearrangements in CRPC tissues, which we modeled using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome engineering. This modeling revealed that these AR gene rearrangements blocked full-length AR synthesis, but promoted expression of truncated AR variant proteins lacking the AR ligand-binding domain. Furthermore, these AR variant proteins maintained the constitutive activity of the AR transcriptional program and a CRPC growth phenotype independent of full-length AR or androgens. These findings demonstrate that AR gene rearrangements are a unique resistance mechanism by which AR transcriptional activity can be uncoupled from endocrine regulation in CRPC. PMID:24101480

Nyquist, Michael D; Li, Yingming; Hwang, Tae Hyun; Manlove, Luke S; Vessella, Robert L; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Voytas, Daniel F; Dehm, Scott M

2013-10-22

160

Extraordinary variation in a diversified family of immune-type receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Immune inhibitory receptor genes that encode a variable (V) region, a unique V-like C2 (V/C2) domain, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) have been described previously in two lineages of bony fish. In the present study, eleven related genes encoding distinct structural forms have been identified in Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish), a well characterized immunological model system that represents a third independent bony fish lineage. Each of the different genes encodes an N-terminal V region but differs in the number of extracellular Ig domains, number and location of joining (J) region-like motifs, presence of transmembrane regions, presence of charged residues in transmembrane regions, presence of cytoplasmic tails, and/or distribution of ITIM(s) within the cytoplasmic tails. Variation in the numbers of genomic copies of the different gene types, their patterns of expression, and relative levels of expression in mixed leukocyte cultures (MLC) is reported. V region-containing immune-type genes constitute a far more complex family than recognized originally and include individual members that might function in inhibitory or, potentially activatory manners. PMID:11698645

Hawke, Noel A.; Yoder, Jeffrey A.; Haire, Robert N.; Mueller, M. Gail; Litman, Ronda T.; Miracle, Ann L.; Stuge, Tor; Shen, Linling; Miller, Norman; Litman, Gary W.

2001-01-01

161

REST mediates androgen receptor actions on gene repression and predicts early recurrence of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate tumorgenesis through actions that are not fully understood. We identified the repressor element (RE)-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) as a mediator of AR actions on gene repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that AR binds chromatin regions containing well-characterized cis-elements known to mediate REST transcriptional repression, while cell imaging studies confirmed that REST and AR closely co-localize in vivo. Androgen-induced gene repression also involves modulation of REST protein turnover through actions on the ubiquitin ligase ?-TRCP. Androgen deprivation or AR blockage with inhibitor MDV3100 (Enzalutamide) leads to neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, a phenomenon that is mimicked by REST inactivation. Gene expression profiling revealed that REST not only acts to repress neuronal genes but also genes involved in cell cycle progression, including Aurora Kinase A, that has previously been implicated in the growth of NE-like castration-resistant tumors. The analysis of prostate cancer tissue microarrays revealed that tumors with reduced expression of REST have higher probability of early recurrence, independently of their Gleason score. The demonstration that REST modulates AR actions in prostate epithelia and that REST expression is negatively correlated with disease recurrence after prostatectomy, invite a deeper characterization of its role in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:24163104

Svensson, Charlotte; Ceder, Jens; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin-Choy; Pang, See Tong; Bjartell, Anders; Martinez, Roxana Merino; Bott, Laura; Helczynski, Leszek; Ulmert, David; Wang, Yuzhuo; Niu, Yuanjie; Collins, Colin; Flores-Morales, Amilcar

2014-01-01

162

Macrophages express functional receptors for calcitonin-gene-related peptide.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate whether non-activated macrophages express calcitonin (CT) or calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors. To this end, we first analyzed whether CT and CGRP induce a cAMP accumulation in macrophages. Macrophages were treated for 2 min with increasing concentrations of either CT or CGRP in the presence or absence of IBMX. A dose-dependent cAMP accumulation was measured in response to CGRP with a half-maximal effect attained with 1 nM CGRP. CT failed at all doses to induce an accumulation of cAMP. The effects of CT and CGRP on the activation of the Na-H exchanger were next assessed by spectrofluorometry by using the pH-sensitive dye 2,7 biscarboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Steady-state pHi of macrophages in a 7.4, HCO3-free solution (HEPES-buffered) was 7.04 +/- 0.08 (n = 22). pHi recovery following an NH4+/NH3 acid load was inhibited by the removal of Na+ or by the addition of the amiloride analog EIPA; therefore recovery is dependent on Na-H exchange activity. CT had no effect on steady-state pHi but CGRP increased pHi in a dose-dependent fashion (10(-12) to 10(-6) M). The pHi change induced by CGRP was due to the stimulation of the Na-H exchanger as CGRP enhanced the rate of recovery (dpHi/dt) from an acid load from 45.3 to 77.2 microMs-1 (n = 8, P less than 0.002) and was completely blocked by EIPA. These data indicate that CGRP both enhances the activity of the Na-H exchanger and increases intracellular cAMP, thus demonstrating that macrophages express functional CGRP receptors. PMID:1721072

Vignery, A; Wang, F; Ganz, M B

1991-11-01

163

A network of heterochronic genes including Imp1 regulates temporal changes in stem cell properties  

PubMed Central

Stem cell properties change over time to match the changing growth and regeneration demands of tissues. We showed previously that adult forebrain stem cell function declines during aging because of increased expression of let-7 microRNAs, evolutionarily conserved heterochronic genes that reduce HMGA2 expression. Here we asked whether let-7 targets also regulate changes between fetal and adult stem cells. We found a second let-7 target, the RNA binding protein IMP1, that is expressed by fetal, but not adult, neural stem cells. IMP1 expression was promoted by Wnt signaling and Lin28a expression and opposed by let-7 microRNAs. Imp1-deficient neural stem cells were prematurely depleted in the dorsal telencephalon due to accelerated differentiation, impairing pallial expansion. IMP1 post-transcriptionally inhibited the expression of differentiation-associated genes while promoting the expression of self-renewal genes, including Hmga2. A network of heterochronic gene products including Lin28a, let-7, IMP1, and HMGA2 thus regulates temporal changes in stem cell properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00924.001 PMID:24192035

Nishino, Jinsuke; Kim, Sunjung; Zhu, Yuan; Zhu, Hao; Morrison, Sean J

2013-01-01

164

Gene regulation by NMDA receptor activation in the SDN-POA neurons of male rats during sexual development.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to identify possible signaling pathways, which may play a role in prevention of neuronal apoptosis in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) after physiological activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Gene response to the blockage of the NMDA receptor by an antagonist (dizocilpine hydrogen maleate; MK-801) was screened after suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). The results showed that differential screening after SSH detected the presence of some neurotrophic genes (RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3), alpha-tubulin) as well as apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, cytochrome oxidase subunit III) in the SDN-POA of male rats, which were down-regulated by blocking the NMDA receptor. The RT-PCR products of the aforementioned genes in MK-801-treated males were significantly less than that in untreated males. In particular, the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, including Bcl-2 protein, in male rats were significantly suppressed by MK-801 treatment. Moreover, the binding activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) was significantly higher in male rats than in females, but significantly diminished by blocking the NMDA receptor with MK-801 in male rats. No significant difference in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding activity was observed among untreated male, MK-801-treated male, untreated female and MK-801-treated female groups. These results suggest that genes regulated by NMDA receptor activation might participate in neuronal growth and/or anti-apoptosis, and support an important signaling pathway of NFkappaB activation and its target gene, Bcl-2, in preventing neuronal apoptosis in the SDN-POA of male rats during sexual development. PMID:15821108

Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Shao, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ke-Li; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Hsu, Chin

2005-04-01

165

Gene-selective modulation by a synthetic oxysterol ligand of the liver X receptor.  

PubMed

Liver X receptors (LXRs) play key roles in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis by limiting cholesterol accumulation in macrophages within arterial wall lesion sites by a mechanism that includes the upregulation of ATP binding cassette transporters. These atheroprotective properties distinguish LXRs as potential targets for pharmaceutical intervention in cardiovascular disease. Their associated activity for promoting lipogenesis and triglyceride accretion through the activation of sterol-response element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) expression, however, represents a potential proatherogenic liability. A newly characterized synthetic oxysterol, N,N-dimethyl-3beta-hydroxycholenamide (DMHCA), represents a gene-selective LXR modulator that mediates potent transcriptional activation of ABCA1 gene expression while exhibiting minimal effects on SREBP-1c both in vitro and in vivo in mice. DMHCA has the potential to stimulate cholesterol transport through the upregulation of LXR target genes, including ABCA1, in liver, small intestine, and peritoneal macrophages. Compared with known nonsteroidal LXR agonists, however, DMHCA exhibits only limited activity for increasing hepatic SREBP-1c mRNA and does not alter circulating plasma triglycerides. Cell-based studies also indicate that DMHCA enhances cholesterol efflux in macrophages and suggest a mechanism whereby this selective modulator can potentially inhibit cholesterol accumulation. DMHCA and related gene-selective ligands of LXR may have application to the study and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:15292374

Quinet, Elaine M; Savio, Dawn A; Halpern, Anita R; Chen, Liang; Miller, Christopher P; Nambi, Ponnal

2004-10-01

166

A nonsense mutation in the LDL receptor gene leads to familial hypercholesterolemia in the Druze sect  

SciTech Connect

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Here the authors characterize and LDL receptor mutation that is associated with a distinct haplotype and causes FH in the Druze, a small Middle Eastern Islamic sect with a high degree of inbreeding. The mutation was found in FH families from two distinct Druze villages from the Golan Heights (northern Israel). It was not found either in another Druze FH family residing in a different geographical area nor in eight Arab and four Jewish FH heterozygote index cases whose hypercholesterolemia cosegregates with an identical LDL receptor gene haplotype. The mutation, a single-base substitution, results in a termination codon in exon 4 of the LDL receptor gene that encodes for the fourth repeat of the binding domain of the mature receptor. It can be diagnosed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of PCR-amplified DNA from FH patients.

Landsberger, D.; Meiner, V.; Reshef, A.; Leitersdorf, E. (Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)); Levy, Yishai (Rambam Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)); Westhytzen, D.R. van der; Coetzee, G.A. (University of Cape Town Medical School, (South Africa))

1992-02-01

167

Corticosteroid receptors in the brain: gene targeting studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosteroids are released by the adrenal cortex with a diurnal rhythm and in response to stressful environmental changes. They not only act on peripheral organs, but also regulate brain physiology, thereby affecting mental processes like emotion and cognition. Here, we discuss the role of the two known corticosteroid receptorsglucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)in the brain by summarizing the

Christoph Kellendonk; Peter Gass; Oliver Kretz; Gnther Schtz; Franois Tronche

2002-01-01

168

Differential gene body methylation and reduced expression of cell adhesion and neurotransmitter receptor genes in adverse maternal environment.  

PubMed

Early life adversity, including adverse gestational and postpartum maternal environment, is a contributing factor in the development of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In a model of gestational maternal adversity that leads to innate anxiety, increased stress reactivity and impaired vocal communication in the offspring, we asked if a specific DNA methylation signature is associated with the emergence of the behavioral phenotype. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses identified 2.3% of CpGs as differentially methylated (that is, differentially methylated sites, DMSs) by the adverse environment in ventral-hippocampal granule cells, neurons that can be linked to the anxiety phenotype. DMSs were typically clustered and these clusters were preferentially located at gene bodies. Although CpGs are typically either highly methylated or unmethylated, DMSs had an intermediate (20-80%) methylation level that may contribute to their sensitivity to environmental adversity. The adverse maternal environment resulted in either hyper or hypomethylation at DMSs. Clusters of DMSs were enriched in genes that encode cell adhesion molecules and neurotransmitter receptors; some of which were also downregulated, indicating multiple functional deficits at the synapse in adversity. Pharmacological and genetic evidence links many of these genes to anxiety. PMID:23340501

Oh, J-E; Chambwe, N; Klein, S; Gal, J; Andrews, S; Gleason, G; Shaknovich, R; Melnick, A; Campagne, F; Toth, M

2013-01-01

169

The vitamin D receptor gene is associated with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Vitamin D may have a role in brain function. Low levels have been frequently associated with cognitive decline and may contribute to diseases of the nervous system. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is widely expressed in human brain. Vitamin D appears to be neuroprotective and may regulate inflammation in the brain. We examined two VDR polymorphisms, Apa1 and Taq1. We used DNA from 255 Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases and 260 cognitively screened elderly controls from the longitudinal cohort of the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA). The presence of each of the linked alleles, Apa1 T and Taq1 G, was associated with the risk of AD, particularly in people <75 years old: odds ratios ?3.0 and p?0.005. We also found preliminary evidence of interactions associated with AD between these polymorphisms and two other genes involved in the regulation of inflammation, interleukin-10 (IL10) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH): synergy factors ?3.4, uncorrected p<0.05. These associations are biologically plausible and are consistent with a role for vitamin D in AD. Nevertheless, we consider this to be a hypothesis-generating study, which needs to be replicated in a larger dataset. PMID:21911036

Lehmann, Donald J; Refsum, Helga; Warden, Donald R; Medway, Christopher; Wilcock, Gordon K; Smith, A David

2011-10-24

170

Association study of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

Several groups have reported an association between schizophrenia and the MscI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3). We studied this polymorphism using a North American sample (117 patients plus 188 controls) and an Italian sample (97 patients plus 64 controls). In the first part of the study, we compared allele frequencies of schizophrenia patients and unmatched controls and observed a significant difference in the total sample (P = 0.01). The second part of the study involved a case control approach in which each schizophrenia patient was matched to a control of the same sex, and of similar age and ethnic background. The DRD3 allele frequencies of patients and controls revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the Italian (N = 53) or the North American (N = 54) matched populations; however, when these two matched samples were combined, a significant difference was observed (P = 0.026). Our results suggest that the MscI polymorphism may be associated with schizophrenia in the populations studied. 32 refs., 2 tabs.

Kennedy, J.L.; Billett, E.A.; Macciardi, F.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1995-12-18

171

Androgen receptor gene and gender specific Alzheimers disease  

PubMed Central

Women are at a twofold risk of developing late onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD) (onset ?65 years of age) compared to men. During perimenopausal years, women undergo hormonal changes that are accompanied by metabolic, cardiovascular and inflammatory changes. These all together have been suggested as risk factors for LOAD. However, not all perimenopausal women develop AD; we hypothesize that certain genetic factors might underlie the increased susceptibility for developing AD in postmenopausal women. We investigated the androgen receptor (AR) gene in a clinical cohort of male and female AD patients and normal controls by sequencing all coding exons and evaluating the length and distribution of the CAG repeat in exon 1. We could not establish a correlation between the repeat length, gender and the disease status, nor did we identify possible pathogenic variants. AR is located on the X chromosome; in order to assess its role in AD, X-inactivation patterns will need to be studied to directly correlate the actual expressed repeat length to a possible sex specific phenotypic effect. PMID:23545426

Ferrari, Raffaele; Dawoodi, Saad; Raju, Merrill; Thumma, Avinash; Hynan, Linda S.; Maasumi, Shirin Hejazi; Reisch, Joan S.; OBryant, Sid; Jenkins, Marjorie; Barber, Robert; Momeni, Parastoo

2013-01-01

172

Klf4 Is a Transcriptional Regulator of Genes Critical for EMT, Including Jnk1 (Mapk8)  

PubMed Central

We have identified the zinc-finger transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) among the transcription factors that are significantly downregulated in their expression during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in mammary epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells. Loss and gain of function experiments demonstrate that the down-regulation of Klf4 expression is required for the induction of EMT in vitro and for metastasis in vivo. In addition, reduced Klf4 expression correlates with shorter disease-free survival of subsets of breast cancer patients. Yet, reduced expression of Klf4 also induces apoptosis in cells undergoing TGF?-induced EMT. Chromatin immunoprecipitation/deep-sequencing in combination with gene expression profiling reveals direct Klf4 target genes, including E-cadherin (Cdh1), N-cadherin (Cdh2), vimentin (Vim), ?-catenin (Ctnnb1), VEGF-A (Vegfa), endothelin-1 (Edn1) and Jnk1 (Mapk8). Thereby, Klf4 acts as a transcriptional activator of epithelial genes and as a repressor of mesenchymal genes. Specifically, increased expression of Jnk1 (Mapk8) upon down-regulation of its transcriptional repressor Klf4 is required for EMT cell migration and for the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate a central role of Klf4 in the maintenance of epithelial cell differentiation and the prevention of EMT and metastasis. PMID:23451207

Tiwari, Neha; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie; Arnold, Phil; Antoniadis, Helena; Pachkov, Mikhail; van Nimwegen, Erik; Christofori, Gerhard

2013-01-01

173

Differential Regulation of ?7 Nicotinic Receptor Gene (CHRNA7) Expression in Schizophrenic Smokers  

PubMed Central

The ?7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the ?7* receptor, as measured by [125I]?-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression of multiple genes and differentially regulates gene expression in schizophrenic hippocampus. We examined the effects of smoking on CHRNA7 expression in the same tissue and find that smoking differentially regulates expression of both mRNA and protein for this gene. CHRNA7 mRNA and protein levels are significantly lower in schizophrenic nonsmokers compared to control nonsmokers and are brought to control levels in schizophrenic smokers. Sufficient protein but low surface expression of the ?7* receptor, seen in the autoradiographic studies, suggests aberrant assembly or trafficking of the receptor. PMID:19680823

Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Logel, Judy; Ross, Randal G.; Freedman, Robert

2009-01-01

174

Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and mesolimbic responses to rewards  

PubMed Central

Background There has been significant progress in identifying genes that confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the heterogeneity of symptom presentation in ASDs impedes the detection of ASD risk genes. One approach to understanding genetic influences on ASD symptom expression is to evaluate relations between variants of ASD candidate genes and neural endophenotypes in unaffected samples. Allelic variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene confer small but significant risk for ASDs for which the underlying mechanisms may involve associations between variability in oxytocin signaling pathways and neural response to rewards. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the influence of allelic variability in the OXTR gene on neural responses to monetary rewards in healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods The moderating effects of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1042778, rs2268493 and rs237887) of the OXTR gene on mesolimbic responses to rewards were evaluated using a monetary incentive delay fMRI task. Results T homozygotes of the rs2268493 SNP demonstrated relatively decreased activation in mesolimbic reward circuitry (including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, insula, thalamus and prefrontal cortical regions) during the anticipation of rewards but not during the outcome phase of the task. Allelic variation of the rs1042778 and rs237887 SNPs did not moderate mesolimbic activation during either reward anticipation or outcomes. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that the OXTR SNP rs2268493, which has been previously identified as an ASD risk gene, moderates mesolimbic responses during reward anticipation. Given previous findings of decreased mesolimbic activation during reward anticipation in ASD, the present results suggest that OXTR may confer ASD risk via influences on the neural systems that support reward anticipation. PMID:24485285

2014-01-01

175

Glucocorticoid-enhanced expression of dioxin target genes through regulation of the rat aryl hydrocarbon receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are ligand-activated transcription factors and members of the basic helix-loop-helix Period-aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator-single minded and nuclear hormone receptor superfamilies, respectively. Besides their individual role as acti- vators of specific gene transcription, also interplay between both transcription factors can be an important mechanism of regula- tion. In this study, we report

Edwin Sonneveld; Arjen Jonas; Onno C. Meijer; Abraham Brouwer; Bart van der Burg

2007-01-01

176

Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances nerve growth factor receptor gene promoter activity in human neuroblastoma cell line CHP100.  

PubMed Central

The human neuroblastoma cell line CHP100 provides a useful model system in which to study the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene during neuronal development. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced morphological changes in CHP100 cells, including flattening of cell bodies and neurite outgrowth. bFGF also increased p75NGFR immunoreactivity, as assessed by immunocytochemistry, and increased p75NGFR mRNA levels, as assessed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis. A chimeric gene consisting of 6.7 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the human NGFR gene linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was constructed. In stable transformants of CHP100 cells, 10 ng of bFGF per ml induced an eightfold increase in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. These results indicate that upstream elements of the NGFR gene mediate transcriptional regulation by bFGF. Images PMID:1314950

Taiji, M; Taiji, K; Deyerle, K L; Bothwell, M

1992-01-01

177

Localization of the A{sub 3} adenosine receptor gene (ADORA3) to human chromosome 1p  

SciTech Connect

Adenosine modulates important physiologic functions involving the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys, lungs, GI tract, and immune system. To date four adenosine receptors have been identified: A{sub 1}, A{sub 2a}, A{sub 2b}, and A{sub 3}. Activation of these receptors results in inhibition (A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}) or stimulation (A{sub 2a} and A{sub 2b}) of intracellular adenyl cyclase activity, stimulation of K{sup +} flux, inhibition of Ca{sup 2+} flux, and modulation of inositol phospholipid turnover. A{sub 3} receptors have been identified and sequenced in the testes, brain, lung, liver, kidney, and heart of various species, including the rat, mouse, and human. A{sub 3} receptor activation is responsible for release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells, which can cause allergic bronchoconstriction. In addition, they can produce systemic vasodilation and locomotor depression via activation of A{sub 3} receptors in the brain. Given the potential importance of A{sub 3} receptor activity in the pathogenesis of pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous system disease states, we set out to localize the human A{sub 3} adenosine receptor gene (ADORA3). 9 refs., 1 fig.

Monitto, C.L.; Levitt, R.C.; Holroyd, K.J. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others] [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); and others

1995-04-10

178

Association Between A2a Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Caffeine-Induced Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adenosine receptor system, which mediates the psychoactive effects of caffeine, is also thought to be involved in the regulation of anxiety. In this study, we examined the association between variations in anxiogenic responses to caffeine and polymorphisms in the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor genes. Healthy, infrequent caffeine users (N=94) recorded their subjective mood states following a 150 mg

Karen Alsene; Jrgen Deckert; Philipp Sand; Harriet de Wit

2003-01-01

179

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol . Author manuscript Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha gene level differently  

E-print Network

-activated receptor-alpha gene level differently affects lipid metabolism and inflammation in apolipoprotein E2 knock-Activated Receptor (PPAR ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which controls lipid metabolism ; pathology ; Lipid Metabolism ; drug effects ; genetics ; Lipids ; blood ; Liver ; drug effects ; metabolism

Boyer, Edmond

180

Behavioural anomalies in mice evoked by ``Tokyo'' disruption of the Vitamin D receptor gene  

E-print Network

Behavioural anomalies in mice evoked by ``Tokyo'' disruption of the Vitamin D receptor gene Allan V December 2005 Available online 19 January 2006 Abstract Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with many important functions in the brain, mediated through the nuclear Vitamin D receptor (VDR). Mounting clinical data link

Kalueff, Allan V.

181

Estrogen receptors in Xenopus: duplicate genes, splice variants, and tissue-specific expression  

E-print Network

sexual dif- ferentiation in a wide variety of vertebrates. In the frog Xenopus laevis, estrogen regulates, Xenopus laevis (cf., Dodson and Shapiro, 1994). The estrogen receptor thought responsible (WestleyEstrogen receptors in Xenopus: duplicate genes, splice variants, and tissue-specific expression

Kelley, Darcy B.

182

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Lipid binding proteins controling gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Since their discovery in the beginning of the nineties the three isoforms (PPARa, \\/d and ?, encoded by different genes) have been implicated in the regulation of almost every single aspect of lipid metabolism and, consequently, in diseases that involve disturbances in lipid metabolism (obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis,

Marc van Bilsen; Ger J. van der Vusse; Andries J. Gilde; Martijn Lindhout; Karin A. J. M. van der Lee

2002-01-01

183

Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue indicates different transcriptional mechanisms of liver X receptors ? and ?, respectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear receptors liver X receptors (LXR) ? and ? are important regulators of genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, and carbohydrate metabolism and are highly expressed in mature adipocyte tissue. In this study we show that LXR? and LXR? are more expressed in brown adipose tissue and subcutaneous white adipose tissue than visceral (gonadal) adipose tissue. Furthermore, we report differences

Knut R. Steffensen; Maria Nilsson; Gertrud U. Schuster; Thomas M. Stulnig; Karin Dahlman-Wright; Jan-ke Gustafsson

2003-01-01

184

Largest Vertebrate Vomeronasal Type 1 Receptor Gene Repertoire in the Semiaquatic Platypus  

E-print Network

of Michigan Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's dailyLETTER Largest Vertebrate Vomeronasal Type 1 Receptor Gene Repertoire in the Semiaquatic Platypus life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal

Zhang, Jianzhi

185

The c-erb-A gene encodes a thyroid hormone receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA sequence of human c-erb-A, the cellular counterpart of the viral oncogene v-erb-A, indicates that the protein encoded by the gene is related to the steroid hormone receptors. Binding studies with the protein show it to be a receptor for thyroid hormones.

Cary Weinberger; Catherine C. Thompson; Estelita S. Ong; Roger Lebo; Donald J. Gruol; Ronald M. Evans

1986-01-01

186

Detection of Clonal T-Cell Receptor ? Gene Rearrangements in Early Mycosis Fungoides\\/Sezary Syndrome by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR\\/DGGE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a gene amplification strategy to analyze T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements in 185 specimens, including mycosis fungoides\\/Sezary syndrome (MF\\/SS), other cutaneous neoplasms, inflammatory dermatoses, reactive lymphoid tissues,and normal skin. Genomic DNA was extracted from lesional tissues and rearrangements of the TCR-? chain gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers specific for rearrangements involving V?1-8

Gary S. Wood; Rosnn M. Tung; Andreas C. Heaffner; Carol F. Crooks; Shaoyi Liao; Rachaci Orozco; Hendrik Veelken; Marshall E. Kadin; Howard Koh; Peter Heald; Raymond L. Barnhill; Jeffrey Sklar

1994-01-01

187

Role of Pregnane X Receptor and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Transcriptional Regulation of pxr, CYP2, and CYP3 Genes in Developing Zebrafish.  

PubMed

Ligand-activated receptors regulate numerous genes, and mediate effects of a broad set of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in vertebrates. Understanding the roles of these transcription factors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) is important to the use of this non-mammalian model in toxicological, pharmacological, and carcinogenesis research. Response to a potential agonist for the pregnane X receptor (Pxr) [pregnenolone (PN)] was examined in developing zebrafish, to assess involvement of Pxr in regulation of selected genes, including genes in cytochrome P450 subfamilies CYP2 and CYP3. We also examined interaction of Pxr and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) signaling pathways. Pregnenolone caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels of pxr, ahr2, CYP1A, CYP2AA1, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1, most of which peaked at 3 M PN. The well-known Ahr agonist 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) also upregulated expression of pxr, ahr2, CYP1A, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1 in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of pxr translation by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) suppressed PN-induced expression of pxr, ahr2, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1 genes. Levels of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA12 mRNA were increased in the control-MO group exposed to PN; this was prevented by knocking down Pxr. Similarly, Ahr2-MO treatment blocked PCB126-induced mRNA expression of pxr, CYP1A, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1. The present study shows self-regulation of pxr by PN in developing zebrafish. Selected zebrafish CYP1, CYP2 (including several CYP2AAs) and CYP3 genes appear to be under the regulation of both Pxr and Ahr2. PMID:25424564

Kubota, Akira; Goldstone, Jared V; Lemaire, Benjamin; Takata, Matthew; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J

2015-02-01

188

Adoptive Immunotherapy for Hematological Malignancies Using T Cells Gene-Modified to Express Tumor Antigen-Specific Receptors  

PubMed Central

Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that adoptive T-cell immunotherapy could be a promising option for control of cancer; evident examples include the graft-vs-leukemia effect mediated by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and therapeutic infusion of ex vivo-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for melanoma. Currently, along with advances in synthetic immunology, gene-modified T cells retargeted to defined tumor antigens have been introduced as cellular drugs. As the functional properties of the adoptive immune response mediated by T lymphocytes are decisively regulated by their T-cell receptors (TCRs), transfer of genes encoding target antigen-specific receptors should enable polyclonal T cells to be uniformly redirected toward cancer cells. Clinically, anticancer adoptive immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells has an impressive track record. Notable examples include the dramatic benefit of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene-modified T cells redirected towards CD19 in patients with B-cell malignancy, and the encouraging results obtained with TCR gene-modified T cells redirected towards NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis antigen, in patients with advanced melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma. This article overviews the current status of this treatment option, and discusses challenging issues that still restrain the full effectiveness of this strategy, especially in the context of hematological malignancy. PMID:25517545

Fujiwara, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

189

Nutritional calcium modulates colonic expression of vitamin D receptor and pregnane X receptor target genes.  

PubMed

Low nutritional calcium contributes to disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier function, to hyperproliferation of colonocytes and increased occurrence of aggressive secondary bile acids in the gut lumen. These mechanisms are also known to be involved in the etiology of colonic inflammation and cancer. We studied in mice and human adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells the impact of low calcium on markers of inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2), of detoxification (pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR)/steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), cytochrome P450 steroid-inducible 3a11 (CYP3A11)), and on expression of the vitamin D system as a protection against tumorigenesis. Caco-2 cells express high COX-2 and low SXR mRNA levels when subconfluent. During differentiation this is reversed, while low calcium enhanced COX-2 protein expression. In vivo low dietary calcium significantly increased the expression of the PXR target gene CYP3A11 in the proximal colon, suggesting compensatory defense mechanisms. In comparison with males, low nutritional calcium elicits a better protective response in females: both the vitamin D synthesizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 )1alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA and the detoxifying CYP3A11 mRNA are augmented more. While it is recognized that colonic vitamin D synthesis may prevent tumor progression, low dietary calcium also elevates the 1,25-(OH)(2)-D(3) catabolic 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 24 hydroxylase (CYP24) expression primarily in the proximal colon. Our data suggest the proximal colon as the primary site of response to insufficient calcium intake. PMID:18327873

Nittke, Thomas; Selig, Stephan; Kallay, Enik; Cross, Heide S

2008-06-01

190

Evolution of a bitter taste receptor gene cluster in a New World sparrow.  

PubMed

Bitter taste perception likely evolved as a protective mechanism against the ingestion of harmful compounds in food. The evolution of the taste receptor type 2 (TAS2R) gene family, which encodes the chemoreceptors that are directly responsible for the detection of bitter compounds, has therefore been of considerable interest. Though TAS2R repertoires have been characterized for a number of species, to date the complement of TAS2Rs from just one bird, the chicken, which had a notably small number of TAS2Rs, has been established. Here, we used targeted mapping and genomic sequencing in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) and sample sequencing in other closely related birds to reconstruct the history of a TAS2R gene cluster physically linked to the break points of an evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement. In the white-throated sparrow, this TAS2R cluster encodes up to 18 functional bitter taste receptors and likely underwent a large expansion that predates and/or coincides with the radiation of the Emberizinae subfamily into the New World. In addition to signatures of gene birth-and-death evolution within this cluster, estimates of Ka/Ks for the songbird TAS2Rs were similar to those previously observed in mammals, including humans. Finally, comparison of the complete genomic sequence of the cluster from two common haplotypes in the white-throated sparrow revealed a number of nonsynonymous variants and differences in functional gene content within this species. These results suggest that interspecies and intraspecies genetic variability does exist in avian TAS2Rs and that these differences could contribute to variation in bitter taste perception in birds. PMID:20624740

Davis, Jamie K; Lowman, Josh J; Thomas, Pamela J; ten Hallers, Boudewijn F H; Koriabine, Maxim; Huynh, Lynn Y; Maney, Donna L; de Jong, Pieter J; Martin, Christa L; Thomas, James W

2010-01-01

191

Molecular characterization, expression profile, and polymorphism of goose dopamine D1 receptor gene.  

PubMed

Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) is one of the dopamine receptors with seven transmembrane domains that are coupled to the G protein. In the present study, we cloned the full coding region of DRD1 gene by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends from the goose hypothalamus tissues. Results showed that the goose DRD1 cDNA (GenBank: KF156790) contained a 1,356 bp open reading frame encoding a protein 452 amino acid with a molecular weight of 50.52 kDa and a isoelectric point of 6.96. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence was 71-98% identical to the DRD1 protein of other species, contained seven transmembrane domains and four N-glycosylation sites. A phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the deduced goose DRD1 protein had a close genetic relationship and evolutional distance with that of duck, chicken, and zebra finch. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis displayed goose DRD1 gene was widely expressed in all detected tissues, including heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, duodenum, sebum, pituitary, hypothalamus, ovary and oviduct. Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms were indentified in 3,169 bp length of this gene. For G90A mutation, the genotyping analysis of PCR-TspRI-RFLP showed the allele G was in dominance in all detected goose breeds, and the allele frequencies of this polymorphism were significantly different between Chinese goose breeds and foreign breeds (P<0.01). These findings will help us understand the functions of the DRD1 gene and the molecular breeding in geese. PMID:24452723

Wang, Cui; Liu, Yi; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Huali; Gong, Shaoming; He, Daqian

2014-05-01

192

Cocaine-Induced Intracellular Signaling and Gene Expression Are Oppositely Regulated by the Dopamine D1 and D3 Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated exposure to cocaine can induce neuroadaptations in the brain. One mechanism by which persistent changes occur involves alterations in gene expression mediated by the dopamine receptors. Both the dopamine D1 and D3 receptors have been shown to mediate gene expression changes. Moreover, the D1 and D3 receptors are also coexpressed in the same neurons, particularly in the nucleus accumbens

Lu Zhang; Danwen Lou; Hongyuan Jiao; Dongsheng Zhang; Xinkang Wang; Ying Xia; Jianhua Zhang; Ming Xu

2004-01-01

193

Common variations in noncoding regions of the human natriuretic peptide receptor A gene have quantitative effects  

PubMed Central

Genetic susceptibility to common conditions, such as essential hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, is probably determined by various combinations of small quantitative changes in the expression of many genes. NPR1, coding for natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), is a potential candidate, because NPRA mediates natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxing actions of the nariuretic peptides, and because genetically determined quantitative changes in the expression of this gene affect blood pressure and heart weight in a dose-dependent manner in mice. To determine whether there are common quantitative variants in human NPR1, we have sequenced the entire human NPR1 gene and identified 10 polymorphic sites in its non-coding sequence by using DNA from 34 unrelated human individuals. Five of the sites are single nucleotide polymorphisms; the remaining five are length polymorphisms, including a highly variable complex dinucleotide repeat in intron 19. There are three common haplotypes 5 to this dinucleotide repeat and three 3 to it, but the 5 haplotypes and 3 haplotypes appear to be randomly associated. Transient expression analysis in cultured cells of reporter plasmids with the proximal promoter sequences of NPR1 and its 3 untranslated regions showed that these polymorphisms have functional effects. We conclude that common NPR1 alleles can alter expression of the gene as much as two-fold and could therefore significantly affect genetic risks for essential hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in humans. PMID:12483301

Knowles, Joshua W.; Erickson, Laurie M.; Guy, Vanessa K.; Sigel, Carlie S.; Wilder, Jennifer C.

2009-01-01

194

The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements  

PubMed Central

Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R). One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species. PMID:23194088

2012-01-01

195

No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals???  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17? and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17? and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17?-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10?6M for Gen and >10?5M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17? or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of genistein and bisphenol A, respectively) would do otherwise. PMID:23747549

Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W.; Pounds, Nadine A.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J.

2013-01-01

196

Definition of the Cattle Killer Cell Iglike Receptor Gene Family: Comparison with Aurochs and Human Counterparts  

PubMed Central

Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Iglike receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene families, we determined the genomic location, structure, and sequence of two cattle KIR haplotypes and defined KIR sequences of aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of domestic cattle. Larger than its human counterpart, the cattle KIR locus evolved through successive duplications of a block containing ancestral KIR3DL and KIR3DX genes that existed before placental mammals. Comparison of two cattle KIR haplotypes and aurochs KIR show the KIR are polymorphic and the gene organization and content appear conserved. Of 18 genes, 8 are functional and 10 were inactivated by point mutation. Selective inactivation of KIR3DL and activating receptor genes leaves a functional cohort of one inhibitory KIR3DL, one activating KIR3DX, and six inhibitory KIR3DX. Functional KIR diversity evolved from KIR3DX in cattle and from KIR3DL in simian primates. Although independently evolved, cattle and human KIR gene families share important function-related properties, indicating that cattle KIR are NK cell receptors for cattle MHC class I. Combinations of KIR and MHC class I are the major genetic factors associated with human disease and merit investigation in cattle. PMID:25398326

Sanderson, Nicholas D.; Norman, Paul J.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Ellis, Shirley A.; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Park, Steven D. E.; Magee, David A.; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Warry, Andrew; Watson, Mick; Bradley, Daniel G.; MacHugh, David E.; Parham, Peter

2014-01-01

197

Molecular Identification and Expressive Characterization of an Olfactory Co-Receptor Gene in the Asian Honeybee, Apis cerana cerana  

PubMed Central

Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA open reading frame encoded 478 amino acid residues, including 7 putative transmembrane domains. Alignment analysis revealed that AcerOr2 shares high homology (> 74%) with similar olfactory receptors found in other Hymenoptera species. The amino acid identity with the closely related species Apis mellifera reached 99.8%. The developmental expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that the AcerOr2 transcript was expressed at a relatively low level in the larval stage, whereas it was expressed broadly in the pupal and adult stages, with a significantly high level on the days just before and after eclosion. In situ hybridization showed that AcerOr2 mRNA was expressed in sensilla placodea and on the basal region of the worker antennal cuticle, in accordance with the previous conclusions that the conserved genes are expressed in most olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24224665

Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo

2013-01-01

198

Farnesoid X receptor represses hepatic human APOA gene expression  

PubMed Central

High plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a), which is encoded by the APOA gene] increase an individuals risk of developing diseases, such as coronary artery diseases, restenosis, and stroke. Unfortunately, increased Lp(a) levels are minimally influenced by dietary changes or drug treatment. Further, the development of Lp(a)-specific medications has been hampered by limited knowledge of Lp(a) metabolism. In this study, we identified patients suffering from biliary obstructions with very low plasma Lp(a) concentrations that rise substantially after surgical intervention. Consistent with this, common bile duct ligation in mice transgenic for human APOA (tg-APOA mice) lowered plasma concentrations and hepatic expression of APOA. To test whether farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is activated by bile acids, was responsible for the low plasma Lp(a) levels in cholestatic patients and mice, we treated tg-APOA and tg-APOA/Fxr/ mice with cholic acid. FXR activation markedly reduced plasma concentrations and hepatic expression of human APOA in tg-APOA mice but not in tg-APOA/Fxr/ mice. Incubation of primary hepatocytes from tg-APOA mice with bile acids dose dependently downregulated APOA expression. Further analysis determined that the direct repeat 1 element between nucleotides 826 and 814 of the APOA promoter functioned as a negative FXR response element. This motif is also bound by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?), which promotes APOA transcription, and FXR was shown to compete with HNF4? for binding to this motif. These findings may have important implications in the development of Lp(a)-lowering medications. PMID:21804189

Chennamsetty, Indumathi; Claudel, Thierry; Kostner, Karam M.; Baghdasaryan, Anna; Kratky, Dagmar; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Frank, Sasa; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Trauner, Michael; Kostner, Gert M.

2011-01-01

199

Directed evolution of specific receptorligand pairs for use in the creation of gene switches  

PubMed Central

Despite their versatility and power in controlling gene regulation in nature, nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) have largely eluded utility in heterologous gene regulation applications such as gene therapy and metabolic engineering. The main reason for this void is the pleiotropic interference of the receptorligand combination with regulatory networks in the host organism. In recent years, numerous strategies have been developed to engineer ligandreceptor pairs that do not cross-interact with host regulatory pathways. However, these strategies have either met with limited success or cannot be readily extended to other ligandreceptor pairs. Here, we present a simple, effective, and readily generalizable strategy for reengineering NHRs to respond specifically to a selected synthetic ligand. The method involves generation of genetic diversity by stepwise individual site saturation mutagenesis of a fixed set of ligand-contacting residues and random point mutagenesis, followed by phenotypic screening based on a yeast two-hybrid system. As a test case, this method was used to alter the specificity of the NHR human estrogen receptor ? in favor of the synthetic ligand 4,4?-dihydroxybenzil, relative to the natural ligand 17?-estradiol, by >107-fold. The resulting ligandreceptor pair is highly sensitive to the synthetic ligand in human endometrial cancer cells and is essentially fully orthogonal to the wild-type receptornatural ligand pair. This method should provide a powerful, broadly applicable tool for engineering receptors/enzymes with improved or novel ligand/substrate specificity. PMID:15811944

Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Chen, Zhilei; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Zhao, Huimin

2005-01-01

200

Kappa2 opioid receptor subtype binding requires the presence of the DOR-1 gene.  

PubMed

Over the past several years substantial evidence has documented that opioid receptor homo- and heterodimers form in cell lines expressing one or more of the opioid receptors. We used opioid receptor knockout mice to determine whether in vivo pharmacological characteristics of kappa1 and kappa2 opioid receptors changed following knockout of specific opioid receptors. Using displacement of the general opioid ligand diprenorphine, we observed that occupancy or knockout of the DOR-1 gene increases the binding density of kappa1 receptors and eliminates kappa2 receptors in crude membrane preparations while the total density of kappa opioid binding sites is unchanged. Further, the analgesic potency of U69,593 in cumulative dose response curves is enhanced in mice lacking the DOR-1 gene. These results demonstrate that the DOR-1 gene is required for the expression of the kappa2 opioid receptor subtype and are consistent with the possibility that a KOR-1/DOR-1 heterodimer mediates kappa2 pharmacology. PMID:20036983

Ansonoff, Michael A; Wen, Ting; Pintar, John E

2010-01-01

201

Human gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor: Cloning of the gene (GIPR) and cDNA  

SciTech Connect

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic {Beta} cells and plays a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion during the postprandial phase. We have isolated the human gene (GIPR) and cDNA encoding the GIP receptor by a combination of the conventional screening and polymerase chain reaction procedures. Human GIP receptor cDNA encodes a protein of 466 amino acids that is 81.5 and 81.2% identical to the previously cloned hamster and rat GIP receptor, respectively. Hydropathic analysis shows the presence of a signal peptide and seven potential transmembrane domains, a feature characteristic of the VIP/glucagon/secretin receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors. The human GIPR gene is about 13.8 kb long, consists of 14 exons, and carries 17 Alu repeats. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Yamada, Yuichiro; Hayami, Tadao; Nakamura, Katsuki; Kaisaki, Pamela J. [Kyoto Univ. Faculty of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

1995-10-10

202

At least three promoters direct expression of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor gene.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the gene for the mouse glucocorticoid receptor. The gene spans approximately 110 kilobases, and glucocorticoid receptor transcripts are assembled from nine exons. Expression of the gene is controlled by at least three promoters, resulting in glucocorticoid receptor transcripts with different 5' nontranslated exons. One promoter is cell-specific, found to be active only in T lymphocytes. The other two promoters are active to various degrees in all cell lines and tissues so far analyzed and are located in a CpG island. The promoter activities are accompanied by DNase I hypersensitivity sites in chromatin. In contrast to a conservation of exon-intron structure, differences in promoter organization suggest a divergence between the evolution of regulatory and coding regions among members of the steroid receptor super-family. Images PMID:1495961

Strhle, U; Schmidt, A; Kelsey, G; Stewart, A F; Cole, T J; Schmid, W; Schtz, G

1992-01-01

203

Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor gene linkage and copy number variation analysis by droplet digital PCR  

PubMed Central

The Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) gene complex has considerable biomedical importance. Patterns of polymorphism in the KIR region include variability in the gene content of haplotypes and diverse structural arrangements. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify different haplotype motifs and to enumerate KIR copy number variants (CNVs). ddPCR detected a variety of KIR haplotype configurations in DNA from well-characterized cell lines. Mendelian segregation of ddPCR-estimated KIR2DL5 CNVs was observed in Gambian families and CNV typing of other KIRs was shown to be accurate when compared to an established quantitative PCR method. PMID:24597950

2014-01-01

204

Psychoneuroendocrinology . Author manuscript Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism  

E-print Network

receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder Susanne Henningsson 1 * , Lina Jonsson 1 , Elin Ljunggren 1.henningsson@pharm.gu.se > Abstract Summary Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher prevalence of autism in men than in women, in conjunction with a number of other

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Kinase domain insert containing receptor promotor controlled suicide gene system kills human umbilical vein endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM:T o evaluate the killing effect of double suicide gene mediated,by adenovirus,and regulated,under,kinase domain,insert containing,receptor (KDR) promoter,on human,umbilical vein endothelial cells. METHODS: By PCR technology, human KDR promoter gene,

Zong-Hai Huang; Wen-Yu Yang; Qi Cheng; Jing-Long Yu; Zhou Li; Zong-Yan Tong; Hui-Juan Song; Xiao-Yan Che

2005-01-01

206

Submitted manuscript, preliminary accepted for publication in Psychoneuroendocrinology. Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder  

E-print Network

association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder Susanne Henningsson1*, Lina: susanne.henningsson@pharm.gu.se Short title: Association between androgen receptor gene and autism Summary Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher

207

Variants at serotonin transporter and 2A receptor genes predict cooperative behavior differentially according to presence of punishment  

PubMed Central

Punishment of free-riding has been implicated in the evolution of cooperation in humans, and yet mechanisms for punishment avoidance remain largely uninvestigated. Individual variation in these mechanisms may stem from variation in the serotonergic system, which modulates processing of aversive stimuli. Functional serotonin gene variants have been associated with variation in the processing of aversive stimuli and widely studied as risk factors for psychiatric disorders. We show that variants at the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) predict contributions to the public good in economic games, dependent upon whether contribution behavior can be punished. Participants with a variant at the serotonin transporter gene contribute more, leading to group-level differences in cooperation, but this effect dissipates in the presence of punishment. When contribution behavior can be punished, those with a variant at the serotonin 2A receptor gene contribute more than those without it. This variant also predicts a more stressful experience of the games. The diversity of institutions (including norms) that govern cooperation and punishment may create selective pressures for punishment avoidance that change rapidly across time and space. Variant-specific epigenetic regulation of these genes, as well as population-level variation in the frequencies of these variants, may facilitate adaptation to local norms of cooperation and punishment. PMID:23431136

Schroeder, Kari B.; McElreath, Richard; Nettle, Daniel

2013-01-01

208

Precise mapping of the brain [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic receptor gene within chromosome 4p16  

SciTech Connect

The gene encoding the brain [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2C) is located on human chromosome 4. It has been circumstantially associated with a number of human disorders, including Parkinson disease, panic disorders, and Huntington disease (HD). Using somatic cell hybrids, the authors localized the gene to chromosome 4p16 distal to P8 (D4S62). To investigate this locus further, they isolated several cosmid clones covering the entire gene. The gene was found to be intronless. Two (GT)[sub n] repeats in close proximity to the ADRAC2 gene were analyzed and used to define its precise location. Linkage disequilibrium studies of one microsatellite in HD families showed strong nonrandom association to the HD mutation, indicating its tight linkage to the HD gene. The investigation of families carrying recombinant chromosomes, pulsed-field analysis, and genomic walking mapped the ADRAC2 gene adjacent to D4S81, 500 kb proximal to the HD gene. The newly defined microsatellites at the ADRAC2 locus, its precise localization within 4p16, and the detailed PCR conditions facilitate the identification of any defect caused by this gene. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Riess, O.; Siedlaczck, I.; Potisek, S.; Epplen, J.T. (Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany)); Thies, U. (Univ. of Goettingen (Germany)); Graham, R.; Theilmann, J.; Hayden, M.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Grimm, T. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany))

1994-01-15

209

The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) owing to converging evidence from multiple levels of analysis that oxytocin (OXT) has an important role in the regulation of affiliative behavior and social bonding in both nonhuman mammals and humans. Inconsistency in the effect sizes of the OXTR variants included in association studies render it unclear whether OXTR is truly associated with ASD, and, if so, which OXTR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated. Thus, a meta-analytic review of extant studies is needed to determine whether OXTR shows association with ASD, and to elucidate which specific SNPs have a significant effect on ASD. The current meta-analysis of 16 OXTR SNPs included 3941 individuals with ASD from 11 independent samples, although analyses of each individual SNP included a subset of this total. We found significant associations between ASD and the SNPs rs7632287, rs237887, rs2268491 and rs2254298. OXTR was also significantly associated with ASD in a gene-based test. The current meta-analysis is the largest and most comprehensive investigation of the association of OXTR with ASD and the findings suggest directions for future studies of the etiology of ASD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 August 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.77. PMID:25092245

LoParo, D; Waldman, I D

2014-08-01

210

Investigation of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors genes and migraine susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of severe headache, affecting around 12% of Caucasian populations. It is well known that migraine has a strong genetic component, although the number and type of genes involved is still unclear. Prior linkage studies have reported mapping of a migraine gene to chromosome Xq 2428, a region containing a cluster of genes for GABA A receptors (GABRE, GABRA3, GABRQ), which are potential candidate genes for migraine. The GABA neurotransmitter has been implicated in migraine pathophysiology previously; however its exact role has not yet been established, although GABA receptors agonists have been the target of therapeutic developments. The aim of the present research is to investigate the role of the potential candidate genes reported on chromosome Xq 2428 region in migraine susceptibility. In this study, we have focused on the subunit GABA A receptors type ? (GABRE) and type ? (GABRQ) genes and their involvement in migraine. Methods We have performed an association analysis in a large population of case-controls (275 unrelated Caucasian migraineurs versus 275 controls) examining a set of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region (exons 3, 5 and 9) of the GABRE gene and also the I478F coding variant of the GABRQ gene. Results Our study did not show any association between the examined SNPs in our test population (P > 0.05). Conclusion Although these particular GABA receptor genes did not show positive association, further studies are necessary to consider the role of other GABA receptor genes in migraine susceptibility. PMID:19087248

Fernandez, Francesca; Esposito, Teresa; Lea, Rod A; Colson, Natalie J; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Griffiths, Lyn R

2008-01-01

211

Polymorphisms in the gene encoding estrogen receptor alpha are associated with osteoarthritis in Han Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms in the Xba I and Pvu II restriction enzyme recognition sites in the estrogen receptor-alpha gene (ESR1) have been associated with multiple diseases, including osteoarthritis. To determine whether such polymorphisms are associated with osteoarthritis in a Han Chinese population, 98 women with osteoarthritis and 196 healthy women were genotyped by PCR-RFLP of ESR1 with Xba I and Pvu II. Absence of a restriction polymorphism is indicated as an X or P allele; presence of the restriction polymorphism is indicated as an x or p allele. Clinical information was collected on each participant, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), knee radiograms, and bone mineral density (BMD). Body weight and BMI were higher for each Xba I genotype (all P < 0.05) in individuals with osteoarthritis compared to controls (p < 0.05). Femoral BMD was also significantly higher in the osteoarthritis group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the xx genotype for ESR1 was a significant risk factor for osteoarthritis (OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.13~4.20, p=0.036). Thus, consistent with findings in other populations, the estrogen receptor genotype xx appears to be associated with susceptibility to osteoarthritis among Han Chinese women.

Liu, Wei; Shao, Feng-Min; Yan, Lei; Cao, Hui-Xia; Qiu, Dong

2014-01-01

212

Toll-like receptor 9 gene polymorphism in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients  

PubMed Central

Aim: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease, with microbial dental plaque as the primary etiological factor. However, the manifestation and progression of periodontitis is influenced by a wide variety of other determinants and factors such as social and behavioral factors, systemic factors, microbial composition of dental plaque, genetic, and many other emerging risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze genetic polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) gene at - 1237C/T and its association with chronic and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) in an Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 90 subjects, which included 30 GAgP and 30 chronic periodontitis patients and 30 healthy controls. Within the limitations of our study, only 30 subjects were included in each group due to the low prevalence of GAgP patients. Blood samples were drawn from the subjects and analyzed for TLR9 genetic polymorphism at - 1237C/T by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: No significant difference was found in genotype and allele frequency of TLR9 genetic polymorphism (- 1237C/T) in generalized aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: Toll-like receptor 9 genetic polymorphism at - 1237C/T may not be associated with GAgP and chronic periodontitis patients in Indian population.

Ashok, Nipun; Warad, Shivaraj; Kalburgi, Nagaraj Balasaheb; Bilichodmath, Shivaprasad; Prabhakaran, Prabath Singh Valiyaparambil; Tarakji, Bassel

2014-01-01

213

Angiotensin II and aldosterone regulate gene transcription via functional mineralocortocoid receptors in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Inhibition or blockade of the angiotensin-aldosterone system consistently decreases ischemic cardiovascular events in clinical trials. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand activated transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. MR binds and is activated by aldosterone and cortisol with equal affinity, but MR activation by cortisol is diminished in tissues that express the cortisol-inactivating enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2 (11betaHSD2). Although previous studies support that the vasculature is a target tissue of aldosterone, MR-mediated gene expression in vascular cells has not been demonstrated or systematically explored. We investigated whether functional MR and 11betaHSD2 are expressed in human blood vessels. Human coronary and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express mRNA and protein for both MR and 11betaHSD2. The endogenous VSMC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene expression, which is blocked by the competitive MR antagonist spironolactone. Inhibition of 11betaHSD2 in coronary artery VSMCs enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that the VSMC 11betaHSD2 is functional. Angiotensin II also activates MR-mediated gene transcription in coronary artery VSMCs. Angiotensin II activation of MR-mediated gene expression is inhibited by both the AT1 receptor blocker losartan and by spironolactone, but not by aldosterone synthase inhibition. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR experiments show that aldosterone activates expression of endogenous human coronary VSMC genes, including several involved in vascular fibrosis, inflammation, and calcification. These data support a new MR-dependent mechanism by which aldosterone and angiotensin II influence ischemic cardiovascular events, and suggest that ACE inhibitors and MR antagonists may decrease clinical ischemic events by inhibiting MR-dependent gene expression in vascular cells. PMID:15718497

Jaffe, Iris Z; Mendelsohn, Michael E

2005-04-01

214

No evidence of major effects in several Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to study the potential genetic contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TLRs bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and TLR genes influence both proinflammatory cytokine production and autoimmune responses. Hostpathogen interactions are involved in RA physiopathology. METHODS: We tested SNPs of five TLR genes (TLR9, TLR2, TLR6, TLR1, and TLR4) in a cohort

Olivier Jaen; Elisabeth Petit-Teixeira; Holger Kirsten; Peter Ahnert; Luca Semerano; Cline Pierlot; Francois Cornelis; Marie-Christophe Boissier; Geraldine Falgarone

2009-01-01

215

A multiexon deletion in the human low density lipoprotein receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia  

SciTech Connect

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a widespread human disease. FH is caused by a disturbance in the catabolism of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which results from mutations in the LDL receptor gene (LDLR). The majority of mutations in the LDLR locus is represented by large-scale reorganizations in the above gene. In this study, we describe a novel 5 kb deletion, which eliminates exons 4 to 6 in the LDLR gene. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Mandel`shtam, M.Yu.; Lipovetskii, B.M.; Shvartsman, A.L.; Gaitskhoki, V.S. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-02-01

216

Isolation and characterization of CXC receptor genes in a range of elasmobranchs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CXC group of chemokines exert their cellular effects via the CXCR group of G-protein coupled receptors. Six CXCR genes have been identified in humans (CXCR1-6), and homologues to some of these have been isolated from a range of vertebrate species. Here we isolate and characterize CXCR genes from a range of elasmobranch species. One CXCR1\\/2 gene fragment isolated from

Anna Goostrey; Gareth Jones; Christopher J. Secombes

2005-01-01

217

Analysis of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene polymorphisms in cannabinoid addicts.  

PubMed

The gene encoding the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) has been suggested as a candidate gene for substance dependence. In this study, the possible association between Taq1A and Taq1B DRD2 polymorphisms and cannabinoid dependence was investigated. One hundred and twelve cannabinoid addicted and 130 healthy control subjects were included in this study. The Taq1A and Taq1B genotypes were determined in all subjects by polymerase chain reaction. For each polymorphism (A or B), the subjects were categorized into three groups according to their genotype, that is, the subjects with alleles A1/A1, A1/A2, A2/A2; B1/B1, B1/B2, and B2/B2. A significant association was found between Taq1A gene polymorphism and cannabinoid addicts compared to the control subjects. This finding suggests that polymorphism of the Taq1A, but not the Taq1B, may be associated with the susceptibility to cannabinoid dependence. Further clinical studies are required to be carried out for confirmation and evaluation of these findings. PMID:22536882

Nacak, Muradiye; Isir, Aysun B; Balci, Sibel O; Pehlivan, Sacide; Benlier, Necla; Aynacioglu, Sukru

2012-11-01

218

Association analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in chinese population with asthma.  

PubMed

Several asthma susceptibility loci, including a region containing the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene located at chromosome 12q, have been identified using genome-wide screens. Our aim is to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR gene and asthma. One hundred one asthma patients and 206 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Genotypes were determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy and DNA sequencing. The results showed that there was no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of Fok I and Bsm I polymorphisms between asthma patients and the controls in the Chinese Hans (For Fok I: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.82-1.60; for Bsm I: OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.87-2.38). It is suggested that Fok I and Bsm I polymorphisms of VDR gene may not significantly contribute to the development of asthma in the Chinese Hans. PMID:20124605

Fang, Wen-Liang; Gao, Lin-Bo; Liang, Wei-Bo; Xue, Hui; Bai, Peng; Lv, Mei-Li; Wang, Yan-Yun; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Lin

2009-09-01

219

Mutation analysis of androgen receptor gene: multiple uses for a single test.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor gene mutations are one of the leading causes of disorders of sex development (DSD) exhibited by sexual ambiguity or sex reversal. In this study, 2 families with patients whom diagnosed clinically as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) were physically and genetically examined. This evaluation carried out by cytogenetic and molecular analysis including karyotype and sequencing of SRY and AR genes. In family 1, two brothers and their mother were hemizygous and heterozygous respectively for c.2522G>A variant, while one of their healthy brother was a completely normal hemizygote. Family 2 assessment demonstrated the c.639G>A (rs6152) mutation in two siblings who were reared as girls. The SRY gene was intact in all of the study's participants. Our findings in family 1 could be a further proof for the pathogenicity of the c.2522G>A variant. Given the importance of AR mutations in development of problems such as sex assignment in AIS patients, definitive diagnosis and phenotype-genotype correlation could be achieved by molecular genetic tests that in turn could have promising impacts in clinical management and also in prenatal diagnosis of prospect offspring. In this regard, phenotype-genotype correlation could be helpful and achieved by molecular genetic tests. This could influence the clinical management of the patients as well as prenatal diagnosis for the prospective offspring. PMID:25241384

Shojaei, Azadeh; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal, Reza; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Derakhshandeh-Peykar, Pupak; Izadi, Pantea; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Dowlatih, Mohammad-Ali; Karami, Fatemeh; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad

2014-12-01

220

Erythropoietin (EPO) increases myelin gene expression in CG4 oligodendrocyte cells through the classical EPO receptor.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) has protective effects in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, including in animal models of multiple sclerosis, where EPO decreases disease severity. EPO also promotes neurogenesis and is protective in models of toxic demyelination. In this study, we asked whether EPO could promote neurorepair by also inducing remyelination. In addition, we investigated whether the effect of EPO could be mediated by the classical erythropoietic EPO receptor (EPOR), since it is still questioned if EPOR is functional in nonhematopoietic cells. Using CG4 cells, a line of rat oligodendrocyte precursor cells, we found that EPO increases the expression of myelin genes (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG] and myelin basic protein [MBP]). EPO had no effect in wild-type CG4 cells, which do not express EPOR, whereas it increased MOG and MBP expression in cells engineered to overexpress EPOR (CG4-EPOR). This was reflected in a marked increase in MOG protein levels, as detected by Western blot. In these cells, EPO induced by 10-fold the early growth response gene 2 (Egr2), which is required for peripheral myelination. However, Egr2 silencing with a siRNA did not reverse the effect of EPO, indicating that EPO acts through other pathways. In conclusion, EPO induces the expression of myelin genes in oligodendrocytes and this effect requires the presence of EPOR. This study demonstrates that EPOR can mediate neuroreparative effects. PMID:23821361

Cervellini, Ilaria; Annenkov, Alexander; Brenton, Thomas; Chernajovsky, Yuti; Ghezzi, Pietro; Mengozzi, Manuela

2013-01-01

221

Tomato Ve disease resistance genes encode cell surface-like receptors  

PubMed Central

In tomato, Ve is implicated in race-specific resistance to infection by Verticillium species causing crop disease. Characterization of the Ve locus involved positional cloning and isolation of two closely linked inverted genes. Expression of individual Ve genes in susceptible potato plants conferred resistance to an aggressive race 1 isolate of Verticillium albo-atrum. The deduced primary structure of Ve1 and Ve2 included a hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide, leucine-rich repeats containing 28 or 35 potential glycosylation sites, a hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain, and a C-terminal domain with the mammalian E/DXXXL? or YXX? endocytosis signals (? is an amino acid with a hydrophobic side chain). A leucine zipper-like sequence occurs in the hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide of Ve1 and a Pro-Glu-Ser-Thr (PEST)-like sequence resides in the C-terminal domain of Ve2. These structures suggest that the Ve genes encode a class of cell-surface glycoproteins with receptor-mediated endocytosis-like signals and leucine zipper or PEST sequences. PMID:11331751

Kawchuk, Lawrence M.; Hachey, John; Lynch, Dermot R.; Kulcsar, Frank; van Rooijen, Gijs; Waterer, Doug R.; Robertson, Albert; Kokko, Eric; Byers, Robert; Howard, Ronald J.; Fischer, Rainer; Prfer, Dirk

2001-01-01

222

Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Associated with Fairness Preference in Ultimatum Game  

PubMed Central

In experimental economics, the preference for reciprocal fairness has been observed in the controlled and incentivized laboratory setting of the ultimatum game, in which two individuals decide on how to divide a sum of money, with one proposing the share while the second deciding whether to accept. Should the proposal be accepted, the amount is divided accordingly. Otherwise, both would receive no money. A recent twin study has shown that fairness preference inferred from responder behavior is heritable, yet its neurogenetic basis remains unknown. The D4 receptor (DRD4) exon3 is a well-characterized functional polymorphism, which is known to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and personality traits including novelty seeking and self-report altruism. Applying a neurogenetic approach, we find that DRD4 is significantly associated with fairness preference. Additionally, the interaction among this gene, season of birth, and gender is highly significant. This is the first result to link preference for reciprocal fairness to a specific gene and suggests that gene environment interactions contribute to economic decision making. PMID:21072167

Zhong, Songfa; Israel, Salomon; Shalev, Idan; Xue, Hong; Ebstein, Richard P.; Chew, Soo Hong

2010-01-01

223

Global Renal Gene Expression Profiling Analysis in B2-Kinin Receptor Null Mice: Impact of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), the leading cause of end-stage renal failure, is clinically manifested by albuminuria and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate. The risk factors and mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of DN are still incompletely defined. To address the involvement of bradykinin B2-receptors (B2R) in DN, we used a genome wide approach to study the effects of diabetes on differential renal gene expression profile in wild type and B2R knockout (B2R?/?) mice. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and plasma glucose levels and albumin excretion rate (AER) were measured at predetermined times throughout the 23 week study period. Longitudinal analysis of AER indicated that diabetic B2R?/?D null mice had a significantly decreased AER levels compared to wild type B2R+/+D mice (P?=?0.0005). Results from the global microarray study comparing gene expression profiles among four groups of mice respectively: (B2R+/+C, B2R+/+D, B2R?/?C and B2R?/?D) highlighted the role of several altered pathological pathways in response to disruption of B2R and to the diabetic state that included: endothelial injury, oxidative stress, insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammatory process with a marked alteration in the pro-apoptotic genes. The findings of the present study provide a global genomics view of biomarkers that highlight the mechanisms and putative pathways involved in DN. PMID:23028588

Jaffa, Miran A.; Kobeissy, Firas; Al Hariri, Moustafa; Chalhoub, Hussein; Eid, Assaad; Ziyadeh, Fuad N.; Jaffa, Ayad A.

2012-01-01

224

Dexamethasone Stimulated Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood is a Sensitive Marker for Glucocorticoid Receptor Resistance in Depressed Patients  

PubMed Central

Although gene expression profiles in peripheral blood in major depression are not likely to identify genes directly involved in the pathomechanism of affective disorders, they may serve as biomarkers for this disorder. As previous studies using baseline gene expression profiles have provided mixed results, our approach was to use an in vivo dexamethasone challenge test and to compare glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated changes in gene expression between depressed patients and healthy controls. Whole genome gene expression data (baseline and following GR-stimulation with 1.5?mg dexamethasone p.o.) from two independent cohorts were analyzed to identify gene expression pattern that would predict case and control status using a training (N=18 cases/18 controls) and a test cohort (N=11/13). Dexamethasone led to reproducible regulation of 2670 genes in controls and 1151 transcripts in cases. Several genes, including FKBP5 and DUSP1, previously associated with the pathophysiology of major depression, were found to be reliable markers of GR-activation. Using random forest analyses for classification, GR-stimulated gene expression outperformed baseline gene expression as a classifier for case and control status with a correct classification of 79.1 vs 41.6% in the test cohort. GR-stimulated gene expression performed best in dexamethasone non-suppressor patients (88.7% correctly classified with 100% sensitivity), but also correctly classified 77.3% of the suppressor patients (76.7% sensitivity), when using a refined set of 19 genes. Our study suggests that in vivo stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood cells could be a promising molecular marker of altered GR-functioning, an important component of the underlying pathology, in patients suffering from depressive episodes. PMID:22237309

Menke, Andreas; Arloth, Janine; Ptz, Benno; Weber, Peter; Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Gonik, Mariya; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Rubel, Jennifer; Uhr, Manfred; Lucae, Susanne; Deussing, Jan M; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Holsboer, Florian; Binder, Elisabeth B

2012-01-01

225

An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304

2014-01-01

226

Thyroid hormone receptor regulates most genes independently of fibroblast growth factor 21 in liver.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone (TH) acts through specific receptors (TRs), which are conditional transcription factors, to induce fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a peptide hormone that is usually induced by fasting and that influences lipid and carbohydrate metabolism via local hepatic and systemic endocrine effects. While TH and FGF21 display overlapping actions when administered, including reductions in serum lipids, according to the current models these hormones act independently in vivo. In this study, we examined mechanisms of regulation of FGF21 expression by TH and tested the possibility that FGF21 is required for induction of hepatic TH-responsive genes. We confirm that active TH (triiodothyronine (T3)) and the TR?-selective thyromimetic GC1 increase FGF21 transcript and peptide levels in mouse liver and that this effect requires TR?. T3 also induces FGF21 in cultured hepatocytes and this effect involves direct actions of TR?1, which binds a TRE within intron 2 of FGF21. Gene expression profiles of WT and Fgf21-knockout mice are very similar, indicating that FGF21 is dispensable for the majority of hepatic T3 gene responses. A small subset of genes displays diminished T3 response in the absence of FGF21. However, most of these are not obviously directly involved in T3-dependent hepatic metabolic processes. Consistent with these results, T3-dependent effects on serum cholesterol are maintained in the Fgf21(-/-) background and we observe no effect of the Fgf21-knockout background on serum triglycerides and glucose. Our findings indicate that T3 regulates the genes involved in classical hepatic metabolic responses independently of FGF21. PMID:25501997

Zhang, Aijun; Sieglaff, Douglas H; York, Jean Philippe; Suh, Ji Ho; Ayers, Stephen D; Winnier, Glenn E; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Pin, Christopher; Zhang, Pumin; Webb, Paul; Xia, Xuefeng

2015-03-01

227

Episodic Positive Selection in the Evolution of Avian Toll-Like Receptor Innate Immunity Genes  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of conserved pattern-recognition molecules responsible for initiating innate and acquired immune responses. Because they play a key role in host defence, these genes have received increasing interest in the evolutionary and population genetics literature, as their variation represents a potential target of adaptive evolution. However, the role of pathogen-mediated selection (i.e. episodic positive selection) in the evolution of these genes remains poorly known and has not been examined outside of mammals. A recent increase in the number of bird species for which TLR sequences are available has enabled us to examine the selective processes that have influenced evolution of the 10 known avian TLR genes. Specifically, we tested for episodic positive selection to identify codons that experience purifying selection for the majority of their evolution, interspersed with bursts of positive selection that may occur only in restricted lineages. We included up to 23 species per gene (mean?=?16.0) and observed that, although purifying selection was evident, an average of 4.5% of codons experienced episodic positive selection across all loci. For four genes in which sequence coverage traversed both the extracellular leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) and transmembrane/intracellular domains of the proteins, increased positive selection was observed at the extracellular domain, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide evidence that episodic positive selection has played an important role in the evolution of most avian TLRs, consistent with the role of these loci in pathogen recognition and a mechanism of host-pathogen coevolution. PMID:24595315

Grueber, Catherine E.; Wallis, Graham P.; Jamieson, Ian G.

2014-01-01

228

Association of Inherited Variation in Toll-Like Receptor Genes with Malignant Melanoma Susceptibility and Survival  

PubMed Central

The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is critical in linking innate and acquired immunity. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding TLRs have been associated with autoimmune diseases and cancer. We investigated the genetic variation of TLR genes and its potential impact on melanoma susceptibility and patient survival. The study included 763 cutaneous melanoma cases recruited in Germany and 736 matched controls that were genotyped for 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 TLR genes. The relationship between genotype, disease status and survival was investigated taking into account patient and tumor characteristics, and melanoma treatment. Analysis of 7 SNPs in TLR2, 7 SNPs in TLR3 and 8 SNPs in TLR4 showed statistically significant differences in distribution of inferred haplotypes between cases and controls. No individual polymorphism was associated with disease susceptibility except for the observed tendency for TLR2-rs3804099 (odds ratio OR ?=?1.15, 95% CI 0.991.34, p?=?0.07) and TLR4-rs2149356 (OR?=?0.85, 95% CI 0.731.00, p?=?0.06). Both polymorphisms were part of the haplotypes associated with risk modulation. An improved overall survival (Hazard ratio HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.320.88) and survival following metastasis (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.340.91) were observed in carriers of the variant allele (D299G) of TLR4-rs4986790. In addition various TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 haplotypes were associated with increased overall survival. Our results point to a novel association between TLR gene variants and haplotypes with melanoma survival. Our data suggest a role for the D299G polymorphism in the TLR4 gene in overall survival and a potential link with systemic treatment at stage IV of the disease. The polymorphic amino acid residue, located in the ectodomain of TLR4, can have functional consequences. PMID:21931695

Gast, Andreas; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Claus, Rainer; Brandt, Andreas; Weires, Marianne; Weber, Alexander; Plass, Christoph; Sucker, Antje; Hemminki, Kari

2011-01-01

229

Androgen receptor repression of GnRH gene transcription.  

PubMed

Alterations in androgen levels lead to reproductive defects in both males and females, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, anovulation, and infertility. Androgens have been shown to down-regulate GnRH mRNA levels through an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent mechanism. Here, we investigate how androgen regulates expression from the GnRH regulatory region in the GT1-7 cell line, a model of GnRH neurons. A synthetic androgen, R1881, repressed transcription from the GnRH promoter (GnRH-P) in an AR-dependent manner, and liganded AR associated with the chromatin at the GnRH-P in live GT1-7 cells. The three known octamer-binding transcription factor-1 (Oct-1) binding sites in GnRH-P were required for AR-mediated repression, although other sequences were also involved. Although a multimer of the consensus Oct-1 binding site was not repressed, a multimer of the cluster of Oct-1, Pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor (Pbx)/Prep, and NK2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1) binding sites, found at -106/-91 in GnRH-P, was sufficient for repression. In fact, overexpression of any of these factors disrupted the androgen response, indicating that a balance of factors in this tripartite complex is required for AR repression. AR bound to this region in EMSA, indicating a direct interaction of AR with DNA or with other transcription factors bound to GnRH-P at this sequence. Collectively, our data demonstrate that GnRH transcription is repressed by AR via multiple sequences in GnRH-P, including three Oct-1 binding sites, and that this repression requires the complex interaction of several transcription factors. PMID:22074952

Brayman, Melissa J; Pepa, Patricia A; Berdy, Sara E; Mellon, Pamela L

2012-01-01

230

Gustatory expression pattern of the human TAS2R bitter receptor gene family reveals a heterogenous population of bitter responsive taste receptor cells.  

PubMed

Human bitter taste is mediated by approximately 25 members of the human TAS2 receptor (hTAS2R) gene family. The hTAS2R genes are expressed in taste buds of gustatory papillae on the tongue surface. Because many naturally occurring bitter compounds are toxic, bitter taste receptors are believed to serve as warning sensors against the ingestion of toxic food compounds. An important question is whether bitter taste receptor cells are a homogeneous, broadly tuned population of cells, which uniformly express all bitter taste receptor genes, or not. Gene expression analyses in rodents demonstrated an essentially overlapping expression of TAS2R genes indicating a broad tuning, whereas functional in vivo analyses suggest a narrow tuning. The present study demonstrates the expression of all 25 human TAS2R genes in taste receptor cells of human circumvallate papillae. As shown by in situ hybridization experiments, the expression of hTAS2R genes differs in both the apparent level of expression and the number of taste receptor cells expressing these genes, suggesting a heterogeneous bitter taste receptor cell population. Differences in gene expression levels were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR experiments for a subset of hTAS2R genes. Direct evidence for the heterogeneity of bitter taste receptor cells is provided by dual-labeling in situ hybridizations with selected pairs of hTAS2R gene-specific probes. Functional coexpression experiments in heterologous cells show competition among hTAS2Rs, indicating a possible biological reason for the observed expression pattern. From the data, we conclude that human bitter taste receptor cells are tuned to detect a limited subset of bitter stimuli. PMID:18003842

Behrens, Maik; Foerster, Susann; Staehler, Frauke; Raguse, Jan-Dirk; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

2007-11-14

231

Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.  

PubMed

Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

2014-06-01

232

Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales  

PubMed Central

Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

2014-01-01

233

De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathies.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. PMID:25262651

2014-10-01

234

Altered Target Gene Regulation Controlled by Estrogen Receptor-Concentration  

E-print Network

a noncanonical activation mechanism. (Molecular Endocrinology 20: 291­301, 2006) ESTROGEN RECEPTOR- (ER ) serves to DNA through a centrally located DNA-binding domain (DBD) and activates transcription through two

Alarid, Elaine T.

235

The ERBB3 receptor in cancer and cancer gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is unique in that its tyrosine kinase domain is functionally defective. It is activated by neuregulins, by other ERBB and nonERBB receptors as well as by other kinases, and by novel mechanisms. Downstream it interacts prominently with the phosphoinositol 3-kinase\\/AKT survival\\/mitogenic pathway, but also with GRB, SHC, SRC, ABL,

G Sithanandam; L M Anderson

2008-01-01

236

Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene and stress fractures.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate the association between VDR polymorphisms and calcaneal Stiffness Index (SI) with stress fractures in a case control study including male military personnel. Thirty- two patients with stress fractures were matched with 32 uninjured healthy volunteers (controls), by gender, age, height, body weight, and level of physical activity. The two groups were genotyped for the FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene with PCR-RFLP method. In addition, calcaneal SI was measured by heel quantitative ultrasound in both groups. Data were analyzed by chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis. The f allele was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls (p=0.013), while the B allele showed such a tendency without reaching statistical significance (p=0.052). Among the entire cohort, a 2.7-fold and a 2.0-fold increase in risk of stress fractures was associated with the f and B alleles (OR, 2.7, 95% CI, 1.2-5.9; p=0.014 and OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.0-4.1; p=0.053, respectively). No statistically significant association was found between the incidence of stress fractures and t or a alleles. Decreased T-scores were also associated with the presence of f and B alleles. Mean values of T-scores of SI were statistically significantly lower in patients than in controls (p=0.018). These results suggest that the FokI and BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene could be associated with increased risk of stress fractures among military personnel. Moreover, a low calcaneal SI could represent a measurable index of this increased risk. PMID:19391078

Chatzipapas, C; Boikos, S; Drosos, G I; Kazakos, K; Tripsianis, G; Serbis, A; Stergiopoulos, S; Tilkeridis, C; Verettas, D-A; Stratakis, C A

2009-08-01

237

Estrogen receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a corepressor complex to the estrogen receptor alpha gene promoter.  

PubMed

Human estrogen receptors alpha and beta are crucially involved in the regulation of mammary growth and development. Normal breast tissues display a relative higher expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically changes during breast tumorogenesis. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that a dysregulation of the two estrogen receptor subtypes may induce breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the potential opposing roles played by the two estrogen receptors on tumor cell growth remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that ER beta overexpression in breast cancer cells decreases cell proliferation and down-regulates ER alpha mRNA and protein content, along with a concomitant repression of estrogen-regulated genes. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER alpha promoter region, showed that elevated levels of ER beta down-regulated basal ER alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis revealed that the proximal GC-rich motifs at -223 and -214 are critical for the ER beta-induced ER alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurred through ER beta-Sp1 protein-protein interactions within the ER alpha promoter region and the recruitment of a corepressor complex containing the nuclear receptor corepressor NCoR, accompanied by hypoacetylation of histone H4 and displacement of RNA-polymerase II. Silencing of NCoR gene expression by RNA interference reversed the down-regulatory effects of ER beta on ER alpha gene expression and cell proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which overexpression of ER beta through NCoR is able to down regulate ER alpha gene expression, thus blocking ER alpha's driving role on breast cancer cell growth. PMID:22622808

Bartella, V; Rizza, P; Barone, I; Zito, D; Giordano, F; Giordano, C; Catalano, S; Mauro, L; Sisci, D; Panno, M L; Fuqua, S A W; And, S

2012-07-01

238

Multigenic Control of Measles Vaccine Immunity Mediated by Polymorphisms in Measles Receptor, Innate Pathway, and Cytokine Genes  

PubMed Central

Measles infection and vaccine response are complex biological processes that involve both viral and host genetic factors. We have previously investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms on vaccine immune response, including measles vaccines, and have shown that polymorphisms in HLA, cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate immune response genes are associated with variation in vaccine response but do not account for all of the inter-individual variance seen in vaccinated populations. In the current study we report the findings of a multigenic analysis of measles vaccine immunity, indicating a role for the measles virus receptor CD46, innate pattern-recognition receptors (DDX58, TLR2, 4, 5,7 and 8) and intracellular signaling intermediates (MAP3K7, NFKBIA), and key antiviral molecules (VISA, OAS2, MX1, PKR) as well as cytokines (IFNA1, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL12B) and cytokine receptor genes (IL2RB, IL6R, IL8RA) in the genetic control of both humoral and cellular immune responses. This multivariate approach provided additional insights into the genetic control of measles vaccine responses over and above the information gained by our previous univariate SNP association analyses. PMID:22265947

Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; OByrne, Megan; Jacobson, Robert M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

2012-01-01

239

Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor  

EPA Science Inventory

Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

240

Pituitary Hypoplasia in Patients with a Mutation in the Growth hormonereleasing Hormone Receptor Gene  

E-print Network

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several anatomic abnormalities of the pituitary gland have been described as occurring in association with congenital growth hormone deficiency, including hypoplasia of the adenohypophysis, truncation of the pituitary stalk, and ectopia of the neurohypophysis. Their pathogenesis, however, is obscure. Normal pituitary development is dependent on the sequential expression of a series of ontogenetic factors. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is known to stimulate somatotroph proliferation, and a dwarf mouse model with a mutant GHRH receptor, the little mouse, has a small anterior pituitary due to hypoplasia of the somatotrophs. We recently described the human homolog of the little mouse (dwarfism of Sindh), caused by a homozygous nonsense mutation in the GHRH receptor gene in a Pakistani kindred. We investigated MR imaging characteristics to gain information regarding the potential role of GHRH in human pituitary organogenesis. METHODS: MR images of the head were obtained of four affected male patients (age range, 2229 years). Maximal anterior pituitary dimensions were determined from sagittal and coronal images, and pituitary volumes were estimated from cubic and ellipsoid formulae. The measurements were compared with normative values matched for age and sex.

Robert A. Murray; Hiralal G. Maheshwari; Eric J. Russell; Gerhard Baumann

241

Tuning Properties of Avian and Frog Bitter Taste Receptors Dynamically Fit Gene Repertoire sizes.  

PubMed

Bitter taste perception in vertebrates relies on a variable number of bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) genes, ranging from only three functional genes in chicken to as many as approximately 50 in frogs. Humans possess a medium-sized Tas2r repertoire encoding three broadly and several narrowly tuned receptors plus receptors with intermediate tuning properties. Such tuning information is not available for bitter taste receptors of other vertebrate species. In particular it is not known, whether a small Tas2r repertoire may be compensated for by broad tuning of these receptors, and on the other side, whether a large repertoire might entail a preponderance of narrowly tuned receptors. To elucidate this question, we cloned all three chicken Tas2rs, the two turkey Tas2rs, three zebra finch Tas2rs, and six Tas2rs of the Western clawed frog representative of major branches of the phylogenetic tree, and screened them with 46 different bitter compounds. All chicken and turkey Tas2rs were broadly tuned, the zebra finch Tas2rs were narrowly tuned, and frog Tas2rs ranged from broadly to narrowly tuned receptors. We conclude that a low number of functional Tas2r genes does not imply a reduced importance of bitter taste per se, as it can be compensated by large tuning width. A high number of functional Tas2r genes appears to allow the evolution of specialized receptors, possibly for toxins with species-specific relevance. In sum, we show that variability in tuning breadth, overlapping agonist profiles, and staggered effective agonist concentration ranges are shared features of human and other vertebrate Tas2rs. PMID:25180257

Behrens, Maik; Korsching, Sigrun I; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

2014-12-01

242

Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene.  

PubMed Central

Prostanoid receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. By taking advantage of nucleotide sequence homology among the prostanoid receptors, we have isolated and identified a cDNA fragment and its gene encoding a mouse prostaglandin (PG) D receptor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and gene cloning. This gene codes for a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 40,012. The deduced amino acid sequence has a high degree of similarity with the mouse PGI receptor and the EP2 subtype of the PGE receptor, which together form a subgroup of the prostanoid receptors. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the gene showed a single class of binding sites for [#H]PGD2 with a Kd of 40 nM. This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist). PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and iloprost showed little displacement activity at concentrations up to 10 microM. PGD2 and BW 245C also increased cAMP levels in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner. BW A868C showed a partial agonist activity in the cAMP assay. Northern blotting analysis with mouse poly(A)+ RNA identified a major mRNA species of 3.5 kb that was most abundantly expressed in the ileum, followed by lung, stomach, and uterus. Images PMID:7972033

Hirata, M; Kakizuka, A; Aizawa, M; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S

1994-01-01

243

The arthritis severity locus Cia5a regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators including Syk pathway genes and proteases in pristane-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Cia5a is a locus on rat chromosome 10 that regulates disease severity and joint damage in two models of rheumatoid arthritis, collagen- and pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). In this study, we aimed to identify cellular and molecular processes regulated by Cia5a using microarray-based gene expression analysis of synovial tissues from MHC identical DA (severe erosive disease) and DA.F344(Cia5a) congenics (mild non-erosive disease) rats. Results Synovial tissues from six DA and eight DA.F344(Cia5a) rats were analyzed 21 days after the induction of PIA using the Illumina RatRef-12 BeadChip (21,922 genes) and selected data confirmed with qPCR. There was a significantly increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as Il1b (5-fold), Il18 (3.9-fold), Cxcl1 (10-fold), Cxcl13 (7.5-fold) and Ccl7 (7.9-fold), and proteases like Mmp3 (23-fold), Mmp9 (32-fold), Mmp14 (4.4-fold) and cathepsins in synovial tissues from DA, with reciprocally reduced levels in congenics. mRNA levels of 47 members of the Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) pathway were significantly increased in DA synovial tissues compared with DA.F344(Cia5a), and included Syk (5.4-fold), Syk-activating receptors and interacting proteins, and genes regulated by Syk such as NFkB, and NAPDH oxidase complex genes. Nuclear receptors (NR) such as Rxrg, Pparg and Rev-erba were increased in the protected congenics, and so was the anti-inflammatory NR-target gene Scd1 (54-fold increase). Tnn (72-fold decrease) was the gene most significantly increased in DA. Conclusions Analyses of gene expression in synovial tissues revealed that the arthritis severity locus Cia5a regulates the expression of key mediators of inflammation and joint damage, as well as the expression of members of the Syk pathway. This expression pattern correlates with disease severity and joint damage and along with the gene accounting for Cia5a could become a useful biomarker to identify patients at increased risk for severe and erosive disease. The identification of the gene accounting for Cia5a has the potential to generate a new and important target for therapy and prognosis. PMID:23249408

2012-01-01

244

Interaction of oestrogen and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors with apolipoprotein(a) gene enhancers.  

PubMed Central

A high plasma concentration of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] confers an increased risk for the development of coronary heart disease. Hormones, such as oestrogen, are some of the few compounds known to reduce plasma Lp(a) levels. A putative enhancer region, located at the DHII DNase I hypersensitive site approx. 28 kb upstream of the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene, contains a number of sequences similar to the binding half-sites for nuclear hormone receptors, such as the oestrogen receptor and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). The 180 bp core DHII enhancer increased the activity of the apo(a) promoter by over 7-fold in reporter-gene assays in HepG2 cells in vitro. Almost 60% of this increase was lost in the presence of co-transfected oestrogen receptor and oestrogen. In contrast, co-transfection with PPARalpha increased the effect of the DHII enhancer on apo(a) transcriptional activity by approx. 70% and could overcome the inhibitory effect of the oestrogen receptor on apo(a) transcription. Gel mobility-shift assays showed that oestrogen receptor protein bound to one half of a sequence corresponding to a predicted oestrogen receptor response element. PPARalpha also bound to this site and competed with oestrogen receptors for binding. In addition, PPARalpha bound to a separate site that comprised part of a direct repeat of nuclear hormone receptor half-sites. The results suggest that nuclear hormones affect plasma Lp(a) concentrations by binding to the sequences within the DHII enhancer, thereby altering the amount by which the enhancer increases the transcription of the apo(a) gene. PMID:12023905

Puckey, Loretto H; Knight, Brian L

2002-01-01

245

Immune-relevant (including acute phase) genes identified in the livers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by means of suppression subtractive hybridization.  

PubMed

To develop tools for analysis of the acute phase response, we used suppression subtractive hybridization of cDNAs from the livers of trout in an unchallenged state and in the course of a response to injection with a Vibrio bacterin emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant. The resulting cDNA library contains 300-600bp long fragments of 25 or more immune-relevant genes. Fifteen were previously unreported for salmonids, and 12 were not known from any fish species. Known acute phase proteins include serum amyloid A, transferrin and precerebellin-like protein; trout C-polysaccharide-binding protein 1 is probably also an acute phase protein. Components of both the complement system (n=5) and the clotting system (n=3), as well as lectins, various binding proteins, a putative antibacterial peptide, a chemotaxin, an anti-oxidant enzyme, as well as some likely cell-surface receptors and metabolic and lysosomal enzymes are represented in the library. One clone closely resembles a group of Toll-like receptors, including the human IL-1 receptor. Three cDNAs appear to represent complete open reading frames. PMID:11164886

Bayne, C J; Gerwick, L; Fujiki, K; Nakao, M; Yano, T

2001-04-01

246

Extensive gains and losses of olfactory receptor genes in mammalian evolution.  

PubMed

Odor perception in mammals is mediated by a large multigene family of olfactory receptor (OR) genes. The number of OR genes varies extensively among different species of mammals, and most species have a substantial number of pseudogenes. To gain some insight into the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian OR genes, we identified the entire set of OR genes in platypuses, opossums, cows, dogs, rats, and macaques and studied the evolutionary change of the genes together with those of humans and mice. We found that platypuses and primates have <400 functional OR genes while the other species have 800-1,200 functional OR genes. We then estimated the numbers of gains and losses of OR genes for each branch of the phylogenetic tree of mammals. This analysis showed that (i) gene expansion occurred in the placental lineage each time after it diverged from monotremes and from marsupials and (ii) hundreds of gains and losses of OR genes have occurred in an order-specific manner, making the gene repertoires highly variable among different orders. It appears that the number of OR genes is determined primarily by the functional requirement for each species, but once the number reaches the required level, it fluctuates by random duplication and deletion of genes. This fluctuation seems to have been aided by the stochastic nature of OR gene expression. PMID:17684554

Niimura, Yoshihito; Nei, Masatoshi

2007-01-01

247

Molecular Characterization of the Aphis gossypii Olfactory Receptor Gene Families  

PubMed Central

The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect. PMID:24971460

Walker, William B.; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

2014-01-01

248

Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay on Human 5-HT Receptor: Which Response Element Should Be Chosen?  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are valuable molecular targets for antipsychotic drug discovery. Current reported methods for detecting 5-HT receptors, such as cAMP accumulation and calcium influx assay, are often demanding specialized instruments and inconvenient. The luciferase reporter gene assay, based on the responsible-element-regulated expression of luciferase, has been widely applied in the high-throughput functional assay for many targets because of its high sensitivity and reliability. However, 5-HT receptors couple to multiple G-proteins regulate respective downstream signalling pathways and are usually detected using different response elements. Hence, finding a suitable response element to fulfil the detection of different 5-HT receptors and make the results of luciferase reporter gene assays generalizable is very useful for active compounds screening. Here, we conducted three luciferase reporter assays using CRE, NFAT, and SRE response elements attached to 5-HT to detect the activation of different 5-HT receptors in CHO-K1 cells. The potencies and efficacies of the reported ligands (agonists and antagonists) were determined and compared. Our results indicate that CRE-luciferase reporter gene is sensitive and reliable to detect the activities of G protein-coupled 5-HT receptors. PMID:25622827

Chen, Yiming; Xu, Zhongyu; Wu, Dang; Li, Jian; Song, Cheng; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

2015-01-01

249

Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida haem receptor gene.  

PubMed

A haem receptor gene from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly known as Pasteurella piscicida) has been cloned, sequenced and analysed for its function. The gene, designated as pph, has an open reading frame consisting of 2154 bp, a predicted 718 amino acid residues and exists as a single copy. It is homologous with the haem receptors of Vibrio anguillarum hupA, V. cholerae hutA, V. mimicus mhuA and V. vulnificus hupA at 32.7, 32.7, 45.6 and 30.9%, respectively, and is highly conserved, consisting of a Phe-Arg-Ala-Pro sequence (FRAP), an iron transport related molecule (TonB) and a Asn-Pron-Asn-Leu sequence (NPNL), binding motifs associated with haem receptors. As a single gene knockout mutant P. damselae subsp. piscicida was able to bind haem in the absence of pph, suggesting that other receptors may be involved in its iron transport system. This study shows that the P. damselae subsp. piscicida pph belongs to the haem receptor family, is conserved and that its iron-binding system may involve more than one receptor. PMID:15705153

Naka, H; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

2005-02-01

250

Gene Expression Analysis of VEGF and Its Receptors and Assessment of Its Serum Level in Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion  

PubMed Central

Objective Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) is one of the main complications of pregnancy which is usually defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before the 20th week of gestation without a known cause. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor and shown, along with its receptors (VEGFR1, 2), to play important roles in several physiologic processes including reproduction. The aim of the present study was to analyze gene expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors in endometrium of patients with a history of URSA compared with normal fertile women. In addition, serum VEGF concentration was assessed and compared between the two groups at the same time. Materials and Methods In this case control study, endometrial and blood samples were obtained between day 19thand 24th of menstrual cycle (window of implantation) from 10 women with a history of URSA (case group) and 6 fertile women who had at least one successful pregnancy (control group). Expression of VEGF and VEGFRs was studied by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then quantified by real time PCR. Normalization of expression levels was done by comparison with beta-actin expression level as an internal control. Relative VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression quantities were compared between the two groups. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for serum VEGF assay. Results VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 gene expression was detected in endometrial samples of both groups. The mean relative expression of VEGF gene was lower in the case group compared with control women, however, both VEGF receptors were expressed higher in endometrium of the case group. In addition, the serum level of VEGF was significantly higher in the case group compared with the controls. Conclusion Alteration in gene expression of VEGF and its receptors in endometrium and changes of serum VEGF might play important roles in pathogenesis of unexplained RSA.

Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Rezaei, Abbas; Moini, Ashraf; Roghaei, Mohammad Ali; Hafezi, Maryam; Aflatoonian, Reza

2015-01-01

251

Molecular Characterization of RXR (Retinoid X Receptor) Gene Isoforms from the Bivalve Species Chlamys farreri  

PubMed Central

Background Bivalves are among the oldest classes of invertebrates, and they exhibit diverse types of sexual patterning. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in bivalves remains very limited. The retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which are members of the nuclear receptor family, are involved in sex differentiation in many organisms. Results In the present study, four full-length RXR-encoding cDNAs (CfRXRs) named CfRXRa, CfRXRb, CfRXRc and CfRXRd were retrieved from Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri). The four RXRs exhibited the conserved five-domain structure of nuclear receptor superfamily members and differed from each other only in the T-box of the C domain. The three variants, designated T (+4), T (+20) and T (+24), contained insertions of 4, 20 and 24 amino acids, respectively. The entire CfRXR gene is composed of eight exons and seven introns, and the four isoforms are generated via alternative mRNA splicing. Expression analysis showed that all four isoforms were expressed in both the testis and the ovary during the differentiation stage, whereas no expression was detected in the growth, mature or resting stages. This result suggests that CfRXRs are involved in germ cell differentiation in both sexes. The expression of the four isoforms was also detected in other tissues examined, including mantle, gill, digestive gland, and adductor muscle of sexually mature male and female Zhikong scallops, implying the multiple biological functions of CfRXRs. Conclusion Our study presents the first report of RXR isoforms in bivalves. Further investigation of the functional roles of different RXR isoforms may provide deep insights into the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation in C. farreri. PMID:24066133

Bao, Zhenmin; Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Yueyue; Jiao, Wenqian; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; He, Yan; Hu, Xiaoli

2013-01-01

252

Endothelial Protein C Receptor Gene Variants Not Associated with Severe Malaria in Ghanaian Children  

PubMed Central

Background Two recent reports have identified the Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR) as a key molecule implicated in severe malaria pathology. First, it was shown that EPCR in the human microvasculature mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Second, microvascular thrombosis, one of the major processes causing cerebral malaria, was linked to a reduction in EPCR expression in cerebral endothelial layers. It was speculated that genetic variation affecting EPCR functionality could influence susceptibility to severe malaria phenotypes, rendering PROCR, the gene encoding EPCR, a promising candidate for an association study. Methods Here, we performed an association study including high-resolution variant discovery of rare and frequent genetic variants in the PROCR gene. The study group, which previously has proven to be a valuable tool for studying the genetics of malaria, comprised 1,905 severe malaria cases aged 1156 months and 1,866 apparently healthy children aged 2161 months from the Ashanti Region in Ghana, West Africa, where malaria is highly endemic. Association of genetic variation with severe malaria phenotypes was examined on the basis of single variants, reconstructed haplotypes, and rare variant analyses. Results A total of 41 genetic variants were detected in regulatory and coding regions of PROCR, 17 of which were previously unknown genetic variants. In association tests, none of the single variants, haplotypes or rare variants showed evidence for an association with severe malaria, cerebral malaria, or severe malaria anemia. Conclusion Here we present the first analysis of genetic variation in the PROCR gene in the context of severe malaria in African subjects and show that genetic variation in the PROCR gene in our study population does not influence susceptibility to major severe malaria phenotypes. PMID:25541704

Schuldt, Kathrin; Ehmen, Christa; Evans, Jennifer; May, Juergen; Ansong, Daniel; Sievertsen, Juergen; Muntau, Birgit; Ruge, Gerd; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Horstmann, Rolf D.

2014-01-01

253

Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the relationship between polymorphisms present in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and colorectal cancer risk, a systematic meta-analysis of population-based studies was performed. METHODS: A total of 38 relevant reports published between January 1990 and August 2010 were identified, of which only 23 qualified for this meta-analysis based on our selection criteria. Five polymorphic variants of the VDR gene, including Cdx-2 (intron 1e) and FokI (exon 2) present in the 5 region of the gene, and BsmI (intron 8), ApaI (intron 8), and TaqI (exon 9) sites present in the 3 untranslated region (UTR), were evaluated for possible associations with colorectal cancer risk. Review manager 4.2 was used to perform statistical analyses. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis performed, only the BsmI polymorphism was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk. In particular, the BsmI B genotype was found to be related to an overall decrease in the risk for colorectal cancer [BB vs bb: odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.94, P = 3 10-4; BB vs Bb + bb: OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.97, P = 5 10-4]. Moreover, in subgroup analyses, the BsmI B genotype was significantly associated with colon cancer, and not rectal cancer. An absence of between-study heterogeneity was also observed. CONCLUSION: A meta-analysis of 23 published studies identified the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene to be associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. PMID:22529698

Bai, Yong-Heng; Lu, Hong; Hong, Dan; Lin, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Bi-Cheng

2012-01-01

254

Mutations in the Human Ca2+-Sensing-Receptor Gene That Cause Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia  

PubMed Central

We report five novel mutations in the human Ca2+-sensing-receptor gene that cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) or neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Each gene defect is a missense mutation (228Arg?Gln, 139Thr?Met, 144Gly?Glu, 63Arg?Met, and 67Arg?Cys) that encodes a nonconservative amino acid alteration. These mutations are each predicted to be in the Ca2+-sensing receptor's large extracellular domain. In three families with FHH linked to the Ca2+-sensing-receptor gene on chromosome 3 and in unrelated individuals probands with FHH, mutations were not detected in protein-coding sequences. On the basis of these data and previous analyses, we suggest that there are a wide range of mutations that cause FHH. Mutations that perturb the structure and function of the extracellular or transmembrane domains of the receptor and those that affect noncoding sequences of the Ca2+-sensing-receptor gene can cause FHH. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:7726161

Chou, Yah-Huei Wu; Pollak, Martin R.; Brandi, Maria L.; Toss, Goran; Arnqvist, H.; Atkinson, A. Brew; Papapoulos, Socrates E.; Marx, Stephen; Brown, Edward M.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

1995-01-01

255

Rearrangements and aberrant expression of the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene in acute promyelocytic leukemias  

PubMed Central

Although acute promyelocytic leukemias (APLs) are consistently associated with a reciprocal chromosome 15;17 translocation, the gene(s) directly affected by the breakpoints have never been isolated. The chromosome 17 breakpoint maps to near the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) locus. Investigation of 20 APLs and a large series of other neoplastic patients and normal controls revealed RAR alpha gene rearrangements and aberrant transcripts only in the APL cases. These findings suggest that the RAR alpha gene is involved in the APL chromosome 17 breakpoint, is implicated in leukemogenesis, and could be used as a marker for identifying leukemic promyelocytes. PMID:2175343

1990-01-01

256

Impaired defense mechanism against inflammation, hyperalgesia, and airway hyperreactivity in somatostatin 4 receptor gene-deleted mice.  

PubMed

We have shown that somatostatin released from activated capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive nerve endings during inflammatory processes elicits systemic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. With the help of somatostatin receptor subtype 4 gene-deleted mice (sst(4)(-/-)), we provide here several lines of evidence that this receptor has a protective role in a variety of inflammatory disease models; several symptoms are more severe in the sst(4) knockout animals than in their wild-type counterparts. Acute carrageenan-induced paw edema and mechanical hyperalgesia, inflammatory pain in the early phase of adjuvant-evoked chronic arthritis, and oxazolone-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in the skin are much greater in mice lacking the sst(4) receptor. Airway inflammation and consequent bronchial hyperreactivity elicited by intranasal lipopolysaccharide administration are also markedly enhanced in sst(4) knockouts, including increased perivascular/peribronchial edema, neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, mucus-producing goblet cell hyperplasia, myeloperoxidase activity, and IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma expression in the inflamed lung. It is concluded that during these inflammatory conditions the released somatostatin has pronounced counterregulatory effects through sst(4) receptor activation. Thus, this receptor is a promising novel target for developing anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-asthmatic drugs. PMID:19622729

Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Pintr, Erika; Sndor, Katalin; Elekes, Krisztin; Bnvlgyi, Agnes; Keszthelyi, Dniel; Szoke, Eva; Tth, Dniel M; Sndor, Zoltn; Kereskai, Lszl; Pozsgai, Gbor; Allen, Jeremy P; Emson, Piers C; Markovics, Adrienn; Szolcsnyi, Jnos

2009-08-01

257

SUMOylation of the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Regulates the Expression of FXR Target Genes*  

PubMed Central

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) belongs to a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate many aspects of metabolism including bile acid homeostasis. Here we show that FXR is covalently modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (Sumo1), an important regulator of cell signaling and transcription. Well conserved consensus sites at lysine 122 and 275 in the AF-1 and ligand binding domains, respectively, of FXR were subject to SUMOylation in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that Sumo1 was recruited to the bile salt export pump (BSEP), the small heterodimer partner (SHP), and the OST?-OST? organic solute transporter loci in a ligand-dependent fashion. Sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-ReChIP) verified the concurrent binding of FXR and Sumo1 to the BSEP and SHP promoters. Overexpression of Sumo1 markedly decreased binding and/or recruitment of FXR to the BSEP and SHP promoters on ChIP-ReChIP. SUMOylation did not have an apparent effect on nuclear localization of FXR. Expression of Sumo1 markedly inhibited the ligand-dependent, transactivation of BSEP and SHP promoters by FXR/retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) in HepG2 cells. In contrast, mutations that abolished SUMOylation of FXR or siRNA knockdown of Sumo1 expression augmented the transactivation of BSEP and SHP promoters by FXR. Pathways for SUMOylation were significantly altered during obstructive cholestasis with differential Sumo1 recruitment to the promoters of FXR target genes. In conclusion, FXR is subject to SUMOylation that regulates its capacity to transactivate its target genes in normal liver and during obstructive cholestasis. PMID:23546875

Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Luo, Yuhuan; Sun, An-Qiang; Suchy, Frederick J.

2013-01-01

258

Sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene is not a common determinant of male sexual orientation  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that DNA sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene plays a causal role in the development of male sexual orientation, the authors have (1) measured the degree of concordance of androgen receptor alleles in 36 pairs of homosexual brothers, (2) compared the lengths of polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the amino-terminal domain of the androgen receptor in a sample of 197 homosexual males and 213 unselected subjects, and (3) screened the entire androgen receptor coding region for sequence variation by PCR and denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and/or single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 20 homosexual males with homosexual or bisexual brothers and one homosexual male with no homosexual brothers, and screened the amino-terminal domain of the receptor for sequence variation in an additional 44 homosexual males, 37 of whom had one or more first- or second-degree male relatives who were either homosexual or bisexual. These analyses show that (1) homosexual brothers are as likely to be discordant as concordant for androgen receptor alleles; (2) there are no large-scale differences between the distributions of polyglycine or polyglutamine tract lengths in the homosexual and control groups; and (3) coding region sequence variation is not commonly found within the androgen receptor gene of homosexual men. The DGGE screen identified two rare amino acid substitutions, ser[sup 205] -to-arg and glu[sup 793]-to-asp, the biological significance of which is unknown. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Macke, J.P.; Nathans, J.; King, V.L. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Hu, N.; Hu, S.; Hamer, D.; Bailey, M. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)); Brown, T. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States))

1993-10-01

259

A comparison of stilbene and chalcone synthases including a new stilbene synthase gene from Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stilbene synthase gene was cloned from Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier after PCR amplification with primers designed to include the start and stop codons of stilbene synthase genes of V. vinifera. The exon was very similar to that of other stilbene synthases, particularly those from V. vinifera (99% nucleotide identity). An intron was found which interrupted the predicted

P. H. Goodwin; T. Hsiang; L. Erickson

2000-01-01

260

[Polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene in populations from the Volga-Ural region].  

PubMed

The PCR technique was used to analyze the TaqIA- and NcoI-polymorphisms at the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) in eight populations of the Volga-Ural region belonging to Turkic (Bashkirs, Tatars, and Chuvashes), Finno-Ugric (Maris, Komis, Mordovians, and Udmurts), and Eastern-Slavic (Russians) ethnic groups. Population-specific patterns of the main TaqIA- and NcoI-polymorphisms distribution were established. Specific trends in changes of genotype and allele frequency of the dopamine D2 receptor gene depending on the ethnicity of the population were revealed. PMID:11094753

Galeeva, A R; Iur'ev, E B; Khusnutdinova, E K

2000-10-01

261

Fracture, bone mineral density, and the effects of calcitonin receptor gene in postmenopausal Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn a candidate gene association study, we found that the variations of calcitonin receptor (CALCR) gene were related to the risk of vertebral fracture and increased bone mineral density (BMD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a IntroductionCalcitonins through calcitonin receptors inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and modulate calcium ion excretion by\\u000a the kidney and also prevent vertebral bone loss in early menopause.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsTo identify genetically susceptible factors

H.-J. Lee; S.-Y. Kim; G. S. Kim; J.-Y. Hwang; Y.-J. Kim; B. Jeong; T.-H. Kim; E. K. Park; S. H. Lee; H.-L. Kim; J.-M. Koh; J.-Y. Lee

2010-01-01

262

Start codon FokI and intron 8 BsmI variants in the vitamin D receptor gene and susceptibility to colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological evidence suggests the protective effect of vitamin D against colorectal cancer (CRC) and the polymorphisms\\u000a in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may influence the development of CRC. In this study the possible association of VDR FokI\\u000a and BsmI gene polymorphisms with CRC risk was examined. A total of 904 subjects, including 452 cases with CRC and 452 controls\\u000a were

Touraj Mahmoudi; Khatoon Karimi; Seyed Reza Mohebbi; Seyed Reza Fatemi; Mohammad Reza Zali

263

Male-fertility genes expressed in male flower buds of Silene latifolia include homologs of anther-specific genes.  

PubMed

When the female plant of Silene latifolia is infected with the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum, its rudimentary stamens develop into anthers which contain fungus teliospores instead of pollen. To identify genes required for maturation of anthers in S. latifolia, we performed a cDNA subtraction approach with healthy male buds and female buds infected with M. violaceum. We isolated five cDNA clones, which were preferentially expressed in healthy male buds during stages associated with a burst in tapetal activity. These five cDNAs are predicted to encode a mandelonitrile lyase protein (SlMDL1), a strictosidine synthase protein (SlSs), a glycosyl hydrolase 17 protein (SlGh17), a proline-rich protein APG precursor (SlAPG), and a chalcone-synthase-like protein (SlChs). All five genes showed expression in both healthy and fungus-infected male buds, but not expressed in either healthy or infected female buds. The first three genes were highly expressed in both tapetum and pollen grains while the last two genes were expressed only inside the tapetum of male flower buds. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that SlChs and SlGh17 belong to anther-specific subgroups of chalcone-synthase-like genes and glycosyl hydrolase 17 family genes, respectively. Our results suggest that the isolated five genes are related to the fertility of the anther leading to the development of fertile pollen. The smut fungus was not able to induce the expression of the five genes in the infected female buds. This raises the possibility that these genes are under the control of master gene(s) on the Y chromosome. PMID:16501309

Ageez, Amr; Kazama, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Kawano, Shigeyuki

2005-12-01

264

Increased Angiotensin II AT1 receptor mRNA and binding in spleen and lung of AT2 receptor gene disrupted mice  

PubMed Central

To clarify the relationship between Angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors, we studied AT1 receptor mRNA and binding expression in tissues from AT2 receptor gene-disrupted (AT2 ?/?) female mice, where AT2 receptors are not expressed in vivo, using in situ hybridization and quantitative autoradiography. Wild type mice expressed AT1A receptor mRNA and AT1 receptor binding in lung parenchyma, the spleen, predominantly in the red pulp, and in liver parenchyma. In wild type mice, lung AT2 receptors were expressed in lung bronchial epithelium and smooth muscle, and were not present in the lung parenchyma, the spleen or the liver. This indicates that AT1 and AT2 receptors were not expressed in the same cells. In AT2 ?/? mice, we found higher AT1A receptor mRNA and AT1 receptor binding in lung parenchyma and in the red pulp of the spleen, but not in the liver, when compared to littermate wild-type controls. Our results suggest that impaired AT2 receptor function upregulates AT1 receptor transcription and expression in a tissue-specific manner and in cells not expressing AT2 receptors. AT1 upregulation explains the increased sensitivity to Angiotensin II characteristic of the AT2 ?/? phenotype, consistent with enhanced AT1 receptor activation in a number of tissues. PMID:19766151

Pavel, Jaroslav; Terrn, Jos A.; Benicky, Julius; Falcn-Neri, Alicia; Rachakonda, Amita; Inagami, Tadashi; Saavedra, Juan M.

2009-01-01

265

Gene expression signature of estrogen receptor ? status in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estrogens are known to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to modify their phenotypic properties. Identification of estrogen-regulated genes in human breast tumors is an essential step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action in cancer. To this end we generated and compared the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) profiles of 26 human breast carcinomas

Martn C Abba; Yuhui Hu; Hongxia Sun; Jeffrey A Drake; Sally Gaddis; Keith Baggerly; Aysegul Sahin; C Marcelo Aldaz

2005-01-01

266

Regulation of dev, an Operon That Includes Genes Essential for Myxococcus xanthus Development and CRISPR-Associated Genes and Repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 5 February 2007\\/Accepted 6 March 2007 Expression of dev genes is important for triggering spore differentiation inside Myxococcus xanthus fruiting bodies. DNA sequence analysis suggested that dev and cas (CRISPR-associated) genes are cotranscribed at the dev locus, which is adjacent to CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats). Analysis of RNA from developing M. xanthus confirmed that dev and

Poorna Viswanathan; Kimberly Murphy; Bryan Julien; Anthony G. Garza; Lee Kroos

2007-01-01

267

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Complex and the Control of Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls the expression of a diverse set of genes. The toxicity of the potent AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is almost exclusively mediated through this receptor. However, the key alterations in gene expression that mediate toxicity are poorly understood. It has been established through characterization of AhR-null mice that the AhR has a required physiological function, yet how endogenous mediators regulate this orphan receptor remains to be established. A picture as to how the AhR/ARNT heterodimer actually mediates gene transcription is starting to emerge. The AhR/ARNT complex can alter transcription both by binding to its cognate response element and through tethering to other transcription factors. In addition, many of the coregulatory proteins necessary for AhR-mediated transcription have been identified. Cross talk between the estrogen receptor and the AhR at the promoter of target genes appears to be an important mode of regulation. Inflammatory signaling pathways and the AhR also appear to be another important site of cross talk at the level of transcription. A major focus of this review is to highlight experimental efforts to characterize nonclassical mechanisms of AhR-mediated modulation of gene transcription. PMID:18540824

Beischlag, Timothy V.; Morales, J. Luis; Hollingshead, Brett D.; Perdew, Gary H.

2008-01-01

268

Linkage Map of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Including the Tumor Necrosis Factor Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and beta gene pair has been linked in the human major histocompatibility complex to HLA-B, HLA-C, and, tentatively, HLA-E and HLA-A on one side and to the class III complement\\/steroid 21-hydroxylase gene cluster on the other by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The TNF genes are located 200 kilobases (kb) centromeric of HLA-B and about 350

Michael C. Carroll; Philip Katzman; Elizabeth M. Alicot; Beverly H. Koller; Daniel E. Geraghty; Harry T. Orr; Jack L. Strominger; Thomas Spies

1987-01-01

269

Rearrangement and expression of T cell antigen receptor and gamma genes during thymic development  

PubMed Central

Rearrangement and expression of the T cell antigen receptor and the gamma genes during T cell ontogeny is a regulated process; the gamma genes are rearranged and expressed first, followed by the beta and then the alpha genes. Expression of both functional alpha and beta gene RNA first occurs at day 17 of gestation, along with the expression of T3 delta chain RNA. T cell antigen receptor gene rearrangements occur primarily or exclusively in the thymus, although some gamma gene rearrangements occur outside the thymus in fetal liver cells that may be committed T cell progenitors. There is no gross difference in the extent of beta and gamma gene rearrangements in the adult thymocyte subpopulations that were analyzed, despite the fact that some of these populations cannot respond to antigen and never emigrate from the thymus. Quantitative analysis of rearrangements in total adult thymocyte DNA shows that beta gene rearrangements generally occur on both chromosomal homologs, and that rearrangements occur preferentially to the J beta 2 gene segment cluster. PMID:3487610

1986-01-01

270

Cloning and functional analysis by gene disruption of a gene encoding a gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator receptor from Kitasatospora setae.  

PubMed

Gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator receptors of the genus Streptomyces have a common activity as DNA-binding transcriptional repressors, controlling secondary metabolism and/or morphological differentiation. A gene encoding a gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator receptor was cloned from a bafilomycin B1 producer, Kitasatospora setae, for the first time from a non-Streptomyces genus of actinomycetes, and its function was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo analyses. The gene fragment was initially cloned by PCR with primers designed from two highly conserved regions of Streptomyces autoregulator receptors (BarA, FarA, ScbR, and ArpA), followed by genomic Southern hybridization yielding a 7-kb BamHI fragment on which a 654-bp receptor gene (ksbA) was identified. The recombinant KsbA protein demonstrated clear binding activity toward 3H-labeled autoregulators, especially toward [3H]SCB1, confirming that ksbA encodes a real autoregulator receptor of K. setae. To clarify the in vivo function of ksbA, a ksbA-disrupted strain was constructed by means of homologous recombination after introducing a ksbA disruption construct via transconjugation from Escherichia coli. No difference in morphology was found between the wild-type strain and the ksbA disruptants. However, the ksbA disruptants started producing bafilomycin 18 h earlier than the wild-type strain and showed a 2.4-fold-higher accumulation of bafilomycin. The phenotype was restored to the original wild-type phenotype by complementation with intact ksbA, indicating that the autoregulator receptor protein of K. setae acts as a primary negative regulator of the biosynthesis of bafilomycin but plays no role in cytodifferentiation of K. setae. This indicates that, unlike the A-factor receptor of Streptomyces griseus, the autoregulator receptor (ksbA) of K. setae belongs to a family of autoregulator receptors which control secondary metabolism but play no role in morphological differentiation. PMID:15150228

Choi, Sun-Uk; Lee, Chang-Kwon; Hwang, Yong-Il; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Nihira, Takuya

2004-06-01

271

Hypoxia Attenuates Purinergic P2X Receptor-Induced Inflammatory Gene Expression in Brainstem Microglia  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia and increased extracellular nucleotides are frequently coincident in the brainstem. Extracellular nucleotides are potent modulators of microglial inflammatory gene expression via P2X purinergic receptor activation. Although hypoxia is also known to modulate inflammatory gene expression, little is known about how hypoxia or P2X receptor activation alone affect inflammatory molecule production in brainstem microglia, nor how hypoxia and P2X receptor signaling interact when they occur together. In this study, we investigated the ability of a brief episode of hypoxia (2hrs) in the presence and absence of the non-selective P2X receptor agonist 2?(3?)-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5?-triphosphate (BzATP) to promote inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia in adult rats. We evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in immunomagnetically-isolated brainstem microglia. Whereas iNOS and IL-6 gene expression increased with hypoxia and BzATP alone, TNF? expression was unaffected. Surprisingly, BzATP-induced inflammatory effects are lost after hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia impairs pro-inflammatory P2X receptor signaling. We also evaluated the expression of key P2X receptors activated by BzATP, namely P2X1, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors. Whereas hypoxia did not alter their expression, BzATP upregulated P2X4 and P2X7 mRNAs; these effects were ablated in hypoxia. Although both P2X4 and P2X7 receptor expression correlated with increased microglial iNOS and IL-6 levels in microglia from normoxic rats, in hypoxia, P2X7 only correlated with IL-6, and P2X4 correlated only with iNOS. In addition, correlations between P2X7 and P2X4 were lost following hypoxia, suggesting that P2X4 and P2X7 receptor signaling differs in normoxia and hypoxia. Together, these data suggest that hypoxia suppresses P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression, indicating a potentially immunosuppressive role of extracellular nucleotides in brainstem microglia following exposure to hypoxia. PMID:24377098

Smith, Stephanie M. C.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Friedle, Scott A.; Sibigtroth, Christine M.; Vinit, Stphane; Watters, Jyoti J.

2013-01-01

272

Loss of Adenoviral Receptor Expression in Human Bladder Cancer Cells: A Potential Impact on the Efficacy of Gene Therapy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is great interest in the development of gene therapeutic strategies for the treatment of benign and malignant diseases. Recombinant adeno- virus has a wide spectrum of tissue specificity and is an efficient vector delivery system. Successful gene delivery, however, requires viral entry into the target cells via specific receptor-mediated uptake. Recently, a cDNA clone (the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor

Yingming Li; Rey-Chen Pong; Jeffrey M. Bergelson; M. Craig; Arthur I. Sagalowsky; Ching-Ping Tseng; Zhi Wang; Jer-Tsong Hsieh

1999-01-01

273

A floxed allele of the androgen receptor gene causes hyperandrogenization in male mice.  

PubMed

We previously generated a conditional floxed mouse line to study androgen action, in which exon 3 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene is flanked by loxP sites, with the neomycin resistance gene present in intron 3. Deletion of exon 3 in global AR knockout mice causes androgen insensitivity syndrome, characterized by genotypic males lacking normal masculinization. We now report that male mice carrying the floxed allele (AR(lox)) have the reverse phenotype, termed hyperandrogenization. AR(lox) mice have increased mass of androgen-dependent tissues, including kidney, (P < 0.001), seminal vesicle (P < 0.001), levator ani muscle (P = 0.001), and heart (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone is not significantly different. Testis mass is normal, histology shows normal spermatogenesis, and AR(lox) males are fertile. AR(lox) males also have normal AR mRNA levels in kidney, brain, levator ani, liver, and testis. This study reaffirms the need to investigate the potential phenotypic effects of floxed alleles in the absence of cre in tissue-specific knockout studies. In addition, this androgen hypersensitivity model may be useful to further investigate the effects of subtle perturbations of androgen action in a range of androgen-responsive systems in the male. PMID:18171720

MacLean, Helen E; Chiu, W S Maria; Ma, Cathy; McManus, Julie F; Davey, Rachel A; Cameron, Rhoda; Notini, Amanda J; Zajac, Jeffrey D

2008-03-14

274

Birth and death of neuropeptide Y receptor genes in relation to the teleost fish tetraploidization.  

PubMed

Extensive evidence exists for a genome duplication in the fish lineage leading to the species-rich clade of the teleosts, comprising > 99% of the known actinopterygian (ray-finned) fish species. Our previous studies of the neuropeptide Y receptor (NPYR) gene family suggested an ancestral gnathostome repertoire of 7 genes in 3 subfamilies. However, studies in the zebrafish have earlier identified only 5 NPYR genes, despite the expected increase in gene number due to the teleost tetraploidization. Notably, receptors Y(1), Y(5) and Y(6) were missing in the zebrafish genome database and only Y(8) had been duplicated. We report here an investigation of the evolutionary history of the Y(1) subfamily (Y(1), Y(4), Y(6) and Y(8)) and the Y(5) receptor. Seven basal actinopterygian species and a shark were investigated and a total of 22 gene fragments were cloned and analyzed. Our results show that subtypes Y(1), Y(5) and Y(6) still exist in species representing basal actinopterygian lineages (bichir, sturgeon, gar and bowfin) as well as in some basal teleost lineages. Surprisingly we identified a zebrafish Y(1) receptor, the first Y(1) receptor found in euteleosts. Thus, these findings confirm the ancestral gnathostome repertoire of 7 NPYR genes and show that many of these receptors are present in basal actinopterygians as well as some basal teleosts. NPYR losses seem to have occurred relatively recently in euteleosts because Y(1), Y(5) and Y(6) are absent in the genome databases of two pufferfishes as well as medaka and stickleback and Y(5) and Y(6) are absent in the zebrafish database. A duplicate of Y(8) seems to be the only remaining receptor gene resulting from the teleost tetraploidization. The unexpected absence of the two appetite-stimulating receptors Y(1) and Y(5) in some euteleosts, along with our discovery of duplicates of the peptide ligands NPY and PYY, has implications for the role of the NPY system in euteleost feeding behavior. PMID:18191918

Salaneck, E; Larsson, T A; Larson, E T; Larhammar, D

2008-02-15

275

Cholecystokinin receptors in Atlantic salmon: molecular cloning, gene expression, and structural basis  

PubMed Central

The peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) exerts a wide range of digestive and CNS-related physiological signaling via CCK receptors in brain and gut. There is very limited information available on these receptors in Atlantic salmon. The aim of this study was to characterize CCK receptors in gut and brain of salmon. We have identified and cloned one CCK-1 receptor and duplicates of CCK-2 receptor in salmon. The phylogenetic analysis indicates the existence of one common ancestor gene for all CCK receptors. CCK-1R mRNA is highly expressed in pancreas followed by midgut, hindgut, gallbladder, and stomach indicating an involvement in pancreatic regulation and gallbladder contractions. CCK-2R1/gastrin mRNA is expressed at high levels in midgut and at relatively low levels in stomach, gallbladder, and pancreas. We postulate CCK-2R1/gastrin receptor to have gastrin-related functions because of its distribution and abundance in gastro-intestinal (GI) tissues. CCK-2R2 is relatively abundant in brain but has low expression levels in gut tissues supporting the hypothesis for involvement in the gut-brain signaling. Major functional motifs and ligand interaction sites in salmon are conserved with that of mammals. This information will be instrumental for comparative studies and further targeting receptor activation and selectivity of biological responses of CCK in salmon. PMID:24303160

Rathore, Raja M; Angotzi, Anna R; Jordal, Ann-Elise O; Rnnestad, Ivar

2013-01-01

276

Gene cloning, homology comparison and analysis of the main functional structure domains of beta estrogen receptor in Jining Gray goat.  

PubMed

To clarify the molecular evolution and characteristic of beta estrogen receptor (ER?) gene in Jining Gray goat in China, the entire ER? gene from Jining Gray goat ovary was amplified, identified and sequenced, and the gene sequences were compared with those of other animals. Functional structural domains and variations in DNA binding domains (DBD) and ligand binding domains (LBD) between Jining Gray goat and Boer goat were analyzed. The results indicate that the ER? gene in Jining Gray goat includes a 1584bp sequence with a complete open-reading-frame (ORF), encoding a 527 amino acid (aa) receptor protein. Compared to other species, the nucleotide homology is 73.9-98.9% and the amino acid homology is 79.5-98.5%. The main antigenic structural domains lie from the 97th aa to the 286th aa and from the 403rd aa to the 527th aa. The hydrophilicity and the surface probability of the structural domains are distributed throughout a range of amino acids. There are two different amino acids in the DBD and three different amino acids in the LBD between Jining Gray and Boer goats, resulting in dramatically different spatial structures for ER? protein. These differences may explain the different biological activities of ER? between the two goat species. This study firstly acquired the whole ER? gene sequence of Jining Gray goat with a complete open reading frame, and analyzed its gene evolutionary relationship and predicted its mainly functional structural domains, which may very help for further understanding the genome evolution and gene diversity of goat ER?. PMID:24929544

Liu, Hai-gang; Li, Hong-mei; Wang, Shu-ying; Huang, Li-bo; Guo, Hui-jun

2014-08-01

277

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor and vitellogenin gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen receptor (ER) and vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression are strongly up-regulated by estrogens in rainbow trout liver. In this paper, we have used primary cultured hepatocytes to examine the mechanisms implicated in estrogen regulation of ER and Vg gene expression. Treatment of hepatocytes with 1 ?M estradiol (E2) led to a rapid increase in ER mRNA level (15 fold) followed

Gilles Flouriot; Farzad Pakdel; Yves Valotaire

1996-01-01

278

Hippocampal Expression of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Gene hzf-3\\/nurr1 during Spatial Discrimination Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate-early gene hzf-3, also known as nurr1, is a member of the inducible orphan nuclear receptor family and is one candidate in the search for genes associated with learning and memory processes. Here we report that acquisition of a spatial food search task is accompanied by elevated levels of hzf-3 mRNA in the hippocampus. Adult male LongEvans rats were

Sandra Pea de Ortiz; Carmen S. Maldonado-Vlaar; Yarimar Carrasquillo

2000-01-01

279

Promoter Usage and Estrogen Regulation of Prolactin Receptor Gene in the Brain of the Female Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms underlying hormonal regulation of prolactin receptor (PRL-R) gene in the brain are unknown. The 5-untranslated region of PRL-R mRNA in peripheral tissues contains at least three alternative first exons (1A, B, C) that are expressed as tissue-specific, suggesting the differential usage of PRL-R gene promoters. The present study aimed to investigate: (1) the possible regulation of PRL-R mRNA levels

Xiujun Pi; Bo Zhang; Jun Li; James L. Voogt

2003-01-01

280

Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene families: from genetic model organism to vector, pest and beneficial species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system and are targets\\u000a of a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. Analyses of genome sequences have shown that nAChR gene families remain\\u000a compact in diverse insect species, when compared to their mammalian counterparts. Thus, Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae each possess 10nAChR genes while Apis mellifera has

Andrew K. Jones; Laurence A. Brown; David B. Sattelle

2007-01-01

281

Regulation of Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Transcription and Protein Expression In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are glucocorticoid-activated transcription factors that modulate expression of a variety of neuronal genes. Appropriate control of GR expression is there- fore critical for maintenance of cellular and organismic ho- meostasis. The present study assessed glucocorticoid regula- tion of the GR at the gene, mRNA, and protein level. Removal of circulating glucocorticoids (adrenalectomy) increased GR mRNA expression in

James P. Herman; Robert Spencer

1998-01-01

282

Mutations of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor3 Gene in Achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common cause of chondrodysplasia in man (1 in 15,000 live births), is an autosomal dominant condition of unknown origin characterized by short-limbed dwarfism and macrocephaly. Recently, a gene for ACH has been mapped to chromosome 4p16.3. The genetic interval encompassing the disease gene contains a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family which is

Francis Rousseau; Jacky Bonaventure; Laurence Legeai-Mallet; Anna Pelet; Jean-Michel Rozet; Pierre Maroteaux; Martine Le Merrer; Arnold Munnich

1996-01-01

283

Signal transduction through the fibronectin receptor induces collagenase and stromelysin gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effects of ligation of the fibronectin receptor (FnR) on gene expression in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to the FnR that block initial adhesion of fibroblasts to fibronectin induced the expression of genes encoding the secreted extracellular matrix-degrading metallo- proteinases collagenase and stromelysin. That induc- tion was a direct consequence of interaction with the FnR was

Zena Werb; Patrice M. Tremble; Ole Behrendtsen; Eileen Crowley; Caroline H. Damskytll

1989-01-01

284

Localization of the glucagon receptor gene to human chromosome band 17q25  

SciTech Connect

The gene encoding the human glucagon receptor (GCGR) was mapped to chromosome band 17q25 by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. An Alu variable poly(A) DNA polymorphism was identified in this gene. Studies of the CEPH families showed significant evidence of linkage between this DNA polymorphism and markers localized to the distal long arm of chromosome 17. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Menzel, S.; Bell, G.I.; Stoffel, M.; Espinosa, R. III; Fernald, A.A.; Le Beau, M.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-03-15

285

DEG 10, an update of the database of essential genes that includes both protein-coding genes and noncoding genomic elements  

PubMed Central

The combination of high-density transposon-mediated mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing has led to significant advancements in research on essential genes, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of identified prokaryotic essential genes under diverse conditions and a revised essential-gene concept that includes all essential genomic elements, rather than focusing on protein-coding genes only. DEG 10, a new release of the Database of Essential Genes (available at http://www.essentialgene.org), has been developed to accommodate these quantitative and qualitative advancements. In addition to increasing the number of bacterial and archaeal essential genes determined by genome-wide gene essentiality screens, DEG 10 also harbors essential noncoding RNAs, promoters, regulatory sequences and replication origins. These essential genomic elements are determined not only in vitro, but also in vivo, under diverse conditions including those for survival, pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. We have developed customizable BLAST tools that allow users to perform species- and experiment-specific BLAST searches for a single gene, a list of genes, annotated or unannotated genomes. Therefore, DEG 10 includes essential genomic elements under different conditions in three domains of life, with customizable BLAST tools. PMID:24243843

Luo, Hao; Lin, Yan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Zhang, Ren

2014-01-01

286

Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors are required for normal expression of imprinted genes.  

PubMed

In addition to signaling through the classical tyrosine kinase pathway, recent studies indicate that insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors (IGF1Rs) can emit signals in the unoccupied state through some yet-to-be-defined noncanonical pathways. Here we show that cells lacking both IRs and IGF1Rs exhibit a major decrease in expression of multiple imprinted genes and microRNAs, which is partially mimicked by inactivation of IR alone in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in vivo in brown fat in mice. This down-regulation is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions related to these loci. Different from a loss of imprinting pattern, loss of IR and IGF1R causes down-regulated expression of both maternally and paternally expressed imprinted genes and microRNAs, including neighboring reciprocally imprinted genes. Thus, the unoccupied IR and IGF1R generate previously unidentified signals that control expression of imprinted genes and miRNAs through transcriptional mechanisms that are distinct from classical imprinting control. PMID:25246545

Boucher, Jeremie; Charalambous, Marika; Zarse, Kim; Mori, Marcelo A; Kleinridders, Andre; Ristow, Michael; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Kahn, C Ronald

2014-10-01

287

Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors are required for normal expression of imprinted genes  

PubMed Central

In addition to signaling through the classical tyrosine kinase pathway, recent studies indicate that insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors (IGF1Rs) can emit signals in the unoccupied state through some yet-to-be-defined noncanonical pathways. Here we show that cells lacking both IRs and IGF1Rs exhibit a major decrease in expression of multiple imprinted genes and microRNAs, which is partially mimicked by inactivation of IR alone in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in vivo in brown fat in mice. This down-regulation is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions related to these loci. Different from a loss of imprinting pattern, loss of IR and IGF1R causes down-regulated expression of both maternally and paternally expressed imprinted genes and microRNAs, including neighboring reciprocally imprinted genes. Thus, the unoccupied IR and IGF1R generate previously unidentified signals that control expression of imprinted genes and miRNAs through transcriptional mechanisms that are distinct from classical imprinting control. PMID:25246545

Boucher, Jeremie; Charalambous, Marika; Zarse, Kim; Mori, Marcelo A.; Kleinridders, Andre; Ristow, Michael; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Kahn, C. Ronald

2014-01-01

288

[Expression of transmitter receptor genes in early development of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus].  

PubMed

Neurotransmitters (including serotonin and acetylcholine) perform a number of prenervous functions in early sea urchin development. To detect the particular receptor components involved in these processes, we carried out a database search and nucleotide sequences homologous to serotonin receptor type 4, and the alpha6- and alpha10-subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were found among EST-clones from early Paracentrotus lividus embryos. Expression of these transcripts during early development was demonstrated using RT-PCR. These results are the first molecular biology evidence ofserotonin and acetylcholine receptor expression in sea urchin early embryogenesis. PMID:22834136

Nikishin, D A; Semenova, M N; Shmukler, Iu B

2012-01-01

289

Genome wide transcriptional profiling in breast cancer cells reveals distinct changes in hormone receptor target genes and chromatin modifying enzymes after proteasome inhibition  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormone receptors, like glucocorticoid (GR) and estrogen receptors (ER), are master regulators of genes that control many biological processes implicated in health and disease. Gene expression is dependent on receptor levels which are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibition increases GR, but decreases ER-mediated gene expression. At the gene expression level this divergent role of the proteasome in receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation is not well understood. We have used a genomic approach to examine the impact of proteasome activity on GR and ER-mediated gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or 17?-estradiol (E2), the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (MG) or MG132 and either hormone (MD or ME2) for 24h. Transcript profiling reveals that inhibiting proteasome activity modulates gene expression by GR and ER in a similar manner in that several GR and ER target genes are up-regulated and down-regulated after proteasome inhibition. In addition, proteasome inhibition modulates receptor-dependent genes involved in the etiology of a number of human pathological states, including multiple myeloma, leukemia, breast/prostate cancer, HIV/AIDS and neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, our analysis reveals that a number of transcripts encoding histone and DNA modifying enzymes, prominently histone/DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, are altered after proteasome inhibition. As proteasome inhibitors are currently in clinical trials as therapy for multiple myeloma, HIV/AIDs and leukemia, the possibility that some of the target molecules are hormone regulated and by chromatin modifying enzymes is intriguing in this era of epigenetic therapy. PMID:18381591

Kinyamu, H. Karimi; Collins, Jennifer B.; Grissom, Sherry F.; Hebbar, Pratibha B.; Archer, Trevor K.

2010-01-01

290

Regulation of the intronic promoter of rat estrogen receptor alpha gene, responsible for truncated estrogen receptor product-1 expression.  

PubMed

We have characterized the intronic promoter of the rat estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene, responsible for the lactotrope-specific truncated ER product (TERP)-1 isoform expression. Transcriptional regulation was investigated by transient transfections using 5'-deletion constructs. TERP promoter constructs were highly active in MMQ cells, a pure lactotrope cell line, whereas a low basal activity was detected in alphaT3-1 gonadotrope cells or in COS-7 monkey kidney cells. Serial deletion analysis revealed that 1) a minimal -693-bp region encompassing the TATA box is sufficient to allow lactotrope-specific expression; 2) the promoter contains strong positive cis-acting elements both in the distal and proximal regions, and 3) the region spanning the -1698/-1194 region includes repressor elements. Transient transfection studies, EMSAs, and gel shifts demonstrated that estrogen activates the TERP promoter via an estrogen-responsive element (ERE1) located within the proximal region. Mutation of ERE1 site completely abolishes the estradiol-dependent transcription, indicating that ERE1 site is sufficient to confer estrogen responsiveness to TERP promoter. In addition, ERalpha action was synergized by transfection of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1. EMSAs showed that a single Pit-1 DNA binding element in the vicinity of the TATA box is sufficient to confer response by the TERP promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrated, for the first time, that TERP promoter regulation involves ERE and Pit-1 cis-elements and corresponding trans-acting factors, which could play a role in the physiological changes that occur in TERP-1 transcription in lactotrope cells. PMID:12810539

Schausi, Diane; Tiffoche, Christophe; Thieulant, Marie-Lise

2003-07-01

291

Integrative genomics of gene and metabolic regulation by estrogen receptors ? and ?, and their coregulators  

PubMed Central

The closely related transcription factors (TFs), estrogen receptors ER? and ER?, regulate divergent gene expression programs and proliferative outcomes in breast cancer. Utilizing breast cancer cells with ER?, ER?, or both receptors as a model system to define the basis for differing response specification by related TFs, we show that these TFs and their key coregulators, SRC3 and RIP140, generate overlapping as well as unique chromatin-binding and transcription-regulating modules. Cistrome and transcriptome analyses and the use of clustering algorithms delineated 11 clusters representing different chromatin-bound receptor and coregulator assemblies that could be functionally associated through enrichment analysis with distinct patterns of gene regulation and preferential coregulator usage, RIP140 with ER? and SRC3 with ER?. The receptors modified each other's transcriptional effect, and ER? countered the proliferative drive of ER? through several novel mechanisms associated with specific binding-site clusters. Our findings delineate distinct TF-coregulator assemblies that function as control nodes, specifying precise patterns of gene regulation, proliferation, and metabolism, as exemplified by two of the most important nuclear hormone receptors in human breast cancer. PMID:23774759

Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Charn, Tze-Howe; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Edison T; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

2013-01-01

292

Characterization of SQUAMOSA-like genes in Gerbera hybrida, including one involved in reproductive transition  

PubMed Central

Background The flowering process in plants proceeds through the induction of an inflorescence meristem triggered by several pathways. Many of the genes associated with both the flowering process and floral architecture encode transcription factors of the MADS domain family. Gerbera, a member of the sunflower family, Asteraceae, bears compressed inflorescence heads (capitula) with three different flower types characterized by differences in both sexuality and floral symmetry. To understand how such a complex inflorescence structure is achieved at the molecular level, we have characterized the array of Gerbera MADS box genes. The high number of SQUAMOSA-like genes in Gerbera compared to other model species raised the question as to whether they may relate to Gerbera's complex inflorescence structure and whether or not a homeotic A function is present. Results In this paper we describe six Gerbera genes related to the SQUAMOSA/APETALA1/FRUITFULL genes of snapdragon and Arabidopsis. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the entire gene lineage, our data indicates that GSQUA1 and GSQUA3 are members of the SQUA/AP1 clade, while GSQUA2, GSQUA4, GSQUA5 and GSQUA6 are co-orthologs of the Arabidopsis FUL gene. GSQUA1/GSQUA3 and GSQUA4/GSQUA5/GSQUA6, respectively, represent several gene duplication events unknown in the model systems that may be specific to either Gerbera or Asteraceae. GSQUA genes showed specific expression profiles. GSQUA1, GSQUA2, and GSQUA5 were inflorescence abundant, while GSQUA3, GSQUA4, and GSQUA6 expression was also detected in vegetative organs. Overexpression of GSQUA2 in Gerbera led to accelerated flowering, dwarfism and vegetative abnormalities, all new and specific phenomena observed in transgenic Gerbera plants with modified MADS box gene expression. Conclusions Based on expression patterns, none of the Gerbera SQUA-like genes are likely to control flower organ identity in the sense of the floral A function. However, our data shows that the FUL-like gene GSQUA2 plays a vital role in meristem transition. The roles of other GSQUA-genes in Gerbera floral development are intriguing, but require still further study. PMID:20579337

2010-01-01

293

alpha7 Nicotinic receptor gene delivery into mouse hippocampal neurons leads to functional receptor expression, improved spatial memory-related performance, and tau hyperphosphorylation.  

PubMed

Brain alpha7 nicotinic receptors have become therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on their memory-enhancing and neuroprotective actions. This study investigated the feasibility of increasing neuronal alpha7 receptor functions using a gene delivery approach based on neuron-selective recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-derived vectors. In order to determine whether alpha7 receptor-mediated cytotoxicity was dependent on receptor density, rat alpha7 nicotinic receptors were expressed at high concentrations in GH4C1 cells as measured with nicotine-displaceable [3H]methyllycaconitine (MLA) binding. The potency of GTS-21 (an alpha7 receptor agonist) to induce cell loss was similar in these cells to that seen in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells expressing nine-times-lower receptor levels, suggesting that cytotoxicity was more dependent on agonist concentration than receptor density. Hippocampal transduction with rat alpha7 nicotinic receptors increased [3H]MLA binding in this region in wild type and alpha7 receptor-knockout (KO) mice without apparent cytotoxicity. No difference was observed in Kd values for MLA binding between endogenous and transgenic receptors. Single cell recordings demonstrated that dentate granule cells that normally have no alpha7 receptor response did so following alpha7 receptor gene delivery in wild type mice. Recovery of alpha7 function was also observed in stratum oriens and stratum radiatum neurons of KO mice following gene delivery. Wild type mice exhibited improved acquisition performance in the Morris water task 1 month after bilateral hippocampal transductions with the rat alpha7 receptor gene compared with green fluorescent protein-transduced controls. However, both groups reached similar training levels and there was no difference in subsequent probe performance. Finally, this gene delivery approach was used to test whether alpha7 receptors affect tau-phosphorylation. Chronic (i.e. 2 month but not 2 week) expression of high levels of alpha7 receptors in hippocampus increased AT8 staining characteristic of hyperphosphorylated tau in that region, indicating that endogenous agonist-mediated receptor activation may be able to modulate this process. PMID:17218065

Ren, K; Thinschmidt, J; Liu, J; Ai, L; Papke, R L; King, M A; Hughes, J A; Meyer, E M

2007-03-01

294

The human insulin receptor substrate-1 gene (IRS1) is localized on 2q36  

SciTech Connect

The chromosomal localization of some of the genes participating in the insulin signaling pathway is known. The insulin and insulin receptor genes have been mapped to chromosomes 11 and 19, respectively. To identify the chromosomal localization of the human IRS1 gene, the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was employed with Genomic Clone B-10. A total of 50 metaphase cells exhibiting either single or double spots of hybridization signals were examined. Among them, 32 showed the specific signals on 2q36. Therefore, the authors assigned the human IRS1 gene to 2q36. The genes for homeobox sequence (HOX4), fibronectin 1, alkaline phosphatase (intestinal), transition protein 1, villin 1, collagen (type IV), Waardenburg syndrome (type 1), alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and glucagon have been localized in the vicinity of the IRS1 gene.

Nishiyama, Masaki; Matsufuji, Senya; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Furusaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Teruji (Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Inazawa, J.; Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan)); Ariyama, Takeshi (Kyoto Prefactural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)); Wands, J.R. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

1994-03-01

295

Comparison of lentiviral and sleeping beauty mediated ?? T cell receptor gene transfer.  

PubMed

Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and ?? T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm's tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies. PMID:23840834

Field, Anne-Christine; Vink, Conrad; Gabriel, Richard; Al-Subki, Roua; Schmidt, Manfred; Goulden, Nicholas; Stauss, Hans; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma; Qasim, Waseem

2013-01-01

296

Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar  

PubMed Central

Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3), we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer cannot form, and thus the cat lacks the receptor likely necessary for detection of sweet stimuli. This molecular change was very likely an important event in the evolution of the cat's carnivorous behavior. PMID:16103917

Li, Xia; Li, Weihua; Wang, Hong; Cao, Jie; Maehashi, Kenji; Huang, Liquan; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Reed, Danielle R; Legrand-Defretin, Vronique; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

2005-01-01

297

Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine  

PubMed Central

The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

Parnaudeau, Sbastien; Dongelmans, Marie-louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frdric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Cline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, Franois; Barik, Jacques

2014-01-01

298

The Nuclear Orphan Receptor CAR-Retinoid X Receptor Heterodimer Activates the Phenobarbital-Responsive Enhancer Module of the CYP2B Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

PBREM, the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module of the cytochrome P-450 Cyp2b10 gene, contains two potential nuclear receptor binding sites, NR1 and NR2. Consistent with the finding that anti-retinoid X receptor (RXR) could supershift the NR1-nuclear protein complex, DNA affinity chromatography with NR1 oligonucleotides enriched the nuclear orphan receptor RXR from the hepatic nuclear extracts of phenobar- bital-treated mice. In addition to

PAAVO HONKAKOSKI; IGOR ZELKO; TATSUYA SUEYOSHI; MASAHIKO NEGISHI

1998-01-01

299

Adenovirus-Mediated Transfer of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Acutely Accelerates Cholesterol Clearance in Normal Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to transiently elicit production of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in mice. A recombinant adenovirus carrying the human LDL receptor cDNA restored LDL receptor function in receptor-deficient cultured cells. Intravenous injection of recombinant virus acutely lowered plasma cholesterol levels and increased the rate of 125I-labeled LDL clearance from the circulation in

Joachim Herz; Robert D. Gerard

1993-01-01

300

Ectopic Expression Screen Identifies Genes Affecting Drosophila Mesoderm Development Including the HSPG Trol  

PubMed Central

Gastrulation of the embryo involves coordinate cell movements likely supported by multiple signaling pathways, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix components. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have a major role in Drosophila melanogaster mesoderm migration; however, few other inputs are known and the mechanism supporting cell movement is unclear. To provide insight, we performed an ectopic expression screen to identify secreted or membrane-associated molecules that act to support mesoderm migration. Twenty-four UAS insertions were identified that cause lethality when expressed in either the mesoderm (Twi-Gal4) or the ectoderm (69B-Gal4). The list was narrowed to a subset of 10 genes that were shown to exhibit loss-of-function mutant phenotypes specifically affecting mesoderm migration. These include the FGF ligand Pyramus, ?-integrins, E-cadherin, Cueball, EGFR, JAK/STAT signaling components, as well as the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) Terribly reduced optic lobes (Trol). Trol encodes the ortholog of mammalian HSPG Perlecan, a demonstrated FGF signaling cofactor. Here, we examine the role of Trol in Drosophila mesoderm migration and compare and contrast its role with that of Syndecan (Sdc), another HSPG previously implicated in this process. Embryos mutant for Trol or Sdc were obtained and analyzed. Our data support the view that both HSPGs function to support FGF-dependent processes in the early embryo as they share phenotypes with FGF mutants: Trol in terms of effects on mesoderm migration and caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) migration and Sdc in terms of dorsal mesoderm specification. The differential roles uncovered for these two HSPGs suggest that HSPG cofactor choice may modify FGF-signaling outputs. PMID:25538103

Trisnadi, Nathanie; Stathopoulos, Angelike

2014-01-01

301

Comparative study of leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in different swine breeds.  

PubMed

Leptin is an important regulator of appetite, energy metabolism, and reproduction and is mainly synthesized in the adipocytes and then secreted into the bloodstream. The leptin receptor was classified as type I cytokine receptor due to its structural homology with IL-6 receptors and the signaling pathways in which they are both involved. The aim of our study is to comparatively assess the gene expression levels of leptin (lep) and leptin receptor (lepr) in different swine breeds specialized either in meat production (Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Large White, Synthetic Lines LS-345, and LSP-2000) or fat production (Mangalitsa) in order to correlate them with morphological and productivity characteristics. Additionally, lepr pattern of expression was evaluated comparatively between different tissue types in the Mangalitsa breed. Our results revealed high expression of the lep gene in Mangalitsa compared to those of all the other breeds, while for the lepr gene, average/medium levels were registered in Mangalitsa and increased pattern of expression was found in the synthetic lines LS-345 and LSP-2000. Regarding the comparative analysis of lepr gene expression in various tissues in the Mangalitsa breed, elevated levels were found in the liver and kidney, while the lowest expression was identified in the brain and muscles. Our results suggest that the Mangalitsa population exhibits leptin resistance, which might be correlated with atypical morpho-productive characteristics for this breed, such as below-average prolificacy and a strong tendency to accumulate fat. PMID:24615118

Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dinescu, S; Costache, M

2014-01-01

302

Arterial Inflammation in Mice Lacking the Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branch points and flexures in the high pressure arterial system have long been recognized as sites of unusually high turbulence and consequent stress in humans are foci for atherosclerotic lesions. We show that mice that are homozygous for a null mutation in the gene encoding an endogenous antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), develop lethal arterial inflammation involving branch

Martin J. H. Nicklin; David E. Hughes; Jenny L. Barton; Jan M. Ure; Gordon W. Duff

303

Composition and evolution of the V2r vomeronasal receptor gene repertoire in mice and rats  

E-print Network

/sexual physiological and behavioral responses, and they are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO are probably sensed by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mammals [1]. VNO is encased in a bony capsuleComposition and evolution of the V2r vomeronasal receptor gene repertoire in mice and rats Hui

Zhang, Jianzhi

304

Novel roles of liver X receptors exposed by gene expression profiling in liver and adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Liver X receptor (LXR) alpha and LXRbeta are nuclear oxysterol receptors whose biological function has so far been elucidated only with respect to cholesterol and lipid metabolism. To expose novel biological roles for LXRs, we performed genome-wide gene expression profiling studies in liver and white and brown adipose tissue from wild-type (LXRalpha(+/+)beta(+/+)) and knockout mice (LXRalpha(-/-)beta(-/-)) treated with a synthetic LXR agonist. By an adapted statistical analysis, we detected 319 genes significantly regulated by LXR agonist treatment in wild-type but not in knockout mice, fulfilling most stringent criteria with an overall confidence of 94%. Down-regulation of essential enzymes of gluconeogenesis in liver could point to possible beneficial effects of LXR agonists in diabetes mellitus. LXR agonist treatment also altered expression of genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis and growth hormone receptor signaling, emphasizing a potential impact on endocrine function. Notably, LXR agonist treatment up-regulated CYP4A10 and CYP4A14 together with cytochrome P450 reductase, indicating a possible enhancement of microsomal lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these gene expression profiling data identify novel areas of regulation by LXRs and provide a highly valuable basis for further research on the biological functions of these nuclear receptors and the pharmacological characteristics of their ligands. PMID:12435796

Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gao, Hui; Reimers, Mark; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Schuster, Gertrud U; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

2002-12-01

305

Studies of the potential role of the dopamine D1 receptor gene in addictive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities in the dopaminergic reward pathways have frequently been implicated in substance abuse and addictive behaviors. Recent studies by Self and coworkers have suggested an important interaction between the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in cocaine abuse. To test the hypothesis that the DRD1 gene might play a role in addictive behaviors we examined the alleles of the Dde I

D E Comings; R Gade; S Wu; C Chiu; G Dietz; D Muhleman; G Saucier; L Ferry; R J Rosenthal; H R Lesieur; L J Rugle; P MacMurray

1997-01-01

306

Global analysis of estrogen receptor beta binding to breast cancer cell genome reveals an extensive interplay with estrogen receptor alpha for target gene regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptors alpha (ER?) and beta (ER?) are transcription factors (TFs) that mediate estrogen signaling and define the hormone-responsive phenotype of breast cancer (BC). The two receptors can be found co-expressed and play specific, often opposite, roles, with ER? being able to modulate the effects of ER? on gene transcription and cell proliferation. ER? is frequently lost in BC,

Oli MV Grober; Margherita Mutarelli; Giorgio Giurato; Maria Ravo; Luigi Cicatiello; Maria Rosaria De Filippo; Lorenzo Ferraro; Giovanni Nassa; Maria Francesca Papa; Ornella Paris; Roberta Tarallo; Shujun Luo; Gary P Schroth; Vladimir Benes; Alessandro Weisz

2011-01-01

307

The Effect of Genetic Variation of the Retinoic Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor C Gene on Fatness in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Genotypes at the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (RORC) gene were associated with fatness in 1750 cattle. Ten SNPs were genotyped in RORC and the adjacent gene leucine-rich repeat neuronal 6D (LRRN6D) to map the QTL, 7 of which are in a 4.2-kb sequence around the ligand-binding domain of the RORC gene. Of the 29 inferred haplotypes for these SNPs, 2 have a combined frequency of 54.6% while the top 5 haplotypes have a combined frequency of 85.3%. The average D? value of linkage disequilibrium was 0.92 although the average r2 was a low 0.18. The RORC:g.3290T>G SNP had the strongest association with marbling. The inferred haplotypes were significantly associated with marbling and the difference between the most divergent haplotypes was 0.35 ?p of marbling and 0.28 ?p of rump fat, explaining the previously reported QTL effect. cDNA for RORC were sequenced and 2 new alternative transcripts were found. Fetal tissue shows 40 times greater transcription of RORC than adult tissue. The highest expression in fetal tissue was found in liver and kidney, but in adults the longissimus muscle had the greatest expression of the tissues tested. PMID:17151246

Barendse, W.; Bunch, R. J.; Kijas, J. W.; Thomas, M. B.

2007-01-01

308

The CAG repeat polymorphism in the Androgen receptor gene modifies the risk for hypospadias in Caucasians  

PubMed Central

Background Hypospadias is a birth defect of the urethra in males, and a milder form of 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). The disease is characterized by a ventrally placed urinary opening due to a premature fetal arrest of the urethra development. Moreover, the Androgen receptor (AR) gene has an essential role in the hormone-dependent stage of sexual development. In addition, longer AR polyglutamine repeat lengths encoded by CAG repeats are associated with lower transcriptional activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the role of the CAG repeat length in the AR gene in hypospadias cases as compared to the controls. Our study included 211 hypospadias and 208 controls of Caucasian origin. Methods We amplified the CAG repeat region with PCR, and calculated the difference in the mean CAG repeat length between the hypospadias and control group using the T-test for independent groups. Results We detected a significant increase of the CAG repeat length in the hypospadias cases when compared to the controls (contrast estimate: 2.29, 95% Confidence Interval (1.73-2.84); p-value: 0.001). In addition, the odds ratios between the hypospadias and controls revealed that the hypospadias cases are two to 3 times as likely to have longer CAG repeats than a shorter length for each repeat length investigated. Conclusions We have investigated the largest number of hypospadias cases with regards to the CAG repeat length, and we provide evidence that a higher number of the CAG repeat sequence in the AR gene have a clear effect on the risk of hypospadias in Caucasians. PMID:23167717

2012-01-01

309

Age at first sexual intercourse, genes, and social context: Evidence from twins and the dopamine D4 receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out two distinct types of genetic analysis with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.\\u000a The first was a non-DNA twin analysis using monozygotic (identical) and same-sex dizygotic (fraternal) twins. The second analysis\\u000a investigates the association between age at first sexual intercourse and the 48-bp repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor\\u000a D4 gene (DRD4). The twin

Guang Guo; Yuying Tong

2006-01-01

310

Identification of potential regulatory motifs in odorant receptor genes by analysis of promoter sequences  

PubMed Central

Mouse odorant receptors (ORs) are encoded by >1000 genes dispersed throughout the genome. Each olfactory neuron expresses one single OR gene, while the rest of the genes remain silent. The mechanisms underlying OR gene expression are poorly understood. Here, we investigated if OR genes share common cis-regulatory sequences in their promoter regions. We carried out a comprehensive analysis in which the upstream regions of a large number of OR genes were compared. First, using RLM-RACE, we generated cDNAs containing the complete 5?-untranslated regions (5?-UTRs) for a total number of 198 mouse OR genes. Then, we aligned these cDNA sequences to the mouse genome so that the 5? structure and transcription start sites (TSSs) of the OR genes could be precisely determined. Sequences upstream of the TSSs were retrieved and browsed for common elements. We found DNA sequence motifs that are overrepresented in the promoter regions of the OR genes. Most motifs resemble O/E-like sites and are preferentially localized within 200 bp upstream of the TSSs. Finally, we show that these motifs specifically interact with proteins extracted from nuclei prepared from the olfactory epithelium, but not from brain or liver. Our results show that the OR genes share common promoter elements. The present strategy should provide information on the role played by cis-regulatory sequences in OR gene regulation. PMID:16902085

Michaloski, Jussara S.; Galante, Pedro A.F.

2006-01-01

311

Molecular characterization and expression profiles of olfactory receptor genes in the parasitic wasp, Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Olfactory receptors (OR) are believed to fulfil an indispensable role in insects host-seeking, mating and ovipositing. We obtained 4785 high-quality expressed sequencing tags (EST) from the antennal cDNA library of the parasitic wasp Microplitis mediator, a natural enemy of crop pests. After assembling, 786 contigs and 2130 singletons were generated. Using BLAST searches, a number of olfactory-related genes were identified, including ESTs encoding for 25 ORs. 14 full-length OR genes were cloned and their expression profiles in the wasp olfactory organs were quantified by real-time qRT-PCR. The results indicated a diverse distribution between the tissues and genders, yet the majority of OR genes are highly expressed in antennae. Three OR genes (Or2, Or12 and Or13) are highly expressed in female antennae, eight OR genes (ORco, Or3, Or4, Or5, Or7, Or8, Or9 and Or11) are highly expressed in male antennae. This is the first report on tissue-specific expression of wasp OR genes. Our study provides a foundational knowledge to explore and understand the molecular basis of odorant reception in this parasitic wasp and for the study of trophic interactions of natural enemy. PMID:24291166

Ma, Long; Gu, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ze-Wen; Wang, Shan-Ning; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun

2014-01-01

312

Software and database for the analysis of mutations in the human LDL receptor gene.  

PubMed Central

The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis. Mutations in the LDLr gene (LDLR), which is located on chromosome 19, cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe hypercholesterolemia associated with premature coronary atherosclerosis. To date almost 300 mutations have been identified in the LDLR gene. To facilitate the mutational analysis of the LDLR gene, and promote the analysis of the relationship between genotype and phenotype, a software package along with a computerized database (currently listing 210 entries) have been created. PMID:9016531

Varret, M; Rabs, J P; Collod-Broud, G; Junien, C; Boileau, C; Broud, C

1997-01-01

313

Systematic screening for mutations in the human serotonin 1F receptor gene in patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

Using single strand conformational analysis we screened the complete coding sequence of the serotonin 1F (5-HT{sub 1F}) receptor gene for the presence of DNA sequence variation in a sample of 137 unrelated individuals including 45 schizophrenic patients, 46 bipolar patients, as well as 46 healthy controls. We detected only three rare sequence variants which are characterized by single base pair substitutions, namely a silent T{r_arrow}A transversion in the third position of codon 261 (encoding isoleucine), a silent C{r_arrow}T transition in the third position of codon 176 (encoding histidine), and a C{r_arrow}T transition in position -78 upstream from the start codon. The lack of significant mutations in patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder indicates that the 5-HT{sub 1F} receptor is not commonly involved in the etiology of these diseases. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Shimron-Abarbanell, D.; Harms, H.; Erdmann, J.; Propping, P.; Noethen, M.M. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others] [Univ. of Bonn (Germany); and others

1996-04-09

314

SELF ADMINISTRATION OF OXYCODONE BY ADOLESCENT AND ADULT MICE AFFECTS STRIATAL NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION  

PubMed Central

Illicit use of prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone) in adolescence is a pressing public health issue. Our goal was to determine whether oxycodone self administration differentially affects striatal neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent compared to adult C57BL/6J mice. Groups of adolescent mice (4 weeks old, n= 12) and of adult mice (11 weeks old, n= 11) underwent surgery during which a catheter was implanted into their jugular veins. After recovering from surgery, mice self administered oxycodone (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) 2 h/day for 14 consecutive days or served as yoked saline controls. Mice were sacrificed within 1 h after the last self-administration session and the dorsal striatum was isolated for mRNA analysis. Gene expression was analyzed with real time PCR using a commercially available neurotransmitter receptor PCR array containing 84 genes. We found that adolescent mice self administered less oxycodone than adult mice over the 14 days. Monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) and neuropeptide Y receptor 5 mRNA levels were lower in adolescent mice than in adult mice without oxycodone exposure. Oxycodone self administration increased Maoa mRNA levels compared to controls in both age groups. There was a positive correlation of the amount of oxycodone self administered in the last session or across 14 sessions with Maoa mRNA levels. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA showed a significant Drug Age interaction, with point-wise significance. More genes in the dorsal striatum of adolescents (19) changed in response to oxycodone self administration compared to controls than in adult (4) mice. Overall, this study demonstrates that repeated oxycodone self administration alters neurotransmitter receptors gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent and adult mice. PMID:24220688

Mayer-Blackwell, B.; Schlussman, S. D.; Butelman, E. R.; Ho, A.; Ott, J.; Kreek, M. J.; Zhang, Y.

2014-01-01

315

Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and NOP receptor gene regulation after acute or repeated social defeat stress  

PubMed Central

Antagonists of the NOP receptor have antidepressant effects in rodent models, suggesting that the N/OFQ-NOP system may play an important role in affective disorders. Furthermore, multiple lines of experimental evidence link N/OFQ neurotransmission with physiological and behavioral responses to stress. One possibility is that disregulated expression of the N/OFQ peptide neurotransmitter and/or the NOP receptor may participate in the etiology of stress-induced psychopathology. In the present set of experiments, we compared gene expression for prepro-N/OFQ and NOP receptor in groups of rats that were exposed to differing regimens of social defeat stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to no social defeat, a single, acute social defeat or to repeated social defeats with or without an acute defeat on the final day. In situ hybridization was conducted with 35S-labelled riboprobes aimed at prepro-N/OFQ mRNA or NOP receptor mRNA. Expression was analyzed by quantification of optical density in limbic and extra-limbic forebrain regions. There were no statistically significant changes in prepro-N/OFQ mRNA expression after stress exposure in any of the brain regions analyzed. However, the rats that were exposed to acute social defeat displayed elevations in NOP receptor mRNA expression in the central and basomedial nuclei of the amygdala and in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Additionally, the rats that were acutely stressed after a history of repeated social defeat also displayed elevated levels of NOP receptor mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results suggest that the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system is affected by acute stress exposure, particularly in limbic regions. This stress-induced upregulation of NOP receptor gene expression further supports the possibility that disregulation of the N/OFQ-NOP system may contribute to behavioral and hormonal disregulation following stress. PMID:19720395

Green, Megan K.; Devine, Darragh P.

2014-01-01

316

The Rat Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene: Structure, Regulation, and Generation of Receptor  

E-print Network

as a functional promoter in rat pituitary tumor GH3 cells, and basal promoter activity is enhanced in GH3 and COS7 tumor cell line was found to express the GHRH receptor, and different populations of these cells produce of linear growth in mammals (1). Hypothalamic control of GH syn- thesis and secretion is modulated primarily

Mayo, Kelly E.

317

Cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor and protease-activated receptor 1 activate strongly correlated early genes in human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLT), i.e., LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, are lipid mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, and the cysLT receptors cysLT1-R\\/cysLT2-R mediate inflammatory tissue reactions. Although endothelial cells (ECs) predominantly express cysLT2-Rs, their role in vascular biology remains to be fully understood. To delineate cysLT2-R actions, we stimulated human umbilical vein EC with LTD4 and determined early induced genes. We

Barbara Uzonyi; Katharina Ltzer; Steffen Jahn; Cornelia Kramer; Markus Hildner; Ellen Bretschneider; Drte Radke; Michael Beer; Rdiger Vollandt; Jilly F. Evans; Colin D. Funk; Andreas J. R. Habenicht

2006-01-01

318

The Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-? Regulates Murine Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene Expression in Vivo and in Vitro*  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) plays a crucial role in various metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Here we showed for the first time that the PC gene is transcriptionally regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) in vitro and in vivo in white and brown adipose tissue. PC mRNA and protein are markedly increased during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and HIB-1B, in parallel with the expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, CCAAT-enhancer binding protein ?, PPAR?1, and PPAR?2. Tumor necrosis factor-?, a cytokine that blocks differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, suppressed PC expression. Co-transfection studies in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or HEK293T cells with a 2.3-kb promoter fragment of mouse PC gene linked to a luciferase reporter construct and with plasmids overexpressing retinoid X receptor ?/PPAR?1 or retinoid X receptor ?/PPAR?2 showed a 68-fold increase above the basal promoter activity. Furthermore, treatment of these transfected cells with the PPAR? agonist doubled the promoter activity. Mutation of the putative PPAR-response element-(?386/?374) of this 2.3-kb PC promoter fragment abolished the PPAR? response. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that endogenous PPAR? binds to this functional PPAR-response element of the PC promoter. Mice with targeted disruption of the PPAR?2 gene displayed ~5060% reduction of PC mRNA and protein in white adipose tissue. Similarly, in brown adipose tissue of PPAR?2-deficient mice subjected to cold exposure, PC mRNA was 40% lower than that of wild type mice. Impaired in vitro differentiation of white adipocytes of PPAR?2 knock-out mice was also associated with a marked reduction of PC mRNA. Our findings identified PC as a PPAR?-regulated gene and suggested a role for PPAR? regulating intermediary metabolism. PMID:15917242

Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Slawik, Marc; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Campbell, Mark; Wallace, John C.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; ORahilly, Stephen; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J.

2015-01-01

319

Inflammatory and steroid receptor gene methylation in the human amnion and decidua.  

PubMed

Correct timing of parturition requires inflammatory gene activation in the gestational tissues at term and repression during pregnancy. Promoter methylation at CpG dinucleotides represses gene activity; therefore, we examined the possibility that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of labour-associated genes in human pregnancy. Amnion and decidua were collected at 11-17 weeks of gestation and at term following elective Caesarean delivery or spontaneous labour. Methylation of the inflammatory genes PTGS2, BMP2, NAMPT and CXCL2 was analysed using the Methyl-Profiler PCR System and bisulphite sequencing. Methylation of the glucocorticoid, progesterone and oestrogen receptor genes, involved in the hormonal regulation of gestational tissue function, and the expression of the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, -3A and -3B were also determined. Variable proportions of inflammatory and steroid receptor gene copies, to a maximum of 50.9%, were densely methylated in both tissues consistent with repression. Densely methylated copy proportions were significantly different between genes showing no relationship with varying expression during pregnancy, between tissues and in individuals. Methylated copy proportions of all genes in amnion and most genes in decidua were highly correlated in individuals. DNMT1 and -3A were expressed in both tissues with significantly higher levels in the amnion at 11-17 weeks than at term. We conclude that the unmethylated portion of gene copies is responsible for the full range of regulated expression in the amnion and decidua during normal pregnancy. Dense methylation of individually variable gene copy proportions happens in the first trimester amnion influenced by sequence context and affected strongly by individual circumstances. PMID:23393306

Mitchell, Carolyn M; Sykes, Shane D; Pan, Xin; Pringle, Kirsty G; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Hirst, Jonathan J; Zakar, Tamas

2013-04-01

320

Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the MHC class I-like Fc receptor gene  

SciTech Connect

The intestinal epithelium of neonatal mice and rats expresses an Fc receptor that mediates selective uptake of IgG in mothers`milk. This receptor (FcRn), which helps newborn animals to acquire passive immunity, is an MHC class I-like heterodimer made up of a heavy chain and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin. In the present study, we determined the genomic structure of a mouse gene (FcRn) encoding the heavy of FcRn. The overall exon-intron organization of the Fcrn gene was similar to that of the Fcrn gene, thus providing structural evidence that Fcrn os a bona fide class I gene. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the Fcrn gene contained the binding motifs for two cytokine-inducible transcription factors, NF-IL6 and NF1. However, regulatory elements found in MHC class I genes (enhancer A, enhancer B, and the IFN response element) were absent. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that, like the MICA, AZGP1, and CD1 genes, the Fcrn gene diverged form MHC class I genes after the emergence of amphibians but before the split of placental and marsupial mammals. Consistent with this result, Southern blot analysis with a mouse Fcrn cDNA probe detected cross-hybridizing bands in various mammalian species and chickens. Sequence analysis of the Fcrn gene isolated from eight mouse strains showed that the membrane-distal domain of FcRn has at least three amino acid variants. The fact that Fcrn is a single copy gene indicates that it is expressed in both the neonatal intestine and the fetal yolk sac. 74 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Kandil, Eman; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kasahara, Masanori [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [and others

1995-06-01

321

Interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel diseases susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), represents a group of chronic inflammatory disorders caused by dysregulated immune responses in genetically predisposed individuals. Genetic markers are associated with disease phenotype and long-term evolution, but their value in everyday clinical practice is limited at the moment. IBD has a clear immunological background and interleukins play key role in the process. Almost 130 original papers were revised including meta-analysis. It is clear these data are very important for understanding the base of the disease, especially in terms of clinical utility and validity, but text often do not available for the doctors use these in the clinical practice nowadays. We conducted a systematic review of the current literature on interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms associated with IBD, performing an electronic search of PubMed Database from publications of the last 10 years, and used the following medical subject heading terms and/or text words: IBD, CD, UC, interleukins and polymorphisms. PMID:24695754

Magyari, Lili; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Sarlos, Patricia; Javorhazy, Andras; Sumegi, Katalin; Melegh, Bela

2014-01-01

322

NMDA receptor gene variations as modifiers in Huntington disease: a replication study.  

PubMed

Several candidate modifier genes which, in addition to the pathogenic CAG repeat expansion, influence the age at onset (AO) in Huntington disease (HD) have already been described. The aim of this study was to replicate association of variations in the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes GRIN2A and GRIN2B in the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). The analyses did replicate the association reported between the GRIN2A rs2650427 variation and AO in the entire cohort. Yet, when subjects were stratified by AO subtypes, we found nominally significant evidence for an association of the GRIN2A rs1969060 variation and the GRIN2B rs1806201 variation. These findings further implicate the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes as loci containing variation associated with AO in HD. PMID:21989477

Saft, Carsten; Epplen, Jrg T; Wieczorek, Stefan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Roos, Raymund A C; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Dose, Matthias; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Craufurd, David; Arning, Larissa

2011-01-01

323

Identification of an estrogen receptor gene in the natural freshwater snail Bithynia tentaculata.  

PubMed

Mollusks have received increasing interest in ecotoxicological studies but so far the available scientific analyses of how their genes are affected by anthropogenic pollutants are scarce. The focus of this study is to identify an estrogen receptor (er) gene in the common prosobranch snail Bithynia tentaculata and to test a hypothesis that 17?-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) will modulate er gene expression after short-term exposure. We set up exposure experiments with a total of 144 snails, which were collected from a natural population in southern Sweden. Snails were exposed to either 10ng/L or 100ng/L EE2 during 24h and/or 72h. From the isolated B. tentaculata RNA we successfully identified and characterized a novel er gene and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Bithynia er gene is an ortholog to the human ER? (ESR1, NR3A1). We found a significant interaction between EE2-dose and exposure duration on the er's gene expression (Two-way ANOVA; p=0.04). We also found a significant difference in the gene expression of the er when comparing the control and 100ng/L treatment groups after 72h in female snails (One-way ANOVA; p=0.047). The results from this study should be useful for future field-related studies of estrogen receptors in natural populations of mollusks. PMID:24583164

Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Persson, Anders; Hansson, Maria C

2014-04-25

324

Gene Encoding Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines Is Associated with Asthma and IgE in Three Populations  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Asthma prevalence and severity are high among underserved minorities, including those of African descent. The Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is the receptor for Plasmodium vivax on erythrocytes and functions as a chemokine-clearing receptor. Unlike European populations, decreased expression of the receptor on erythrocytes is common among populations of African descent, and results from a functional T-46C polymorphism (rs2814778) in the promoter. This variant provides an evolutionary advantage in malaria-endemic regions, because Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines-negative erythrocytes are more resistant to infection by P. vivax. Objectives: To determine the role of the rs2814778 polymorphism in asthma and atopy as measured by total serum IgE levels among four populations of African descent (African Caribbean, African American, Brazilian, and Colombian) and a European American population. Methods: Family-based association tests were performed in each of the five populations to test for association between the rs2814778 polymorphism and asthma or total IgE concentration. Measurements and Main Results: Asthma was significantly associated with the rs2814778 polymorphism in the African Caribbean, Colombian, and Brazilian families (P < 0.05). High total IgE levels were associated with this variant in African Caribbean and Colombian families (P < 0.05). The variant allele was not polymorphic among European Americans. Conclusions: Susceptibility to asthma and atopy among certain populations of African descent is influenced by a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines. This genetic variant, which confers resistance to malarial parasitic infection, may also partially explain ethnic differences in morbidity of asthma. PMID:18827265

Vergara, Candelaria; Tsai, Yuhjung J.; Grant, Audrey V.; Rafaels, Nicholas; Gao, Li; Hand, Tracey; Stockton, Maria; Campbell, Monica; Mercado, Dilia; Faruque, Mezbah; Dunston, Georgia; Beaty, Terri H.; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Ponte, Eduardo V.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Watson, Harold; Schleimer, Robert P.; Caraballo, Luis; Nickel, Renate G.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

2008-01-01

325

Comparison between axonal and retinal ganglion cell gene expression in various optic nerve injuries including glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The pathogenesis of retinal ganglion cell loss in glaucoma remains incompletely understood. Current evidence suggests that the optic nerve (ON) head and axons are the main site of injury in glaucoma. This study compares changes in prosurvival and proapoptotic gene expression in ONs with those in retinas in three models of ocular injury, specifically ON transection (ONTX), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) retinal toxicity, and experimental glaucoma. Methods Rats (n=240) were divided into three models (ONTX, NMDA retinal toxicity, and experimental glaucoma). The experimental model was induced unilaterally and the contralateral eye served as control. Rats were sacrificed at 45 different time points specific for each model. ONs and retinas were isolated for real-time PCR investigation of expression of selected genes. Immunohistochemistry localized changes in inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)-1 and X-linked IAP (XIAP) proteins in retinas and ONs. Colocalization was measured using Imaris colocalization software (three-dimensional analysis). Results The earliest changes in gene expression occurred in ONs in the ONTX model and in retinas in the NMDA model, as expected. However, some gene changes occurred first in ONs, while others occurred first in retinas in the glaucoma model. The expression patterns of the prosurvival genes IAP-1 and XIAP differed between retinas and ONs of glaucomatous eyes: Both were upregulated in the retinas, but XIAP was downregulated in the ONs, while IAP-1 stayed unchanged. Colocalization of IAP-1, XIAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Thymus cell antigen-1 (Thy-1) suggested that IAP-1 was colocalized mostly with Thy-1 and XIAP with glial fibrillary acidic protein in the ONs. Members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family were similarly involved in the ONs and retinas of glaucomatous, transected, and NMDA-injected eyes. The expression of the prosurvival genes, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, decreased significantly in both the ONs and retinas of injured eyes. The proapoptotic genes, BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD), were significantly upregulated in both injured retinas and ONs. Conclusions The overexpression of XIAP and IAP-1 genes in the retinas was not associated with similar changes in the ONs of glaucomatous eyes. The lack of activation of these prosurvival genes in the ONs may explain the increased vulnerability of ONs to elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:24357921

Makarovsky, Daria; Vander, Shelly

2013-01-01

326

Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor Genes: IMGT() and the Birth and Rise of Immunoinformatics.  

PubMed

IMGT(), the international ImMunoGeneTics information system() (1), (CNRS and Universit Montpellier 2) is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989, IMGT() marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT() is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT() has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences, and three-dimensional (3D) structures. The concepts include the IMGT() standardized keywords (concepts of identification), IMGT() standardized labels (concepts of description), IMGT() standardized nomenclature (concepts of classification), IMGT unique numbering, and IMGT Colliers de Perles (concepts of numerotation). IMGT() comprises seven databases, 15,000 pages of web resources, and 17 tools, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for the analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary, and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma) and in antibody engineering and humanization. They include, for example IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis for nucleotide sequence analysis and their high-throughput version IMGT/HighV-QUEST for next-generation sequencing (500,000 sequences per batch), IMGT/DomainGapAlign for amino acid sequence analysis of IG and TR variable and constant domains and of MH groove domains, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB for 3D structures, contact analysis and paratope/epitope interactions of IG/antigen and TR/peptide-MH complexes and IMGT/mAb-DB interface for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immune applications (FPIA). PMID:24600447

Lefranc, Marie-Paule

2014-01-01

327

Phocid seal leptin: tertiary structure and hydrophobic receptor binding site preservation during distinct leptin gene evolution.  

PubMed

The cytokine hormone leptin is a key signalling molecule in many pathways that control physiological functions. Although leptin demonstrates structural conservation in mammals, there is evidence of positive selection in primates, lagomorphs and chiropterans. We previously reported that the leptin genes of the grey and harbour seals (phocids) have significantly diverged from other mammals. Therefore we further investigated the diversification of leptin in phocids, other marine mammals and terrestrial taxa by sequencing the leptin genes of representative species. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that leptin diversification was pronounced within the phocid seals with a high dN/dS ratio of 2.8, indicating positive selection. We found significant evidence of positive selection along the branch leading to the phocids, within the phocid clade, but not over the dataset as a whole. Structural predictions indicate that the individual residues under selection are away from the leptin receptor (LEPR) binding site. Predictions of the surface electrostatic potential indicate that phocid seal leptin is notably different to other mammalian leptins, including the otariids. Cloning the grey seal leptin binding domain of LEPR confirmed that this was structurally conserved. These data, viewed in toto, support a hypothesis that phocid leptin divergence is unlikely to have arisen by random mutation. Based upon these phylogenetic and structural assessments, and considering the comparative physiology and varying life histories among species, we postulate that the unique phocid diving behaviour has produced this selection pressure. The Phocidae includes some of the deepest diving species, yet have the least modified lung structure to cope with pressure and volume changes experienced at depth. Therefore, greater surfactant production is required to facilitate rapid lung re-inflation upon surfacing, while maintaining patent airways. We suggest that this additional surfactant requirement is met by the leptin pulmonary surfactant production pathway which normally appears only to function in the mammalian foetus. PMID:22536379

Hammond, John A; Hauton, Chris; Bennett, Kimberley A; Hall, Ailsa J

2012-01-01

328

Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of 2q37 Deletions Including NPPC Gene Associated with Skeletal Malformations  

PubMed Central

Coordinated bone growth is controlled by numerous mechanisms which are only partially understood because of the involvement of many hormones and local regulators. The C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), encoded by NPPC gene located on chromosome 2q37.1, is a molecule that regulates endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous growth plate and influences longitudinal bone growth. Two independent studies have described three patients with a Marfan-like phenotype presenting a de novo balanced translocation involving the same chromosomal region 2q37.1 and overexpression of NPPC. We report on two partially overlapping interstitial 2q37 deletions identified by array CGH. The two patients showed opposite phenotypes characterized by short stature and skeletal overgrowth, respectively. The patient with short stature presented a 2q37 deletion causing the loss of one copy of the NPPC gene and the truncation of the DIS3L2 gene with normal CNP plasma concentration. The deletion identified in the patient with a Marfan-like phenotype interrupted the DIS3L2 gene without involving the NPPC gene. In addition, a strongly elevated CNP plasma concentration was found in this patient. A possible role of NPPC as causative of the two opposite phenotypes is discussed in this study. PMID:23805197

2013-01-01

329

Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of 2q37 Deletions Including NPPC Gene Associated with Skeletal Malformations.  

PubMed

Coordinated bone growth is controlled by numerous mechanisms which are only partially understood because of the involvement of many hormones and local regulators. The C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), encoded by NPPC gene located on chromosome 2q37.1, is a molecule that regulates endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous growth plate and influences longitudinal bone growth. Two independent studies have described three patients with a Marfan-like phenotype presenting a de novo balanced translocation involving the same chromosomal region 2q37.1 and overexpression of NPPC. We report on two partially overlapping interstitial 2q37 deletions identified by array CGH. The two patients showed opposite phenotypes characterized by short stature and skeletal overgrowth, respectively. The patient with short stature presented a 2q37 deletion causing the loss of one copy of the NPPC gene and the truncation of the DIS3L2 gene with normal CNP plasma concentration. The deletion identified in the patient with a Marfan-like phenotype interrupted the DIS3L2 gene without involving the NPPC gene. In addition, a strongly elevated CNP plasma concentration was found in this patient. A possible role of NPPC as causative of the two opposite phenotypes is discussed in this study. PMID:23805197

Tassano, Elisa; Buttgereit, Jens; Bader, Michael; Lerone, Margherita; Divizia, Maria Teresa; Bocciardi, Renata; Napoli, Flavia; Pala, Giovanna; Sloan-Bna, Frdrique; Gimelli, Stefania; Gimelli, Giorgio

2013-01-01

330

The ERBB3 receptor in cancer and cancer gene therapy  

PubMed Central

ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is unique in that its tyrosine kinase domain is functionally defective. It is activated by neuregulins, by other ERBB and nonERBB receptors as well as by other kinases, and by novel mechanisms. Downstream it interacts prominently with the phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT survival/mitogenic pathway, but also with GRB, SHC, SRC, ABL, rasGAP, SYK and the transcription regulator EBP1. There are likely important but poorly understood roles for nuclear localization and for secreted isoforms. Studies of ERBB3 expression in primary cancers and of its mechanistic contributions in cultured cells have implicated it, with varying degrees of certainty, with causation or sustenance of cancers of the breast, ovary, prostate, certain brain cells, retina, melanocytes, colon, pancreas, stomach, oral cavity and lung. Recent results link high ERBB3 activity with escape from therapy targeting other ERBBs in lung and breast cancers. Thus a wide and centrally important role for ERBB3 in cancer is becoming increasingly apparent. Several approaches for targeting ERBB3 in cancers have been tested or proposed. Small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to ERBB3 or AKT is showing promise as a therapeutic approach to treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:18404164

Sithanandam, G; Anderson, LM

2009-01-01

331

Diet Shapes the Evolution of the Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate Tas2r taste receptors bind to bitter compounds, which are typically poisonous, to elicit bitter sensation to prevent the ingestion of toxins. Previous studies noted a marked variation in the number of Tas2r genes among species, but the underlying cause is unclear. To address this question, we compile the Tas2r gene repertoires from 41 mammals, 4 birds, 2 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 6 fishes. The number of intact Tas2r genes varies from 0 in the bottlenose dolphin to 51 in the Western clawed frog, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The Tas2r gene number in a species correlates with the fraction of plants in its diet. Because plant tissues contain more toxic compounds than animal tissues do, our observation supports the hypothesis that dietary toxins are a major selective force shaping the diversity of the Tas2r repertoire. PMID:24202612

Li, Diyan; Zhang, Jianzhi

2014-01-01

332

Analysis of polymorphisms in RIG-I-like receptor genes in German multiple sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Variation in genes encoding retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. We investigated if polymorphisms in the IFIH1, RIG-I, LGP2 and VISA genes influence the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) in a German case-control cohort comprising 716 patients and 706 controls. Evaluation of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes did not reveal significant single-SNP associations with MS risk, but two VISA polymorphisms were modestly associated with age of onset. Further, we provide initial evidence for combinatorial effects of polymorphic variants in the RIG-I, LGP2 and IFIH1 genes on MS risk. PMID:25288302

Varzari, Alexander; Bruch, Kathrin; Deyneko, Igor V; Chan, Andrew; Epplen, Joerg T; Hoffjan, Sabine

2014-12-15

333

The genetic architecture of selection at the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene locus.  

PubMed

Associations of the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both the personality trait of novelty seeking and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have been reported. Recently, on the basis of the unusual DNA sequence organization of the DRD4 7R 48-bp tandem repeat (VNTR), we proposed that the 7R allele originated as a rare mutational event that increased to high frequency by positive selection. We now have resequenced the entire DRD4 locus from 103 individuals homozygous for 2R, 4R, or 7R variants of the VNTR, a method developed to directly estimate haplotype diversity. DNA from individuals of African, European, Asian, North and South American, and Pacific Island ancestry were used. 4R/4R homozygotes exhibit little linkage disequilibrium (LD) over the region examined, with more polymorphisms observed in DNA samples from African individuals. In contrast, the evidence for strong LD surrounding the 7R allele is dramatic, with all 7R/7R individuals (including those from Africa) exhibiting the same alleles at most polymorphic sites. By intra-allelic comparison at 18 high-heterozygosity sites spanning the locus, we estimate that the 7R allele arose prior to the upper Paleolithic era (approximately 40000-50000 years ago). Further, the pattern of recombination at these polymorphic sites is the pattern expected for selection acting at the 7R VNTR itself, rather than at an adjacent site. We propose a model for selection at the DRD4 locus consistent with these observed LD patterns and with the known biochemical and physiological differences between receptor variants. PMID:15077199

Wang, E; Ding, Y-C; Flodman, P; Kidd, J R; Kidd, K K; Grady, D L; Ryder, O A; Spence, M A; Swanson, J M; Moyzis, R K

2004-05-01

334

The Genetic Architecture of Selection at the Human Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) Gene Locus  

PubMed Central

Associations of the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both the personality trait of novelty seeking and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have been reported. Recently, on the basis of the unusual DNA sequence organization of the DRD4 7R 48-bp tandem repeat (VNTR), we proposed that the 7R allele originated as a rare mutational event that increased to high frequency by positive selection. We now have resequenced the entire DRD4 locus from 103 individuals homozygous for 2R, 4R, or 7R variants of the VNTR, a method developed to directly estimate haplotype diversity. DNA from individuals of African, European, Asian, North and South American, and Pacific Island ancestry were used. 4R/4R homozygotes exhibit little linkage disequilibrium (LD) over the region examined, with more polymorphisms observed in DNA samples from African individuals. In contrast, the evidence for strong LD surrounding the 7R allele is dramatic, with all 7R/7R individuals (including those from Africa) exhibiting the same alleles at most polymorphic sites. By intra-allelic comparison at 18 high-heterozygosity sites spanning the locus, we estimate that the 7R allele arose prior to the upper Paleolithic era (?40,00050,000 years ago). Further, the pattern of recombination at these polymorphic sites is the pattern expected for selection acting at the 7R VNTR itself, rather than at an adjacent site. We propose a model for selection at the DRD4 locus consistent with these observed LD patterns and with the known biochemical and physiological differences between receptor variants. PMID:15077199

Wang, E.; Ding, Y.-C.; Flodman, P.; Kidd, J. R.; Kidd, K. K.; Grady, D. L.; Ryder, O. A.; Spence, M. A.; Swanson, J. M.; Moyzis, R. K.

2004-01-01

335

[Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].  

PubMed

Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. PMID:25027621

Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

2015-01-01

336

Association study of seven polymorphisms in four serotonin receptor genes on suicide victims.  

PubMed

A number of molecular genetic studies have investigated if serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the pathogenesis of depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and impulsive behavior. Existence of many receptor subtypes for a single transmitter permits a great diversity of signaling raising the possibility that they may serve as genetic markers for suicidal behavior. Most previous studies of suicide have analyzed polymorphisms of the receptors 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, fewer have examined 5-HT1F. We report a study of possible association between the polymorphisms in the 5-HT receptor genes (1A, 1B, 1F, and 2A) and suicidal behavior on a sample of 226 suicide victims and 225 healthy control subjects. No significant differences in genotype frequency distributions between the suicide victims and healthy control subjects were observed for four polymorphisms; three were not polymorphic. A single polymorphism, C-1420T in gene 5-HT2A, showed a slight association with suicide (chi2= 4.94, df = 2, P = 0.067), but the correlation was not statistically significant. None of the tested genetic variants of serotonin receptors appears to be associated with suicidal behavior in the Slovenian population which has a relatively high suicide rate. PMID:16856120

Videtic, Alja; Pungercic, Galina; Pajnic, Irena Zupanic; Zupanc, Tomaz; Balazic, Joze; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan

2006-09-01

337

Related fibroblast growth factor receptor genes exist in the human genome  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated, from a human tumor cDNA library, a gene encoding a putative receptor-like protein-tyrosine kinase that they call TK14. The amino acid sequence of the TK14 protein is closely related to the available partial sequence of the mouse protein bek, and more distantly related to the sequences of a chicken basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (73{percent} sequence homology) and the apparent human equivalent of this receptor, the FLG protein (encoded by the fms-like tyrosine kinase gene). Overexpression of the TK14 protein by transfection of COS-1 cells with the corresponding cDNA in a simian virus 40-based expression vector leads to the appearance of new cell-surface binding sites for both acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors. This has been demonstrated by specific binding assays and chemical cross-linking experiments using {sup 125}I-labeled growth factors. It appears, therefore, that the human genome contains at least two distinct genes, for TK14 and FLG, that code for related fibroblast growth factor receptors.

Houssaint, E.; Champion-Arnaud, P.C.; Gesnel, M.C.; Breathnach, R. (Univ. de Nantes, Cedex (France)); Blanquet, P.R.; Torriglia, A.; Courtois, Y. (Institut National de la Sante, Paris (France))

1990-10-01

338

Co-regulated gene expression by oestrogen receptor ? and liver receptor homolog-1 is a feature of the oestrogen response in breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Oestrogen receptor ? (ER?) is a nuclear receptor that is the driving transcription factor expressed in the majority of breast cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), another nuclear receptor, regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and promotes motility and invasion. To determine the mechanisms of LRH-1 action in breast cancer, we performed gene expression microarray analysis following RNA interference for LRH-1. Interestingly, gene ontology (GO) category enrichment analysis of LRH-1regulated genes identified oestrogen-responsive genes as the most highly enriched GO categories. Remarkably, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify genomic targets of LRH-1 showed LRH-1 binding at many ER? binding sites. Analysis of select binding sites confirmed regulation of ER??regulated genes by LRH-1 through binding to oestrogen response elements, as exemplified by the TFF1/pS2 gene. Finally, LRH-1 overexpression stimulated ER? recruitment, while LRH-1 knockdown reduced ER? recruitment to ER? binding sites. Taken together, our findings establish a key role for LRH-1 in the regulation of ER? target genes in breast cancer cells and identify a mechanism in which co-operative binding of LRH-1 and ER? at oestrogen response elements controls the expression of oestrogen-responsive genes. PMID:24049078

Lai, Chun-Fui; Flach, Koen D.; Alexi, Xanthippi; Fox, Stephen P.; Ottaviani, Silvia; Thiruchelvam, Paul T.R.; Kyle, Fiona J.; Thomas, Ross S.; Launchbury, Rosalind; Hua, Hui; Callaghan, Holly B.; Carroll, Jason S.; Charles Coombes, R.; Zwart, Wilbert; Buluwela, Laki; Ali, Simak

2013-01-01

339

Retargeted adenoviral cancer gene therapy for tumour cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor or urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor  

PubMed Central

We have assessed the ability of bispecific fusion proteins to improve adenovirus-mediated transfer of therapeutic and marker transgenes. We constructed an expression vector that can be easily modified to synthesize a variety of fusion proteins for retargeting adenoviral gene therapy vectors to cell surface markers, which are differentially expressed between normal and cancer cells. Adenoviral transduction can be improved in a number of tumour cell lines which overexpress EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) or uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor), but which have only low levels of endogenous hCAR (human coxsackie B and adenovirus receptor) expression. Up to 40-fold improvement in ?-galactosidase transgene expression was seen using an EGFR retargeting protein, and up to 16-fold using a second fusion protein targeting uPAR. In vitro, our uPAR retargeting fusion protein improved the sensitivity to adenoviral herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir by an order of magnitude, whereas in vivo, our EGFR retargeting protein is able to significantly delay tumour growth in rodent animal models in a dose-dependent manner. The cassette design of our fusion protein constructs offers a flexible method for the straightforward synthesis of multiple adenoviral retargeting proteins, directed against a variety of tumour-associated antigens, for use in clinical trials. PMID:20410926

Harvey, TJ; Burdon, D; Steele, L; Ingram, N; Hall, GD; Selby, PJ; Vile, RG; Cooper, PA; Shnyder, SD; Chester, JD

2013-01-01

340

No association between a promoter dopamine D(4) receptor gene variant and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The dopamine D(4) receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. An association between a putative functional promoter polymorphism (-521C/T) in the dopamine D(4) receptor gene (DRD4) and schizophrenia was recently reported. In the present study, patients with schizophrenia (n = 132) and control subjects (n = 388) were analyzed with respect to the DRD4 - 521C/T polymorphism. No significant case control differences emerged. The present results do not support a major role for DRD4 in the etiology of schizophrenia among Caucasians from Sweden. PMID:11496369

Jnsson, E G; Ivo, R; Forslund, K; Mattila-Evenden, M; Rylander, G; Cichon, S; Propping, P; Nthen, M M; Asberg, M; Sedvall, G C

2001-08-01

341

Prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) genes and their role in poultry production traits.  

PubMed

Prolactin (PRL), secreted from the anterior pituitary, plays extensive roles in osmoregulation, corpus luteum formation, mammogenesis, lactogenesis, lactopoiesis, and production of crop milk. In birds, prolactin (PRL) is generally accepted as crucial to the onset and maintenance of broodiness. All the actions of prolactin (PRL) hormone are mediated by its receptor (PRLR), which plays an important role in the PRL signal transduction cascade. It has been well established that the PRL gene is closely associated to the onset and maintenance of broody behavior, and could be a genetic marker in breeding against broodiness in chickens. Meanwhile, the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene is regarded as a candidate genetic marker for reproductive traits. PRLR is also an important regulator gene for cell growth and differentiation. The identified polymorphism of this gene is mainly viewed in terms of egg production traits. Due to different biological activities attributed to PRL and PRLR, they can be used as major candidate genes in molecular animal breeding programs. Characterization of PRL and PRLR genes helps to elucidate their roles in birds and provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms of PRL and PRLR expression conserved in birds and mammals. PMID:24745142

Wilkanowska, Anna; Mazurowski, Artur; Mroczkowski, S?awomir; Kokoszy?ski, Dariusz

2014-01-01

342

Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

An intriguing property of the dopamine D4 receptor gene is a hypervariable segment in the coding region characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48 bp repeats (2-8 or 10 repeats) in the third exon of the gene. The authors analyzed 70 unrelated schizophrenics and 70 normal controls to determine the allele and genotype frequencies created by length polymorphism of dopamine D4 receptor gene. All patients and controls were unrelated and from the Japanese population. Patients were divided into three groups with regard to age at onset, familial loading, and severity of symptoms assessed strictly with Manchester scale. There were no statistically significant differences if the distributions of alleles and genotypes were analyzed in consideration of those clinical subtypes. Lichter and colleagues [1993] have reported that at least 25 haplotypes exist for this polymorphic region of the dopamine receptor D4 gene. In this study only the alleles created by length polymorphism were analyzed, and further investigation to determine the haplotypes of patients and controls on using a much larger sample size will be required. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kameda, K.; Ihda, S. [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-18

343

Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism  

SciTech Connect

Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allele or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.

Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Maeda, Masaya [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others] [Niigata Univ. (Japan); and others

1996-07-26

344

Opioid receptor gene expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following tapentadol exposure.  

PubMed

Recent studies showed that combination of mu opioid receptor (MOP) agonism and monoamine reuptake inhibition may improve the therapeutic effect of opioids by reducing requirement for MOP activation. Tapentadol, showing such a combined mechanism of action, exhibits delayed analgesic tolerance development compared to pure MOP agonists. Here we investigated how opioid receptors are regulated following different schedules (two ranges of concentrations for 24 and 48 h) of tapentadol exposure in vitro in SH-SY5Y cells. MOP and nociceptin/orphaninFQ (NOP) receptor gene expressions were quantified using qReal-Time PCR. Moreover, studies were performed in U2 cells to assess tapentadol effect on MOP internalization compared with morphine and DAMGO. Ten and 100 nM tapentadol for 48 h induced a significant increase of MOP gene expression; cells exposed to 100 ?M tapentadol for 24 and 48 h showed a significant increase of MOP mRNA levels. NOP gene expression showed a significant decrease following tapentadol at all low concentrations used after 24 h and at high concentrations (45 and 60 ?M) after 24 h and (60 ?M) after 48 h. Differently from DAMGO, tapentadol or morphine showed no effects on MOP internalization. This study suggests that tapentadol affects MOP and NOP gene expression and MOP internalization showing a pattern distinct from classical MOP agonists. Whether these differences can explain the improved therapeutic profile of tapentadol remains to be investigated. PMID:24488603

Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Carretta, Donatella; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

2014-08-01

345

A Drug-Sensitized Zebrafish Screen Identifies Multiple Genes, Including GINS3, as Regulators of Myocardial Repolarization  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac repolarization, the process by which cardiomyocytes return to their resting potential after each beat, is a highly regulated process that is critical for heart rhythm stability. Perturbations of cardiac repolarization increase the risk for life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. While genetic studies of familial long QT syndromes have uncovered several key genes in cardiac repolarization, the major heritable contribution to this trait remains unexplained. Identification of additional genes may lead to a better understanding of the underlying biology, aid in identification of patients at risk for sudden death, and potentially enable new treatments for susceptible individuals. Methods and Results We extended and refined a zebrafish model of cardiac repolarization by using fluorescent reporters of transmembrane potential. We then conducted a drug-sensitized genetic screen in zebrafish, identifying 15 genes, including GINS3, that affect cardiac repolarization. Testing these genes for human relevance in two concurrently completed genome wide association studies revealed that the human GINS3 ortholog is located in the 16q21 locus which is strongly associated with QT interval. Conclusions This sensitized zebrafish screen identified 15 novel myocardial repolarization genes. Among these genes is GINS3, the human ortholog of which is a major locus in two concurrent human genome wide association studies of QT interval. These results reveal a novel network of genes that regulate cardiac repolarization. PMID:19652097

Milan, David J.; Kim, Albert M.; Winterfield, Jeffrey R.; Jones, Ian L.; Pfeufer, Arne; Sanna, Serena; Arking, Dan E.; Amsterdam, Adam H.; Sabeh, Khaled M.; Mably, John D.; Rosenbaum, David S.; Peterson, Randall T.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kb, Stefan; Roden, Dan M.; MacRae, Calum A.

2009-01-01

346

PPP3CC gene: a putative modulator of antidepressant response through the B-cell receptor signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Antidepressant pharmacogenetics represents a stimulating, but often discouraging field. The present study proposes a combination of several methodologies across three independent samples. Genes belonging to monoamine, neuroplasticity, circadian rhythm and transcription factor pathways were investigated in two samples (n=369 and 88) with diagnosis of major depression who were treated with antidepressants. Phenotypes were response, remission and treatment-resistant depression. Logistic regression including appropriate covariates was performed. Genes associated with outcomes were investigated in the STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression) genome-wide study (n=1861). Top genes were further studied through a pathway analysis. In both original samples, markers associated with outcomes were concentrated in the PPP3CC gene. Other interesting findings were particularly in the HTR2A gene in one original sample and the STAR*D. The B-cell receptor signaling pathway proved to be the putative mediator of PPP3CC's effect on antidepressant response (P=0.03). Among innovative candidates, PPP3CC, involved in the regulation of immune system and synaptic plasticity, seems promising for further investigation. PMID:24709691

Fabbri, C; Marsano, A; Albani, D; Chierchia, A; Calati, R; Drago, A; Crisafulli, C; Calabr, M; Kasper, S; Lanzenberger, R; Zohar, J; Juven-Wetzler, A; Souery, D; Montgomery, S; Mendlewicz, J; Serretti, A

2014-10-01

347

Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a new pattern from Khorasan Province, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

Reported associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and type 1 diabetes mellitus vary across ethnic groups. We studied the association between type 1 diabetes and 4 VDR gene polymorphisms (Bb, Ff Aa and Tt) in an Iranian population. A group of 69 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 45 unrelated healthy subjects were recruited. The prevalence of VDR polymorphisms in 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism sites including Bsml, Fokl, Apal and Taql were analysed in patients and controls. The frequencies of 3 genotypes (Aa, FF and Bb) were significantly higher in the patient group. The relationship between VDR gene polymorphisms and onset pattern of diabetes was not significant. There were no significant difference between the genotype frequencies and chronic complications of diabetes, but the relationship between the Ffgenotype and ketoacidosis was significant. Our results differ from previous polymorphism studies in other regions. PMID:22888618

Bonakdaran, S; Abbaszadegan, M R; Dadkhah, E; Khajeh-Dalouie, M

2012-06-01

348

Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in down syndrome: effects of the dopamine receptor d4 gene.  

PubMed

Abstract This study examined individual differences in ADHD symptoms and executive function (EF) in children with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, a gene often linked to ADHD in people without DS. Participants included 68 individuals with DS (7-21years), assessed through laboratory tasks, caregiver reports, and experimenter ratings. Saliva samples were collected from the DS group and 66 children without DS to compare DRD4 allele distribution, showing no difference between the groups. When the sample with DS was stratified for ethnicity (n ?=? 32), the DRD4 7-repeat allele significantly related to parent and experimenter ratings, but not to laboratory assessments. These results suggest that nontrisomy genetic factors may contribute to individual differences in ADHD symptoms in persons with DS. PMID:25551267

Mason, Gina Marie; Span, Goffredina; Edgin, Jamie

2015-01-01

349

PFOA and PFOS are associated with reduced expression of the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene in women.  

PubMed

Little is known about interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Genetic factors include variation or mutation in genes involved in parathyroid hormone signalling. Exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemicals perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been suggested as potential environmental contributors, although evidence to support this association is conflicting. Here we test the hypothesis that PFOA and PFOS may alter the mRNA expression of genes in the parathyroid signalling cascade to provide evidence on possible pathways between these chemicals and OA. We measured the relationship between PFOA or PFOS serum levels and the in vivo expression of the Parathyroid hormone 1 and 2 genes (PTH, PTH2), Parathyroid hormone 1 and 2 receptor genes (PTH1R, PTH2R) and the parathyroid hormone-like (PTHLH) gene in peripheral blood from a cross-sectional population study designed to assess the potential health effects of these chemicals. We used multivariate linear regression models and found that PFOA or PFOS was inversely correlated with parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) expression (coefficients=-0.43 and -0.32, p=p=0.017 and 0.006 for PFOA and PFOS respectively) in 189 female subjects. The levels of PTH2 transcripts encoding the ligand of PTH2r, were also found to be lower in women with OA (median 2.08) compared with controls (median 3.41, p=0.046). As the parathyroid signalling cascade is a known candidate for osteoarthritis risk and our findings raise the possibility that exposure to these chemicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of OA in some individuals. PMID:25462297

Galloway, Tamara S; Fletcher, Tony; Thomas, Oliver J; Lee, Ben P; Pilling, Luke C; Harries, Lorna W

2015-02-01

350

p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Is a Clock Gene That Regulates Oscillatory Components of Circadian and Metabolic Networks  

PubMed Central

The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with a widespread pattern of expression in tissues such as the brain, liver, lung, and muscle. The mechanisms that regulate p75NTR transcription in the nervous system and its expression in other tissues remain largely unknown. Here we show that p75NTR is an oscillating gene regulated by the helix-loop-helix transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1. The p75NTR promoter contains evolutionarily conserved noncanonical E-box enhancers. Deletion mutagenesis of the p75NTR-luciferase reporter identified the ?1039 conserved E-box necessary for the regulation of p75NTR by CLOCK and BMAL1. Accordingly, gel-shift assays confirmed the binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to the p75NTR?1039 E-box. Studies in mice revealed that p75NTR transcription oscillates during dark and light cycles not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in peripheral tissues including the liver. Oscillation of p75NTR is disrupted in Clock-deficient and mutant mice, is E-box dependent, and is in phase with clock genes, such as Per1 and Per2. Intriguingly, p75NTR is required for circadian clock oscillation, since loss of p75NTR alters the circadian oscillation of clock genes in the SCN, liver, and fibroblasts. Consistent with this, Per2::Luc/p75NTR?/? liver explants showed reduced circadian oscillation amplitude compared with those of Per2::Luc/p75NTR+/+. Moreover, deletion of p75NTR also alters the circadian oscillation of glucose and lipid homeostasis genes. Overall, our findings reveal that the transcriptional activation of p75NTR is under circadian regulation in the nervous system and peripheral tissues, and plays an important role in the maintenance of clock and metabolic gene oscillation. PMID:23785138

Baeza-Raja, Bernat; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; Zhang, Luoying; Vagena, Eirini; Tsigelny, Igor F.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Pt?ek, Louis J.

2013-01-01

351

Phosphorylation enhances the target gene sequence-dependent dimerization of thyroid hormone receptor with retinoid X receptor.  

PubMed Central

To understand the molecular basis of the phosphorylation-enhanced transcriptional activity of human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor subtype beta 1 (hTR beta 1), we studied the effect of phosphorylation on the interaction of hTR beta 1 with the retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta), we studied the effect of phosphorylation on the interaction of hTR beta 1 with the retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta). In vitro, the extent of hTR beta 1.RXR beta heterodimer bound to various thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) was compared before and after phosphorylation of hTR beta 1. Without phosphorylation, hTR beta 1.RXR beta heterodimer was barely detectable under the experimental conditions. After phosphorylation of hTR beta 1, heterodimer bound to (i) the chicken lysozyme gene TRE, (ii) a TRE consisting of direct repeats of half-site binding motifs separated by four gaps, and (iii) a palindromic TRE was enhanced by approximately 10-, 7-, and 6-fold, respectively. The effect of phosphorylation on hTR beta 1.RXR beta heterodimerization was reversible. Dephosphorylation of the phosphorylated hTR beta 1 by alkaline phosphatase led to loss of the ability of hTR beta 1 to form a heterodimer with RXR beta in either the absence or the presence of DNA. These results indicate that the heterodimerization is enhanced by phosphorylation. To evaluate the effect of phosphorylation on the interaction of hTR beta 1 with RXR beta in vivo, we cotransfected hTR beta 1, RXR beta and TRE-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression plasmids into CV-1 cells. CAT activity was assessed in the presence or absence of okadaic acid. Okadaic acid is a potent inhibitor of phosphatases 1 and 2A and increases the in vivo phosphorylation of hTR beta 1 by approximately 10-fold. Using the CAT reporter gene under control of the TRE from the malic enzyme gene, we found that RXR beta increased the okadaic acid-enhanced hTR beta 1-mediated CAT activity by 2- to 3-fold in the presence of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine. However, 9-cis-retinoic acid did not enhance the effect of okadaic acid. Our results indicate that phosphorylation is essential for the interaction of hTR beta 1 with RXR beta. Thus, phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in the gene-regulating activity of hTR beta 1. Images PMID:8058736

Bhat, M K; Ashizawa, K; Cheng, S Y

1994-01-01

352

Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.  

PubMed

Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce ?-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) ?-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. PMID:25511432

Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

2015-02-01

353

Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene and the risk of epithelial ovarian carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer is influenced by exogenous and endogenous estrogens as suggested by experimental and epidemiological evidence. Estrogen receptor beta is a predominant estrogen receptor in the normal ovary. Polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor beta gene (ESR2) might influence epithelial ovarian risk through regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. This population-based casecontrol study included 313 women with epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 574 controls, frequency-matched on age and ethnicity. Unconditional logistic regression was used to test associations of rs1271572, rs1256030, rs1256031, and rs3020450 ESR2 genotypes with ovarian cancer risk. Compared to homozygous common allele carriers, homozygous carriers of variant alleles for rs1271572 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.152.79, p global = 0.01] and rs1256030 [OR = 1.67, CI: 1.082.59, p global = 0.04], and women with haplotypes, including variant alleles of rs1271572, rs1256030, and rs1256031 SNPs [OR = 1.75, CI: 1.172.63, p global = 0.007], had significantly increased risk of ovarian carcinoma. The association of the rs1271572 genotype was strongest among women who had never used contraceptive steroids (p for interaction = 0.04). Our data suggest that ESR2 might be a susceptibility marker for epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:18704709

Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; McDuffie, Katharine E.; Carney, Michael E.; Terada, Keith Y.; Goodman, Marc T.

2009-01-01

354

Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The effect of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms on Parkinson's disease (PD) has recently gained interest. However, evidence on this relationship is controversial. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library database targeted all studies that evaluated VDR gene polymorphisms and PD up to April 2,014. A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between VDR ApaI, BsmI, TaqI and FokI polymorphisms and PD using (1) allelic contrast, (2) dominant, (3) recessive, and (4) additive models. A total of five relevant studies involving PD patients (n=1,266) and controls (n=1,649) were included in the analysis. There was a significant association between FokI polymorphism and PD. In the pooled allelic analysis, the F allele was associated with increased risk of PD (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.14-1.75). In the genotype analysis, FF+Ff versus ff showed a significant association with PD in the dominant model (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.49-3.61, P=0.0002). FF versus ff showed a significant association with PD in the additive model (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.52-3.93, P=0.0002). There was also a statistically significant association between VDR BsmI polymorphisms in the recessive model, BB versus Bb+bb showed a significant increased risk of PD (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87, P=0.04). No significant associations were observed between VDR ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms and PD. To sum up, VDR BsmI and FokI polymorphisms were associated with increased risk of PD. PMID:25169913

Li, Chunlei; Qi, Huiping; Wei, Shuqin; Wang, Le; Fan, Xiaoxue; Duan, Shurong; Bi, Sheng

2015-02-01

355

A Review of Estrogen Receptor ? Gene (ESR1) Polymorphisms, Mood, and Cognition  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE There are significant individual differences in the extent to which mood and cognition change as a function of reproductive stage, menstrual phase, postpartum, and hormone therapy. This review explores the extent to which variations or polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor ? gene (ESR1) predict cognitive and mood outcomes. METHODS A literature search was conducted from 1995 to November 2009 through PubMed, EMBASE, and PsychINFO. Twenty-five manuscripts were reviewed that summarize investigations of ESR1 in mental health. RESULTS Among studies investigating ESR1 in relation to cognition, 11 of 14 case-control studies reported an association between ESR1 polymorphisms and risk for developing dementia. Three of four prospective cohort studies reported an association between ESR1 polymorphisms and significant cognitive decline. There are inconsistencies between case-control and cohort studies regarding whether specific ESR1 alleles increase or decrease the risk for cognitive dysfunction. The relationships between ESR1 and cognitive impairment tend to be specific to or driven by women and restricted to risk for Alzheimers disease rather than other dementia causes. Three of five studies examining ESR1 polymorphisms in relation to anxiety or depressive symptoms found significant associations. Significant associations have also been reported between ESR1 polymorphisms and childhood-onset mood disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. CONCLUSIONS A strong relationship between ESR1 variants and cognitive outcomes is evident and preliminary evidence suggests a role of the ESR1 gene in certain mood outcomes. Insights into the discordant results will come from future studies that include haplotype analyses, analyses within specific ethnic/racial populations, and gender-stratified analyses. PMID:20616674

Sundermann, Erin E.; Maki, Pauline M.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.

2010-01-01

356

Concise review: androgen receptor differential roles in stem/progenitor cells including prostate, embryonic, stromal, and hematopoietic lineages.  

PubMed

Stem/progenitor (S/P) cells are special types of cells that have the ability to generate tissues throughout their entire lifetime and play key roles in the developmental process. Androgen and the androgen receptor (AR) signals are the critical determinants in male gender development, suggesting that androgen and AR signals might modulate the behavior of S/P cells. In this review, we summarize the AR effects on the behavior of S/P cells, including self-renewal, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in normal S/P cells, as well as proliferation, invasion, and self-renewal in prostate cancer S/P cells. AR plays a protective role in the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in embryonic stem cells. AR inhibits the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, bone marrow stromal cells, and prostate S/P cells, but promotes their differentiation except for adipogenesis. However, AR promotes the proliferation of hematopoietic S/P cells and stimulates hematopoietic lineage differentiation. In prostate cancer S/P cells, AR suppresses their self-renewal, metastasis, and invasion. Together, AR differentially influences the characteristics of normal S/P cells and prostate cancer S/P cells, and targeting AR might improve S/P cell transplantation therapy, especially in embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells. PMID:24740898

Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Luo, Jie; Lee, Soo Ok; Chang, Chawnshang

2014-09-01

357

Androgen receptor (AR) differential roles in hormone-related tumors including prostate, bladder, kidney, lung, breast and liver.  

PubMed

The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in many cell types and the androgen/AR signaling has been found to have important roles in modulating tumorigenesis and metastasis in several cancers including prostate, bladder, kidney, lung, breast and liver. However, whether AR has differential roles in the individual cells within these tumors that contain a variety of cell types remains unclear. Generation of AR knockout (ARKO) mouse models with deletion of AR in selective cells within tumors indeed have uncovered many unique AR roles in the individual cell types during cancer development and progression. This review will discuss the results obtained from various ARKO mice and different human cell lines with special attention to the cell type- and tissue-specific ARKO models. The understanding of various results showing the AR indeed has distinct and contrasting roles in each cell type within many hormone-related tumors (as stimulator in bladder, kidney and lung metastases vs as suppressor in prostate and liver metastases) may eventually help us to develop better therapeutic approaches by targeting the AR or its downstream signaling in individual cell types to better battle these hormone-related tumors in different stages. PMID:23873027

Chang, C; Lee, S O; Yeh, S; Chang, T M

2014-06-19

358

Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) moderates the intergenerational transmission of depression.  

PubMed

Maternal depression serves as a potent source of stress among offspring, greatly enhancing the risk of numerous adverse outcomes including youth depression. Several factors moderate the transmission of depression from mothers to offspring. However, the role of genetic characteristics in this process merits further exploration. Consistent with an interpersonal perspective on depression, the present study focused on a genetic polymorphism that has been shown to be relevant to social functioning, the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). In a community sample of 441 youth, OXTR genotype moderated the association between maternal depression in early childhood and youth depressive symptoms in adolescence, such that youth possessing at least one A allele of OXTR who also had a history of maternal depression exhibited the highest levels of depressive symptoms at age 15. In order to explore possible interpersonal mediators of this effect, conditional process analyses examined the role of youth social functioning in adolescence. Results suggest that OXTR genotype may partially account for the transmission of maternal depression to youth and support the role of dysfunctional social processes as a mechanism through which OXTR influences the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:24703166

Thompson, Sarah M; Hammen, Constance; Starr, Lisa R; Najman, Jake M

2014-05-01

359

Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene.  

PubMed

Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic-paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including 'prosociality', 'communication', 'details/patterns' and 'imagination' in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower 'prosociality', which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower 'prosociality' also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects. PMID:23946005

Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

2014-10-01

360

Evidence for a dominant gene that suppresses hypercholesterolemia in a family with defective low density lipoprotein receptors.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an unusual kindred with familial hypercholesterolemia in which one-third of the relatives with a mutant LDL receptor gene have normal plasma cholesterol concentrations. The proband, a 9-yr-old boy with a plasma cholesterol value greater than 500 mg/dl, is homozygous for a point mutation that changes Ser156 to Leu in the LDL receptor. This substitution in the fourth repeat of the ligand binding domain slows the transport of the protein to the cell surface. The defective receptor cannot bind LDL, which contains apo B-100, but it does bind beta-migrating VLDL, which contains apo E in addition to apo B-100. Although the mother is heterozygous for this mutation, her LDL-cholesterol concentration is consistently in the 28th percentile for the population. Through direct examination of genomic DNA, we identified the mutant gene in heterozygous form in 17 of the mother's relatives, five of whom had normal LDL-cholesterol values. The pedigree was consistent with dominant transmission of a single gene that ameliorates or suppresses the hypercholesterolemic effect of the LDL receptor mutation. Through linkage analysis, we excluded the possibility that this suppressor gene was an allele at the LDL receptor locus. We also excluded the genes for the two ligands for the LDL receptor, apo B-100 and apo E. The existence of this putative suppressor gene may explain the occasional observation of normal LDL-cholesterol concentrations in heterozygotes for LDL receptor mutations. Images PMID:2760205

Hobbs, H H; Leitersdorf, E; Leffert, C C; Cryer, D R; Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L

1989-01-01

361

A new Drosophila POU gene, pdm3, acts in odor receptor expression and axon targeting of olfactory neurons.  

PubMed

Olfaction depends on the differential activation of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and on the proper transmission of their activities to the brain. ORNs select individual receptors to express, and they send axons to particular targets in the brain. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying either process. We have identified a new Drosophila POU gene, pdm3, that is expressed in ORNs. Genetic analysis shows that pdm3 is required for odor response in one class of ORNs. We find that pdm3 acts in odor receptor expression in this class, and that the odor response can be rescued by the receptor. Another POU gene, acj6, is required for receptor expression in the same class, and we find a genetic interaction between the two POU genes. The results support a role for a POU gene code in receptor gene choice. pdm3 is also expressed in other ORN classes in which it is not required for receptor expression. For two of these classes, pdm3 is required for normal axon targeting. Thus, this mutational analysis, the first for a POU class VI gene, demonstrates a role for pdm3 in both of the processes that define the functional organization of ORNs in the olfactory system. PMID:18614681

Tichy, Andrea L; Ray, Anandasankar; Carlson, John R

2008-07-01

362

Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Variation as a Proximate Base for Inter- and Intraspecific Behavioral Differences in Bonobos and Chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5? promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ?360 bp in this region (+/? DupB) which includes a microsatellite (RS3). RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees. PMID:25405348

Staes, Nicky; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Helsen, Philippe; Hillyer, Mia; Korody, Marisa; Eens, Marcel

2014-01-01

363

Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four receptor genes.  

PubMed

Long distance sexual communication in moths has fascinated biologists because of the complex, precise female pheromone signals and the extreme sensitivity of males to specific pheromone molecules. Progress has been made in identifying some genes involved in female pheromone production and in male response. However, we have lacked information on the genetic changes involved in evolutionary diversification of these mate-finding mechanisms that is critical to understanding speciation in moths and other taxa. We used a combined quantitative trait locus (QTL) and candidate gene approach to determine the genetic architecture of sexual isolation in males of two congeneric moths, Heliothis subflexa and Heliothis virescens. We report behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that differential male responses to three female-produced chemicals (Z9-14:Ald, Z9-16:Ald, Z11-16:OAc) that maintain sexual isolation of these species are all controlled by a single QTL containing at least four odorant receptor genes. It is not surprising that pheromone receptor differences could control H. subflexa and H. virescens responses to Z9-16:Ald and Z9-14:Ald, respectively. However, central rather than peripheral level control over the positive and negative responses of H. subflexa and H. virescens to Z11-16:OAc had been expected. Tight linkage of these receptor genes indicates that mutations altering male response to complex blends could be maintained in linkage disequilibrium and could affect the speciation process. Other candidate genes such as those coding for pheromone binding proteins did not map to this QTL, but there was some genetic evidence of a QTL for response to Z11-16:OH associated with a sensory neuron membrane protein gene. PMID:20404144

Gould, Fred; Estock, Marie; Hillier, N Kirk; Powell, Bekah; Groot, Astrid T; Ward, Catherine M; Emerson, Jennifer L; Schal, Coby; Vickers, Neil J

2010-05-11

364

Chlorpromazine inhibits the glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription in a calcium-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Antipsychotic drugs can modulate transcription factors and also nuclear receptors, but their action on glucocorticoid receptors (GR)-members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family has not been studied so far. In the present study we investigated effects of various antipsychotics on the glucocorticoid-mediated gene transcription in fibroblast cells, stably transfected with a mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (LMCAT cells). Chlorpromazine (3-100 microM) inhibited the corticosterone-induced gene transcription in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Clozapine showed a similar, but less potent effect, while haloperidol acted only in high concentrations, and other antipsychotic drugs (sulpiride, raclopride, remoxipride) were without any effect. It was also found that a phorbol ester (an activator of protein kinase C (PKC)) and A-23187 (Ca(2+)-ionophore) attenuated the inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine on the GR-induced gene transcription. An antagonist of the L-type Ca(2+) channel, as well as an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited the corticosterone-induced gene transcription, but had no effect on the chlorpromazine-induced changes. The involvement of a PKC/PLC pathway in the chlorpromazine action was confirmed by Western blot analysis which showed that the drug in question decreased the PLC-beta(1) protein level, and to a lesser extent that of the PKC-alpha protein in LMCAT cells. The aforementioned data suggest that inhibition of the glucocorticosteroid-induced gene transcription by chlorpromazine and clozapine may be a mechanism by which these drugs block some effects induced by glucocorticoids. The inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine on the corticosterone-induced gene transcription seems to depend on the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx and/or the inhibition of some calcium-dependent enzymes, e.g. phospholipase beta(1). PMID:12423673

Basta-Kaim, A; Budziszewska, B; Jaworska-Feil, L; Tetich, M; Le?kiewicz, M; Kubera, M; Laso?, W

2002-11-01

365

Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Long distance sexual communication in moths has fascinated biologists because of the complex, precise female pheromone signals and the extreme sensitivity of males to specific pheromone molecules. Progress has been made in identifying some genes involved in female pheromone production and in male response. However, we have lacked information on the genetic changes involved in evolutionary diversification of these mate-finding mechanisms that is critical to understanding speciation in moths and other taxa. We used a combined quantitative trait locus (QTL) and candidate gene approach to determine the genetic architecture of sexual isolation in males of two congeneric moths, Heliothis subflexa and Heliothis virescens. We report behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that differential male responses to three female-produced chemicals (Z9-14:Ald, Z9-16:Ald, Z11-16:OAc) that maintain sexual isolation of these species are all controlled by a single QTL containing at least four odorant receptor genes. It is not surprising that pheromone receptor differences could control H. subflexa and H. virescens responses to Z9-16:Ald and Z9-14:Ald, respectively. However, central rather than peripheral level control over the positive and negative responses of H. subflexa and H. virescens to Z11-16:OAc had been expected. Tight linkage of these receptor genes indicates that mutations altering male response to complex blends could be maintained in linkage disequilibrium and could affect the speciation process. Other candidate genes such as those coding for pheromone binding proteins did not map to this QTL, but there was some genetic evidence of a QTL for response to Z11-16:OH associated with a sensory neuron membrane protein gene. PMID:20404144

Gould, Fred; Estock, Marie; Hillier, N. Kirk; Powell, Bekah; Groot, Astrid T.; Ward, Catherine M.; Emerson, Jennifer L.; Schal, Coby; Vickers, Neil J.

2010-01-01

366

Positive Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Variations with Multiple Sclerosis in South East Iranian Population  

PubMed Central

Among the factors postulated to play a role in MS susceptibility, the role of vitamin D is outstanding. Since the function of vitamin D receptor (VDR) represents the effect of vitamin D on the body and genetic variations in VDR gene may affect its function, we aim to highlight the association of two VDR gene polymorphisms with MS susceptibility. In current study, we recruited 113 MS patients and 122 healthy controls. TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) genetic variations in these two groups were evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. All genotype and allele frequencies in both variations showed association with the disease status. However, to find the definite connection between genetic variations in VDR gene and MS disease in a population of South East of Iran, more researches on gene structure and its function with regard to patients' conditions are required.

Moossavi, Maryam; Torkamanzehi, Adam; Moghtaderi, Ali

2015-01-01

367

Diversity in the Toll-like receptor genes of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).  

PubMed

The Tasmanian devil is an endangered marsupial species that has survived several historical bottlenecks and now has low genetic diversity. Here we characterize the Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and their diversity in the Tasmanian devil. TLRs are a key innate immune gene family found in all animals. Ten TLR genes were identified in the Tasmanian devil genome. Unusually low levels of diversity were found in 25 devils from across Tasmania. We found two alleles at TLR2, TLR3 and TLR6. The other seven genes were monomorphic. The insurance population, which safeguards the species from extinction, has successfully managed to capture all of these TLR alleles, but concerns remain for the long-term survival of this species. PMID:25563844

Cui, Jian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

2015-03-01

368

Gene amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor in atypical glottic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

The study searched for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification in hyperplastic glottis lesions. After classical pathohistological findings of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) slides and quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used on tissue microarrays of laryngeal hyperplastic tissue ranging from normal mucosa to abnormal and atypical hyperplastic lesions. FISH analysis of two atypical hyperplastic lesions discovered the amplification of EGFR gene while it was not found in simple and abnormal hyperplastic lesions. The results may indicate that EGFR gene amplifications could possibly correlate with the histopathologic picture. Tissue samples burdened with specific oncogen signatures like EGFR gene amplification could be detected in precancerous lesion. This might improve follow-up and treatment protocols of glottic lesions which are an everyday problem for ENT practitioners. Further research is mandatory to confirm our findings. PMID:23397762

Braut, Tamara; Kujundzi?, Milodar; Vukeli?, Jelena; Manestar, Dubravko; Krstulja, Mira; Starcevi?, Radan; Grahovac, Blazenka

2012-11-01

369

Sequence analysis of the Toll-like receptor 2 gene of old world camels  

PubMed Central

The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene of old world camels (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus) was cloned and sequenced. The TLR2 gene of the dromedary camel had the highest nucleotide and amino acid identity with pig, i.e., 66.8% and 59.6%, respectively. Similarly, the TLR2 gene of the Bactrian camel also had the highest nucleotide and amino acid identity with pig, i.e., 85.7% and 81.4%, respectively. Dromedary and Bactrian camels shared 77.9% nucleotide and 73.6% amino acid identity with each other. Interestingly, the amidation motif is present in camel (Dromedary and Bactrian) TLR2 only, and the TIR domain is absent in Dromedary camel TLR2. This is the first report of the TLR2 gene sequence of Dromedary and Bactrian camels.

Dahiya, Shyam S.; Nagarajan, Govindasamy; Bharti, Vijay K.; Swami, Shelesh K.; Mehta, Sharat C.; Tuteja, Fateh C.; Narnaware, Shirish D.; Patil, NitinV.

2013-01-01

370

The evolution of the Gp-Rbp-1 gene in Globodera pallida includes multiple selective replacements  

PubMed Central

The Globodera pallida SPRYSEC Gp-Rbp-1 gene encodes a secreted protein which induces effector-triggered immunity (ETI) mediated by the Solanum tuberosum disease resistance gene Gpa2. Nonetheless, it is not known how the Andes orogeny, the richness in Solanum species found along the Cordillera or the introduction of the nematode into Europe have affected the diversity of Gp-Rbp-1 and its recognition by Gpa2. We generated a dataset of 157 highly polymorphic Gp-Rbp-1 sequences and identified three Gp-Rbp-1 evolutionary pathways: the Northern Peru, Peru clade I/European and Chilean paths. These may have been shaped by passive dispersion of the nematode and by climatic variations that have influenced the nature and diversity of wild host species. We also confirmed that, by an analysis of the selection pressures acting on Gp-Rbp-1, this gene has evolved under positive/diversifying selection, but differently among the three evolutionary pathways described. Using this extended sequence dataset, we were able to detect eight sites under positive selection. Six sites appear to be of particular interest because of their predicted localization to the extended loops of the B30.2 domain and/or support by several computational methods. The P/S 187 position was previously identified for its effect on the interaction with GPA2. The functional importance of the other five amino acid polymorphisms observed was investigated using Agrobacterium transient transformation assays. None of these new residues, however, appears to be directly involved in Gpa2-mediated plant defence mechanisms. Thus, the P/S polymorphism observed at position 187 remains the sole variation sufficient to explain the recognition of Gp-Rbp-1 by Gpa2. PMID:22192092

Carpentier, Jean; Esquibet, Magali; Fouville, Didier; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Kerlan, Marie-Claire; Grenier, Eric

2012-01-01

371

Genetic Variations in the Human Cannabinoid Receptor Gene Are Associated with Happiness  

PubMed Central

Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level). As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude positive emotions when they experienced positive events and had a higher subjective happiness level. PMID:24690898

Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

2014-01-01

372

Role of recombination activating genes in the generation of antigen receptor diversity and beyond  

PubMed Central

V(D)J recombination is the process by which antibody and T-cell receptor diversity is attained. During this process, antigen receptor gene segments are cleaved and rejoined by non-homologous DNA end joining for the generation of combinatorial diversity. The major players of the initial process of cleavage are the proteins known as RAG1 (recombination activating gene 1) and RAG2. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of RAGs as a sequence-specific nuclease and its pathological role as a structure-specific nuclease. The first part of the review discusses the basic mechanism of V(D)J recombination, and the last part focuses on how the RAG complex functions as a sequence-specific and structure-specific nuclease. It also deals with the off-target cleavage of RAGs and its implications in genomic instability. PMID:23039142

Nishana, Mayilaadumveettil; Raghavan, Sathees C

2012-01-01

373

Change in subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism and gene network expression during the transition period in dairy cows, including differences due to sire genetic merit.  

PubMed

Adipose metabolism is an essential contributor to the efficiency of milk production, and metabolism is controlled by several mechanisms, including gene expression of critical proteins; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how lactational state and the genetic merit of dairy cattle affects adipose tissue (AT) metabolism and mRNA expression of genes known to control metabolism. Animals of high (HGM) and low genetic merit (LGM) were fed to requirements, and weekly dry matter intake, milk production, blood glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids were measured. Subcutaneous AT biopsies were collected at -21, 7, 28 and 56 d in milk (DIM). The mRNA expression of genes coding for lipogenic enzymes [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (soluble) (PCK1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD)], transcription regulators [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARG), thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP), wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B (WNT10B), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), and adiponectin (ADIPOQ)], lipolytic enzymes [hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE), patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2 (PNPLA2), monoglyceride lipase (MGLL), adrenoceptor ?-2 (ADRB2), adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP), and ?-?-hydrolase domain containing 5 (ABHD5)], and genes controlling the sensing of intracellular energy [phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A); PDE3B; protein kinase, AMP-activated, ?-1 catalytic subunit (PRKAA1); PRKAA2; and growth hormone receptor (GHR)] was measured. Dry matter intake, blood glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations did not differ between genetic merit groups. Milk production was greater for HGM cows from 6 to 8 wk postpartum. As expected, the rates of lipogenesis decreased in early lactation, whereas stimulated lipolysis increased. At 7 DIM, lipogenesis in HGM cows increased as a function of substrate availability (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 8mM acetic acid), whereas the response in LGM cows was much less pronounced. However, the lipogenic response at 28 DIM reversed and rates were greater in tissue from LGM than HGM cows. Peak lipolytic response, regardless of DIM, was observed at the lowest dose of isoproterenol (10(-8)M), and -21 d tissue had a greater lipolysis rate than tissue at 7, 28, and 56 d. In HGM compared with LGM cows, stimulated lipolysis at 7 and 28 DIM was greater but peaked at 10(-7)M isoproterenol, suggesting differences in tissue responsiveness due to genetic merit. Regardless of genetic merit, the expression of lipogenic genes decreased markedly in early lactation, whereas those controlling lipolysis stayed similar or decreased slightly. Cows of HGM had lower expression of lipogenic genes after parturition and through 56 DIM. In contrast, the expression of most of the lipolytic enzymes, receptors and proteins was similar in all cows pre- and postpartum. These results confirm that gene transcription is a major control mechanism for AT lipogenesis during early lactation, but that control of lipolysis is likely primarily by posttranslational mechanisms. PMID:23415532

Khan, M J; Hosseini, A; Burrell, S; Rocco, S M; McNamara, J P; Loor, J J

2013-04-01

374

Vitamin D Receptor Gene ApaI Polymorphism Is Associated with Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in relation to the\\u000a risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Iranian population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsTwo single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron 8 (ApaI) and exon 9 (TaqI) of the VDR gene were genotyped in 160 subjects with\\u000a CRC and 180 controls by use of the

Touraj Mahmoudi; Seyed Reza Mohebbi; Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi; Seyed Reza Fatemi; Mohammad Reza Zali

2010-01-01

375

Association study of schizophrenia and IL-2 receptor {beta} chain gene  

SciTech Connect

A case-control association study was conducted in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, n = 42) and unaffected controls (n = 47) matched for ethnicity and area of residence. Serum interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) concentrations, as well as a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the IL-2RP chain gene, were examined in both groups. No significant differences in IL-2R concentrations or in the distribution of the polymorphism were noted. This study does not support an association between schizophrenia and the IL-2RP gene locus, contrary to the suggestive evidence from linkage analysis in multicase families. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Yang, Z.W.; Zhang, X.R.; Brar, J.S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-10-09

376

Localization of the gene for the ciliary neutrotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) to human chromosome 9  

SciTech Connect

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has recently been found to be important for the survival of motor neurons and has shown activity in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). CNTF therefore holds promise as a treatment for ALS, and it and its receptor (CNTFR) are candidates for a gene involved in familial ALS. The CNTFR gene was mapped to chromosome 9 by PCR on a panel of human/CHO somatic cell hybrids and localized to 9p13 by PCR on a panel of radiation hybrids. 18 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Donaldson, D.H.; Jones, C.; Patterson, D. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, CO (United States)); Britt, D.E.; Jackson, C.L. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States))

1993-09-01

377

Farnesoid X receptor directly regulates xenobiotic detoxification genes in the long-lived Little mice  

PubMed Central

Activation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways has been linked to lifespan extension in different models of aging. However, the mechanisms underlying activation of xenobiotic genes remain largely unknown. Here we showed that although FXR mRNA levels do not change significantly, FXR (farnesoid X receptor, Nr1h4) protein levels are elevated in the livers of the long-lived Little mice, leading to increased DNA binding activity of FXR. Hepatic FXR expression is sex-dependent in wild-type mice but not in Little mice, implying that up-regulation of FXR might be dependent on the reduction of growth hormone in Little mice. Growth hormone treatment decreased hepatic expression of FXR and xenobiotic genes Abcb1a, Fmo3 and Gsta2 in both wild-type and Little mice, suggesting an association between FXR and xenobiotic gene expression. We found that Abcb1a is transactivated by FXR via direct binding of FXR/retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) heterodimer to a response element at the proximal promoter. FXR also positively controls Fmo3 and Gsta2 expression through direct interaction with the response elements in these genes. Our study demonstrates that xenobiotic genes are direct transcriptional targets of FXR and suggests that FXR signaling may play a critical role in the lifespan extension observed in Little mice. PMID:24007921

Jiang, Yanjun; Jin, Jingling; Iakova, Polina; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Sullivan, Emily; Guo, Grace L.; Timchenko, Nikolai A.; Darlington, Gretchen J.

2013-01-01

378

The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse  

SciTech Connect

The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

379

The expansion of GPCR transactivation-dependent signalling to include serine/threonine kinase receptors represents a new cell signalling frontier.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling is mediated through transactivation-independent signalling pathways or the transactivation of protein tyrosine kinase receptors and the recently reported activation of the serine/threonine kinase receptors, most notably the transforming growth factor-? receptor family. Since the original observation of GPCR transactivation of protein tyrosine kinase receptors, there has been considerable work on the mechanism of transactivation and several pathways are prominent. These pathways include the "triple membrane bypass" pathway and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The recent recognition of GPCR transactivation of serine/threonine kinase receptors enormously broadens the GPCR signalling paradigm. It may be predicted that the transactivation of serine/threonine kinase receptors would have mechanistic similarities with transactivation of tyrosine kinase pathways; however, initial studies suggest that these two transactivation pathways are mechanistically distinct. Important questions are the relative importance of tyrosine and serine/threonine transactivation pathways, the contribution of transactivation to overall GPCR signalling, mechanisms of transactivation and the range of cell types in which this phenomenon occurs. The ultimate significance of transactivation-dependent signalling remains to be defined but it appears to be prominent and if so will represent a new cell signalling frontier. PMID:25384733

Kamato, Danielle; Rostam, Muhamad Ashraf; Bernard, Rebekah; Piva, Terrence J; Mantri, Nitin; Guidone, Daniel; Zheng, Wenhua; Osman, Narin; Little, Peter J

2015-02-01

380

Gene silencing of HIV chemokine receptors using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNA  

PubMed Central

The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are required for HIV-1 to enter cells, and the progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS involves a switch in the co-receptor usage of the virus from CCR5 to CXCR4. These receptors therefore make attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention, and we have investigated the silencing of their genes by using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNAs. In the present study, we demonstrate using ribozymes that a depletion of CXCR4 and CCR5 mRNAs can be achieved simultaneously in human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), cells commonly used by the virus for infection and replication. Ribozyme activity leads to an inhibition of the cell-surface expression of both CCR5 and CXCR4, resulting in a significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication when PBMCs are challenged with the virus. In addition, we show that small single-stranded antisense RNAs can also be used to silence CCR5 and CXCR4 genes when delivered to PBMCs. This silencing is caused by selective degradation of receptor mRNAs. PMID:16293105

Qureshi, Amer; Zheng, Richard; Parlett, Terry; Shi, Xiaoju; Balaraman, Priyadhashini; Cheloufi, Sihem; Murphy, Brendan; Guntermann, Christine; Eagles, Peter

2005-01-01

381

Gene receptor polymorphism as a risk factor for BMD deterioration in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that is associated with decreased bone mineral density and greater lifetime risk for fractures. This case-controlled study, analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes encoding vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), collagen type I and calcitonin receptor (CTR). Relationships between genotype and body mass index, cycling status and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) were determined in 40 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched controls. The distribution of CTR-AluI genotypes differed between groups, but this polymorphism was not associated with LBMD Z-score. Distribution of ESR1-XbaI genotypes did not differ between groups, but the AA genotype was associated with decreased LBMD Z-score (?-1) (OR = 24.79, 95% CI, 1.01-606.08). Carriers of the A allele were more likely to have decreased LBMD Z-scores compared with carriers of the G allele (OR = 4.12, 95% CI, 1.23-13.85, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our study shows that anorexic patients with wild-type genotype ESR-XbaI receptor are in greater risk for decreased BMD in relation to those with the mutated gene. Prompt recognition of these patients is crucial because early administration of the proper therapeutic treatment may contribute to the prevention of adverse sequelae on bone metabolism. PMID:23772785

Stergioti, E; Deligeoroglou, E; Economou, E; Tsitsika, A; Dimopoulos,