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1

Epigenetic and Genetic Alterations Affect the WWOX Gene in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Different types of genetic and epigenetic changes are associated with HNSCC. The molecular mechanisms of HNSCC carcinogenesis are still undergoing intensive investigation. WWOX gene expression is altered in many cancers and in a recent work reduced WWOX expression has been associated with miR-134 expression in HNSCC. In this study we investigated the WWOX messenger RNA expression levels in association with the promoter methylation of the WWOX gene and miR-134 expression levels in 80 HNSCC tumor and non-cancerous tissue samples. Our results show that WWOX expression is down-regulated especially in advanced-stage tumor samples or in tumors with SCC. This down-regulation was associated with methylation of the WWOX promoter region but not with miR-134 expression. There was an inverse correlation between the expression level and promoter methylation. We also analyzed whole exons and exon/intron boundries of the WWOX gene by direct sequencing. In our study group we observed 10 different alterations in the coding sequences and 18 different alterations in the non-coding sequences of the WWOX gene in HNSCC tumor samples. These results indicate that the WWOX gene can be functionally inactivated by promoter methylation, epigenetically or by mutations affecting the sequences coding for the enzymatic domain of the gene, functionally. We conclude that inactivation of WWOX gene contributes to the progression of HNSCC. PMID:25612104

Ekizoglu, Seda; Bulut, Pelin; Karaman, Emin; Kilic, Erkan; Buyru, Nur

2015-01-01

2

Genetically Altered Plant Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

2003-01-01

3

Genomewide transcriptional changes associated with genetic alterations and nutritional supplementation affecting tryptophan metabolism in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

DNA microarrays comprising approximately 95% of the Bacillus subtilis annotated protein coding ORFs were deployed to generate a series of snapshots of genomewide transcriptional changes that occur when cells are grown under various conditions that are expected to increase or decrease transcription of the trp operon segment of the aromatic supraoperon. Comparisons of global expression patterns were made between cells grown in the presence of indole acrylic acid, a specific inhibitor of tRNA(Trp) charging; cells deficient in expression of the mtrB gene, which encodes the tryptophan-activated negative regulatory protein, TRAP; WT cells grown in the presence or absence of two or three of the aromatic amino acids; and cells harboring a tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase mutation conferring temperature-sensitive tryptophan-dependent growth. Our findings validate expected responses of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes and presumed regulatory interrelationships between genes in the different aromatic amino acid pathways and the histidine biosynthetic pathway. Using a combination of supervised and unsupervised statistical methods we identified approximately 100 genes whose expression profiles were closely correlated with those of the genes in the trp operon. This finding suggests that expression of these genes is influenced directly or indirectly by regulatory events that affect or are a consequence of altered tryptophan metabolism. PMID:12719520

Berka, Randy M; Cui, Xianju; Yanofsky, Charles

2003-05-13

4

Genetically altering the expression of neutral trehalase gene affects conidiospore thermotolerance of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum  

PubMed Central

Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum has been used as an important biocontrol agent instead of insecticides for controlling crop pests throughout the world. However, its virulence varies with environmental factors, especially temperature. Neutral trehalase (Ntl) hydrolyzes trehalose, which plays a role in environmental stress response in many organisms, including M. acridum. Demonstration of a relationship between Ntl and thermotolerance or virulence may offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi through genetic engineering. Results We selected four Ntl over-expression and four Ntl RNA interference (RNAi) transformations in which Ntl expression is different. Compared to the wild-type, Ntl mRNA expression was reduced to 35-66% in the RNAi mutants and increased by 2.5-3.5-fold in the over-expression mutants. The RNAi conidiospores exhibited less trehalase activity, accumulated more trehalose, and were much more tolerant of heat stress than the wild-type. The opposite effects were found in conidiospores of over-expression mutants compared to RNAi mutants. Furthermore, virulence was not altered in the two types of mutants compared to the wild type. Conclusions Ntl controlled trehalose accumulation in M. acridum by degrading trehalose, and thus affected conidiospore thermotolerance. These results offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi without affecting virulence. PMID:21310069

2011-01-01

5

PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR NUCLEIC ACIDS BY GENETICALLY ALTERED BACTERIA IN AQUATIC-ENVIRONMENT MICROCOSMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. he presence or absence of the ambient microbial commun...

6

Genetic Programming: Parametric Analysis of Structure Altering Mutation Techniques  

E-print Network

Genetic Programming: Parametric Analysis of Structure Altering Mutation Techniques Alan Piszcz;cally parameters controlling mutation, and performance is non-linear in genetic programs. Genetic pro problems. In this pa- per we study three structure altering mutation techniques using parametric analysis

Fernandez, Thomas

7

Alterations in Pulse Pressure Affect Artery Function  

PubMed Central

Pulse pressure changes in response to cardiovascular diseases and interventions, but its effect on vascular wall structure and function is poorly understood. We examined the effect of increased or decreased pulse pressure on artery function, cellular function, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Porcine carotid arteries were cultured under non-pulsatile (100 mmHg), pulsatile (70-130 mmHg), or hyper-pulsatile pressure (50-150 mmHg) for 1 to 3 days. Vasomotor response, wall permeability, cell proliferation, apoptosis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and proteins involved in atherogenesis were examined. Our results showed that hyper-pulsatile pressure decreased the artery response to sodium nitroprusside, basal tone, and wall permeability after three days. Non-pulsatile pressure increased cell proliferation. Neither hyper-pulsatile nor non-pulsatile pressure caused a change in the extracellular matrix or in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, caveolin-1, or ?-actin. Hyper-pulsatile pressure increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression. Taken together, these changes indicate that pulse pressure has a limited effect on the artery immediately after its application. Specifically an increase in pulse pressure alters the artery tone and wall permeability while a decrease in pulse pressure alters cell proliferation. Overall these results provide insight into how the artery initially responds to changes in pulse pressure. PMID:23243477

Hayman, Danika M.; Xiao, Yangming; Yao, Qingping; Jiang, Zonglai; Lindsey, Merry L.; Han, Hai-Chao

2012-01-01

8

A genetic study of affective disorders.  

PubMed

First and second degree relatives of 99 probands with affective disorders (49 unipolar and 50 bipolar subjects) were studied. The high risk values obtained for affective disorders were shown to be compatible with those found by other authors, although the prevalence of the illness in the population of Lombardy appears to be much lower than in other countries. Very low rates of suicide and alcoholism were found in our sample. Data obtained by analysis of the affected pairs of relatives rule out the hypothesis of a dominant X-linked gene if the bipolar and the unipolar forms are considered genetically separated entities. Results compatible with a polygenic condition, partially shared by bipolar patients, were found using Slater's and Smith & Falconer's methods. Our data, however, cannot rule out the dominant hypothesis. PMID:596231

Smeraldi, E; Negri, F; Melica, A M

1977-11-01

9

Altered affective response in marijuana smokers: an FMRI study.  

PubMed

More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers' responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences. PMID:19656642

Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

2009-11-01

10

[Autism, genetics and synaptic function alterations].  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a deficit of language and communication both associated with a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The current prevalence of autistic disorder stricto sensu is estimated at 1/500 whereas autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases up to 1/150 to 1/200. Mental deficiency (MD) and epilepsy are present in numerous autistic individuals. Consequently, autism is as a major public health issue. Autism was first considered as a non biological disease; however various rational approaches for analysing epidemiological data suggested the possibility of the influence of genetic factors. In 2003, this hypothesis was clearly illustrated by the characterization of genetic mutations transmitted through a mendelian manner. Subsequently, the glutamate synapse appeared as a preferential causal target in autism because the identified genes encoded proteins present in this structure. Strikingly, the findings that an identical genetic dysfunction of the synapse might also explain some MD suggested the possibility of a genetic comorbidity between these neurodevelopmental conditions. To date, various identified genes are considered indifferently as "autism" or "MD" genes. The characterization of mutations in the NLGN4X gene in patients with Asperger syndrome, autism without MD, or MD without autism, was the first example. It appears that a genetic continuum between ASD on one hand, and between autism and MD on the other hand, is present. Consequently, it is likely that genes already involved in MD will be found mutated in autistic patients and will represent future target for finding new factors in autism. PMID:20181440

Perche, O; Laumonnier, F; Baala, L; Ardourel, M-Y; Menuet, A; Robin, V; Mortaud, S; Montécot-Dubourg, C; Richard, O; Pichon, J; Briault, S

2010-10-01

11

Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations.  

PubMed

Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome. PMID:24379857

Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

2013-11-01

12

Genetic and epigenetic alterations in differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has a favorable prognosis, but it is important to identify those patients who have a high risk of progressive disease and DTC-related death at the time of diagnosis. Analyzing genetic and epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer may play a role in tumor diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24868250

Brehar, AC; Brehar, FM; Bulgar, AC; Dumitrache, C

2013-01-01

13

Genetic and epigenetic alterations in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has a favorable prognosis, but it is important to identify those patients who have a high risk of progressive disease and DTC-related death at the time of diagnosis. Analyzing genetic and epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer may play a role in tumor diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24868250

Brehar, A C; Brehar, F M; Bulgar, A C; Dumitrache, C

2013-01-01

14

Tumor Hypoxia and Genetic Alterations in Sporadic Cancers  

PubMed Central

The cancer genome contains many gene alterations. How cancer cells acquire these alterations is a matter for discussion. One hypothesis is that cancer cells obtain mutations in genome stability genes at an early stage of tumor development, which results in genetic instability and generates a gene pool that enhances cellular proliferation and survival. Another hypothesis puts its emphasis on the natural selection of gene mutations for fitness. Recent data for systematic cancer genome sequencing shows that mutations in stability genes are rare in human sporadic cancers. Instead, many “passenger” mutations that do not drive the carcinogenesis process have been found in the cancer genome. Both the hypotheses mentioned above fall short in explaining recent data. Recently, many studies demonstrate the role of the tumor microenvironment, especially hypoxia and reoxygenation, in genetic instability. In this review, literature will be presented which supports a third hypothesis, i.e. that hypoxia/re-oxygenation induces genetic instability. PMID:21272156

Koi, Minoru; Boland, C.R.

2011-01-01

15

Genetic studies of seasonal affective disorder and seasonality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and seasonality have received considerable attention over the past several years. Studies of the prevalence of SAD and nonseasonal mood disorders among relatives of patients with SAD suggested a familial contribution to the development of SAD. Two twin studies demonstrated a substantial role of genetic variation in seasonality. Two genetic variants related to

Leo Sher

2001-01-01

16

Alteration of the langerin oligomerization state affects birbeck granule formation.  

PubMed

Langerin, a trimeric C-type lectin specifically expressed in Langerhans cells, has been reported to be a pathogen receptor through the recognition of glycan motifs by its three carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD). In the context of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-1) transmission, Langerhans cells of genital mucosa play a protective role by internalizing virions in Birbeck Granules (BG) for elimination. Langerin (Lg) is directly involved in virion binding and BG formation through its CRDs. However, nothing is known regarding the mechanism of langerin assembly underlying BG formation. We investigated at the molecular level the impact of two CRD mutations, W264R and F241L, on langerin structure, function, and BG assembly using a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches. Although the W264R mutation causes CRD global unfolding, the F241L mutation does not affect the overall structure and gp120 (surface HIV-1 glycoprotein of 120 kDa) binding capacities of isolated Lg-CRD. In contrast, this mutation induces major functional and structural alterations of the whole trimeric langerin extracellular domain (Lg-ECD). As demonstrated by small-angle x-ray scattering comparative analysis of wild-type and mutant forms, the F241L mutation perturbs the oligomerization state and the global architecture of Lg-ECD. Correlatively, despite conserved intrinsic lectin activity of the CRD, avidity property of Lg-ECD is affected as shown by a marked decrease of gp120 binding. Beyond the change of residue itself, the F241L mutation induces relocation of the K200 side chain also located within the interface between protomers of trimeric Lg-ECD, thereby explaining the defective oligomerization of mutant Lg. We conclude that not only functional CRDs but also their correct spatial presentation are critical for BG formation as well as gp120 binding. PMID:25650933

Chabrol, Eric; Thépaut, Michel; Dezutter-Dambuyant, Colette; Vivès, Corinne; Marcoux, Julien; Kahn, Richard; Valladeau-Guilemond, Jenny; Vachette, Patrice; Durand, Dominique; Fieschi, Franck

2015-02-01

17

Altered resting-state activity in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

At present, our knowledge about seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is based mainly up on clinical symptoms, epidemiology, behavioral characteristics and light therapy. Recently developed measures of resting-state functional brain activity might provide neurobiological markers of brain disorders. Studying functional brain activity in SAD could enhance our understanding of its nature and possible treatment strategies. Functional network connectivity (measured using ICA-dual regression), and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were measured in 45 antidepressant-free patients (39.78 ± 10.64, 30 ?, 15 ?) diagnosed with SAD and compared with age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls (HCs) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. After correcting for Type 1 error at high model orders (inter-RSN correction), SAD patients showed significantly increased functional connectivity in 11 of the 47 identified RSNs. Increased functional connectivity involved RSNs such as visual, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. Moreover, our results revealed that SAD patients compared with HCs showed significant higher ALFF in the visual and right sensorimotor cortex. Abnormally altered functional activity detected in SAD supports previously reported attentional and psychomotor symptoms in patients suffering from SAD. Further studies, particularly under task conditions, are needed in order to specifically investigate cognitive deficits in SAD. PMID:22987670

Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Nissilä, Juuso; Liettu, Anu; Remes, Jukka; Jokelainen, Jari; Takala, Timo; Aunio, Antti; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Zang, Yu-Feng; Tervonen, Osmo; Timonen, Markku; Kiviniemi, Vesa

2014-01-01

18

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition  

PubMed Central

The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-01-01

19

Human genetic variation influences vitamin C homeostasis by altering vitamin C transport and antioxidant enzyme function.  

PubMed

New evidence for the regulation of vitamin C homeostasis has emerged from several studies of human genetic variation. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding sodium-dependent vitamin C transport proteins are strongly associated with plasma ascorbate levels and likely impact tissue cellular vitamin C status. Furthermore, genetic variants of proteins that suppress oxidative stress or detoxify oxidatively damaged biomolecules, i.e., haptoglobin, glutathione-S-transferases, and possibly manganese superoxide dismutase, affect ascorbate levels in the human body. There also is limited evidence for a role of glucose transport proteins. In this review, we examine the extent of the variation in these genes, their impact on vitamin C status, and their potential role in altering chronic disease risk. We conclude that future epidemiological studies should take into account genetic variation in order to successfully determine the role of vitamin C nutriture or supplementation in human vitamin C status and chronic disease risk. PMID:23642198

Michels, Alexander J; Hagen, Tory M; Frei, Balz

2013-01-01

20

IndividualizedPath: identifying genetic alterations contributing to the dysfunctional pathways in glioblastoma individuals.  

PubMed

Due to the extensive complexity and high genetic heterogeneity of genetic alterations in cancer, comprehensively depicting the molecular mechanisms of cancer remains difficult. Characterizing personalized pathogenesis in cancer individuals can help to reveal new details of the complex mechanisms. In this study, we proposed an integrative method called IndividualizedPath to identify genetic alterations and their downstream risk pathways from the perspective of individuals through combining the DNA copy number, gene expression data and topological structures of biological pathways. By applying the method to TCGA glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) samples, we identified 394 gene-pathway pairs in 252 GBM individuals. We found that genes with copy number alterations showed high heterogeneity across GBM individuals, whereas they affected relatively consistent biological pathways. A global landscape of gene-pathway pairs showed that EGFR linked with multiple cancer-related biological pathways confers the highest risk of GBM. GBM individuals with MET-pathway pairs showed significantly shorter survival times than those with only MET amplification. Importantly, we found that the same risk pathways were affected by different genes in distinct groups of GBM individuals with a significant pattern of mutual exclusivity. Similarly, GBM subtype analysis revealed some subtype-specific gene-pathway pairs. In addition, we found that some rare copy number alterations had a large effect on contribution to numerous cancer-related pathways. In summary, our method offers the possibility to identify personalized cancer mechanisms, which can be applied to other types of cancer through the web server (http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/IndividualizedPath/). PMID:24911613

Ping, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongyi; Deng, Yulan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Hongying; Pang, Lin; Fan, Huihui; Xu, Chaohan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Yonghui; Xiao, Yun; Li, Xia

2014-08-01

21

Identification of Genetic Alterations, as Causative Genetic Defects in Long QT Syndrome, Using Next Generation Sequencing Technology  

PubMed Central

Background Long QT Syndrome is an inherited channelopathy leading to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. Despite that several genes have been associated with the disease, nearly 20% of cases remain without an identified genetic cause. Other genetic alterations such as copy number variations have been recently related to Long QT Syndrome. Our aim was to take advantage of current genetic technologies in a family affected by Long QT Syndrome in order to identify the cause of the disease. Methods Complete clinical evaluation was performed in all family members. In the index case, a Next Generation Sequencing custom-built panel, including 55 sudden cardiac death-related genes, was used both for detection of sequence and copy number variants. Next Generation Sequencing variants were confirmed by Sanger method. Copy number variations variants were confirmed by Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification method and at the mRNA level. Confirmed variants and copy number variations identified in the index case were also analyzed in relatives. Results In the index case, Next Generation Sequencing revealed a novel variant in TTN and a large deletion in KCNQ1, involving exons 7 and 8. Both variants were confirmed by alternative techniques. The mother and the brother of the index case were also affected by Long QT Syndrome, and family cosegregation was observed for the KCNQ1 deletion, but not for the TTN variant. Conclusions Next Generation Sequencing technology allows a comprehensive genetic analysis of arrhythmogenic diseases. We report a copy number variation identified using Next Generation Sequencing analysis in Long QT Syndrome. Clinical and familiar correlation is crucial to elucidate the role of genetic variants identified to distinguish the pathogenic ones from genetic noise. PMID:25494010

Mademont-Soler, Irene; Allegue, Catarina; Cesar, Sergi; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Coll, Monica; Mates, Jesus; Iglesias, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon

2014-01-01

22

Altered Sleep and Affect in the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Knockout Mouse  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout mouse model. Design: Previously, we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for REM sleep amount, REM sleep bout number, and wake amount in a genetically segregating population of mice. Here, we show that traits mapping to this QTL correlated with an expression QTL for neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1), a receptor for neurotensin, a ligand known to be involved in several psychiatric disorders. We examined sleep as well as behaviors indicative of anxiety and depression in the NTSR1 knockout mouse. Measurements and Results: NTSR1 knockouts had a lower percentage of sleep time spent in REM sleep in the dark phase and a larger diurnal variation in REM sleep duration than wild types under baseline conditions. Following sleep deprivation, NTSR1 knockouts exhibited more wake and less NREM rebound sleep. NTSR1 knockouts also showed increased anxious and despair behaviors. Conclusions: Here we illustrate a link between expression of the Ntsr1 gene and sleep traits previously associated with a particular QTL. We also demonstrate a relationship between Ntsr1 and anxiety and despair behaviors. Given the considerable evidence that anxiety and depression are closely linked with abnormalities in sleep, the data presented here provide further evidence that neurotensin and Ntsr1 may be a component of a pathway involved in both sleep and mood disorders. Citation: Fitzpatrick K; Winrow CJ; Gotter AL; Millstein J; Arbuzova J; Brunner J; Kasarskis A; Vitaterna MH; Renger JJ; Turek FW. Altered sleep and affect in the neurotensin receptor 1 knockout mouse. SLEEP 2012;35(7):949-956. PMID:22754041

Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Winrow, Christopher J.; Gotter, Anthony L.; Millstein, Joshua; Arbuzova, Janna; Brunner, Joseph; Kasarskis, Andrew; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Renger, John J.; Turek, Fred W.

2012-01-01

23

Body weight selection affects quantitative genetic correlated responses in gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The abundance of gut microbiota can be viewed as a quantitative trait, which is affected by the genetics and environment of the host. To quantify the effects of host genetics, we calculated the heritability of abundance of specific microorganisms and genetic correlations among them in the gut microbiota of two lines of chickens maintained under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. The lines, which originated from a common founder population, had undergone >50 generations of selection for high (HW) or low (LW) 56-day body weight and now differ by more than 10-fold in body weight at selection age. We identified families of Paenibacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae that had moderate heritabilities. Although there were no obvious phenotypic correlations among gut microbiota, significant genetic correlations were observed. Moreover, the effects were modified by genetic selection for body weight, which altered the quantitative genetic background of the host. Heritabilities for Bacillaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae were moderate in LW line and little to zero in the HW line. These results suggest that loci associated with these microbiota families, while exhibiting genetic variation in LW, have been fixed in HW line. Also, long term selection for body weight has altered the genetic correlations among gut microbiota. No microbiota families had significant heritabilities in both the LW and HW lines suggesting that the presence and/or absence of a particular microbiota family either has a strong growth promoting or inhibiting effect, but not both. These results demonstrate that the quantitative genetics of the host have considerable influence on the gut microbiota. PMID:24608294

Meng, He; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Lele; Zhao, Wenjing; He, Chuan; Honaker, Christa F; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Sun, Zikui; Siegel, Paul B

2014-01-01

24

Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated so that more accurate predictions of calving dates could be provided to dairy producers. Data from >8 million calvings from 1999 through 2005 for 5 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, an...

25

Curious cases: Altered dose-response relationships in addiction genetics.  

PubMed

Dose-response relationships for most addictive substances are "inverted U"-shaped. Addictive substances produce both positive features that include reward, euphoria, anxiolysis, withdrawal-relief, and negative features that include aversion, dysphoria, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms. A simple model differentially associates ascending and descending limbs of dose-response curves with rewarding and aversive influences, respectively. However, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnoses of substance dependence fail to incorporate dose-response criteria and don't directly consider balances between euphoric and dysphoric drug effects. Classical genetic studies document substantial heritable influences on DSM substance dependence. Linkage and genome-wide association studies identify modest-sized effects at any locus. Nevertheless, clusters of SNPs within selected genes display 10(-2)>p>10(-8) associations with dependence in many independent samples. For several of these genes, evidence for cis-regulatory, level-of-expression differences supports the validity of mouse models in which levels of expression are also altered. This review documents surprising, recently defined cases in which convergent evidence from humans and mouse models supports central influences of altered dose-response relationships in mediating the impact of relevant genomic variation on addiction phenotypes. For variation at loci for the ?5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, cadherin 13, receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase ? and neuronal cell adhesion molecule genes, changed dose-response relationships conferred by gene knockouts in mice are accompanied by supporting human data. These observations emphasize desirability of carefully elucidating dose-response relationships for both rewarding and aversive features of abused substances wherever possible. They motivate consideration of individual differences in dose-response relationships in addiction nosology and therapeutics. PMID:24189489

Uhl, George R; Drgonova, Jana; Hall, F Scott

2014-03-01

26

The Afterlife of Interspecific Indirect Genetic Effects: Genotype Interactions Alter Litter Quality with Consequences for Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Aboveground-belowground linkages are recognized as divers of community dynamics and ecosystem processes, but the impacts of plant-neighbor interactions on these linkages are virtually unknown. Plant-neighbor interactions are a type of interspecific indirect genetic effect (IIGE) if the focal plant’s phenotype is altered by the expression of genes in a neighboring heterospecific plant, and IIGEs could persist after plant senescence to affect ecosystem processes. This perspective can provide insight into how plant-neighbor interactions affect evolution, as IIGEs are capable of altering species interactions and community composition over time. Utilizing genotypes of Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we experimentally tested whether IIGEs that had affected living focal plants would affect litter decomposition rate, as well as nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) dynamics after the focal plant senesced. We found that species interactions affected N release and genotype interactions affected P immobilization. From a previous study we knew that neighbor genotype influenced patterns of biomass allocation for focal plants. Here we extend those previous results to show that these changes in biomass allocation altered litter quality, that then altered rates of decomposition and nutrient cycling. Our results provide insights into above- and belowground linkages by showing that, through their effects on plant litter quality (e.g., litter lignin:N), IIGEs can have afterlife effects, tying plant-neighbor interactions to ecosystem processes. This holistic approach advances our understanding of decomposition and nutrient cycling by showing that evolutionary processes (i.e., IIGEs) can influence ecosystem functioning after plant senescence. Because plant traits are determined by the combined effects of genetic and environmental influences, and because these traits are known to affect decomposition and nutrient cycling, we suggest that ecosystem processes can be described as gene-less products of genetic interactions among the species comprising ecological communities. PMID:23349735

Genung, Mark A.; Bailey, Joseph K.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.

2013-01-01

27

The afterlife of interspecific indirect genetic effects: genotype interactions alter litter quality with consequences for decomposition and nutrient dynamics.  

PubMed

Aboveground-belowground linkages are recognized as divers of community dynamics and ecosystem processes, but the impacts of plant-neighbor interactions on these linkages are virtually unknown. Plant-neighbor interactions are a type of interspecific indirect genetic effect (IIGE) if the focal plant's phenotype is altered by the expression of genes in a neighboring heterospecific plant, and IIGEs could persist after plant senescence to affect ecosystem processes. This perspective can provide insight into how plant-neighbor interactions affect evolution, as IIGEs are capable of altering species interactions and community composition over time. Utilizing genotypes of Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we experimentally tested whether IIGEs that had affected living focal plants would affect litter decomposition rate, as well as nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) dynamics after the focal plant senesced. We found that species interactions affected N release and genotype interactions affected P immobilization. From a previous study we knew that neighbor genotype influenced patterns of biomass allocation for focal plants. Here we extend those previous results to show that these changes in biomass allocation altered litter quality, that then altered rates of decomposition and nutrient cycling. Our results provide insights into above- and belowground linkages by showing that, through their effects on plant litter quality (e.g., litter lignin:N), IIGEs can have afterlife effects, tying plant-neighbor interactions to ecosystem processes. This holistic approach advances our understanding of decomposition and nutrient cycling by showing that evolutionary processes (i.e., IIGEs) can influence ecosystem functioning after plant senescence. Because plant traits are determined by the combined effects of genetic and environmental influences, and because these traits are known to affect decomposition and nutrient cycling, we suggest that ecosystem processes can be described as gene-less products of genetic interactions among the species comprising ecological communities. PMID:23349735

Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

2013-01-01

28

Hypothalamic alterations in Huntington's disease patients: comparison with genetic rodent models.  

PubMed

Unintended weight loss, sleep and circadian disturbances and autonomic dysfunction are prevalent features of Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat sequence in the HTT gene. These features form a substantial contribution to disease burden in HD patients and appear to be accompanied by a number of neuroendocrine and metabolic changes, pointing towards hypothalamic pathology as a likely underlying mechanism. Neuronal inclusion bodies of mutant huntingtin, which are hallmarks of the disease, occur throughout the hypothalamus, and indicate local mutant huntingtin expression that could interfere with hypothalamic neuropeptide production. Also, several genetic rodent models of HD show features that could be related to hypothalamic pathology, such as weight loss and circadian rhythm disturbances. In these rodents, several hypothalamic neuropeptide populations are affected. In the present review, we summarise the changes in genetic rodent models of HD for individual hypothalamic nuclei, compare these observations to the hypothalamic changes that occur in HD patients, and make an inventory of the work that still needs to be done. Surprisingly, there is only limited overlap in the hypothalamic changes reported in HD patients and genetic rodent models. At present, the only similarity between the hypothalamic alterations in HD patients and genetic rodent models is a decrease in the number of orexin-expressing neurones in the lateral hypothalamus. Possible reasons for these discrepancies, as well as potential consequences for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, are discussed. PMID:25074766

van Wamelen, D J; Aziz, N A; Roos, R A C; Swaab, D F

2014-11-01

29

Preliminary observations on genetic alterations in pilocytic astrocytomas associated with neurofibromatosis 1.  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes sufferers to various forms of neoplasia. Among affected individuals, 15%-20% develop astrocytomas, especially pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), which are benign and classified as grade I by the World Health Organization. They are generally well circumscribed, and their progression is slow. NF1-associated PAs (NF1-PAs) occasionally behave as aggressive tumors. To elucidate underlying genetic events in clinically progressive NF1-PAs, we performed molecular genetic analysis on 12 PAs, including 3 NF1-PAs, for pS3, p16, and epidermal growth factor receptor genes, as well as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 1p, 10, 17, and 19q. None of the obvious genetic alterations typically seen in higher grade astrocytomas were found in 9 sporadic PAs. However, in 2 of 3 NF1-PAs, microsatellite analysis showed LOH10, including the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) gene locus, despite the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma;one of these also manifested homozygous deletion of the p16 gene. The other NF1-PA harbored only LOH of the NF1 gene locus (17q). Our preliminary results support the hypothesis that some NF1-PAs differ genetically from sporadic PAs. PMID:14565158

Tada, Kenji; Kochi, Masato; Saya, Hideyuki; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi; Shiraishi, Shoji; Kamiryo, Takanori; Shinojima, Naoki; Ushio, Yukitaka

2003-01-01

30

Alteration of proteoglycan sulfation affects bone growth and remodeling  

PubMed Central

Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene, leading to reduced intracellular sulfate pool in chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Hence, proteoglycans are undersulfated in the cartilage and bone of DTD patients. To characterize the bone phenotype of this skeletal dysplasia we used the Slc26a2 knock-in mouse (dtd mouse), that was previously validated as an animal model of DTD in humans. X-rays, bone densitometry, static and dynamic histomorphometry, and in vitro studies revealed a primary bone defect in the dtd mouse model. We showed in vivo that this primary bone defect in dtd mice is due to decreased bone accrual associated with a decreased trabecular and periosteal appositional rate at the cell level in one month-old mice. Although the osteoclast number evaluated by histomorphometry was not different in dtd compared to wild-type mice, urine analysis of deoxypyridinoline cross-links and serum levels of type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides showed a higher resorption rate in dtd mice compared to wild-type littermates. Electron microscopy studies showed that collagen fibrils in bone were thinner and less organized in dtd compared to wild-type mice. These data suggest that the low bone mass observed in mutant mice could possibly be linked to the different bone matrix compositions/organizations in dtd mice triggering changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Overall, these results suggest that proteoglycan undersulfation not only affects the properties of hyaline cartilage, but can also lead to unbalanced bone modeling and remodeling activities, demonstrating the importance of proteoglycan sulfation in bone homeostasis. PMID:23369989

Gualeni, Benedetta; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Marty-Morieux, Caroline; De Leonardis, Fabio; Franchi, Marco; Monti, Luca; Forlino, Antonella; Houillier, Pascal; Rossi, Antonio; Geoffroy, Valerie

2013-01-01

31

Genetic studies of seasonal affective disorder and seasonality.  

PubMed

Genetic studies of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and seasonality have received considerable attention over the past several years. Studies of the prevalence of SAD and nonseasonal mood disorders among relatives of patients with SAD suggested a familial contribution to the development of SAD. Two twin studies demonstrated a substantial role of genetic variation in seasonality. Two genetic variants related to serotonergic transmission, the 5-HTTLPR and the 5-HT(2A)-1438G/A gene promoter polymorphisms, have been found to be associated with SAD. 5-HTTLPR is also associated with seasonality in SAD patients and in the general population. It is not clear whether SAD is inherited as a distinct entity or whether seasonality and depression are separate heritable traits that happen to coincide in certain individuals. Vulnerability to SAD and disease pathology may be influenced by many genes, perhaps on several chromosomes. PMID:11244145

Sher, L

2001-01-01

32

Genetic alterations and personalized medicine in melanoma: progress and future prospects.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing technologies are providing new insights into the genetic alterations involved in melanomagenesis. It appears likely that most genetic events important in the pathogenesis of melanoma will be discovered over the next few years. Genetic analysis is also increasingly being used to direct patient care. In parallel with the discovery of new genes and the elucidation of molecular pathways important in the development of melanoma, therapies targeting these pathways are becoming available. In other words, the age of personalized medicine has arrived, characterized by molecular profiling of melanoma to identify the relevant genetic alterations and the abnormal signaling mechanisms involved, followed by selection of optimal, individualized therapies. In this review, we summarize the key genetic alterations in melanoma and the development of targeted agents against melanomas bearing specific mutations. These developments in melanoma serve as a model for the implementation of personalized medicine for patients with all cancers. PMID:24511108

Griewank, Klaus G; Scolyer, Richard A; Thompson, John F; Flaherty, Keith T; Schadendorf, Dirk; Murali, Rajmohan

2014-02-01

33

Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization  

PubMed Central

Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding of deciduous teeth and the extractions of premolars and third molars for orthodontic treatment. The feasibility of obtaining dentin makes this a good model to study biomineralization in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we focus on two genetic diseases that disrupt both bone and dentin mineralization. Hypophosphatemic rickets is related to abnormal secretory proteins involved in the ECM organization of both bone and dentin, as well as in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. Osteogenesis imperfecta affects proteins involved in the local organization of the ECM. In addition, dentin examination permits evaluation of the effects of the systemic treatment prescribed to hypophosphatemic patients during growth. In conclusion, dentin constitutes a valuable tool for better understanding of the pathological processes affecting biomineralization. PMID:22296718

Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C.; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

2012-01-01

34

Genetically altered mice for evaluation of mode-of-action (MOA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetically altered mice for evaluation of mode-of-action (MOA). Barbara D. Abbott, Cynthia J. Wolf, Kaberi P. Das, Christopher S. Lau. (Presented by B. Abbott). This presentation provides an example of the use of genetically modified mice to determine the mode-of-action of r...

35

Selective Attention to Affective Value Alters How the Brain Processes Olfactory Stimuli  

E-print Network

Selective Attention to Affective Value Alters How the Brain Processes Olfactory Stimuli Edmund T the instruction before odor delivery, and continued after termination of the odor in a short-term memory period for understanding the effects not only of olfactory but also of other sensory stimuli. & INTRODUCTION The primary

Rolls, Edmund T.

36

Genetic by environment interactions affect plant–soil linkages  

PubMed Central

The role of plant intraspecific variation in plant–soil linkages is poorly understood, especially in the context of natural environmental variation, but has important implications in evolutionary ecology. We utilized three 18- to 21-year-old common gardens across an elevational gradient, planted with replicates of five Populus angustifolia genotypes each, to address the hypothesis that tree genotype (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions would affect soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics beneath individual trees. We found that soil nitrogen and carbon varied by over 50% and 62%, respectively, across all common garden environments. We found that plant leaf litter (but not root) traits vary by genotype and environment while soil nutrient pools demonstrated genotype, environment, and sometimes G × E interactions, while process rates (net N mineralization and net nitrification) demonstrated G × E interactions. Plasticity in tree growth and litter chemistry was significantly related to the variation in soil nutrient pools and processes across environments, reflecting tight plant–soil linkages. These data overall suggest that plant genetic variation can have differential affects on carbon storage and nitrogen cycling, with implications for understanding the role of genetic variation in plant–soil feedback as well as management plans for conservation and restoration of forest habitats with a changing climate. PMID:23919173

Pregitzer, Clara C; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

2013-01-01

37

Genetic by environment interactions affect plant-soil linkages.  

PubMed

The role of plant intraspecific variation in plant-soil linkages is poorly understood, especially in the context of natural environmental variation, but has important implications in evolutionary ecology. We utilized three 18- to 21-year-old common gardens across an elevational gradient, planted with replicates of five Populus angustifolia genotypes each, to address the hypothesis that tree genotype (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions would affect soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics beneath individual trees. We found that soil nitrogen and carbon varied by over 50% and 62%, respectively, across all common garden environments. We found that plant leaf litter (but not root) traits vary by genotype and environment while soil nutrient pools demonstrated genotype, environment, and sometimes G × E interactions, while process rates (net N mineralization and net nitrification) demonstrated G × E interactions. Plasticity in tree growth and litter chemistry was significantly related to the variation in soil nutrient pools and processes across environments, reflecting tight plant-soil linkages. These data overall suggest that plant genetic variation can have differential affects on carbon storage and nitrogen cycling, with implications for understanding the role of genetic variation in plant-soil feedback as well as management plans for conservation and restoration of forest habitats with a changing climate. PMID:23919173

Pregitzer, Clara C; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

2013-07-01

38

Genetic Evolution of Shape-Altering Programs for Supersonic Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two constrained shape optimization problems relevant to aerodynamics are solved by genetic programming, in which a population of computer programs evolves automatically under pressure of fitness-driven reproduction and genetic crossover. Known optimal solutions are recovered using a small, naive set of elementary operations. Effectiveness is improved through use of automatically defined functions, especially when one of them is capable of a variable number of iterations, even though the test problems lack obvious exploitable regularities. An attempt at evolving new elementary operations was only partially successful.

Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

39

GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease: an update on genetic alterations and clinical findings  

PubMed Central

GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B syndrome, both arising from beta-galactosidase (GLB1) deficiency, are very rare lysosomal storage diseases with an incidence of about 1:100,000– 1:200,000 live births worldwide. Here we report the beta-galactosidase gene (GLB1) mutation analysis of 21 unrelated GM1 gangliosidosis patients, and of 4 Morquio B patients, of whom two are brothers. Clinical features of the patients were collected and compared with those in literature. In silico analyses were performed by standard alignments tools and by an improved version of GLB1 three-dimensional models. The analysed cohort includes remarkable cases. One patient with GM1 gangliosidosis had a triple X syndrome. One patient with juvenile GM1 gangliosidosis was homozygous for a mutation previously identified in Morquio type B. A patient with infantile GM1 gangliosidosis carried a complex GLB1 allele harbouring two genetic variants leading to p.R68W and p.R109W amino acid changes, in trans with the known p.R148C mutation. Molecular analysis showed 27 mutations, 9 of which are new: 5 missense, 3 microdeletions and a nonsense mutation. We also identified four new genetic variants with a predicted polymorphic nature that was further investigated by in silico analyses. Three-dimensional structural analysis of GLB1 homology models including the new missense mutations and the p.R68W and p.R109W amino acid changes, showed that all the amino acids replacements affected the resulting protein structures in different ways, from changes in polarity to folding alterations. Genetic and clinical associations led us to undertake a critical review of the classifications of late-onset GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease. PMID:21497194

Caciotti, Anna; Garman, Scott C; Rivera-Colón, Yadilette; Procopio, Elena; Catarzi, Serena; Ferri, Lorenzo; Guido, Carmen; Martelli, Paola; Parini, Rossella; Antuzzi, Daniela; Battini, Roberta; Sibilio, Michela; Simonati, Alessandro; Fontana, Elena; Salviati, Alessandro; Akinci, Gulcin; Cereda, Cristina; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Deodato, Francesca; d’Amico, Adele; d’Azzo, Alessandra; Bertini, Enrico; Filocamo, Mirella; Scarpa, Maurizio; di Rocco, Maja; Tifft, Cynthia J; Ciani, Federica; Gasperini, Serena; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Guerrini, Renzo; Donati, Maria Alice; Morrone, Amelia

2011-01-01

40

Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

Weller, J I; Ezra, E

2015-01-01

41

Gene flow in genetically altered crops helps progress transgenic turfgrass.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous useful traits are being imparted into transgenic and non-transgenic plants. Gene flow as indicated in a recent publication from the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST 2007) is the successful transfer of genetic information between different individuals, populations, and g...

42

Detected microsatellite polymorphisms in genetically altered inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are 50-200 repetitive DNA sequences composed of 1- to 6-base-pair-long reiterative motifs within the genome. They are vulnerable to DNA modifications, such as recombination and/or integration, and are recognized as "sentinel" DNA. Our previous report indicated that the genotypes of the microsatellite loci could change from mono- to poly-morphisms (CMP) in gene knockout (KO) mice, implying that genetic modification induces microsatellite mutation. However, it is still unclear whether the random insertion of DNA fragments into mice genomes produced via transgene (Tg) or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) would also result in microsatellite mutations or microsatellite loci genotypes changes. This study was designed to find possible clues to answer this question. In brief, 198 microsatellite loci that were distributed among almost all of the chromosomes (except for the Y) were examined through polymerase chain reaction to screen possible CMPs in six Tg strains. First, for each strain, the microsatellite sequences of all loci were compared between Tg and the corresponding background strain to exclude genetic interference. Simultaneously, to exclude spontaneous mutation-related CMPs that might exist in the examined six strains, mice from five spontaneously mutated inbred strains were used as the negative controls. Additionally, the sequences of all loci in these spontaneous mutated mice were compared to corresponding genetic background controls. The results showed that 40 of the 198 (20.2%) loci were identified as having CMPs in the examined Tg mice strains. The CMP genotypes were either homozygous or heterozygous compared to the background controls. Next, we applied the 40 CMP positive loci in ENU-mutated mice and their corresponding background controls. After that, a general comparison of CMPs that exist among Tg, ENU-treated and KO mouse strains was performed. The results indicated that four (D11mit258, D13mit3, D14mit102 and DXmit172) of the 40 (10%) CMP loci were shared by Tg and KO mice, two (D15mit5 and D14mit102) (5%) by Tg and ENU-treated mice, and one (D14mit102) (2.5%) by all three genetic modifications. Collectively, our study implies that genetic modifications by KO, Tg or chemical mutant can trigger microsatellite CMPs in inbred mouse strains. These shared microsatellite loci could be regarded as "hot spots" of microsatellite mutation for genetic monitoring in genetic modified mice. PMID:23700121

Du, Xiaoyan; Cui, Jing; Wang, Chao; Huo, Xueyun; Lu, Jing; Li, Yichen; Chen, Zhenwen

2013-08-01

43

Genetic alterations in combined neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-cell neuroendocrine and small-cell lung carcinomas are highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumors that can be associated in a variant of ‘small-cell lung carcinoma combined with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma’. Little is known about this rare tumor type with biphenotypic neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of the present study was to genetically characterize each component of a series of combined small-cell\\/large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, to

Tiziana D'Adda; Giuseppe Pelosi; Costanza Lagrasta; Cinzia Azzoni; Lorena Bottarelli; Silvia Pizzi; Irene Troisi; Guido Rindi; Cesare Bordi

2008-01-01

44

Genetic alteration of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Strain improvement by mutagenesis with UV resulted in Zymomonas mobilis strains which were highly EtOH and temperature tolerant and which were able to produce more than 100 g EtOH /h at EtOH concentrations of 80-90 g/L. Genetic engineering has the potential of producing strains with the ability to ferment starch and cellulose directly to EtOH.

Skotnicki, M.L.; Lee, K.J.; Tribe, D.E.; Rogers, P.L.

1982-01-01

45

Does bleeding affect fetal Doppler parameters during genetic amniocentesis?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fetal Doppler parameters and bleeding at insertion points during amniocentesis. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. A total of 215 amniocentesis procedures were performed during this period. Five patients with Down syndrome were excluded from the study. The remaining 210 patients were divided into Group 1 (bleeding at insertion site) and Group 2 as a control group. One needle type was used for all patients. Umbilical artery resistance index (UARI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UAPI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (MCARI), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI), and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCAPSV) were measured immediately and before and after amniocentesis. Results Bleeding at the insertion point during amniocentesis did not significantly change the UARI (34% increase for Group 1 and 46.5% increase for Group 2, p=0.238), the MCARI (52% increase for Group 1 and 45% increase for Group 2, p=0.622), or the MCAPSV (37% increase for Group 1 and 49% increase for Group 2, p=0.199). UARI, MCARI, MCA PI, and MCAPSV were not significantly altered following amniocentesis in Groups 1 and 2. There was a significant increase in UAPI following amniocentesis only in Group 2. Conclusion Bleeding during genetic amniocentesis did not change umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery Doppler parameters. PMID:24976776

?skender, Cantekin; Tar?m, Ebru; Çok, Tayfun; Kalayc?, Hakan; Parlakgümü?, Ay?e; Yalç?nkaya, Cem

2014-01-01

46

Subchronic arsenic exposure through drinking water alters vascular redox homeostasis and affects physical health in rats.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether arsenic can alter vascular redox homeostasis and modulate antioxidant status, taking rat thoracic aorta as a model vascular tissue. In addition, we evaluated whether the altered vascular biochemical homeostasis could be associated with alterations in the physical indicators of toxicity development. Rats were exposed to arsenic as 25, 50, and 100 ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, food intake, and water consumption were recorded weekly. On the 91st day, rats were sacrificed; vital organs and thoracic aorta were collected. Lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species generation, and antioxidants were assessed in the thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased aortic lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation while decreased reduced glutathione content in a dose-dependent manner. The activities of the enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were decreased. Further, arsenic at 100 ppm decreased feed intake, water consumption, and body weight from the 11th week onward. At this concentration, arsenic increased the relative weights of the liver and kidney. The results suggest that arsenic causes dose-dependent oxidative stress, reduction in antioxidative defense systems, and body weight loss with alteration in hepato-renal organosomatic indices. Overall, subchronic arsenic exposure through drinking water causes alteration in vascular redox homeostasis and at high concentration affects physical health. PMID:25209654

Waghe, Prashantkumar; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Gupta, Priyanka; Kutty, Harikumar Sankaran; Kandasamy, Kannan; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

2014-12-01

47

A genetic code alteration generates a proteome of high diversity in the human pathogen Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic code alterations have been reported in mitochondrial, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic cytoplasmic translation systems, but their evolution and how organisms cope and survive such dramatic genetic events are not understood. Results Here we used an unusual decoding of leucine CUG codons as serine in the main human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to elucidate the global impact of genetic code alterations on the proteome. We show that C. albicans decodes CUG codons ambiguously and tolerates partial reversion of their identity from serine back to leucine on a genome-wide scale. Conclusion Such codon ambiguity expands the proteome of this human pathogen exponentially and is used to generate important phenotypic diversity. This study highlights novel features of C. albicans biology and unanticipated roles for codon ambiguity in the evolution of the genetic code. PMID:17916231

Gomes, Ana C; Miranda, Isabel; Silva, Raquel M; Moura, Gabriela R; Thomas, Benjamin; Akoulitchev, Alexandre; Santos, Manuel AS

2007-01-01

48

Genetic alterations associated with hepatocellular carcinomas define distinct pathways of hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: To evaluate how characterization of genetic alterations can help in the elucidation of liver carcinogenesis pathways, 137 tumors were analyzed. Methods: High-density allelotype, p53, Axin1, and b-catenin gene mutations were determined. Alterations were analyzed according to clinical parameters. Results: Tumors could be divided into 2 groups according to chromosome stability status. In the first group, demon- strating

Pierre Laurent-Puig; Patricia Legoix; Olivier Bluteau; Jacques Belghiti; Dominique Franco; Frederic Binot; Geneviève Monges; Gilles Thomas; Paulette Bioulac-Sage; Jessica Zucman-Rossi

2001-01-01

49

Melanoma: From Melanocyte to Genetic Alterations and Clinical Options  

PubMed Central

Metastatic melanoma remained for decades without any effective treatment and was thus considered as a paradigm of cancer resistance. Recent progress with understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma initiation and progression revealed that melanomas are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous tumors. This recent progress has allowed for the development of treatment able to improve for the first time the overall disease-free survival of metastatic melanoma patients. However, clinical responses are still either too transient or limited to restricted patient subsets. The complete cure of metastatic melanoma therefore remains a challenge in the clinic. This review aims to present the recent knowledge and discoveries of the molecular mechanisms involved in melanoma pathogenesis and their exploitation into clinic that have recently facilitated bench to bedside advances. PMID:24416617

Bertolotto, Corine

2013-01-01

50

Genetic alterations of protein tyrosine phosphatases in human cancers.  

PubMed

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that remove phosphate from tyrosine residues in proteins. Recent whole-exome sequencing of human cancer genomes reveals that many PTPs are frequently mutated in a variety of cancers. Among these mutated PTPs, PTP receptor T (PTPRT) appears to be the most frequently mutated PTP in human cancers. Beside PTPN11, which functions as an oncogene in leukemia, genetic and functional studies indicate that most of mutant PTPs are tumor suppressor genes. Identification of the substrates and corresponding kinases of the mutant PTPs may provide novel therapeutic targets for cancers harboring these mutant PTPs.Oncogene advance online publication, 29 September 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.326. PMID:25263441

Zhao, S; Sedwick, D; Wang, Z

2014-09-29

51

Stress can affect drug pharmacokinetics via serum/tissues protein binding and blood flow rate alterations.  

PubMed

Binding of drugs to plasma and tissue proteins is critically involved in their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Stress affects drugs' protein binding via alterations in plasma proteins' levels and excessive increase of free fatty acids due to cortisol-induced fat mobilisation. Free fatty acids play a crucial antagonistic role to drugs for the binding sites on albumin, the major binding plasma protein, resulting in subtherapeutic or toxic levels of many medications' pharmacological classes (oral anticoagulants, beta-lactames, fluoroquinolones, local anaesthetics). Upon stress, changes in blood flow rate and vascular function are also important parameters that can alter drug distribution and pharmacokinetics. Many cases are reported where stress-induced pharmacokinetic alterations led to serious clinical consequences. However, the stress affected drug activity do not always deteriorate the clinical outcome, due to the adaptive and defensive mechanisms of healthy organism. Sensitive population as patients with serious underlying diseases or after trauma or surgery should be given special attention. Clinicians should be alert and monitor cases where stress-induced drugs' pharmacokinetic modifications can have negative impact on the clinical outcome. PMID:22173744

Antonia, Kotsiou; Anastasia, Alevizou; Tesseromatis, Christine

2012-03-01

52

Genetic alterations of chromosome 8 genes in oral cancer.  

PubMed

The clinical relevance of DNA copy number alterations in chromosome 8 were investigated in oral cancers. The copy numbers of 30 selected genes in 33 OSCC patients were detected using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique. Amplifications of the EIF3E gene were found in 27.3% of the patients, MYC in 18.2%, RECQL4 in 15.2% and MYBL1 in 12.1% of patients. The most frequent gene losses found were the GATA4 gene (24.2%), FGFR1 gene (24.2%), MSRA (21.2) and CSGALNACT1 (12.1%). The co-amplification of EIF3E and RECQL4 was found in 9% of patients and showed significant association with alcohol drinkers. There was a significant association between the amplification of EIF3E gene with non-betel quid chewers and the negative lymph node status. EIF3E amplifications did not show prognostic significance on survival. Our results suggest that EIF3E may have a role in the carcinogenesis of OSCC in non-betel quid chewers. PMID:25123227

Yong, Zachary Wei Ern; Zaini, Zuraiza Mohamad; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Karen-Ng, Lee Peng; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Ismail, Siti Mazlipah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal; Mustafa, Wan Mahadzir Wan; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Tay, Keng Kiong; Zain, Rosnah Binti

2014-01-01

53

Genetic Alterations of Chromosome 8 Genes in Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

The clinical relevance of DNA copy number alterations in chromosome 8 were investigated in oral cancers. The copy numbers of 30 selected genes in 33 OSCC patients were detected using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique. Amplifications of the EIF3E gene were found in 27.3% of the patients, MYC in 18.2%, RECQL4 in 15.2% and MYBL1 in 12.1% of patients. The most frequent gene losses found were the GATA4 gene (24.2%), FGFR1 gene (24.2%), MSRA (21.2) and CSGALNACT1 (12.1%). The co-amplification of EIF3E and RECQL4 was found in 9% of patients and showed significant association with alcohol drinkers. There was a significant association between the amplification of EIF3E gene with non-betel quid chewers and the negative lymph node status. EIF3E amplifications did not show prognostic significance on survival. Our results suggest that EIF3E may have a role in the carcinogenesis of OSCC in non-betel quid chewers. PMID:25123227

Yong, Zachary Wei Ern; Zaini, Zuraiza Mohamad; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Karen-Ng, Lee Peng; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Ismail, Siti Mazlipah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal; Mustafa, Wan Mahadzir Wan; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Tay, Keng Kiong; Zain, Rosnah Binti

2014-01-01

54

Genetic alterations linked with bladder cancer risk, recurrence, progression, and patient survival  

Cancer.gov

A new analysis by researchers from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston has found that genetic alterations in a particular cellular pathway are linked with bladder cancer risk, recurrence, disease progression, and patient survival. Published early online in CANCER, a peer- reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings could help improve bladder cancer screening and treatment.

55

Embryonic PCB exposure alters phenotypic, genetic, and epigenetic profiles in turtle sex determination, a  

E-print Network

bioaccumulate in fatty tissue of organisms throughout the food web and tertiary consumers, includ- ing humansEmbryonic PCB exposure alters phenotypic, genetic, and epigenetic profiles in turtle sex be modified by an exposure to exogenous chemicals such as environmental contami- nants. Although phenotypic

Crews, David

56

DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for the Analysis of Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Genetic somatic alterations are fundamental hallmarks of cancer. In addition to point and other small mutations targeting cancer genes, solid tumors often exhibit aneuploidy as well as multiple chromosomal rearrangements of large fragments of the genome. Whether somatic chromosomal alterations and aneuploidy are a driving force or a mere consequence of tumorigenesis remains controversial. Recently it became apparent that not only genetic but also epigenetic alterations play a major role in carcinogenesis. Epigenetic regulation mechanisms underlie the maintenance of cell identity crucial for development and differentiation. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms have been found substantially altered during cancer development and progression. In this review, we discuss approaches designed to analyze genetic and epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer, especially DNA fingerprinting approaches to detect changes in DNA copy number and methylation. DNA fingerprinting techniques, despite their modest throughput, played a pivotal role in significant discoveries in the molecular basis of colorectal cancer. The aim of this review is to revisit the fingerprinting technologies employed and the oncogenic processes that they unveiled. PMID:20851135

Samuelsson, Johanna K.; Alonso, Sergio; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Perucho, Manuel

2010-01-01

57

Patterns of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Both K-ras and p53 gene mutations are found commonly in pancreatic tumors. Analysis of the mutational patterns may provide insight into disease etiology. To further describe the mutational patterns of pancreatic cancer and to assess the evidence to date, we performed a pooled analysis of the published data on genetic mutations associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We included data from studies that evaluated point mutations in the two genes most studied in pancreatic cancer, K-ras and p53. A majority of the 204 tumors had mutations in at least one gene, with 29% having both K-ras and p53 mutations, 39% with K-ras mutation alone, and 16% having p53 mutation alone. Sixteen percent of tumors lacked mutation in either gene. K-ras mutations were present in high frequencies in all tumor grades (>69%). A statistically significant trend was observed for p53 mutation with higher tumor grade (P = 0.04). For K-ras, G2 and G3 grades, combined, had notably higher prevalences of mutation than G1 (P = 0.004). CGT mutations in K-ras codon 12 were marginally associated with lower tumor grade (P for trend = 0.09), and these tumors were somewhat less likely to have a p53 mutation than tumors with other K-ras mutations (P = 0.06). In the 59 K-ras+/p53+ tumors, 64% had the same type of mutation (transition or transversion) in both genes, suggesting a common mechanism. The mutational pattern of p53 in pancreatic cancer is similar to bladder cancer, another smoking-related cancer, but not to lung cancer. Analyses of molecular data, such as that performed here, present new avenues for epidemiologists in the study of the etiology of specific cancers. PMID:10217065

Blanck, H M; Tolbert, P E; Hoppin, J A

1999-01-01

58

Pyridostigmine prevents haemodynamic alterations but does not affect their nycthemeral oscillations in infarcted mice.  

PubMed

The increase in acetylcholine yielded by pyridostigmine (PYR), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was evaluated for its effect on the haemodynamic responses-mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR)-and their nycthemeral oscillation in mice before and one week after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice were anesthetized (isoflurane), and a telemetry transmitter was implanted into the carotid artery. After 5days of recovery, the MAP and HR were recorded for 48h (10s every 10min). Following this procedure, mice were submitted to surgery for sham or coronary artery ligation and received drinking water (VEHICLE) with or without PYR. Five days after surgery, the haemodynamic recordings were recommenced. Sham surgery combined with VEHICLE did not affect basal MAP and HR; nevertheless, these haemodynamic parameters were higher during the night, before and after surgery. MI combined with VEHICLE displayed decreased MAP and increased HR; these haemodynamic parameters were also higher during the night, before and after surgery. Sham surgery combined with PYR displayed similar results for MAP as sham combined with VEHICLE; however, PYR produced bradycardia. Nevertheless, MI combined with PYR exhibited no change in MAP and HR, but these haemodynamic parameters were also higher during the night, before and after surgery. Therefore, MI decreased MAP and increased HR, while PYR prevented these alterations. Neither MI nor PYR affected nycthemeral oscillations of MAP and HR. These findings indicate that the increase in acetylcholine yielded by PYR protected the haemodynamic alterations caused by MI in mice, without affecting the nycthemeral haemodynamic oscillations. PMID:25434306

Corrêa, Wesley G; Durand, Marina T; Becari, Christiane; Tezini, Geisa C S V; do Carmo, Jussara M; de Oliveira, Mauro; Prado, Cibele M; Fazan, Rubens; Salgado, Helio C

2015-01-01

59

Dim light at night interacts with intermittent hypoxia to alter cognitive and affective responses  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dim light at night (dLAN) have both been independently associated with alterations in mood and cognition. We aimed to determine whether dLAN would interact with intermittent hypoxia (IH), a condition characteristic of OSA, to alter the behavioral, cognitive, and affective responses. Adult male mice were housed in either standard lighting conditions (14:10-h light-dark cycle; 150 lux:0 lux) or dLAN (150 lux:5 lux). Mice were then exposed to IH (15 cycles/h, 8 h/day, FiO2 nadir of 5%) for 3 wk, then tested in assays of affective and cognitive responses; brains were collected for dendritic morphology and PCR analysis. Exposure to dLAN and IH increased anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed in the open field, elevated plus maze, and the light/dark box. dLAN and IH increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. IH impaired learning and memory performance in the passive avoidance task; however, no differences were observed in spatial working memory, as assessed by y-maze or object recognition. IH combined with dLAN decreased cell body area in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Overall, IH decreased apical spine density in the CA3, whereas dLAN decreased spine density in the CA1 of the hippocampus. TNF-? gene expression was not altered by IH or lighting condition, whereas VEGF expression was increased by dLAN. The combination of IH and dLAN provokes negative effects on hippocampal dendritic morphology, affect, and cognition, suggesting that limiting nighttime exposure to light in combination with other established treatments may be of benefit to patients with OSA. PMID:23657638

Weil, Zachary M.; Magalang, Ulysses J.; Nelson, Randy J.

2013-01-01

60

The role of genetic factors in the etiology of seasonal affective disorder and seasonality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the genetic basis of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a condition where depressions in fall and winter alternate with nondepressed periods in the spring and summer, has recently received attention. The data on the genetics of seasonal affective disorders are of three types: 1. Familiality: Studies on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among relatives of patients with SAD

Leo Sher; David Goldman; Norio Ozaki; Norman E Rosenthal

1999-01-01

61

Altered nutritional requirements associated with mutations affecting the structures of ribonucleic acid polymerase in Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

Rifampin-resistant mutants were isolated from Lactobacillus casei S1 and examined for possible simultaneous alteration in nutritional properties. Among the 36 mutants obtained either spontaneously or after mutagenesis with 2-aminopurine, 22 were found to be altered with respect to the specific growth requirements. The majority (20 of 22) of the latter mutants were shown to require L-glutamine in addition to the nutrients required by the parental strain for maximal growth, whereas the remaining mutants had apparently lost the requirement for L-aspartate. Further studies with one of the glutamine-requiring mutants revealed that the rifampin resistance of this strain is due to the resistance of ribonucleic acid polymerase itself and that a single mutation is responsible for both rifampin resistance and the glutamine requirement. These results strongly indicate that a structural alteration of the ribonucleic acid polymerase caused by the rifampin resistance mutation somehow affected glutamine metabolism, possibly through change in selective transcription of the genes involved. PMID:1379

Morishita, T; Yura, T

1976-02-01

62

Genetic variation in CACNA1C affects neural processing in major depression.  

PubMed

Genetic studies found the A allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1006737 in the CACNA1C gene, which encodes for the alpha 1C subunit of the voltage-dependent, L-type calcium ion channel Cav1.2, to be overrepresented in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered prefrontal brain functioning and impaired semantic verbal fluency (SVF) are robust findings in these patients. A recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study found the A allele to be associated with poorer performance and increased left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation during SVF tasks in healthy subjects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of rs1006737 on neural processing during SVF in MDD. In response to semantic category cues, 40 patients with MDD and 40 matched controls overtly generated words while brain activity was measured with fMRI. As revealed by whole brain analyses, genotype significantly affected brain activity in patients. Compared to patients with GG genotype, patients with A allele demonstrated increased task-related activation in the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral cerebellum. Patients with A allele also showed enhanced functional coupling between left middle/inferior and right superior/middle frontal gyri. No differential effects of genotype on SVF performance or brain activation were found between diagnostic groups. The current data provide further evidence for an impact of rs1006737 on the left IFG and demonstrate that genetic variation in CACNA1C modulates neural responses in patients with MDD. The observed functional alterations in prefrontal and cerebellar areas might represent a mechanism by which rs1006737 influences susceptibility to MDD. PMID:24612926

Backes, Heidelore; Dietsche, Bruno; Nagels, Arne; Konrad, Carsten; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

2014-06-01

63

Genetic Screens for Mutations Affecting Development of Xenopus tropicalis  

PubMed Central

We present here the results of forward and reverse genetic screens for chemically-induced mutations in Xenopus tropicalis. In our forward genetic screen, we have uncovered 77 candidate phenotypes in diverse organogenesis and differentiation processes. Using a gynogenetic screen design, which minimizes time and husbandry space expenditures, we find that if a phenotype is detected in the gynogenetic F2 of a given F1 female twice, it is highly likely to be a heritable abnormality (29/29 cases). We have also demonstrated the feasibility of reverse genetic approaches for obtaining carriers of mutations in specific genes, and have directly determined an induced mutation rate by sequencing specific exons from a mutagenized population. The Xenopus system, with its well-understood embryology, fate map, and gain-of-function approaches, can now be coupled with efficient loss-of-function genetic strategies for vertebrate functional genomics and developmental genetics. PMID:16789825

Clark, Matthew D; Stemple, Derek L; Zimmerman, Lyle B

2006-01-01

64

Campylobacter jejuni pdxA Affects Flagellum-Mediated Motility to Alter Host Colonization  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, PLP) is linked to a variety of biological functions in prokaryotes. Here, we report that the pdxA (putative 4-hydroxy-L-threonine phosphate dehydrogenase) gene plays a pivotal role in the PLP-dependent regulation of flagellar motility, thereby altering host colonization in a leading foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni. A C. jejuni pdxA mutant failed to produce PLP and exhibited a coincident loss of flagellar motility. Mass spectrometric analyses showed a 3-fold reduction in the main flagellar glycan pseudaminic acid (Pse) associated with the disruption of pdxA. The pdxA mutant also exhibited reduced growth rates compared with the WT strain. Comparative metabolomic analyses revealed differences in respiratory/energy metabolism between WT C. jejuni and the pdxA mutant, providing a possible explanation for the differential growth fitness between the two strains. Consistent with the lack of flagellar motility, the pdxA mutant showed impaired motility-mediated responses (bacterial adhesion, ERK1/2 activation, and IL-8 production) in INT407 cells and reduced colonization of chickens compared with the WT strain. Overall, this study demonstrated that the pdxA gene affects the PLP-mediated flagellar motility function, mainly through alteration of Pse modification, and the disruption of this gene also alters the respiratory/energy metabolisms to potentially affect host colonization. Our data therefore present novel implications regarding the utility of PLP and its dependent enzymes as potent target(s) for the control of this pathogen in the poultry host. PMID:23936426

Asakura, Hiroshi; Hashii, Noritaka; Uema, Masashi; Kawasaki, Nana; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Igimi, Shizunobu; Yamamoto, Shigeki

2013-01-01

65

Manipulation of in vivo iron levels can alter resistance to oxidative stress without affecting ageing in the nematode C. elegans  

E-print Network

Manipulation of in vivo iron levels can alter resistance to oxidative stress without affecting in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Media supplementation with Fe(III) increased free iron levels in vivo

Gems, David

66

A guide to murine coagulation factor structure, function, assays, and genetic alterations.  

PubMed

Murine blood coagulation factors and function are quite similar to those of humans. Because of this similarity and the adaptability of mice to genetic manipulation, murine coagulation factors and inhibitors have been extensively studied. These studies have provided significant insights into human hemostasis. They have also provided useful experimental models for evaluation of the pathophysiology and treatment of thrombosis. This review contains recommendations for obtaining, processing and assaying mouse blood hemostatic components, and it summarizes the extensive literature on murine coagulation factor structure and function, assays and genetic alteration. It is intended to be a convenient reference source for investigators of hemostasis and thrombosis. PMID:17403201

Emeis, J J; Jirouskova, M; Muchitsch, E-M; Shet, A S; Smyth, S S; Johnson, G J

2007-04-01

67

Genetically modified animal models recapitulating molecular events altered in human hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

New advancements have been made in recent years in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human liver tumorigenesis.\\u000a Experimental animal models have been widely used, especially mouse models. In this review we highlight some of the genetically\\u000a engineered mouse models that have proved to be excellent tools to study the intracellular signalling pathways altered in hepatocarcinogenesis\\u000a and establish

Aránzazu Sánchez; Isabel Fabregat

2009-01-01

68

Use of Genetically Altered Stem Cells for the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Transplantation of stem cells for the treatment of Huntington’s disease (HD) garnered much attention prior to the turn of the century. Several studies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have indicated that these cells have enormous therapeutic potential in HD and other disorders. Advantages of using MSCs for cell therapies include their ease of isolation, rapid propagation in culture, and favorable immunomodulatory profiles. However, the lack of consistent neuronal differentiation of transplanted MSCs has limited their therapeutic efficacy to slowing the progression of HD-like symptoms in animal models of HD. The use of MSCs which have been genetically altered to overexpress brain derived neurotrophic factor to enhance support of surviving cells in a rodent model of HD provides proof-of-principle that these cells may provide such prophylactic benefits. New techniques that may prove useful for cell replacement therapies in HD include the use of genetically altering fate-restricted cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These iPSCs appear to have certain advantages over the use of embryonic stem cells, including being readily available, easy to obtain, less evidence of tumor formation, and a reduced immune response following their transplantation. Recently, transplants of iPSCs have shown to differentiate into region-specific neurons in an animal model of HD. The overall successes of using genetically altered stem cells for reducing neuropathological and behavioral deficits in rodent models of HD suggest that these approaches have considerable potential for clinical use. However, the choice of what type of genetically altered stem cell to use for transplantation is dependent on the stage of HD and whether the end-goal is preserving endogenous neurons in early-stage HD, or replacing the lost neurons in late-stage HD. This review will discuss the current state of stem cell technology for treating the different stages of HD and possible future directions for stem-cell therapy in HD. PMID:24961705

Crane, Andrew T.; Rossignol, Julien; Dunbar, Gary L.

2014-01-01

69

Reversion of a fungal genetic code alteration links proteome instability with genomic and phenotypic diversification  

PubMed Central

Many fungi restructured their proteomes through incorporation of serine (Ser) at thousands of protein sites coded by the leucine (Leu) CUG codon. How these fungi survived this potentially lethal genetic code alteration and its relevance for their biology are not understood. Interestingly, the human pathogen Candida albicans maintains variable Ser and Leu incorporation levels at CUG sites, suggesting that this atypical codon assignment flexibility provided an effective mechanism to alter the genetic code. To test this hypothesis, we have engineered C. albicans strains to misincorporate increasing levels of Leu at protein CUG sites. Tolerance to the misincorporations was very high, and one strain accommodated the complete reversion of CUG identity from Ser back to Leu. Increasing levels of Leu misincorporation decreased growth rate, but production of phenotypic diversity on a phenotypic array probing various metabolic networks, drug resistance, and host immune cell responses was impressive. Genome resequencing revealed an increasing number of genotype changes at polymorphic sites compared with the control strain, and 80% of Leu misincorporation resulted in complete loss of heterozygosity in a large region of chromosome V. The data unveil unanticipated links between gene translational fidelity, proteome instability and variability, genome diversification, and adaptive phenotypic diversity. They also explain the high heterozygosity of the C. albicans genome and open the door to produce microorganisms with genetic code alterations for basic and applied research. PMID:23776239

Bezerra, Ana R.; Simões, João; Lee, Wanseon; Rung, Johan; Weil, Tobias; Gut, Ivo G.; Gut, Marta; Bayés, Mónica; Rizzetto, Lisa; Cavalieri, Duccio; Giovannini, Gloria; Bozza, Silvia; Romani, Luigina; Kapushesky, Misha; Moura, Gabriela R.; Santos, Manuel A. S.

2013-01-01

70

Progress in detecting genetic alterations and their association with human disease.  

PubMed

The completion of the Human Genome Project provided a reference sequence to which researchers could compare sequences from individual patients in the hope of identifying disease-causing mutations. However, this still necessitated candidate gene testing or a very limited screen of multiple genes using Sanger sequencing. With the advent of high-throughput Sanger sequencing, it became possible to screen hundreds of patients for alterations in hundreds of genes. This process was time consuming and limited to a few locations/institutions that had the space to house tens of sequencing equipment. The development of next generation sequencing revolutionized the process. It is now feasible to sequence the entire exome of multiple individuals in about 10 days. However, this meant that a massive amount of data needed to be filtered to identify the relevant alteration. This is presently the rate-limiting step in providing a convincing association between a genetic alteration and a human disorder. PMID:23876707

Schwartz, Charles E; Chen, Chin-Fu

2013-11-01

71

Genetic background affects susceptibility to tumoral stem cell reprogramming  

PubMed Central

The latest studies of the interactions between oncogenes and its target cell have shown that certain oncogenes may act as passengers to reprogram tissue-specific stem/progenitor cell into a malignant cancer stem cell state. In this study, we show that the genetic background influences this tumoral stem cell reprogramming capacity of the oncogenes using as a model the Sca1-BCRABLp210 mice, where the type of tumor they develop, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), is a function of tumoral stem cell reprogramming. Sca1-BCRABLp210 mice containing FVB genetic components were significantly more resistant to CML. However, pure Sca1-BCRABLp210 FVB mice developed thymomas that were not seen in the Sca1-BCRABLp210 mice into the B6 background. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that tumoral stem cell reprogramming fate is subject to polymorphic genetic control. PMID:23839033

García-Ramírez, Idoia; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Blanco, Óscar; García-Cenador, María Begoña; García-Criado, Francisco Javier; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Sánchez-García, Isidro

2013-01-01

72

HLA system and affective disorders: a sibship genetic study.  

PubMed

The authors have investigated HLA-haplotype zygotic assortment in 21 families with multiple cases of affective disorders and in 19 sibling pairs discordant for the disease. The finding of excess similarity between affected sibs stressed the possibility of the existence of genes in the HLA chromosomal region which are involved in the susceptibility to affective disorders. The mode of inheritance of such an hypothesized DS gene was also tested and some theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:725908

Smeraldi, E; Negri, F; Melica, A M; Scorza-Smeraldi, R

1978-10-01

73

Population genetic dynamics of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in anthropogenic altered habitats  

PubMed Central

In industrialized and/or agriculturally used landscapes, inhabiting species are exposed to a variety of anthropogenic changes in their environments. Genetic diversity may be reduced if populations encounter founder events, bottlenecks, or isolation. Conversely, genetic diversity may increase if populations adapt to changes in selective regimes in newly created habitats. With the present study, genetic variability of 918 sticklebacks from 43 samplings (21.3 ± 3.8 per sample) at 36 locations from cultivated landscapes in Northwest Germany was analyzed at nine neutral microsatellite loci. To test if differentiation is influenced by habitat alterations, sticklebacks were collected from ancient running waters and adjacent artificial stagnant waters, from brooks with salt water inflow of anthropogenic and natural origin and adjacent freshwater sites. Overall population structure was dominated by isolation by distance (IBD), which was significant across all populations, and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 10.6% of the variation was explained by river catchment area. Populations in anthropogenic modified habitats deviated from the general IBD structure and in the AMOVA, grouping by habitat type running/stagnant water explained 4.9% of variation and 1.4% of the variation was explained by salt-/freshwater habitat. Sticklebacks in salt-polluted water systems seem to exhibit elevated migratory activity between fresh- and saltwater habitats, reducing IBD. In other situations, populations showed distinct signs of genetic isolation, which in some locations was attributed to mechanical migration barriers, but in others to potential anthropogenic induced bottleneck or founder effects. The present study shows that anthropogenic habitat alterations may have diverse effects on the population genetic structure of inhabiting species. Depending on the type of habitat change, increased genetic differentiation, diversification, or isolation are possible consequences. PMID:22833789

Scharsack, Joern P; Schweyen, Hannah; Schmidt, Alexander M; Dittmar, Janine; Reusch, Thorsten BH; Kurtz, Joachim

2012-01-01

74

Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.  

PubMed

Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet-up and between seasons and treatments. Overall, microbial activity may directly (C respiration) and indirectly (enzyme potential) reduce soil organic matter pools less in drier soils, and soil C sequestration potential (CUE) may be higher in soils with a history of extended dry periods between rainfall events. The implications include that soil C loss may be reduced or compensated for via different mechanisms at varying time scales, and that microbial taxa with better stress tolerance or growth efficiency may be associated with these functional shifts. PMID:24358718

Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

2013-10-01

75

Genetic Polymorphisms in Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) in Chinese and Japanese Populations Exhibit Altered  

E-print Network

- betic drug metformin. Genetic variants in OCT1 have been identified largely in European populations. Metformin is in- creasingly being used in Asian populations where the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in Chinese and Japanese pop- ulations may affect the differential response to metformin. Introduction

Sali, Andrej

76

Newly Identified Genetic Variations May Affect Breast Cancer Risk  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic variations in a region of DNA that may be associated with risk for breast cancer. Women with the variation have a 1.4 times greater risk of developing breast cancer compared to those without this variation.

77

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-12-01

78

Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.  

PubMed

Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

2013-10-01

79

Genetic alterations and expression of the protein phosphatase 1 genes in human cancers.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed that genetic alterations of the protein phosphatase genes, including PTEN, PPP2R1A, PPP2R1B and PPP1R3, are involved in human carcinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the genetic and expression status of nine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) genes in 55 human cancer cell lines, consisting of 10 small cell lung cancers, 22 non-small cell lung cancers, 11 colorectal cancers, 7 gastric cancers and 5 ovarian cancers. The PP1 genes examined were three catalytic subunit genes, PPP1CA, PPP1CB and PPP1CC, and six regulatory subunit genes, PPP1R1A, PPP1R2, PPP1R5, PPP1R6, PPP1R7 and PPP1R8. Three catalytic subunit genes and three regulatory subunit genes, PPP1R2, PPP1R7 and PPP1R8, were ubiquitously expressed in the 55 cell lines, while PPP1R1A, PPP1R5, and PPP1R6 were differentially expressed. Possible missense mutations of the PPP1R5, PPP1R7 and PPP1R8 genes were detected in one (2%), two (4%) and one (2%) cell line, respectively. A rare, non-synonymous polymorphism was also identified in the PPP1R5 gene. Four of the 55 cell lines carried genetic alterations of several protein phosphatase genes, including PTEN, PPP1R3, PPP1R7 and PPP1R8. Ubiquitous expression as well as a lack of genetic diversity of catalytic subunit genes suggested the essential role of these genes for the growth of cancer cells. In contrast, differential expression, somatic mutations and/or genetic polymorphisms of several regulatory subunit genes indicate the involvement of these genes in multistep carcinogenesis. PMID:11251179

Takakura, S; Kohno, T; Manda, R; Okamoto, A; Tanaka, T; Yokota, J

2001-04-01

80

Genetic implications in assortative mating of affective disorders.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders in a sample of spouses of probands with recurrent Primary Affective Disorders (PAD) and in their first degree relatives were evaluated and compared with those in the spouse of control subjects without psychiatric illnesses. No differences were found in the risk for PAD, but spouses of PAD patients and their respective first degree relatives manifested a greater incidence of affective spectrum disorders. PMID:7272616

Negri, F; Melica, A M; Zuliani, R; Gasperini, M; Macciardi, F; Smeraldi, E

1981-03-01

81

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ? 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

2013-08-01

82

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency (m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6?±?6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ???7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ?>?7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated. PMID:23728203

Tarpy, David R; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S

2013-08-01

83

Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

The commonest pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We utilized whole genome sequencing to discover multiple novel genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24/39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes containing TKD-duplicated FGFR1 into brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. TKD-duplicated FGFR1 induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs/LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P.; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Dalton, James D.; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A.; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Dooling, David J.; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L.; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G.; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Downing, James R.; Baker, Suzanne J.; Ellison, David W.

2013-01-01

84

Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

2013-06-01

85

A genetic algorithms approach for altering the membership functions in fuzzy logic controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through previous work, a fuzzy control system was developed to perform translational and rotational control of a space vehicle. This problem was then re-examined to determine the effectiveness of genetic algorithms on fine tuning the controller. This paper explains the problems associated with the design of this fuzzy controller and offers a technique for tuning fuzzy logic controllers. A fuzzy logic controller is a rule-based system that uses fuzzy linguistic variables to model human rule-of-thumb approaches to control actions within a given system. This 'fuzzy expert system' features rules that direct the decision process and membership functions that convert the linguistic variables into the precise numeric values used for system control. Defining the fuzzy membership functions is the most time consuming aspect of the controller design. One single change in the membership functions could significantly alter the performance of the controller. This membership function definition can be accomplished by using a trial and error technique to alter the membership functions creating a highly tuned controller. This approach can be time consuming and requires a great deal of knowledge from human experts. In order to shorten development time, an iterative procedure for altering the membership functions to create a tuned set that used a minimal amount of fuel for velocity vector approach and station-keep maneuvers was developed. Genetic algorithms, search techniques used for optimization, were utilized to solve this problem.

Shehadeh, Hana; Lea, Robert N.

1992-01-01

86

Y chromosome microdeletions and alterations of spermatogenesis, patient approach and genetic counseling.  

PubMed

Infertility affects 15% of couples at reproductive age and human male infertility appears frequently idiopathic. The main genetic causes of spermatogenesis defect responsible for non-obstructive azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia are constitutional chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions in the azoospermia factor region of the Y chromosome. The improvement of the Yq microdeletion screening method gave new insights in the mechanism responsible for the genesis of Yq microdeletions and for the consequences of the management of male infertility and genetic counselling in case of assisted reproductive technology. PMID:24786699

Rives, Nathalie

2014-05-01

87

Aeromonas proteolyrica bacteria in aerospace environments. [possible genetic alterations and effects on man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preflight studies on Aeromonas proteolytica are reported to investigate the possibility of genetic alterations resulting in increased proteolysis in spacecraft environments. This organism may be present on human tissue and could pose medical problems if its endopeptidase and a hemolysin were to be produced in ususually high quantities or altered in such a way as to be more effective in their activities. Considered are: (1) Development of a nutrative holding medium for suspension of organisms; (2) the establishment of baseline information for the standardization of the assay for endopeptidase levels and hemolytic titers; (3) formulation of a method by which intracutaneous hemorrhage could be quantitated in guinea pig tissue; and (4) the responses of these organisms to parameters of spaceflight and experimentation.

Foster, B. G.

1974-01-01

88

Phytoplasmal infection derails genetically preprogrammed meristem fate and alters plant architecture  

PubMed Central

In the life cycle of higher plants, it is the fate of meristem cells that determines the pattern of growth and development, and therefore plant morphotype and fertility. Floral transition, the turning point from vegetative growth to reproductive development, is achieved via genetically programmed sequential changes in meristem fate from vegetative to inflorescence, and to floral, leading to flower formation and eventual seed production. The transition is rarely reversible once initiated. In this communication, we report that a bacterial infection can derail the genetically programmed fate of meristem cells, thereby drastically altering the growth pattern of the host plant. We identified four characteristic symptoms in tomato plants infected with a cell wall-less bacterium, phytoplasma. The symptoms are a manifestation of the pathogen-induced alterations of growth pattern, whereas each symptom corresponds to a distinct phase in the derailment of shoot apical meristem fate. The phases include premature floral meristem termination, suppressed floral meristem initiation, delayed conversion of vegetative meristem to inflorescence meristem, and repetitive initiation and outgrowth of lateral vegetative meristems. We further found that the pathogen-induced alterations of growth pattern were correlated with transcriptional reprogramming of key meristem switching genes. Our findings open an avenue toward understanding pathological alterations in patterns of plant growth and development, thus aiding identification of molecular targets for disease control and symptom alleviation. The findings also provide insights for understanding stem cell pluripotency and raise a tantalizing possibility for using phytoplasma as a tool to dissect the course of normal plant development and to modify plant morphogenesis by manipulating meristem fate. PMID:24191032

Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert Edward; Nuss, Donald L.; Zhao, Yan

2013-01-01

89

Cysteine 27 Variant of the ?-Opioid Receptor Affects Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing through Altered Endocytic Trafficking ?  

PubMed Central

Agonist-induced activation of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) was recently shown to augment ?- and ?-secretase activities, which increased the production of ?-amyloid peptide (A?), known to accumulate in the brain tissues of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Previously, the ?OR variant with a phenylalanine at position 27 (?OR-Phe27) exhibited more efficient receptor maturation and higher stability at the cell surface than did the less common cysteine (?OR-Cys27) variant. For this study, we expressed these variants in human SH-SY5Y and HEK293 cells expressing exogenous or endogenous amyloid precursor protein (APP) and assessed the effects on APP processing. Expression of ?OR-Cys27, but not ?OR-Phe27, resulted in a robust accumulation of the APP C83 C-terminal fragment and the APP intracellular domain, while the total soluble APP and, particularly, the ?-amyloid 40 levels were decreased. These changes upon ?OR-Cys27 expression coincided with decreased localization of APP C-terminal fragments in late endosomes and lysosomes. Importantly, a long-term treatment with a subset of ?OR-specific ligands or a c-Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor suppressed the ?OR-Cys27-induced APP phenotype. These data suggest that an increased constitutive internalization and/or concurrent signaling of the ?OR-Cys27 variant affects APP processing through altered endocytic trafficking of APP. PMID:21464208

Sarajärvi, Timo; Tuusa, Jussi T.; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Lackman, Jarkko J.; Sormunen, Raija; Helisalmi, Seppo; Roehr, Johannes T.; Parrado, Antonio R.; Mäkinen, Petra; Bertram, Lars; Soininen, Hilkka; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Petäjä-Repo, Ulla E.; Hiltunen, Mikko

2011-01-01

90

The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens. PMID:23665381

Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

2013-11-01

91

Altering the axial light gradient affects photomorphogenesis in emerging seedlings of Zea mays L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The axial (longitudinal) red light gradient (632 nanometers) of 4 day old dark-grown maize seedlings is increased by staining the peripheral cells of the coleoptile. The magnitude of increase in the light gradient is dependent solely on the light-absorbing qualities of the stain used. Metanil yellow has no effect on the axial red-light gradient, while methylene blue causes a large increase in this light gradient. These stains did not affect growth in darkness or the sensitivity of mesocotyl elongation to red light. However, mesocotyl elongation was altered for the dark-grown seedlings stained with methylene blue when these seedlings were transplanted, covered with soil, and permitted to emerge under natural lighting conditions. These observations are consistent with the idea that there is a single perceptive site below the coleoptilar node, and suggest that this perceptive site gives the actinic light which has traveled downward through the length of the shoot from an entry point in the plant tip region.

Parks, B. M.; Poff, K. L.

1986-01-01

92

Altering the axial light gradient affects photomorphogenesis in emerging seedlings of Zea mays L  

SciTech Connect

The axial (longitudinal) red-light gradient (632 nanometers) of 4 day old dark-grown maize seedlings is increased by staining the peripheral cells of the coleoptile. The magnitude of increase in the light gradient is dependent solely on the light-absorbing qualities of the stain used. Metanil yellow has no effect on the axial red-light gradient, while methylene blue causes a large increase in this light gradient. These stains did not affect growth in darkness or the sensitivity of mesocotyl elongation to red light. However, mesocotyl elongation was altered for the dark-grown seedlings stained with methylene blue when these seedlings were transplanted, covered with soil, and permitted to emerge under natural lighting conditions. These observations are consistent with the idea that there is a single perceptive site below the coleoptilar node, and suggest that this perceptive site receives the actinic light which has traveled downward through the length of the shoot from an entry point in the plant tip region.

Parks, B.M.; Poff, K.L.

1986-05-01

93

Cytolethal Distending Toxin Family Members Are Differentially Affected by Alterations in Host Glycans and Membrane Cholesterol*  

PubMed Central

Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are tripartite protein exotoxins produced by a diverse group of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Based on their ability to induce DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of cultured cells, CDTs are proposed to enhance virulence by blocking cellular division and/or directly killing epithelial and immune cells. Despite the widespread distribution of CDTs among several important human pathogens, our understanding of how these toxins interact with host cells is limited. Here we demonstrate that CDTs from Haemophilus ducreyi, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni differ in their abilities to intoxicate host cells with defined defects in host factors previously implicated in CDT binding, including glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids. The absence of cell surface sialic acid sensitized cells to intoxication by three of the four CDTs tested. Surprisingly, fucosylated N-linked glycans and glycolipids, previously implicated in CDT-host interactions, were not required for intoxication by any of the CDTs tested. Finally, altering host-cellular cholesterol, also previously implicated in CDT binding, affected intoxication by only a subset of CDTs tested. The findings presented here provide insight into the molecular and cellular basis of CDT-host interactions. PMID:20385557

Eshraghi, Aria; Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J.; Gargi, Amandeep; Cardwell, Marissa M.; Prouty, Michael G.; Blanke, Steven R.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

94

Chemosensory cues affect amygdaloid neurogenesis and alter behaviors in the socially monogamous prairie vole.  

PubMed

The current study examined the effects of pheromonal exposure on adult neurogenesis and revealed the role of the olfactory pathways on adult neurogenesis and behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Subjects were injected with a cell proliferation marker [5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] and then exposed to their own soiled bedding or bedding soiled by a same- or opposite-sex conspecific. Exposure to opposite-sex bedding increased BrdU labeling in the amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus (DG), of female, but not male, voles, indicating a sex-, stimulus-, and brain region-specific effect. The removal of the main olfactory bulbs or lesioning of the vomeronasal organ (VNOX) in females reduced BrdU labeling in the AMY and DG, and inhibited the male bedding-induced BrdU labeling in the AMY, revealing the importance of an intact olfactory pathway for amygdaloid neurogenesis. VNOX increased anxiety-like behavior and altered social preference, but it did not affect social recognition memory in female voles. VNOX also reduced the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells that co-expressed the neuronal marker TuJ1 in the AMY, but not the DG. Together, our data indicate the importance of the olfactory pathway in mediating brain plasticity in the limbic system as well as its role in behavior. PMID:24641515

Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Jia, X; Curtis, J T; Meredith, M; Wang, Z X

2014-05-01

95

Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be envisioned in which the process could provide intrinsic impetus to speciation. PMID:9533122

Amos, W; Harwood, J

1998-01-01

96

Phenotypic integration of skeletal traits during growth buffers genetic variants affecting the slenderness of femora in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Compensatory interactions among adult skeletal traits are critical for establishing strength but complicate the search for fracture susceptibility genes by allowing many genetic variants to exist in a population without loss of function. A better understanding of how these interactions arise during growth will provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and the biological controls that establish skeletal strength. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting growth in width relative to growth in length (slenderness) are coordinated with movement of the inner bone surface and matrix mineralization to match stiffness with weight-bearing loads during postnatal growth. Midshaft femoral morphology and tissue-mineral density were quantified at ages of 1 day and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks for a panel of 20 female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Path Analyses revealed significant compensatory interactions among outer-surface expansion rate, inner-surface expansion rate, and tissue-mineral density during postnatal growth, indicating that genetic variants affecting bone slenderness were buffered mechanically by the precise regulation of bone surface movements and matrix mineralization. Importantly, the covariation between morphology and mineralization resulted from a heritable constraint limiting the amount of tissue that could be used to construct a functional femur. The functional interactions during growth explained 56-99% of the variability in adult traits and mechanical properties. These functional interactions provide quantitative expectations of how genetic or environmental variants affecting one trait should be compensated by changes in other traits. Variants that impair this process or that cannot be fully compensated are expected to alter skeletal growth leading to underdesigned (weak) or overdesigned (bulky) structures. PMID:19082857

Jepsen, Karl J.; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Cordova, Matthew; Nadeau, Joseph H.

2009-01-01

97

An optimized technology platform for the rapid multiplex molecular analysis of genetic alterations associated with leukemia  

PubMed Central

Molecular methods play a critical role in the accurate diagnosis of leukemia by complementing morphologic, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic analyses. We developed a multiplex RT-PCR method combined with liquid bead array cytometry for the rapid detection of genetic alterations associated with leukemia. Fusion transcripts corresponding to the most common recurrent chromosomal translocations were reproducibly detected in as low as 0.1 to 10 ng of total RNA with an analytical sensitivity of 0.01 to 1%. Multi-day, -lot, -operator, and -instrument precision studies for a total of 678 independent measures in 46 runs showed a very high reproducibility with 100% agreement between replicates. Using multiplex panels for four to twenty independent targets, we demonstrate the flexibility of the method to co-detect rare splicing isoforms, discriminate between multiple variants generated by unique cytogenetic abnormalities, identify distinct chromosomal partners involved with 11q23 or 17q21 rearrangements, and assess cryptic abnormalities not detectable by standard cytogenetics such as t(12;21), del(1p32), or NPM1 mutations. Overall, three different internal control transcripts and 34 variants resulting from eighteen abnormal chromosomal sites were evaluated. These results underscore the value of the multiplex assay system as a sensitive and reliable technology platform for the characterization of relevant genetic alterations in leukemia. PMID:23026076

Ye, Fei; Laosinchai-Wolf, Walairat; Labourier, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

98

Seasonal alteration in taste detection and recognition threshold in seasonal affective disorder: the proximate source of carbohydrate craving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased appetite with associated carbohydrate craving are core symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and have been attributed to decreased central serotonergic function. The proximate mechanisms for centrally mediated selective macronutrient consumption are unknown. We questioned whether seasonal alterations in taste sensation could serve as a mediator of dietary intake, as implied by the term “craving”. Specifically, individuals who were

Paul A Arbisi; Allen S Levine; Jill Nerenberg; Julie Wolf

1996-01-01

99

Micronucleus test and observation of nuclear alterations in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia exposed to waters affected by refinery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronuclei and nuclear alterations tests were performed on erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in order to evaluate the water quality from Paraíba do Sul river, in an area affected by effluents from an oil shale processing plant, located in the city of São José dos Campos, Brazil-SP. Water samples were collected on 2004 May and August (dry season) and

Tatiana da Silva Souza; Carmem S. Fontanetti

2006-01-01

100

Forest Stand Characteristics Altered by Restoration Affect Western Bluebird Habitat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest managers are setting Ponderosa pine (Pinus pon- derosa) forests in the southwestern United States on a tra- jectory toward a restored ecosystem by reducing tree densities and managing with prescribed fire. The process of restoration dramatically alters forest stands, and the ef- fects of these changes on wildlife remain unclear. Our research evaluated which aspects of habitat alteration from

Catherine S. Wightman; Stephen S. Germaine

2006-01-01

101

Genetic and expression alterations in association with the sarcomatous change of cholangiocarcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is an intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma with a high mortality rate and a poor prognosis. Sarcomatous change/epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CC frequently leads to aggressive intrahepatic spread and metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic alterations and gene expression pattern that might be associated with the sarcomatous change in CC. Previously, we established 4 human CC cell lines (SCK, JCK1, Cho-CK, and Choi-CK). In the present study, we characterized a typical sarcomatoid phenotype of SCK, and classified the other cell lines according to tumor cell differentiation (a poorly differentiated JCK, a moderately differentiated Cho-CK, and a well differentiated Choi-CK cells), both morphologically and immunocytologically. We further analyzed the genetic alterations of two tumor suppressor genes (p53 and FHIT) and the expression of Fas/FasL gene, well known CC-related receptor and its ligand, in these four CC cell lines. The deletion mutation of p53 was found in the sarcomatoid SCK cells. These cells expressed much less Fas/FasL mRNAs than did the other ordinary CC cells. We further characterize the gene expression pattern that is involved in the sarcomatous progression of CC, using cDNA microarrays that contained 18,688 genes. Comparison of the expression patterns between the sarcomatoid SCK cells and the differentiated Choi-CK cells enabled us to identify 260 genes and 247 genes that were significantly over-expressed and under-expressed, respectively. Northern blotting of the 14 randomly selected genes verified the microarray data, including the differential expressions of the LGALS1, TGFBI, CES1, LDHB, UCHL1, ASPH, VDAC1, VIL2, CCND2, S100P, CALB1, MAL2, GPX1, and ANXA8 mRNAs. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in part the differential expressions of these gene proteins. These results suggest that those genetic and gene expression alterations may be relevant to the sarcomatous change/EMT in CC cells. PMID:19287191

Yoo, Hee-Jung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Ahn, Hyuk-Soo; Seol, Min-A; Lee, Mi-Jin; Yu, Goung-Ran; Yu, Hee-Chul; Hong, BeeHak; Choi, KwanYong; Kim, Dae-Ghon

2009-02-28

102

Genetic and expression alterations in association with the sarcomatous change of cholangiocarcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is an intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma with a high mortality rate and a poor prognosis. Sarcomatous change/epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CC frequently leads to aggressive intrahepatic spread and metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic alterations and gene expression pattern that might be associated with the sarcomatous change in CC. Previously, we established 4 human CC cell lines (SCK, JCK1, Cho-CK, and Choi-CK). In the present study, we characterized a typical sarcomatoid phenotype of SCK, and classified the other cell lines according to tumor cell differentiation (a poorly differentiated JCK, a moderately differentiated Cho-CK, and a well differentiated Choi-CK cells), both morphologically and immunocytologically. We further analyzed the genetic alterations of two tumor suppressor genes (p53 and FHIT) and the expression of Fas/FasL gene, well known CC-related receptor and its ligand, in these four CC cell lines. The deletion mutation of p53 was found in the sarcomatoid SCK cells. These cells expressed much less Fas/FasL mRNAs than did the other ordinary CC cells. We further characterize the gene expression pattern that is involved in the sarcomatous progression of CC, using cDNA microarrays that contained 18,688 genes. Comparison of the expression patterns between the sarcomatoid SCK cells and the differentiated Choi-CK cells enabled us to identify 260 genes and 247 genes that were significantly over-expressed and under-expressed, respectively. Northern blotting of the 14 randomly selected genes verified the microarray data, including the differential expressions of the LGALS1, TGFBI, CES1, LDHB, UCHL1, ASPH, VDAC1, VIL2, CCND2, S100P, CALB1, MAL2, GPX1, and ANXA8 mRNAs. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in part the differential expressions of these gene proteins. These results suggest that those genetic and gene expression alterations may be relevant to the sarcomatous change/EMT in CC cells. PMID:19287191

Yoo, Hee-Jung; Yun, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Ahn, Hyuk-Soo; Seol, Min-A; Lee, Mi-Jin; Yu, Goung-Ran; Yu, Hee-Chul; Hong, BeeHak; Choi, KwanYong

2009-01-01

103

Human genetics. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits.  

PubMed

Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; del Rio Navarro, Blanca; London, Stephanie J; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D

2014-06-13

104

Genetic alterations in quadruple malignancies of a patient with multiple sclerosis: their role in malignancy development and response to therapy  

PubMed Central

Multiple cancers represent 2.42% of all human cancers and are mainly double or triple cancers. Many possible causes of multiple malignancies have been reported such as genetic alterations, exposure to anti-cancer chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy and reduced immunologic response. We report a female patient with multiple sclerosis and quadruple cancers of different embryological origin. Patient was diagnosed with stage III (T3, N1a, MO) medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), multicentric micropapillary thyroid carcinoma, scapular and lumbar melanomas (Clark II, Breslow II), and lobular invasive breast carcinoma (T1a, NO, MO). All tumors present in our patient except micropapillary thyroid carcinomas were investigated for gene alterations known to have a key role in cancer promotion and progression. Tumor samples were screened for the p16 alterations (loss of heterozygosity and homozygous deletions), loss of heterozygosity of PTEN, p53 alterations (mutational status and loss of heterozygosity) and mutational status of RET, HRAS and KRAS. Each type of tumor investigated had specific pattern of analyzed genetic alterations. The most prominent genetic changes were mutual alterations in PTEN and p53 tumor suppressors present in breast cancer and two melanomas. These co-alterations could be crucial for promoting development of multiple malignancies. Moreover the insertion in 4th codon of HRAS gene was common for all tumor types investigated. It represents frameshift mutation introducing stop codon at position 5 which prevents synthesis of a full-length protein. Since the inactivated RAS enhances sensitivity to tamoxifen and radiotherapy this genetic alteration could be considered as a good prognostic factor for this patient. PMID:24817989

Milosevic, Zorica; Tanic, Nikola; Bankovic, Jasna; Stankovic, Tijana; Buta, Marko; Lavrnic, Dragana; Milovanovic, Zorka; Pupic, Gordana; Stojkovic, Sonja; Milinkovic, Vedrana; Ito, Yasuhiro; Dzodic, Radan

2014-01-01

105

Altered Hepatic Triglyceride Content After Partial Hepatectomy Without Impaired Liver Regeneration in Multiple Murine Genetic Models  

PubMed Central

Liver regeneration is impaired following partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice with genetic obesity and hepatic steatosis and also in wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings contrast with other data showing that liver regeneration is impaired in mice in which hepatic lipid accumulation is suppressed by either pharmacologic leptin administration or by disrupted glucocorticoid signaling. These latter findings suggest that hepatic steatosis may actually be required for normal liver regeneration. We have reexamined this relationship using several murine models of altered hepatic lipid metabolism. Liver fatty acid (FA) binding protein knockout mice manifested reduced hepatic triglyceride (TG) content compared to controls, with no effect on liver regeneration or hepatocyte proliferation. Examination of early adipogenic messenger RNAs revealed comparable induction in liver from both genotypes despite reduced hepatic steatosis. Following PH, hepatic TG was reduced in intestine-specific microsomal TG transfer protein deleter mice, which fail to absorb dietary fat, increased in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha knockout mice, which exhibit defective FA oxidation, and unchanged (from wild-type mice) in liver-specific FA synthase knockout mice in which endogenous hepatic FA synthesis is impaired. Hepatic TG increased in the regenerating liver in all models, even in animals in which lipid accumulation is genetically constrained. However, in no model—and over a >90-fold range of hepatic TG content—was liver regeneration significantly impaired following PH. Conclusion Although hepatic TG content is widely variable and increases during liver regeneration, alterations in neither exogenous or endogenous lipid metabolic pathways, demonstrated to promote or diminish hepatic steatosis, influence hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:18697204

Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Kennedy, Susan M.; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Stanley, Susan E.; Semenkovich, Clay F.; Crooke, Roseanne M.; Graham, Mark J.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

2008-01-01

106

Some genetic and environmental factors affecting weaning weight in Santa Gertrudis range cattle  

E-print Network

SOME GENE TIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FAC T0RS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN SANTA GERTRUDIS RANGE CATTLE A Thesis by ALVARO CASTRO H. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A!4M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Major Subject: Animal Science SOME GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN SANTA GERTRUDIS RANGE CATTLE A Thesis by ALVARO CASTRO H. Approved as to style and content by: (Cha rman...

Castro-Hernandez, Alvaro

2012-06-07

107

Genetical and comparative genomics of Brassica under altered Ca supply identifies Arabidopsis Ca-transporter orthologs.  

PubMed

Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 × R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca(2+) transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization. PMID:25082855

Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; Lysenko, Artem; Mayes, Sean; O Lochlainn, Seosamh; Blasco, Bego; Bowen, Helen C; Rawlings, Chris J; Rios, Juan J; Welham, Susan; Carion, Pierre W C; Dupuy, Lionel X; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

2014-07-01

108

Genetic linkage analysis of bipolar affective disorder in an Old Order Amish pedigree  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used genetic linkage analysis in an effort to identify a gene responsible for bipolar affective disorder (BAD) in an Old Order Amish pedigree. The initial study of this pedigree showed strong evidence for linkage of the chromosome 11p15 markers HRAS1 and the insulin gene (INS) to BAD, whereas a second report found no evidence for linkage. We have

Adam Law; Charles W. Richard; Robert W. Cottingham; G. Mark Lathrop; David R. Cox; Richard M. Myers

1992-01-01

109

Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior  

E-print Network

, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38513. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038513 Editor Behavior Li Dai1 , C. Sue Carter2 , Jian Ying3 , Ursula Bellugi4 , Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo2 , Julie R. Korenberg1 * 1 Center for Integrated Neuroscience and Human Behavior , University of Utah, Salt Lake City

Bellugi, Ursula

110

Affective Influences on Risk Perceptions of, and Attitudes Toward, Genetically Modified Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about risk perceptions and public understanding of genetically modified (GM) food, yet little if any of the academic writings on this topic take into account the role of feelings or affect in these processes. Here, the available literature on the topic of GM food is explored in order to highlight findings consistent with the notion that

Ellen Townsend

2006-01-01

111

Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-01-01

112

May genetic factors in fibromyalgia help to identify patients with differentially altered frequencies of immune cells?  

PubMed Central

There is common agreement that fibromyalgia (FM) is an extremely heterogeneous entity. Patients differ in their clinical symptoms, endocrine and immune parameters. In this study we evaluated endocrine and immunological features of distinct subsets of FM patients. In contrast to previous attempts to identify subsets of FM patients, based solely on their psychological and cognitive features, herein we propose to separate FM patients by genetic features. Allelic expression of the polymorphic promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) was analysed as a relevant genetic factor for FM. Seventy-five patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology criteria and 27 healthy age-matched controls participated in this study. All controls and FM patients were submitted to genotyping of 5-HTTLPR. Twenty-seven FM patients, who were able to discontinue hypnotic, sedative or psychotropic prescription medications for at least 2 weeks, were then subdivided into L (homozygote LL) or S groups (genotypes LS and SS). They were evaluated for salivary cortisol levels, absolute number of leucocyte subpopulations, including natural killer (NK) cells and activated T and B lymphocytes. Both groups presented decreased cortisol levels, more intense in the L group, increased all B lymphocytes subsets and reduced CD4+CD25high T lymphocytes. The L group had increased CD4+CD25low activated T lymphocytes, while the S group displayed elevated CD4+human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR)+ activated T lymphocytes and decreased NK cells. We demonstrate that genetic factors may help to identify FM individuals with differentially altered frequencies of immune cells. PMID:19037919

Carvalho, L S C; Correa, H; Silva, G C; Campos, F S; Baião, F R; Ribeiro, L S; Faria, A M; d'Avila Reis, D

2008-01-01

113

Behavioral Studies and Genetic Alterations in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Neurocircuitry: Insights into Human Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

To maintain well-being, all organisms require the ability to re-establish homeostasis in the presence of adverse physiological or psychological experiences. The regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis during stress is important in preventing maladaptive responses that may increase susceptibility to affective disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central stress hormone in the HPA axis pathway and has been implicated in stress-induced psychiatric disorders, reproductive and cardiac function, as well as energy metabolism. In the context of psychiatric disorders, CRH dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, anorexia nervosa, and anxiety disorders. Here, we review the synthesis, molecular signaling and regulation, as well as synaptic activity of CRH. We go on to summarize studies of altered CRH signaling in mutant animal models. This assembled data demonstrate an important role for CRH in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral correlates of adaptation and maladaptation. Next, we present findings regarding human genetic polymorphisms in CRH pathway genes that are associated with stress and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss a role for regulators of CRH activity as potential sites for therapeutic intervention aimed at treating maladaptive behaviors associated with stress. PMID:23077729

Laryea, Gloria; Arnett, Melinda G.; Muglia, Louis J.

2012-01-01

114

The role of genetic factors in the etiology of seasonal affective disorder and seasonality.  

PubMed

The study of the genetic basis of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a condition where depressions in fall and winter alternate with nondepressed periods in the spring and summer, has recently received attention. The data on the genetics of seasonal affective disorders are of three types: 1. Familiality: Studies on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among relatives of patients with SAD suggested a familial contribution to the development of SAD; 2. Heritability: A survey of a cohort of twins showed that genetic effects exert a global influence across a variety of behavioral traits and accounted for at least 29% of the variance in seasonality in men and women; 3. Molecular genetic research: two genetic variants related to serotonergic transmission, the 5-HTTLPR and the 5-HT2A-1438G/A gene promoter polymorphisms, are associated with SAD; the former but not the latter polymorphism is related to seasonality. Future research may clarify the role of different genes in the development of SAD. PMID:10404705

Sher, L; Goldman, D; Ozaki, N; Rosenthal, N E

1999-06-01

115

Alteration of a p53 Gene Status Affects Outcome of Patients with Recurrent Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether and how the p53 gene is altered in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and to determine the significance of p53 mutation in recurrent tumors. The primary and recurrent tumors were examined in 15 patients who had recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer, and whose primary tumor contained a wild-type p53 gene. The

Takashi Irie; Junzo Kigawa; Yukihisa Minagawa; Tetsuro Oishi; Masakuni Takahashi; Muneaki Shimada; Shunji Kamazawa; Shinya Sato; Naoki Terakawa

2000-01-01

116

Specific Secondary Genetic Alterations in Mantle Cell Lymphoma Provide Prognostic Information Independent of the Gene Expression–Based Proliferation Signature  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the genetic relationship between cyclin D1–positive and cyclin D1–negative mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) and to determine whether specific genetic alterations may add prognostic information to survival prediction based on the proliferation signature of MCLs. Patients and Methods Seventy-one cyclin D1–positive and six cyclin D1–negative MCLs previously characterized by gene expression profiling were examined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Results Cyclin D1–negative MCLs were genetically characterized by gains of 3q, 8q, and 15q, and losses of 1p, 8p23-pter, 9p21-pter, 11q21–q23, and 13q that were also the most common alterations in conventional MCLs. Parallel analysis of CGH aberrations and locus-specific gene expression profiles in cyclin D1–positive patients showed that chromosomal imbalances had a substantial impact on the expression levels of the genes located in the altered regions. The analysis of prognostic factors revealed that the proliferation signature, the number of chromosomal aberrations, gains of 3q, and losses of 8p, 9p, and 9q predicted survival of MCL patients. A multivariate analysis showed that the gene expression-based proliferation signature was the strongest predictor for shorter survival. However, 3q gains and 9q losses provided prognostic information that was independent of the proliferative activity. Conclusion Cyclin D1–positive and –negative MCLs share the same secondary genetic aberrations, supporting the concept that they correspond to the same genetic entity. The integration of genetic information on chromosome 3q and 9q alterations into a proliferation signature-based model may improve the ability to predict survival in patients with MCL. PMID:17296973

Salaverria, Itziar; Zettl, Andreas; Beà, Sílvia; Moreno, Victor; Valls, Joan; Hartmann, Elena; Ott, German; Wright, George; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Chan, Wing C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Grogan, Thomas M.; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Montserrat, Emili; Muller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Staudt, Louis M.; Rosenwald, Andreas

2008-01-01

117

Ex situ cultivation affects genetic structure and diversity in arable plants.  

PubMed

Worldwide, botanical gardens cultivate around 80,000 taxa, corresponding to approximately one-quarter of all vascular plants. Most cultivated taxa are, however, held in a small number of collections, and mostly only in small populations. Lack of genetic exchange and stochastic processes in small populations make them susceptible to detrimental genetic effects, which should be most severe in annual species, as sowing cycles are often short. In order to assess whether ex situ cultivation affects genetic diversity of annuals, five annual arable species with similar breeding systems were assessed with 42 in situ populations being compared to 20 ex situ populations using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis approach. Population sizes tended to be lower under ex situ cultivation and levels of genetic diversity also tended to be lower in four of the five species, with differences being significant in only two. Ex situ populations showed incomplete representation of alleles found in the wild. The duration of cultivation did not indicate any effect on genetic diversity. This implies that cultivation strategies resulted in different genetic structures in the garden populations. Although not unequivocally pronounced, differences nonetheless imply that conservation strategies in the involved gardens may need improvement. One option is cold storage of seeds, a practice that is not currently followed in the studied ex situ collections. This may reflect that the respective gardens focus on displaying living plant populations. PMID:22882447

Brütting, C; Hensen, I; Wesche, K

2013-05-01

118

Experimental alteration of DNA methylation affects the phenotypic plasticity of ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heritable phenotypic variation in plants can be caused not only by underlying genetic differences, but also by variation in\\u000a epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. However, we still know very little about how relevant such epigenetic variation\\u000a is to the ecology and evolution of natural populations. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we treated a set of\\u000a natural genotypes

Oliver Bossdorf; Davide Arcuri; Christina L. Richards; Massimo Pigliucci

2010-01-01

119

Does natural selection alter genetic architecture? An evaluation of quantitative genetic variation among populations of Allonemobiussocius and A. fasciatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make long-term predictions using present quantitative genetic theory it is necessary to assume that the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) remains constant or at least changes by a constant fraction. In this paper we examine the stability of the genetic architecture of two traits known to be subject to natural selection; femur length and ovipositor length in two species of

Roff; Mousseau

1999-01-01

120

Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens in adult male rats affects hypothalamic regulation of food intake, induces obesity and alters glucose metabolism.  

PubMed

The absence of phytoestrogens in the diet during pregnancy has been reported to result in obesity later in adulthood. We investigated whether phytoestrogen withdrawal in adult life could alter the hypothalamic signals that regulate food intake and affect body weight and glucose homeostasis. Male Wistar rats fed from conception to adulthood with a high phytoestrogen diet were submitted to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding a low phytoestrogen diet, or a high phytoestrogen-high fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake through an orexigenic hypothalamic response characterized by upregulation of AGRP and downregulation of POMC. This was associated with elevated leptin and T4, reduced TSH, testosterone and estradiol, and diminished hypothalamic ER? expression, concomitant with alterations in glucose tolerance. Removing dietary phytoestrogens caused manifestations of obesity and diabetes that were more pronounced than those induced by the high phytoestrogen-high fat diet intake. PMID:25486512

Andreoli, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María Florencia; Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo

2015-02-01

121

Morphological alterations in the tympanic membrane affected by tympanosclerosis: ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of tympanoslerotic tissue, surgically excised from patients, has been studied with particular reference to the morphological changes of the connective tissue components and mineralization. Detailed analysis revealed the combination of degenerative and fibroplastic alterations, especially in the circular fibrous layer of the thickened lamina propria. In the biological material in this study the authors recognized different stages of calcium plaque development with discrete, moderate, and severe degree of mineralization. Extracellular matrix vesicles, with or without calcareous deposits, released by degenerating fibroblasts were prominent. In these biopsies no distinct morphological features of an inflammatory reaction were seen. PMID:24134073

Tukaj, Cecylia; Kuczkowski, Jerzy; Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Gulida, Gra?yna; Tretiakow, Dymitry; Mionskowski, Tomasz; Pawe?czyk, Tadeusz

2014-04-01

122

The Protective Effect of Minocycline in a Paraquat-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model in Drosophila is Modified in Altered Genetic Backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies link the herbicide paraquat to increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously reported that Drosophila exposed to paraquat recapitulate PD symptoms, including region-specific degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, exerts ameliorative effects in neurodegenerative disease models, including Drosophila. We investigated whether our environmental toxin-based PD model could contribute to an understanding of cellular and genetic mechanisms of minocycline action and whether we could assess potential interference with these drug effects in altered genetic backgrounds. Cofeeding of minocycline with paraquat prolonged survival, rescued mobility defects, blocked generation of reactive oxygen species, and extended dopaminergic neuron survival, as has been reported previously for a genetic model of PD in Drosophila. We then extended this study to identify potential interactions of minocycline with genes regulating dopamine homeostasis that might modify protection against paraquat and found that deficits in GTP cyclohydrolase adversely affect minocycline rescue. We further performed genetic studies to identify signaling pathways that are necessary for minocycline protection against paraquat toxicity and found that mutations in the Drosophila genes that encode c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt/Protein kinase B block minocycline rescue. PMID:22900232

Inamdar, Arati A.; Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; O'Donnell, Janis

2012-01-01

123

Genetic Analysis of 63 Mutations Affecting Maize Kernel Development Isolated from Mutator Stocks  

PubMed Central

Sixty-three mutations affecting development of the maize kernel were isolated from active Robertson's Mutator (Mu) stocks. At least 14 previously undescribed maize gene loci were defined by mutations in this collection. Genetic mapping located 53 of these defective kernel (dek) mutations to particular chromosome arms, and more precise map determinations were made for 21 of the mutations. Genetic analyses identified 20 instances of allelism between one of the novel mutations and a previously described dek mutation, or between new dek mutations identified in this study; phenotypic variability was observed in three of the allelic series. Viability testing of homozygous mutant kernels identified numerous dek mutations with various pleiotropic effects on seedling and plant development. The mutations described here presumably arose by insertion of a Mu transposon within a dek gene; thus, many of the affected loci are expected to be accessible to molecular cloning via transposon-tagging. PMID:8138165

Scanlon, M. J.; Stinard, P. S.; James, M. G.; Myers, A. M.; Robertson, D. S.

1994-01-01

124

Pharmacological Profiles of Alpha 2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists Identified Using Genetically Altered Mice and Isobolographic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Endogenous, descending noradrenergic fibers convey powerful analgesic control over spinal afferent circuitry mediating the rostrad transmission of pain signals. These fibers target alpha 2 adrenergic receptors (?2ARs) on both primary afferent terminals and secondary neurons, and their activation mediates substantial inhibitory control over this transmission, rivaling that of opioid receptors which share similar a similar pattern of distribution. The terminals of primary afferent nociceptive neurons and secondary spinal dorsal horn neurons express ?2AAR and ?2CAR subtypes, respectively. Spinal delivery of these agents serves to reduce their side effects, which are mediated largely at supraspinal sites, by concentrating the drugs at the spinal level. Targeting these spinal ?2ARs with one of five selective therapeutic agonists, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, brimonidine, ST91 and moxonidine, produces significant antinociception that can work in concert with opioid agonists to yield synergistic antinociception. Application of several genetically altered mouse lines had facilitated identification of the primary receptor subtypes that likely mediate the antinociceptive effects of these agents. This review provides first an anatomical description of the localization of the three subtypes in the central nervous system, second a detailed account of the pharmacological history of each of these six primary agonists, and finally a comprehensive report of the specific interactions of other GPCR agonists with each of the six principal ?2AR agonists featured. PMID:19393691

Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Stone, Laura S.; Wilcox, George L.

2009-01-01

125

Detection of complex genetic alterations in human glioblastoma multiforme using comparative genomic hybridization  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to detect complex genetic alterations in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) by comparative genomic in situ hybridization (CGH). Of the 24 GBM that were examined, increased fluorescence intensities indicating chromosomal polysomy of chromosome 7 and gene amplification at chromosome 7p were found in 42% of the tumors. In addition, signal enhancement of chromosome 19 was present in 29% and at 12q13-15 in 21% of the tumors. We also detected reduction of fluorescence intensities indicating gross deletions on chromosomes 10 (58%), 9p (46%), and 13 (29%). There was a close correlation of CGH results when compared with Southern analysis of the EGFR gene localized on chromosome 7 and loss of heterozygosity detection of chromosome 9 and 10 by microsatellite PCR. A close correlation was also observed between copy number changes of chromosome 7 and deletions of chromosome 10. Amplification of chromosome 12q and deletions of chromosomes 9p and 13 seemed to be complementary in the tumors investigated in the present study. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Schlegel, J.; Stumm, G. [Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Scherthan, H.; Arens, N. [Universitaet Kaiderlautern (Germany)] [and others

1996-01-01

126

Alterations in affective processing of attack images following September 11, 2001.  

PubMed

The events of September 11, 2001 created unprecedented uncertainty about safety in the United States and created an aftermath with significant psychological impact across the world. This study examined emotional information encoding in 31 healthy individuals whose stress response symptoms ranged from none to a moderate level shortly after the attacks as assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Participants viewed attack-related, negative (but attack-irrelevant), and neutral images while their event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Attack images elicited enhanced P300 relative to negative and neutral images, and emotional images prompted larger slow waves than neutral images did. Total symptoms were correlated with altered N2, P300, and slow wave responses during valence processing. Specifically, hyperarousal and intrusion symptoms were associated with diminished stimulus discrimination between neutral and unpleasant images; avoidance symptoms were associated with hypervigilance, as suggested by reduced P300 difference between attack and other images and reduced appraisal of attack images as indicated by attenuated slow wave. The findings in this minimally symptomatic sample are compatible with the alterations in cognition in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) literature and are consistent with a dimensional model of PTSD. PMID:21882249

Tso, Ivy F; Chiu, Pearl H; King-Casas, Brooks R; Deldin, Patricia J

2011-10-01

127

A Novel Forward Genetic Screen for Identifying Mutations Affecting Larval Neuronal Dendrite Development in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate and invertebrate dendrites are information-processing compartments that can be found on both central and peripheral neurons. Elucidating the molecular underpinnings of information processing in the nervous system ultimately requires an understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate dendrite formation and maintenance. Despite the importance of dendrite development, few forward genetic approaches have been used to analyze the latest stages of dendrite development, including the formation of F-actin-rich dendritic filopodia or dendritic spines. We developed a forward genetic screen utilizing transgenic Drosophila second instar larvae expressing an actin, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (actin?GFP) in subsets of sensory neurons. Utilizing this fluorescent transgenic reporter, we conducted a forward genetic screen of >4000 mutagenized chromosomes bearing lethal mutations that affected multiple aspects of larval dendrite development. We isolated 13 mutations on the X and second chromosomes composing 11 complementation groups affecting dendrite outgrowth/branching, dendritic filopodia formation, or actin?GFP localization within dendrites in vivo. In a fortuitous observation, we observed that the structure of dendritic arborization (da) neuron dendritic filopodia changes in response to a changing environment. PMID:16415365

Medina, Paul Mark B.; Swick, Lance L.; Andersen, Ryan; Blalock, Zachary; Brenman, Jay E.

2006-01-01

128

Negative affect shares genetic and environmental influences with symptoms of childhood internalizing and externalizing disorders.  

PubMed

The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect in relation to a wide spectrum of childhood internalizing and externalizing problems using a biometric model. This study extends prior findings of more narrowly focused associations by using a factor approach including multiple disorders. The sample for this study included families of 691 same-sex 7- to 13-year old twin pairs. A multifactorial independent pathway model was used to examine the genetic and environmental influences underlying the covariation of parent-reported negative affect, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. Results of the current study suggest that negative affect shares genetic and environmental influences with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in childhood. These common influences may partially explain their comorbidity. Understanding that negative affect is at least one contributor to the covariation among these disorders may highlight avenues for early risk assessment, intervention, and perhaps prevention. PMID:23011215

Mikolajewski, Amy J; Allan, Nicholas P; Hart, Sara A; Lonigan, Christopher J; Taylor, Jeanette

2013-04-01

129

Defects in Tendon, Ligament, and Enthesis in Response to Genetic Alterations in Key Proteoglycans and Glycoproteins: A Review  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the genetic alterations and knockdown approaches published in the literature to assess the role of key proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the structural development, function, and repair of tendon, ligament, and enthesis. The information was collected from (i) genetically altered mice, (ii) in vitro knockdown studies, (iii) genetic variants predisposition to injury, and (iv) human genetic diseases. The genes reviewed are for small leucine-rich proteoglycans (lumican, fibromodulin, biglycan, decorin, and asporin); dermatan sulfate epimerase (Dse) that alters structure of glycosaminoglycan and hence the function of small leucine-rich proteoglycans by converting glucuronic to iduronic acid; matricellular proteins (thrombospondin 2, secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc), periostin, and tenascin X) including human tenascin C variants; and others, such as tenomodulin, leukocyte cell derived chemotaxin 1 (chondromodulin-I, ChM-I), CD44 antigen (Cd44), lubricin (Prg4), and aggrecan degrading gene, a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase (reprolysin type) with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 5 (Adamts5). Understanding these genes represents drug targets for disrupting pathological mechanisms that lead to tendinopathy, ligamentopathy, enthesopathy, enthesitis and tendon/ligament injury, that is, osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:24324885

Juneja, Subhash C.

2013-01-01

130

Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

2010-01-01

131

Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

2012-01-01

132

Degenerate In Vitro Genetic Selection Reveals Mutations That Diminish Alfalfa Mosaic Virus RNA Replication without Affecting Coat Protein Binding  

PubMed Central

The alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; however, the mechanisms describing coat protein's role during replication are disputed. We reasoned that mechanistic details might be revealed by identifying RNA mutations in the 3?-terminal coat protein binding domain that increased or decreased RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding. Degenerate (doped) in vitro genetic selection, based on a pool of randomized 39-mers, was used to select 30 variant RNAs that bound coat protein with high affinity. AUGC sequences that are conserved among AMV and ilarvirus RNAs were among the invariant nucleotides in the selected RNAs. Five representative clones were analyzed in functional assays, revealing diminished viral RNA expression resulting from apparent defects in replication and/or translation. These data identify a set of mutations, including G-U wobble pairs and nucleotide mismatches in the 5? hairpin, which affect viral RNA functions without significant impact on coat protein binding. Because the mutations associated with diminished function were scattered over the 3?-terminal nucleotides, we considered the possibility that RNA conformational changes rather than disruption of a precise motif might limit activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments showed that the 3? RNA conformation was indeed altered by nucleotide substitutions. One interpretation of the data is that coat protein binding to the AUGC sequences determines the orientation of the 3? hairpins relative to one another, while local structural features within these hairpins are also critical determinants of functional activity. PMID:15254175

Rocheleau, Gail; Petrillo, Jessica; Guogas, Laura; Gehrke, Lee

2004-01-01

133

Does alteration in biodiversity really affect disease outcome? – A debate is brewing  

PubMed Central

How changes in biodiversity alter the transmission of infectious diseases is presently under debate. Epidemiologists and ecologists have put a lot of effort to understand the mechanism behind biodiversity–disease relationship. Two important mechanisms, i.e. dilution and amplification theories have in some manner made it clear that biodiversity and disease outcome have an intimate relationship. The dilution effect theory seems to answer some overarching questions, but paucity of information about many disease systems is a real obstacle for its acceptance. Also, there is hardly any agreement on host population threshold and critical community size vis-à-vis wild life diseases. We suggest a multidimensional approach whereby the same disease system needs to be studied in different ecological zones and then the effect of biodiversity on disease outcome needs to be ascertained. Nonetheless, caution is to be taken while jumping to any conclusion as biodiversity–disease relationship is a multifactorial process.

Zargar, U.R.; Chishti, M.Z.; Ahmad, Fayaz; Rather, M.I.

2014-01-01

134

A novel in-frame deletion affecting the BAR domain of OPHN1 in a family with intellectual disability and hippocampal alterations.  

PubMed

Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is one of at least seven genes located on chromosome X that take part in Rho GTPase-dependent signaling pathways involved in X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Mutations in OPHN1 were primarily described as an exclusive cause of non-syndromic XLID, but the re-evaluation of the affected individuals using brain imaging displayed fronto-temporal atrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia as neuroanatomical marks. In this study, we describe clinical, genetic and neuroimaging data of a three generation Brazilian XLID family co-segregating a novel intragenic deletion in OPHN1. This deletion results in an in-frame loss of exon 7 at transcription level (c.781_891del; r.487_597del), which is predicted to abolish 37 amino acids from the highly conserved N-terminal BAR domain of OPHN1. cDNA expression analysis demonstrated that the mutant OPHN1 transcript is stable and no abnormal splicing was observed. Features shared by the affected males of this family include neonatal hypotonia, strabismus, prominent root of the nose, deep set eyes, hyperactivity and instability/intolerance to frustration. Cranial MRI scans showed large lateral ventricles, vermis hypoplasia and cystic dilatation of the cisterna magna in all affected males. Interestingly, hippocampal alterations that have not been reported in patients with loss-of-function OPHN1 mutations were found in three affected individuals, suggesting an important function for the BAR domain in the hippocampus. This is the first description of an in-frame deletion within the BAR domain of OPHN1 and could provide new insights into the role of this domain in relation to brain and cognitive development or function. PMID:24105372

Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia Barros; Belet, Stefanie; Guedes de Almeida, Luciana; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves; Medina-Acosta, Enrique; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle; Alves da Silva, Antônio Francisco; Lima dos Santos, Flávia; Borges de Lacerda, Glenda Corrêa; Pimentel, Márcia Mattos Gonçalves; Froyen, Guy

2014-05-01

135

Accelerated post-glucose glycaemia and altered alliesthesia-test in Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about the link between mood, food and metabolic function in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Methods: We investigated this link in a combined glucose tolerance–alliesthesia test in eight SAD patients in winter before and after one week light therapy, and in summer. Results: SAD patients exhibited faster post-glucose glycaemic and insulin responses (p<0.05), and increased hedonic ratings

Kurt Kräuchi; Ulrich Keller; Georg Leonhardt; Daniel P. Brunner; Peter van der Velde; Hans-Joachim Haug; Anna Wirz-Justice

1999-01-01

136

A large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered salicylic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense signal molecule against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens in plants, but how SA is synthesized in plant cells still remains elusive. Identification of new components involved in pathogen-induced SA accumulation would help address this question. To this end, we performed a large-scale genetic screen for mutants with altered SA accumulation during pathogen infection in Arabidopsis using a bacterial biosensor Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based SA quantification method. A total of 35,000 M2 plants in the npr1-3 mutant background have been individually analyzed for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326-induced SA accumulation. Among the mutants isolated, 19 had SA levels lower than npr1 (sln) and two exhibited increased SA accumulation in npr1 (isn). Complementation tests revealed that seven of the sln mutants are new alleles of eds5/sid1, two are sid2/eds16 alleles, one is allelic to pad4, and the remaining seven sln and two isn mutants are new non-allelic SA accumulation mutants. Interestingly, a large group of mutants (in the npr1-3 background), in which Psm ES4326-induced SA levels were similar to those in the wild-type Columbia plants, were identified, suggesting that the signaling network fine-tuning pathogen-induced SA accumulation is complex. We further characterized the sln1 single mutant and found that Psm ES4326-induced defense responses were compromised in this mutant. These defense response defects could be rescued by exogenous SA, suggesting that SLN1 functions upstream of SA. The sln1 mutation was mapped to a region on the north arm of chromosome I, which contains no known genes regulating pathogen-induced SA accumulation, indicating that SLN1 likely encodes a new regulator of SA biosynthesis. Thus, the new sln and isn mutants identified in this genetic screen are valuable for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced SA accumulation in plants. PMID:25610446

Ding, Yezhang; Shaholli, Danjela; Mou, Zhonglin

2014-01-01

137

Altered expression of an RBP-associated arginine methyltransferase 7 in Leishmania major affects parasite infection.  

PubMed

Protein arginine methylation is a widely conserved post-translational modification performed by arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). However, its functional role in parasitic protozoa is still under-explored. The Leishmania major genome encodes five PRMT homologs, including PRMT7. Here we show that LmjPRMT7 expression and arginine monomethylation are tightly regulated in a lifecycle stage-dependent manner. LmjPRMT7 levels are higher during the early promastigote logarithmic phase, negligible at stationary and late-stationary phases and rise once more post-differentiation to intracellular amastigotes. Immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that LmjPRMT7 is a cytosolic protein associated with several RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from which Alba20 is monomethylated only in LmjPRMT7-expressing promastigote stages. In addition, Alba20 protein levels are significantly altered in stationary promastigotes of the LmjPRMT7 knockout mutant. Considering RBPs are well-known mammalian PRMT substrates, our data suggest that arginine methylation via LmjPRMT7 may modulate RBP function during Leishmania spp. lifecycle progression. Importantly, genomic deletion of the LmjPRMT7 gene leads to an increase in parasite infectivity both in vitro and in vivo, while lesion progression is significantly reduced in LmjPRMT7-overexpressing parasites. This study is the first to describe a role of Leishmania protein arginine methylation in host-parasite interactions. PMID:25294169

Ferreira, Tiago R; Alves-Ferreira, Eliza V C; Defina, Tania P A; Walrad, Pegine; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Cruz, Angela K

2014-10-01

138

Aniracetam does not alter cognitive and affective behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

There is a growing community of individuals who self-administer the nootropic aniracetam for its purported cognitive enhancing effects. Aniracetam is believed to be therapeutically useful for enhancing cognition, alleviating anxiety, and treating various neurodegenerative conditions. Physiologically, aniracetam enhances both glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation. Previous studies of aniracetam have demonstrated the cognition-restoring effects of acute administration in different models of disease. No previous studies have explored the effects of aniracetam in healthy subjects. We investigated whether daily 50 mg/kg oral administration improves cognitive performance in naïve C57BL/6J mice in a variety of aspects of cognitive behavior. We measured spatial learning in the Morris water maze test; associative learning in the fear conditioning test; motor learning in the accelerating rotarod test; and odor discrimination. We also measured locomotion in the open field test, anxiety through the elevated plus maze test and by measuring time in the center of the open field test. We measured repetitive behavior through the marble burying test. We detected no significant differences between the naive, placebo, and experimental groups across all measures. Despite several studies demonstrating efficacy in impaired subjects, our findings suggest that aniracetam does not alter behavior in normal healthy mice. This study is timely in light of the growing community of healthy humans self-administering nootropic drugs. PMID:25099639

Elston, Thomas W; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Gao, Nanjing; Lugo, Joaquin N

2014-01-01

139

Delineation of behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, affect and hyperactivity.  

PubMed

We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in CdLS and FXS. High levels of impulsivity were seen in SMS, AS, CdCS, FXS and adults with CdLS. Negative affect was prominent in adults with CdLS, while positive affect was prominent in adults with AS and FXS. Heightened levels of overactivity and impulsivity were identified in FXS, AS and SMS while low levels were identified in PWS. These findings confirm and extend previously reported behavioral phenotypes. PMID:21080217

Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

2011-08-01

140

THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats. Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR. Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

141

Genetic Deletion of Mst1 Alters T Cell Function and Protects against Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is a MAPK kinase kinase kinase which is involved in a wide range of cellular responses, including apoptosis, lymphocyte adhesion and trafficking. The contribution of Mst1 to Ag-specific immune responses and autoimmunity has not been well defined. In this study, we provide evidence for the essential role of Mst1 in T cell differentiation and autoimmunity, using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Absence of Mst1 in mice reduced T cell proliferation and IL-2 production in vitro, blocked cell cycle progression, and elevated activation-induced cell death in Th1 cells. Mst1 deficiency led to a CD4+ T cell development path that was biased toward Th2 and immunoregulatory cytokine production with suppressed Th1 responses. In addition, Mst1?/? B cells showed decreased stimulation to B cell mitogens in vitro and deficient Ag-specific Ig production in vivo. Consistent with altered lymphocyte function, deletion of Mst1 reduced the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and protected against collagen-induced arthritis development. Mst1?/? CD4+ T cells displayed an intrinsic defect in their ability to respond to encephalitogenic antigens and deletion of Mst1 in the CD4+ T cell compartment was sufficient to alleviate CNS inflammation during EAE. These findings have prompted the discovery of novel compounds that are potent inhibitors of Mst1 and exhibit desirable pharmacokinetic properties. In conclusion, this report implicates Mst1 as a critical regulator of adaptive immune responses, Th1/Th2-dependent cytokine production, and as a potential therapeutic target for immune disorders. PMID:24852423

Salojin, Konstantin V.; Hamman, Brian D.; Chang, Wei Chun; Jhaver, Kanchan G.; Al-Shami, Amin; Crisostomo, Jeannette; Wilkins, Carrie; Digeorge-Foushee, Ann Marie; Allen, Jason; Patel, Nita; Gopinathan, Suma; Zhou, Julia; Nouraldeen, Amr; Jessop, Theodore C.; Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T.; Augeri, David J.; Read, Robert; Vogel, Peter; Swaffield, Jonathan; Wilson, Alan; Platt, Kenneth A.; Carson, Kenneth G.; Main, Alan; Zambrowicz, Brian P.; Oravecz, Tamas

2014-01-01

142

Altering the Ad5 packaging domain affects the maturation of the Ad particles.  

PubMed

We have previously described a new family of mutant adenoviruses carrying different combinations of attB/attP sequences from bacteriophage PhiC31 flanking the Ad5 packaging domain. These novel helper viruses have a significantly delayed viral life cycle and a severe packaging impairment, regardless of the presence of PhiC31 recombinase. Their infectious viral titers are significantly lower (100-1000 fold) than those of control adenovirus at 36 hours post-infection, but allow for efficient packaging of helper-dependent adenovirus. In the present work, we have analyzed which steps of the adenovirus life cycle are altered in attB-helper adenoviruses and investigated whether these viruses can provide the necessary viral proteins in trans. The entry of attB-adenoviral genomes into the cell nucleus early at early timepoints post-infection was not impaired and viral protein expression levels were found to be similar to those of control adenovirus. However, electron microscopy and capsid protein composition analyses revealed that attB-adenoviruses remain at an intermediate state of maturation 36 hours post-infection in comparison to control adenovirus which were fully mature and infective at this time point. Therefore, an additional 20-24 hours were found to be required for the appearance of mature attB-adenovirus. Interestingly, attB-adenovirus assembly and infectivity was restored by inserting a second packaging signal close to the right-end ITR, thus discarding the possibility that the attB-adenovirus genome was retained in a nuclear compartment deleterious for virus assembly. The present study may have substantive implications for helper-dependent adenovirus technology since helper attB-adenovirus allows for preferential packaging of helper-dependent adenovirus genomes. PMID:21611162

Alba, Raul; Cots, Dan; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Bosch, Assumpcio; Hearing, Patrick; Chillon, Miguel

2011-01-01

143

Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Alters the Expression of Cellular MicroRNA Species That Affect Its Replication?  

PubMed Central

The human genome encodes over 500 microRNAs (miRNAs), small RNAs (19 to 26 nucleotides [nt]) that regulate the expressions of diverse cellular genes. Many cellular processes are altered through a variety of mechanisms by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We asked whether HCMV infection leads to changes in the expression of cellular miRNAs and whether HCMV-regulated miRNAs are important for HCMV replication. Levels of most miRNAs did not change markedly during infection, but some were positively or negatively regulated. Patterns of miRNA expression were linked to the time course of infection. Some similarly reregulated miRNAs share identical or similar seed sequences, suggesting coordinated regulation of miRNA species that have shared targets. miRNAs miR-100 and miR-101 were chosen for further analyses based on their reproducible changes in expression after infection and on the basis of having predicted targets in the 3? untranslated regions (3?-UTR) of genes encoding components of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which is important during HCMV infection. Reporter genes that contain the 3?-UTR of mTOR (predicted targets for miR-100 and miR-101) or raptor (a component of the mTOR pathway; predicted site for miR-100) were constructed. Mimics of miR-100 and miR-101 inhibited expression from the mTOR construct, while only miR-100 inhibited the raptor construct. Together, miR-100 and miR-101 reduced mTOR protein levels. While the miR-100 and miR-101 mimics individually modestly inhibited production of infectious progeny, much greater inhibition was achieved with a combination of both (33-fold). Our key finding is that HCMV selectively manipulates the expression of some cellular miRNAs to help its own replication. PMID:18596100

Wang, Fu-Zhang; Weber, Frank; Croce, Carlo; Liu, Chang-Gong; Liao, Xudong; Pellett, Philip E.

2008-01-01

144

Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance  

PubMed Central

The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

2014-01-01

145

Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance.  

PubMed

The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

2014-01-01

146

[Clinical and genetic study of a family affected with spinocerebellar ataxia 3 and polycystic kidney disease].  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To investigate clinical features and genetic mutations of a family affected with spinocerebellar ataxia 3 and polycystic kidney disease. METHODS Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were employed to analyze exon 10 of the SCA3 gene, in addition with all exons and flanking sequences of PKD1 and PKD2 genes. The clinical features were also carefully analyzed. RESULTS The numbers of CAG repeat in the proband's SCA3 gene were 28/76, with the number of repeats in the mutant allele being in the full range. The sequence of exon 23 of the PKD1 gene was also found to be abnormal. Clinical symptoms of the proband were very serious, which were characterized by obvious ataxia, pyramidal signs, Meige syndrome, depression and high blood pressure. CONCLUSION Hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia 3 and autonomic dominant polycystic kidney disease may co-occur, and genetic testing is the primary means of diagnosis. PMID:25636101

Li, Haijiang; Zhang, Linming; Chen, Tao; Yang, Dan; Zhu, Yangfan; Wang, Lihong

2015-02-10

147

Plant hybrid zones affect biodiversity: Tools for a genetic-based understanding of community structure  

SciTech Connect

Plant hybrid zones are dynamic centers of ecological and evolutionary processes for plants and their associated communities. Studies in the wild and in gardens with synthetic crosses showed that hybrid eucalypts supports the greatest species richness and abundances of insect and fungal taxa. In an updated review of 152 case studies of taxa associated with diverse hybridizing systems, there were 43 (28%) cases of hybrids being more susceptible than their parent species, 7 (5%) resistant, 35 (23%) additive, 35 (23%) dominant, and 32 (21%) showed no response to hybridization. Thus, most taxa respond to hybrids in ways that result in equal or greater abundance, and hybrids tend to accumulate the taxa of their parent species. These studies suggest that genetic-based plant traits affect the distribution of many species and that the variation in hybrids can be used as tools to examine the genetic components of community structure and biodiversity.

Whitham, T.G.; Martinsen, G.D.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Floate, K.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada); Dungey, H.S. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)]|[Queensland Forest Research Inst., Gympie, Queensland (Australia); Potts, B.M. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

1999-03-01

148

Cytoplasmic genome substitution in wheat affects the nuclear-cytoplasmic cross-talk leading to transcript and metabolite alterations  

PubMed Central

Background Alloplasmic lines provide a unique tool to study nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions. Three alloplasmic lines, with nuclear genomes from Triticum aestivum and harboring cytoplasm from Aegilops uniaristata, Aegilops tauschii and Hordeum chilense, were investigated by transcript and metabolite profiling to identify the effects of cytoplasmic substitution on nuclear-cytoplasmic signaling mechanisms. Results In combining the wheat nuclear genome with a cytoplasm of H. chilense, 540 genes were significantly altered, whereas 11 and 28 genes were significantly changed in the alloplasmic lines carrying the cytoplasm of Ae. uniaristata or Ae. tauschii, respectively. We identified the RNA maturation-related process as one of the most sensitive to a perturbation of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. Several key components of the ROS chloroplast retrograde signaling, together with the up-regulation of the ROS scavenging system, showed that changes in the chloroplast genome have a direct impact on nuclear-cytoplasmic cross-talk. Remarkably, the H. chilense alloplasmic line down-regulated some genes involved in the determination of cytoplasmic male sterility without expressing the male sterility phenotype. Metabolic profiling showed a comparable response of the central metabolism of the alloplasmic and euplasmic lines to light, while exposing larger metabolite alterations in the H. chilense alloplasmic line as compared with the Aegilops lines, in agreement with the transcriptomic data. Several stress-related metabolites, remarkably raffinose, were altered in content in the H. chilense alloplasmic line when exposed to high light, while amino acids, as well as organic acids were significantly decreased. Alterations in the levels of transcript, related to raffinose, and the photorespiration-related metabolisms were associated with changes in the level of related metabolites. Conclusion The replacement of a wheat cytoplasm with the cytoplasm of a related species affects the nuclear-cytoplasmic cross-talk leading to transcript and metabolite alterations. The extent of these modifications was limited in the alloplasmic lines with Aegilops cytoplasm, and more evident in the alloplasmic line with H. chilense cytoplasm. We consider that, this finding might be linked to the phylogenetic distance of the genomes. PMID:24320731

2013-01-01

149

Some genetic and environmental (sic) factors affecting weaning weight and weaning of grade in Angus cattle in South Texas  

E-print Network

SOME GENETIC AND ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT AND WEANING OF GRADE IN ANGUS CATTLE IN SOUTH TEXAS A Thesis by Paige Allan Stasney Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1971 Major Subject: Animal Science SOME GENETIC AND ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT AND WEANING OF GRADE IN ANGUS CATTLE IN SOUTH TEXAS A Thesis by Paige Allan Stasney Approved...

Stasney, Paige Allan

1971-01-01

150

Historical and anthropogenic factors affecting the population genetic structure of Ontario's inland lake populations of Walleye (Sander vitreus).  

PubMed

Populations existing in formerly glaciated areas often display composite historical and contemporary patterns of genetic structure. For Canadian freshwater fishes, population genetic structure is largely reflective of dispersal from glacial refugia and isolation within drainage basins across a range of scales. Enhancement of sport fisheries via hatchery stocking programs and other means has the potential to alter signatures of natural evolutionary processes. Using 11 microsatellite loci genotyped from 2182 individuals, we analyzed the genetic structure of 46 inland lake walleye (Sander vitreus) populations spanning five major drainage basins within the province of Ontario, Canada. Population genetic analyses coupled with genotype assignment allowed us to: 1) characterize broad- and fine-scale genetic structure among Ontario walleye populations; and 2) determine if the observed population divergence is primarily due to natural or historical processes, or recent anthropogenic events. The partitioning of genetic variation revealed higher genetic divergence among lakes than among drainage basins or proposed ancestries-indicative of relatively high isolation among lakes, study-wide. Walleye genotypes were clustered into three major groups, likely reflective of Missourian, Mississippian, and Atlantic glacial refugial ancestry. Despite detectable genetic signatures indicative of anthropogenic influences, province-wide spatial genetic structure remains consistent with the hypothesis of dispersal from distinct glacial refugia and subsequent isolation of lakes within primary drainage basins. Our results provide a novel example of minimal impacts from fishery enhancement to the broad-scale genetic structure of inland fish populations. PMID:23125407

Walter, Ryan P; Cena, Christopher J; Morgan, George E; Heath, Daniel D

2012-01-01

151

Micronucleus test and observation of nuclear alterations in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia exposed to waters affected by refinery effluent.  

PubMed

Micronuclei and nuclear alterations tests were performed on erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in order to evaluate the water quality from Paraíba do Sul river, in an area affected by effluents from an oil shale processing plant, located in the city of São José dos Campos, Brazil-SP. Water samples were collected on 2004 May and August (dry season) and on 2004 November and 2005 January (rain season), in three distinct sites, comprising 12 samples. It was possible to detect substances of clastogenic and/or aneugenic potential, as well as cytotoxic substances, chiefly at the point corresponding to the drainage of oil shale plant wastes along the river. The highest incidence of micronuclei and nuclear alterations was detected during May and August, whereas the results obtained in November and January were insignificant. This work shows that the effluent treatment provided by the oil shale plant was not fully efficient to minimize the effect of cytotoxic and mutagenic substances in the test organism surveyed. PMID:16678473

da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Fontanetti, Carmem S

2006-06-16

152

Genetic KCa3.1-Deficiency Produces Locomotor Hyperactivity and Alterations in Cerebral Monoamine Levels  

PubMed Central

Background The calmodulin/calcium-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed in red and white blood cells, epithelia and endothelia, and possibly central and peripheral neurons. However, our knowledge about its contribution to neurological functions and behavior is incomplete. Here, we investigated whether genetic deficiency or pharmacological activation of KCa3.1 change behavior and cerebral monoamine levels in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings In the open field test, KCa3.1-deficiency increased horizontal activity, as KCa3.1?/? mice travelled longer distances (?145% of KCa3.1+/+) and at higher speed (?1.5-fold of KCa3.1+/+). Working memory in the Y-maze was reduced by KCa3.1-deficiency. Motor coordination on the rotarod and neuromuscular functions were unchanged. In KCa3.1?/? mice, HPLC analysis revealed that turn-over rates of serotonin were reduced in frontal cortex, striatum and brain stem, while noradrenalin turn-over rates were increased in the frontal cortex. Dopamine turn-over rates were unaltered. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels were unaltered. Intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg of the KCa3.1/KCa2-activator SKA-31 reduced rearing and turning behavior in KCa3.1+/+ but not in KCa3.1?/? mice, while 30 mg/kg SKA-31 caused strong sedation in 50% of the animals of either genotypes. KCa3.1?/? mice were hyperactive (?+60%) in their home cage and SKA-31-administration reduced nocturnal physical activity in KCa3.1+/+ but not in KCa3.1?/? mice. Conclusions/Significance KCa3.1-deficiency causes locomotor hyperactivity and altered monoamine levels in selected brain regions, suggesting a so far unknown functional link of KCa3.1 channels to behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in mice. The tranquilizing effects of low-dose SKA-31 raise the possibility to use KCa3.1/KCa2 channels as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric hyperactivity disorders. PMID:23077667

Sivasaravanaparan, Mithula; Ditzel, Nicholas; Sevelsted-Møller, Linda Maria; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Rabjerg, Maj; Wulff, Heike; Köhler, Ralf

2012-01-01

153

Genetic loci that affect aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Aristolochic acids (AA) are plant-derived nephrotoxins and carcinogens found in traditional medicines and herbal remedies. AA causes aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and is a suspected environmental agent in Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and its associated upper urothelial cancer. Approximately 5–10% of individuals exposed to AA develop renal insufficiency and/or cancer; thus a genetic predisposition to AA sensitivity has been proposed. The mouse is an established animal model of AAN, and inbred murine strains vary in AA sensitivity, confirming the genetic predisposition. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) correlated with proximal tubule dysfunction after exposure to AA in an F2 population of mice, derived from breeding an AA-resistant strain (C57BL/6J) and an AA-sensitive strain (DBA/2J). A single main QTL was identified on chromosome 4 (Aanq1); three other interacting QTLs, (Aanq2–4) also were detected. The Aanq1 region was also detected in untreated mice, raising the possibility that preexisting differences in proximal tubule function may affect the severity of AA-elicited toxicity. This study lays the groundwork for identifying the genetic pathways contributing to AA sensitivity in the mouse and will further our understanding of human susceptibility to AA found widely in traditional medicines. PMID:21429970

2011-01-01

154

A genetic screen for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.  

PubMed Central

We have screened for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea). Our broad goal was to investigate the use of Nasonia for genetically surveying conservation and change in regulatory gene systems, as a means to understand the diversity of developmental strategies that have arisen during the course of evolution. Specifically, we aim to compare anteroposterior patterning gene functions in two long germ band insects, Nasonia and Drosophila. In Nasonia, unfertilized eggs develop as haploid males while fertilized eggs develop as diploid females, so the entire genome can be screened for recessive zygotic mutations by examining the progeny of F1 females. We describe 74 of >100 lines with embryonic cuticular mutant phenotypes, including representatives of coordinate, gap, pair-rule, segment polarity, homeotic, and Polycomb group functions, as well as mutants with novel phenotypes not directly comparable to those of known Drosophila genes. We conclude that Nasonia is a tractable experimental organism for comparative developmental genetic study. The mutants isolated here have begun to outline the extent of conservation and change in the genetic programs controlling embryonic patterning in Nasonia and Drosophila. PMID:10866651

Pultz, M A; Zimmerman, K K; Alto, N M; Kaeberlein, M; Lange, S K; Pitt, J N; Reeves, N L; Zehrung, D L

2000-01-01

155

Interest in Genetic Testing Among Affected Men from Hereditary Prostate Cancer (HPC) Families and their Unaffected Male Relatives  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The objective of this study was to evaluate potential sociodemographic, medical, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of interest in genetic testing in men from hereditary prostate cancer families (HPC). METHODS Family members affected with prostate cancer (n=559) and their unaffected male relatives (n=370) completed a mailed survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and interest in genetic testing for prostate cancer. RESULTS Forty-five percent of affected and 56% of unaffected men reported that they definitely would take a genetic test for prostate cancer. More affected men reported high levels of familiarity with genetic testing than unaffected men (46% vs. 25%). There were several variables that were significantly correlated with interest in either affected or unaffected men but only age and familiarity with genetics were significant in both groups. After controlling for confounding variables, only familiarity remained a significant correlate in both groups. CONCLUSIONS The contrast between low levels of familiarity with genetics and high test interest among unaffected men highlights the need for increased educational efforts targeting HPC families. Overall, results illuminated several novel characteristics of men from HPC families that should be considered when developing future informed consent procedures or educational materials for prostate cancer genetic testing. PMID:19346959

Harris, Julie N.; Bowen, Deborah J.; Kuniyuki, Alan; McIntosh, Laura; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Stanford, Janet L.

2009-01-01

156

Toward Altering Milk Composition by Genetic Manipulation: Current Status and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of large-scale genome map- ping and sequencing has improved the understanding of animal genetics. A large number of gene sequences are now available to serve as regulatory elements or genes of interest. Although the central thrust of this work is focused on understanding disease states, the manipulation of normal metabolic processes is feasi- ble. To date, the genetic

Costas N. Karatzas; Jeffrey D. Turner

1997-01-01

157

Autism risk assessment in siblings of affected children using sex-specific genetic scores  

PubMed Central

Background The inheritance pattern in most cases of autism is complex. The risk of autism is increased in siblings of children with autism and previous studies have indicated that the level of risk can be further identified by the accumulation of multiple susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allowing for the identification of a higher-risk subgroup among siblings. As a result of the sex difference in the prevalence of autism, we explored the potential for identifying sex-specific autism susceptibility SNPs in siblings of children with autism and the ability to develop a sex-specific risk assessment genetic scoring system. Methods SNPs were chosen from genes known to be associated with autism. These markers were evaluated using an exploratory sample of 480 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) repository. A reproducibility index (RI) was proposed and calculated in all children with autism and in males and females separately. Differing genetic scoring models were then constructed to develop a sex-specific genetic score model designed to identify individuals with a higher risk of autism. The ability of the genetic scores to identify high-risk children was then evaluated and replicated in an independent sample of 351 affected and 90 unaffected siblings from families with at least 1 child with autism. Results We identified three risk SNPs that had a high RI in males, two SNPs with a high RI in females, and three SNPs with a high RI in both sexes. Using these results, genetic scoring models for males and females were developed which demonstrated a significant association with autism (P = 2.2 × 10-6 and 1.9 × 10-5, respectively). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that individual susceptibility associated SNPs for autism may have important differential sex effects. We also show that a sex-specific risk score based on the presence of multiple susceptibility associated SNPs allow for the identification of subgroups of siblings of children with autism who have a significantly higher risk of autism. PMID:22017886

2011-01-01

158

Specific Serotonergic Denervation Affects tau Pathology and Cognition without Altering Senile Plaques Deposition in APP/PS1 Mice  

PubMed Central

Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are major neuropathological features of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), however neuronal loss is the alteration that best correlates with cognitive impairment in AD patients. Underlying neurotoxic mechanisms are not completely understood although specific neurotransmission deficiencies have been observed in AD patients and, in animal models, cholinergic and noradrenergic denervation may increase amyloid-beta deposition and tau phosphorylation in denervated areas. On the other hand brainstem neurodegeneration has been suggested as an initial event in AD, and serotonergic dysfunction, as well as reductions in raphe neurones density, have been reported in AD patients. In this study we addressed whether specific serotonergic denervation, by administering 5,7-dihydroxitriptamine (5,7-DHT) in the raphe nuclei, could also worsen central pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice or interfere with learning and memory activities. In our hands specific serotonergic denervation increased tau phosphorylation in denervated cortex, without affecting amyloid-beta (A?) pathology. We also observed that APPswe/PS1dE9 mice lesioned with 5,7-DHT were impaired in the Morris water maze test, supporting a synergistic effect of the serotonergic denervation and the presence of APP/PS1 transgenes on learning and memory impairment. Altogether our data suggest that serotonergic denervation may interfere with some pathological aspects observed in AD, including tau phosphorylation or cognitive impairment, without affecting A? pathology, supporting a differential role of specific neurotransmitter systems in AD. PMID:24278223

Ramos-Rodriguez, Juan Jose; Molina-Gil, Sara; Rey-Brea, Raquel; Berrocoso, Esther; Garcia-Alloza, Monica

2013-01-01

159

Rare Mutations of CACNB2 Found in Autism Spectrum Disease-Affected Families Alter Calcium Channel Function  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental diseases clinically defined by dysfunction of social interaction. Dysregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis might be involved in ASD pathogenesis, and genes coding for the L-type calcium channel subunits CaV1.2 (CACNA1C) and CaV?2 (CACNB2) were recently identified as risk loci for psychiatric diseases. Here, we present three rare missense mutations of CACNB2 (G167S, S197F, and F240L) found in ASD-affected families, two of them described here for the first time (G167S and F240L). All these mutations affect highly conserved regions while being absent in a sample of ethnically matched controls. We suggest the mutations to be of physiological relevance since they modulate whole-cell Ba2+ currents through calcium channels when expressed in a recombinant system (HEK-293 cells). Two mutations displayed significantly decelerated time-dependent inactivation as well as increased sensitivity of voltage-dependent inactivation. In contrast, the third mutation (F240L) showed significantly accelerated time-dependent inactivation. By altering the kinetic parameters, the mutations are reminiscent of the CACNA1C mutation causing Timothy Syndrome, a Mendelian disease presenting with ASD. In conclusion, the results of our first-time biophysical characterization of these three rare CACNB2 missense mutations identified in ASD patients support the hypothesis that calcium channel dysfunction may contribute to autism. PMID:24752249

Breitenkamp, Alexandra F. S.; Matthes, Jan; Nass, Robert Daniel; Sinzig, Judith; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Nürnberg, Peter; Herzig, Stefan

2014-01-01

160

[Analysis of the clinical, electrophysiological and genetic features of a family affected with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies].  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To delineate the clinical, electrophysiological and genetics features of a family where 4 members were affected with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). METHODS Clinical features of the 4 patients were summarized. Electrophysiological examination and genetic analysis were carried out. RESULTS All of the patients showed recurrent motor and sensory disturbances after minor traction or constriction. Electrophysiology study revealed that the prolonged latency and reduced conduction velocity of peripheral nerve were general and with multiple sites of affection. The nerve locations liable to entrapment showed conduction block. A deletion mutation of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene was identified by genetic analysis. CONCLUSION HNPP usually affects areas where nerves are liable to entrapment, and presents with motor and sensory disturbances of the innervated areas. Electrophysiological study reveals general nervous demyelination. Genetic analysis can clarify the diagnosis of HNPP. PMID:25636095

Qi, Faying; Che, Fengyuan

2015-02-10

161

Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

2013-01-01

162

Potential Vulnerability Markers within the Affective Domain in Subjects at Genetic and Clinical High Risk for Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Relative to ample high-risk studies on neurocognitive function, only a few high-risk studies have examined affective functioning components as possible vulnerability markers. In this study, we comprehensively assessed baseline affective functioning in subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) and genetic high risk (GHR) for schizophrenia, and healthy controls (HC), and compared the results to elucidate possible vulnerability markers in

Seung Jae Lee; So Young Yoo; Do-Hyung Kang; Kyung Jin Lee; Tae Hyun Ha; Whee Wee; Ae-Ra Lee; Nam Sick Kim; Jun Soo Kwon

2008-01-01

163

The role of genetic factors in the etiology of seasonality and seasonal affective disorder: an evolutionary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which seasonal changes affect mood, energy, sleep, appetite, food preference, or the wish to socialize with other people has been called seasonality. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a condition where depressions in fall and winter alternate with non-depressed periods in spring and summer, is the most marked form of seasonality. Several lines of evidence suggest that genetic factors

L. Sher

2000-01-01

164

STABILITY IN A MODEL FOR GENETICALLY ALTERED MOSQUITOS WITH PERIODIC Hubertus F. von Bremen1  

E-print Network

with more than one million deaths attributed to it every year. Yellow fever, dengue fever, West Nile virus that success in genetically modifying the Mediter- ranean fruit fly, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti

Sacker, Robert J.

165

Genetic Ablation of Sfrp4 in Mice Does Not Affect Serum Phosphate Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Serum phosphate levels are regulated by PTH and the fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23)/Klotho endocrine system, which both affect expression of Npt2a and thus the apical reabsorption of phosphate in the proximal renal tubules. In addition to Fgf23, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (Sfrp4) has recently been implicated as an additional phosphate regulator in vivo and in vitro. Here we demonstrate that ablation of the Sfrp4 gene in mice does not lead to altered serum or urine phosphate levels. Furthermore, Sfrp4 is unable to compensate for the absence of Fgf23 or Klotho because double knockouts have a similar biochemical profile and phenotype as animals with ablation of Fgf23 or Klotho alone. Taken together, our data suggest that Sfrp4 does not contribute to the long-term regulation of serum phosphate levels in mice. PMID:21427221

Koren, Shany; Yuan, Quan; Baron, Roland

2011-01-01

166

Effects of the selective kainate receptor antagonist ACET on altered sensorimotor gating in a genetic model of reduced NMDA receptor function.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve reduced NMDA receptor function. Accordingly, experimental models of NMDA receptor hypofunction may be useful for testing potential new antipsychotic agents and for characterizing neurobiological abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. We demonstrated previously that mice under-expressing the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor show supersensitive behavioral responses to kainic acid and that a kainate receptor antagonist normalized altered behaviors in the mutant mice (NR1(neo/neo)). The present work examined effects of another selective kainate receptor antagonist, (S)-1-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxy-5-phenylthiophene-3-yl-methylpyrimidine-2,4-dione (ACET), on altered behavioral phenotypes in the genetic model of NMDA receptor hypofunction. ACET, at a dose of 15 mg/kg, partially reversed the deficits in prepulse inhibition produced by the mutation. The 15 mg/kg dose of ACET was also effective in reversing behavioral effects of the selective kainate agonist ATPA. However, ACET did not significantly reduce the increased locomotor activity and rearing behavior observed in the NR1(neo/neo) mice. These findings show that a highly selective kainate receptor antagonist can affect the deficits in sensorimotor gating in the NR1(neo/neo) mice. The results also provide further support for the idea that selective kainate receptor antagonists could be novel therapeutic candidates for schizophrenia. PMID:22297176

Duncan, Gary E; Koller, Beverly H; Moy, Sheryl S

2012-03-14

167

Effects of the selective kainate receptor antagonist ACET on altered sensorimotor gating in a genetic model of reduced NMDA receptor function  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve reduced NMDA receptor function. Accordingly, experimental models of NMDA receptor hypofunction may be useful for testing potential new antipsychotic agents and for characterizing neurobiological abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. We demonstrated previously that mice under-expressing the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor show supersensitive behavioral responses to kainic acid and that a kainate receptor antagonist normalized altered behaviors in the mutant mice (NR1neo/neo). The present work examined effects of another selective kainate receptor antagonist, (S)-1-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxy-5-phenylthiophene-3-yl-methylpyrimidine-2,4-dione (ACET), on altered behavioral phenotypes in the genetic model of NMDA receptor hypofunction. ACET, at a dose of 15 mg/kg, partially reversed the deficits in prepulse inhibition produced by the mutation. The 15 mg/kg dose of ACET was also effective in reversing behavioral effects of the selective kainate agonist ATPA. However, ACET did not significantly reduce the increased locomotor activity and rearing behavior observed in the NR1neo/neo mice. These findings show that a highly selective kainate receptor antagonist can affect the deficits in sensorimotor gating in the NR1neo/neo mice. The results also provide further support for the idea that selective kainate receptor antagonists could be novel therapeutic candidates for schizophrenia. Section: Disease-Related Neuroscience PMID:22297176

Duncan, Gary E.; Koller, Beverly H.; Moy, Sheryl S.

2012-01-01

168

Solar ultraviolet radiation alters alder and birch litter chemistry that in turn affects decomposers and soil respiration.  

PubMed

Solar ultraviolet (UV)-A and UV-B radiation were excluded from branches of grey alder (Alnus incana) and white birch (Betula pubescens) trees in a field experiment. Leaf litter collected from these trees was used in microcosm experiments under laboratory conditions. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the different UV treatments on litter chemical quality (phenolic compounds, C, N and lignin) and the subsequent effects of these changes on soil fauna and decomposition processes. We measured the decomposition rate of litter, growth of woodlice (Porcellio scaber), soil microbial respiration and abundance of nematodes and enchytraeid worms. In addition, the chemical quality of woodlice feces was analyzed. The exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B had several effects on litter chemistry. Exclusion of UV-B radiation decreased the C content in litter in both tree species. In alder litter, UV exclusion affected concentration of phenolic groups variably, whereas in birch litter there were no significant differences in phenolic compounds. Moreover, further effects on microbial respiration and chemical quality of woodlice feces were apparent. In both tree species, microbial CO(2) evolution was lower in soil with litter produced under exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B radiation when compared to soil with control litter. The N content was higher in the feces of woodlice eating alder litter produced under exclusion of both UV-A and UV-B compared to the control. In addition, there were small changes in the concentration of individual phenolic compounds analyzed from woodlice feces. Our results demonstrate that both UV-A and UV-B alter litter chemistry which in turn affects decomposition processes. PMID:19597848

Kotilainen, Titta; Haimi, Jari; Tegelberg, Riitta; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Vapaavuori, Elina; Aphalo, Pedro Jose

2009-10-01

169

Alterations in regional brain metabolism in genetic and pharmacological models of reduced NMDA receptor function.  

PubMed

A mouse line has been developed that expresses low levels of the NMDA R1 (NR1) subunit of the NMDA receptor [Cell 98 (1999) 427]. These NR1 hypomorphic mice represent an experimental model of reduced NMDA receptor function that may be relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To further characterize the neurobiological phenotype resulting from developmental NMDA receptor hypofunction, regional brain metabolic activity was assessed by autoradiographic analysis of 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. In addition, ligand binding to NMDA, AMPA, and kainate receptors was measured by quantitative autoradiography. MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors was reduced markedly throughout the brain of the NR1 hypomorphic mice. However, no alteration in 3H-AMPA or 3H-kainate binding was apparent in any region examined. Neuroanatomically specific alterations in regional 2-DG uptake were observed in the NR1 hypomorphic animals. Reduced relative 2-DG uptake was observed in the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Altered patterns of 2-DG uptake were also found in neocortical regions, with selective reductions of uptake in layer 6 in frontal regions of somatosensory and motor cortices. These data indicate alterations in cortical circuitry in the NR1 hypomorphic animals and are consistent with functional imaging studies in chronic schizophrenia patients which typically show reduced frontal cortical metabolic activity. Reduced relative 2-DG uptake was also found in the caudate, accumbens, hippocampus, and select thalamic regions in the NR1-deficient mice. However, in many other brain regions no alteration in 2-DG uptake was observed. The alterations in 2-DG uptake in the NR1 hypomorphic mice were distinctly different compared to those observed after acute challenge with the selective NMDA antagonist MK-801 in wild-type mice. The altered patterns of brain 2-DG uptake in the NR1 hypomorphic mice found in the present work, together with the altered behavioral phenotypes previously described, suggest that the mice may provide a valuable model to study novel therapeutic strategies to counteract the neurobiological consequences of chronic developmental NMDA receptor hypofunction. PMID:12270494

Duncan, Gary; Miyamoto, Seiya; Gu, Hongbin; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Koller, Beverly; Snouwaert, John

2002-10-01

170

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants.  

PubMed

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant's circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source-sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant-nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

171

Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants  

PubMed Central

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant’s circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source–sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant–nematode interactions. PMID:24187419

Hofmann, Julia

2014-01-01

172

QTL analysis of genetic loci affecting domestication-related spike characters in common wheat.  

PubMed

Domestication-related changes that govern a spike morphology suitable for seed harvesting in cereals have resulted from mutation and selection of the genes. A synthetic hexaploid wheat (S-6214, genome AABBDD) produced by a cross between durum wheat (AABB) and wild goat grass (DD) showed partial non-domestication-related phenotypes due to genetic effects of the wild goat grass genome. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting wheat domestication-related spike characters including spike threshability, rachis fragility and spike compactness were investigated in F2 progeny of a cross between Chinese Spring (CS) wheat (AABBDD) and S-6214. Of 15 relevant QTLs identified, eight seemed to be consistent with peaks previously reported in wheat, while four QTL regions were novel. Four QTLs that affected spike threshability were localized to chromosomes 2BS, 2DS, 4D and 5DS. The QTL on 2DS probably represents the tenacious glume gene, Tg-D1. Based on its map position, the QTL located on 2BS coincides with Ppd-B1 and seems to be a homoeolocus of the soft glume gene. Two novel QTLs were detected on 4D and 5DS, and their goat grass alleles increased glume tenacity. Three novel QTLs located on 2DL, 3DL and 4D for rachis fragility were found. Based on the map position, the QTL on 3DL seems different from Br1 and Br2 loci and its CS allele appears to promote the generation of barrel-type diaspores. Three disarticulation types of spikelets were found in F2 individuals: wedge-type, barrel-type and both types. Among eight QTL peaks that governed spike morphology, six, located on 2AS, 2BS, 2DS, 4AL and 5AL, coincided with ones previously reported. A QTL for spike compactness on 5AL was distinct from the Q gene. A novel QTL that controls spike length was detected on 5DL. Complex genetic interactions between genetic background and the action of each gene were suggested. PMID:25475935

Katkout, Mazen; Kishii, Masahiro; Kawaura, Kanako; Mishina, Kouhei; Sakuma, Shun; Umeda, Kazuko; Takumi, Shigeo; Nitta, Miyuki; Nasuda, Shuhei; Ogihara, Yasunari

2014-01-01

173

Genetic selection, sex and feeding treatment affect the whole-body chemical composition of sheep.  

PubMed

Hypotheses on total body chemical composition were tested using data from 350 Suffolk sheep grown to a wide range of live weights, and fed in a non-limiting way, or with reduced amounts of feed, or ad libitum on feeds of reduced protein content. The sheep were from an experiment where selection used an index designed to increase the lean deposition rate while restricting the fat deposition rate. Ultrasound muscle and fat depths were the only composition measurements in the index. The animals were males and females from a selection (S) line and its unselected control (C). The protein content of the lipid-free dry matter was unaffected by live weight, sex or feeding treatment with only a very small effect of genetic line (0.762 kg/kg in S and 0.753 kg/kg in C; P < 0.05). The form of the relationship between water and protein was not affected by any of the factors; in the different kinds of sheep it was consistent with no effect other than through differences in mature protein weight. The water : protein ratio at maturity was estimated as 3.45. Over the whole dataset, lipid weight (L) increased with protein weight (P) according to L = 0.3135 × P1.850. Allowing for this scaling, fatness increased on low-protein feeds, was greater in females than in males and in C than in S (P < 0.001). Lipid content (g/kg fleece-free empty body weight) was reduced by restricted feeding only in males at the highest slaughter weight (114 kg). The lines differed in lipid content (P < 0.001) with means of 265.1 g/kg for C and 237.3 g/kg for S. Importantly, there was no interaction between line and feeding treatments. A higher proportion of total body protein was in the carcass in S than in C (0.627 v. 0.610; P < 0.001). For lipid, the difference was reversed (0.736 v. 0.744; P < 0.05). The total energy content increased quadratically with slaughter weight. At a particular weight, the energy content of gain was higher in females than in males and in C than in S. Genetic selection affected body composition at a weight favouring the distribution of protein to the carcass and lipid to the non-carcass. Once allowing for effects of genetic selection, sex and feeding treatment on fatness, simple rules can be used to generate the chemical composition of sheep. PMID:22444916

Lewis, R M; Emmans, G C

2007-11-01

174

Spatial memory alterations in children with epilepsy of genetic origin or unknown cause.  

PubMed

Genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause can remit before adolescence. In many children, the disease does not interfere with their academic achievement. Although there are neuropsychological studies characterising the cognitive profile, there are no studies in this population focused on spatial orientation abilities. In this study, we compared children with genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause with a control group using a virtual spatial learning task. Children with epilepsy showed worse performance on the spatial orientation task, although their visuo-spatial memory, attention, and working memory were normal. These results confirm that genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause is associated with more cognitive deficits. Virtual reality technologies can complement clinical assessment. PMID:24913814

Cimadevilla, José Manuel; Lizana, Julio Ramos; Roldán, Maria Dolores; Cánovas, Rosa; Rodríguez, Eva

2014-06-01

175

Embryonic PCB exposure alters phenotypic, genetic, and epigenetic profiles in turtle sex determination, a biomarker of environmental contamination.  

PubMed

In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, embryonic gonadal differentiation can be modified by exposure to exogenous chemicals such as environmental contaminants. Although phenotypic outcomes of such events are well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms are rarely described. Here we examine the genetic and epigenetic effect of the embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on gonad differentiation in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). Some PCB congeners are without effect whereas others synergize to alter sex determination in this species. Application of two potent PCB congeners alter the physiological processes of gonad development normally dictated by the male-producing temperature (MPT), resulting sex ratios significantly biased toward female hatchlings. Of these PCB-induced females, oviduct formation is prominently distorted regardless of ovary development. Further, gonadal expression of ovarian markers, aromatase, FoxL2, and Rspo1, is activated whereas testicular markers, Dmrt1 and Sox9, are suppressed compared with typical expression patterns observed at MPT. DNA methylation profiles of the aromatase promoter in PCB-treated gonads do not follow the typical methylation pattern observed in embryos incubating at female-producing temperature. Rather, the MPT-typical methylation profiles is retained despite the induced ovarian formation. Overall, our studies demonstrate that PCB exposure alters the transcriptional profiles of genes responsible for gonadal differentiation but does not re-establish the epigenetic marks of the aromatase promoter normally set by incubation temperatures in embryonic gonads. PMID:25105783

Matsumoto, Yuiko; Hannigan, Brette; Crews, David

2014-11-01

176

Genetic changes including gene copy number alterations and their relation to prognosis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

We studied a series of 68 subjects diagnosed with childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze mutations in FLT3 and NPM1 genes, and/or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Cytogenetic/FISH abnormalities were observed in 71% of subjects, FLT3-ITD mutations in 15%, and NPM1 mutations in 13%. The array CGH alterations (average 3.6 per case) were observed in 96% of the tested subjects. The most frequent alterations were gains of 8q24.3 and 11p15.5-p15.4 in 16% of the samples. Six genes (AKT1, RUNX1, LTB, SDC1, RUNX1T1, and JAK2) from the imbalanced regions have been reported to be involved in AML, whereas other 30 cancer genes, not previously reported in an AML context, were identified as imbalanced. They probably correspond to non passenger alterations that cooperate with the recurrent translocations. The clinical data and genetic changes were tested to find out the possible association with prognosis. Genomic instability (four or more genomic imbalances) was correlated with poor patient outcome (p = 0.029). PMID:20001230

Armengol, Gemma; Canellas, Anna; Alvarez, Yolanda; Bastida, Pilar; Toledo, José Sánchez De; Pérez-Iribarne, Maria Del Mar; Camós, Mireia; Tuset, Esperanza; Estella, Jesús; Coll, María Dolores; Caballín, María Rosa; Knuutila, Sakari

2010-01-01

177

Genetic obesity alters recruitment of TANK-binding kinase 1 and AKT into hypothalamic lipid rafts domains.  

PubMed

Lipid rafts (LRs) are membrane subdomains enriched in cholesterol, glycosphingolipids and sphingolipids containing saturated fatty acid. Signaling proteins become concentrated in these microdomains mainly by saturated fatty acid modification, thus facilitating formation of protein complexes and activation of specific signaling pathways. High intake of saturated fatty acids promotes inflammation and insulin resistance, in part by disrupting insulin signaling pathway. Here we investigate whether lipid-induced toxicity in obesity correlates with altered composition of insulin signaling proteins in LRs in the brain. Our results showed that insulin receptor (IR) is highly concentrated in LRs fraction in comparison with soluble or postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions. Analysis of LRs domains from hippocampus of obese mouse showed a significant decrease of IR and its downstream signaling protein AKT, while in the PSD fraction we detected partial decrease of AKT and no changes in the IR concentration. No changes were shown in the soluble extract. In hypothalamus, genetic obesity also decreases interaction of AKT, but we did not detect changes in the IR distribution. However, in this structure genetic obesity increases recruitment of the IR negative regulator TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) into LRs and PSD fraction. No changes of AKT, IR and TBK1 were found in soluble fractions of obese in comparison with lean mice. In vitro studies showed that incubation with saturated palmitic acid but not with unsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or palmitoleic acid decreases association of IR and AKT and increases TBK1 recruitment into LRs and PSD domains, emulating what happens in the obese mice. TBK1 recruitment to insoluble domains correlates with decreases of IR tyrosine phosphorylation and ser473 AKT phosphorylation, markers of insulin resistance. These data support the hypothesis that hyperlipidemia associated with genetic obesity alters targeting of TBK1 and insulin signaling proteins into insoluble LRs domains. PMID:25447767

Delint-Ramirez, Ilse; Maldonado Ruiz, Roger; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Garza Ocañas, Lourdes; Tovar, Armando; Camacho, Alberto

2015-01-01

178

Alterations in Plasmodium falciparum Genetic Structure Two Years after Increased Malaria Control Efforts in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

The impact of malaria intervention measures (insecticide-treated net use and artemisinin combination therapy) on malaria genetics was investigated at two sites in western Kenya: an endemic lowland and an epidemic highland. The genetic structure of the parasite population was assessed by using microsatellites, and the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations was examined by using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Two years after intervention, genetic diversity remained high in both populations. A significant decrease in the prevalence of quintuple mutations conferring resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was detected in both populations, but the mutation prevalence at codon 1246 of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene had increased in the highland population. The decrease in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine–resistant mutants is encouraging, but the increase in P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene mutations is worrisome because these mutations are linked to resistance to other antimalarial drugs. In addition, the high level of genetic diversity observed after intervention suggests transmission is still high in each population. PMID:23166196

Vardo-Zalik, Anne M.; Zhou, Guofa; Zhong, Daibin; Afrane, Yaw A.; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

2013-01-01

179

Alterations of uromodulin biology: A common denominator of the genetically heterogeneous  

E-print Network

and medullary cystic kidney diseases type 1 and type 2. In some families the disease is associated in kidney tissues. We proved genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Uromodulin mutations were identified with the observations in the patient's kidney tissue. We found a reduction in urinary uromodulin excretion as a common

Majewski, Jacek

180

Physical characteristics of genetically-altered wheat related to technological protein separation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat protein is a technologically challenging substrate for food and non-food applications because of its compositional diversity and susceptibility to denaturation. Genetic modification could be used to create cultivars capable of producing more uniform or focused and novel protein compositions t...

181

Genetic Analysis of Central Carbon Metabolism Unveils an Amino Acid Substitution That Alters Maize NAD-  

E-print Network

, Ronan Sulpice2 , Sherry Flint-Garcia3 , Michael D. McMullen3 , Mark Stitt2 , Edward S. Buckler1,4 1. Citation: Zhang N, Gur A, Gibon Y, Sulpice R, Flint-Garcia S, et al. (2010) Genetic Analysis of Central

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

182

Phytoplasmal infection derails genetically preprogrammed meristem fate and alters plant architecture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the life cycle of higher plants, it is the fate of meristem cells that determines the pattern of growth and development, and therefore plant morphotype and fertility. Floral transition, the turning point from vegetative growth to reproductive development, is achieved via genetically-programmed s...

183

Partial genetic deletion of neuregulin 1 and adolescent stress interact to alter NMDA receptor binding in the medial prefrontal cortex  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is thought to arise due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors during early neurodevelopment. We have recently shown that partial genetic deletion of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) and adolescent stress interact to disturb sensorimotor gating, neuroendocrine activity and dendritic morphology in mice. Both stress and Nrg1 may have converging effects upon N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) which are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, sensorimotor gating and dendritic spine plasticity. Using an identical repeated restraint stress paradigm to our previous study, here we determined NMDAR binding across various brain regions in adolescent Nrg1 heterozygous (HET) and wild-type (WT) mice using [3H] MK-801 autoradiography. Repeated restraint stress increased NMDAR binding in the ventral part of the lateral septum (LSV) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus irrespective of genotype. Partial genetic deletion of Nrg1 interacted with adolescent stress to promote an altered pattern of NMDAR binding in the infralimbic (IL) subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex. In the IL, whilst stress tended to increase NMDAR binding in WT mice, it decreased binding in Nrg1 HET mice. However, in the DG, stress selectively increased the expression of NMDAR binding in Nrg1 HET mice but not WT mice. These results demonstrate a Nrg1-stress interaction during adolescence on NMDAR binding in the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:25324742

Chohan, Tariq W.; Nguyen, An; Todd, Stephanie M.; Bennett, Maxwell R.; Callaghan, Paul; Arnold, Jonathon C.

2014-01-01

184

DNA ALTERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

185

Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.  

PubMed

Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity. PMID:25445391

Dang, Xiao-Yong; Chu, Wei-Wei; Shi, Heng-Chuan; Yu, Shi-Gang; Han, Hai-Yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

2015-01-25

186

Genetic Variant BDNF (Val66Met) Polymorphism Alters Anxiety-Related Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, a methionine (Met) substitution for valine (Val) at codon 66 (Val66Met), is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory, but its relevance to clinical disorders is unclear. We generated a variant BDNF mouse (BDNFMet\\/Met) that reproduces the phenotypic hallmarks in humans with the variant allele. BDNFMet was expressed

Zhe-Yu Chen; Deqiang Jing; Kevin G. Bath; Alessandro Ieraci; Tanvir Khan; Chia-Jen Siao; Daniel G. Herrera; Miklos Toth; Chingwen Yang; Bruce S. McEwen; Barbara L. Hempstead; Francis S. Lee

2006-01-01

187

History of oilseed rape cropping and geographic origin affect the genetic structure of Plasmodiophora brassicae populations.  

PubMed

The soilborne pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot on Brassica crops, a common disease in many oilseed rape growing regions. Here, we investigate genetic diversity and geographic differentiation of P. brassicae populations from different regions in Germany. We compared three regions that differ in oilseed rape cropping history, oilseed rape acreage, and incidence of clubroot. These regions were either spatially separated or separated by the former inner German border. Plasmodiophora isolates were collected from 59 fields (29, 17, and 13 fields per region, respectively) and 174 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were analyzed. Every field isolate showed a unique genotype pattern; that is, no genotype was shared among the regions and different fields. The mean gene diversity was 0.27, suggesting that P. brassicae is a genetically diverse species. The comparison of indexes (gene diversity, genotypic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium) between the regions does not support our hypotheses that cropping history, oilseed rape acreage, and incidence of clubroot affect these estimates. Principal component analysis (PCA), fixation index (FST), and generalized linear model (GLM) were suitable to specify regional differences. PCA revealed two clusters of isolates based on the geographic origin of the isolates and FST showed that these clusters were highly differentiated. Hypotheses about association of genotypes with different spatial scales were tested with GLM: the region, reflecting the cropping history, and the individual field had a significant effect on the AFLP pattern. We propose that individual field isolates represent a discrete population and that geographic differentiation results from low levels of gene flow due to the limited dispersal of this soilborne pathogen and from localized selection pressure as unifying force on the genotypes. PMID:24261407

Strehlow, Becke; de Mol, Friederike; Struck, Christine

2014-05-01

188

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status. PMID:23508715

Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

2013-07-01

189

Vanderbilt study finds diverse genetic alterations in triple-negative breast cancers  

Cancer.gov

Most triple-negative breast cancer patients who were treated with chemotherapy to shrink the tumor prior to surgery still had multiple genetic mutations in their tumor cells, according to a study by Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center (VICC) investigators. Finding multiple mutations instead of just one primary mutation that can be targeted for therapy sheds more light on the challenges of treating triple-negative breast cancer.

190

Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.  

PubMed

The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

2007-06-13

191

Does Wheat Genetically Modified for Disease Resistance Affect Root-Colonizing Pseudomonads and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi?  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to characterize the diversity of the pqqC gene, which is involved in Pseudomonas phosphate solubilization. A major result was that in the first field season Pseudomonas abundances and diversity on roots of GM pm3b lines, but also on non-GM sister lines were different from those of the parental lines and conventional wheat cultivars. This indicates a strong effect of the procedures by which these plants were created, as GM and sister lines were generated via tissue cultures and propagated in the greenhouse. Moreover, Pseudomonas population sizes and DGGE profiles varied considerably between individual GM lines with different genomic locations of the pm3b transgene. At individual time points, differences in Pseudomonas and AMF accumulation between GM and control lines were detected, but they were not consistent and much less pronounced than differences detected between young and old plants, different conventional wheat cultivars or at different locations and field seasons. Thus, we conclude that impacts of GM wheat on plant-beneficial root-colonizing microorganisms are minor and not of ecological importance. The cultivation-independent pqqC-DGGE approach proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the dynamics of Pseudomonas populations in a wheat field and even sensitive enough for detecting population responses to altered plant physiology. PMID:23372672

Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

2013-01-01

192

ALTERING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GROWTH, MORPHOGENESIS AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION IN MENTHA SPICATA L. SHOOTS IN VITRO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Altering the physical environment profoundly alters the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (leave, root and shoot numbers) and secondary metabolism [i.e., production of the monoterpene (-)-carvone] of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) shoots cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium. The type of physica...

193

Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived risk of genetically modified food: an overview of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the risk of genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on risk

Melissa L. Finucane; Joan L. Holup

2005-01-01

194

Copyright 0 1991 by the GeneticsSocietyof America New SNF Genes, GAL11 and GRRl Affect SUC2 Expressionin  

E-print Network

Copyright 0 1991 by the GeneticsSocietyof America New SNF Genes, GAL11 and GRRl Affect SUC2 in raffinose utilization.In addition to mutations in SUCP and previously identified SNF genes, we recovered in previous mutant searches (CARLSON,OSMONDand BOTSTEIN1981;NEIGEBORNand CARLSON1984).The SNF (sucrose

Vallier, Laura

195

The role of genetic factors in the etiology of seasonality and seasonal affective disorder: an evolutionary approach.  

PubMed

The degree to which seasonal changes affect mood, energy, sleep, appetite, food preference, or the wish to socialize with other people has been called seasonality. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a condition where depressions in fall and winter alternate with non-depressed periods in spring and summer, is the most marked form of seasonality. Several lines of evidence suggest that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of seasonality and SAD. Millions of years of evolution and adaptation have optimized human biochemical and physiological systems for function and survival under equatorial environmental conditions. Modern humans began their migration out of Africa only about 150 000 years ago. Little change in our 'equatorial' systems might have been expected over this relatively short evolutionary time-span. The author suggests that a genetic susceptibility to seasonal changes in mood and behavior is a genetic predisposition to an insufficient adaptation to temperate and high latitudes. PMID:10859671

Sher, L

2000-05-01

196

Host plant genetics affect hidden ecological players: links among Populus , condensed tannins, and fungal endophyte infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown effects of host plant genetics on community and ecosystem processes, which makes understanding the impacts of genetically based traits on hidden or non-apparent organisms more important. Here we examined links among genetic variation in hybrid cottonwoods, plant phytochemistry, and twig fungal endophytes (i.e., a common hidden organism). We found three major patterns: (1) twig fungal endophyte

Joseph K. Bailey; Ron Deckert; Jennifer A. Schweitzer; Brian J. Rehill; Richard L. Lindroth; Catherine Gehring; Thomas G. Whitham

2005-01-01

197

Region-Specific Genetic Alterations in the Aging Hippocampus: Implications For Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with cognitive decline in both humans and animals and of all brain regions, the hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to senescence. Age-related spatial learning deficits result from alterations in hippocampal connectivity and plasticity. These changes are differentially expressed in each of the hippocampal fields known as cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), cornu ammonis 3 (CA3), and the dentate gyrus. Each sub-region displays varying degrees of susceptibility to aging. For example, the CA1 region is particularly susceptible in Alzheimer's disease while the CA3 region shows vulnerability to stress and glucocorticoids. Further, in animals, aging is the main factor associated with the decline in adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. This review discusses the relationship between region-specific hippocampal connectivity, morphology, and gene expression alterations and the cognitive deficits associated with senescence. In particular, data are reviewed that illustrate how the molecular changes observed in the CA1, CA3, and dentate regions are associated with age-related learning deficits. This topic is of importance because increased understanding of how gene expression patterns reflect individual differences in cognitive performance is critical to the process of identifying new and clinically useful biomarkers for cognitive aging. PMID:21048902

Burger, Corinna

2010-01-01

198

Mitochondrial genetic analyses suggest selection against maternal lineages in bipolar affective disorder.  

PubMed Central

Previous reports of preferential transmission of bipolar affective disorder (BP) from the maternal versus the paternal lines in families suggested that this disorder may be caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations. We have sequenced the mitochondrial genome in 25 BP patients with family histories of psychiatric disorder that suggest matrilineal inheritance. No polymorphism identified more than once in this sequencing showed any significant association with BP in association studies using 94 cases and 94 controls. To determine whether our BP sample showed evidence of selection against the maternal lineage, we determined genetic distances between all possible pairwise comparisons within the BP and control groups, based on multilocus mitochondrial polymorphism haplotypes. These analyses revealed fewer closely related haplotypes in the BP group than in the matched control group, suggesting selection against maternal lineages in this disease. Such selection is compatible with recurrent mitochondrial mutations, which are associated with slightly decreased fitness. Although such mismatch distribution comparisons have been used previously for analyses of population histories, this is, as far as we are aware, the first report of this method being used to study disease. PMID:10417293

Kirk, R; Furlong, R A; Amos, W; Cooper, G; Rubinsztein, J S; Walsh, C; Paykel, E S; Rubinsztein, D C

1999-01-01

199

Genetics of mutations affecting the development of a barley floral bract.  

PubMed Central

Two groups of mutants that affect the morphology of the lemma, a floral bract of barley, are described. The first comprises phenotypes associated with mutant alleles of calcaroides loci. On the lemma of these mutants, a well-organized neomorphic structure is formed, termed the sac. We provide a morphological description of wild-type (WT) and mutant lemmas, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing that both consist of similar tissues, but that the mutant is characterized by reversed growth polarity. The sac is a unique structure among grasses, and it is remarkable that recessive mutations at five different genetic loci lead to the same organ. The second group of mutants carry recessive alleles of two leafy lemma genes, both of which are necessary to cause the transformation of the lemma into a structure having all characteristics of a vegetative leaf, as shown by SEM analysis. The presence of sheath, blade, and ligule in the mutant lemma suggests that wild-type lemma development is interrupted at a leaf-like stage. The genes cal a, b, C, d, 23, lel1, and lel2 have now been mapped at precise positions on linkage groups 2, 7, 7, 3, 7, 5, and 7, respectively. The mutants considered in this article are unaffected in other floral organs. A model for lemma development is suggested. PMID:10757774

Pozzi, C; Faccioli, P; Terzi, V; Stanca, A M; Cerioli, S; Castiglioni, P; Fink, R; Capone, R; Müller, K J; Bossinger, G; Rohde, W; Salamini, F

2000-01-01

200

Citrus Leaf Volatiles as Affected by Developmental Stage and Genetic Type  

PubMed Central

Major volatiles from young and mature leaves of different citrus types were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. A total of 123 components were identified form nine citrus cultivars, including nine aldehydes, 19 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 27 oxygenated monoterpenes, 43 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, eight oxygenated sesquiterpenes, two ketones, six esters and nine miscellaneous. Young leaves produced higher amounts of volatiles than mature leaves in most cultivars. The percentage of aldehyde and monoterpene hydrocarbons increased, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes compounds decreased during leaf development. Linalool was the most abundant compound in young leaves, whereas limonene was the chief component in mature ones. Notably, linalool content decreased, while limonene increased, during leaf development in most cultivars. Leaf volatiles were also affected by genetic types. A most abundant volatile in one or several genotypes can be absent in another one(s), such as limonene in young leaves of lemon vs. Satsuma mandarin and ?-terpinene in mature leaves of three genotypes vs. the other four. Compositional data was subjected to multivariate statistical analysis, and variations in leaf volatiles were identified and clustered into six groups. This research determining the relationship between production of major volatiles from different citrus varieties and leaf stages could be of use for industrial and culinary purposes. PMID:23994837

Azam, Muhammad; Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

2013-01-01

201

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility in chicken to develop pulmonary hypertension syndrome.  

PubMed

Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), also referred to as ascites syndrome, is a growth-related disorder of chickens frequently observed in fast-growing broilers with insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity at low temperature and/or at high altitude. A cross between two genetically different broiler dam lines that originated from the White Plymouth Rock breed was used to produce a three-generation population. This population was used for the detection and localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting PHS-related traits. Ten full-sib families consisting of 456 G2 birds were typed with 420 microsatellite markers covering 24 autosomal chromosomes. Phenotypic observations were collected on 4202 G3 birds and a full-sib across family regression interval mapping approach was used to identify QTL. There was statistical evidence for QTL on chicken chromosome 2 (GGA2), GGA4 and GGA6. Suggestive QTL were found on chromosomes 5, 8, 10, 27 and 28. The most significant QTL were located on GGA2 for right and total ventricular weight as percentage of body weight (%RV and %TV respectively). A related trait, the ratio of right ventricular weight as percentage to total ventricular weight (RATIO), reached the suggestive threshold on this chromosome. All three QTL effects identified on GGA2 had their maximum test statistic in the region flanked by markers MCW0185 and MCW0245 (335-421 cM). PMID:16293119

Rabie, T S K M; Crooijmans, R P M A; Bovenhuis, H; Vereijken, A L J; Veenendaal, T; van der Poel, J J; Van Arendonk, J A M; Pakdel, A; Groenen, M A M

2005-12-01

202

QTL mapping reveals the genetic architecture of loci affecting pre- and post-zygotic isolating barriers in Louisiana Iris  

PubMed Central

Background Hybridization among Louisiana Irises has been well established and the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation is known to affect the potential for and the directionality of introgression between taxa. Here we use co-dominant markers to identify regions where QTL are located both within and between backcross maps to compare the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and fitness traits across treatments and years. Results QTL mapping was used to elucidate the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation between Iris fulva and Iris brevicaulis. Homologous co-dominant EST-SSR markers scored in two backcross populations between I. fulva and I. brevicaulis were used to generate genetic linkage maps. These were used as the framework for mapping QTL associated with variation in 11 phenotypic traits likely responsible for reproductive isolation and fitness. QTL were dispersed throughout the genome, with the exception of one region of a single linkage group (LG) where QTL for flowering time, sterility, and fruit production clustered. In most cases, homologous QTL were not identified in both backcross populations, however, homologous QTL for flowering time, number of growth points per rhizome, number of nodes per inflorescence, and number of flowers per node were identified on several linkage groups. Conclusions Two different traits affecting reproductive isolation, flowering time and sterility, exhibit different genetic architectures, with numerous QTL across the Iris genome controlling flowering time and fewer, less distributed QTL affecting sterility. QTL for traits affecting fitness are largely distributed across the genome with occasional overlap, especially on LG 4, where several QTL increasing fitness and decreasing sterility cluster. Given the distribution and effect direction of QTL affecting reproductive isolation and fitness, we have predicted genomic regions where introgression may be more likely to occur (those regions associated with an increase in fitness and unlinked to loci controlling reproductive isolation) and those that are less likely to exhibit introgression (those regions linked to traits decreasing fitness and reproductive isolation). PMID:22702308

2012-01-01

203

Transcriptome Profiling of Human Ulcerative Colitis Mucosa Reveals Altered Expression of Pathways Enriched in Genetic Susceptibility Loci  

PubMed Central

Human colonic mucosa altered by inflammation due to ulcerative colitis (UC) displays a drastically altered pattern of gene expression compared with healthy tissue. We aimed to understand the underlying molecular pathways influencing these differences by analyzing three publically-available, independently-generated microarray datasets of gene expression from endoscopic biopsies of the colon. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that all three datasets share 87 gene sets upregulated in UC lesions and 8 gene sets downregulated (false discovery rate <0.05). The upregulated pathways were dominated by gene sets involved in immune function and signaling, as well as the control of mitosis. We applied pathway analysis to genotype data derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of UC, consisting of 5,584 cases and 11,587 controls assembled from eight European-ancestry cohorts. The upregulated pathways derived from the gene expression data showed a highly significant overlap with pathways derived from the genotype data (33 of 56 gene sets, hypergeometric P?=?1.49×10–19). This study supports the hypothesis that heritable variation in gene expression as measured by GWAS signals can influence key pathways in the development of disease, and that comparison of genetic susceptibility loci with gene expression signatures can differentiate key drivers of inflammation from secondary effects on gene expression of the inflammatory process. PMID:24788701

Li, Jin; Zhu, Junfei; Gu, Mengnan; Baldassano, Robert N.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon

2014-01-01

204

Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.  

PubMed Central

A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about the dominant frequency. This method is based on determination of a quantity called the Hindex, which is derived using data from the FFT analysis. Calculation of the H index allows computer-based selection of the most suitable segment of recorded data for determination of the representative wing beat frequency. Experimental data suggest that the H index can also prove useful in examining wing beat frequency variability in Diptera whose flight muscle structure has been genetically altered. Examples from Drosophila indirect flight muscle studies as well as examples of artificial data are presented to illustrate the method. This method fulfills a need for a standardized method for determining wing beat frequencies and examining wing beat frequency variability in insects whose flight muscles have been altered by protein engineering methods. PMID:7811927

Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

1994-01-01

205

Genetical and Comparative Genomics of Brassica under Altered Ca Supply Identifies Arabidopsis Ca-Transporter Orthologs[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca2+ transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 × R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca2+ transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization. PMID:25082855

Graham, Neil S.; Hammond, John P.; Lysenko, Artem; Mayes, Sean; Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Blasco, Bego; Bowen, Helen C.; Rawlings, Chris J.; Rios, Juan J.; Welham, Susan; Carion, Pierre W.C.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; King, Graham J.; White, Philip J.; Broadley, Martin R.

2014-01-01

206

Whole Genome Analysis of Genetic Alterations in Small DNA Samples Using Hyperbranched Strand Displacement Amplification and Array–CGH  

PubMed Central

Structural genetic alterations in cancer often involve gene loss or gene amplification. With the advent of microarray approaches for the analysis of the genome, as exemplified by array–CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridization), scanning for gene-dosage alterations is limited only by issues of DNA microarray density. However, samples of interest to the pathologist often comprise small clusters of just a few hundred cells, which do not provide sufficient DNA for array–CGH analysis. We sought to develop a simple method that would permit amplification of the whole genome without the use of thermocycling or ligation of DNA adaptors, because such a method would lend itself to the automated processing of a large number of tissue samples. We describe a method that permits the isothermal amplification of genomic DNA with high fidelity and limited sequence representation bias. The method is based on strand displacement reactions that propagate by a hyperbranching mechanism, and generate hundreds, or even thousands, of copies of the genome in a few hours. Using whole genome isothermal amplification, in combination with comparative genomic hybridization on cDNA microarrays, we demonstrate the ability to detect gene losses in yeast and gene dosage imbalances in human breast tumor cell lines. Although sequence representation bias in the amplified DNA presents potential problems for CGH analysis, these problems have been overcome by using amplified DNA in both control and tester samples. Gene-dosage alterations of threefold or more can be observed with high reproducibility with as few as 1000 cells of starting material. PMID:12566408

Lage, José M.; Leamon, John H.; Pejovic, Tanja; Hamann, Stefan; Lacey, Michelle; Dillon, Deborah; Segraves, Richard; Vossbrinck, Bettina; González, Antonio; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G.; Costa, Jose; Lizardi, Paul M.

2003-01-01

207

Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive–compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

2013-01-01

208

Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive-compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

Murphy, Dennis L; Moya, Pablo R; Fox, Meredith A; Rubenstein, Liza M; Wendland, Jens R; Timpano, Kiara R

2013-01-01

209

Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two associations at genome-wide significance identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (P < 1 × 10(-12)) and X-linked CLDN2 (P < 1 × 10(-21)) through a two-stage genome-wide study (stage 1: 676 cases and 4,507 controls; stage 2: 910 cases and 4,170 controls). The PRSS1 variant likely affects disease susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous in males) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men (male hemizygote frequency is 0.26, whereas female homozygote frequency is 0.07). PMID:23143602

Whitcomb, David C; LaRusch, Jessica; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Klei, Lambertus; Smith, Jill P; Brand, Randall E; Neoptolemos, John P; Lerch, Markus M; Tector, Matt; Sandhu, Bimaljit S; Guda, Nalini M; Orlichenko, Lidiya; Alkaade, Samer; Amann, Stephen T; Anderson, Michelle A; Baillie, John; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin; Coté, Gregory A; Cotton, Peter B; DiSario, James; Farrer, Lindsay A; Forsmark, Chris E; Johnstone, Marianne; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Greenhalf, William; Haines, Jonathan L; Hartman, Douglas J; Hawes, Robert A; Lawrence, Christopher; Lewis, Michele; Mayerle, Julia; Mayeux, Richard; Melhem, Nadine M; Money, Mary E; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Sherman, Stuart; Simon, Peter; Singh, Vijay P; Slivka, Adam; Stolz, Donna; Sutton, Robert; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Wilcox, C Mel; Zarnescu, Narcis Octavian; Wisniewski, Stephen R; O'Connell, Michael R; Kienholz, Michelle L; Roeder, Kathryn; Barmada, M Michael; Yadav, Dhiraj; Devlin, Bernie

2012-12-01

210

Genetic Background Alters the Severity and Onset of Neuromuscular Disease Caused by the Loss of Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 14 (Usp14)  

PubMed Central

In this study, we identified and characterized an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) induced mutation in Usp14 (nmf375) that leads to adult-onset neurological disease. The nmf375 mutation causes aberrant splicing of Usp14 mRNA, resulting in a 95% reduction in USP14. We previously showed that loss of USP14 in ataxia (axJ) mice results in reduced ubiquitin levels, motor endplate disease, Purkinje cell axonal dystrophy and decreased hippocampal paired pulse facilitation (PPF) during the first 4-6 weeks of life, and early postnatal lethality by two months of age. Although the loss of USP14 is comparable between the nmf375 and axJ mice, the nmf375 mice did not exhibit these axJ developmental abnormalities. However, by 12 weeks of age the nmf375 mutants present with ubiquitin depletion and motor endplate disease, indicating a continual role for USP14-mediated regulation of ubiquitin pools and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) structure in adult mice. The observation that motor endplate disease was only seen after ubiquitin depletion suggests that the preservation of NMJ structure requires the stable maintenance of synaptic ubiquitin pools. Differences in genetic background were shown to affect ubiquitin expression and dramatically alter the phenotypes caused by USP14 deficiency. PMID:24358326

Hallengren, Jada J.; Walters, Brandon J.; Dobrunz, Lynn E.; Francillon, Ludwig; Wilson, Julie A.; Phillips, Scott E.; Wilson, Scott M.

2013-01-01

211

Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR, and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two significant genome-wide associations identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (1×10-12) and x-linked CLDN2 (p < 1×10-21) through a two-stage genome-wide study (Stage 1, 676 cases and 4507 controls; Stage 2, 910 cases and 4170 controls). The PRSS1 variant affects susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous male) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men – male hemizygous frequency is 0.26, female homozygote is 0.07. PMID:23143602

Whitcomb, David C.; LaRusch, Jessica; Krasinskas, Alyssa M.; Klei, Lambertus; Smith, Jill P.; Brand, Randall E.; Neoptolemos, John P.; Lerch, Markus M.; Tector, Matt; Sandhu, Bimaljit S.; Guda, Nalini M.; Orlichenko, Lidiya; Alkaade, Samer; Amann, Stephen T.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Baillie, John; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Coté, Gregory A.; Cotton, Peter B.; DiSario, James; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Forsmark, Chris E.; Johnstone, Marianne; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Greenhalf, William; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Hawes, Robert A.; Lawrence, Christopher; Lewis, Michele; Mayerle, Julia; Mayeux, Richard; Melhem, Nadine M.; Money, Mary E.; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sherman, Stuart; Simon, Peter; Singh, Vijay K.; Slivka, Adam; Stolz, Donna; Sutton, Robert; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Wilcox, C. Mel; Zarnescu, Narcis Octavian; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Roeder, Kathryn; Barmada, M. Michael; Yadav, Dhiraj; Devlin, Bernie; Albert, Marilyn S.; Albin, Roger L.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Arnold, Steven E.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Barber, Robert; Barnes, Lisa L.; Beach, Thomas G.; Beecham, Gary W.; Beekly, Duane; Bennett, David A.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bird, Thomas D.; Blacker, Deborah; Boxer, Adam; Burke, James R.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Cao, Chuanhai; Carney, Regina M.; Carroll, Steven L.; Chui, Helena C.; Clark, David G.; Cribbs, David H.; Crocco, Elizabeth A.; Cruchaga, Carlos; DeCarli, Charles; Demirci, F. Yesim; Dick, Malcolm; Dickson, Dennis W.; Duara, Ranjan; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Faber, Kelley M.; Fallon, Kenneth B.; Farlow, Martin R.; Ferris, Steven; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Ganguli, Mary; Gearing, Marla; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gilbert, John R.; Gilman, Sid; Glass, Jonathan D.; Goate, Alison M.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Growdon, John H.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Harrell, Lindy E.; Head, Elizabeth; Honig, Lawrence S.; Hulette, Christine M.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Jin, Lee-Way; Jun, Gyungah; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Karydas, Anna; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Ronald; Koo, Edward H.; Kowall, Neil W.; Kramer, Joel H.; Kramer, Patricia; Kukull, Walter A.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Lah, James J.; Leverenz, James B.; Levey, Allan I.; Li, Ge; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Mack, Wendy J.; Marson, Daniel C.; Martin, Eden R.; Martiniuk, Frank; Mash, Deborah C.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann C.; Mesulam, Marsel; Miller, Bruce L.; Miller, Carol A.; Miller, Joshua W.; Montine, Thomas J.; Morris, John C.; Murrell, Jill R.; Naj, Adam C.; Olichney, John M.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Peskind, Elaine; Petersen, Ronald C.; Pierce, Aimee; Poon, Wayne W.; Potter, Huntington; Quinn, Joseph F.; Raj, Ashok; Raskind, Murray; Reiman, Eric M.; Reisberg, Barry; Reitz, Christiane; Ringman, John M.; Roberson, Erik D.; Rosen, Howard J.; Rosenberg, Roger N.; Sano, Mary; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schneider, Julie A.; Schneider, Lon S.; Seeley, William W.; Smith, Amanda G.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Spina, Salvatore; Stern, Robert A.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Valladares, Otto; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vinters, Harry V.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Wang, Li-San; Weintraub, Sandra; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Williamson, Jennifer; Woltjer, Randall L.; Wright, Clinton B.; Younkin, Steven G.; Yu, Chang-En; Yu, Lei

2012-01-01

212

Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: V. Factors affecting circulating progesterone concentrations.  

PubMed

This study investigated the factors affecting circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations in cows with similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with extremes of good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. Study 1: 28 cows were enrolled in an ovulation synchronization protocol at 61±13 (±standard deviation) days postpartum, and data are presented for 13 Fert+ and 9 Fert- cows that remained in the study. Progesterone concentrations were determined from d 0 to 9 (d 0=estrus) and on d 7, corpus luteum (CL) volume and blood flow area (BFA) were measured by B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. Cows were administered PGF2? on d 7 in the p.m. and d 8 in the a.m. to regress the CL, and 2 controlled internal drug release devices were inserted per vaginum on d 8 in the a.m. Liver biopsies were collected on d 9 and hepatic mRNA abundance of genes involved in P4 catabolism was determined. On d 10, the controlled internal drug release inserts were removed and frequent blood samples were collected to measure the rate of decline in circulating P4. The Fert+ cows tended to have greater dry matter intake compared with Fert- cows (+0.79kg of dry matter/d), but similar milk production (29.82kg/d). After synchronized ovulation, the rate of increase in circulating P4 concentrations was greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows. No effect of genotype on CL volume was detected, but BFA was 42% greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows. The Fert- cows had greater mRNA abundance of cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A (CYP3A) compared with Fert+ cows, but the mRNA abundance of aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), AKR1C3, AKR1C4, and cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C (CYP2C) were similar. The half-life and metabolic clearance rate of P4 were similar in Fert+ cows and Fert- cows. Study 2: 23 cows were enrolled in an ovulation synchronization protocol at 55±7 (±standard deviation) d postpartum, and data are presented for 13 Fert+ and 8 Fert- cows that remained in the study. On d 4, 7, 10, and 13 (d 0=estrus), CL volume and BFA were measured as in study 1. Progesterone concentrations were measured from d 1 to 13. Corpus luteum volume was 41% greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows but no effect of genotype on BFA was detected. Mean circulating P4 concentrations were 79% greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows. Milk yield was similar in both genotypes. The results indicate that greater circulating P4 concentrations were primarily due to greater CL P4 synthetic capacity rather than differences in P4 clearance in this lactating cow genetic model of fertility. PMID:24952779

Moore, S G; Scully, S; Browne, J A; Fair, T; Butler, S T

2014-09-01

213

Genetic liability to schizophrenia in Oceanic Palau: a search in the affected and maternal generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While liability to schizophrenia (Scz) is due to genetic and environmental factors, specific factors are largely unknown.\\u000a We postulate a two-hit model for Scz, in which initial liability is generated during fetal brain development: this “hit” is\\u000a precipitated by environmental stressors biologically interacting with maternal genetic vulnerability to the stress. Additional\\u000a liability to Scz is generated by individual genetic vulnerability.

Bernie Devlin; Lambertus Klei; Marina Myles-Worsley; Josepha Tiobech; Caleb Otto; William Byerley; Kathryn Roeder

2007-01-01

214

Detection of Genetically Altered Copper Levels in Drosophila Tissues by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Tissue-specific manipulation of known copper transport genes in Drosophila tissues results in phenotypes that are presumably due to an alteration in copper levels in the targeted cells. However direct confirmation of this has to date been technically challenging. Measures of cellular copper content such as expression levels of copper-responsive genes or cuproenzyme activity levels, while useful, are indirect. First-generation copper-sensitive fluorophores show promise but currently lack the sensitivity required to detect subtle changes in copper levels. Moreover such techniques do not provide information regarding other relevant biometals such as zinc or iron. Traditional techniques for measuring elemental composition such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy are not sensitive enough for use with the small tissue amounts available in Drosophila research. Here we present synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy analysis of two different Drosophila tissues, the larval wing imaginal disc, and sectioned adult fly heads and show that this technique can be used to detect changes in tissue copper levels caused by targeted manipulation of known copper homeostasis genes. PMID:22053217

Lye, Jessica C.; Hwang, Joab E. C.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Burke, Richard

2011-01-01

215

Identification of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer by the combined use of tissue microdissection and array-based comparative genomic hybridisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterised pathologically by a marked desmoplastic stromal reaction that significantly reduces the sensitivity and specificity of cytogenetic analysis. To identify genetic alterations that reflect the characteristics of the tumour in vivo, we screened a total of 23 microdissected PDAC tissue samples using array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH) with 1 Mb resolution. Highly stringent statistical

T Harada; P Baril; R Gangeswaran; G Kelly; C Chelala; V Bhakta; K Caulee; P C Mahon; N R Lemoine

2007-01-01

216

ALTERED SENSITIVITY OF THE MOUSE FETUS TO IMPAIRED PROSTATIC BUD FORMATION BY DIOXIN: INFLUENCE OF GENETIC BACKGROUND AND NULL EXPRESSION OF TGF-ALFA AND EGF  

EPA Science Inventory

Altered sensitivity of the mouse fetus to impaired prostatic bud formation by dioxin: Influence of genetic background and null expression of TGF and EGF. Rasmussen, N.T., Lin T-M., Fenton, S.E., Abbott, B.D. and R.E. Peterson. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...

217

Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

2010-01-01

218

Genetically-induced Estrogen Receptor Alpha mRNA (Esr1) Overexpression Does Not Adversely Affect Fertility or Penile Development in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that estrogen receptor alpha mRNA (Esr1) or protein (ESR1) overexpression resulting from neonatal exposure to estrogens in rats was associated with infertility and mal-developed penis characterized by reduced length and weight and abnormal accumulation of fat cells. The objective of this study was to determine if mutant male mice overexpressing Esr1 are naturally infertile or have reduced fertility and/or develop abnormal penis. The fertility parameters, including fertility and fecundity indices, numbers of days from the day of cohabitation to the day of delivery, and numbers of pups per female, were not altered from controls, as a result of Esr1 overexpression. Likewise, penile morphology, including the length, weight, and diameter and os penis development, was not altered from controls. Conversely, weights of the seminal vesicles and bulbospongiosus and levator ani (BS/LA) muscles were significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to controls; however, the weight of the testis, the morphology of the testis and epididymis, and the plasma and testicular testosterone concentration were not different from controls. Hence, the genetically-induced Esr1 overexpression alone, without an exogenous estrogen exposure during the neonatal period, is unable to adversely affect the development of the penis as well as other male reproductive organs, except limited, but significant, reductions in weights of the seminal vesicles and BS/LA muscles. PMID:20930192

Heath, John; Abdelmageed, Yazeed; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Paulose, Tessie; Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel; Gupta, Rupesh; Flaws, Jodi A.; Goyal, Hari O.

2011-01-01

219

Mutants of yeast with altered oxidative energy metabolism: selection and genetic characterization.  

PubMed

Isolation of a series of mutants, characterized by decreased ability to utilize nonfermentable carbon sources for growth and presence of all cytochromes, is reported. A total of 161 mutants, showing deficient growth on glycerol but able to reduce 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, were isolated, purified, and characterized by ability to grow on various carbon sources. Mutants showing decreased growth were examined by low-temperature spectroscopy, and the 35 strains shown to possess all cytochromes were retained for further studies. These strains were characterized by growth on various nonfermentable carbon sources, relative yield on glucose medium, and respiration (Q(O2)) of glucose and ethyl alcohol. Genetic studies revealed that at least 19 of the 35 mutants are the result of mutation in single nuclear genes. Furthermore, at least 11 complementation groups are represented among these 19 mutants. Mutants within two complementation groups were shown to be very similar in various properties. These studies demonstrate that a large number of nuclear genes control oxidative energy metabolism and that the characteristics of mutants of the general class are extremely diverse. PMID:5354937

Parker, J H; Mattoon, J R

1969-11-01

220

Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.  

PubMed

Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40 % less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27 % less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40 % less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

2015-01-01

221

TP53 genetic alterations in Arab breast cancer patients: Novel mutations, pattern and distribution  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health concern. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer varies significantly in ethnically and geographically distinct populations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence and is characterized by early onset and aggressiveness. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Furthermore, studies have shown a correlation between certain p53 mutations and response to therapy in breast cancer. In the present study, TP53 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of the gene (exons 4–9) from 119 breast cancer tissues. The prevalence of TP53 mutations in Arab breast cancer patients living in the KSA is among the highest in the world (40%). Notably, 73% of the patients whose tumors harbored p53 mutations were less than 50 years of age. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified 7 novel mutations and 16 mutations in breast cancer tissues. Notably, all the novel point mutations were found in exon 4, wherein 29% of the mutations were localized. Furthermore, an excess of G:C?A:T transitions (49%) at non-CpG sites was noted, suggesting exposure to particular environmental carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds. The results indicate that the TP53 gene plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis and the early onset of the disease among Arab female individuals. PMID:22866089

AL-QASEM, ABEER J.; TOULIMAT, MOHAMED; ELDALI, ABDELMONEIM M.; TULBAH, ASMA; AL-YOUSEF, NUJOUD; AL-DAIHAN, SOOAD K.; AL-TASSAN, NADA; AL-TWEIGERI, TAHER; ABOUSSEKHRA, ABDELILAH

2011-01-01

222

Heteroplasmy of Mouse mtDNA Is Genetically Unstable and Results in Altered Behavior and Cognition  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Maternal inheritance of mtDNA is the rule in most animals, but the reasons for this pattern remain unclear. To investigate the consequence of overriding uniparental inheritance, we generated mice containing an admixture (heteroplasmy) of NZB and 129S6 mtDNAs in the presence of a congenic C57BL/6J nuclear background. Analysis of the segregation of the two mtDNAs across subsequent maternal generations revealed that proportion of NZB mtDNA was preferentially reduced. Ultimately, this segregation process produced NZB-129 heteroplasmic mice and their NZB or 129 mtDNA homo-plasmic counterparts. Phenotypic comparison of these three mtDNA lines demonstrated that the NZB-129 heteroplasmic mice, but neither homoplasmic counterpart, had reduced activity, food intake, respiratory exchange ratio; accentuated stress response; and cognitive impairment. Therefore, admixture of two normal but different mouse mtDNAs can be genetically unstable and can produce adverse physiological effects, factors that may explain the advantage of uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. PMID:23063123

Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; McManus, Meagan; Crimi, Marco; Waymire, Katrina; Lin, Chun Shi; Masubuchi, Satoru; Friend, Nicole; Koike, Maya; Chalkia, Dimitra; MacGregor, Grant; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Wallace, Douglas C.

2014-01-01

223

Search and Insights into Novel Genetic Alterations Leading to Classical and Atypical Werner Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Segmental progeroid syndromes are a group of disorders with multiple features resembling accelerated aging. Adult-onset Werner syndrome (WS) and childhood-onset Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) are the best known examples. The discovery of genes responsible for such syndromes has facilitated our understanding of the basic mechanisms of aging as well as the pathogenesis of other common, age-related diseases. Our International Registry of Werner Syndrome accesses progeroid pedigrees from all over the world, including those for whom we have ruled out a mutation at the WRN locus. Cases without WRN mutations are operationally categorized as “atypical WS” (AWS). In 2003, we identified LMNA mutations among a subset of AWS cases using a candidate gene approach. As of 2013, the Registry has 142 WS patients with WRN mutations, 11 AWS patients with LMNA mutations, and 49 AWS patients that have neither WRN nor LMNA mutations. Efforts are underway to identify the responsible genes for AWS with unknown genetic causes. While WS and AWS are rare disorders, the causative genes have been shown to have much wider implications for cancer, cardiovascular disease and the biology of aging. Remarkably, centenarian studies revealed WRN and LMNA polymorphic variants among those who have escaped various geriatric disorders. PMID:24401204

Oshima, Junko; Hisama, Fuki M.

2014-01-01

224

Whole-Exome Sequencing Reveals Frequent Genetic Alterations in BAP1, NF2, CDKN2A, and CUL1 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with asbestos exposure. Although previous studies based on candidate gene approaches have identified important common somatic mutations in MPM, these studies have focused on small sets of genes and have provided a limited view of the genetic alterations underlying this disease. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing on DNA from 22 MPMs and matched blood samples, and identified 517 somatic mutations across 490 mutated genes. Integrative analysis of mutations and somatic copy-number alterations revealed frequent genetic alterations in BAP1, NF2, CDKN2A, and CUL1. Our study presents the first unbiased view of the genomic basis of MPM. Cancer Res; 75(2); 264-9. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25488749

Guo, Guangwu; Chmielecki, Juliann; Goparaju, Chandra; Heguy, Adriana; Dolgalev, Igor; Carbone, Michele; Seepo, Sara; Meyerson, Matthew; Pass, Harvey I

2015-01-15

225

Deregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling through genetic or epigenetic alterations in human neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that are increasing in incidence. Mutation and altered expression of Wnt/?-catenin signaling components have been described in many tumors but have not been well-studied in NETs. Here, we observed accumulation of ?-catenin in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus in 25% of clinical NET tissues. By mutational analysis, the mutations of ?-catenin (I35S) and APC (E1317Q, T1493T) were identified in NET cells and the tissues. Expression of representative Wnt inhibitors was absent or markedly decreased in BON, a human pancreatic carcinoid cell line; treatment with 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) increased expression levels of the Wnt inhibitors. Methylation analyses demonstrated that CpG islands of SFRP-1 and Axin-2 were methylated, whereas the promoters of DKK-1, DKK-3 and WIF-1 were unmethylated in four NET cells. Aberrant methylation of SFRP-1 was particularly observed in most of clinical NET tissues. In addition, the repression of these unmethylated genes was associated with histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in BON cells. Together, 5-aza-CdR treatment inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the protein levels of H3K9me2 and G9a. Moreover, a novel G9a inhibitor, UNC0638, suppressed BON cell proliferation through inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Overexpression of the inhibitory genes, particularly SFRP-1 and WIF-1 in BON cells, resulted in suppression of anchorage-independent growth and inhibition of tumor growth in mice. Our findings suggest that aberrant Wnt/?-catenin signaling, through either mutations or epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonists, contributes to the pathogenesis and growth of NETs and have important clinical implications for the prognosis and treatment of NETs. PMID:23354304

Evers, B.Mark

2013-01-01

226

Genetic Association and Altered Gene Expression of Mir-155 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. As microRNA (miRNA)-dependent alterations in gene expression in hematopoietic cells are critical for mounting an appropriate immune response, miRNA deregulation may result in defects in immune tolerance. In this frame, we sought to explore the possible involvement of miRNAs in MS pathogenesis by monitoring the differential expression of 22 immunity-related miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients and healthy controls, by using a microbead-based technology. Three miRNAs resulted >2 folds up-regulated in MS vs controls, whereas none resulted down-regulated. Interestingly, the most up-regulated miRNA (mir-155; fold change = 3.30; P = 0.013) was previously reported to be up-regulated also in MS brain lesions. Mir-155 up-regulation was confirmed by qPCR experiments. The role of mir-155 in MS susceptibility was also investigated by genotyping four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping in the mir-155 genomic region. A haplotype of three SNPs, corresponding to a 12-kb region encompassing the last exon of BIC (the B-cell Integration Cluster non-coding RNA, from which mir-155 is processed), resulted associated with the disease status (P = 0.035; OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.05–1.77), suggesting that this locus strongly deserves further investigations. PMID:22272099

Paraboschi, Elvezia Maria; Soldà, Giulia; Gemmati, Donato; Orioli, Elisa; Zeri, Giulia; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Salviati, Alessandro; Barizzone, Nadia; Leone, Maurizio; Duga, Stefano; Asselta, Rosanna

2011-01-01

227

Response to Dietary Phosphate Deficiency is Affected by Genetic Background in Growing Pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concern over the environmental impact of phosphate (P) excretion from pig production has led to reduced dietary P supplementation. To examine how genetics influence P utilization, 94 gilts sired by 2 genetic lines (PIC337 and PIC280) were fed either a P adequate diet (PA) or a 20% P deficient diet ...

228

Ontogeny of Mouse Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Following Genetic or Environmental Alteration of Gravity Sensing  

PubMed Central

The vestibular organs consist of complementary sensors: the semicircular canals detect rotations while the otoliths detect linear accelerations, including the constant pull of gravity. Several fundamental questions remain on how the vestibular system would develop and/or adapt to prolonged changes in gravity such as during long-term space journey. How do vestibular reflexes develop if the appropriate assembly of otoliths and semi-circular canals is perturbed? The aim of present work was to evaluate the role of gravity sensing during ontogeny of the vestibular system. In otoconia-deficient mice (ied), gravity cannot be sensed and therefore maculo-ocular reflexes (MOR) were absent. While canals-related reflexes were present, the ied deficit also led to the abnormal spatial tuning of the horizontal angular canal-related VOR. To identify putative otolith-related critical periods, normal C57Bl/6J mice were subjected to 2G hypergravity by chronic centrifugation during different periods of development or adulthood (Adult-HG) and compared to non-centrifuged (control) C57Bl/6J mice. Mice exposed to hypergravity during development had completely normal vestibulo-ocular reflexes 6 months after end of centrifugation. Adult-HG mice all displayed major abnormalities in maculo-ocular reflexe one month after return to normal gravity. During the next 5 months, adaptation to normal gravity occurred in half of the individuals. In summary, genetic suppression of gravity sensing indicated that otolith-related signals might be necessary to ensure proper functioning of canal-related vestibular reflexes. On the other hand, exposure to hypergravity during development was not sufficient to modify durably motor behaviour. Hence, 2G centrifugation during development revealed no otolith-specific critical period. PMID:22808156

Beraneck, Mathieu; Bojados, Mickael; Le Séac’h, Anne; Jamon, Marc; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

2012-01-01

229

Exploring the Link between Germline and Somatic Genetic Alterations in Breast Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified candidate genes contributing to cancer risk through low-penetrance mutations. Many of these genes were unexpected and, intriguingly, included well-known players in carcinogenesis at the somatic level. To assess the hypothesis of a germline-somatic link in carcinogenesis, we evaluated the distribution of somatic gene labels within the ordered results of a breast cancer risk GWAS. This analysis suggested frequent influence on risk of genetic variation in loci encoding for “driver kinases” (i.e., kinases encoded by genes that showed higher somatic mutation rates than expected by chance and, therefore, whose deregulation may contribute to cancer development and/or progression). Assessment of these predictions using a population-based case-control study in Poland replicated the association for rs3732568 in EPHB1 (odds ratio (OR)?=?0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.98; Ptrend?=?0.031). Analyses by early age at diagnosis and by estrogen receptor ? (ER?) tumor status indicated potential associations for rs6852678 in CDKL2 (OR?=?0.32, 95% CI: 0.10–1.00; Precessive?=?0.044) and rs10878640 in DYRK2 (OR?=?2.39, 95% CI: 1.32–4.30; Pdominant?=?0.003), and for rs12765929, rs9836340, rs4707795 in BMPR1A, EPHA3 and EPHA7, respectively (ER? tumor status Pinteraction<0.05). The identification of three novel candidates as EPH receptor genes might indicate a link between perturbed compartmentalization of early neoplastic lesions and breast cancer risk and progression. Together, these data may lay the foundations for replication in additional populations and could potentially increase our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:21124932

Bonifaci, Núria; Górski, Bohdan; Masoj?, Bartlomiej; Woko?orczyk, Dominika; Jakubowska, Anna; D?bniak, Tadeusz; Berenguer, Antoni; Serra Musach, Jordi; Brunet, Joan; Dopazo, Joaquín; Narod, Steven A.; Lubi?ski, Jan; Lázaro, Conxi; Cybulski, Cezary; Pujana, Miguel Angel

2010-01-01

230

Genetic structure of a phytophagous mite species affected by crop practices: the case of Tetranychus urticae in clementine mandarins.  

PubMed

Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. This mite is a key pest of clementine mandarins in Eastern Spain, where Spanish clementine production concentrates. Crop management practices can affect the population dynamics of this mite and, consequently, its impact on the orchard. Microsatellite markers were used to study mite population genetics from two commercial orchards which had been managed differently following Integrated Pest Management (IPM) or Organic Pest Management (OPM) schemes during four consecutive years. A multiplex system including 20 microsatellite loci was designed specifically and allowed an efficient and inexpensive genotyping of individual mites. We found that the IPM population had a stronger fluctuation of population structure and higher genetic diversity compared to OPM population. Thus, our study concludes that crop management has an impact on the population genetics of T. urticae which may be related to the alternation of some acaricides under IPM. PMID:24233157

Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gómez-Martinez, M A; Ansaloni, T; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Jacas, J A; Hurtado-Ruiz, M A

2014-04-01

231

Highthroughput soybean gene expression analysis The changes in the atmosphere are altering gene expression and affecting the interaction  

E-print Network

High­throughput soybean gene expression analysis The changes in the atmosphere are altering gene soybean oligoarrays to analyze changes in the gene expression profile. Affymetrix GeneChip® Soybean Genome with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) VIGS is used to suppress genes at transcript level by using a viral

DeLucia, Evan H.

232

A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines. PMID:24943687

Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Verma, Anand; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Singh, L C; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Kataki, Amal Ch; Saxena, Sunita; Kapur, Sujala

2014-09-01

233

Alterations in lignin content and phenylpropanoids pathway in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) tissues affected by brittle leaf disease.  

PubMed

Brittle leaf disease or Maladie de la Feuille Cassante (MFC) is a lethal disorder of date palm that has assumed epidemic proportions in the oases of Tunisia and Algeria. No pathogen could ever be associated with the disease, while leaflets of affected palms have been previously shown to be deficient in manganese. The work reported here aims to understand the biochemical basis of the date palm response to this disorder. Since the typical disease symptom is the leaf fragility, we have investigated lignin content in leaves and roots. Strong decrease in total lignin content was observed in affected leaves, while lignin content increased in affected roots. Histochemical analyses showed hyperlignification thicker suberin layer in roots cortical cells. The phenylpropanoids pathway was also disrupted in leaves and roots, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression was affected by the disease which severely affects the cell wall integrity. PMID:23987806

Saidi, Mohammed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Hammami, Ines; Namsi, Ahmed; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

2013-10-01

234

Spinocerebellar Ataxia: Patient and Health Professional Perspectives on Whether and How Patents Affect Access to Clinical Genetic Testing  

PubMed Central

Genetic testing for spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is used in diagnosis of rare movement disorders. Such testing generally does not affect treatment, but confirmation of mutations in a known gene can confirm diagnosis and end an often years-long quest for the cause of distressing and disabling symptoms. Through interviews and a web forum hosted by the National Ataxia Foundation, patients and health professionals related their experiences with patents’ impact on access to genetic testing for SCA. In the United States, Athena Diagnostics holds either a patent or an exclusive license to a patent in the case of 6 SCA variants (SCA1-3 & 6-8) and two other hereditary ataxias (Friedreich’s Ataxia and Early Onset Ataxia). Athena has enforced its exclusive rights to SCA-related patents by sending cease and desist letters to multiple laboratories offering genetic testing for inherited neurological conditions, including SCA. Roughly half of web forum respondents had decided not to get genetic tests. Price, coverage and reimbursement by insurers and health plans, and fear of genetic discrimination were the main reasons cited for deciding not to get tested. Price was cited as an access concern by the physicians, and as sole US provider, coverage and reimbursement depend on having payment agreements between Athena and payers. In cases where payers do not reimburse, the patient is responsible for payment, although some patients can apply to the voluntary Athena Access and Patient Protection Programs offered by the company. PMID:20393313

Powell, Ashton; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Cook-Deegan, Robert

2011-01-01

235

Altered Expression of Auxin-binding Protein 1 Affects Cell Expansion and Auxin Pool Size in Tobacco Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) has an essential role in auxin-dependent cell expansion, but its mechanisms of action remain\\u000a unknown. Our previous study showed that ABP1-mediated cell expansion is auxin concentration dependent. However, auxin distribution\\u000a in plant tissue is heterogeneous, complicating the interpretation of ABP1 function. In this study, we used cells in culture\\u000a that have altered expression of ABP1 to

Jin-Gui Chen; Shucai Wang; Colin M. Lazarus; Richard M. Napier; Alan M. Jones

2006-01-01

236

Analysis of protein gene products in cells with altered chromosome sets for the purpose of genetic mapping  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used for analyzing proteins in hybrid cells that contained single human chromosomes (chromosome 5, chromosome 21, or chromosomes 5 and 21) against the background of the mouse genome. By comparing the protein patterns of hybrid and parent cells (about 1000 protein fractions for each kind of cell), five fractions among proteins of hybrid cells were supposedly identified as human proteins. The genes of two of them are probably located on chromosome 5, and those of the other three on chromosome 21. Moreover, analysis of proteins in fibroblasts of patients with the cri-du-chat syndrome (5p-) revealed a decrease in the content of two proteins as compared with those in preparations of diploid fibroblasts. This fact was regarded as evidence that two corresponding genes are located on the short arm of chromosome 5. Methodological problems associated with the use of protein pattern analysis in cells with altered chromosome sets for the purposes of genetic mapping are discussed.

Shishkin, S.S.; Zakharov, S.F.; Gromov, P.S.; Shcheglova, M.V.; Kukharenko, V.I.; Shilov, A.G.; Matveeva, N.M.; Zhdanova, N.S.; Efimochkin, A.S.; Krokhina, T.B. [Medical Genetic Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-01

237

Genetic Deletion of Rheb1 in the Brain Reduces Food Intake and Causes Hypoglycemia with Altered Peripheral Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Excessive food/energy intake is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a critical role in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism. The signaling pathways in hypothalamic neurons that regulate food intake and peripheral metabolism need to be better understood for developing pharmacological interventions to manage eating behavior and obesity. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase, is a master regulator of cellular metabolism in different cell types. Pharmacological manipulations of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity in hypothalamic neurons alter food intake and body weight. Our previous study identified Rheb1 (Ras homolog enriched in brain 1) as an essential activator of mTORC1 activity in the brain. Here we examine whether central Rheb1 regulates food intake and peripheral metabolism through mTORC1 signaling. We find that genetic deletion of Rheb1 in the brain causes a reduction in mTORC1 activity and impairs normal food intake. As a result, Rheb1 knockout mice exhibit hypoglycemia and increased lipid mobilization in adipose tissue and ketogenesis in the liver. Our work highlights the importance of central Rheb1 signaling in euglycemia and energy homeostasis in animals. PMID:24451134

Yang, Wanchun; Jiang, Wanxiang; Luo, Liping; Bu, Jicheng; Pang, Dejiang; Wei, Jing; Du, Chongyangzi; Xia, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Yiyuan; Liu, Shuang; Mao, Qing; Chen, Mina

2014-01-01

238

How do population genetic parameters affect germination of the heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica (Amaranthaceae)?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica produces two types of seeds. In this study, how basic population genetic parameters correlate with seed germinability under various experimental conditions was tested. Methods Population genetic diversity was ascertained in eight populations of A. tatarica by assessing patterns of variation at nine allozyme loci. Germinability of both seed types from all sampled populations was determined by a common laboratory experiment under different salinity levels. Basic population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci, average number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity were correlated with observed population germination characteristics. Key Results Atriplex tatarica possesses a remarkable heterocarpy, i.e. one type of seed is non-dormant and the other shows different dormancy levels in relation to experimental conditions. Significant negative correlations have been detected between germination of both seed types and the coefficient of inbreeding, and a significant negative correlation between germination of dormant seeds and other population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci and average number of alleles per polymorphic locus. Moreover, populations from the region characterized by a shorter growing season manifested higher germinability, i.e. had lower dormancy, than those from the lower-latitude one. Conclusions In general, germination of non-dormant seeds is probably not under strong genetic control. Hence, they germinate as soon as conditions are favourable, thus ensuring survival in the short term, but populations risk local extinction if conditions become adverse (i.e. a high-risk strategy). In contrast, germination of the dormant type of seeds is under stronger genetic control and is significantly correlated with basic population genetic parameters. These seeds ensure long-term reproduction and survival in the field by protracted germination, albeit in low quantities (i.e. A. tatarica also adopts a low-risk strategy). PMID:19339299

Kochánková, Jana; Mandák, Bohumil

2009-01-01

239

The Genetics of Mexico Recapitulates Native American Substructure and Affects Biomedical Traits  

PubMed Central

Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1,000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between sub-continental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E.; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M.; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G.; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R.; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Navarro, Blanca del Rio; London, Stephanie J.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D.

2014-01-01

240

Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action  

PubMed Central

Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

2014-01-01

241

Alterations in cognitive performance and affect-arousal state during fluctuations in motor function in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed Central

Sixteen patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were selected who were all showing severe fluctuations in motor function ("on-off" phenomenon). Measures of cognitive function and of subjective affect/arousal state were taken on two occasions, once when "on" and once when "off". Twenty-five matched normal controls were also assessed on the same measures. Results revealed, on the average, a drop in cognitive function plus an adverse swing in affect/arousal state, in the patient group in the "off" condition, compared to the levels when "on". Analysis of the data suggested that the main factor associated with cognitive function when "off" was not the severity of disability but the level of affect/arousal. The fluctuations in cognitive function found tended to be mild relative to the severe changes in motor ability, and were present in only a proportion of patients. PMID:6736975

Brown, R G; Marsden, C D; Quinn, N; Wyke, M A

1984-01-01

242

Comparative evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting milk yield and composition of Red Dane and Jersey cattle in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to evaluate non genetic factors affecting milk yield and milk composition in Zimbabwean Red Dane and Jersey cattle cattle. A total of 1004 and 10 986 unedited Red Dane and Jersey 305-day lactation records respectively, were obtained from Livestock Identification Trust (LIT) containing 22 herds (1 Red Dane herd and 21 Jersey herds), with Red Dane calving in the period 2004 to 2009 (giving year of birth from 1998 to 2007) and Jersey cows calving in the period 1996 to 2008 (giving year of birth from 1994 to 2005). The General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2004) version 9.1.3 was used to determine the genetic parameters and environmental factors. Calving interval, month of calving, parity and quadratic effects of age at calving fitted as covariates significantly (P?affected the milk, fat and protein yields. Milk, fat and protein yields obtained increased with an increase in calving interval. There was a linear and quadratic relationship between the production traits and age at calving of the Jersey cattle implying that milk, fat and protein yields increase with age of the animal. It is thus important to preadjust data for these environmental factors when carrying out genetic evaluations of production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24600545

Nyamushamba, Godfrey Bernard; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Tavirimirwa, Bruce

2014-01-01

243

Indirect genetic effects and inbreeding: consequences of BLUP selection for socially affected traits on rate of inbreeding  

PubMed Central

Background Social interactions often occur among living organisms, including aquatic animals. There is empirical evidence showing that social interactions may genetically affect phenotypes of individuals and their group mates. In this context, the heritable effect of an individual on the phenotype of another individual is known as an Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE). Selection for socially affected traits may increase response to artificial selection, but also affect rate of inbreeding. Methods A simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) selection for socially affected traits on the rate of inbreeding. A base scenario without IGE and three alternative scenarios with different magnitudes of IGE were simulated. In each generation, 25 sires and 50 dams were mated, producing eight progeny per dam. The population was selected for 20 generations using BLUP. Individuals were randomly assigned to groups of eight members in each generation, with two families per group, each contributing four individuals. “Heritabilities” (for both direct and indirect genetic effects) were equal to 0.1, 0.3 or 0.5, and direct–indirect genetic correlations were ?0.8, ?0.4, 0, 0.4, or 0.8. The rate of inbreeding was calculated from generation 10 to 20. Results For the base scenario, the rates of inbreeding were 4.09, 2.80 and 1.95% for “heritabilities” of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5, respectively. Overall, rates of inbreeding for the three scenarios with IGE ranged from 2.21 to 5.76% and were greater than for the base scenarios. The results show that social interaction within groups of two families increases the resemblance between estimated breeding values of relatives, which, in turn, increases the rate of inbreeding. Conclusion BLUP selection for socially affected traits increased the rate of inbreeding. To maintain inbreeding at an acceptable rate, a selection algorithm that restricts the increase in mean kinship, such as optimum contribution selection, is required. PMID:24961990

2014-01-01

244

Genetically-based plant resistance traits affect arthropods, fungi, and birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how the distribution of a leafgalling aphid (Pemphigus betae) affects other species associated with natural stands of hybrid cottonwoods (Populus angustifolia x P. fremontii). Aphid transfers on common-garden clones and RFLP analysis show that resistance to aphids in cottonwoods is affected by plant genotype. Because susceptible trees typically support thousands of galls, while adjacent resistant trees have few

Lara Lee Dickson; Thomas G. Whitham

1996-01-01

245

Negative Affect Shares Genetic and Environmental Influences with Symptoms of Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect

Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette

2013-01-01

246

Morphologic, Pathologic, and Genetic Investigations of Bolbophorus Species Affecting Cultured Channel Catfish in the Mississippi Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trematodes belonging to the genus Bolbophorus have recently been reported as the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in cultured channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in Mississippi and Louisiana. Previous investigators identified only a single species, B. confusus. In this investigation, genetic techniques were used to identify all stages of the parasite in all of its hosts. The 18s rRNA genes

M. G. Levy; J. R. Flowers; M. F. Poore; J. E. Mullen; L. H. Khoo; L. M. Pote; I. Paperna; R. Dzikowski; R. W. Litaker

2002-01-01

247

Copyright 1998 by the Genetics Society of America Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Differences in Floral Morphology  

E-print Network

. cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population pollination, but they of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling adaptive are exserted in M. cardinalis

Bradshaw, Toby

248

Genetic modifiers interact with Cpefat to affect body weight, adiposity, and hyperglycemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity and Type II diabetes are complex diseases in the human population. The existence of a large number of contributing loci and gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions make it difficult to identify the disease genes underlying these complex traits. In mouse models of obesity and Type II diabetes such as the murine fat mutation, genetic crosses can be used

Gayle B. Collin; Terry P. Maddatu; Saunak Sen; Jurgen K. Naggert

2005-01-01

249

Genetic Variability in Nodulation and Root Growth Affects Nitrogen Fixation and Accumulation in Pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims Legume nitrogen is derived from two different sources, symbiotically fixed atmospheric N2 and soil N. The effect of genetic variability of root and nodule establishment on N acquisition and seed protein yield was investigated under field conditions in pea (Pisum sativum). In addition, these parameters were related to the variability in preference for rhizobial genotypes. †

VIRGINIE B OURION; G ISELE L AGUERRE; GERALDINE DEPRET

2007-01-01

250

Inflammation-Associated Nitrotyrosination Affects TCR Recognition through Reduced Stability and Alteration of the Molecular Surface of the MHC Complex  

PubMed Central

Nitrotyrosination of proteins, a hallmark of inflammation, may result in the production of MHC-restricted neoantigens that can be recognized by T cells and bypass the constraints of immunological self-tolerance. Here we biochemically and structurally assessed how nitrotyrosination of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-associated immunodominant MHC class I-restricted epitopes gp33 and gp34 alters T cell recognition in the context of both H-2Db and H-2Kb. Comparative analysis of the crystal structures of H-2Kb/gp34 and H-2Kb/NY-gp34 demonstrated that nitrotyrosination of p3Y in gp34 abrogates a hydrogen bond interaction formed with the H-2Kb residue E152. As a consequence the conformation of the TCR-interacting E152 was profoundly altered in H-2Kb/NY-gp34 when compared to H-2Kb/gp34, thereby modifying the surface of the nitrotyrosinated MHC complex. Furthermore, nitrotyrosination of gp34 resulted in structural over-packing, straining the overall conformation and considerably reducing the stability of the H-2Kb/NY-gp34 MHC complex when compared to H-2Kb/gp34. Our structural analysis also indicates that nitrotyrosination of the main TCR-interacting residue p4Y in gp33 abrogates recognition of H-2Db/gp33-NY complexes by H-2Db/gp33-specific T cells through sterical hindrance. In conclusion, this study provides the first structural and biochemical evidence for how MHC class I-restricted nitrotyrosinated neoantigens may enable viral escape and break immune tolerance. PMID:22431983

Sandalova, Tatyana; Webb, John R.; Achour, Adnane

2012-01-01

251

Endocannabinoid receptor deficiency affects maternal care and alters the dam's hippocampal oxytocin receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.  

PubMed

Maternal care is the newborn's first experience of social interaction, and this influences infant survival, development and social competences throughout life. We recently found that postpartum blocking of the endocannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) altered maternal behaviour. In the present study, maternal care was assessed by the time taken to retrieve pups, pups' ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) and pup body weight, comparing CB1R deleted (CB1R KO) versus wild-type (WT) mice. After culling on postpartum day 8, hippocampal expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and stress-mediating factors were evaluated in CB1R KO and WT dams. Comparisons were also performed with nulliparous (NP) CB1R KO and WT mice. Compared to WT, CB1R KO dams were slower to retrieve their pups. Although the body weight of the KO pups did not differ from the weight of WT pups, they emitted fewer USVs. This impairment of the dam-pup relationship correlated with a significant reduction of OXTR mRNA and protein levels among CB1R KO dams compared to WT dams. Furthermore, WT dams exhibited elevated OXTR mRNA expression, as well as increased levels of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, compared to WT NP mice. By contrast, CB1R KO dams showed no such elevation of OXTR expression, alongside lower BDNF and mineralocorticoid receptors, as well as elevated corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA levels, when compared to CB1R KO NP. Thus, it appears that the disruption of endocannabinoid signalling by CB1R deletion alters expression of the OXTR, apparently leading to deleterious effects upon maternal behaviour. PMID:23895426

Schechter, M; Weller, A; Pittel, Z; Gross, M; Zimmer, A; Pinhasov, A

2013-10-01

252

Genomic alterations on 8p21-p23 are the most frequent genetic events in stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the lung  

PubMed Central

Genetic alterations in the early stages of cancer have a close correlation with tumor initiation and potentially activate downstream pathways implicated in tumor progression; however, the method of initiation in sporadic neoplasias is largely unknown. In this study, whole-genome microarray-comparative genomic hybridization was performed to identify the early genetic alterations that define the prognosis of patients with stage I squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. The most striking finding was the high frequency of copy number losses and hemizygous deletions on chromosome 8p, which occurred in 94.7% (18/19) and 63.2% (12/19) of the cases, respectively, with a delineated minimal common region of 8p21.1-p23.3. More specifically, three loci of homozygous deletions at 8p23.1 were noted in 21.1% (4/19) of the cases. This region contains the following possible target genes, which have previously not been implicated to play a pathogenic role in stage I SCCs: MSRA, MFHAS1, CLDN23, DEFB106A, DEFB105A, LOC441316, FAM90A7P and LOC441318. These findings indicate that genetic alterations on chromosome 8p may be the first step in the initiation of genomic instability in early SCCs, and the newly identified genes in the 8p23.1 chromosomal region might be of interest for the study of the pathophysiology of stage I SCC, as potential targets for therapeutic measures.

KANG, JIUN

2015-01-01

253

Alteration of the alkaloid profile in genetically modified tobacco reveals a role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in nicotine N-demethylation.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolic network. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. The latter donates its methyl group to homocysteine, forming methionine, which is then used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl-methionine, a universal methyl donor for numerous methylation reactions, to produce primary and secondary metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that manipulating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) MTHFR gene (NtMTHFR1) expression dramatically alters the alkaloid profile in transgenic tobacco plants by negatively regulating the expression of a secondary metabolic pathway nicotine N-demethylase gene, CYP82E4. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and alkaloid analyses revealed that reducing NtMTHFR expression by RNA interference dramatically induced CYP82E4 expression, resulting in higher nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. Conversely, overexpressing NtMTHFR1 suppressed CYP82E4 expression, leading to lower nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. However, the reduced expression of NtMTHFR did not affect the methionine and S-adenosyl-methionine levels in the knockdown lines. Our finding reveals a new regulatory role of NtMTHFR1 in nicotine N-demethylation and suggests that the negative regulation of CYP82E4 expression may serve to recruit methyl groups from nicotine into the C1 pool under C1-deficient conditions. PMID:23221678

Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Fan, Longjiang; Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Sun, Kehan; Qiu, Jie; Tang, She; Holliday, Bronwyn M; Xiao, Bingguang; Burkey, Kent O; Bush, Lowell P; Conkling, Mark A; Roje, Sanja; Xie, Jiahua

2013-02-01

254

Cytogenetic alterations and their molecular genetic correlates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a next generation window to the biology of disease.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic alterations underlie the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), whether tobacco and alcohol use, betel nut chewing, snuff or human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the disease. Many of the molecular genetic aberrations in HNSCC result from these cytogenetic alterations. This review presents a brief introduction to the epidemiology of HNSCC, and discusses the role of HPV in the disease, cytogenetic alterations and their frequencies in HNSCC, their molecular genetic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) correlates, prognostic implications, and possible therapeutic considerations. The most frequent cytogenetic alterations in HNSCC are gains of 5p14-15, 8q11-12, and 20q12-13, gains or amplifications of 3q26, 7p11, 8q24, and 11q13, and losses of 3p, 4q35, 5q12, 8p23, 9p21-24, 11q14-23, 13q12-14, 18q23, and 21q22. To understand their effects on tumor cell biology and response to therapy, the cytogenetic findings in HNSCC are increasingly being examined in the context of the biochemical pathways they disrupt. The goal is to minimize morbidity and mortality from HNSCC using cytogenetic abnormalities to identify valuable diagnostic biomarkers for HNSCC, prognostic biomarkers of tumor behavior, recurrence risk, and outcome, and predictive biomarkers of therapeutic response to identify the most efficacious treatment for each individual patient's tumor, all based on a detailed understanding of the next generation biology of HNSCC. PMID:25183546

Gollin, Susanne M

2014-12-01

255

www.ajhg.org The American Journal of Human Genetics Volume 80 February 2007 265 Genome Scan for Tourette Disorder in Affected-Sibling-Pair  

E-print Network

for Tourette Disorder in Affected-Sibling-Pair and Multigenerational Families The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics* Tourette disorder (TD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex mode by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. 0002-9297/2007/8002-0007$15.00 Tourette disorder

Kidd, Kenneth

256

Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X Wing-Sham Lee1†, Shih-Feng Fu1†, Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz2, John P Carr1... capacity for alternative respiration, 0.5 mM SA was adequate to induce resistance to TMV infection even though it did not induce resistance to TMV in non-transgenic N. benthamiana leaves (Figure 4B). This was also seen in three other transgenic lines...

Lee, Wing-Sham; Fu, Shih-Feng; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie; Carr, John P

2011-02-28

257

The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation  

PubMed Central

Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection. PMID:21051598

Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pereyra, Florencia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Pereyra, Florencia; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O’Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; Deeks, Steven G.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J.W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M.L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T.Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O’Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.

2011-01-01

258

Identification of genetic factors altering the SOS induction of DNA damage-inducible yebG gene in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The yebG gene of Escherichia coli is a novel SOS regulon gene, but details of its regulation mechanism and biological function are not yet known. To characterize the regulation of yebG gene as a SOS gene, we identified the genetic factors affecting the SOS induction of yebG gene using yebG-lacZ operon fusion plasmid. We found that the SOS induction of yebG occurs as the cells enter into the stationary growth phase, but its induction is not observed in LB medium in the presence of 1% glucose. A stationary phase SOS induction of the yebG gene does not require the global regulator of stationary phase-specific genes, rpoS, or gyrA functions, but requires cya encoding the adenylate cyclase and hns encoding the histone-like protein H-NS functions. Our results demonstrated that the induction of a DNA damage-inducible yebG gene of E. coli is dependent on cyclic AMP and H-NS. PMID:10474193

Oh, T J; Kim, I G

1999-08-15

259

Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise - the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.  

PubMed

The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:25290946

Hudson-Shore, Michelle

2014-09-01

260

Why Control Activity? Evolutionary Selection Pressures Affecting the Development of Physical Activity Genetic and Biological Regulation  

PubMed Central

The literature strongly suggests that daily physical activity is genetically and biologically regulated. Potential identities of the responsible mechanisms are unclear, but little has been written concerning the possible evolutionary selection pressures leading to the development of genetic/biological controls of physical activity. Given the weak relationship between exercise endurance and activity levels and the differential genomic locations associated with the regulation of endurance and activity, it is probable that regulation of endurance and activity evolved separately. This hypothesis paper considers energy expenditures and duration of activity in hunter/gatherers, pretechnology farmers, and modern Western societies and considers the potential of each to selectively influence the development of activity regulation. Food availability is also considered given the known linkage of caloric restriction on physical activity as well as early data relating food oversupply to physical inactivity. Elucidating the selection pressures responsible for the genetic/biological control of activity will allow further consideration of these pressures on activity in today's society, especially the linkages between food and activity. Further, current food abundance is removing the cues for activity that were present for the first 40,000 years of human evolution, and thus future research should investigate the effects of this abundance upon the mechanisms regulating activity. PMID:24455728

2013-01-01

261

The inhibition of aromatase alters the mechanical and rheological properties of non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines affecting cell migration.  

PubMed

Tumor invasion and metastasis are key aspects of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). During migration, cells undergo mechanical alterations. The mechanical phenotype of breast cancer cells is correlated with aromatase gene expression. We have previously shown that targeting aromatase is a promising strategy for NSCLC. The aim of this study was to examine morphological and mechanical changes of NSCLC cells, upon treatment with aromatase inhibitor and correlate their ability to migrate and invade. In vitro experiments were performed using H23 and A549 NSCLC cell lines and exemestane was used for aromatase inhibition. We demonstrated that exemestane reduced H23 cell migration and invasion and caused changes in cell morphology including increased vacuolar structures and greater pleomorphism. In addition, exemestane changed the distribution of ?-tubulin in H23 and A549 cells in a way that might destabilize microtubules polymerization. These effects were associated with increased cell viscosity and decreased elastic shear modulus. Although exemestane caused similar effects in A549 cells regarding viscosity and elastic shear modulus, it did not affect A549 cell migration and caused an increase in invasion. The increased invasion was in line with vimentin perinuclear localization. Our data show that the treatment of NSCLC cells with an aromatase inhibitor not only affects cell migration and invasion but also alters the mechanical properties of the cells. It suggests that the different origin of cancer cells is associated with different morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior. PMID:25450981

Giannopoulou, E; Siatis, K E; Metsiou, D; Kritikou, I; Papachristou, D J; Kalofonou, M; Koutras, A; Athanassiou, G; Kalofonos, H P

2015-02-01

262

The Role of Genetic Sex in Affect Regulation and Expression of GABA-Related Genes Across Species  

PubMed Central

Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to investigate sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N?=?51 MDD subjects, 50 controls), we show that the previously reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST), a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N?=?214; two frontal cortex regions) and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N?=?170 subjects), we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model [Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice], in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N???12/group), we show that genetic sex (i.e., X/Y-chromosome) influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice) and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice). This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males?genetic sex) on GABA-related genes and anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24062698

Seney, Marianne L.; Chang, Lun-Ching; Oh, Hyunjung; Wang, Xingbin; Tseng, George C.; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne

2013-01-01

263

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

264

Genetic variation in the mouse model of Niemann Pick C1 affects female, as well as male, adiposity, and hepatic bile transporters but has indeterminate effects on caveolae  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that male Npc1 heterozygous mice (Npc1+/?), as compared to homozygous wild-type mice (Npc1+/+), both maintained on the —lean BALB/cJ genetic background, become obese on a high fat but not on a low fat diet. We have now extended this result for female heterozygous mice. When fed high-fat diet, the Npc1+/? white adipose weight is also increased in females, therefore following the same trend as males. Bile transporters which had previously been found to be altered in Npc1?/? mice on a high fat diet, showed related, but small, changes in mRNA levels but large changes in protein expression. We have addressed the possible role of caveolae in these differences. It has long been known that caveolin 1 is increased in the liver (sex not specified) of Npc1+/? (compared to Npc1+/+ and Npc1?/?) mice and in heterozygous cultured skin fibroblasts of NPC1 carriers. We now find that caveolin 1 is increased in male, but not female liver and female, but not male adipose tissue. The caveolin 1 increase was not accompanied by changes in another caveolar protein, polymerase1 and transcript release factor (Ptrf). The numbers of caveolae in female adipose cells could not be correlated with levels of caveolae. Thus, we conclude that Npc1 affects female as well as male obesity and bile transporters but that effects on caveolin 1 are not discernible. PMID:22020183

Jelinek, David A; Maghsoodi, Bita; Borbon, Ivan A; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Erickson, Robert P

2011-01-01

265

Diet-Induced Alterations of Host Cholesterol Metabolism Are Likely To Affect the Gut Microbiota Composition in Hamsters  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal microbiota affects the metabolism of the mammalian host and has consequences for health. However, the complexity of gut microbial communities and host metabolic pathways make functional connections difficult to unravel, especially in terms of causation. In this study, we have characterized the fecal microbiota of hamsters whose cholesterol metabolism was extensively modulated by the dietary addition of plant sterol esters (PSE). PSE intake induced dramatic shifts in the fecal microbiota, reducing several bacterial taxa within the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae. The abundance of these taxa displayed remarkably high correlations with host cholesterol metabolites. Most importantly, the associations between several bacterial taxa with fecal and biliary cholesterol excretion showed an almost perfect fit to a sigmoidal nonlinear model of bacterial inhibition, suggesting that host cholesterol excretion can shape microbiota structure through the antibacterial action of cholesterol. In vitro experiments suggested a modest antibacterial effect of cholesterol, and especially of cholesteryl-linoleate, but not plant sterols when included in model bile micelles. The findings obtained in this study are relevant to our understanding of gut microbiota-host lipid metabolism interactions, as they provide the first evidence for a role of cholesterol excreted with the bile as a relevant host factor that modulates the gut microbiota. The findings further suggest that the connections between Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae and host lipid metabolism, which have been observed in several studies, could be caused by a metabolic phenotype of the host (cholesterol excretion) affecting the gut microbiota. PMID:23124234

Martínez, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J.; Brown, Andrew W.; Hammons, Susan; Carden, Trevor J.; Carr, Timothy P.; Eskridge, Kent M.

2013-01-01

266

Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits. II. The power of affected relative pairs.  

PubMed Central

The power to detect disease-susceptibility loci through linkage analysis using pairs of affected relatives and affected-unaffected pairs is examined. Allelic identity by descent (ibd) for a completely polymorphic marker for sibling, uncle-nephew, grandparent-grandchild, half-sib, and first-cousin pairs is considered. Affected-unaffected pairs generally represent a poor strategy. For single-locus models, ibd depends on lambda R, the risk ratio for type R relatives compared with population prevalence, and the recombination fraction theta. The ibd for grandparent-grandchild pairs is least affected by recombination, followed by sibs, half-sib, uncle-nephew, and first-cousin pairs. For diseases with large lambda values and for small theta values, distant relatives offer greater power. For larger theta values, grandparent-grandchild pairs are best; for small lambda values, sibs are best. Additive and multiplicative multilocus models are considered. For the multiplicative model, the same formulas as in the single-locus model apply, except that lambda iR (for the ith contributing locus) is substituted for lambda R. For the additive model, the deviation from null expectation for ibd is divided among all contributing loci. Compared with the multiplicative model, for an additive model there is usually greater advantage in distant relationships. Multipoint analysis using linked marker loci for affected relative pairs is described. Simultaneous use of multiple markers diminishes the effect of recombination and allows for localization of the disease-susceptibility locus. PMID:2301393

Risch, N

1990-01-01

267

The Genetics of Common Variation affecting Platelet Development, Function and Pharmaceutical Targeting  

PubMed Central

Summary Common variant effects on human platelet function and response to anti-platelet treatment have traditionally been studied using candidate gene approaches involving a limited number of variants and genes. These studies have often been undertaken in clinically defined cohorts. More recently, studies have applied genome-wide scans in larger population samples than prior candidate studies, in some cases scanning relatively healthy individuals. These studies demonstrate synergy with some prior candidate gene findings (e.g., GP6, ADRA2A) but also uncover novel loci involved in platelet function. Here, I summarise findings on common genetic variation influencing platelet development, function and therapeutics. Taken together, candidate gene and genome-wide studies begin to account for common variation in platelet function and provide information that may ultimately be useful in pharmacogenetic applications in the clinic. More than 50 loci have been identified with consistent associations with platelet phenotypes in ?2 populations. Several variants are under further study in clinical trials relating to anti-platelet therapies. In order to have useful clinical applications, variants must have large effects on a modifiable outcome. Regardless of clinical applications, studies of common genetic influences, even of small effect, offer additional insights into platelet biology including the importance of intracellular signalling and novel receptors. Understanding of common platelet-related genetics remains behind parallel fields (e.g., lipids, blood pressure) due to challenges in phenotype ascertainment. Further work is necessary to discover and characterise loci for platelet function, and to assess whether these loci contribute to disease aetiologies or response to therapeutics. PMID:21781261

Johnson, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

268

Affected sib-pair interval mapping and exclusion for complex genetic traits: Inferring identity by descent status from relatives  

SciTech Connect

Affected sib-pair (ASP) methods provide a useful approach for the initial genetic mapping of complex diseases for which mode of inheritance is uncertain. Risch described a method for interval mapping and exclusion based on the ratio lambda comparing disease risk in the first degree relatives of affected individuals to disease risk in the general population. He assumed marker identity by descent (IBD) status for the ASP could be deduced from parental genotypes. For late onset diseases such as type 2 diabetes, parents may be dead or otherwise unavailable, so that marker IBD status generally cannot be inferred with certainty. Guo has developed efficient methods for probabilistic determination of marker IBD sharing for two or more loci. We have combined and extended the methods of Risch and Guo to carry out interval mapping and exclusion when parents are missing but other relatives such as additional siblings are available. Our method is based on calculating the likelihood of marker data of the ASP and their relatives conditional on the disease status of the ASP, as a function of lambda and the position of the disease locus within the genetic map. We currently are using this method to compare the information to detect or exclude linkage provided by various types of ASP nuclear families -- zero, one, or two typed parents and zero, one, two, or more additional siblings -- as a function of sample size, marker density and informativity, and risk ratio lambda.

Hauser, E.R.; Boehnke, M.; Guo, S.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

269

Genetic adaptation of the human circadian clock to day-length latitudinal variations and relevance for affective disorders.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe temporal coordination of biological processes into daily cycles is a common feature of most living organisms. In humans, disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly observed in psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and autism. Light therapy is the most effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder and circadian-related treatments sustain antidepressant response in bipolar disorder patients. Day/night cycles represent a major circadian synchronizing signal and vary widely with latitude.ResultsWe apply a geographically explicit model to show that out-of-Africa migration, which led humans to occupy a wide latitudinal area, affected the evolutionary history of circadian regulatory genes. The SNPs we identify using this model display consistent signals of natural selection using tests based on population genetic differentiation and haplotype homozygosity. Signals of natural selection driven by annual photoperiod variation are detected for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and restless leg syndrome risk variants, in line with the circadian component of these conditions.ConclusionsOur results suggest that human populations adapted to life at different latitudes by tuning their circadian clock systems. This process also involves risk variants for neuropsychiatric conditions, suggesting possible genetic modulators for chronotherapies and candidates for interaction analysis with photoperiod-related environmental variables, such as season of birth, country of residence, shift-work or lifestyle habits. PMID:25358694

Forni, Diego; Pozzoli, Uberto; Cagliani, Rachele; Tresoldi, Claudia; Menozzi, Giorgia; Riva, Stefania; Guerini, Franca R; Comi, Giacomo P; Bolognesi, Elisabetta; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

2014-10-30

270

Alteration of BRCA1 expression affects alcohol-induced transcription of RNA Pol III-dependent genes.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence has indicated that alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Deregulation of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription enhances cellular Pol III gene production, leading to an increase in translational capacity to promote cell transformation and tumor formation. We have reported that alcohol intake increases Pol III gene transcription to promote cell transformation and tumor formation in vitro and in vivo. Studies revealed that tumor suppressors, pRb, p53, PTEN and Maf1 repress the transcription of Pol III genes. BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor and its mutation is tightly related to breast cancer development. However, it is not clear whether BRCA1 expression affects alcohol-induced transcription of Pol III genes. At the present studies, we report that restoring BRCA1 in HCC 1937 cells, which is a BRCA1 deficient cell line, represses Pol III gene transcription. Expressing mutant or truncated BRCA1 in these cells does not affect the ability of repression on Pol III genes. Our analysis has demonstrated that alcohol induces Pol III gene transcription. More importantly, overexpression of BRCA1 in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells (MCF-7) decreases the induction of tRNA(Leu) and 5S rRNA genes by alcohol, whereas reduction of BRCA1 by its siRNA slightly increases the transcription of the class of genes. This suggests that BRCA1 is associated with alcohol-induced deregulation of Pol III genes. These studies for the first time demonstrate the role of BRCA1 in induction of Pol III genes by alcohol and uncover a novel mechanism of alcohol-associated breast cancer. PMID:25447904

Zhong, Qian; Shi, Ganggang; Zhang, Yanmei; Lu, Lei; Levy, Daniel; Zhong, Shuping

2015-02-01

271

Your emotion or mine: labeling feelings alters emotional face perception—an ERP study on automatic and intentional affect labeling  

PubMed Central

Empirical evidence suggests that words are powerful regulators of emotion processing. Although a number of studies have used words as contextual cues for emotion processing, the role of what is being labeled by the words (i.e., one's own emotion as compared to the emotion expressed by the sender) is poorly understood. The present study reports results from two experiments which used ERP methodology to evaluate the impact of emotional faces and self- vs. sender-related emotional pronoun-noun pairs (e.g., my fear vs. his fear) as cues for emotional face processing. The influence of self- and sender-related cues on the processing of fearful, angry and happy faces was investigated in two contexts: an automatic (experiment 1) and intentional affect labeling task (experiment 2), along with control conditions of passive face processing. ERP patterns varied as a function of the label's reference (self vs. sender) and the intentionality of the labeling task (experiment 1 vs. experiment 2). In experiment 1, self-related labels increased the motivational relevance of the emotional faces in the time-window of the EPN component. Processing of sender-related labels improved emotion recognition specifically for fearful faces in the N170 time-window. Spontaneous processing of affective labels modulated later stages of face processing as well. Amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP) were reduced for fearful, happy, and angry faces relative to the control condition of passive viewing. During intentional regulation (experiment 2) amplitudes of the LPP were enhanced for emotional faces when subjects used the self-related emotion labels to label their own emotion during face processing, and they rated the faces as higher in arousal than the emotional faces that had been presented in the “label sender's emotion” condition or the passive viewing condition. The present results argue in favor of a differentiated view of language-as-context for emotion processing. PMID:23888134

Herbert, Cornelia; Sfärlea, Anca; Blumenthal, Terry

2013-01-01

272

Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.  

PubMed

Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (?× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components. PMID:23333874

Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

2013-01-01

273

MYC protein expression and genetic alterations have prognostic impact in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy  

PubMed Central

MYC alterations influence the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Most studies have focused on MYC translocations but there is little information regarding the impact of numerical alterations and protein expression. We analyzed the genetic alterations and protein expression of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and MALT1 in 219 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. MYC rearrangement occurred as the sole abnormality (MYC single-hit) in 3% of cases, MYC and concurrent BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (MYC double/triple-hit) in 4%, MYC amplifications in 2% and MYC gains in 19%. MYC single-hit, MYC double/triple-hit and MYC amplifications, but not MYC gains or other gene rearrangements, were associated with unfavorable progression-free survival and overall survival. MYC protein expression, evaluated using computerized image analysis, captured the unfavorable prognosis of MYC translocations/amplifications and identified an additional subset of patients without gene alterations but with similar poor prognosis. Patients with tumors expressing both MYC/BCL2 had the worst prognosis, whereas those with double-negative tumors had the best outcome. High MYC expression was associated with shorter overall survival irrespectively of the International Prognostic Index and BCL2 expression. In conclusion, MYC protein expression identifies a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with very poor prognosis independently of gene alterations and other prognostic parameters. PMID:23716551

Valera, Alexandra; López-Guillermo, Armando; Cardesa-Salzmann, Teresa; Climent, Fina; González-Barca, Eva; Mercadal, Santiago; Espinosa, Íñigo; Novelli, Silvana; Briones, Javier; Mate, José L.; Salamero, Olga; Sancho, Juan M.; Arenillas, Leonor; Serrano, Sergi; Erill, Nadina; Martínez, Daniel; Castillo, Paola; Rovira, Jordina; Martínez, Antonio; Campo, Elias; Colomo, Luis

2013-01-01

274

The Heritability of Bipolar Affective Disorder and the Genetic Relationship to Unipolar Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Twin studies of bipolar affective disor- der (BPD) have either been small or have not used ex- plicit diagnostic criteria. There has been little use of ge- netic model fitting and no analyses to explore the etiological overlap with unipolar depression (UPD). Methods: Sixty-seven twin pairs, 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic, in which the proband had BPD were ascer-

Peter McGuffin; Fruhling Rijsdijk; Martin Andrew; Pak Sham; Randy Katz; Alastair Cardno

2003-01-01

275

Copyright 1999 by the Genetics Society of America An Analysis of Polygenes Affecting Wing Shape on  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Loci on the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster that affect an index of wing shape were on Chromosome 3 in Drosophila melanogaster Kenneth Weber,* Robert Eisman,* Lisa Morey,* April Patty,* Joshua traits in Drosophila insertion sites in the parent high and low third chromo- somes. The pattern of wing

Zeng, Zhao-Bang

276

Sperm selection and genetic incompatibility: does relatedness of mates affect male success in sperm competition?  

PubMed Central

Sperm selection may be said to occur if females influence the relative success of ejaculates competing to fertilize their ova. Most evidence that female animals or their ova are capable of sperm selection relates to male genetic incompatibility, although relatively few studies focus on competition between conspecific males. Here I look for evidence of sperm selection with respect to relatedness of mates. Reduced fitness or inbreeding effects in offspring resulting from copulations between close relatives are well documented. If females are capable of sperm selection, they might therefore be expected to discriminate against the sperm of sibling males during sperm competition. I describe an experimental protocol designed to test for evidence of sperm selection while controlling for inbreeding effects. Using decorated field crickets (Gryllodes supplicans), I found that sibling males achieved lower fertilization success in competition with a male unrelated to the female than in competition with another sibling more frequently than expected by chance, although the mean paternity values did not differ significantly between treatments. The tendancy for sibling males to achieve relatively lower fertilization success in competition with males unrelated to the female could not be explained by the effects of increased ejaculate allocation, female control of sperm transfer or inbreeding. This study therefore provides some evidence in support of the idea that female insects (or their ova) may be capable of selection against sperm on the basis of genetic similarity of conspecific males.

Stockley, P.

1999-01-01

277

Genetics of a Pheromonal Difference Affecting Sexual Isolation between Drosophila Mauritiana and D. Sechellia  

PubMed Central

Females of the sibling species Drosophila sechellia and D. mauritiana differ in their cuticular hydrocarbons: the predominant compound in D. sechellia is 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), while that in D. mauritiana is 7-tricosene (7-T). We investigate the genetic basis of this difference and its involvement in reproductive isolation between the species. Behavioral studies involving hydrocarbon transfer suggest that these compounds play a large role in the sexual isolation between D. mauritiana males and D. sechellia females, while sexual isolation in the reciprocal hybridization results more from differences in female behavior than hydrocarbons. This interspecific difference in hydrocarbon profile is due to evolutionary change at a minimum of six loci, all on the third chromosome. The localization of evolutionary change to the third chromosome has been seen in every other genetic analysis of female hydrocarbon differences in the D. melanogaster group. We suggest that the high 7,11-HD phenotype seen in two species evolved twice independently from ancestors having the high 7-T phenotype, and that the recurrent third-chromosome effects are evolutionary convergences that may be due to a concentration of ``hydrocarbon genes'' on that chromosome. PMID:9093854

Coyne, J. A.; Charlesworth, B.

1997-01-01

278

The genetic and molecular bases of monogenic disorders affecting proteolytic systems  

PubMed Central

Complete and limited proteolysis represents key events that regulate many biological processes. At least 5% of the human genome codes for components of proteolytic processes if proteases, inhibitors, and cofactors are taken into account. Accordingly, disruption of proteolysis is involved in numerous pathological conditions. In particular, molecular genetic studies have identified a growing number of monogenic disorders caused by mutations in protease coding genes, highlighting the importance of this class of enzymes in development, organogenesis, immunity, and brain function. This review provides insights into the current knowledge about the molecular genetic causes of these disorders. It should be noted that most are due to loss of function mutations, indicating absolute requirement of proteolytic activities for normal cellular functions. Recent progress in understanding the function of the implicated proteins and the disease pathogenesis is detailed. In addition to providing important clues to the diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of disease, functional characterisation of mutations in proteolytic systems emphasises the pleiotropic functions of proteases in the body homeostasis. PMID:15994873

Richard, I

2005-01-01

279

Genetic distance and age affect the cuticular chemical profiles of the clonal ant Cerapachys biroi.  

PubMed

Although cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have received much attention from biologists because of their important role in insect communication, few studies have addressed the chemical ecology of clonal species of eusocial insects. In this study we investigated whether and how differences in CHCs relate to the genetics and reproductive dynamics of the parthenogenetic ant Cerapachys biroi. We collected individuals of different ages and subcastes from several colonies belonging to four clonal lineages, and analyzed their cuticular chemical signature. CHCs varied according to colonies and clonal lineages in two independent data sets, and correlations were found between genetic and chemical distances between colonies. This supports the results of previous research showing that C. biroi workers discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates, especially when they belong to different clonal lineages. In C. biroi, the production of individuals of a morphological subcaste specialized in reproduction is inversely proportional to colony-level fertility. As chemical signatures usually correlate with fertility and reproductive activity in social Hymenoptera, we asked whether CHCs could function as fertility-signaling primer pheromones determining larval subcaste fate in C. biroi. Interestingly, and contrary to findings for several other ant species, fertility and reproductive activity showed no correlation with chemical signatures, suggesting the absence of fertility related CHCs. This implies that other cues are responsible for subcaste differentiation in this species. PMID:24756691

Teseo, Serafino; Lecoutey, Emmanuel; Kronauer, Daniel J C; Hefetz, Abraham; Lenoir, Alain; Jaisson, Pierre; Châline, Nicolas

2014-05-01

280

Genetic Identity Affects Performance of Species in Grasslands of Different Plant Diversity: An Experiment with Lolium perenne Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Recent biodiversity research has focused on ecosystem processes, but less is known about responses of populations of individual plant species to changing community diversity and implications of genetic variation within species. To address these issues, effects of plant community diversity on the performance of different cultivars of Lolium perenne were analysed. Methods Populations of 15 genetic cultivars of Lolium perenne were established in experimental grasslands varying in richness of species (from 1 to 60) and functional groups (from 1 to 4). Population sizes, mean size of individual plants, biomass of individual shoots and seed production were measured in the first and second growing season after establishment. Key Results Population sizes of all cultivars decreased with increasing community species richness. Plant individuals formed fewer shoots with a lower shoot mass in more species-rich plant communities. A large proportion of variation in plant size and relative population growth was attributable to effects of community species and functional group richness, but the inclusion of cultivar identity explained additional 4–7 % of variation. Cultivar identity explained most variation (28–51 %) at the shoot level (biomass of individual tillers and reproductive shoots, seed production, heading stage). Coefficients of variation of the measured variables across plant communities were larger in cultivars with a lower average performance, indicating that this variation was predominantly due to passive growth reductions and not a consequence of larger adaptive plastic responses. No single cultivar performed best in all communities. Conclusions The decreasing performance of Lolium perenne in plant communities of increasing species richness suggests a regulation of competitive interactions by species diversity. Genetic variation within species provides a base for larger phenotypic variation and may affect competitive ability. However, heterogeneous biotic environments (= plant communities of different species composition) are important for the maintenance of intra-specific genetic variation. PMID:18463110

Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

2008-01-01

281

Tonic Premarin dose-dependently enhances memory, affects neurotrophin protein levels and alters gene expression in middle-aged rats  

PubMed Central

Premarin™ is the most commonly prescribed estrogenic component of hormone therapy, given since 1942. The current study is the first examining cognitive effects of tonic Premarin treatment in an animal model. Middle-aged ovariectomized (Ovx) rats received vehicle or one of three doses of Premarin (12, 24 or 36 ?g daily). Rats were tested on a spatial working and reference memory maze battery. Both Medium- and High- dose Premarin enhanced memory retention, while Low-dose Premarin impaired learning and memory retention. Correlations with serum hormone levels showed that as the ratio of estrone:17?-estradiol increased, animals tended to show better working memory performance. Taken together with the dissociation of dose-specific estrogenic profiles, results suggest that higher levels of estrone, in the presence of 17?-estradiol concentrations higher than that of Ovx levels, may be beneficial for memory. Moreover, Premarin exerted dose and brain-region specific effects on BDNF and NGF protein levels, with most marked changes in cingulate and perirhinal cortices. Hippocampal gene expression profiling demonstrated significant Premarin-induced transcriptional changes in genes linked to plasticity and cognition. These findings indicate that Premarin can impact memory and the brain, and that dosing should be recognized as a clinically relevant factor possibly affecting the direction and efficacy of cognitive outcome. PMID:19883953

Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth; Tsang, Candy; Nonnenmacher, Sean; Liang, Winnie S.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Prokai, Laszlo; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

2009-01-01

282

Altering cytochrome P4501A activity affects polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phenanthrene and retene (7-isopropyl-1-methyl phenanthrene) are lethal to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae during chronic exposures. Phenanthrene is a low-toxicity, non-cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-inducing compound that accumulates in fish tissues during exposure to lethal concentrations in water. Retene is a higher toxicity CYP1A-inducing compound that is not detectable in tissue at lethal exposure concentrations. The metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of retene and phenanthrene were examined in juvenile and larval rainbow trout during coexposure to the model CYP1A inducer beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), or to the inducer-inhibitor piperonyl butoxide to determine if modulating CYP1A activity affected PAH metabolism and toxicity. Phenanthrene metabolism, excretion rate, and toxicity increased with coexposure to betaNE Piperonyl butoxide inhibited phenanthrene metabolism and reduced the excretion of all phenanthrene metabolites. As a consequence, embryo mortality rates increased but rates of sublethal effects did not. Coexposure of trout to retene and betaNF caused no change in retene metabolism and excretion, but retene toxicity increased, perhaps due to additivity. Piperonyl butoxide inhibited retene metabolism, decreased the excretion of some retene metabolites while increasing the excretion of others, and increased the toxicity of retene. These results support the role of CYP1A activity in PAH metabolism and excretion, and the role ofthe CYP1A-generatedmetabolites of PAHs in chronic toxicity to larval fish. PMID:12206424

Hawkins, Stephanie A; Billiard, Sonya M; Tabash, Samir P; Brown, R Stephen; Hodson, Peter V

2002-09-01

283

Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle.  

PubMed

Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. PMID:25462351

Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A

2015-01-15

284

Identification of Genetic Variants That Affect Histone Modifications in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Histone modifications are important markers of function and chromatin state, yet the DNA sequence elements that direct them to specific genomic locations are poorly understood. Here, we identify hundreds of quantitative trait loci, genome-wide, that affect histone modification or RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy in Yoruba lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In many cases, the same variant is associated with quantitative changes in multiple histone marks and Pol II, as well as in deoxyribonuclease I sensitivity and nucleosome positioning. Transcription factor binding site polymorphisms are correlated overall with differences in local histone modification, and we identify specific transcription factors whose binding leads to histone modification in LCLs. Furthermore, variants that affect chromatin at distal regulatory sites frequently also direct changes in chromatin and gene expression at associated promoters. PMID:24136359

McVicker, Graham; van de Geijn, Bryce; Degner, Jacob F.; Cain, Carolyn E.; Banovich, Nicholas E.; Raj, Anil; Lewellen, Noah; Myrthil, Marsha; Gilad, Yoav; Pritchard, Jonathan K.

2014-01-01

285

Evidence for a genetic association between alleles of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence of a genetic association between bipolar disorder and alleles at 3 monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers, but not with alleles of a monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) polymorphism. The 3 MAOA markers, including one associated with low MAOA activity, show strong allelic association with each other but surprisingly not with MAOB. Our results are significantly only for females, though the number of males in our sample is too small to draw any definite conclusions. Our data is consistent with recent reports of reduced MAOA activity in patients with abnormal behavioral phenotypes. The strength of the association is weak, but significant, which suggests that alleles at the MAOA locus contribute to susceptibility to bipolar disorder rather than being a major determinant. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Lim, L.C.C.; Sham, P.; Castle, D. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-08-14

286

Genetic linkage between X-chromosome markers and bipolar affective illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pedigree study shows close linkage of bipolar affective illness (manic depression) to the X-chromosome markers colour blindness and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The maximum lod score ranges from 7.52 (assuming homogeneity) to 9.17 (assuming heterogeneity); that is, the odds in favour of linkage range between 3×107 to 1 and 109 to 1. These results provide confirmation that a major psychiatric

Miron Baron; Neil Risch; Rahel Hamburger; Batsheva Mandel; Stuart Kushner; Michael Newman; Dov Drumer; Robert H. Belmaker

1987-01-01

287

Modelling genetic reorganization in the mouse spinal cord affecting left-right coordination during locomotion.  

PubMed

The spinal neural circuit contains inhibitory (CINi) and excitatory (CINe) commissural interneurons with axons crossing the mid-line. Direction of these axons to the other side of the cord is controlled by axon guidance molecules, such as Netrin-1 and DCC. The cord also contains glutamatergic interneurons, whose axon guidance involves the EphA4 receptor. In EphA4 knockout (KO) and Netrin-1 KO mice, the normal left-right alternating pattern is replaced with a synchronized hopping gait, and the cord of DCC KO mice exhibits uncoordinated left and right oscillations. To investigate the effects of these genetic transformations, we used a computational model of the spinal circuits containing left and right rhythm-generating neuron populations (RGs), each with a subpopulation of EphA4-positive neurons, and CINi and CINe populations mediating mutual inhibition and excitation between the left and right RGs. In the EphA4 KO circuits, half of the EphA4-positive axons crossed the mid-line and excited the contralateral RG neurons. In the Netrin-1 KO model, the number of contralateral CINi projections was significantly reduced, while in the DCC KO model, the numbers of both CINi and CINe connections were reduced. In our simulations, the EphA4 and Netrin-1 KO circuits switched from the left-right alternating pattern to a synchronized hopping pattern, and the DCC KO network exhibited uncoordinated left-right activity. The amplification of inhibitory interactions re-established an alternating pattern in the EphA4 and DCC KO circuits, but not in the Netrin-1 KO network. The model reproduces the genetic transformations and provides insights into the organization of the spinal locomotor network. PMID:24081162

Rybak, Ilya A; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Kiehn, Ole

2013-11-15

288

Expression profiling of the RPE in zebrafish smarca4 mutant revealed altered signals that potentially affect RPE and retinal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expression profiles from zebrafish eye mutants. Methods The fish model we used was SWI/SNF-related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4 (smarca4), a retinal dystrophic mutant with a previously described retinal phenotype and expression profiles. Histological and Affymetrix GeneChip analyses were conducted to characterize the RPE defects and underlying differential expression, respectively. Results Histological analysis revealed that smarca4 RPE was formed, but its differentiation was abnormal. In particular, ultrastructural analysis of smarca4 RPE by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated several defects in melanogenesis. The nature of these defects also suggests that the cytoskeletal dynamics, which are tightly linked with melanogenesis, were impaired in smarca4 RPE. To compare the expression profile of normal wild-type (WT) and smarca4 RPE, the gene expression profiles of microdissected retinas and RPE-attached retinas were measured with Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. The RPE expression values were then estimated from these samples by subtracting the retinal expression values from the expression values of the RPE-attached retinas. A factorial analysis was conducted using the expression values of the RPE, retinal, and whole-embryo samples. Specific rules (contrasts) were built using the coefficients of the resulting fitted models to select for three groups of genes: 1) smarca4-regulated RPE genes, 2) smarca4-regulated retinal genes, and 3) smarca4-regulated RPE genes that are not differentially expressed in the retina. Interestingly, the third group consists of 39 genes that are highly related to cytoskeletal dynamics, melanogenesis, and paracrine and intracellular signal transduction. Conclusions Our analytical framework provides an experimental approach to identify differentially-regulated genes in the retina and the RPE of zebrafish mutants in which both of these tissues are affected by the underlying mutation. Specifically, we have used the method to identify a group of 39 genes that can potentially explain the melanogenesis defect in the smarca4 RPE. In addition, several genes in this group are secreted signaling molecules. Thus, this observation further implicates that the smarca4 RPE might play a role in the retinal dystrophic phenotype in smarca4. PMID:24426776

Ma, Ping; Collery, Ross; Trowbridge, Sara; Zhong, Wenxuan; Leung, Yuk Fai

2014-01-01

289

Genetic loci affecting bone structure and strength in inbred COP and DA rats  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the Copenhagen 2331 (COP) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats have significant differences in bone structure and strength despite their similar body mass. Thus, these inbred rat strains may provide a unique resource to identify the genetics underlying the phenotypic variation in bone fragility. A sample of 828 (405 males and 423 females) COP × DA F2 progeny had extensive phenotyping for bone structure measures including cortical bone area and polar moment of inertia at the femur midshaft and total, cortical and trabecular bone areas, for the lumbar vertebra 5 (L5). Bone strength phenotypes included ultimate force, stiffness and work to failure of femur and L5. These skeletal phenotypes were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and mechanical testing. A whole-genome screen was conducted in the F2 rats, using microsatellite markers spaced at approximately 20 cM intervals. Genetic marker maps were generated from the F2 data and used for genome-wide linkage analyses to detect linkage to the bone structure and strength phenotypes. Permutation testing was employed to obtain the thresholds for genome-wide significance (p<0.01). Significant QTL for femur structure and strength were identified on chromosome (Chr) 1 with a maximum LOD score of 33.5; evidence of linkage was found in both the male and female rats. In addition, Chrs 6, 7, 10, 13, 15 and 18 were linked to femur midshaft structure. QTL linked to femur strength were identified on Chrs 5 and 10. For L5 vertebrae, Chrs 2, 16, and 18 harbored QTL for cortical structure and trabecular structure for L5 was linked to Chrs 1, 7, 12, and 18. One female-specific QTL for femur ultimate force was identified on Chr 5, and two male-specific QTL for L5 cortical area were found on Chrs 2 and 18. Our study demonstrates strong evidence of linkage for bone structure and strength to multiple rat chromosomes. PMID:18158281

Sun, Qiwei; Alam, Imranul; Liu, Lixiang; Koller, Daniel L.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

2008-01-01

290

Genetic Analysis of Factors Affecting Susceptibility of Bacillus subtilis to Daptomycin? †  

PubMed Central

Daptomycin is the first of a new class of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics used against multidrug-resistant, gram-positive pathogens. The proposed mechanism of action involves disruption of the functional integrity of the bacterial membrane in a Ca2+-dependent manner. We have used transcriptional profiling to demonstrate that treatment of Bacillus subtilis with daptomycin strongly induces the lia operon including the autoregulatory LiaRS two-component system (homologous to Staphylococcus aureus VraSR). The lia operon protects against daptomycin, and deletion of liaH, encoding a phage-shock protein A (PspA)-like protein, leads to threefold increased susceptibility. Since daptomycin interacts with the membrane, we tested mutants with altered membrane composition for effects on susceptibility. Deletion mutations of mprF (lacking lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol) or des (lipid desaturase) increased daptomycin susceptibility, whereas overexpression of MprF decreased susceptibility. Conversely, depletion of the cell for the anionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol led to increased resistance. Fluorescently labeled daptomycin localized to the septa and in a helical pattern around the cell envelope and was delocalized upon the depletion of phosphatidylglycerol. Together, these results indicate that the daptomycin-Ca2+ complex interacts preferentially with regions enriched in anionic phospholipids and leads to membrane stresses that can be ameliorated by PspA family proteins. PMID:19164152

Hachmann, Anna-Barbara; Angert, Esther R.; Helmann, John D.

2009-01-01

291

Allele-specific genetic interactions between Mitf and Kit affect melanocyte development  

PubMed Central

Summary The tyrosine kinase receptor KIT and the transcription factor MITF, each required for melanocyte development, have been shown to interact functionally both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, KIT signaling leads to MITF phosphorylation, affecting MITF activity and stability. In vivo, the presence of the MitfMi-wh allele exacerbates the spotting phenotype associated with heterozygosity for Kit mutations. Here we show that among a series of other Mitf alleles, only the recessive Mitfmi-bws mimics the effect of MitfMi-wh on Kit. Intriguingly, Mitfmi-bws is characterized by a splice defect that leads to a reduction of RNAs containing MITF exon 2B which encodes serine-73, a serine phosphorylated upon KIT signaling. Nevertheless, other Mitf alleles that generally affect Mitf RNA levels, or carry a serine-73-to-alanine mutation that specifically reduces exon 2B-containing RNAs, do not show interactions with Kit in vivo. We conclude that the recessive Mitfmi-bws is a complex allele that can display a semi-dominant effect when present in a Kit-sensitized background. We suggest that human disease variability may equally be due to complex, allele-specific interactions between different genes. PMID:20374522

Wen, Bin; Chen, Yu; Li, Huirong; Wang, Jin; Shen, Jie; Ma, Aobo; Qu, Jia; Bismuth, Keren; Debbache, Julien; Arnheiter, Heinz; Hou, Ling

2010-01-01

292

‘Faceness’ and Affectivity: Evidence for Genetic Contributions to Distinct Components of Electrocortical Response to Human Faces  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize a variety of different human faces is undoubtedly one of the most important and impressive functions of the human perceptual system. Neuroimaging studies have revealed multiple brain regions (including the FFA, STS, OFA) and electrophysiological studies have identified differing brain event-related potential (ERP) components (e.g., N170, P200) possibly related to distinct types of face information processing. To evaluate the heritability of ERP components associated with face processing, including N170, P200, and LPP, we examined ERP responses to fearful and neutral face stimuli in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. Concordance levels for early brain response indices of face processing (N170, P200) were found to be stronger for MZ than DZ twins, providing evidence of a heritable basis to each. These findings support the idea that certain key neural mechanisms for face processing are genetically coded. Implications for understanding individual differences in recognition of facial identity and the emotional content of faces are discussed. PMID:23769918

Shannon, Robert W.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Venables, Noah C.; He, Sheng

2014-01-01

293

Genetic Variations in COMT and DRD2 Modulate Attentional Bias for Affective Facial Expressions  

PubMed Central

Studies have revealed that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopaminegic receptor2 (DRD2) modulate human attention bias for palatable food or tobacco. However, the existing evidence about the modulations of COMT and DRD2 on attentional bias for facial expressions was still limited. In the study, 650 college students were genotyped with regard to COMT Val158Met and DRD2 TaqI A polymorphisms, and the attentional bias for facial expressions was assessed using the spatial cueing task. The results indicated that COMT Val158Met underpinned the individual difference in attentional bias for negative emotional expressions (P?=?0.03) and the Met carriers showed more engagement bias for negative expressions than the Val/Val homozygote. On the contrary, DRD2 TaqIA underpinned the individual difference in attentional bias for positive expressions (P?=?0.003) and individuals with TT genotype showed much more engagement bias for positive expressions than the individuals with CC genotype. Moreover, the two genes exerted significant interactions on the engagements for negative and positive expressions (P?=?0.046, P?=?0.005). These findings suggest that the individual differences in the attentional bias for emotional expressions are partially underpinned by the genetic polymorphisms in COMT and DRD2. PMID:24312552

Gong, Pingyuan; Shen, Guomin; Li, She; Zhang, Guoping; Fang, Hongchao; Lei, Lin; Zhang, Peizhe; Zhang, Fuchang

2013-01-01

294

Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting the De Novo Appearance of the [Psi(+)] Prion in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

It has previously been shown that yeast prion [PSI(+)] is cured by GuHCl, although reports on reversibility of curing were contradictory. Here we show that GuHCl treatment of both [PSI(+)] and [psi(-)] yeast strains results in two classes of [psi(-)] derivatives: Pin(+), in which [PSI(+)] can be reinduced by Sup35p overproduction, and Pin(-), in which overexpression of the complete SUP35 gene does not lead to the [PSI(+)] appearance. However, in both Pin(+) and Pin(-) derivatives [PSI(+)] is reinduced by overproduction of a short Sup35p N-terminal fragment, thus, in principle, [PSI(+)] curing remains reversible in both cases. Neither suppression nor growth inhibition caused by SUP35 overexpression in Pin(+) [psi(-)] derivatives are observed in Pin(-) [psi(-)] derivatives. Genetic analyses show that the Pin(+) phenotype is determined by a non-Mendelian factor, which, unlike the [PSI(+)] prion, is independent of the Sup35p N-terminal domain. A Pin(-) [psi(-)] derivative was also generated by transient inactivation of the heat shock protein, Hsp104, while [PSI(+)] curing by Hsp104 overproduction resulted exclusively in Pin(+) [psi(-)] derivatives. We hypothesize that in addition to the [PSI(+)] prion-determining domain in the Sup35p N-terminus, there is another self-propagating conformational determinant in the C-proximal part of Sup35p and that this second prion is responsible for the Pin(+) phenotype. PMID:9335589

Derkatch, I. L.; Bradley, M. E.; Zhou, P.; Chernoff, Y. O.; Liebman, S. W.

1997-01-01

295

Sensitivity to hepatotoxicity due to epigallocatechin gallate is affected by genetic background in diversity outbred mice.  

PubMed

Consumer use of herbal and dietary supplements has recently grown in the United States and, with increased use, reports of rare adverse reactions have emerged. One such supplement is green tea extract, containing the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which has been shown to be hepatotoxic at high doses in animal models. The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network has identified multiple patients who have experienced liver injury ascribed to green tea extract consumption and the relationship to dose has not been straightforward, indicating that differences in sensitivity may contribute to the adverse response in susceptible people. The Diversity Outbred (DO), a genetically heterogeneous mouse population, provides a potential platform for study of interindividual toxicity responses to green tea extract. Within the DO population, an equal exposure to EGCG (50?mg/kg; daily for three days) was found to be tolerated in the majority of mice; however, a small fraction of the animals (16%; 43/272) exhibited severe hepatotoxicity (10-86.8% liver necrosis) that is analogous to the clinical cases. The data indicate that the DO mice may provide a platform for informing risk of rare, adverse reactions that may occur in consumer populations upon ingestion of concentrated herbal products. PMID:25446466

Church, Rachel J; Gatti, Daniel M; Urban, Thomas J; Long, Nanye; Yang, Xi; Shi, Qiang; Eaddy, J Scott; Mosedale, Merrie; Ballard, Shawn; Churchill, Gary A; Navarro, Victor; Watkins, Paul B; Threadgill, David W; Harrill, Alison H

2015-02-01

296

Genetic Analysis Identifies DDR2 as a Novel Gene Affecting Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporotic Fractures in Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

DDR2 gene, playing an essential role in regulating osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation, may influence bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis, but the genetic variations actually leading to the association remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the genetic variants in DDR2 are associated with BMD and fracture risk. This study was performed in three samples from two ethnicities, including 1,300 Chinese Han subjects, 700 Chinese Han subjects (350 with osteoporotic hip fractures and 350 healthy controls) and 2,286 US white subjects. Twenty-eight SNPs in DDR2 were genotyped and tested for associations with hip BMD and fractures. We identified 3 SNPs in DDR2 significantly associated with hip BMD in the Chinese population after multiple testing adjustments, which were rs7521233 (P = 1.06×10?4, ?: ?0.018 for allele C), rs7553831 (P = 1.30×10?4, ?: ?0.018 for allele T), and rs6697469 (P = 1.59×10?3, ?: ?0.015 for allele C), separately. These three SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium. Haplotype analyses detected two significantly associated haplotypes, including one haplotype in block 2 (P = 9.54×10?4, ?: ?0.016) where these three SNPs located. SNP rs6697469 was also associated with hip fractures (P = 0.043, OR: 1.42) in the Chinese population. The effect on fracture risk was consistent with its association with lower BMD. However, in the white population, we didn’t observe significant associations with hip BMD. eQTL analyses revealed that SNPs associated with BMD also affected DDR2 mRNA expression levels in Chinese. Our findings, together with the prior biological evidence, suggest that DDR2 could be a new candidate for osteoporosis in Chinese population. Our results also reveal an ethnic difference, which highlights the need for further genetic studies in each ethnic group. PMID:25658585

Guo, Yan; Yang, Tie-Lin; Dong, Shan-Shan; Yan, Han; Hao, Ruo-Han; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jia-Bin; Tian, Qing; Li, Jian; Shen, Hui; Deng, Hong-Wen

2015-01-01

297

Evaluation of the genetic alterations in direct and indirect exposures of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning industry workers North Arcot District, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The focal aim of the present study was to identify the genetic alterations occurring in the tannery workers and surrounding\\u000a inhabitants chronically exposed to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 108 samples which includes 72 exposed subjects [36 directly exposed (DE) subjects and 36 indirectly exposed (IE)\\u000a subjects] and 36 controls were recruited for this study. The exposed subjects and

Vellingiri Balachandar; Meyyazhagan Arun; Subramaniam Mohana Devi; Palanivel Velmurugan; Pappusamy Manikantan; Alagamuthu Karthick Kumar; Keshavarao Sasikala; Chinnakulandai Venkatesan

2010-01-01

298

Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory.  

PubMed

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e., the myopia risk allele) showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point toward pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans. PMID:24808846

Barman, Adriana; Assmann, Anne; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Schütze, Hartmut; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deibele, Anna; Klein, Marieke; Richter, Anni; Behnisch, Gusalija; Düzel, Emrah; Zenker, Martin; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

2014-01-01

299

The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle length and is haplo-insufficient – KLP10A, reduced by RNAi or a loss-of-function P element insertion mutant, results in elongated and mispositioned oocyte spindles, and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates. KLP10A knockdown by RNAi does not significantly affect microtubule growth rates in oocyte spindles, but, unexpectedly, EB1 binding and unbinding are slowed, suggesting a previously unobserved role for kinesin-13 in mediating EB1 binding interactions with microtubules. Kinesin-13 may regulate spindle length both by disassembling subunits from microtubule ends and facilitating EB1 binding to plus ends. We also observe an increased number of paused microtubules in klp10A RNAi knockdown spindles, consistent with a reduced frequency of microtubule catastrophes. Overall, our findings indicate that reduced kinesin-13 decreases microtubule disassembly rates and affects EB1 interactions with microtubules, rather than altering microtubule growth rates, causing spindles to elongate and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates to form. PMID:24907370

Do, Kevin K.; Hoàng, Kim Liên; Endow, Sharyn A.

2014-01-01

300

Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (?45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

2014-01-01

301

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

Bedford, Joel

2014-04-18

302

Host genetic factors affect susceptibility to norovirus infections in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Norovirus (NoV) constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV. The association of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and susceptibility to NoV infection is well established in Caucasian populations with non-secretors being resistant to many common NoV strains. No study regarding HBGA and NoV susceptibility has yet been performed in Africa. We collected 309 stool and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; May 2009 to March 2010. NoV was detected using real-time PCR, and genotyped by sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. NoV was detected in 12% (n?=?37) of the samples. The genotype diversity was unusually large; overall the 37 positive samples belonged to 14 genotypes. Only children <2 years of age were NoV positive and the GII.4 NoVs were more frequent in the late dry season (Jan-May). NoV infections were observed less in children with the secretor-negative phenotype or blood group A (OR 0.18; p?=?0.012 and OR 0.31; p?=?0.054; respectively), with two non-secretors infected with genotypes GII.7 and GII.4 respectively. Lewis-negative (Le(a-b-)) children, representing 32% of the study population, were susceptible to GII, but were not infected with any NoV GI. GII.4 strains preferentially infected children with blood group B whereas secretor-positive children with blood group O were infected with the largest variety of genotypes. This is the first study identifying host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to NoV in an African population, and suggests that while the non-secretor phenotype provides protection; the Lewis b antigen is not necessary for GII infection. PMID:23894502

Nordgren, Johan; Nitiema, Léon W; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

2013-01-01

303

ONO-2506 inhibits spike–wave discharges in a genetic animal model without affecting traditional convulsive tests via gliotransmission regulation  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Anticonvulsants have been developed according to the traditional neurotransmission imbalance hypothesis. However, the anticonvulsive pharmacotherapy currently available remains unsatisfactory. To develop new antiepileptic drugs with novel antiepileptic mechanisms, we have tested the antiepileptic actions of ONO-2506, a glial modulating agent, and its effects on tripartite synaptic transmission. Experimental Approach Dose-dependent effects of ONO-2506 on maximal-electroshock seizure (MES), pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure (PTZ) and epileptic discharge were determined in a genetic model of absence epilepsy in mice (Cacna1atm2Nobs/tm2Nobs strain). Antiepileptic mechanisms of ONO-2506 were analysed by examining the interaction between ONO-2506 and transmission-modulating toxins (tetanus toxin, fluorocitrate, tetrodotoxin) on release of l-glutamate, d-serine, GABA and kynurenic acid in the medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of freely moving rats using microdialysis and primary cultured rat astrocytes. Key Results ONO-2506 inhibited spontaneous epileptic discharges in Cacna1atm2Nobs/tm2Nobs mice without affecting MES or PTZ. Given systemically, ONO-2506 increased basal release of GABA and kynurenic acid in the mPFC through activation of both neuronal and glial exocytosis, but inhibited depolarization-induced releases of all transmitters. ONO-2506 increased basal glial release of kynurenic acid without affecting those of l-glutamate, d-serine or GABA. However, ONO-2506 inhibited AMPA-induced releases of l-glutamate, d-serine, GABA and kynurenic acid. Conclusions and Implications ONO-2506 did not affect traditional convulsive tests but markedly inhibited epileptic phenomena in the genetic epilepsy mouse model. ONO-2506 enhanced release of inhibitory neuro- and gliotransmitters during the resting stage and inhibited tripartite transmission during the hyperactive stage. The results suggest that ONO-2506 is a novel potential glial-targeting antiepileptic drug. Linked Article This article is commented on by Onat, pp. 1086–1087 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12050 PMID:22882023

Yamamura, Satoshi; Hoshikawa, Masamitsu; Dai, Kato; Saito, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Noboru; Niwa, Osamu; Okada, Motohiro

2013-01-01

304

Genetic characterization of healthy and sebaceous adenitis affected Standard Poodles from the United States and the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

The degree of heterogeneity associated with geographic origin and sebaceous adenitis (SA) status in Standard Poodles from the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was assessed. Healthy and SA-affected Standard Poodles from the US and the UK shared a major mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and a single Y chromosome haplotype. However, minor mtDNA haplotypes and frequencies were somewhat different between US and UK dogs and were significantly less associated with SA than major haplotypes across both populations. The US and UK populations exhibited recent divergence from a common gene pool, based on allele frequencies of 24 highly polymorphic short tandem repeats and principle coordinates and cluster analyses of genotype frequencies. However, there was no differentiation between SA affected and unaffected dogs. Over 90% of US and UK Poodles shared a common dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotype, but showed some differentiation in minor haplotype frequency. No difference was observed in haplotype heterozygosity between SA affected and unaffected dogs from the same country and no disease association for SA was found within the DLA region by a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scan. Zygosity mapping in the DLA region of Poodles indicated much lower site-specific diversity than in an outbred population of street dogs from Bali, Indonesia, reflecting the degree that breed associated historical bottlenecks have reduced diversity in a polymorphic region of the genome. This study shows possible pitfalls in more extensive genome-wide association studies, such as case and control numbers, population stratification, the involvement of multiple genes, and/or the possibility that SA susceptibility is fixed or nearly fixed within the breed, which can reduce power to detect genetic associations. PMID:22512808

Pedersen, N C; Liu, H; McLaughlin, B; Sacks, B N

2012-07-01

305

Importance of genetic background for risk of relapse shown in altered prefrontal cortex gene expression during abstinence following chronic alcohol intoxication  

PubMed Central

Alcoholism is a relapsing disorder associated with excessive consumption after periods of abstinence. Neuroadaptations in brain structure, plasticity and gene expression occur with chronic intoxication but are poorly characterized. Here we report identification of pathways altered during abstinence in prefrontal cortex, a brain region associated with cognitive dysfunction and damage in alcoholics. To determine the influence of genetic differences, an animal model was employed with widely divergent responses to alcohol withdrawal, the Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) lines. Mice were chronically exposed to highly intoxicating concentrations of ethanol and withdrawn, then left abstinent for 21 days. Transcriptional profiling by microarray analyses identified a total of 562 genes as significantly altered during abstinence. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the transcriptional response correlated with genotype/withdrawal phenotype rather than sex. Gene Ontology category overrepresentation analysis identified thyroid hormone metabolism, glutathione metabolism, axon guidance and DNA damage response as targeted classes of genes in low response WSR mice, with acetylation and histone deacetylase complex as highly dimorphic between WSR and WSP mice. Confirmation studies in WSR mice revealed both increased neurotoxicity by histopathologic examination and elevated T3 levels. Most importantly, relapse drinking was reduced by inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis in dependent WSR mice compared to controls. These findings provide in vivo physiological and behavioral validation of the pathways identified. Combined, these results indicate a fundamentally distinct neuroadaptive response during abstinence in mice genetically selected for divergent withdrawal severity. Identification of pathways altered in abstinence may aid development of novel therapeutics for targeted treatment of relapse in abstinent alcoholics. PMID:21081154

Hashimoto, Joel G.; Forquer, Melissa R.; Tanchuck, Michelle A.; Finn, Deborah A.; Wiren, Kristine M.

2010-01-01

306

Identification of new genetic polymorphisms that alter the dietary requirement for choline and vary in their distribution across ethnic and racial groups.  

PubMed

Effect alleles (alleles with a polymorphism that is associated with the effect being measured) in a small number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to influence the dietary requirement for choline. In this study, we examined a much larger number of SNPs (n=200) in 10 genes related to choline metabolism for associations with development of organ dysfunction (liver or muscle) when 79 humans were fed a low-choline diet. We confirmed that effect alleles in SNPs such as the C allele of PEMT rs12325817 increase the risk of developing organ dysfunction in women when they consume a diet low in choline, and we identified novel effect alleles, such as the C allele of CHKA SNP rs7928739, that alter dietary choline requirements. When fed a low-choline diet, some people presented with muscle damage rather than liver damage; several effect alleles in SLC44A1 (rs7873937, G allele; rs2771040, G; rs6479313, G; rs16924529, A; and rs3199966, C) and one in CHKB (rs1557502, A) were more common in these individuals. This suggests that pathways related to choline metabolism are more important for normal muscle function than previously thought. In European, Mexican, and Asian Americans, and in individuals of African descent, we examined the prevalence of the effect alleles in SNPs that alter choline requirement and found that they are differentially distributed among people of different ethnic and racial backgrounds. Overall, our study has identified novel genetic variants that modulate choline requirements and suggests that the dietary requirement for choline may be different across racial and ethnic groups.-Da Costa, K.-A., Corbin, K. D., Niculescu, M. D., Galanko, J. A., Zeisel, S. H. Identification of new genetic polymorphisms that alter the dietary requirement for choline and vary in their distribution across ethnic and racial groups. PMID:24671709

da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Corbin, Karen D; Niculescu, Mihai D; Galanko, Joseph A; Zeisel, Steven H

2014-07-01

307

Small-scale patterns in snowmelt timing affect gene flow and the distribution of genetic diversity in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea.  

PubMed

Current threats to biodiversity, such as climate change, are thought to alter the within-species genetic diversity among microhabitats in highly heterogeneous alpine environments. Assessing the spatial organization and dynamics of genetic diversity within species can help to predict the responses of organisms to environmental change. In this study, we evaluated whether small-scale heterogeneity in snowmelt timing restricts gene flow between microhabitats in the common long-lived dwarf shrub Salix herbacea L. We surveyed 273 genets across 12 early- and late-snowmelt sites (that is, ridges and snowbeds) in the Swiss Alps for phenological variation over 2 years and for genetic variation using seven SSR markers. Phenological differentiation triggered by differences in snowmelt timing did not correlate with genetic differentiation between microhabitats. On the contrary, extensive gene flow appeared to occur between microhabitats and slightly less extensively among adjacent mountains. However, ridges exhibited significantly lower levels of genetic diversity than snowbeds, and patterns of effective population size (Ne) and migration (Nem) between microhabitats were strongly asymmetric, with ridges acting as sources and snowbeds as sinks. As no recent genetic bottlenecks were detected in the studied sites, this asymmetry is likely to reflect current meta-population dynamics of the species dominated by gene flow via seeds rather than ancient re-colonization after the last glacial period. Overall, our results suggest that seed dispersal prevents snowmelt-driven genetic isolation, and snowbeds act as sinks of genetic diversity. We discuss the consequences of such small-scale variation in gene flow and diversity levels for population responses to climate change. PMID:24619183

Cortés, A J; Waeber, S; Lexer, C; Sedlacek, J; Wheeler, J A; van Kleunen, M; Bossdorf, O; Hoch, G; Rixen, C; Wipf, S; Karrenberg, S

2014-09-01

308

Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).  

PubMed

Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of ?(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour related to reproductive strategy. PMID:23189927

Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

2013-01-01

309

Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.  

PubMed

Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n ?=? 80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders. PMID:25275507

Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

2014-01-01

310

Genetic homogeneity of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: Tight linkage to the proteolipoprotein locus in 16 affected families  

SciTech Connect

Among the numerous leukodystrophies that have an early onset and no biochemical markers, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is one that can be identified using strict clinical criteria and demonstrating an abnormal formation of myelin that is restricted to the CNS in electrophysiological studies and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In PMD, 12 different base substitutions and one total deletion of the genomic region containing the PLP gene have been reported, but, despite extensive analysis, PLP exon mutations have been found in only 10%-25% of the families analyzed. To test the genetic homogeneity of this disease, the authors have carried out linkage analysis with polymorphic markers of the PLP genomic region in 16 families selected on strict diagnostic criteria of PMD. They observed a tight linkage of the PMD locus with markers of the PLP gene (cDNA PLP, exon IV polymorphism) and of the Xq22 region (DXS17, DXS94, and DXS287), whereas the markers located more proximally (DXYS1X and DXS3) or distally (DXS11) were not linked to the PMD locus. Multipoint analysis gave a maximal location score for the PMD locus (13.98) and the PLP gene (8.32) in the same interval between DXS94 and DXS287, suggesting that in all families PMD is linked to the PLP locus. Mutations of the extraexonic PLP gene sequences or of another unknown close gene could be involved in PMD. In an attempt to identify molecular defects of this genomic region that are responsible for PMD, these results meant that RFLP analysis could be used to improve genetic counseling for the numerous affected families in which a PLP exon mutation could not be demonstrated. 39 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Boespflug-Tanguy, O.; Mimault, C.; Cavagna, A.; Giraud, G.; Dastugue, B. [INSERM U.384, Clermont Ferrand (France); Melki, J.; Dinh, D.P.; Dautigny, A.

1994-09-01

311

Genetic Alteration of a bispecific ligand directed toxin targeting human CD19 and CD22 receptors resulting in improved efficacy against systemic B cell malignancy  

PubMed Central

A bispecific ligand-directed toxin (BLT) called DT2219ARL consisting of two sFv ligands recognizing CD19 and CD22 and catalytic DT390 was genetically enhanced for superior in vivo anti-leukemia activity. Genetic alterations included reverse orienting VH-VL domains and adding aggregation reducing/stabilizing linkers. In vivo, these improvements resulted in previously unseen long-term tumor-free survivors measured in a bioluminescent xenograft imaging model in which the progression of human Raji Burkitt’s lymphoma could be tracked in real time and in a Daudi model as well. Studies showed DT2219ARL was potent (IC50s 0.06–0.2 nM range) and selectively blockable. Imaging studies indicated the highly invasive nature of this B cell malignancy model and showed it likely induced preterminal hind limb paralysis because of metastasis to spinal regions prevented by DT2219ARL. DT2219ARL represents a new class of bispecific biological that can be continually improved by genetic mutation. PMID:19327829

Vallera, Daniel A.; Chen, Hua; Sicheneder, Andrew R.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Taras, Elizabeth P.

2009-01-01

312

Alteration of Sexual Reproduction and Genetic Diversity in the Kelp Species Laminaria digitata at the Southern Limit of Its Range  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to marginal habitats at species range-limits has often been associated with parthenogenetic reproduction in terrestrial animals and plants. Laboratory observations have shown that brown algae exhibit a high propensity for parthenogenesis by various mechanisms. The kelp Laminaria digitata is an important component of the ecosystem in Northern European rocky intertidal habitats. We studied four L. digitata populations for the effects of marginality on genetic diversity and sexual reproduction. Two populations were marginal: One (Locquirec, in Northern Brittany) was well within the geographic range, but was genetically isolated from other populations by large stretches of sandy beaches. Another population was at the range limits of the species (Quiberon, in Southern Brittany) and was exposed to much higher seasonal temperature changes. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that these populations showed decreased genetic and allelic diversity, consistent with marginality and genetic isolation. Sporophytes from both marginal populations showed greatly diminished spore-production compared to central populations, but only the southern-limit population (Quiberon) showed a high propensity for producing unreduced (2N) spores. Unreduced 2N spores formed phenotypically normal gametophytes with nuclear area consistent with ?2N DNA contents, and microsatellite studies suggested these were produced at least in part by automixis. However, despite this being the dominant path of spore production in Quiberon sporophyte individuals, the genetic evidence indicated the population was maintained mostly by sexual reproduction. Thus, although spore production and development showed the expected tendency of geographical parthenogenesis in marginal populations, this appeared to be a consequence of maladaptation, rather than an adaptation to, life in a marginal habitat. PMID:25019953

Oppliger, Luz Valeria; von Dassow, Peter; Bouchemousse, Sarah; Robuchon, Marine; Valero, Myriam; Correa, Juan A.; Mauger, Stéphane; Destombe, Christophe

2014-01-01

313

Multiple Genetic Alterations within the PI3K Pathway Are Responsible for AKT Activation in Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is activated in multiple cancers including ovarian carcinoma (OC). However, the relative contribution of the single components within the PI3K pathway to AKT activation in OC is still unclear. We examined 98 tumor samples from Italian OC patients for alterations in the members of the PI3K pathway. We report that AKT is significantly hyperactive in OC compared to normal tissue (n?=?93; p<0.0001) and that AKT activation is preferentially observed in the elderly (>58 years old; n?=?93; p<0.05). The most frequent alteration is the overexpression of the p110? catalytic subunit of PI3K (63/93, ?68%); less frequent alterations comprise the loss of PTEN (24/89, 27%) and the overexpression of AKT1 (18/96, 19%) or AKT2 (11/88,12.5%). Mutations in the PIK3CA or KRAS genes were detected at lower frequency (12% and 10%, respectively) whereas mutations in AKT1 or AKT2 genes were absent. Although many tumors presented a single lesion (28/93, of which 23 overexpressed PIK3CA, 1 overexpressed AKT and 4 had lost PTEN), many OC (35/93) presented multiple alterations within the PI3K pathway. Apparently, aberrant PI3K signalling was mediated by activation of the canonical downstream AKT-dependent mTOR/S6K1/4EBP1 pathway and by regulation of expression of oncogenic transcription factors that include HMGA1, JUN-B, FOS and MYC but not by AKT-independent activation of SGK3. FISH analysis indicated that gene amplification of PIK3CA, AKT1 and AKT2 (but not of PI3KR1) and the loss of PTEN are common and may account for changes in the expression of the corresponding proteins. In conclusion, our results indicate that p110? overexpression represents the most frequent alteration within the PI3K/AKT pathway in OC. However, p110? overexpression may not be sufficient to activate AKT signalling and drive ovarian tumorigenesis since many tumors overexpressing PI3K presented at least one additional alteration. PMID:23408974

De Marco, Carmela; Rinaldo, Nicola; Bruni, Paola; Malzoni, Carmine; Zullo, Fulvio; Fabiani, Fernanda; Losito, Simona; Scrima, Marianna; Marino, Federica Zito; Franco, Renato; Quintiero, Alfina; Agosti, Valter; Viglietto, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

314

Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Results Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P < 0.05), and 2 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1 and SNP Ex12-3 with protein yield (P < 0.05). Furthermore, our haplotype-based association analyses indicated that haplotypes G-C-C, formed by SNP Ex12-2-SNP Int11-1-SNP Ex11-1, T-G, formed by SNP Int9-3-SNP Int9-2, and C-C, formed by SNP Int5-1-SNP Int3-1, are significantly associated with protein percentage (F=4.15; P=0.0418) and fat percentage (F=5.18~7.25; P=0.0072~0.0231). Finally, by using an in vitro expression assay, we demonstrated that the A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1of UGDH significantly decreases the expression of UGDH by 68.0% at the RNA, and 50.1% at the protein level, suggesting that SNP Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 represent two functional polymorphisms affecting expression of UGDH and may partly contributed to the observed association of the gene with milk production traits in our samples. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits. PMID:23122059

2012-01-01

315

Mating alters gene expression patterns in Drosophila melanogaster male heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Behavior is a complex process resulting from the integration of genetic and environmental information. Drosophila melanogaster rely on multiple sensory modalities for reproductive success, and mating causes physiological changes in both sexes that affect reproductive output or behavior. Some of these effects are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Courtship and mating alter female transcript profiles, but it

Lisa L Ellis; Ginger E Carney

2010-01-01

316

Electric stimulation of the tuberomamillary nucleus affects epileptic activity and sleep-wake cycle in a genetic absence epilepsy model.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach for epilepsy treatment, but the optimal targets and parameters of stimulation are yet to be investigated. Tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) is involved in EEG desynchronization-one of the proposed mechanisms for DBS action. We studied whether TMN stimulation could interfere with epileptic spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats with inherited absence epilepsy and whether such stimulation would affect sleep-wake cycle. EEG and video registration were used to determine SWD occurrence and stages of sleep and wake during three-hours recording sessions. Stimulation (100Hz) was applied in two modes: closed-loop (with previously determined interruption threshold intensity) or open-loop mode (with 50% or 70% threshold intensity). Closed-loop stimulation successfully interrupted SWDs but elevated their number by 148±54% compared to baseline. It was accompanied by increase in number of episodes but not total duration of both active and passive wakefulness. Open-loop stimulation with amplitude 50% threshold did not change measured parameters, though 70% threshold stimulation reduced SWDs number by 40±9%, significantly raised the amount of active wakefulness and decreased the amount of both slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that the TMN is unfavorable as a target for DBS as its stimulation may cause alterations in sleep-wake cycle. A careful choosing of parameters and control of sleep-wake activity is necessary when applying DBS in epilepsy. PMID:25524851

Blik, Vitaliya

2015-01-01

317

Interleukin 1B genetic polymorphisms interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to affect risk of the metabolic syndrome in the GOLDN Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic inflammation has been identified as an important component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, environmental and genetic factors contributing to the variation of inflammatory responses could affect individuals’ susceptibility to the MetS. We investigated the association between comm...

318

Use of the MLPA Assay in the Molecular Diagnosis of Gene Copy Number Alterations in Human Genetic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique able to evidence variations in the copy number of several human genes. Due to this ability, MLPA can be used in the molecular diagnosis of several genetic diseases whose pathogenesis is related to the presence of deletions or duplications of specific genes. Moreover, MLPA assay can also be used in the molecular diagnosis of genetic diseases characterized by the presence of abnormal DNA methylation. Due to the large number of genes that can be analyzed by a single technique, MLPA assay represents the gold standard for molecular analysis of all pathologies derived from the presence of gene copy number variation. In this review, the main applications of the MLPA technique for the molecular diagnosis of human diseases are described. PMID:22489151

Stuppia, Liborio; Antonucci, Ivana; Palka, Giandomenico; Gatta, Valentina

2012-01-01

319

Tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactivity is altered by the genetic variation in postmortem brain samples of both suicide victims and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence suggest that a partly genetically controlled serotonergic dysfunction is involved in the biological pathogenesis of suicide. In this study, we measured tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) immunoreactivity as a pre-synaptic marker, and serotonin receptor 2A (5HT2A receptor) density as a post-synaptic marker in the serotonergic system in 10 postmortem brains of suicide victims. We also examined whether TPH

H Ono; O Shirakawa; N Kitamura; T Hashimoto; N Nishiguchi; A Nishimura; H Nushida; Y Ueno; K Maeda

2002-01-01

320

ANGPT2 Genetic Variant Is Associated with Trauma-associated Acute Lung Injury and Altered Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Isoform Ratio  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) acts as a complex genetic trait, yet its genetic risk factors remain incompletely understood. Large-scale genotyping has not previously been reported for ALI. Objectives: To identify ALI risk variants after major trauma using a large-scale candidate gene approach. Methods: We performed a two-stage genetic association study. We derived findings in an African American cohort (n = 222) using a cardiopulmonary disease–centric 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Genotype and haplotype distributions were compared between subjects with ALI and without ALI, with adjustment for clinical factors. Top performing SNPs (P < 10?4) were tested in a multicenter European American trauma-associated ALI case-control population (n = 600 ALI; n = 2,266 population-based control subjects) for replication. The ALI-associated genomic region was sequenced, analyzed for in silico prediction of function, and plasma was assayed by ELISA and immunoblot. Measurements and Main Results: Five SNPs demonstrated a significant association with ALI after adjustment for covariates in Stage I. Two SNPs in ANGPT2 (rs1868554 and rs2442598) replicated their significant association with ALI in Stage II. rs1868554 was robust to multiple comparison correction: odds ratio 1.22 (1.06–1.40), P = 0.0047. Resequencing identified predicted novel splice sites in linkage disequilibrium with rs1868554, and immunoblots showed higher proportion of variant angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) isoform associated with rs1868554T (0.81 vs. 0.48; P = 0.038). Conclusions: An ANGPT2 region is associated with both ALI and variation in plasma angiopoietin-2 isoforms. Characterization of the variant isoform and its genetic regulation may yield important insights about ALI pathogenesis and susceptibility. PMID:21257790

Meyer, Nuala J.; Li, Mingyao; Feng, Rui; Bradfield, Jonathan; Gallop, Robert; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fuchs, Barry D.; Lanken, Paul N.; Albelda, Steven M.; Rushefski, Melanie; Aplenc, Richard; Abramova, Helen; Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N.; Beers, Michael F.; Calfee, Carolyn S.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Christiani, David C.; O'Keefe, Grant E.; Ware, Lorraine B.; May, Addison K.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Christie, Jason D.

2011-01-01

321

Genetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students to understand basic principles of genetics, including relationships of genotype to phenotype, concepts of recessive and dominant alleles, and how understanding meiosis and fertilization provides the basis for understanding inheritance, as summarized in Punnett squares. The Student Handout includes an analysis of the inheritance of albinism that teaches all of these concepts, a Coin Toss Genetics activity that helps students understand the probabilistic nature of Punnett square predictions, and an analysis of the inheritance of sickle cell anemia that reinforces the basic concepts and introduces some of the complexities of genetics. The Genetics Supplement includes two additional activities, an analysis of student data on the sex makeup of sibships and pedigree analyses of recessive and dominant alleles with challenge questions that introduce the role of mutations and an evaluation of Punnett squares and pedigrees as models of inheritance.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid; Poethig, Scott

322

Genetics  

MedlinePLUS

... made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Genes are sections of DNA. The location of the gene is called the ... differences occur in less than 1% of the DNA sequence and produce variants of a particular gene ...

323

Genetic Disruption of Both Tryptophan Hydroxylase Genes Dramatically Reduces Serotonin and Affects Behavior in Models Sensitive to Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The biosynthesis of serotonin is regulated by two rate-limiting enzymes, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and -2 (TPH1 and TPH2). We used a gene-targeting approach to generate mice with selective and complete elimination of the two known TPH isoforms. This resulted in dramatically reduced central 5-HT levels in Tph2 knockout (TPH2KO) and Tph1/Tph2 double knockout (DKO) mice; and substantially reduced peripheral 5-HT levels in DKO, but not TPH2KO mice. Therefore, differential expression of the two isoforms of TPH was reflected in corresponding depletion of 5-HT content in the brain and periphery. Surprisingly, despite the prominent and evolutionarily ancient role that 5-HT plays in both vertebrate and invertebrate physiology, none of these mutations resulted in an overt phenotype. TPH2KO and DKO mice were viable and normal in appearance. Behavioral alterations in assays with predictive validity for antidepressants were among the very few phenotypes uncovered. These behavioral changes were subtle in the TPH2KO mice; they were enhanced in the DKO mice. Herein, we confirm findings from prior descriptions of TPH1 knockout mice and present the first reported phenotypic evaluations of Tph2 and Tph1/Tph2 knockout mice. The behavioral effects observed in the TPH2 KO and DKO mice strongly confirm the role of 5-HT and its synthetic enzymes in the etiology and treatment of affective disorders. PMID:18923670

Savelieva, Katerina V.; Rajan, Indrani; Yang, Qi; Cullinan, Emily; Lanthorn, Thomas H.

2008-01-01

324

Altered fibrin clot structure/function and FXIII Leu34 genetic variant in patients with premature coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Abnormal plasma fibrin architecture is a major determinant of both premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypofibrinolysis. The presence of the FXIIIVal34Leu genetic variant increases and accelerates fibrin stabilization. Its association with premature CAD remains controversial. AIM To evaluate fibrin clot structure/function in patients with premature CAD compared to healthy controls and whether the presence of the FXIII Val34Leu variant is an independent correlate of both impaired fibrinolysis and premature CAD. METHODS Fibrin phenotype and FXIII Val34Leu genetic variant were determined in a cohort of 242 young patients (<45 years) who survived an MI and compared to 242 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Fibrin clot stiffness (elastic modulus) and response to rt-PA mediated fibrinolysis (clot lysis time and fibrinolysis rate) were measured using the Hemodyne analyser and by confocal microscopy. The effect of FXIII Val34Leu on long term survival was also evaluated. RESULTS CAD patients produced stiffer fibrin clots as compared to healthy controls (24.7±16 vs. 13.6±6 kdynes/cm2; p<0.0001) and displayed a reduced response to fibrinolysis with longer clot lysis time (16.5±12 vs. 10±7 min; p<0.0001) and lower fibrinolysis rate (8.3±7. vs. 14.7±19 sec?1×10?4; p<0.0001). Factor XIII Val34Leu presence led to a stepwise decrease in fibrinolysis rate with a gene dose effect in both patients (9.4±8 vs. 6.9±7 vs. 5.5±4 sec?1×10?4, for wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous, respectively, p value for all =0.02) and healthy controls, suggesting an effect independent from CAD. A similar impact of the Factor XIII Val34Leu substitution was observed on clot lysis time. Increased clot stiffness and hypofibrinolysis were both independent correlates of premature CAD. Factor XIII Val34Leu presence was neither protective of premature CAD (adjOR 0.83 [0.49–1.4] nor did it impact long term clinical outcome during a median follow-up of 6.3 years (±2.4). CONCLUSIONS Stiff fibrin that is more resistant to fibrinolysis is a major determinant of premature CAD. Presence of the factor XIII Leu34 genetic variant provides a pharmacogenetic resistance to fibrinolysis ex-vivo but neither relates to premature CAD nor to recurrent acute coronary events. PMID:21800001

SILVAIN, J.; PENA, A.; HULOT, J.S.; CAYLA, G.; BELLEMAIN-APPAIX, A.; VIGNALOU, JB.; SOLLIER, C. BAL DIT; DROUET, L.; WEISEL, J.W.; MONTALESCOT, G.; COLLET, J.-P.

2012-01-01

325

Genetic variation in the CHRNA5 gene affects mRNA levels and is associated with risk for alcohol dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol dependence frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking, another common addictive behavior. Evidence from genetic studies demonstrates that alcohol dependence and smoking cluster in families and have shared genetic vulnerability. Recently a candidate gene study in nicotine dependent cases and nondependent smoking controls reported strong associations between a missense mutation (rs16969968) in exon 5 of the CHRNA5 gene and a variant

J C Wang; R Grucza; C Cruchaga; A L Hinrichs; S Bertelsen; J P Budde; L Fox; E Goldstein; O Reyes; N Saccone; S Saccone; X Xuei; K Bucholz; S Kuperman; J Nurnberger; J P Rice; M Schuckit; J Tischfield; V Hesselbrock; B Porjesz; H J Edenberg; L J Bierut; A M Goate

2009-01-01

326

Uncertainty Management and Communication Preferences Related to Genetic Relativism Among Families Affected by Down Syndrome, Marfan Syndrome, and Neurofibromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes hold opportunities for us to look backward and forward in family health and disease incidence. Our beliefs about genes' roles in health form around frameworks relating to personal control, and the influence of social networks and\\/or religious faith on genetic expression in health. These genetic relativistic frameworks were found to predict levels of illness uncertainty among 541 diagnosed adults

Roxanne Parrott; Kathryn F. Peters; Tara Traeder

2012-01-01

327

Uncertainty Management and Communication Preferences Related to Genetic Relativism Among Families Affected by Down Syndrome, Marfan Syndrome, and Neurofibromatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes hold opportunities for us to look backward and forward in family health and disease incidence. Our beliefs about genes' roles in health form around frameworks relating to personal control, and the influence of social networks and\\/or religious faith on genetic expression in health. These genetic relativistic frameworks were found to predict levels of illness uncertainty among 541 diagnosed adults

Roxanne Parrott; Kathryn F. Peters; Tara Traeder

2011-01-01

328

Reactive biomolecular divergence in genetically altered yeast cells and isolated mitochondria as measured by biocavity laser spectroscopy : a rapid diagnostic method for studying cellular responses to stress and disease.  

SciTech Connect

We report an analysis of four strains of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The four strains are grouped in two pairs (wild type and altered), in which one strain differs genetically at a single locus, affecting mitochondrial function. In one pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho0 strain differ by complete removal of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In the second pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho- strain differ by knock-out of the nuclear gene encoding Cox4, an essential subunit of cytochrome c oxidase. The biocavity laser is used to measure the biophysical optic parameter Deltalambda, a laser wavelength shift relating to the optical density of cell or mitochondria that uniquely reflects its size and biomolecular composition. As such, Deltalambda is a powerful parameter that rapidly interrogates the biomolecular state of single cells and mitochondria. Wild-type cells and mitochondria produce Gaussian-like distributions with a single peak. In contrast, mutant cells and mitochondria produce leptokurtotic distributions that are asymmetric and highly skewed to the right. These distribution changes could be self-consistently modeled with a single, log-normal distribution undergoing a thousand-fold increase in variance of biomolecular composition. These features reflect a new state of stressed or diseased cells that we call a reactive biomolecular divergence (RBD) that reflects the vital interdependence of mitochondria and the nucleus.

Yaffe, Michael P. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Gourley, Paul Lee; Copeland, Robert Guild; McDonald, Anthony Eugene; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K. (Univesity of California, San Diego, CA)

2006-12-01

329

Genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Capsicum represents one of several well characterized Solanaceous genera. A wealth of classical and molecular genetics research is available for the genus. Information gleaned from its cultivated relatives, tomato and potato, provide further insight for basic and applied studies. Early ...

330

Temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency affect whole-lactation milk production and the energy status of pasture-grazed dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency (MF) on milk production, body condition score (BCS), and indicators of energy status in pasture-grazed cows supplemented with concentrates. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=150) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups at calving: milked twice daily (2×) throughout lactation (control), or milked either once daily (1×) or 3 times daily (3×) for 3 or 6wk immediately postpartum, and then 2× for the remainder of lactation. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, cows milked 1× produced 15% less milk and 17% less energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows milked 2×. This immediate production loss increased to 20% less milk and 22% less ECM during wk 4 to 6 postpartum for cows that remained on 1× milking; these animals also produced less than 1× cows switched to 2× milking after 3wk. During wk 8 to 32, when all cows were milked 2×, those previously milked 1× had sustained reductions in milk (-6%) and ECM (-8%) yields, which were not affected by the duration of reduced postpartum MF. In contrast, cows milked 3× postpartum had 7% greater milk yields during wk 1 to 6 compared with 2× controls, irrespective of the duration of increased MF. Milk yields also remained numerically greater (+5%) during wk 8 to 32 in cows previously milked 3×. Nevertheless, yields of ECM were not increased by 3× milking, because of lower milk fat and protein contents that persisted for the rest of lactation. In addition, indicators of cow energy status reflected an increasing state of negative energy balance with increasing MF. Cows milked 1× postpartum had greater plasma glucose and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the reduced MF, and plasma glucose remained lower for 2wk after cows had switched to 2× milking. Moreover, BCS was improved relative to 2× controls from wk 5 to 6. In contrast, cows milked 3× had lower plasma glucose concentrations, greater plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, and greater BCS loss during wk 1 to 3; however, greater body fat mobilization was not sustained, indicating that additional energy supplements may be required to achieve better milk production responses. In conclusion, temporary 1× milking had lactation-long negative effects on milk and milk component yields but improved cow energy status and BCS, whereas temporary 3× milking immediately increased milk yield but did not improve milk fat and protein yields in pasture-grazed cows. PMID:25200777

Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Roach, C G; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

2014-11-01

331

Making sense of intratumor genetic heterogeneity: altered frequency of androgen receptor CAG repeat length variants in breast cancer tissues.  

PubMed

To examine the significance of intratumor genetic heterogeneity (ITGH) of the androgen receptor (AR) gene in breast cancer, patient-matched samples of laser capture microdissected breast tumor cells, adjacent normal breast epithelia cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes were sequenced using a novel next generation sequencing protocol. This protocol measured the frequency of distribution of a variable AR CAG repeat length, a functional polymorphism associated with breast cancer risk. All samples exhibited some degree of ITGH with up to 30 CAG repeat length variants identified. Each type of tissue exhibited a different distribution profile of CAG repeat lengths with substantial differences in the frequencies of zero and 18-25 CAG AR variants. Tissue differences in the frequency of ARs with each of these CAG repeat lengths were significant as measured by paired, twin t-tests. These results suggest that preferential selection of 18-25 CAG repeat length variants in breast tumors may be associated with breast cancer, and support the observation that shorter CAG repeats may protect against breast cancer. They also suggest that merely identifying variant genes will be insufficient to determine the critical mutational events of oncogenesis, which will require measuring the frequency of distribution of mutations within cancerous and matching normal tissues. PMID:23377847

Gottlieb, Bruce; Alvarado, Carlos; Wang, Chunlin; Gharizadeh, Baback; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Richards, Brent; Batist, Gerald; Basik, Mark; Beitel, Lenore K; Trifiro, Mark

2013-04-01

332

An Update on Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Genetics, Immune Activation, Serotonin and Altered Microbiome.  

PubMed

The literature on post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is reviewed with special emphasis on recent new data. Further accounts of this phenomenon continue to be reported following a range of infections including giardiasis as well as viral and bacterial gastroenteritis. Risk factors such as severity of initial illness, female gender together with adverse psychological factors have been confirmed. Recent evidence of a genetic predisposition needs replication. Animal studies suggest activation of mast cells and inflammation driven impairment of serotonin transporter may be important, which are findings supported by some recent human studies in IBS with diarrhoea. Experimentally induced inflammation leads to damage and remodelling of enteric nerves. Similar changes have been reported in IBS patients with increase in nerves expressing transient receptor potential cation channel V1. While changes in microbiota are very likely this area has yet to be explored using modern techniques. Since the prognosis is for slow improvement, treatments should currently target the key symptoms of diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Future therapies aimed at correcting underlying mechanisms including immune activation and serotonin excess are currently being explored and may provide better treatments in the future. PMID:22837873

Spiller, Robin; Lam, Ching

2012-07-01

333

Change in maternal environment induced by cross-fostering alters genetic and epigenetic effects on complex traits in mice  

PubMed Central

The interaction between maternally provided environment and offspring genotype is a major determinant of offspring development and fitness in many organisms. Recent research has demonstrated that not only genetic effects, but also epigenetic effects may be subject to modifications by the maternal environment. Genomic imprinting resulting in parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression is among the best studied of epigenetic effects. However, very little is known about the degree to which genomic imprinting effects can be modulated by the maternally provided environment, which has important implications for phenotypic plasticity. In this study, we investigated this unresolved question using a cross-fostering design in which mouse pups were nursed by either their own or an unrelated mother. We scanned the entire genome to search for quantitative trait loci whose effects depend on cross-fostering and detected 10 of such loci. Of the 10 loci, 4 showed imprinting by cross-foster interactions. In most cases, the interaction effect was due to the presence of an effect in either cross-fostered or non-cross-fostered animals. Our results demonstrate that genomic imprinting effects may often be modified by the maternal environment and that such interactions can impact key fitness-related traits suggesting a greater plasticity of genomic imprinting than previously assumed. PMID:19474037

Hager, Reinmar; Cheverud, James M.; Wolf, Jason B.

2009-01-01

334

A GENETIC DEFICIENCY THAT SPANS THE FLIGHTIN GENE OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER AFFECTS THE ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE FLIGHT MUSCLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a reverse-genetic approach to study the function of flightin, a unique protein of the flight muscle myofibril of Drosophila melanogaster. We describe the generation and characterization of Df(3L)fln1, a lethal genetic deficiency in the 76BE region of the third chromosome which deletes several genes, including the gene for flightin. We show that heterozygous flies harboring the Df(3L)fln1

JIM O. VIGOREAUX; CARMEN HERNANDEZ; JEFF MOORE; GRETCHEN AYER; DAVID MAUGHAN

1998-01-01

335

Genetic inhibition of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity increases liver fat and alters global protein acetylationa  

PubMed Central

Lipid deposition in the liver is associated with metabolic disorders including fatty liver disease, type II diabetes, and hepatocellular cancer. The enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and ACC2 are powerful regulators of hepatic fat storage; therefore, their inhibition is expected to prevent the development of fatty liver. In this study we generated liver-specific ACC1 and ACC2 double knockout (LDKO) mice to determine how the loss of ACC activity affects liver fat metabolism and whole-body physiology. Characterization of LDKO mice revealed unexpected phenotypes of increased hepatic triglyceride and decreased fat oxidation. We also observed that chronic ACC inhibition led to hyper-acetylation of proteins in the extra-mitochondrial space. In sum, these data reveal the existence of a compensatory pathway that protects hepatic fat stores when ACC enzymes are inhibited. Furthermore, we identified an important role for ACC enzymes in the regulation of protein acetylation in the extra-mitochondrial space. PMID:24944901

Chow, Jenny D.Y.; Lawrence, Robert T.; Healy, Marin E.; Dominy, John E.; Liao, Jason A.; Breen, David S.; Byrne, Frances L.; Kenwood, Brandon M.; Lackner, Carolin; Okutsu, Saeko; Mas, Valeria R.; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Tomsig, Jose L.; Cooney, Gregory J.; Puigserver, Pere B.; Turner, Nigel; James, David E.; Villén, Judit; Hoehn, Kyle L.

2014-01-01

336

Genetic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

337

Disease-resistant genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Infectious disease adversely affects livestock production and animal welfare, and has impacts upon both human health and public perception of livestock production. The authors argue that the combination of new methodology that enables the efficient production of genetically-modified (GM) animals with exciting new tools to alter gene activity makes the applications of transgenic animals for the benefit of animal

C. B. A. Whitelaw; H. M. Sang

2005-01-01

338

Genetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetics is the branch of biology that studies the ways in which hereditary information is passed on from the parents to their offspring. As we study this unit, I will be asking you to visit the following websites to emphasize concepts brought up during class. DNA Structure and Replication Build a DNA molecule Use this website to practice matching up complementary nucleotides in the DNA molecule. How DNA Replicates Take a look at this short video clip that demonstrates how the DNA molecule replicates. A Science Odyssey :You Try It: DNA Workshop When you get to this website, click on \\"Go directly to the DNA Workshop\\". Click on DNA replication on the left ...

Goodfellow, Miss

2007-10-23

339

Genetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online tutorial from the TheTech Museum of Innovation focuses on genetics. The interactive topics will initially introduce the user to the DNA, chromosomes, and the make up of human genes. Further topics will examine forensic science, the history of forensics, fingerprinting, and cloning background research and community response to cloning. Finally, the resource provides connections to gallery exhibits, science labs, and a design challenge that engages the learner to write a persuasive letter to a group or organization responsible for cloning or DNA decision making. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

The Tech Museum of Innovation

2004-01-01

340

Genetic factors on mouse chromosome 18 affecting susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors and permissiveness to embryonic stem cell derivation  

PubMed Central

Despite strong heritability, little is known about the genetic control of susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) in humans or mice. Although the mouse model of spontaneous TGCTs has been extensively studied, conventional linkage analysis has failed to locate the factors that control both teratocarcinogenesis in the susceptible 129 family of inbred strains. As an alternative approach, we used both chromosome substitution strains (CSSs) to identify individual chromosomes that harbor susceptibility genes, and a panel of congenic strains derived from a selected CSS to determine the number and location of susceptibility variants on the substituted chromosome. We showed that 129-Chr 18MOLF males are resistant to spontaneous TGCTs and that at least four genetic variants control susceptibility in males with this substituted chromosome. In addition, early embryonic cells from this strain fail to establish embryonic stem (ES) cell lines as efficiently as those from the parental 129/Sv strain. For the first time, 129-derived genetic variants that control TGCT susceptibility and fundamental aspects of ES cell biology have been localized in a genetic context where the genes can be identified and functionally characterized. PMID:19934337

Anderson, Philip D.; Nelson, Vicki R.; Tesar, Paul J.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

2009-01-01

341

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:14281436, 1999 A Complete Genome Screen in Sib Pairs Affected by Gilles  

E-print Network

de la Tourette Syndrome The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics* Summary Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric dis- order characterized by waxing and waning also gave multipoint MLS scores be- tween 1.0 and 2.0. Introduction Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS

Kidd, Kenneth

342

Variant detection at the d opioid receptor (OPRD1) locus and population genetics of a novel variant affecting protein sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three opioid receptor genes, and in particular the µ and ' loci (OPRM1 and OPRD1, respectively), are compelling candidates to influence risk for substance dependence. Previous study of a variant at the OPRD1 locus, T921C, has shown association with opioid dependence. This variant does not alter protein sequence, and could not be directly responsible for a physiologic effect. We

Joel Gelernter; Henry R. Kranzler

2000-01-01

343

Involvement of GABAB receptors in biochemical alterations induced by anxiety-related responses to nicotine in mice: genetic and pharmacological approaches.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our laboratory showed that anxiety-related responses induced by nicotine (NIC), measured by the elevated plus maze, were abolished by 2-OH-saclofen (GABAB receptor antagonist) (1 mg/kg; ip) or the lack of GABAB receptors (GABAB1 knockout mice). Based on these behavioral data, the aims of the present study were: 1) to evaluate the possible neurochemical changes (dopamine, DA, serotonin, 5-HT, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA and noradrenaline, NA) and the c-Fos expression induced by the anxiolytic (0.05 mg/kg) or anxiogenic (0.8 mg/kg) doses of NIC in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and lateral septal (LSN) nucleus; 2) to study the possible involvement of GABAB receptors on the neurochemical alterations and c-Fos expression induced by NIC (0.05 and 0.8 mg/kg), using both pharmacological (2-OH-saclofen) and genetic (mice GABAB1 knockout) approaches. The results revealed that in wild-type mice, NIC (0.05 mg/kg) increased the concentration of 5-HT and 5-HIAA (p < 0.05) in the DRN, and NIC (0.8 mg/kg) increased the levels of 5-HT (p < 0.01) and NA (p < 0.05) in the LSN. Additionally, 2-OH-saclofen pretreatment (1 mg/kg, ip) or the lack of GABAB receptors abolished these neurochemical changes induced by NIC (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). On the other hand, NIC 0.05 and 0.8 mg/kg increased (p < 0.01) the c-Fos expression in the DRN and LSN respectively, in wild-type mice. In addition, 2-OH-saclofen pretreatment (1 mg/kg, ip) or the lack of GABAB receptors prevented the c-Fos alterations induced by NIC (p < 0.01). In summary, both approaches show that GABAB receptors would participate in the modulation of anxiolytic- and anxiogenic-like responses induced by NIC, suggesting the potential therapeutic target of these receptors for the tobacco addiction treatment. PMID:24486711

Varani, Andrés P; Pedrón, Valeria T; Bettler, Bernhard; Balerio, Graciela N

2014-06-01

344

CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska-Native tobacco users  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Gene variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4, which encode for the ?5, ?3 and ?4 nicotinic receptor subunits, are associated with altered smoking behaviors in European-Americans. Little is known about CHRNA5-A3-B4 and its association with smoking behaviors and weight in Alaska-Native people, which is a population with high prevalence but low levels of tobacco consumption, extensive smokeless tobacco use, and high rates of obesity. We investigated CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype structure and its association with nicotine intake and obesity in Alaska-Native people. Design, Setting, Participants A cross sectional study of 400 Alaska-Native individuals including 290 tobacco users. Measurements CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype, body weight, and tobacco consumption biomarkers such as plasma cotinine and urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE). Findings Alaska-Native people have a distinct CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype structure compared with European/African-Americans. In 290 Alaska-Native tobacco users, the ‘G’ allele of rs578776, which tagged a 30kb haplotype in CHRNA5-A3-B4, was prevalent (16%) and significantly associated with nicotine intake (20% higher plasma cotinine, P<0.001, 16% higher TNE, P=0.076), while rs16969968 was not associated with nicotine intake. Rs578776 acted in combination with CYP2A6, the main nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, to increase nicotine intake by 1.8 fold compared with the low risk group (P<0.001). Furthermore rs2869950, a single nucleotide polymorphism 5? to CHRNB4, was significantly associated with increased body mass index (P<0.01) in the tobacco users even after controlling for differences in nicotine intake (P<0.01). Conclusions Genetic variants in CHRNA5-A3-B4 alter nicotine intake and body mass index in a population of Alaska-Native people, who have a distinct haplotype structure, smoking behaviors and prevalence of obesity. PMID:23692359

Zhu, Andy Z.X.; Renner, Caroline C.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.

2013-01-01

345

Differences in prevalence of seasonal affective disorder that are not explained by either genetic or latitude differences.  

PubMed

The prevalence of winter SAD was measured in two groups of a(lult Manitobans of wholly Icelandic (lescent, 210 resident in Winnipeg (50 degrees N) and 252 resident in the nearby Interlake district (50.5 degrees N), using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). These groups live practically at the same latitude and are according to all indications genetically identical. The age-and-sex-standardized prevalence rates of winter SAD proved to be markedly higher in the Winnipeg population than in the Interlake population: 4.8% and 1.2% (p<0.001), respectively. This four-fold dif ference is evidently unexplained by genetic factors or a difference in latitude; its causes have yet to be discovered. PMID:12002942

Axelsson, Jóhann; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur; Karlsson, Mikael M

2002-02-01

346

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility in chicken to develop the Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), also referred to as ascites syndrome, is a growth-related disorder of chickens frequently observed in fast-growing broilers with insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity at low temperature and\\/or at high altitude. A cross between two genetically different broiler dam lines that originated from the White Plymouth Rock breed was used to produce a three-generation population. This population was

T. S. K. M. Rabie; R. P. M. A. Crooijmans; H. Bovenhuis; A. L. J. Vereijken; A. Veenendaal; Poel van der J. J; Arendonk van J. A. M; A. Pakdel; M. A. M. Groenen

2005-01-01

347

Genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R affect multiple sclerosis disease risk and progression.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. Previous studies have associated genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R in the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we describe the association between IL2RA (rs2104286) and IL7R (rs6897932) in the Canadian population. Genotyping 1,978 MS patients and 830 controls failed to identify any significant association between these variants and disease risk. However, stratified analysis for family history of disease and disease course identified a trend towards association for IL2RA in patients without a family history (p?=?0.05; odds ratio?=?0.77) and a significant association between IL7R and patients who developed progressive MS (PrMS) (p?=?0.002; odds ratio?=?0.73). Although not statistically significant, the effect of IL2RA (rs2104286) in patients without a family history of MS indicates that the genetic components for familial and sporadic disease are perhaps distinct. This data suggests that the onset of sporadic disease is likely determined by a large number of variants of small effect, whereas MS in patients with a family history of disease is caused by a few deleterious variants. In addition, the significant association between PrMS and rs6897932 indicates that IL7R may not be disease-causing but a determinant of disease course. Further characterization of the effect of IL2RA and IL7R genetic variants in defined MS subtypes is warranted to evaluate the effect of these genes on specific clinical outcomes and to further elucidate the mechanisms of disease onset and progression. PMID:24770783

Traboulsee, Anthony L; Bernales, Cecily Q; Ross, Jay P; Lee, Joshua D; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

2014-08-01

348

Genetic Deletion of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Alters Emotional Behavior and Serotonergic Transmission in the Dorsal Raphe, Prefrontal Cortex, and Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological blockade of the anandamide-degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), produces CB1 receptor (CB1R)-mediated analgesic, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects in murids. Using behavioral and electrophysiological approaches, we have characterized the emotional phenotype and serotonergic (5-HT) activity of mice lacking the FAAH gene in comparison to their wild type counterparts, and their response to a challenge of the CB1R antagonist, rimonabant. FAAH null-mutant (FAAH?/?) mice exhibited reduced immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, predictive of antidepressant activity, which was attenuated by rimonabant. FAAH?/? mice showed an increase in the duration of open arm visits in the elevated plus maze, and a decrease in thigmotaxis and an increase in exploratory rearing displayed in the open field, indicating anxiolytic-like effects that were reversed by rimonabant. Rimonabant also prolonged the initiation of feeding in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. Electrophysiological recordings revealed a marked 34.68% increase in dorsal raphe 5-HT neural firing that was reversed by rimonabant in a subset of neurons exhibiting high firing rates (33.15% mean decrease). The response of the prefrontocortical pyramidal cells to the 5-HT2A/2C agonist (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane ((±)-DOI) revealed desensitized 5-HT2A/2C receptors, likely linked to the observed anxiolytic-like behaviors. The hippocampal pyramidal response to the 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY-100635, indicates enhanced tonus on the hippocampal 5-HT1A heteroreceptors, a hallmark of antidepressant-like action. Together, these results suggest that FAAH genetic deletion enhances anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects, paralleled by altered 5-HT transmission and postsynaptic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptor function. PMID:20571484

Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Cassano, Tommaso; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Katz, Noam; Walker, Claire Dominique; Piomelli, Daniele; Gobbi, Gabriella

2010-01-01

349

Temporal and Seasonal Changes of Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Altered Drug Susceptibility to Chloroquine, Lumefantrine, and Quinine in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2012.  

PubMed

In 2008, artemether-lumefantrine was introduced in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, but quinine has also been commonly prescribed for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regimen was used previously. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine, and quinine have been described. P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) K76T, pfmdr1 gene copy numbers, pfmdr1 polymorphisms N86Y and Y184F, and pfmdr1 sequences 1034 to 1246 were determined using PCR-based methods. Blood samples came from virtually all (n = 1,806) children <15 years of age who had uncomplicated P. falciparum monoinfection and presented at a health center in suburban Bissau (from 2003 to 2012). The pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y frequencies were stable, and seasonal changes were not seen from 2003 to 2007. Since 2007, the mean annual frequencies increased (P < 0.001) for pfcrt 76T (24% to 57%), pfmdr1 N86 (72% to 83%), and pfcrt 76 + pfmdr1 86 TN (10% to 27%), and pfcrt 76T accumulated during the high transmission season (P = 0.001). The pfmdr1 86 + 184 NF frequency increased from 39% to 66% (from 2003 to 2011; P = 0.004). One sample had two pfmdr1 gene copies. pfcrt 76T was associated with a lower parasite density (P < 0.001). Following the discontinuation of an effective chloroquine regimen, probably highly artemether-lumefantrine-susceptible P. falciparum (with pfcrt 76T) accumulated, possibly due to suboptimal use of quinine and despite a fitness cost linked to pfcrt 76T. (The studies reported here were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00137514 [PSB-2001-chl-amo], NCT00137566 [PSB-2004-paracetamol], NCT00426439 [PSB-2006-coartem], NCT01157689 [AL-eff 2010], and NCT01704508 [Eurartesim 2012].). PMID:25421474

Jovel, Irina Tatiana; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ursing, Johan

2015-02-01

350

Protective effects of ascorbic acid against the genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by 3,5-dimethylaminophenol in AA8 cells.  

PubMed

Exposure to monocyclic aromatic alkylanilines (MAAs), namely 2,6-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA), 3,5-dimethylaniline (3,5-DMA) and 3-ethylaniline (3-EA), was significantly and independently associated with bladder cancer incidence. 3,5-DMAP (3,5-dimethylaminophenol), a metabolite of 3,5-DMA, was shown to induce an imbalance in cytotoxicity cellular antioxidant/oxidant status, and DNA damage in mammalian cell lines. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of ascorbic acid (Asc) against the cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, genotoxicity and epigenetic changes induced by 3,5-DMAP in AA8 Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. In different cellular fractions, 3,5-DMAP caused alterations in the enzyme activities orchestrating a cellular antioxidant balance, decreases in reduced glutathione levels and a cellular redox ratio as well as increases in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. We also suggest that the cellular stress caused by this particular alkylaniline leads to both genetic (Aprt mutagenesis) and epigenetic changes in histones 3 and 4 (H3 and H4). This may further cause molecular events triggering different pathological conditions and eventually cancer. In both cytoplasm and nucleus, Asc provided increases in 3,5-DMAP-reduced glutathione levels and cellular redox ratio and decreases in the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Asc was also found to be protective against the genotoxic and epigenetic effects initiated by 3,5-DMAP. In addition, Asc supplied protection against the cell cycle (G1 phase) arrest induced by this particular alkylaniline metabolite. PMID:25178734

Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, P Nar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul L; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N

2014-09-01

351

Molecular genetics of growth and development in Populus (Salicaceae). V. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting leaf variation  

SciTech Connect

The genetic variation of leaf morphology and development was studied in the 2-yr-old replicated plantation of an interspecific hybrid pedigree of Populus trichocarpa T. & G. and P. deltoides Marsh. via both molecular and quantitative genetic methods. Leaf traits chosen showed pronounced differences between the original parents, including leaf size, shape, orientation, color, structure, petiole size, and petiole cross section. In the F{sub 2} generation, leaf traits were all significantly different among genotypes, but with significant effects due to genotype X crown-position interaction. Variation in leaf pigmentation, petiole length, and petiole length proportion appeared to be under the control of few quantitative trait loci (QTLs). More QTLs were associated with single leaf area, leaf shape, lamina angle, abaxial color, and petiole flatness, and in these traits the number of QTLs varied among crown positions. In general the estimates of QTL numbers from Wright`s biometric method were close to those derived from molecular markers. For those traits with few underlying QTLs, a single marker interval could explain from 30-60% of the observed phenotypic variance. For multigenic traits, certain markers contributed more substantially to the observed variation than others. Genetic cluster analysis showed developmentally related traits to be more strongly associated with each other than with unrelated traits. This finding was also supported by the QTL mapping. For example, the same chromosomal segment of linkage group L seemed to account for 20% of the phenotypic variation of all dimension-related traits, leaf size, petiole length, and midrib angle. In both traits, the P. deltoides alleles had positive effects and were dominant to the P. trichocarpa alleles. Similar relationships were also found for lamina angle, abaxial greenness, and petiole flatness. 72 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wu, R.; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr.; Stettler, R.F. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-02-01

352

Interplay between Genetic and Clinical Variables Affecting Platelet Reactivity and Cardiac Adverse Events in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention  

PubMed Central

Several clinical and genetic variables are associated with influencing high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR). The aim of the study was to propose a path model explaining a concurrent impact among variables influencing HTPR and ischemic events. In this prospective cohort study polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*17, ABCB1, PON1 alleles and platelet function assessed by Multiple Electrode Aggregometry were assessed in 416 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with clopidogrel and aspirin. The rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded during a 12-month follow up. The path model was calculated by a structural equation modelling. Paths from two clinical characteristics (diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndrome (ACS)) and two genetic variants (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17) independently predicted HTPR (path coefficients: 0.11 0.10, 0.17, and -0.10, respectively; p<0.05 for all). By use of those four variables a novel score for prediction of HTPR was built: in a factor-weighted model the risk for HTPR was calculated with an OR of 3.8 (95%CI: 3.1–6.8, p<0.001) for a score level of ?1 compared with a score of <1. While MACE was independently predicted by HTPR and age in the multivariate model (path coefficient: 0.14 and 0.13, respectively; p<0.05), the coexistence of HTPR and age ?75 years emerged as the strongest predictor of MACE. Our study suggests a pathway, which might explain indirect and direct impact of variables on clinical outcome: ACS, diabetes mellitus, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 genetic variants independently predicted HTPR. In turn, age ?75 years and HTPR were the strongest predictors of MACE. PMID:25051347

Siller-Matula, Jolanta M.; Lang, Irene M.; Neunteufl, Thomas; Kozinski, Marek; Maurer, Gerald; Linkowska, Katarzyna; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Kubica, Jacek; Jilma, Bernd

2014-01-01

353

Epigenetic alterations and autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Recent advances in epigenetics have enhanced our knowledge of how environmental factors (UV radiation, drugs, infections, etc.) contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases (AID) in genetically predisposed individuals. Studies conducted in monozygotic twins discordant for AID and spontaneous autoimmune animal models have highlighted the importance of DNA methylation changes and histone modifications. Alterations in the epigenetic pattern seem to be cell specific, as CD4+ T cells and B cells are dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus, synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral cells in multiple sclerosis. With regard to lymphocytes, the control of tolerance is affected, leading to the development of autoreactive cells. Other epigenetic processes, such as the newly described miRNAs, and post-translational protein modifications may also be suspected. Altogether, a conceptual revolution is in progress, in AID, with potential new therapeutic strategies targeting epigenetic patterns. PMID:25141262

Renaudineau, Y; Beauvillard, D; Padelli, M; Brooks, W H; Youinou, P

2011-10-01

354

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77:365376, 2005 Genomewide Linkage Study in 1,176 Affected Sister Pair Families  

E-print Network

Families Identifies a Significant Susceptibility Locus for Endometriosis on Chromosome 10q26 Susan A of Medical Research and 5 Queensland Endometriosis Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; 6 Oxagen, United Kingdom Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease that affects up to 10% of women

Nyholt, Dale R.

355

Sickle cell screening policies as portent: how will the human genome project affect public sector genetic services?  

PubMed Central

The Human Genome Project holds much promise for providing dramatic improvements in our understanding of and means to diagnose and treat many diseases. As this enormously important endeavor proceeds, research on ethical, legal, and social implications of this new science is being conducted to forecast problems and recommend policy option solutions to avoid what might otherwise become adverse consequences. Sickle cell screening is an example of a technology that was introduced in a manner that raised poignant issues. On the basis of sickle cell issues, we examined policy issues likely to occur as new genetic technologies are incorporated into medical practice. Discussion and development of a national consensus on the appropriate content and just delivery of public sector genetic services is vital; otherwise, the impact of Human Genome Project-derived technology may result in misadventures that amplify problems currently evident in newborn screening programs. New DNA-based diagnostic technologies and therapies will soon enter the stream of commerce. The recommendations offered here, while based on examination of sickle cell disease policies, are intended to address both current inequities as well as potential future issues related to stigmatization and distributive justice. PMID:8907815

Phoenix, D. D.; Lybrook, S. M.; Trottier, R. W.; Hodgin, F. C.; Crandall, L. A.

1995-01-01

356

Genetic loci affecting body weight and fatness in a C57BL/6J × PWK/PhJ mouse intercross  

PubMed Central

To determine the genetic variation that contributes to body composition in the mouse, we interbred a wild-derived strain (PWK/PhJ; PWK) with a common laboratory strain (C57BL/6J; B6). The parental, F1, and F2 mice were phenotyped at 18 weeks old for body weight and composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A total of 479 (244 male and 235 female) F2 mice were genotyped for 117 polymorphic markers spanning the autosomes. Twenty-eight suggestive or significant linkages for four traits (body weight, adjusted lean and fat weight, and percent fat) were detected. Of these, three QTLs were novel: one on the proximal portion of Chr 5 for body weight (Bwq8; LOD = 4.7), one on Chr 3 for lean weight (Bwtq13; LOD = 3.6), and one on Chr 11 for percent fat (Adip19; LOD = 5.8). The remaining QTLs overlapped previously identified linkages, e.g., Adip5 on Chr 9. One QTL was sex-specific (present in males only) and seven were sex-biased (more prominent in one sex than the other). Most alleles that increased body weight were contributed by the B6 strain, and most alleles that increased percent fat were contributed by the PWK strain. Eight pairs of interacting loci were identified, none of which exactly overlapped the main-effect QTLs. Many of the QTLs found in the B6 × PWK cross map to the location of previously reported linkages, suggesting that some QTLs are common to many strains (consensus QTLs), but three new QTLs appear to be particular to the PWK strain. The location and type of QTLs detected in this new cross will assist in future efforts to identify the genetic variation that determines the ratio of lean to fat weight as well as body size in mice. PMID:18008102

Shao, Hongguang; Reed, Danielle R.

2007-01-01

357

Genetic variations of TAP1 gene exon 3 affects gene expression and Escherichia coli F18 resistance in piglets.  

PubMed

Firstly, our research group identified Sutai pigs' phenotypes that exhibited extreme resistance and susceptibility to the Escherichia coli F18 respectively, and then eight ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) F18-resistant piglets and eight ETEC F18-sensitive piglets were selected. Then, the TAP1 (Transporter associated with antigen processing) mRNA relative expression levels were analyzed in 11 tissues of the resistant and susceptible phenotypes. Simultaneously, we detected the genetic variations in exon 3 of the TAP1 gene and evaluated the TAP1 mRNA expression levels among the different genotype pigs to study the effects of the genetic variation on gene expression, and the E. coli F18 resistance. The results revealed higher expression levels in the resistant genotypes than that in the susceptible genotypes in 11 tissues, with significant differences in the spleen, lymph node, lung, thymus, duodenum and jejunum. Furthermore, a G729A mutation was identified in the TAP1 gene exon 3, and this mutation deviates from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.01). The TAP1 mRNA levels in GG genotype were significantly higher than that in the other two genotypes, with significant differences in the liver, lung, kidney, thymus, lymph node, duodenum and jejunum tissues. We speculated that high expression of the TAP1 gene might confer resistance against the E. coli F18, the G729A mutation had a significant effect on the mRNA expression, and individuals with the GG genotype possessed a stronger ability to resist the E. coli F18 infection. PMID:24955792

Zhao, Qiaohui; Liu, Ying; Dong, Wenhua; Zhu, Shiping; Huo, Yongjiu; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

2014-01-01

358

Genetic Variations of TAP1 Gene Exon 3 Affects Gene Expression and Escherichia coli F18 Resistance in Piglets  

PubMed Central

Firstly, our research group identified Sutai pigs’ phenotypes that exhibited extreme resistance and susceptibility to the Escherichia coli F18 respectively, and then eight ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) F18-resistant piglets and eight ETEC F18-sensitive piglets were selected. Then, the TAP1 (Transporter associated with antigen processing) mRNA relative expression levels were analyzed in 11 tissues of the resistant and susceptible phenotypes. Simultaneously, we detected the genetic variations in exon 3 of the TAP1 gene and evaluated the TAP1 mRNA expression levels among the different genotype pigs to study the effects of the genetic variation on gene expression, and the E. coli F18 resistance. The results revealed higher expression levels in the resistant genotypes than that in the susceptible genotypes in 11 tissues, with significant differences in the spleen, lymph node, lung, thymus, duodenum and jejunum. Furthermore, a G729A mutation was identified in the TAP1 gene exon 3, and this mutation deviates from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.01). The TAP1 mRNA levels in GG genotype were significantly higher than that in the other two genotypes, with significant differences in the liver, lung, kidney, thymus, lymph node, duodenum and jejunum tissues. We speculated that high expression of the TAP1 gene might confer resistance against the E. coli F18, the G729A mutation had a significant effect on the mRNA expression, and individuals with the GG genotype possessed a stronger ability to resist the E. coli F18 infection. PMID:24955792

Zhao, Qiaohui; Liu, Ying; Dong, Wenhua; Zhu, Shiping; Huo, Yongjiu; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

2014-01-01

359

Agro-environmental effects due to altered cultivation practices with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape and implications for monitoring. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape or canola (Brassica napus L.) is at the forefront of being introduced into European agriculture. Concerns have been raised about how genetically modified\\u000a oilseed rape cultivation and the modified cropping practices might impair the agro-environment. The present review compiles\\u000a and categorises evidenced and potential agro-environmental effects of cultivating genetically modified oilseed rape and assesses\\u000a the

F. Graef

2009-01-01

360

Lysophosphatidic acid receptor activation affects the C13NJ microglia cell line proteome leading to alterations in glycolysis, motility, and cytoskeletal architecture  

PubMed Central

Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the CNS, are rapidly activated in response to injury and microglia migration towards and homing at damaged tissue plays a key role in CNS regeneration. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in signaling events evoking microglia responses through cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Here we show that human immortalized C13NJ microglia express LPA receptor subtypes LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 on mRNA and protein level. LPA activation of C13NJ cells induced Rho and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and enhanced cellular ATP production. In addition, LPA induced process retraction, cell spreading, led to pronounced changes of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced cell motility, which could be reversed by inhibition of Rho activity. To get an indication about LPA-induced global alterations in protein expression patterns a 2-D DIGE/LC-ESI-MS proteomic approach was applied. On the proteome level the most prominent changes in response to LPA were observed for glycolytic enzymes and proteins regulating cell motility and/or cytoskeletal dynamics. The present findings suggest that naturally occurring LPA is a potent regulator of microglia biology. This might be of particular relevance in the pathophysiological context of neurodegenerative disorders where LPA concentrations can be significantly elevated in the CNS. PMID:19899077

Bernhart, Eva; Kollroser, Manfred; Rechberger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Heinemann, Akos; Schratl, Petra; Hallström, Seth; Wintersperger, Andrea; Nusshold, Christoph; DeVaney, Trevor; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

361

Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss

In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

2005-01-01

362

Neuropeptide S alters anxiety, but not depression-like behaviour in Flinders Sensitive Line rats: a genetic animal model of depression.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behaviour in rodents. However, little knowledge is available regarding the NPS system in depression-related behaviours, and whether NPS also exerts anxiolytic effects in an animal model of psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize the effects of NPS on depression- and anxiety-related parameters, using male and female rats in a well-validated animal model of depression: the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We found that FSL showed greater immobility in the forced swim test (FST) than FRL, confirming their phenotype. However, NPS did not affect depression-related behaviour in any rat line. No significant differences in baseline anxiety levels between the FSL and FRL strains were observed, but FSL and FRL rats displayed less anxiety-like behaviour compared to SD rats. NPS decreased anxiety-like behaviour on the elevated plus-maze in all strains. The expression of the NPSR in the amygdala, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and hippocampus was equal in all male strains, although a trend towards reduced expression within the amygdala was observed in FSL rats compared to SD rats. In conclusion, NPS had a marked anxiolytic effect in FSL, FRL and SD rats, but did not modify the depression-related behaviour in any strain, in spite of the significant differences in innate level between the strains. These findings suggest that NPS specifically modifies anxiety behaviour but cannot overcome/reverse a genetically mediated depression phenotype. PMID:21708052

Wegener, Gregers; Finger, Beate C; Elfving, Betina; Keller, Kirsten; Liebenberg, Nico; Fischer, Christina W; Singewald, Nicolas; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Mathé, Aleksander A

2012-04-01

363

Overfeeding and genetics affect the composition of intestinal microbiota in Anas platyrhynchos (Pekin) and Cairina moschata (Muscovy) ducks.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of overfeeding on the ileal and cecal microbiota of two genotypes of ducks (Pekin and Muscovy), high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used. The ducks were overfed for 12 days with 58% maize flour and 42% maize grain. Samples were collected before the overfeeding period (at 12 weeks), at 13 weeks, at 14 weeks, and 3 h after feeding. In parallel, ducks fed ad libitum were killed at the same ages. Whatever the digestive segment, the genotype, and the level of intake, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the dominant phyla in the bacterial community of ducks (at least 80%). Before overfeeding, ileal samples were dominated by Bacilli, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia classes (? 70%), and cecal samples, by Bacteroidia and Clostridia classes (around 90%) in both Pekin and Muscovy ducks. The richness and diversity decreased in the ileum and increased in the ceca after overfeeding. Overfeeding triggers major changes in the ileum, whereas the ceca are less affected. Overfeeding increased the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Enterococcaceae families in the ileum, whereas genotype affects particularly three families: Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae in the ceca. PMID:24102552

Vasaï, Florian; Brugirard Ricaud, Karine; Bernadet, Marie Dominique; Cauquil, Laurent; Bouchez, Olivier; Combes, Sylvie; Davail, Stéphane

2014-01-01

364

Deep Sequencing of the Nicastrin Gene in Pooled DNA, the Identification of Genetic Variants That Affect Risk of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Nicastrin is an obligatory component of the ?-secretase; the enzyme complex that leads to the production of A? fragments critically central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analyses of the effects of common variation in this gene on risk for late onset AD have been inconclusive. We investigated the effect of rare variation in the coding regions of the Nicastrin gene in a cohort of AD patients and matched controls using an innovative pooling approach and next generation sequencing. Five SNPs were identified and validated by individual genotyping from 311 cases and 360 controls. Association analysis identified a non-synonymous rare SNP (N417Y) with a statistically higher frequency in cases compared to controls in the Greek population (OR 3.994, CI 1.105–14.439, p?=?0.035). This finding warrants further investigation in a larger cohort and adds weight to the hypothesis that rare variation explains some of genetic heritability still to be identified in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21364883

Lupton, Michelle K.; Proitsi, Petroula; Danillidou, Makrina; Tsolaki, Magda; Hamilton, Gillian; Wroe, Richard; Pritchard, Megan; Lord, Kathryn; Martin, Belinda M.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Harold, Denise; Hollingworth, Paul; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

2011-01-01

365

Few colonies of the host Bombus terrestris disproportionately affect the genetic diversity of its parasite, Crithidia bombi.  

PubMed

Sex and recombination have long been considered as necessary means for hosts to keep up with and resist to their faster reproducing parasites. On the other hand, comparatively little attention has been paid to potential benefits of recombination for the parasites. Using as model organisms the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its genetically highly variable trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi we analysed the infection dynamics as well as the relative frequency of parasite recombinants over time, in colonies that were either immune-challenged with heat-killed bacteria or sham-inoculated. In addition, we used infective cells from a given colony to infect workers from other, untreated colonies, to investigate whether recombinant parasite strains may have a competitive advantage over the parental strains to infect the surrounding host population. We show that in our experimental setup the host immune status does not influence the proportion of recombinant parasite cells in the infection. Neither do recombinant parasite strains have an advantage over the parental ones at infecting workers unrelated to the host colony the infection originally came from. However, we found that the prevalence of recombinants was highly variable among colonies, with one particular colony producing significantly more recombinant strains than others. As the successful infection of daughter queens--the only individuals surviving the winter to the next year--is proportional to the number of circulating parasite strains in the colony, we suggest that such "super-producing" colonies may be responsible for most of the infections happening in the next year. PMID:24263111

Cisarovsky, Gabriel; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2014-01-01

366

Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed.  

PubMed

Flight speed is a predictive indicator of cattle temperament and is associated with feed efficiency phenotypes. Genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with selection of calmer animals with improved economic value. A preliminary genome-wide association study determined chromosomal regions on BTA9, and 17 were associated with flight speed. The genes quaking (QKI), glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 (GRIA2) and glycine receptor ? (GLRB) were identified in these regions as potential functional candidates. Beef steers (n = 1057) were genotyped with SNPs located within and flanking these genes. One SNP located near QKI and one near GRIA2 were nominally associated with flight speed (P ? 0.05) although neither was significant after Bonferroni correction. Several studies have shown a correlation between flight speed and feed intake or gain; therefore, we also analyzed SNPs on BTA6:38-39 Mb known to be associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) for association with flight speed. Several SNPs on BTA6 were associated with flight speed (P ? 0.005), and three were significant after Bonferroni correction. These results suggest that the genes tested are unlikely to contribute to flight speed variation for our cattle population, but SNPs on BTA6 associated with ADG and ADFI may influence temperament. Use of these markers to select for economically important feed efficiency phenotypes may produce cattle with more desirable temperaments. PMID:25515066

Lindholm-Perry, A K; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C; Snelling, W M

2015-02-01

367

An F1 genetic screen for maternal-effect mutations affecting embryonic pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

Large-scale screens for female-sterile mutations have revealed genes required maternally for establishment of the body axes in the Drosophila embryo. Although it is likely that the majority of components involved in axis formation have been identified by this approach, certain genes have escaped detection. This may be due to (1) incomplete saturation of the screens for female-sterile mutations and (2) genes with essential functions in zygotic development that mutate to lethality, precluding their identification as female-sterile mutations. To overcome these limitations, we performed a genetic mosaic screen aimed at identifying new maternal genes required for early embryonic patterning, including zygotically required ones. Using the Flp-FRT technique and a visible germline clone marker, we developed a system that allows efficient screening for maternal-effect phenotypes after only one generation of breeding, rather than after the three generations required for classic female-sterile screens. We identified 232 mutants showing various defects in embryonic pattern or morphogenesis. The mutants were ordered into 10 different phenotypic classes. A total of 174 mutants were assigned to 86 complementation groups with two alleles on average. Mutations in 45 complementation groups represent most previously known maternal genes, while 41 complementation groups represent new loci, including several involved in dorsoventral, anterior-posterior, and terminal patterning. PMID:15166158

Luschnig, Stefan; Moussian, Bernard; Krauss, Jana; Desjeux, Isabelle; Perkovic, Josip; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

2004-01-01

368

Genetic Analysis of Dystrophin Gene for Affected Male and Female Carriers with Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy in Korea  

PubMed Central

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutation in dystrophin gene. We analyzed the results of a genetic test in 29 DMD/BMD patients, their six female relatives, and two myopathic female patients in Korea. As the methods developed, we applied different procedures for dystrophin gene analysis; initially, multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used, followed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Additionally, we used direct DNA sequencing for some patients who had negative results using the above methods. The overall mutation detection rate was 72.4% (21/29) in DMD/BMD patients, identifying deletions in 58.6% (17/29). Most of the deletions were confined to the central hot spot region between exons 44 and 55 (52.9%, 7/19). The percentage of deletions and duplications revealed by MLPA was 45.5% (5/11) and 27.2% (3/11), respectively. Using the MLPA method, we detected mutations confirming their carrier status in all female relatives and symptomatic female patients. In one patient in whom MLPA revealed a single exon deletion of the dystrophin gene, subsequent DNA sequencing analysis identified a novel nonsense mutation (c.4558G > T; Gln1520X). The MLPA assay is a useful quantitative method for detecting mutation in asymptomatic or symptomatic carriers as well as DMD/BMD patients. PMID:22379338

Lee, Bo Lyun; Nam, Sook Hyun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Ki, Chang Seok; Lee, Munhyang

2012-01-01

369

Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto  

PubMed Central

Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

2013-01-01

370

Expression of a yeast-derived invertase in developing cotyledons of Vicia narbonensis alters the carbohydrate state and affects storage functions.  

PubMed

In plants the carbohydrate state provides signals to adjust metabolism to specific physiological conditions. Storage-active sink organs like seeds often contain high levels of sucrose. In order to change the sugar status during seed development a yeast-derived invertase gene was expressed in Vicia narbonensis under control of the LeguminB4 promoter. A signal sequence targeted the invertase to the apoplast in maturing embryos. In the cotyledons, sucrose was decreased whereas hexoses strongly accumulated. There was a major reduction of starch whereas proteins were less affected. Vacuoles of cotyledon cells were enlarged and dry seeds wrinkled. Transcripts and enzyme activity of sucrose synthase, the small and large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase as well as vicilin were downregulated. Sucrose phosphate synthase and legumin-mRNAs were not affected. Analysing single seeds with different sucrose levels revealed a positive correlation of sucrose concentration to mRNA levels of sucrose synthase and most pronounced to ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase-mRNA levels as well as to starch content. Glucose on the other hand did not show any correlation. After feeding 14C-sucrose in vitro, the invertase-expressing cotyledons partitioned less carbon into starch compared to the wild-type. In the transgenic cotyledons, a relatively higher amount was directed into proteins compared to starch. We conclude that starch accumulation in developing cotyledons could be a function of sucrose concentration. Our results are consistent with a possible sucrose-mediated induction of storage-associated differentiation indicated by upregulation of specific genes of the starch synthesis pathway. PMID:9839463

Weber, H; Heim, U; Golombek, S; Borisjuk, L; Manteuffel, R; Wobus, U

1998-10-01

371

Genome-wide association mapping and biochemical markers reveal that seed ageing and longevity are intricately affected by genetic background and developmental and environmental conditions in barley.  

PubMed

Globally, over 7.4 million accessions of crop seeds are stored in gene banks, and conservation of genotypic variation is pivotal for breeding. We combined genetic and biochemical approaches to obtain a broad overview of factors that influence seed storability and ageing in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Seeds from a germplasm collection of 175 genotypes from four continents grown in field plots with different nutrient supply were subjected to two artificial ageing regimes. Genome-wide association mapping revealed 107 marker trait associations, and hence, genotypic effects on seed ageing. Abiotic and biotic stresses were found to affect seed longevity. To address aspects of abiotic, including oxidative, stress, two major antioxidant groups were analysed. No correlation was found between seed deterioration and the lipid-soluble tocochromanols, nor with oil, starch and protein contents. Conversely, the water-soluble glutathione and related thiols were converted to disulphides, indicating a strong shift towards more oxidizing intracellular conditions, in seeds subjected to long-term dry storage at two temperatures or to two artificial ageing treatments. The data suggest that intracellular pH and (bio)chemical processes leading to seed deterioration were influenced by the type of ageing or storage. Moreover, seed response to ageing or storage treatment appears to be significantly influenced by both maternal environment and genetic background. PMID:25328120

Nagel, Manuela; Kranner, Ilse; Neumann, Kerstin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Seal, Charlotte E; Colville, Louise; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Börner, Andreas

2014-10-18

372

Evaluation of Animal Genetic and Physiological Factors That Affect the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Controlling the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle at the pre-harvest level is critical to reduce outbreaks of this pathogen in humans. Multilayers of factors including the environmental and bacterial factors modulate the colonization and persistence of E. coli O157 in cattle that serve as a reservoir of this pathogen. Here, we report animal factors contributing to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle. We observe the lowest number of E. coli O157 in Brahman breed when compared with other crosses in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd, and bulls excrete more E. coli O157 than steers in the pens where cattle were housed together. The presence of super-shedders, cattle excreting >105 CFU/rectal anal swab, increases the concentration of E. coli O157 in the pens; thereby super-shedders enhance transmission of this pathogen among cattle. Molecular subtyping analysis reveal only one subtype of E. coli O157 in the multibreed herd, indicating the variance in the levels of E. coli O157 in cattle is influenced by animal factors. Furthermore, strain tracking after relocation of the cattle to a commercial feedlot reveals farm-to-farm transmission of E. coli O157, likely via super-shedders. Our results reveal high risk factors in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle whereby animal genetic and physiological factors influence whether this pathogen can persist in cattle at high concentration, providing insights to intervene this pathogen at the pre-harvest level. PMID:23405204

Jeon, Soo Jin; Elzo, Mauricio; DiLorenzo, Nicolas; Lamb, G. Cliff; Jeong, Kwang Cheol

2013-01-01

373

Genetic polymorphisms regulating dopamine signaling in the frontal cortex interact to affect target detection under high working memory load  

PubMed Central

Frontal-dependent task performance is typically modulated by dopamine (DA) according to an inverted-U pattern, whereby intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizes performance. Numerous studies implicate trait differences in DA signaling based on differences in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in executive function task performance. However, little work has investigated genetic variations in DA signaling downstream from COMT. One candidate is the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which mediates signaling through the DA D1-type receptor, the dominant DA receptor in the frontal cortex. Using an n-back task, we used signal detection theory to measure performance in a healthy adult population (n=97) genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COMT (rs4680) and DARPP-32 (rs907094) genes. Correct target detection (hits), and false alarms were used to calculate d' measures for each working memory load (0-, 2-, and 3-back). At the highest load (3-back) only, we observed a significant COMT×DARPP-32 interaction, such that the DARPP-32 T/T genotype enhanced target detection in COMTValVal individuals, but impaired target detection in COMTMet carriers. These findings suggest that enhanced dopaminergic signaling via the DARPP-32 T allele aids target detection in individuals with presumed low frontal DA (COMTValVal) but impairs target detection in those with putatively higher frontal DA levels (COMTMet carriers). Moreover, these data support an inverted-U model with intermediate levels of DA signaling optimizing performance on tasks requiring maintenance of mental representations in working memory. PMID:24144248

Smith, Christopher T.; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

2013-01-01

374

Recent advances in molecular genetics of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is among the most common tumors affecting women. It is characterized by a number of genetic aberrations. Some 5-10% of cases are thought to be inherited. The hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome includes genetic alterations of various susceptibility genes, particularly BRCA1 and BRCA2. Breast tumors of patients with germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have

Krešimir Paveli?; Koraljka Gall-Trošelj

2001-01-01

375

Altered Xylem-Phloem Transfer of Amino Acids Affects Metabolism and Leads to Increased Seed Yield and Oil Content in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport and metabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic and metabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. PMID:21075769

Zhang, Lizhi; Tan, Qiumin; Lee, Raymond; Trethewy, Alexander; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Tegeder, Mechthild

2010-01-01

376

Genetic evidence for three discrete taxa of Melampsora (Pucciniales) affecting willows (Salix spp.) in New York State.  

PubMed

Rust fungi in the genus Melampsora (Pucciniales) are the most important pathogens of shrub willows (Salix spp.) cultivated for biomass in New York State and temperate regions worldwide. The taxonomy and species identification of these fungi historically have been problematic as they are morphologically indistinguishable on willow and often have complex life histories. Melampsora of Salix in North America, therefore, have been circumscribed to the collective species Melampsora epitea Thüm. and further delineated to formae speciales by aecial host. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data was obtained from 75 collections/isolates of Melampsora in NY State affecting either native and cultivated Salix spp. or suspected alternate hosts. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian (BI) analyses were conducted on three data partitions (individual and concatenated): complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences for all collections. Analyses of the ITS and concatenated ITS-LSU sequences revealed that Melampsora on native and cultivated willows in NY State consisted of three phylogenetically delineable taxa (phylotaxa); monophyly for each phylotaxon was strongly supported by ML, MP, and BI credibility values. Phylotaxa were also delimited phylogenetically by aecial host: Alpine currant (Ribes alpinum), eastern larch (Larix laricina), or balsam fir (Abies balsamea). PMID:25110133

Kenaley, Shawn C; Smart, Lawrence B; Hudler, George W

2014-08-01

377

Assessment of Premutation in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Affected Family Members by TP-PCR and Genetic Counseling  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat located in the 3?-UTR of (DMPK) the DM protein kinase gene. Patients with DM1 have expansions of greater than 50 repeats and up to many thousands. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the utility of TP-PCR in diagnostics as well as the assessment of premutation carriers in proband families. Twenty-seven DM1 cases were enrolled (from twenty-six families) and the 13 families of these cases came forward for family screening. The patient group constitute 22 males and 5 females and the average age of onset was 32.8 years (range 17 to 52). All clinically diagnosed DM1 cases and their family members DNA samples were analyzed by TP-PCR. All the cases were found to be positive for the CTG repeat expansion. Among those five families, four had at least an asymptomatic carrier. In the remaining one family other than the proband none was found to be neither affected nor asymptomatic. We reconfirmed the utility of PCR based screening for DM1 as being reliable and rapid molecular test and it should be used as an initial screening test for all patients with DM and their family members for initial screening purpose. PMID:24715907

Kumar, Ashok; Agarwal, Sarita; Pradhan, Sunil

2014-01-01

378

Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise

2014-01-01

379

[Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. An electroclinical and genetic description of a Norwegian family with ten affected members].  

PubMed

We describe a Norwegian family with clusters of brief nocturnal motor seizures with hyperkinetic or tonic manifestations. Seizures started in childhood. Neurological examination and neuroimaging were normal. Interictal EEG registrations were mostly normal, ictal EEG registrations disclosed left frontal epileptiform discharges in two of three patients examined and just shallow arousal preceding the attack in one of the three patients. Segregation analysis indicated an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and the patients were subsequently diagnosed as having autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, a disorder first described in 1995. A missense mutation in the gene for the alpha-4 subunit of the neuronal nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor was recently described in an Australian family with this disorder. Our Norwegian family proved to have a novel insertion mutation (776ins3) in the same gene. This mutation affects the second transmembrane domain (M2) which forms the critical section of the ion channel. This is the first case of idiopathic partial epilepsy where the underlying molecular defect has been found. The fact that a dysfunction of the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor may give rise to frontal epileptic seizures was surprising and may shed new light on the basic mechanisms of epileptogenesis. Manipulations of the cholinergic system may open up a new therapeutic approach. PMID:9528368

Nakken, K O; Magnusson, A; Steinlein, O K

1998-02-20

380

Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues.  

PubMed

Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), blend (FB) (55% T, 35% SFO and 10% LO) and fish oil (FO) blend (40% FO and 60% LO). Pigs were slaughtered at 100 kg BW and autopsies from liver, adipose tissue and muscle semimembranousus were collected for qPCR. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundances of genes related to lipogenesis were modified due to dietary treatments in both liver (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) and adipose tissue (fatty acid synthase (FASN), ACACA and SCD), but were not affected in semimembranousus muscle. In the liver, the mRNA abundances of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes were highest in pigs fed HOSF and lowest in pigs fed FO. In adipose tissue, the mRNA abundances were highest in pigs fed the NF diet and lowest in pigs fed T. The study demonstrated that dietary FAs stimulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression differently in liver, fat and muscles tissues. PMID:22444377

Duran-Montgé, P; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Esteve-Garcia, E

2009-04-01

381

How Early Events Affect Growing Brains. An Interview with Neuroscientist Pat Levitt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in neuroscience show clearly how experience can change brain neurochemicals, and how this in turn affects the way the brain functions. As a result, early negative events actually get built into the growing brain's neurochemistry, altering the brain's architecture. Research is continuing to investigate how children with genetic

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

382

Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1? , DJ-1? , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular mechanism of response to changes in gravity with a phenotypical outcome. Characterizing the changes in altered gravity that are consequential for the overall physiology of organisms is crucial for assessing the risks of long-term space travel.

Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

2012-07-01

383

Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered