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Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.  


Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems. PMID:25636347

Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A



Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

Traci Warkentin



Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

Traci Warkentin


Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands and Joost P Schanstra*  

E-print Network

1 Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands Genetically Engineered Animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end stage renal.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00486.x #12;2 Short title Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

Phillips, John



Genetically engineered foods  


... or animals) inserted into their genetic codes. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or microorganisms. ... desired characteristics more common or more pronounced. Genetic engineering allows scientists to speed this process up by ...


Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.


Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt


Using Genetically Engineered Animal Models in the Postgenomic Era to Understand Gene Function in Alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044

Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio



Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille  

E-print Network

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism or recombinant DNA technology. In biomedical sciences, genetically modified animals are typically generated

Sibille, Etienne


A Review and Rationale for the Use of Genetically Engineered Animals in the Study of Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms underlying secondary cell death after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood. Animal models of TBI recapitulate many clinical and pathologic aspects of human head injury, and the development of genetically engineered animals has offered the opportunity to investigate the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with cell dysfunction and death after TBI, allowing for the evaluation of

Luca Longhi; Kathryn E. Saatman; Ramesh Raghupathi; Helmut L. Laurer; Philipp M. Lenzlinger; Peter Riess; Edmund Neugebauer; John Q. Trojanowski; Virginia M.-Y. Lee; M. Sean Grady; David I. Graham; Tracy K. McIntosh



Zinc-finger nucleases: a powerful tool for genetic engineering of animals.  


The generation of genetically modified animals or plants with gene-targeted deletions or modifications is a powerful tool to analyze gene function, study disease and produce organisms of economical interest. Until recently, the generation of animals with gene targeted manipulations has been accomplished by homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells or cloning through nuclear transfer and has been limited to a few species. Recently, a new technology based on the use of gene-targeted zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) was developed and used for the generation of organisms with gene-targeted deletions and/or modifications when combined with HR. ZFNs have been used to generate modified organisms such as plants, Drosophila, zebra fish and rats with gene-targeted mutations. This perspective manuscript is a short review on the use of ZFNs for the genetic engineering of plants and animals, with particular emphasis on our recent work involving rats. We also discuss the application of other targeted nucleases, including homing endonucleases. Microinjection of plasmid or mRNA for ZFNs into rat embryos allowed targeted, rapid, complete, permanent and heritable disruption of endogenous loci. The application of ZFNs to generate gene-targeted knockouts in species where ES cells or cloning techniques are not available is an important new development to answer fundamental biological questions and develop models of economical interest such as for the production of humanized antibodies. Further refinements of ZFN technology in combination with HR may allow knock-ins in early embryos even in species where ES cells or cloning techniques are available. PMID:19821047

Rémy, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Ménoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Anegon, Ignacio



The emergence of the genetically engineered animal models in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: a case study of process innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explain the emergence of new short-term tests for carcinogenicity involving genetically engineered animals for the purposes of pharmaceutical regulation. Drawing on some long-standing theories of technological innovation, we argue that the alteration of carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals, which occurred from 1998, did not result solely, or perhaps even mainly, from internal logical and technical developments

John Abraham; Rachel Ballinger



Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Discovery Education website serves as a repository of instructional materials for educators seeking to help their charges learn about everything from the solar system to genetically modified organisms. This particular lesson plan deals with the science and technology of genetic engineering and it is intended to be used by advanced high school and community college students. Users will appreciate the fact that the entire plan is well-organized and divided into 12 sections including Objectives, Discussion Questions, and Procedures. The Discussion Questions are thoughtful and well-articulated and one can imagine that each query might generate more than a bit of meditation and close consideration.

Morrissette-Johnson, Winona


Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,


Genetic Engineering & Xenotransplantation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article about xenotransplantation, or transplanting organs/tissues from other species to humans, offers hope to Type I diabetes sufferers because: insulin-producing tissue in animals (islets) has been isolated in tests, some human trials were successful with transplanted islets from human cadavers, and genetic engineering could create a 'super' islet that will survive after xenotransplantation.

Shane Grey (Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Australia; )



Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general look at the process of crop genetic engineering.This is the first of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. The six lessons after this are DNA and DNA Extraction, Gene Cloning, Gene Regions, Gene Modification, Gene Gun, and Backcross Breeding.


Genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

This series reviews new developments in recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Each volume consists of 3 - 4 mini-reviews. Volume 7 contains two articles on aspects of molecular parasitology and one review on gene expression in animal cells of biotechnological interest.

Rigby, P.



Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this




Myocardial and cerebral perfusion studies in animal models S65 In-vivo phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models  

E-print Network

of genetically engineered mouse models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is established by combining BT Sclerosis (ALS)(1). Carmeliet mice expressing a SOD1G93A transgene (established mouse,UK). Intravenous in- jection of Gd-DTPA (0.2mmol/kg,Schering) during a single slice multi experiment GE

Jegelka, Stefanie


Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.



[Applications of genetically modified animals].  


The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

Houdebine, Louis-Marie



Genetic engineering and pharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering now allows biological synthesis and large-scale production of several proteins with therapeutic potential. The principal challenge in this sphere is to identify new, medically and commercially significant targets - the province of cell biologists, physiologists and biochemists. In the future, genetic engineering will surely provide invaluable tools for the study of the molecular basis of cellular control and pathophysiology, which will permit biochemists and medicinal chemists to design novel medicines.

Vane, John; Cuatrecasas, Pedro



Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The disclosed embodiments provide cyanobacteria spp. that have been genetically engineered to have increased production of carbon-based products of interest. These genetically engineered hosts efficiently convert carbon dioxide and light into carbon-based products of interest such as long chained hydrocarbons. Several constructs containing polynucleotides encoding enzymes active in the metabolic pathways of cyanobacteria are disclosed. In many instances, the cyanobacteria strains have been further genetically modified to optimize production of the carbon-based products of interest. The optimization includes both up-regulation and down-regulation of particular genes.

Zhou, Ruanbao (Inventor); Gibbons, William (Inventor)



Genetic modification of animals in the next century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the initial demonstration in 1982 of profound phenotypic effects stemming from the expression of a single transgene, genetic engineering has revolutionized fundamental biological and biomedical research. The application of transgenic technology to farm animals has held the promise of being able to improve animal agriculture significantly and has resulted in a new industry, i.e., the successful expression of foreign

J. D Murray



[Bioethics in genetic engineering].  


The advances in the field of molecular biology and genetics have widened the possibilities for the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary diseases. At the same time research into this field has broken bounds of its legal and ethical regulation. The intention of this paper is not to analyze these advances from scientific and technical point of view which is the area of the specialist, but rather to review historical antecedents of genetic engineering; the legal and ethical repercussions of the human genome project (HGP); in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (FIVET); the embryo research which is being caused out and which may be possible; other fields of genetics and cloning especially germinal cells and human beings; genetic diagnosis and its family, social and work repercussions; treatment through genetic engineering, research into cloning in order to obtain organs and tissues for transplants; and the use of genetic engineering in the biomedical industry. To avoid these advances working against humans, the organization and participation of multidisciplinary bodies are required to provide legal and ethical supervision. PMID:11885124

Gutiérrez-Samperio, César



Expanding the Genetic Code of an Animal  

PubMed Central

Genetic code expansion, for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins, is currently limited to cultured cells and unicellular organisms. Here we expand the genetic code of a multicellular animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:21819153



Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.




Paper Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.


Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.



Genetic engineering and the patent office  

SciTech Connect

Higher life forms created through genetic engineering are now recognized as potentially patentable. On 7 April 1987, the US Patent and Trademark Office announced that it now considers non-naturally occurring non-human multi-cellular living organisms, including animals, to be patentable subject matter. The response to this announcement has been an emotion controversy centering on the patent office. The announcement has become the lightning rod for all of the practical and moral questions surrounding the overwhelming potential of genetic engineering. Environmentalists claim that genetic engineering will ruin the ecology. The Humane Society of the US, headquartered in Washington, DC, claims that genetic engineering will cause undo suffering to animals produced through genetic experiments and may ultimately lead to the demise of overly engineered animal species. Religious fundamentalists claim that genetic engineering is wrongfully tinkering with the handiwork of the Almighty. While it may be good that such questions are being raised, the patent office is being wrongly singled out as the source of the problem. This paper discusses the legal problems that patents on new lifeforms have caused.

Sheldon, J.G.; Anderson, D.L.



Safe genetically engineered plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.



Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Its Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how engineers apply their understanding of DNA to manipulate specific genes to produce desired traits, and how engineers have used this practice to address current problems facing humanity. They learn what genetic engineering means and examples of its applications, as well as moral and ethical problems related to its implementation. Students fill out a flow chart to list the methods to modify genes to create GMOs and example applications of bacteria, plant and animal GMOs.



Genetically Engineered Food AD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Lana Hays N:Hays; Lana ORG:Saint Henry District High School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD




E-print Network

GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING P. J. FLEMING R. C. PURSHOUSE Department. 789 May 2001 #12;Genetic algorithms in control systems engineering P. J. Fleming and R. C. Purshouse of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering University of Sheffield Sheffield, S1 3JD UK Research Report No

Coello, Carlos A. Coello


Deciphering the genetic basis of animal domestication  

PubMed Central

Genomic technologies for livestock and companion animal species have revolutionized the study of animal domestication, allowing an increasingly detailed description of the genetic changes accompanying domestication and breed development. This review describes important recent results derived from the application of population and quantitative genetic approaches to the study of genetic changes in the major domesticated species. These include findings of regions of the genome that show between-breed differentiation, evidence of selective sweeps within individual genomes and signatures of demographic events. Particular attention is focused on the study of the genetics of behavioural traits and the implications for domestication. Despite the operation of severe bottlenecks, high levels of inbreeding and intensive selection during the history of domestication, most domestic animal species are genetically diverse. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. The major insights from the surveyed studies are highlighted and directions for future study are suggested. PMID:21885467

Wiener, Pamela; Wilkinson, Samantha



Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.  


This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

Wells, Dominic J



Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

Boone, C. Keith



University Students' Knowledge and Attitude about Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering and biotechnology made possible of gene transfer without discriminating microorganism, plant, animal or human. However, although these scientific techniques have benefits, they cause arguments because of their ethical and social impacts. The arguments about ethical ad social impacts of biotechnology made clear that not only getting basic knowledge about biotechnology and genetic engineering, also ethical and social issues

Nilay Keskin Samanci; Orçun Bozkurt


Genetically Engineered Food: The Science Behind the  

E-print Network

Genetically Engineered Food: The Science Behind the Controversy Toby Bradshaw Washington Research that you: · Know more, and perhaps worry less, about the genetic engineering (GE) of food plants · Know;Genetically engineered (GE) or genetically modified (GM)? · Genetic engineering -- Intentional transfer

Bradshaw, Toby


Genetic Approaches to Modeling Anxiety in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anxiety disorders are a growing health problem world-wide. However, the causative factors, etiology, and underlying mechanisms\\u000a of anxiety disorders, as for most psychiatric disorders, remain relatively poorly understood. The current status of clinical\\u000a research indicates that anxiety traits and anxiety disorder in man have a genetic component, and therefore genetic modeling\\u000a in animals is a logical approach to gain a

Laura H. Jacobson; John F. Cryan


77 FR 41350 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce Stearidonic Acid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...been genetically engineered to produce stearidonic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid not found in conventional soybean, is no longer...



Naturalness and the genetic modification of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years it has been recognised that so-called intrinsic concerns about genetic modification (GM) of plants and animals, for food in particular, have an important role in the public perception of GM. One of these concerns is the view that GM is ‘unnatural’. This article gives an overview of the often conflicting views on the argument of

Henk Verhoog



Environmental risks of genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Before release into commerce, genetically engineered organisms are first assessed for possible risks, including risks to the\\u000a environment. The present paper first identifies the environmental risks recognized by regulators, and reviews the parameters\\u000a considered predictive of risk. Recent field-scale studies suggest opportunities for improvement of the environmental risk\\u000a assessment process. Risks unique to genetically engineered crops – if any –

E. Ann Clark



Animal Models for Adipose Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Abstract There is a critical need for adequate reconstruction of soft tissue defects resulting from tumor resection, trauma, and congenital abnormalities. To be sure, adipose tissue engineering strategies offer promising solutions. However, before clinical translation can occur, efficacy must be proven in animal studies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of animal models currently employed for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:18544014

Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Beahm, Elisabeth; Frye, Cindy



Photothermal Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Optical methods for manipulation of cellular function have enabled deconstruction of genetic and neural circuits in vitro and in vivo. Plasmonic gold nanomaterials provide an alternative platform for external optical ...

Deisseroth, Karl


Genetic Engineering Workshop Report, 2010  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies (TMT) program. The high-level goal of TMT is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve this goal, there is a need to assess the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, potential application as well as detection and mitigation strategies. LLNL was tasked to coordinate a workshop to determine the scope of investments that DTRA should make to stay current with the rapid advances in genetic engineering technologies, so that accidental or malicious uses of GE technologies could be adequately detected and characterized. Attachment A is an earlier report produced by LLNL for TMT that provides some relevant background on Genetic Engineering detection. A workshop was held on September 23-24, 2010 in Springfield, Virginia. It was attended by a total of 55 people (see Attachment B). Twenty four (44%) of the attendees were academic researchers involved in GE or bioinformatics technology, 6 (11%) were from DTRA or the TMT program management, 7 (13%) were current TMT performers (including Jonathan Allen and Tom Slezak of LLNL who hosted the workshop), 11 (20%) were from other Federal agencies, and 7 (13%) were from industries that are involved in genetic engineering. Several attendees could be placed in multiple categories. There were 26 attendees (47%) who were from out of the DC area and received travel assistance through Invitational Travel Orders (ITOs). We note that this workshop could not have been as successful without the ability to invite experts from outside of the Beltway region. This workshop was an unclassified discussion of the science behind current genetic engineering capabilities. US citizenship was not required for attendance. While this may have limited some discussions concerning risk, we felt that it was more important for this first workshop to focus on the scientific state of the art. We also consciously chose to not dwell on matters of policy (for example, screening of commercial gene or oligo synthesis orders), as multiple other forums for policy discussion have taken place in recent years. We acknowledge that other workshops on topics relevant to genetic engineering should be held, some of which may need to take place at higher classification levels. The workshop moderators would like to acknowledge the enthusiastic participation of the attendees in the discussions. Special thanks are given to Sofi Ibrahim, for his extensive assistance on helping this report reach its final form. The genetic engineering workshop brought together a diverse mix of genetic engineering pioneers and experts, Federal agency representatives concerned with abuses of genetic engineering, TMT performers, bioinformatics experts, and representatives from industry involved with large-scale genetic engineering and synthetic biology. Several talks established the current range of genetic engineering capabilities and the relative difficulties of identifying and characterizing the results of their use. Extensive discussions established a number of recommendations to DTRA of how to direct future research investments so that any mis-use of genetic engineering techniques can be promptly identified and characterized.

Allen, J; Slezak, T



"Genetically Engineered" Nanoelectronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantum mechanical functionality of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared-photodetectors (QWIPs), quantum well lasers, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) is enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The design and optimization of such devices requires a fundamental understanding of electron transport in such dimensions. The Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO) is a general-purpose quantum device design and analysis tool based on a fundamental non-equilibrium electron transport theory. NEW was combined with a parallelized genetic algorithm package (PGAPACK) to evolve structural and material parameters to match a desired set of experimental data. A numerical experiment that evolves structural variations such as layer widths and doping concentrations is performed to analyze an experimental current voltage characteristic. The genetic algorithm is found to drive the NEMO simulation parameters close to the experimentally prescribed layer thicknesses and doping profiles. With such a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment design synthesis can be performed.

Klimeck, Gerhard; Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.; Stoica, Adrian; Cwik, Thomas



Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.  


The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research. PMID:25063426

Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S



Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.



Organic agriculture versus genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objections of organic agriculture against genetic engineering as presented in the 2002 Position Statement of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) are analysed. The objections can be grouped into three categories: risks to human health and the environment, socio-ethical objections, and incompatibility with the principles of sustainable agriculture. As to threats to human health and the environment

H. Verhoog



Genetic Engineering for Modern Agriculture  

E-print Network

Genetic Engineering for Modern Agriculture: Challenges and Perspectives Ron Mittler1,2 and Eduardo such as drought, heat, or salinity cause exten- sive losses to agricultural production worldwide. Progress climatic changes are but a few of the challenges facing modern agriculture. A combination of approaches

Blumwald, Eduardo


Genetically engineered livestock: ethical use for food and medical models.  


Recent advances in the production of genetically engineered (GE) livestock have resulted in a variety of new transgenic animals with desirable production and composition changes. GE animals have been generated to improve growth efficiency, food composition, and disease resistance in domesticated livestock species. GE animals are also used to produce pharmaceuticals and as medical models for human diseases. The potential use of these food animals for human consumption has prompted an intense debate about food safety and animal welfare concerns with the GE approach. Additionally, public perception and ethical concerns about their use have caused delays in establishing a clear and efficient regulatory approval process. Ethically, there are far-reaching implications of not using genetically engineered livestock, at a detriment to both producers and consumers, as use of this technology can improve both human and animal health and welfare. PMID:25387117

Garas, Lydia C; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A




E-print Network

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic Purity of Seed Stocks KENT J yield. Seeds carry the genetic traits incorporated by years of breeding and selection to create quality. The genetic purity of seeds (i.e., the percentage of contamination by seeds or genetic material

Bradford, Kent



E-print Network

MILESTONES LEADING TO THE GENETIC ENGINEERING OF BACULOVIRUSES AS EXPRESSION VECTOR SYSTEMS and Infection VI. Genetically Engineered Viral Pesticides A. Development of Genetically Engineered Baculovirus, therapeutics, and diagnostics. The genetic engineering of the baculovirus polyhedrin gene promoter

Summers, Max D.


Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso



Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations  

E-print Network

Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations Fred W. Allendorf1,2,3 , Phillip R. England4~o, Portugal 6 Division of Population Genetics, Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, S-10691 of population subdivision, loss of genetic variation, and selective genetic changes. To sustain the productivity


Genetic Programming Evolution of Controllers for 3D Character Animation  

E-print Network

Genetic Programming Evolution of Controllers for 3­D Character Animation Larry Gritz James K. Hahn Pixar Animation Studios 1001 W. Cutting Blvd. Richmond, CA 94804 The George Washington character animation requires an animator to specify the values for all degrees of freedom of an articulated

Fernandez, Thomas


Molecular Genetics of Ubiquinone Biosynthesis in Animals  

PubMed Central

Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q (CoQ), is a redox-active lipid present in all cellular membranes where it functions in a variety of cellular processes. The best known functions of UQ are to act as a mobile electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and to serve as a lipid soluble antioxidant in cellular membranes. All eukaryotic cells synthesize their own UQ. Most of the current knowledge on the UQ biosynthetic pathway was obtained by studying Escherichia coli and S. cerevisiae UQ-deficient mutants. The orthologues of all the genes known from yeast studies to be involved in UQ biosynthesis have subsequently been found in higher organisms. Animal mutants with different genetic defects in UQ biosynthesis display very different phenotypes, despite the fact that in all these mutants the same biosynthetic pathway is affected. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the eukaryotic biosynthesis of UQ, with focus on the biosynthetic genes identified in animals, including C. elegans, rodents and humans. Moreover, we review the phenotypes of mutants in these genes and discuss the functional consequences of UQ deficiency in general. PMID:23190198

Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried



Genetically engineered plants: environmental issues  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant DNA technology and the universality of the genetic code make it possible to transfer genes from other organisms including those in other phyla, into plants. Cultivating genetically engineered crop plants might pose two environmental risks: negative environmental effects of a modified genotype itself and the possible movement of that unique DNA to other organisms. In order to properly assess which experiments should be done and under what conditions an overseeing group is needed, a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) overseeing group could gather reviewers familiar with the issues of DNA technology and could assert jurisdiction over the independently run state agricultural organisations. A group of reputable scientists in the appropriate fields could analyse the scientific issues.

Hauptli, H.; Newell, N.; Goodman, R.M.



Genetically Engineered Microelectronic Infrared Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A genetic algorithm is used for design of infrared filters and in the understanding of the material structure of a resonant tunneling diode. These two components are examples of microdevices and nanodevices that can be numerically simulated using fundamental mathematical and physical models. Because the number of parameters that can be used in the design of one of these devices is large, and because experimental exploration of the design space is unfeasible, reliable software models integrated with global optimization methods are examined The genetic algorithm and engineering design codes have been implemented on massively parallel computers to exploit their high performance. Design results are presented for the infrared filter showing new and optimized device design. Results for nanodevices are presented in a companion paper at this workshop.

Cwik, Tom; Klimeck, Gerhard



Genetic Engineering Challenge - Preventing Vitamin A Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Genetic Engineering Challenge - How can scientists develop a type of rice that could prevent vitamin A deficiency?" is an analysis and discussion activity. This activity begins with an introduction to vitamin A deficiency, rice seeds, and genetic engineering. Next, several questions challenge students to design a basic plan that could produce a genetically engineered rice plant that makes rice grains that contain pro-vitamin A. Subsequent information and questions guide students in developing an understanding of the basic techniques of genetic engineering. Students use fundamental molecular biology concepts as they think about how to solve a practical problem. This activity can be used to introduce students to genetic engineering or to reinforce basic understanding of genetic engineering.

Ingrid Waldron


The animal farm philosophy of genetic discrimination.  


The paper by Dr. Gregor Wolbring addresses the issue of genetic discrimination from disabled people's rights perspective asking a) what the interpretation of genetic discrimination and the scope of Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposals is and b) whether the scope and interpretation of genetic discrimination and Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposal lead to more protection for-or increased discrimination against- disabled people" PMID:15832807

Wolbring, Gregor



Phytoremediation of Organomercurial Compounds via Chloroplast Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg), especially in organic form, is a highly toxic pollutant affecting plants, animals, and man. In plants, the primary target of Hg damage is the chloroplast; Hg inhibits electron transport and photosynthesis. In the present study, chloroplast genetic engineering is used for the first time to our knowledge to enhance the capacity of plants for phyto- remediation. This was

Oscar N. Ruiz; Hussein S. Hussein; Norman Terry; Henry Daniell



Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae  

PubMed Central

Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization. PMID:24710110

Rasala, Beth A.; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J.; Mayfield, Stephen P.



Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.  


Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

Müntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wüstenhagen, T



Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.



V.: A genetic engineering approach to genetic algorithms  

E-print Network

We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard GA, it provides some computational advantages as well as a tool for automatic generation of hierarchical genetic representations specifically tailored to suit certain classes of problems.

John S. Gero; Vladimir Kazakov


Genetic animal models of dystonia: common features and diversities.  


Animal models are pivotal for studies of pathogenesis and treatment of disorders of the central nervous system which in its complexity cannot yet be modeled in vitro or using computer simulations. The choice of a specific model to test novel therapeutic strategies for a human disease should be based on validity of the model for the approach: does the model reflect symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment response present in human patients? In the movement disorder dystonia, prior to the availability of genetically engineered mice, spontaneous mutants were chosen based on expression of dystonic features, including abnormal muscle contraction, movements and postures. Recent discovery of a number of genes and gene products involved in dystonia initiated research on pathogenesis of the disorder, and the creation of novel models based on gene mutations. Here we present a review of current models of dystonia, with a focus on genetic rodent models, which will likely be first choice in the future either for pathophysiological or for preclinical drug testing or both. In order to help selection of a model depending on expression of a specific feature of dystonia, this review is organized by symptoms and current knowledge of pathogenesis of dystonia. We conclude that albeit there is increasing need for research on pathogenesis of the disease and development of improved models, current models do replicate features of dystonia and are useful tools to develop urgently demanded treatment for this debilitating disorder. PMID:25034123

Richter, Franziska; Richter, Angelika



Reproductive biotechnologies and management of animal genetic resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global awareness has increased efforts to conserve animal genetic resources (AnGR). Ex-situ conservation and management of AnGR is exclusively dependent upon an array of reproductive and genetic biotechnologies. These technologies range from well established protocols, e.g., cryopreservation of sper...


Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits  

E-print Network

species; teat count and litter size in pigs, and milk production and somatic cell count in dairy cows, and was found to be favorable for litter size, but unfavorable for teat count. Keywords: Quantitative genetics heterogeneity of residual variance, double hierarchical generalized linear models, teat count in pigs, litter



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript is a brief review of the challenges and approaches for selecting livestock for disease resistance. Animal health and well being have become increasingly important issues for producers and consumers. Pathogens have often evolved into strains resistant to common vaccines and antibioti...


Genetically engineered crops: from idea to product.  


Genetically engineered crops were first commercialized in 1994 and since then have been rapidly adopted, enabling growers to more effectively manage pests and increase crop productivity while ensuring food, feed, and environmental safety. The development of these crops is complex and based on rigorous science that must be well coordinated to create a plant with desired beneficial phenotypes. This article describes the general process by which a genetically engineered crop is developed from an initial concept to a commercialized product. PMID:24579994

Prado, Jose Rafael; Segers, Gerrit; Voelker, Toni; Carson, Dave; Dobert, Raymond; Phillips, Jonathan; Cook, Kevin; Cornejo, Camilo; Monken, Josh; Grapes, Laura; Reynolds, Tracey; Martino-Catt, Susan



Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper



Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

Sinsheimer, Robert L.



Pertussis toxins, other antigens become likely targets for genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

Genetically engineered pertussis vaccines have yet to be fully tested clinically. But early human, animal, and in vitro studies indicate effectiveness in reducing toxic effects due to Bordetella pertussis. The licensed pertussis vaccines consists of inactivated whole cells of the organism. Although highly effective, they have been associated with neurologic complications. While the evidence continues to mount that these complications are extremely rare, if they occur at all, it has affected the public's acceptance of pertussis immunization.

Marwick, C.



Genetic engineering and the use of bovine somatotropin  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade there has been an unfortunate reappearance in our society of an antitechnology and antiscience attitude. This is exemplified by those advocates who would ban all animals in research and block fetal tissue studies and by those who support creationism. An especially vocal group consists of those people who are against any form of genetic engineering regardless of the benefits or potential benefits that might be realized.

Grossman, C.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA) Xavier Univ., Cincinnati, OH (USA))



Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

E-print Network

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Ivan ion channels as well, and introduce the genetically engineered, light-controlled nAChR (Lin proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light- sensitive ligands, innately `blind

Trauner, Dirk



E-print Network

MULTIPLE CRITERIA GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND OPERATION A Thesis Submitted. Pratyush Sen Department of Marine Technology UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE #12; Multiple Criteria Genetic of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to multiple criteria problems in engineering design and operation. The GA

Coello, Carlos A. Coello


Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from the blood of patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer these cells to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will then be multiplied and infused into the patients to fight their cancer.


Genetically caused retarded growth in animals.  


Growth process of animals is regulated by a multitude of physiological pathways among which components of the somatotropic axis play a key role. A number of severe, simply inherited growth disturbances have been identified in humans, laboratory and farm animals. These disorders are controlled by defective alleles at major loci referring to hormones or hormone receptors, e.g. growth hormone receptor for the recessive sex-linked dwarfism (dw) in chickens and the recessive autosomal Laron-type dwarfism in man, and growth hormone releasing hormone receptor for the recessive "little" mutation (lit) in mice. Apart from these particular cases, growth rate is a quantitative polygenic trait which has a moderate heritability (close to 0.30) and is influenced by prenatal and postnatal maternal effects. Increase in the average coefficient of inbreeding in a population is also known to result in lower growth rate. Divergent selection experiments have shown that upward or downward selection on growth is effective, sometimes with asymmetrical responses, but patterns of changes in underlying physiological traits appear to differ among experiments. PMID:11025190

Sellier, P



Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. PMID:24741309

Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; MacKay, J Andrew



Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint


Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle  

PubMed Central

There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492



Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tutorial and overview of genetic algorithms for electromagnetic optimization. Genetic-algorithm (GA) optimizers are robust, stochastic search methods modeled on the concepts of natural selection and evolution. The relationship between traditional optimization techniques and the GA is discussed. Step-by-step implementation aspects of the GA are detailed, through an example with the objective of providing useful guidelines for

J. Michael Johnson; V. Rahmat-Samii



Genetic Engineering of Probiotic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the advent of the era of genomics and proteomics, the molecular mechanisms of beneficial characteristics of probiotics\\u000a are gradually being elucidated. These studies while paving the way for concrete evidence of the beneficial effects of probiotics\\u000a have also lead to the idea of improved probiotics through genetic modification. Genetically Modified (GM) probiotics are mainly\\u000a concerned with the improved survival

T. C. Bamunuarachchige; H. A. M. Wickramasinghe; D. M. J. C. Dissanayaka; N. A. D. Wickramarathna


Recent Trends in Grapevine Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the former edition, genetic engineering was described as a powerful tool for plant breeding and research. In two chapters\\u000a (Colova-Tsolova et al. 2001, Kikkert et al. 2001), applications to grapevine breeding and genetics, transformation methods,\\u000a selection and regeneration systems for transgenic grapevines and the current status of grapevine transformation projects were\\u000a comprehensively described. In addition strategies for disease and

G. M. Reustle; G. Buchholz


Genetic Engineering of Allergens: Future Therapeutic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of allergens for specific immunotherapy should aim at the production of modified molecules with reduced IgE-binding epitopes (hypoallergens), while preserving structural motifs necessary for T cell recognition (T cell epitopes) and for induction of IgG antibodies reactive with the natural allergen (blocking antibodies). Common approaches for engineering of hypoallergens usually require knowledge of T and B cell epitopes

Fátima Ferreira; Michael Wallner; Heimo Breiteneder; Arnulf Hartl; Josef Thalhamer; Christof Ebner



Of mice and microflora: considerations for genetically engineered mice.  


The phenotype of genetically engineered mice is a combination of both genetic and environmental factors that include the microflora of the mouse. The impact a particular microbe has on a mouse reflects the host-microbe interaction within the context of the mouse genotype and environment. Although often considered a confounding variable, many host-microbe interactions have resulted in the generation of novel model systems and characterization of new microbial agents. Microbes associated with overt disease in mice have been the historical focus of the laboratory animal medical and pathology community and literature. The advent of genetic engineering and the complex of mouse models have revealed previously unknown or disregarded agents that now oblige the attention of the biomedical research community. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate how phenotypes can be affected by microflora by focusing on the infectious diseases present in genetically engineered mouse (GEM) colonies of our collective institutions and by reviewing important agents that are rarely seen in most research facilities today. The goal is to introduce the concept of the role of microflora on phenotypes and in translational research using GEM models. PMID:22173977

Treuting, P M; Clifford, C B; Sellers, R S; Brayton, C F



DNA marker technology: a revolution in animal genetics.  


The development of DNA-based markers has had a revolutionary impact on gene mapping and, more generally, on all of animal and plant genetics. With DNA-based markers, it is theoretically possible to exploit the entire diversity in DNA sequence that exists in any cross. For this reason, high resolution genetic maps are being developed at an unprecedented speed. The most commonly used DNA-based markers include those based on a cloned and (usually) sequenced DNA fragment and other, more random, assays for genetic polymorphism that can be grouped under the heading of fingerprint markers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various marker types are discussed, along with their application to the reference chicken genetic linkage maps and to the search for quantitative trait loci (QTL). The prospects for the use of DNA-based markers in marker-assisted selection are considered, along with likely future trends in poultry gene mapping. Further development of both physical and linkage genome maps of the chicken will allow animal scientists to more efficiently detect and characterize QTL and will provide them access to the wealth of genetic information that is being generated about the human genome and the genomes of model species, such as the mouse and Drosophila. PMID:9251136

Dodgson, J B; Cheng, H H; Okimoto, R



Animal Models for Vascular Tissue-Engineering  

PubMed Central

Due to rise in cardiovascular disease throughout the world, there is increasing demand for small diameter blood vessels as replacement grafts. The present review focuses on the animal models that have been used to test small-diameter TEVs with emphasis on the attributes of each model. Small animal models are used to test short-term patency and address mechanistic hypotheses; and large, pre-clinical animal models are employed to test long-term patency, remodeling and function in an environment mimicking human physiology. We also discuss recent clinical trials that employed laboratory fabricated TEVs and showed very promising results. Ultimately, animal models provide a testing platform for optimizing vascular grafts before clinical use in patients without suitable autologous vessels. PMID:23769861

Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.



Genetically engineered mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and motor neuron disease. Here we emphasize the use of genetically engineered mouse models that are instrumental for understanding why AD is a neuronal disease, and for validating attractive therapeutic targets. In motor neuron diseases, Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase and survival motor neuron

Huaibin Cai; David R. Borchelt; Donald L. Price; Philip C. Wong




Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In the past few years, in vivo technologies have emerged that, due to their efficiency and simplicity, may one day replace standard genetic engineering tech- niques. Constructs can be made on plasmids or directly on the Escherichia colichromo- some from PCR products or synthetic oligonucleotides by homologous recombination. This is possible because bacteriophage-encoded recombination functions efficiently re- combine

Donald L. Court; James A. Sawitzke; Lynn C. Thomason



Genetic engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremeditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation uses plants and associated microbes to remove, sequester, and detoxify contaminants, particularly trace elements. The great potential of this low-cost, low-management approach has spurred researchers to increase the efficiency of this natural process through the use of genetic engineering. Plants used for phytoremediation face a primary stress emanating from the high local concentrations of contaminants as well as possible



What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward



Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors  

PubMed Central

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940

Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten



Lecturers and Academic Staff: Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Lecturers and Academic Staff: Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Full-Time Total Technicians and Teaching Assistants The Departments of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering have a number and genetic engineering. Inthe very nearfuture it is seriously considering establishing a M~ters program


The value of animal models in predicting genetic susceptibility to complex diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time, genetic studies of complex diseases were most successfully conducted in animal models. However, the field of genetics is now rapidly evolving, and human genetics has also started to produce strong candidate genes for complex diseases. This raises the question of how to continue gene-finding attempts in animals and how to use animal models to enhance our

Emma Ahlqvist; Malin Hultqvist; Rikard Holmdahl



Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering.  

PubMed Central

Viruses have developed successful strategies for propagation at the expense of their host cells. Efficient gene expression, genome multiplication, and invasion of the host are enabled by virus-encoded genetic elements, many of which are well characterized. Sequences derived from plant DNA and RNA viruses can be used to control expression of other genes in vivo. The main groups of plant virus genetic elements useful in genetic engineering are reviewed, including the signals for DNA-dependent and RNA-dependent RNA synthesis, sequences on the virus mRNAs that enable translational control, and sequences that control processing and intracellular sorting of virus proteins. Use of plant viruses as extrachromosomal expression vectors is also discussed, along with the issue of their stability. PMID:8531885

Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J



Specific genetic modifications of domestic animals by gene targeting and animal cloning.  


The technology of gene targeting through homologous recombination has been extremely useful for elucidating gene functions in mice. The application of this technology was thought impossible in the large livestock species until the successful creation of the first mammalian clone "Dolly" the sheep. The combination of the technologies for gene targeting of somatic cells with those of animal cloning made it possible to introduce specific genetic mutations into domestic animals. In this review, the principles of gene targeting in somatic cells and the challenges of nuclear transfer using gene-targeted cells are discussed. The relevance of gene targeting in domestic animals for applications in bio-medicine and agriculture are also examined. PMID:14614774

Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jiangfeng



Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen.  


Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick



Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick



Genetic engineering: frost damage trial halted.  


The University of California at Berkeley has announced the postponement of a planned experiment involving the field testing of bacteria genetically engineered to reduce frost damage to crops. The action came after Jeremy Rifkin, who had earlier filed suit against the National Institutes of Health after its Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee had approved the experiment, threatened to seek a temporary restraining order against the university to halt the experiment. PMID:6578420

Budiansky, S


Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  


Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P



Genetic control of programmed cell death during animal development  

PubMed Central

The elimination by programmed cell death of ‘unwanted’ cells is a common feature of animal development. Genetic studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse have not only revealed the molecular machineries that cause the programmed demise of specific cells, but have also allowed us to get a glimpse of the types of pathways that regulate these machineries during development. Rather than giving a broad overview of programmed cell death during development, the current review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of specific programmed cell death events during nematode, fly and mouse development. These studies have revealed that many of the regulatory pathways involved have additional important roles in development, which confirms that the programmed cell death fate is an integral aspect of animal development. PMID:19886811

Conradt, Barbara



Economic evaluation for conservation of farm animal genetic resources.  


The decline in biodiversity of farm animal genetic resources (AnGR) has come to the forefront of concern in the discussion of animal conservation and breeding programmes. To improve decision-making regarding conservation and breeding programmes, a number of evaluation techniques of farm AnGR are available. This paper presents an overview of the different values associated to AnGR and of the techniques for their measurement being employed in the economic literature. Those include linear programming and farm simulation models, dynamic models estimating the value of research and development and econometric models estimating the demand for breed characteristics. While farm programming and simulation models are fairly well developed, they do have large data requirements. Alternatively, contingent valuation methods are available, in particular when the goal is to capture non-market values embedded in breeds. PMID:16060488

Roosen, J; Fadlaoui, A; Bertaglia, M



Estimating genetic parameters in natural populations using the "animal model".  

PubMed Central

Estimating the genetic basis of quantitative traits can be tricky for wild populations in natural environments, as environmental variation frequently obscures the underlying evolutionary patterns. I review the recent application of restricted maximum-likelihood "animal models" to multigenerational data from natural populations, and show how the estimation of variance components and prediction of breeding values using these methods offer a powerful means of tackling the potentially confounding effects of environmental variation, as well as generating a wealth of new areas of investigation. PMID:15306404

Kruuk, Loeske E B



Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria as biodiesel feedstock.  

SciTech Connect

Algal biofuels are a renewable energy source with the potential to replace conventional petroleum-based fuels, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The economic feasibility of commercial algal fuel production, however, is limited by low productivity of the natural algal strains. The project described in this SAND report addresses this low algal productivity by genetically engineering cyanobacteria (i.e. blue-green algae) to produce free fatty acids as fuel precursors. The engineered strains were characterized using Sandia's unique imaging capabilities along with cutting-edge RNA-seq technology. These tools are applied to identify additional genetic targets for improving fuel production in cyanobacteria. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates successful fuel production from engineered cyanobacteria, identifies potential limitations, and investigates several strategies to overcome these limitations. This project was funded from FY10-FY13 through the President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a program sponsored by the LDRD office at Sandia National Laboratories.

Ruffing, Anne M.; Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Jones, Howland D. T.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).


Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling  

E-print Network

Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling Jesper contained in the genetic circuit. A natural plan of attack is to use a forward engineering approach, wherebyDynamics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215; Division of Computational Biology

Babu, M. Madan


Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio



Genetic aspects of autism spectrum disorders: insights from animal models  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development, and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute toward the formation, stabilization, and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD. PMID:24605088

Banerjee, Swati; Riordan, Maeveen; Bhat, Manzoor A.



Dep. Of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Study plan(2005-2006)  

E-print Network

Dep. Of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Study plan(2005-2006) First semesterMicrobiology lab1 240216 or Con 240231Genetics3240107 240233Cell Biology3240107240232Genetics lab1 240232 240234Hu man Genetics2240231240352 Environmental Biotechnology 3240216 240335Cytogenetics1240234240471


Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.  


Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock feed in the developmental and regulatory pipelines. Additionally, advanced techniques to affect targeted genome modifications are emerging, and it is not clear whether these will be encompassed by the current GE process-based trigger for regulatory oversight. There is a pressing need for international harmonization of both regulatory frameworks for GE crops and governance of advanced breeding techniques to prevent widespread disruptions in international trade of livestock feedstuffs in the future. PMID:25184846

Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E



Philadelphia University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Philadelphia University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Haematology Syllabus-General Aspects 2 1 Types of Anemias 3, 4. 5 2 Genetic Disorders of Haemoglobin 6 3 Bone Marrow Disorders 7 2


Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others



Natural and Genetically Engineered Proteins for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

To overcome the limitations of traditionally used autografts, allografts and, to a lesser extent, synthetic materials, there is the need to develop a new generation of scaffolds with adequate mechanical and structural support, control of cell attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation and with bio-resorbable features. This suite of properties would allow the body to heal itself at the same rate as implant degradation. Genetic engineering offers a route to this level of control of biomaterial systems. The possibility of expressing biological components in nature and to modify or bioengineer them further, offers a path towards multifunctional biomaterial systems. This includes opportunities to generate new protein sequences, new self-assembling peptides or fusions of different bioactive domains or protein motifs. New protein sequences with tunable properties can be generated that can be used as new biomaterials. In this review we address some of the most frequently used proteins for tissue engineering and biomedical applications and describe the techniques most commonly used to functionalize protein-based biomaterials by combining them with bioactive molecules to enhance biological performance. We also highlight the use of genetic engineering, for protein heterologous expression and the synthesis of new protein-based biopolymers, focusing the advantages of these functionalized biopolymers when compared with their counterparts extracted directly from nature and modified by techniques such as physical adsorption or chemical modification. PMID:22058578

Gomes, Sílvia; Leonor, Isabel B.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.



Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.  


Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua



Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production  

PubMed Central

Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua



Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

Ramsey, Paul



Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Mitochondria are highly dynamic, multifunctional organelles. Aside from their major role in energy metabolism, they are also crucial for many cellular processes including neurotransmission, synaptic maintenance, calcium homeostasis, cell death, and neuronal survival. Significance: Increasing evidence supports a role for abnormal mitochondrial function in the molecular pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). For three decades we have known that mitochondrial toxins are capable of producing clinical parkinsonism in humans. PD is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by the progressive loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons leading to a deficiency of striatal dopamine. Although the neuropathology underlying the disease is well defined, it remains unclear why nigral dopaminergic neurons degenerate and die. Recent Advances: Most PD cases are idiopathic, but there are rare familial cases. Mutations in five genes are known to unambiguously cause monogenic familial PD: ?-synuclein, parkin, DJ-1, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). These key molecular players are proteins of seemingly diverse function, but with potentially important roles in mitochondrial maintenance and function. Cell and animal-based genetic models have provided indispensable tools for understanding the molecular basis of PD, and have provided additional evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction as a primary pathogenic pathway leading to the demise of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Critical Issues: Here, we critically discuss the evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in genetic animal models of PD, and evaluate whether abnormal mitochondrial function represents a cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. Future Directions: Mitochondria may represent a potential target for the development of disease-modifying therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 896–919. PMID:21848447

Trancikova, Alzbeta; Tsika, Elpida



Geomorphological implications of engineering bed sediments by lotic animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: < 10- 6- < 10- 15) for nine sediment variables describing baseflow and flood-induced sediment transport as well as sediment surface modifications. For example, bioturbator biomass and/or algal abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~ 70 and ~ 90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial sediments over three orders of magnitude and (ii) frequencies of mass transport events over five orders of magnitude. The fastest way to identify promising subsequent research routes in this field would be through a variety of abundance manipulations of lotic organisms (animals and plants having different mechanistic sediment-engineering abilities) in real rivers in combination with a simple approach to assess the critical shear stress in situ for varying types of sediments. This would require joint research by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists, and ecologists.

Statzner, Bernhard



Engineering control of airborne disease transmission in animal laboratories.  


We here present a review of the problem of controlling airborne disease transmission in animal research facilities, with emphasis on engineering design and air-treatment technologies. Dilution ventilation, pressurization control, source control, and air disinfection and removal systems are reviewed, and analytical studies on the effects of dilution ventilation, filtration, and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation are summarized. In addition, we discuss practical problems common to laboratory facilities and present a database of potential airborne pathogens and allergens that can be transmitted between humans and animals. We offer some conclusions regarding the design and selection of available technologies and components and provide cost estimates for various air-cleaning systems. PMID:12051655

Kowalski, W J; Bahnfleth, W P; Carey, D D



Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis. PMID:19687043

Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.



RNAi-Mediated Resistance to Viruses in Genetically Engineered Plants.  


RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a leading technology in designing genetically modified crops engineered to resist viral infection. The last decades have seen the development of a large number of crops whose inherent posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism has been exploited to target essential viral genes through the production of dsRNA that triggers an endogenous RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), leading to gene silencing in susceptible viruses conferring them with resistance even before the onset of infection. Selection and breeding events have allowed for establishing this highly important agronomic trait in diverse crops. With improved techniques and the availability of new data on genetic diversity among several viruses, significant progress is being made in engineering plants using RNAi with the release of a number of commercially available crops. Biosafety concerns with respect to consumption of RNAi crops, while relevant, have been addressed, given the fact that experimental evidence using miRNAs associated with the crops shows that they do not pose any health risk to humans and animals. PMID:25740357

Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Aragão, Francisco J L



Development of genetically engineered human sperm immunocontraceptives  

PubMed Central

Contraceptive vaccines targeting sperm are an exciting proposition. This review is focused on anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines and genetically engineered human antibodies that can be used as immunocontraceptives. Various methods of vaccinology and antibody engineering have been used to obtain multi-epitope contraceptive vaccines and human single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from immunoinfertile and vasectomized men. Contraceptive vaccines comprised of various sperm antigens, peptide epitopes or DNA have shown various degrees of reversible contraceptive effect in the mouse model and their efficacy is enhanced with the multi-epitope combination vaccine. Failure to achieve a complete fertility block is probably due to variability in the host immune response. Using phage display technology, our laboratory has synthesized in vitro at least four novel scFv antibodies with unique complementarity determining regions (CDRs) that react with specific fertility-related sperm antigens employing cDNA from immunoinfertile and vasectomized men. These antibodies inhibit human sperm function in vitro, and their immunocontraceptive effect in vivo is being investigated. If these human scFv antibodies block fertility in vivo they may provide unique and novel immunocontraceptives, a first-in-kind for human use. The multi-epitope contraceptive vaccines and preformed engineered antibodies of defined specificity may eliminate concern related to inter-individual variability of the immune response. PMID:19853924

Naz, Rajesh K.



Horizontal Gene Transfer - The Hidden Hazards of Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Transgenic pollen and baby bees Horizontal gene transfer may spread transgenes to the entire biosphere Genetic engineering is unregulated horizontal gene transfer Artificial vectors enhance horizontal gene transfer What are the hazards of horizontal gene transfer? Potential hazards of horizontal gene transfer from genetic engineering Transgenic DNA may be more likely to transfer horizontally than non-transgenic DNA Reasons to

Mae-wan Ho



E-print Network

1 CLASS 4.6: 05/01/07 GENETIC ENGINEERING A. Recombinant DNA: 1. Cloning a. Genetic engineering transgenic crop plants - Are lots of transgenic plants · Rice that makes · Corn that makes - Lots of concerns allele b. Protocol for gene targeting i. Modify the gene - make - clone it ii. Introduce the cloned DNA

Andres, Andrew


Future Forests: Forecasting Social and Ecological Consequences of Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering could result in a dramatic transformation of the forest products industry, increasing corporate economic power and concentrating timber production in those regions most suited to industrial-scale tree plantations. We briefly review arguments in favor of and in opposition to genetic engineering in forestry, and describe the constellation of forces promoting this technology. We then examine possible social consequences




Genospirituality: genetic engineering for spiritual and religious enhancement.  


The most frequently discussed role for genetic engineering is in relation to medicine, and a second area which provokes discussion is the use of genetic engineering as an enhancement technology. But one neglected area is the potential use of genetic engineering to increase human spiritual and religious experience - or genospirituality. If technologies are devised which can conveniently and safely engineer genes causal of spiritual and religious behaviours, then people may become able to choose their degree of religiosity or spiritual sensitivity. For instance, it may become possible to increase the likelihood of direct religious experience - i.e. 'revelation': the subjective experience of communication from the deity. Or, people may be able to engineer 'animistic' thinking, a mode of cognition in which the significant features of the world - such as large animals, trees, distinctive landscape features - are regarded as sentient and intentional beings; so that the individual experiences a personal relationship with the world. Another potentially popular spiritual ability would probably be shamanism; in which states of altered consciousness (e.g. trances, delirium or dreams) are induced and the shaman may undergo the experience of transformations, 'soul journeys' and contact with a spirit realm. Ideally, shamanistic consciousness could be modulated such that trances were self-induced only when wanted and when it was safe and convenient; and then switched-off again completely when full alertness and concentration are necessary. It seems likely that there will be trade-offs for increased spirituality; such as people becoming less 'driven' to seek status and monetary rewards - as a result of being more spiritually fulfilled people might work less hard and take more leisure. On the other hand, it is also possible that highly moral, altruistic, peaceable and principled behaviours might become more prevalent; and the energy and joyousness of the best churches might spread and be strengthened. Overall, genospirituality would probably be used by people who were unable to have the kind of spiritual or religious experiences which they wanted (or perhaps even needed) in order to lead the kind of life to which they aspired. PMID:18782654

Charlton, Bruce G



Genetically engineered immune privileged Sertoli cells  

PubMed Central

Sertoli cells are immune privileged cells, important for controlling the immune response to male germ cells as well as maintaining the tolerogenic environment in the testis. Additionally, ectopic Sertoli cells have been shown to survive and protect co-grafted cells when transplanted across immunological barriers. The survival of ectopic Sertoli cells has led to the idea that they could be used in cell based gene therapy. In this review, we provide a brief overview of testis immune privilege and Sertoli cell transplantation, factors contributing to Sertoli cell immune privilege, the challenges faced by viral vector gene therapy, the use of immune privileged cells in cell based gene therapy and describe several recent studies on the use of genetically engineered Sertoli cells to provide continuous delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:22553487

Kaur, Gurvinder; Long, Charles R.; Dufour, Jannette M.



Darwinian Programming and Engineering Design Using Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Darwinian Programming and Engineering Design Using Genetic Programming Forrest H Bennett III Genetic Programming Inc., Los Altos, California John R. Koza Department of Medicine on a biologically inspired domain-independent technique, called genetic programming, that automatically creates

Fernandez, Thomas


Agrobacterium: nature’s genetic engineer  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium was identified as the agent causing the plant tumor, crown gall over 100 years ago. Since then, studies have resulted in many surprising observations. Armin Braun demonstrated that Agrobacterium infected cells had unusual nutritional properties, and that the bacterium was necessary to start the infection but not for continued tumor development. He developed the concept of a tumor inducing principle (TIP), the factor that actually caused the disease. Thirty years later the TIP was shown to be a piece of a tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid excised by an endonuclease. In the next 20 years, most of the key features of the disease were described. The single-strand DNA (T-DNA) with the endonuclease attached is transferred through a type IV secretion system into the host cell where it is likely coated and protected from nucleases by a bacterial secreted protein to form the T-complex. A nuclear localization signal in the endonuclease guides the transferred strand (T-strand), into the nucleus where it is integrated randomly into the host chromosome. Other secreted proteins likely aid in uncoating the T-complex. The T-DNA encodes enzymes of auxin, cytokinin, and opine synthesis, the latter a food source for Agrobacterium. The genes associated with T-strand formation and transfer (vir) map to the Ti plasmid and are only expressed when the bacteria are in close association with a plant. Plant signals are recognized by a two-component regulatory system which activates vir genes. Chromosomal genes with pleiotropic functions also play important roles in plant transformation. The data now explain Braun’s old observations and also explain why Agrobacterium is nature’s genetic engineer. Any DNA inserted between the border sequences which define the T-DNA will be transferred and integrated into host cells. Thus, Agrobacterium has become the major vector in plant genetic engineering. PMID:25610442

Nester, Eugene W.



The economic valuation of farm animal genetic resources: a survey of available methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic erosion of domestic animal diversity has placed 30% of the world's breeds at risk of extinction, often as a result of government policy\\/programmes. Conservation and sustainable development of animal genetic resources (AnGR) require a broad focus that includes the many ‘adaptive’ breeds that survive well in the low external input agriculture typical of developing countries. Environmental economic valuation methodologies

Adam G. Drucker; Veronica Gomez; Simon Anderson



Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natalia I. Valeeva; R. Pakky; K. L. Zimmermann



Widespread phenotypic and genetic divergence along altitudinal gradients in animals.  


Altitudinal gradients offer valuable study systems to investigate how adaptive genetic diversity is distributed within and between natural populations and which factors promote or prevent adaptive differentiation. The environmental clines along altitudinal gradients tend to be steep relative to the dispersal distance of many organisms, providing an opportunity to study the joint effects of divergent natural selection and gene flow. Temperature is one variable showing consistent altitudinal changes, and altitudinal gradients can therefore provide spatial surrogates for some of the changes anticipated under climate change. Here, we investigate the extent and patterns of adaptive divergence in animal populations along altitudinal gradients by surveying the literature for (i) studies on phenotypic variation assessed under common garden or reciprocal transplant designs and (ii) studies looking for signatures of divergent selection at the molecular level. Phenotypic data show that significant between-population differences are common and taxonomically widespread, involving traits such as mass, wing size, tolerance to thermal extremes and melanization. Several lines of evidence suggest that some of the observed differences are adaptively relevant, but rigorous tests of local adaptation or the link between specific phenotypes and fitness are sorely lacking. Evidence for a role of altitudinal adaptation also exists for a number of candidate genes, most prominently haemoglobin, and for anonymous molecular markers. Novel genomic approaches may provide valuable tools for studying adaptive diversity, also in species that are not amenable to experimentation. PMID:24128377

Keller, I; Alexander, J M; Holderegger, R; Edwards, P J



Genetically engineered mice in understanding the basis of neonatal lung disease.  


Advances in genetic engineering have allowed the creation of animals with additional or deleted genes. New genes may be inserted in mice, specific genes inactivated or "knocked out," and more complex animals created in which genes can be turned on or off at different times in development or in different tissues. These animal models allow for more detailed studies of the proteins encoded by the manipulated gene, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases resulting from the genetic alterations, and model organisms in which to study potential new therapies. Multiple mouse models involving genes important in surfactant production and regulation relevant to lung disease observed in human newborns have been created. This review will discuss the creation of such animals and illustrate their utility in understanding human disease. PMID:17142160

Glasser, Stephan W; Nogee, Lawrence M



Contribution of genetics to the study of animal personalities: a review of case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for evolutionary studies on quantitative traits that integrate genetics is increasing. Studies on consistent individual differences in behavioural traits provide a good opportunity to do controlled experiments on the genetic mechanisms underlying the variation and covariation in complex behavioural traits. In this review we will highlight the contribution of genetic studies in animal personality research. We will start

C. H. J. van Oers; Gerdien de Jong; Arie J. van Noordwijk; B. Kempenaers; Pieter J. Drent



Genetically modified potato plants in nutrition and prevention of diseases in humans and animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) become a real constituent of our lives and nowadays, they are commonly introduced into the food chain of people and animals in some states. Among higher organisms, plants are used above all for genetic modifications; potatoes are a suitable model plants for this purpose. Nowa- days, a number of various genetic modifications of potato plants are




Towards Reverse Engineering of Genetic Regulatory Networks Zelmina Lubovac  

E-print Network

1 Towards Reverse Engineering of Genetic Regulatory Networks Zelmina Lubovac , Björn Olsson understanding of reverse engineering of regulatory networks. One of the aspects that have not been considered to a great extent in the development of reverse engineering approaches is combinatorial regulation

Chang, Joseph T.


Genetic Engineering and the Amelioration of Genetic Defect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the claims for a brave new world of genetic manipulation" and concludes that if we could agree upon applying genetic (or any other effective) remedies to global problems we probably would need no rescourse to them. Suggests that effective methods of preventing genetic disease are prevention of mutations and detection and containment of…

Lederberg, Joshua



Reversible gelation of genetically engineered macromolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering of protein-based polymers offers distinct advantages over conventional synthesis of polymers. Microorganisms can synthesize high molecular weight materials, in relatively large quantities, that are inherently stereoregular, monodisperse, and of controlled sequence. In addition, specific secondary and higher order structures are determined by this protein sequence. As a result, scientists can design polymers to have unique structural features found in natural protein materials and functional properties that are inherent in certain peptide sequences. For this reason, genetic engineering principles were used to create a set of artificial genes that encode twelve macromolecules having both alpha-helical and disordered coil protein sequences with the last amino acid being cysteine (cys) or tryptophan (trp). Triblock copolymer sequences having coiled-coil protein ends, A or B, where A and B represent alpha-helical acidic and basic leucine zipper proteins, separated by a water soluble flexible spacer coil protein, C, where C represents ((AG)sb3PEG) sbn (n = 10 or 28), showed reversible physical gelation behavior. This behavior is believed to result from the aggregation of two or more helices that form physical crosslinks with the disordered coil domain retaining solvent and preventing precipitation of the chain. Diffising wave spectroscopy was used to investigate the gelation behavior of ACsb{10}Acys in buffer when environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, and concentration were varied. The dynamic intensity autocorrelation function recorded over time for 5% (w/v) ACsb{10}Acys showed that the protein behaved as a gel at pH 6.7-8.0 and that the melting point was between 40sp°C and 48sp°C. In addition to the triblock results, the incorporation of 5sp',5sp',5sp'-trifluoroleucine (Tfl) in place of leucine (Leu) in the A and B blocks was accomplished by synthesizing proteins in bacterial hosts auxotrophic for Leu. The substitution of Tfl for Leu in A and B was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Amino acid analyses performed on purified Tfl A and Tfl B populations suggested 66% and 38% levels of Tfl substitution, respectively. Thermal denaturation temperatures measured by circular dichroism of the Tfl containing helices were higher than those of the corresponding Leu containing helices by 8sp°C and 13sp°C for A and B respectively.

Petka, Wendy Ann


Genetically engineered, attenuated whole-cell vaccine approaches for malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria remains one of the most significant infectious diseases affecting human populations in developing countries. The quest for an efficacious malaria vaccine has been ongoing for nearly a century with limited success. The identification of malaria parasite antigens focused efforts on the development of subunit vaccines but has so far yielded only one partially efficacious vaccine candidate, RTS/S. The lack of high vaccine efficacy observed to date with subunit vaccine candidates raises doubts that the development of a single antigen or even a multi-antigen malaria subunit vaccine is possible. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated in animal studies and experimental clinical studies that immunizations with live-attenuated sporozoite stages of the malaria parasite confer long lasting, sterile protection against infection, providing a benchmark for vaccine development. These early successful vaccinations with live-attenuated malaria parasites did not however, promote a developmental path forward for such a vaccine approach. The discovery of genetically engineered parasite strains that are fully attenuated during the early asymptomatic liver infection and confer complete sterile protection in animal malaria models support the development of a live attenuated sporozoite vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum and its accelerated safety and efficacy testing in malaria challenge models and in malaria endemic areas. PMID:19838068

Vaughan, Ashley M.; Wang, Ruobing; Kappe, Stefan H.I.



Natural genetic engineering: intelligence & design in evolution?  

PubMed Central

There are many things that I like about James Shapiro's new book "Evolution: A View from the 21st Century" (FT Press Science, 2011). He begins the book by saying that it is the creation of novelty, and not selection, that is important in the history of life. In the presence of heritable traits that vary, selection results in the evolution of a population towards an optimal composition of those traits. But selection can only act on changes - and where does this variation come from? Historically, the creation of novelty has been assumed to be the result of random chance or accident. And yet, organisms seem 'designed'. When one examines the data from sequenced genomes, the changes appear NOT to be random or accidental, but one observes that whole chunks of the genome come and go. These 'chunks' often contain functional units, encoding sets of genes that together can perform some specific function. Shapiro argues that what we see in genomes is 'Natural Genetic Engineering', or designed evolution: "Thinking about genomes from an informatics perspective, it is apparent that systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process than the conventional view of evolution as a select-biased random walk through limitless space of possible DNA configurations" (page 6). In this review, I will have a look at four topics: 1.) why I think genomics is not the whole story; 2.) my own perspective of E. coli genomics, and how I think it relates to this book; 3.) a brief discussion on "Intelligence, Design, and Evolution"; and finally, 4.) a section "in defense of the central dogma".



Animal muscularity and size are genetically correlated with animal live-weight and price  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal price and live-weight contribute substantially to the overall profitability of beef and dairy production systems. However, animal data on price and live-weight are not routinely available on all animals since not all animals are sold or weighed during their lifetime. Previous studies have shown that linear type traits can be useful predictors of profitability. Therefore, the main objective of

N. Mc Hugh; R. D. Evans; A. G. Fahey; D. P. Berry


The Genetic Engineering of Motor Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular motors are a remarkable feature within living organisms that are responsible for directional mechanical motion, which is driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Actin-binding molecular motors are of specific interest in the field of nanotechnology as filamentous actin is capable of carrying cargo, such as quantum dots, while it is translocated along a motor coated surface. The binding regions of motor proteins, which are known to interact with actin, such as Myosin, have been thoroughly examined and identified. Rapid genetic engineering of the ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, adenosine kinase, to incorporate these binding regions is possible through the use of site- directed mutagenesis. The sequences, which were mutated into the ADK wt gene, were incorporated in an unstructured loop region. During the phosphate transfer, the mutants switch between open and closed conformational states. The binding affinity of the sequences to the actin is altered during this conformational switch, thus causing the motor to move along actin filament. The ADK mutants and their interaction with filamentous actin was monitored by an in vitro motility assay. Two different mutants of ADK were found to have retained enzymatic functionality after the mutagenesis as well as function as actin-based motor proteins.

Hartz, Rachael M.


Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

Engineering, Virginia Tech Katharine F. Knowlton, Assistant Professor, Dairy Science, Virginia Tech Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended a short-term (15-minute) exposure limit of 35 ppm. One strategy animal feeding operations. Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture

Liskiewicz, Maciej


"Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)

Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.



Genetically engineered phage fibers and coatings for antibacterial applications  

E-print Network

Multifunctionality can be imparted to protein-based fibers and coatings via either synthetic or biological approaches. Here, we demonstrate potent antimicrobial functionality of genetically engineered, phage-based fibers ...

Mao, Joan Y




EPA Science Inventory

Concepts and methods were identified for their utility in evaluating the persistence and potential perturbations of genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment. Novel uses of DNA reassociation kinetics and gene probe technologies, in conjunction with conventional bac...


Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge



Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.



New Constitutive Vectors: Useful Genetic Engineering Tools for Biocatalysis  

PubMed Central

Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis. PMID:23416993

Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping



Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb



Virus resistant plums through genetic engineering - from lab to market  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering (GE) has the potential to revolutionize the genetic improvement of fruit trees and other specialty crops, to provide greater flexibility and speed in responding to changes in climate, production systems and market demands, and to maintain the competitiveness of American agricultu...


Improvement of Cold Tolerance in Horticultural Crops by Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chilling and freezing temperatures often adversely affect the productivity and quality of horticultural plants. Attempts to enhance cold tolerance through traditional breeding have achieved limited success, mainly due to the complexity of the genetics associated with a plant's response to low temperatures. Recently, the improvement of cold tolerance by genetic engineering has been achieved in many species. Nevertheless, transgenic plants

Eung-Jun Park; Tony H. H. Chen



Genetic engineering and stem cells: combinatorial approaches for cardiac cell therapy [Cellular\\/Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetic engineering to induce or alter specific protein expression in stem cells has already facilitated research in this field and may, additionally, offer a potential route for designing more efficient cell sources for cardiac repair. As the feasibility of stem cell genetic manipulation has already been proved and as genetic techniques continue to advance, the combinatorial approach

Robert D. Kirkton; Nenad Bursac



Disentangling Genetic Variation for Resistance and Tolerance to Infectious Diseases in Animals   

E-print Network

Hosts can in principle employ two different strategies to defend themselves against parasites: resistance and tolerance. Animals typically exhibit considerable genetic variation for resistance (the ability to limit parasite burden). However, little...

Råberg, Lars; Sim, Derek; Read, Andrew F


Conserving plant genetic diversity for dependent animal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

While population genetic diversity has broad application in species conservation, no studies have examined the community-level consequences of this diversity. We show that population genetic diversity (generated by interspecific hybridization) in a dominant riparian tree affects an arthropod community composed of 207 species. In an experimental garden, plant cross type structured the arthropod community of individual trees, and among stands

Gina Marie Wimp; William P. Young; Scott A. Woolbright; Gregory D. Martinsen; Paul Keim; Thomas G. Whitham



Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich



Modeling the Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence with Genetic Animal Models  

PubMed Central

A diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD) using the DSM-IV-R is categorical, based on an individual’s manifestation of three or more symptoms from a list of seven. AD risk can be traced to both genetic and environmental sources. Most genetic studies of AD risk implicitly assume that an AD diagnosis represents a single underlying genetic factor. We recently found that the criteria for an AD diagnosis represent three somewhat distinct genetic paths to individual risk. Specifically, heavy use and tolerance versus withdrawal and continued use despite problems reflected separate genetic factors. However, some data suggest that genetic risk for AD is adequately described with a single underlying genetic risk factor. Rodent animal models for alcohol-related phenotypes typically target discrete aspects of the complex human AD diagnosis. Here, we review the literature derived from genetic animal models in an attempt to determine whether they support a single-factor or multiple-factor genetic structure. We conclude that there is modest support in the animal literature that alcohol tolerance and withdrawal reflect distinct genetic risk factors, in agreement with our human data. We suggest areas where more research could clarify this attempt to align the rodent and human data. PMID:21910077

Kendler, Kenneth S.; Hitzemann, Robert J.



Genetic dissection of phenotypic diversity in farm animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animal populations harbour rich collections of mutations with phenotypic effects that have been purposefully enriched by breeding. Most of these mutations do not have pathological phenotypic consequences, in contrast to the collections of deleterious mutations in model organisms or those causing inherited disorders in humans. Farm animals are of particular interest for identifying genes that control growth, energy metabolism,

Leif Andersson



Genetic diversity and conservation of endangered animal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of biodiversity resulting from extinctions is receiving increasing attention. Over several thousands of animal species have been evaluated and recognized as endangered species. Inbreeding depression has been demonstrated in many wild animal species. Here we sequenced 655-978 bp mitochodrial D-loop region of 32 individuals from four regional giant panda populations. Sixteen haplotypes were observed. AMOVE analysis demonstrated that

Ya-ping Zhang; Xiao-xia Wang; Oliver A. Ryder; Hai-peng Li; He-ming Zhang; Yange Yong; Peng-yan Wang



Genetic engineering of reproductive sterility in forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containment of transgenes inserted into genetically engineered forest trees will probably be necessary before most commercial uses are possible. This is a consequence of (1) high rates of gene dispersal by pollen and seed, (2) proximity of engineered trees in plantations to natural or feral stands of interfertile species, and (3) potentially undesirable ecological effects if certain transgenes become widely

Steven H. Strauss; William H. Rottmann; Amy M. Brunner; Lorraine A. Sheppard



Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits,

Justin James Grevich; Henry Daniell



A Hybrid Engine Control System based on Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an optimal management of the energetic flows in a hybrid vehicle based on a Genetic Algorithm is introduced. The aim is maximize the use of the electric engine, minimizing the use of the internal combustion one, increasing the driving pleasure and reducing consumptions, emissions and noise. From the available literature, a typical configuration series-parallel hybrid engine as



Genetic Algorithms in Engineering and Computer Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents 13 Parallel Genetic Algorithms for Optimisation in CFD : : : : : : : : 1 13.1 INTRODUCTION : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 13.2 CFD ANALYSIS FOR AEROSPACE DESIGN : : : :

Edited J. P'eriaux; G. Winter; John Wiley Sons; Thomas Back



Colonization genetics of an animal-dispersed plant (Vaccinium membranaceum) at Mount St Helens, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population founding and spatial spread may profoundly influence later population genetic structure, but their effects are difficult to quantify when population history is unknown. We examined the genetic effects of founder group formation in a recently founded population of the animal-dispersed Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) on new volcanic deposits at Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) 24 years post-eruption. Using amplified



Primer: comparative genetics of animal models of arthritis—a tool to resolve complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex traits, including inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have important genetic features, but most of the responsible genes have not been conclusively identified. Genetic analysis of inbred animal models and comparative genetics—the comparison of genes between different species—might help to identify the crucial genes and to investigate more directly the biology involved. Genome-wide linkage analysis of particular genes can be assessed by

Rikard Holmdahl



Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...


Prospects for Genetic Engineering in Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetically modified plants now constitute a significant portion of the worlds agricultural output. Genetically modified corn, soybean, canola, rice, and cotton are being adopted by growers in both industrialized and developing nations at an increasing rate. The most popular products have been eng...


Transgenic dairy cattle: genetic engineering on a large scale.  


Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportunity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene "pharming" industry is to produce pharmaceuticals for treating human diseases. It is argued that mammary glands are an ideal site for producing complex bioactive proteins that can be cost effectively harvested and purified. Consequently, during the past decade, approximately a dozen companies have been created to capture the US market for pharmaceuticals produced from transgenic bioreactors estimated at $3 billion annually. Several products produced in this way are now in human clinical trials. Another research direction, which has been widely discussed but has received less attention in the laboratory, is genetic engineering of the bovine mammary gland to alter the composition of milk destined for human consumption. Proposals include increasing or altering endogenous proteins, decreasing fat, and altering milk composition to resemble that of human milk. Initial studies using transgenic mice to investigate the feasibility of enhancing manufacturing properties of milk have been encouraging. The potential profitability of gene "pharming" seems clear, as do the benefits of transgenic cows producing milk that has been optimized for food products. To take full advantage of enhanced milk, it may be desirable to restructure the method by which dairy producers are compensated. However, the cost of producing functional transgenic cattle will remain a severe limitation to realizing the potential of transgenic cattle until inefficiencies of transgenic technology are overcome. These inefficiencies include low rates of gene integration, poor embryo survival, and unpredictable transgene behavior. PMID:9313167

Wall, R J; Kerr, D E; Bondioli, K R



German politics of genetic engineering and its deconstruction.  


Policy-making, as exemplified by biotechnology policy, can be understood as an attempt to manage a field of discursivity, to construct regularity in a dispersed multitude of combinable elements. Following this perspective of politics as a textual process, the paper interprets the politicization of genetic engineering in Germany as a defence of the political as a regime of heterogeneity, as a field of 'dissensus' rather than 'consensus', and a rejection of the idea that the framing of technological transformation is an autonomous process. From its beginning in the early 1970s, genetic engineering was symbolically entrenched as a key technology of the future, and as an integral element of the German politics of modernization. Attempts by new social movements and the Green Party to displace the egalitarian imaginary of democratic discourse into the politics of genetic engineering were construed by the political élites as an attack on the political order of post-World War II Germany. The 1990 Genetic Engineering Law attempted a closure of this controversy. But it is precisely the homogenizing idiom of this 'settlement' which continues to nourish the social movements and their radical challenge to the definitions and codings of the politics of genetic engineering. PMID:11614113

Gottweis, H



Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke



Genetic Programming for Reverse Engineering Mark Harman, William B. Langdon and Westley Weimer  

E-print Network

Genetic Programming for Reverse Engineering Mark Harman, William B. Langdon and Westley Weimer of Genetic Programming (GP) and Genetic Improvement (GI) to reverse engineering. Section II presents that form part of a `GP4RE' research agenda; genetic programming applications for reverse engineering. II

Harman, Mark


Genetic Animal Models of Alcohol and Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and pharmacological responses of selectively bred and inbred rodent lines have been analyzed to elucidate many features of drug sensitivity and the adverse effects of drugs, the underlying mechanisms of drug tolerance and dependence, and the motivational states underlying drug reward and aversion. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has been used to identify provisional chromosomal locations of

John C. Crabbe; John K. Belknap; Kari J. Buck



Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water  

SciTech Connect

The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.



Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also infects approximately 25% of the world’s human population. T. gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication and transmission occur i...


Large Animal Models of Genetic Disease: Pertinent IACUC Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

he editors of this issue have assembled an exemplary group of expert reviews that provide an effective over- view of the current use of large animal models in ge- netic disease research and describe the importance of these models in bringing new, safe, and effi cacious treatments to clinical practice. In this essay we focus on both practical and technical

N. Matthew Ellinwood; Colin M. Clay



Regulatory Oversight of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms: Has Regulation Inhibited Innovation?  


/ Using detailed interviews with company representatives and researchers in the field, this paper examines the factors that might account for the slow pace of development of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) intended for environmental release. We specifically analyzed the role of the regulatory system in shaping innovation. We identified at least two cases where industry decided to discontinue the development of a genetically engineered microbial product because of concerns over regulatory oversight. However, most often industry decisions to continue or halt development of GEMs were based on an evaluation of the particular product's efficacy and potential for profitability. Thus the inability of GEMs to perform up to expectations in the field, rather than the regulatory constraints, appears to be the factor responsible for the slow pace of development. KEY WORDS: Genetically engineered microorganisms; Biotechnology; Regulation of biotechnology; Innovation; Environmental release PMID:9175544

Wrubel; Krimsky; Anderson



TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection  

SciTech Connect

A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S



A molecular genetic approach for forensic animal species identification.  


This study investigated potential markers within chromosomal, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) with the aim of developing a DNA based method to allow differentiation between animal species. Such discrimination tests may have important applications in the forensic science, agriculture, quarantine and customs fields. DNA samples from five different animal individuals within the same species for 10 species of animal (including human) were analysed. DNA extraction and quantitation followed by PCR amplification and GeneScan visualisation formed the basis of the experimental analysis. Five gene markers from three different types of genes were investigated. These included genomic markers for the beta-actin and TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Mitochondrial DNA markers, designed by Bataille et al. [Forensic Sci. Int. 99 (1999) 165], examined the Cytochrome b gene and Hypervariable Displacement Loop (D-Loop) region. Finally, a ribosomal RNA marker for the 28S rRNA gene optimised by Naito et al. [J. Forensic Sci. 37 (1992) 396] was used as a possible marker for speciation. Results showed a difference of only several base pairs between all species for the beta-actin and 28S markers, with the exception of Sus scrofa (pig) beta-actin fragment length, which produced a significantly smaller fragment. Multiplexing of Cytochrome b and D-Loop markers gave limited species information, although positive discrimination of human DNA was evident. The most specific and discriminatory results were shown using the TP53 gene since this marker produced greatest fragment size differences between animal species studied. Sample differentiation for all species was possible following TP53 amplification, suggesting that this gene could be used as a potential animal species identifier. PMID:12850402

Bellis, C; Ashton, K J; Freney, L; Blair, B; Griffiths, L R



Animated Engineering Tutors: Middle School Students' Preferences and Rationales on Multiple  

E-print Network

tutor such as gender, age, personality, and clothing. Results showed that for teaching engineering to their age, matching their own gender, with a fun personality, and that speaks slowly. Keywords: animated in multimedia research that could be applied to engineering education is to use visual presence of animated

Reisslein, Martin


Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.



The use of animal models in developing the discipline of cardiovascular tissue engineering: a review.  


Cardiovascular disease remains one of the major causes of death and disability in the Western world. Tissue engineering offers the prospect of being able to meet the demand for replacement of heart valves, vessels for coronary and lower limb bypass surgery and the generation of cardiac tissue for addition to the diseased heart. In order to test prospective tissue-engineered devices, these constructs must first be proven in animal models before receiving CE marking or FDA approval for a clinical trial. The choice of animal depends on the nature of the tissue-engineered construct being tested. Factors that need to be considered include technical requirements of implanting the construct, availability of the animal, cost and ethical considerations. In this paper, we review the history of animal studies in cardiovascular tissue engineering and the uses of animal tissue as sources for tissue engineering. PMID:14697864

Rashid, S Tawqeer; Salacinski, Henryk J; Hamilton, George; Seifalian, Alexander M



Current development in genetic engineering strategies of Bacillus species  

PubMed Central

The complete sequencing and annotation of the genomes of industrially-important Bacillus species has enhanced our understanding of their properties, and allowed advances in genetic manipulations in other Bacillus species. Post-genomic studies require simple and highly efficient tools to enable genetic manipulation. Here, we summarize the recent progress in genetic engineering strategies for Bacillus species. We review the available genetic tools that have been developed in Bacillus species, as well as methods developed in other species that may also be applicable in Bacillus. Furthermore, we address the limitations and challenges of the existing methods, and discuss the future research prospects in developing novel and useful tools for genetic modification of Bacillus species. PMID:24885003




Microsoft Academic Search

GAs have been shown to be an effective strategy in the off- line design of control systems by a number of practitioners. For example, Krishnakumar and Goldberg (1) and Bramlette and Cusin (2) have demonstrated how genetic optimization methods can be used to derive superior controller structures in aerospace applications in less time (in terms of function evaluations) than that

A. J. Chipperfield; P. J. Fleming; C. M. Fonseca




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic transformation technology allows genes to be moved across species, greatly improving the opportunities to breed plants for insect control. The Cry1Ac protein in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., was registered by Monsanto as Bollgard, and targeted to tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fab),...


Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the proposed research is to first establish a plasmid-mediated genetic transformation system for the sulfur degrading Sulfolobus, and then to clone and overexpress the genes encoding the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes from Sulfolobus- as well as from other microorganisms, to develop a Sulfolobus-based microbial process for the removal of both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal.

Ho, N.W.Y.



Detection and quantification of genetically engineered crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have recently attracted the attention of agricultural, medical and food scientists and governments of many countries in the world due to an increasing concern that the recombinant gene(s) inserted into an organism may result in unforeseen effects. Therefore, there is a need to regulate each transgenic event so that the officially approved events will be

Asfaw Adugna; Tewodros Mesfin




EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgensis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposable genes on methods for p...


Designing Immunocytokines: Genetically Engineered Fusion Proteins For Targeted Immune Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of antibodies and antibody-based therapeutic agents has accelerated in the last ten years through the combined technological\\u000a advances in hybridoma technology and genetic engineering. In fact, molecular biological approaches have now been applied to\\u000a the antibody engineering field in ways that both enhance the hybridoma approach, e.g., through the generation of transgenic\\u000a mice capable of expressing human immunoglobulins

Stephen D. Gillies



NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth



Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how transgenic technology has the potential of medical therapy, but it raises questions about these issues: creation of new life forms and crossing species boundaries, long-term effects on human health and the environment, blending of nonhuman animal and human DNA , and unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences.

Linda MacDonald Glenn (; )




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mastitis is a $2 billion a year problem for the dairy industry. Neither the animals immune system nor conventional prophylactic strategies have been able to effectively address the problem. We propose using new biotechnology tools to introduce genes into cattle from other species to solve this pro...


Genetically Engineered Materials for Biofuels Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agrivida, Inc., is an agricultural biotechnology company developing industrial crop feedstocks for the fuel and chemical industries. Agrivida's crops have improved processing traits that enable efficient, low cost conversion of the crops' cellulosic components into fermentable sugars. Currently, pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of the major cell wall components, cellulose and hemicellulose, into fermentable sugars is the most expensive processing step that prevents widespread adoption of biomass in biofuels processes. To lower production costs we are consolidating pretreatment and enzyme production within the crop. In this strategy, transgenic plants express engineered cell wall degrading enzymes in an inactive form, which can be reactivated after harvest. We have engineered protein elements that disrupt enzyme activity during normal plant growth. Upon exposure to specific processing conditions, the engineered enzymes are converted into their active forms. This mechanism significantly lowers pretreatment costs and enzyme loadings (>75% reduction) below those currently available to the industry.

Raab, Michael



Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.



Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...


The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey



The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations  

PubMed Central

There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve



The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.  


There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate



Regulatory steps associated with use of value-added recombinant proteins and peptides screened in high-throughput for expression in genetically engineered starch and cellulosic fuel ethanol yeast strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant proteins expressed in animals have been a public concern as a perceived risk to the consumer. Animals are currently being treated with genetically engineered biologicals, such as growth hormone, or fed genetically modified plants. Similarly, various commercially-valuable proteins or pe...


Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon, Justyna Petke, Iman Hemati Moghadam,  

E-print Network

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon Learning, Genetic Improve- ment, Search Based Software Engineering 1. INTRODUCTION Many Artificial Engineering approach called `genetic improvement' could be extended to provide online adaptivity. Search Based

Fernandez, Thomas


Genetic engineering and food: what determines consumer acceptance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents experimental work which attempts to understand what psychological mechanisms are likely to influence consumer acceptance of genetically engineered food, and the relationship between consumer attitudes towards the technology and consumer acceptance of its products. Discusses the relationship between consumer risk perceptions and consumer reactions; the influence of public knowledge and understanding of the technology on attitudes; media impact; ethical

Lynn J. Frewer; Chaya Howard; Richard Shepherd



Genetic Engineering--A Lesson on Bioethics for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unit designed to cover the topic of genetic engineering and its ethical considerations is presented. Students are expected to learn the material while using a debate format. A list of objectives for the unit, the debate format, and the results from an opinion questionnaire are described. (KR)

Armstrong, Kerri; Weber, Kurt



The Ecological Risks and Benefits of Genetically Engineered Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of the environmental risks and benefits of adopting genetically engineered organisms are highly polarized between pro- and anti-biotechnology groups, but the current state of our knowledge is frequently overlooked in this debate. A review of existing scientific literature reveals that key experiments on both the environmental risks and benefits are lacking. The complexity of ecological systems presents considerable challenges

L. L. Wolfenbarger; P. R. Phifer



Environmental effects of genetically engineered woody biomass crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically engineered crop plants has raised concerns about the risks these crops pose to natural and agricultural ecosystems. The potential environmental hazards of transgenic woody biomass crops is discussed, and based on the biology of these crops and their transgenes, recommend a scientific framework for assessing risk. The potential impacts of transgenes based on both characteristics of




Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions from Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses

Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller; Michael Lamport Commons; Geoffrey David Commons



Competitiveness of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Trichoderma virens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The intraspecific competitiveness of a genetically engineered strain of Trichoderma virens was assessed relative to the non-transformed, progenitor strain and an isogenic, auxotrophic strain using a replacement series design. The transformed strain was less fit, but appeared more competitive than t...


Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants  


The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng




E-print Network

GOLD NANOROD PHOTOTHERMAL THERAPY IN A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL OF SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA and biology than subcutaneous xenograft models. Using polyethylene glycol (PEG)- coated gold nanorods (PEG in xenograft models and which may be of future clinical interest. Keywords: Gold nanorods; photothermal

Bhatia, Sangeeta



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Through genetic engineering of peanut, we have focused mainly on two levels of protection against aflatoxin contamination: the entry of spores through insect-damaged tissues and the growth of the fungus after entry, although interfering with the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway also is of interest. T...



EPA Science Inventory

This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early 1983. It identifies a num...


Current Progress of Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Biomedical Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract The first transgenic pigs were generated for agricultural purposes about three decades ago. Since then, the micromanipulation techniques of pig oocytes and embryos expanded from pronuclear injection of foreign DNA to somatic cell nuclear transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer, lentiviral transduction, and cytoplasmic injection. Mechanistically, the passive transgenesis approach based on random integration of foreign DNA was developed to active genetic engineering techniques based on the transient activity of ectopic enzymes, such as transposases, recombinases, and programmable nucleases. Whole-genome sequencing and annotation of advanced genome maps of the pig complemented these developments. The full implementation of these tools promises to immensely increase the efficiency and, in parallel, to reduce the costs for the generation of genetically engineered pigs. Today, the major application of genetically engineered pigs is found in the field of biomedical disease modeling. It is anticipated that genetically engineered pigs will increasingly be used in biomedical research, since this model shows several similarities to humans with regard to physiology, metabolism, genome organization, pathology, and aging. PMID:25469311

Gün, Gökhan



Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We introduced the first enzyme involved in fructan synthesis, the sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (isolated from Jerusalem

R. E. Sevenier; Meer van der I. M; R. J. Bino; A. J. Koops



A Simple Interactive Introduction to Teaching Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, at key stage 4, students aged 14-15 studying GCSE Core Science or Unit 1 of the GCSE Biology course are required to be able to describe the process of genetic engineering to produce bacteria that can produce insulin. The simple interactive introduction described in this article allows students to consider the problem, devise a model and…

Child, Paula



76 FR 80869 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered for Drought...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...




E-print Network

REVERSE ENGINEERING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING John R. Koza Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, William Mydlowec Genetic Programming Inc., Los Altos, California

Fernandez, Thomas


Engineering Redox-Sensitive Linkers for Genetically Encoded FRET-Based  

E-print Network

Engineering Redox-Sensitive Linkers for Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors VLADIMIR LPhysics, §Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, jjPathobiology, { Division of Nutritional Sciences, and #Center tool for studying normal cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Genet- ically encoded

Kenis, Paul J. A.


76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...



78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...



78 FR 66891 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...



Genetic structure and diversity of animal populations exposed to metal pollution.  


Studying the genetic diversity of wild populations that are affected by pollution provides a basis for estimating the risks of environmental contamination to both wildlife, and indirectly to humans. Such research strives to produce both a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which genetic diversity is affected,and the long-term effects of the pollutants involved.In this review, we summarize key aspects of the field of genetic ecotoxicology that encompasses using genetic patterns to examine metal pollutants as environmental stressors of natural animal populations. We address genetic changes that result from xenobiotic exposure versus genetic alterations that result from natural ecological processes. We also describe the relationship between metal exposure and changes in the genetic diversity of chronically exposed populations, and how the affected populations respond to environmental stress. Further, we assess the genetic diversity of animal populations that were exposed to metals, focusing on the literature that has been published since the year 2000.Our review disclosed that the most common metals found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb; however, differences in the occurrence between aquatic (Cd=Zn>Cu>Pb>Hg) and terrestrial (Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni)environments were observed. Several molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in impacted populations, the order of the most common ones of which were SSR's > allozyme > RAPD's > mtDNA sequencing> other molecular markers.Genetic diversity was reduced for nearly all animal populations that were exposed to a single metal, or a mixture of metals in aquatic ecosystems (except in Hyalella azteca, Littorina littorea, Salmo trutta, and Gobio gobio); however, the pattern was less clear when terrestrial ecosystems were analyzed.We propose that future research in the topic area of this paper emphasizes seven key areas of activity that pertain to the methodological design of genetic ecotoxicological studies. Collectively, these points are designed to provide more accurate data and a deeper understanding of the relationship between alterations in genetic diversity of impacted populations and metal exposures. In particular, we believe that the exact nature of all tested chemical pollutants be clearly described, biomarkers be included, sentinel organisms be used, testing be performed at multiple experimental sites, reference populations be sampled in close geographical proximity to where pollution occurs, and genetic structure parameters and high-throughput technology be more actively employed. Furthermore, we propose a new class of biomarkers,termed "biomarkers of permanent effect," which may include measures of genetic variability in impacted populations. PMID:24158580

Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio



Genetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in WalnutGenetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in Walnut Bei Fei and Richard Meilan  

E-print Network

.) that produce apical inflorescence carrying mostly hermaphroditic flowers in vitro within three months (9-engineering constructs and mechanisms. Introduction Genetic interactions that regulate the inflorescence and floral are classified as vegetative (VM) which produces leaves and inflorescence (IM) which gives rise to the third type


The influence of realistic product exposure on attitudes towards genetic engineering of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes towards genetic engineering remain uncrystallized and are likely to be influenced by whatever information becomes available. One source of information about genetically engineered food is the availability of products on the supermarket shelves. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of product exposure on consumer perceptions of genetic engineering as applied to food production,

L. J. Frewer; C. Howard; R. Shepherd



Reversible Hydrogels from Self-Assembling Genetically Engineered Protein Block Copolymers  

E-print Network

Reversible Hydrogels from Self-Assembling Genetically Engineered Protein Block Copolymers Chunyu Xu-soluble polyelectrolyte segment flanked by two coiled-coil domains was synthesized by genetic engineering methods antibodies that can form complexes with antigens,20 and genetically engineered proteins containing coiled

Breedveld, Victor


Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 13 (2000) 611623 Genetic adaptive state estimation$  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 13 (2000) 611­623 Genetic adaptive state in a nonlinear jet engine. Our main conclusion is that the genetic adaptive state estimator has the potential Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Estimation; Genetic algorithms; Jet engine surge=stall control 1


Attitudes towards genetic engineering between change and stability: Results of a panel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering is not only a new modern technology but it is also a social object of technological assessment research. Genetic engineering is associated with moral and ethical concerns in society, political decisions, ecological impacts, and economics. These impacts are the foundation for the social linkages of genetic engineering. For that social linkages and cognitive association we have chosen the

Dieter Urban; Uwe Pfenning



Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed.

Johnson, E. J.



Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology. PMID:24151553

Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.



Options and legal requirements for national and regional animal genetic resources collections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contraction of animal genetic resources on a global scale has motivated countries to establish gene banks as a mechanism to conserve national resources. Gene banks should establish a set of policies that insure they are complying with national laws. The two primary areas of consideration are ho...


The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.


THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF CROSSBREEDING* Institute of Animal Genetics, Edinburgh EH9 3JN, Scotland  

E-print Network

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF CROSSBREEDING* W. G. HILL Institute of Animal Genetics, Edinburgh EH9 3JN are important. INTRODUCTION Crossbreeding has been an established practice for centuries in the domesti- cated progress from later selection. The theoretical basis of crossbreeding has been studied extensively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla population of Bwindi  

E-print Network

Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla The International Gorilla Conservation Program, P.O. Box 48177, Nairobi, Kenya e Uganda Wildlife Authority, P.O. Box form 6 October 2008 Accepted 17 October 2008 Available online 3 December 2008 Keywords: Gorilla

Dever, Jennifer A.


A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen



Assessing the Transfer of Genetically Modified DNA from Feed to Animal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, public and scientific concerns about the environmental and food safety of GM (Genetically Modified) crops overshadow the potential benefits offered by crop biotechnology to improve food quality. One of the concerns regarding the use of GM food in human and animal nutrition is the effect that newly introduced sequences may have on the organism. In this paper, we

Raffaele Mazza; Mirko Soave; Mauro Morlacchini; Gianfranco Piva; Adriano Marocco



Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production ?  

PubMed Central

There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H2 yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H2 production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C.



Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher



Genetically engineered luminescent proteins in biosensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent proteins originally isolated from marine or terrestrial organisms have played a key role in the development of several biosensing systems. These proteins have been used in a variety of applications including, immunoassays, binding assays, cell-based sensing, high throughput screening, optical imaging, etc. Among the luminescent proteins isolated, the bioluminescent protein aequorin has been one of the proteins at the forefront in terms of its use in a vast number of biosensing systems. In our laboratory, we have employed aequorin as a label in the development of highly sensitive assays through chemical and genetic modifications from single step analysis of physiologically important molecules in biological fluids. An important aspect of optimizing these assays for clinical use involves understanding the stability of the various aequorin variants that are available. To this end we have designed several stability studies involving three important aequorin mutants, Mutant S, Mutant 5, and Mutant 53. The cysteine free aequorin, Mutant S, has been the most ubiquitously used aequorin variant in our laboratory because of its increased stability and activity as compared to native aequorin. Mutant 5 and Mutant 53 contain a single cyteine residue at position 5 and 53 in the protein, respectively. Because of the presence of a single cysteine residue, Mutant 5 and Mutant 53 both can be site-specifically conjugated. This site specific conjugation capability gives Mutant 5 and Mutant 53 an advantage over native aequorin when developing assays. Additional studies optimizing the expression, purification, and charging of aequorin Mutant S were also performed. A thorough understanding of the efficient expression, purification, and storage of these aequorin mutants will allow for the more practical utilization of these mutants in the development of future biosensing systems.

Rowe, Laura; Ensor, Mark; Scott, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia



Competitiveness of a genetically engineered strain of Trichoderma virens.  


The intraspecific competitiveness of a genetically engineered strain of Trichoderma virens was assessed relative to the non-transformed, progenitor strain and an isogenic, auxotrophic strain using a replacement series design. The transformed strain was less fit, but appeared more competitive than the wild type or the auxotroph in this assay. To validate this finding and to evaluate the ability of a strain to establish in an environment occupied by a competitor another experimental approach was developed. In various treatments the transformed strain was unaffected or only slightly inhibited by a competing strain. In contrast, the wild type and the auxotrophic strain were strongly inhibited by the presence of the transformed strain. These findings support the conclusion that this genetically engineered strain is more competitive than the wild-type strain and thus may be persistent in the environment. PMID:18421571

Weaver, Mark A; Kenerley, Charles M



Procedures for microencapsulation of enzymes, cells and genetically engineered microorganisms.  


Methods to microencapsulate enzyme, cells, and genetically engineered cells have been described in this article. More specific examples of enzyme encapsulation include the microencapsulation of xanthine oxidase for Lesch-Nyhan disease; phenylalanine ammonia lyase for pheny, ketonuria and microencapsulation of multienzyme systems with cofactor recycling for multistep enzyme conversions. Methods for cell encapsulation include the details for encapsulating hepatocytes for liver failure and for gene therapy. This also includes the details of a novel two-step method for encapsulation of high concentrations of smaller cells. Another new approach is the detailed method of the encapsulation of genetically engineered Escherichia coli DH5 cells for lowering urea, ammonia, and other metabolites in kidney or, liver failure and other diseases. PMID:11434313

Chang, T M; Prakash, S



Animal genetic resource trade flows: The utilization of newly imported breeds and the gene flow of imported animals in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal germplasm exchange has recently received attention as a product of the FAO's State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources effort. Some have advocated a need to explore policies and regulations on the exchange of germplasm (e.g., Hiemstra, S.J., Drucker, A., Tvedt, M., Louwaars, N., Oldenbroek, J., Awgichew, K., Kebede, S., Bhat, P., da Silva Mariante, A. 2006. Exchange, use

Harvey Blackburn; Douglas Gollin



Promoting Student Engagement in the Animal Sciences: an "Academic Pedigree" Project. An Academic Pedigree project was incorporated into the junior-level Animal Breeding and Genetics  

E-print Network

Promoting Student Engagement in the Animal Sciences: an "Academic Pedigree" Project. CJ Kojima Summary An Academic Pedigree project was incorporated into the junior-level Animal Breeding and Genetics in any discipline, and serves to generate student interest in the subject matter and the learning

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.


Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise - the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.  


The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:25290946

Hudson-Shore, Michelle



Animal Genetic Resource Trade Flows: The Utilization of Newly Imported Breeds and the Gene Flow of Imported Animals in the United States of America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal germplasm exchange has recently received attention as a product of the FAO’s State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources effort. Some have advocated a need to explore policies and regulations on the exchange of germplasm. However, there has been little comprehensive assessment of either th...


The ecology and evolution of animal medication: genetically fixed response versus phenotypic plasticity.  


Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the evolution of genetically fixed versus phenotypically plastic forms of medication. Our model shows that the relative benefits (the antiparasitic properties of medicinal food) and costs (side effects of medicine, the costs of searching for medicine, and the costs of plasticity itself) crucially determine whether medication is genetically fixed or phenotypically plastic. Our model suggests that animals evolve phenotypic plasticity when parasite risk (a combination of virulence and prevalence and thus a measure of the strength of parasite-mediated selection) is relatively low to moderately high and genetically fixed medication when parasite risk becomes very high. The latter occurs because at high parasite risk, the costs of plasticity are outweighed by the benefits of medication. Our model provides a simple and general framework to study the conditions that drive the evolution of alternative forms of animal medication. PMID:25061676

Choisy, Marc; de Roode, Jacobus C



Advances in genetic modification of farm animals using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN).  


Genome editing tools (GET), including zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENS), and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These genome editing tools mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing DNA mutation frequency via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, GETs can increase gene targeting and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair more than 10,000-fold. Recently, a novel class of genome editing tools was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN. Current results indicate that these tools can be successfully employed in a broad range of organisms which renders them useful for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, including creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on the use of ZFNs to modify the genome of farm animals, summarizes current knowledge on the underlying mechanism, and discusses new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals. PMID:25596823

Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner



Ordering of Quantum Dots Using Genetically Engineered Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid crystal system was used for the fabrication of a highly ordered composite material from genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanocrystals. The bacteriophage, which formed the basis of the self-ordering system, were selected to have a specific recognition moiety for ZnS crystal surfaces. The bacteriophage were coupled with ZnS solution precursors and spontaneously evolved a self-supporting

Seung-Wuk Lee; Chuanbin Mao; Christine E. Flynn; Angela M. Belcher



What are the prospects for genetically engineered, disease resistant plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect and herbicide-resistant plants are the most widely grown transgenics in agricultural production. No strategy using\\u000a genetically engineered plants for disease resistance has had a comparable impact. Why is this? What are the prospects for\\u000a introducing transgenic disease resistant plants to agriculture? We review the biological background for strategies used to\\u000a make disease resistant GM crops, illustrate examples of these

David B. Collinge; Ole Søgaard Lund; Hans Thordal-Christensen


Assessing the Permeability of Landscape Features to Animal Movement: Using Genetic Structure to Infer Functional Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Human-altered environments often challenge native species with a complex spatial distribution of resources. Hostile landscape features can inhibit animal movement (i.e., genetic exchange), while other landscape attributes facilitate gene flow. The genetic attributes of organisms inhabiting such complex environments can reveal the legacy of their movements through the landscape. Thus, by evaluating landscape attributes within the context of genetic connectivity of organisms within the landscape, we can elucidate how a species has coped with the enhanced complexity of human altered environments. In this research, we utilized genetic data from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in conjunction with spatially explicit habitat attribute data to evaluate the realized permeability of various landscape elements in a fragmented agricultural ecosystem. To accomplish this we 1) used logistic regression to evaluate whether land cover attributes were most often associated with the matrix between or habitat within genetically identified populations across the landscape, and 2) utilized spatially explicit habitat attribute data to predict genetically-derived Bayesian probabilities of population membership of individual chipmunks in an agricultural ecosystem. Consistency between the results of the two approaches with regard to facilitators and inhibitors of gene flow in the landscape indicate that this is a promising new way to utilize both landscape and genetic data to gain a deeper understanding of human-altered ecosystems. PMID:25719366

Anderson, Sara J.; Kierepka, Elizabeth M.; Swihart, Robert K.; Latch, Emily K.; Rhodes, Olin E.



The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.  


The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect. PMID:25500170

?wi?tkiewicz, S; ?wi?tkiewicz, M; Arczewska-W?osek, A; Józefiak, D



A CAL program to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering—a change from the traditional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. The pro-gram makes extensive use of colour, graphics, and animation and is aimed at A-level students of biology. Students select, from a menu, to investigate one of a number of identified processes involved in the overall production of a protein,

D. G. Dewhurst; A. S. Meehan; A. Williams; D. Woods



A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

PubMed Central

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high degree of information provided by its large number of alleles per locus. Despite this, a new marker type, named SNP, for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, is now on the scene and has gained high popularity, even though it is only a bi-allelic type of marker. In this review, we will discuss the reasons for this apparent step backwards, and the pertinence of the use of SNPs in animal genetics, in comparison with other marker types. PMID:12081799

Vignal, Alain; Milan, Denis; SanCristobal, Magali; Eggen, André



Convergent Functional Genomics of Bipolar Disorder: From Animal Model Pharmacogenomics to Human Genetics and Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Progress in understanding the genetic and neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder(s) has come from both human studies and animal model studies. Until recently, the lack of concerted integration between the two approaches has been hindering the pace of discovery, or more exactly, constituted a missed opportunity to accelerate our understanding of this complex and heterogeneous group of disorders. Our group has helped overcome this “lost in translation” barrier by developing an approach called Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG). The approach integrates animal model gene expression data with human genetic linkage/association data, as well as human tissue (postmortem brain, blood) data. This Bayesian strategy for cross-validating findings extracts meaning from large datasets, and prioritizes candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for subsequent targeted, hypothesis-driven research. The CFG approach may also be particularly useful for identification of blood biomarkers of the illness. PMID:17614132

Le-Niculescu, H.; McFarland, M. J.; Mamidipalli, S.; Ogden, C. A.; Kuczenski, R.; Kurian, S. M.; Salomon, D. R.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Nurnberger, J. I.; Niculescu, A. B.



76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...soybeans are likely to pose a plant pest risk, the draft EA...tests, and health effects of genetically modified organisms and...



In order to build up a system of international cooperative research in the field of animal biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School  

E-print Network

Purpose In order to build up a system of international cooperative research in the field of animal Spin-offs in Animal Biotechnology Project of Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School of Bioagricultural

Takahashi, Ryo


Gene Therapy in Large Animal Models of Human Cardiovascular Genetic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several naturally occurring animal models for human genetic heart diseases offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate poten- tial novel therapies, including gene therapy. Some of these diseases—especially those that result in a structural defect during development (e.g., patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis)—would likely be diffi cult to treat with a therapeutic gene transfer approach. However, the ability to transduce a

Meg M. Sleeper; Lawrence T. Bish; H. Lee Sweeney



Diverse plant and animal genetic records from Holocene and Pleistocene sediments.  


Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including the oldest authenticated ancient DNA sequences known, and megafaunal sequences including mammoth, bison, and horse. The genetic data record a number of dramatic changes in the taxonomic diversity and composition of Beringian vegetation and fauna. Temperate cave sediments in New Zealand also yielded DNA sequences of extinct biota, including two species of ratite moa, and 29 plant taxa characteristic of the prehuman environment. Therefore, many sedimentary deposits may contain unique, and widespread, genetic records of paleoenvironments. PMID:12702808

Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J; Binladen, Jonas; Brand, Tina B; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Shapiro, Beth; Bunce, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Gilichinsky, David A; Cooper, Alan




E-print Network

REVERSE ENGINEERING BY MEANS OF GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA John R, to automatically reverse engineer the network from the data. Genetic programming (Koza, Bennett, Andre, and Keane. Koza Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford

Fernandez, Thomas


DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602262 Weaving Genetically Engineered Functionality into Mechanically  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602262 Weaving Genetically Engineered Functionality into Mechanically Robust using M13 filamentous viruses (or bacter- iophages). This work applies genetic engineering, chemical, the production of functionalized fibers has posed a challenge in materials science and engineering. Here we

Van Vliet, Krystyn J.


Specific immunotherapy by genetically engineered APCs: the "guided missile" strategy.  


We tested the hypothesis that APCs genetically engineered to present an Ag and to express Fas ligand (FasL) simultaneously can target and eliminate Ag-specific T cells. Transgenic T cells specific for influenza hemagglutinin (HA) were used as targets. We prepared recombinant vaccinia virus vectors (VVV) to transfer the gene constructs individually or simultaneously into APCs. We prevented unwanted viral replication by attenuating the VVVs with psoralen-UV light treatment. For presentation of the HA Ag, APCs were transduced with cDNA for HA flanked by sequences of the lysosome-associated membrane protein that direct efficient processing and presentation of the Ag by APCs. As a "warhead" for the APCs, we transduced them with the gene for FasL, which induces apoptosis of Fas-expressing activated T cells. To protect the transduced APCs from self-destruction by FasL, we transferred cDNA for a truncated form of Fas-associated death domain, which inhibits Fas-mediated cell death. Our results show that the engineered APCs effectively expressed the genes of interest. APCs transduced with VVV carrying all three gene constructs specifically killed HA-transgenic T cells in culture. Coculture with T cells specific for an unrelated Ag (OVA) had no significant effect. Our in vitro findings show that APCs can be genetically engineered to target and kill Ag-specific T cells and represent a promising novel strategy for the specific treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:11254740

Wu, B; Wu, J M; Miagkov, A; Adams, R N; Levitsky, H I; Drachman, D B



Multi-engine Animal Disease Diagnostic Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

?Abstract?The traditional disease diagnostic expertsy stemonly has a single reasoning process to use knowledge,so that its knowledge utilization is inefficient. Its conclusion has low accuracyand without contrast. This paper makes example ofgoat, modelings disease diagnostic knowledge base by the use of object-oriented knowledge representation. According to the training process and diagnostic model, it proposes the ideology of multi-engine ruling based

TAN Wen-xue; GUO Guo-qiang; WANG Jing-ren



Perspectives for genetic engineering of poplars for enhanced phytoremediation abilities.  


Phytoremediation potential has been widely accepted as highly stable and dynamic approach for reducing eco-toxic pollutants. Earlier reports endorse remediation abilities both in herbaceous plants as well as woody trees. Poplars are dominant trees to the ecosystem structure and functioning in riparian forests of North America Rivers and also to other part of the world. Understanding of the fact that how genetic variation in primary producer structures communities, affects species distribution, and alters ecosystem-level processes, attention was paid to investigate the perspectives of genetic modification in poplar. The present review article furnishes documented evidences for genetic engineering of Populus tree for enhanced phytoremediation abilities. The versatility of poplar as a consequence of its distinct traits, rapid growth rates, extensive root system, high perennial biomass production, and immense industrial value, bring it in the forefront of phytoremediation. Furthermore, remediative capabilities of Populus can be significantly increased by introducing cross-kingdom, non-resident genes encoding desirable traits. Available genome sequence database of Populus contribute to the determination of gene functions together with elucidating phytoremediation linked metabolic pathways. Adequate understanding of functional genomics in merger with physiology and genetics of poplar offers distinct advantage in identifying and upgrading phytoremediation potential of this model forest tree species for human welfare. PMID:20848189

Yadav, Rakesh; Arora, Pooja; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhury, Ashok



Multiple Criteria Genetic Algorithms In Engineering Design And Operation  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the application of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to multiple criteria problems in engineering design and operation. The GA is an evolutionary computing technique which applies Darwinian principles such as survival of the fittest, mating and mutation to a population of individuals to evolve good solutions to a broad range of problems. GAs are normally used as single criterion optimisers. However, a Multiple Criteria Genetic Algorithm (MCGA) has been developed in this thesis which allows simultaneous maximisation and minimisation across several criteria. The MCGA is explained, enhanced and modified throughout the thesis as new requirements are introduced. At each stage the enhancements are tested on basic test functions to assess their performance. New concepts such as a Pareto Population, Adaptive Niche Sizing and Neural Network Preferencing are introduced. A broad range of applications have been tackled using the MCGA, all of which are combinatorial in nature. Com...

David Todd; Supervisor Prof; Pratyush Sen



Genetically engineered mouse models to study prostate cancer.  


Genetically engineered mouse models have become fundamental tools in the basic and translational research of prostate cancer. There is a plethora of models available to dissect the genetic alterations and aberrant signaling events associated with human prostate cancer and, furthermore, to investigate new and "personalized" therapies to treat the disease. In this chapter, we discuss some of the models recently and currently used to study prostate cancer in vivo, and some considerations when selecting an appropriate model to investigate particular aspects of the disease. We describe the methods required to isolate prostate tumors and conduct basic characterization of the tumor to determine tumor load and histopathology. We also discuss important aspects to be considered when processing samples for further analysis. PMID:25636465

Brzezinska, Elspeth A; Nixon, Colin; Patel, Rachana; Leung, Hing Y



Water on Mars? / Genetically Engineered Organisms / Spring Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 46 minute radio broadcast discusses the NASA announcement in March 2004 that the rover Opportunity explored a crater on Mars that was once soaked with water - the most convincing evidence yet of a warm, wet past on Mars. Though the question of whether that water may have supported life remains, it certainly improves the odds. The second part of the broadcast discusses genetically engineered organisms. Researchers are investigating many different kinds of genetically-modified organisms, from plants that make their own pesticides, to faster-growing fish. There is discussion about the safety of such research, and what can be done to ensure that the environment is protected. Finally, there is a rundown of the spring 2004 highlights in the sky.


Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries  

PubMed Central

Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo



Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries.  


Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production's effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo



Genetically-engineered oncolytic Newcastle disease virus effectively induces sustained remission of malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumor. Alternative treatment strategies such as oncolytic viral therapy may offer promising treatment options in the future. In this study, the oncolytic efficacy and induction of tumor remission by a genetically-engineered Newcastle disease virus (NDV(F3aa)-GFP) in MPM is tested and monitored by bioluminescent tumor imaging. Experimental Design The efficacy of NDV(F3aa)-GFP was tested against several mesothelioma cell lines in vitro. Firefly luciferase transduced MSTO-211H* orthotopic pleural mesothelioma tumor-bearing animals were treated with either single or multiple doses of NDV(F3aa)-GFP at different time points (days 1 and 10) after tumor implantation. Tumor burden was assessed by bioluminescence imaging. Results Mesothelioma cell lines exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility to NDV lysis in the following order of sensitivity: MSTO-211H>MSTO-211H*>H-2452>VAMT>JMN. In vivo studies with MSTO-211H* cells showed complete response to viral therapy in 65% of the animals within 14 days after treatment initiation. Long term survival in all of these animals was > 50 days after tumor installation (control animals <23 days). Multiple compared with single treatment showed a significantly better response (p=0.005). Conclusions NDV appears to be an efficient viral oncolytic agent in therapy of MPM in an orthotopic pleural mesothelioma tumor model. PMID:20858727

Silberhumer, Gerd R.; Brader, Peter; Wong, Joyce; Serganova, Inna S.; Gönen, Mithat; Gonzalez, Segundo Jaime; Blasberg, Ronald; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Fong, Yuman




EPA Science Inventory

The transfer of recombinant DNA molecules from the introduced organism to natural populations of bacteria may be an important factor in assessing the outcomes of planned release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. As genetic transfer is further investigated,...


Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.



Genetic engineering: Rifkin strikes at corn this time.  


As a result of a threatened suit by Jeremy Rifkin, Stanford University has postponed an experiment involving a test plot of genetically-engineered corn. At issue is an injunction forbidding the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health from approving federal funding of experiments entailing the release of recombinant DNA into the environment. Rifkin's legal argument is that an environmnental impact statement must be filed for both commercially- and federally-funded research. It is expected that Rifkin's demand for equal treatment regardless of funding source will be agreed to by NIH. PMID:6588294

Budiansky, S


Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction  

SciTech Connect

A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.



Breakthrough in chloroplast genetic engineering of agronomically important crops  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment by maternal inheritance, as well as a lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA. More than 40 transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed using the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer desired agronomic traits or express high levels of vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals. Despite such significant progress, this technology has not been extended to major crops. However, highly efficient soybean, carrot and cotton plastid transformation has recently been accomplished through somatic embryogenesis using species-specific chloroplast vectors. This review focuses on recent exciting developments in this field and offers directions for further research and development. PMID:15866001

Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi; Dufourmantel, Nathalie



Animal model integration to AutDB, a genetic database for autism  

PubMed Central

Background In the post-genomic era, multi-faceted research on complex disorders such as autism has generated diverse types of molecular information related to its pathogenesis. The rapid accumulation of putative candidate genes/loci for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ASD-related animal models poses a major challenge for systematic analysis of their content. We previously created the Autism Database (AutDB) to provide a publicly available web portal for ongoing collection, manual annotation, and visualization of genes linked to ASD. Here, we describe the design, development, and integration of a new module within AutDB for ongoing collection and comprehensive cataloguing of ASD-related animal models. Description As with the original AutDB, all data is extracted from published, peer-reviewed scientific literature. Animal models are annotated with a new standardized vocabulary of phenotypic terms developed by our researchers which is designed to reflect the diverse clinical manifestations of ASD. The new Animal Model module is seamlessly integrated to AutDB for dissemination of diverse information related to ASD. Animal model entries within the new module are linked to corresponding candidate genes in the original "Human Gene" module of the resource, thereby allowing for cross-modal navigation between gene models and human gene studies. Although the current release of the Animal Model module is restricted to mouse models, it was designed with an expandable framework which can easily incorporate additional species and non-genetic etiological models of autism in the future. Conclusions Importantly, this modular ASD database provides a platform from which data mining, bioinformatics, and/or computational biology strategies may be adopted to develop predictive disease models that may offer further insights into the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. It also serves as a general model for disease-driven databases curating phenotypic characteristics of corresponding animal models. PMID:21272355



Genetic and phenotypic characterisation of animal, carcass, and meat quality traits from temperate and tropically adapted beef breeds. 4. Correlations among animal, carcass, and meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef cattle data from temperate (TEMP, n = 3947) and tropically adapted (TROP, n = 4137) breeds were analysed to compute estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations between animal, abattoir carcass, and meat quality measures. Live animal traits included: liveweight (S2LWT), scanned subcutaneous rump fat depth (S2P8), scanned eye muscle area (S2EMA), flight time (S1FT), and finishing average daily gain

A. Reverter; D. J. Johnston; D. M. Ferguson; D. Perry; M. E. Goddard; H. M. Burrow; V. H. Oddy; J. M. Thompson; B. M Bindon H




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

Tech Directions, 2008



Prospects of genetic engineering for robust insect resistance.  


Secondary plant metabolites are potentially of great value for providing robust resistance in plants against insect pests. Such metabolites often comprise small lipophilic molecules (SLMs), and can be similar also in terms of activity to currently used insecticides, for example, the pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and butenolides, which provide more effective pest management than the resistance traits exploited by breeding. Crop plants mostly lack the SLMs that provide their wild ancestors with resistance to pests. However, resistance traits based on the biosynthesis of SLMs present promising new opportunities for crop resistance to pests. Advances in genetic engineering of secondary metabolite pathways that produce insecticidal compounds and, more recently, SLMs involved in plant colonisation and development, for example, insect pheromones, offer specific new approaches but which are more demanding than the genetic engineering approaches adopted so far. In addition, nature also offers various opportunities for exploiting induction or priming for resistance metabolite generation. Thus, use of non-constitutively expressed resistance traits delivered via the seed is a more sustainable approach than previously achieved, and could underpin development of perennial arable crops protected by sentinel plant technologies. PMID:24747775

Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A



Contribution of genetic influences to animal-to-animal variation in myoglobin content and beef lean color stability.  


Longissimus thoracis steaks from steers (n = 464) with 0 to 50% inheritance of Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental were evaluated during 6 d of display to assess genetic contributions to color stability. Color space values [CIE L* (lightness), a* (redness), b* (yellowness)], chroma, color change (DeltaE), and surface metmyoglobin (K/S 572/525) were determined on d 0 and 6 of display. Myoglobin concentration was highly heritable (0.85), but ultimate pH was weakly heritable (0.06). Day 0 L* values were moderately heritable (0.24). Variation in metmyoglobin, L*, and DeltaE on d 6 was moderately explained by genetic factors (41, 40, and 29%, respectively). Change during display was moderately heritable for a* (0.31), b* (0.23), chroma (0.35), and surface metmyoglobin (0.29). At the start of display, Angus steaks had greater (P < 0.05) L* values than those from all breeds except Charolais. On d 6, Angus steaks had greater (P < 0.05) L* (50.0) values than Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Simmental steaks (46.1, 44.0, and 44.5, respectively). Day 0 values for a*, b*, chroma, and DeltaE were not affected by breed (P > 0.05). On d 6, a* values were greater (P < 0.05) for Charolais and Limousin steaks (31.1 and 30.5) than Angus, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (27.4, 27.7, and 26.3, respectively). Thus, a* changed less (P < 0.05) in Charolais and Limousin steaks (1.8 and 2.6, respectively) vs. steaks from other breeds. Day 6 b* values were greater (P < 0.05) in Charolais (24.5) and Limousin steaks (24.0) vs. Gelbvieh (22.2), Hereford (21.9), and Red Angus steaks (21.4). Thus, b* values changed less (P < 0.05) in Charolais and Limousin steaks (1.5 and 1.7, respectively) than in Angus, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (4.3, 3.8, 4.4, and 5.1, respectively). After 6 d of display, Charolais and Limousin steaks had greater chroma (P < 0.05; 39.5 and 38.8, respectively) compared with Angus, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (35.4, 35.3, and 33.9, respectively). Less (P < 0.05) change in chroma occurred for Charolais and Limousin (2.1 and 2.8, respectively) than in Angus, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (7.1, 6.6, 7.4, and 9.0, respectively). Myoglobin concentration was less for Charolais and Limousin (P < 0.05; 2.77 and 2.72, respectively) compared with Gelbvieh, Red Angus, and Simmental steaks (3.62, 3.43, and 3.71, respectively). Breeds did not differ in pH (P > 0.05). These data suggest Charolais- and Limousin-carcasses produced steaks with greater lean color stability than Angus, Hereford, and Red Angus carcasses. Furthermore, these findings suggest that genetics contribute substantially to animal-to-animal variation in lean color, particularly in maintaining color. PMID:19966159

King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Kuehn, L A; Kemp, C M; Rodriguez, A B; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L



Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research. PMID:24964011

Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel



Intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic animals  

PubMed Central

Intra-locus sexual conflict results when sex-specific selection pressures for a given trait act against the intra-sexual genetic correlation for that trait. It has been found in a wide variety of taxa in both laboratory and natural populations, but the importance of intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic organisms has rarely been considered. This is not so surprising given the conceptual and theoretical association of intra-locus sexual conflict with sexual dimorphism, but there is no a priori reason why intra-locus sexual conflict cannot occur in hermaphroditic organisms as well. Here, I discuss the potential for intra-locus sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals and review the available evidence for such conflict, and for the existence of sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphrodites. I argue that mutations with asymmetric effects are particularly likely to be important in mediating sexual antagonism in hermaphroditic organisms. Moreover, sexually antagonistic genetic variation is likely to play an important role in inter-individual variation in sex allocation and in transitions to and from gonochorism (separate sexes) in simultaneous hermaphrodites. I also describe how sequential hermaphrodites may experience a unique form of intra-locus sexual conflict via antagonistic pleiotropy. Finally, I conclude with some suggestions for further research. PMID:20719776

Abbott, Jessica K.



Applications of Population Genetics to Animal Breeding, from Wright, Fisher and Lush to Genomic Prediction  

PubMed Central

Although animal breeding was practiced long before the science of genetics and the relevant disciplines of population and quantitative genetics were known, breeding programs have mainly relied on simply selecting and mating the best individuals on their own or relatives’ performance. This is based on sound quantitative genetic principles, developed and expounded by Lush, who attributed much of his understanding to Wright, and formalized in Fisher’s infinitesimal model. Analysis at the level of individual loci and gene frequency distributions has had relatively little impact. Now with access to genomic data, a revolution in which molecular information is being used to enhance response with “genomic selection” is occurring. The predictions of breeding value still utilize multiple loci throughout the genome and, indeed, are largely compatible with additive and specifically infinitesimal model assumptions. I discuss some of the history and genetic issues as applied to the science of livestock improvement, which has had and continues to have major spin-offs into ideas and applications in other areas. PMID:24395822

Hill, William G.



Genetic Variability of MicroRNA Genes in 15 Animal Species  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-coding RNAs important in posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. Previous studies have proven that genetic variability of miRNA genes (miR-SNP) has an impact on phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility in human, mice and some livestock species. MicroRNA gene polymorphisms could therefore represent biomarkers for phenotypic traits also in other animal species. We upgraded our previously developed tool miRNA SNiPer to the version 4.0 which enables the search of miRNA genetic variability in 15 animal genomes: Genome-wide in silico screening (GWISS) of 15 genomes revealed that based on the current database releases, miRNA genes are most polymorphic in cattle, followed by human, fruitfly, mouse, chicken, pig, horse, and sheep. The difference in the number of miRNA gene polymorphisms between species is most probably not due to a biological reason and lack of genetic variability in some species, but to different stage of sequencing projects and differences in development of genomic resource databases in different species. Genome screening revealed several interesting genomic hotspots. For instance, several multiple nucleotide polymorphisms (MNPs) are present within mature seed region in cattle. Among miR-SNPs 46 are present on commercial whole-genome SNP chips: 16 in cattle, 26 in chicken, two in sheep and two in pig. The update of the miRNA SNiPer tool and the generated catalogs will serve researchers as a starting point in designing projects dealing with the effects of genetic variability of miRNA genes.

Zorc, Minja; Obsteter, Jana; Dovc, Peter; Kunej, Tanja



Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.  


Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith


Teaching Habitat and Animal Classification to Fourth Graders Using an Engineering-Design Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGO[TM] engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented.…

Marulcu, Ismail




Microsoft Academic Search

The paper identifies three main objectives supported by animation in developing teachware for Control Engineering: complementary information for simulation experiments, substitute for expensive hardware and demos for help on-line. Brief details are given with respect to the software technologies that allow approaching each of the three objectives. Concrete aspects pertaining to these technologies are illustrated by means of the numerous

Cristian Mahulea; Mihaela-Hanako Matcovschi; Octavian Pastravanu



Roadmap: Engineering Technology -Computer Design, Animation and Game Design -Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

RE-BS-ENGT-CDAG Regional College Catalog Year: 2014-2015 Page 1 of 2 | Last Updated: 27-May-14/JSK for Instruction or TECH 33095 Special Topics: Applied Science and Technology or TECH 34002 Advanced CAD II 3Roadmap: Engineering Technology - Computer Design, Animation and Game Design - Bachelor of Science

Khan, Javed I.


Genetic Engineering: A Matter that Requires Further Refinement in Spanish Secondary School Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with…

Martinez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quylez, M. J.; Osada, J.



Do Physicians' Beliefs About Genetic Engineering Influence Their Likelihood of Prescribing a Biopharmaceutical? An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopharmaceuticals present one of the fastest growing segments of the pharmaceutical industry. Biopharmaceuticals are produced through genetic engineering, a technology that some believe is unethical and can have unforeseen consequences to individual health and the environment (Bredhal, 1999; Gaskell et al., 1999; Hallman et al., 2002). In this study, we investigate whether physicians' beliefs about genetic engineering have any influence

Sarath A. Nonis; Gail I. Hudson



A customizable FPGA IP core implementation of a general purpose Genetic Algorithm engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware implementation of genetic algorithms (GA) is gaining importance as genetic algorithms can be effectively used as an optimization engine for real-time applications (for e.g., evolvable hardware). In this work, we report the design of an IP core that implements a general purpose GA engine which has been successfully synthesized and verified on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA device

Pradeep Fernando; Hariharan Sankaran; Srinivas Katkoori; Didier Keymeulen; Adrian Stoica; Ricardo Salem Zebulum; Rajeshuni Ramesham



Modelling of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Introduction in Closed Artificial Microcosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of introducing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEM) into simple biotic cycles of laboratory water microcosms was investigated. The survival of the recombinant strain Escherichia coli Z905 (Apr, Lux+) in microcosms depends on the type of model ecosystems. During the absence of algae blooming in the model ecosystem, the part of plasmid-containing cells E. coli decreased fast, and the structure of the plasmid was also modified. In conditions of algae blooming (Ankistrodesmus sp.) an almost total maintenance of plasmid-containing cells was observed in E.coli population. A mathematics model of GEM's behavior in water ecosystems with different level of complexity has been formulated. Mechanisms causing the difference in luminescent exhibition of different species are discussed, and attempts are made to forecast the GEM's behavior in water ecosystems.

Pechurkin, N. S.; Brilkov, A. V.; Ganusov, V. V.; Kargatova, T. V.; Maksimova, E. E.; Popova, L. Yu.



Barriers and paths to market for genetically engineered crops.  


Each year, billions of dollars are invested in efforts to improve crops through genetic engineering (GE). These activities have resulted in a surge of publications and patents on technologies and genes: a momentum in basic research that, unfortunately, is not sustained throughout the subsequent phases of product development. After more than two decades of intensive research, the market for transgenic crops is still dominated by applications of just a handful of methods and genes. This discrepancy between research and development reflects difficulties in understanding and overcoming seven main barriers-to-entry: (1) trait efficacy in the field, (2) critical product concepts, (3) freedom-to-operate, (4) industry support, (5) identity preservation and stewardship, (6) regulatory approval and (7) retail and consumer acceptance. In this review, I describe the various roadblocks to market for transgenic crops and also discuss methods and approaches on how to overcome these, especially in the United States. PMID:19968823

Rommens, Caius M



Modelling of genetically engineered microorganisms introduction in closed artificial microcosms.  


The possibility of introducing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEM) into simple biotic cycles of laboratory water microcosms was investigated. The survival of the recombinant strain Escherichia coli Z905 (Apr, Lux+) in microcosms depends on the type of model ecosystems. During the absence of algae blooming in the model ecosystem, the part of plasmid-containing cells E. coli decreased fast, and the structure of the plasmid was also modified. In conditions of algae blooming (Ankistrodesmus sp.) an almost total maintenance of plasmid-containing cells was observed in E. coli population. A mathematics model of GEM's behavior in water ecosystems with different level of complexity has been formulated. Mechanisms causing the difference in luminescent exhibition of different species are discussed, and attempts are made to forecast the GEM's behavior in water ecosystems. PMID:11542542

Pechurkin, N S; Brilkov, A V; Ganusov, V V; Kargatova, T V; Maksimova, E E; Popova LYu



Poplar genetic engineering: promoting desirable wood characteristics and pest resistance.  


Worldwide biomass demand for industrial applications, especially for production of biofuels, is increasing. Extended cultivation of fast growing trees such as poplars may contribute to satisfy the need for renewable resources. However, lignin, which constitutes about 20-30% of woody biomass, renders poplar wood recalcitrant to saccharification. Genetic engineering of the enzymes of the lignification pathway has resulted in drastic decreases in lignin and greatly improved the carbohydrate yield for ethanol fermentation. While uncovering key enzymes for lignification facilitated rapid biotechnological progress, knowledge on field performance of low-lignin poplars is still lagging behind. The major biotic damage is caused by poplar rust fungi (Melampsora larici-populina), whose defense responses involve lignification and production of phenolic compounds. Therefore, manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway may be critical and should be tightly linked with new strategies for improved poplar rust tolerance. Emerging novel concepts for wood improvement are discussed. PMID:23681587

Polle, A; Janz, D; Teichmann, T; Lipka, V



Surveys suck: Consumer preferences when purchasing genetically engineered foods.  


Many studies have attempted to gauge consumers' acceptance of genetically engineered or modified (GM) foods. Surveys, asking people about attitudes and intentions, are easy-to-collect proxies of consumer behavior. However, participants tend to respond as citizens of society, not discrete individuals, thereby inaccurately portraying their potential behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior improved the accuracy of self-reported information, but its limited capacity to account for intention variance has been attributed to the hypothetical scenarios to which survey participants must respond. Valuation methods, asking how much consumers may be willing to pay or accept for GM foods, have revealed that consumers are usually willing to accept them at some price, or in some cases willing to pay a premium. Ultimately, it's consumers' actual--not intended--behavior that is of most interest to policy makers and business decision-makers. Real choice experiments offer the best avenue for revealing consumers' food choices in normal life. PMID:24281042

Powell, Douglas A



9:00 Genetically Engineered Crops in 2014: Where are they Used; How Do they Work?  

E-print Network

AGENDA 9:00 Genetically Engineered Crops in 2014: Where are they Used; How Do they Work? Dr. Kevin're confused about biotechnology, genetically modified organisms, and the role that science plays in food:45 Academics and Journalists in GMO Communication Jon Entine, Journalist, Forbes & Genetic Literacy Project 12

Dranishnikov, Alexander


Automated sorting of genetically engineered embryonic stem cells for generation of mouse models  

E-print Network

Although genetically modified mice have huge potential for the analysis of gene function, the creation Pharmaceuticals for rapid generation of genetically modified mouse models from engineered ESCs offers a fast clones 15 cells transferred to tetraploid blastocysts Genetically modified mice 60 3 Targeted ES clone

Cai, Long


Human, food and animal Campylobacter spp. isolated in Portugal: high genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance rates.  


Infections by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food being the main source of infection. In this study, a total of 196 Campylobacter strains (125 isolates from humans, 39 from retail food and 32 from food animal sources) isolated in Portugal between 2009 and 2012 were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and flaA short variable region (SVR) typing. Susceptibility to six antibiotics as well as the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance phenotypes was also studied. Based on MLST typing, C. coli strains were genetically more conserved, with a predominant clonal complex (CC828), than C. jejuni strains. In contrast, C. coli isolates were genetically more variable than C. jejuni with regard to flaA-SVR typing. A high rate of resistance was observed for quinolones (100% to nalidixic acid, >90% to ciprofloxacin) and, in general, resistance was more common among C. coli, especially for erythromycin (40.2% vs. 6.7%). In addition, most isolates (86%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial families. Besides the expected point mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, detected polymorphisms in the cmeABC locus likely play a role in the multiresistant phenotype. This study provides for the first time an overview of the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains from Portugal. It also shows a worrying antibiotic multiresistance rate and the emergence of Campylobacter strains resistant to antibiotics of human use. PMID:25130097

Duarte, Andreia; Santos, Andrea; Manageiro, Vera; Martins, Ana; Fraqueza, Maria J; Caniça, Manuela; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica



Recombineering: genetic engineering in bacteria using homologous recombination.  


The bacterial chromosome and bacterial plasmids can be engineered in vivo by homologous recombination using PCR products and synthetic oligonucleotides as substrates. This is possible because bacteriophage-encoded recombination proteins efficiently recombine sequences with homologies as short as 35 to 50 bases. Recombineering allows DNA sequences to be inserted or deleted without regard to location of restriction sites. This unit first describes preparation of electrocompetent cells expressing the recombineering functions and their transformation with dsDNA or ssDNA. It then presents support protocols that describe several two-step selection/counter-selection methods of making genetic alterations without leaving any unwanted changes in the targeted DNA, and a method for retrieving onto a plasmid a genetic marker (cloning by retrieval) from the Escherichia coli chromosome or a co-electroporated DNA fragment. Additional protocols describe methods to screen for unselected mutations, removal of the defective prophage from recombineering strains, and other useful techniques. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 106:1.16.1-1.16.39. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24733238

Thomason, Lynn C; Sawitzke, James A; Li, Xintian; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L



Novel method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment.  


A method has been devised for directly detecting and monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) by using in vitro amplification of the target DNAs by a polymerase chain reaction and then hybridizing the DNAs with a specific oligonucleotide or DNA probe. A cloned 0.3-kilobase napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) genomic DNA that did not hybridize to DNAs isolated from various microorganisms, soil sediments, and aquatic environments was inserted into a derivative of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid, pRC10, and transferred into Escherichia coli. This genetically altered microorganism, seeded into filter-sterilized lake and sewage water samples (10(4)/ml), was detected by a plate count method in decreasing numbers for 6 and 10 days of sample incubation, respectively. The new method detected the amplified unique marker (0.3-kilobase DNA) of the GEM even after 10 to 14 days of incubation. This method is highly sensitive (it requires only picogram amounts of DNA) and has an advantage over the plate count technique, which can detect only culturable microorganisms. The method may be useful for monitoring GEMs in complex environments, where discrimination between GEMs and indigenous microorganisms is either difficult or requires time-consuming tests. PMID:2667463

Chaudhry, G R; Toranzos, G A; Bhatti, A R



78 FR 51706 - Bayer CropScience LP; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...



76 FR 63278 - Bayer CropScience LP; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Cotton Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...




EPA Science Inventory

The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...


Genetically Engineered Erwinia carotovora: Survival, Intraspecific Competition, and Effects upon Selected Bacterial Genera  

PubMed Central

Environmental use of genetically engineered microorganisms has raised concerns about potential ecological impact. This research evaluated the survival, competitiveness, and effects upon selected bacterial genera of wild-type and genetically engineered Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora to ascertain if differences between the wild-type and genetically engineered strains exist in soil microcosms. The engineered strain contained a chromosomally inserted gene for kanamycin resistance. No significant differences in survival in nonsterile soil over 2 months or in the competitiveness of either strain were observed when the strains were added concurrently to microcosms. For reasons that remain unclear, the engineered strain did survive longer in sterilized soil. The effects of both strains on total bacteria, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus strains, and actinomycetes were observed. While some apparent differences were observed, they were not statistically significant. A better understanding of the microbial ecology of engineered bacteria, especially pathogens genetically altered for use as biological control agents, is essential before commercial applications can be accomplished. PMID:16348212

Orvos, David R.; Lacy, George H.; Cairns, John



Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon, Justyna Petke, Iman Hemati Moghadam,  

E-print Network

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon engineer. In this paper we outline how a Search Based Software Engineering approach called `genetic ABSTRACT This paper1 presents a brief outline of an approach to online genetic improvement. We argue

Harman, Mark


Optimisation of the Gas-Exchange System of Combustion Engines by Genetic Algorithm  

E-print Network

Optimisation of the Gas-Exchange System of Combustion Engines by Genetic Algorithm C. D. Rose, S. R of combustion engine gas-exchange systems still predominantly use trial and error. This paper proposes a new. INTRODUCTION The gas-exchange system is a primary factor in the performance of a combustion engine. Designing

Marsland, Stephen


A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).

Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo



Genetic causes of transitions from sexual reproduction to asexuality in plants and animals.  


The persistence of sexual reproduction in the face of competition from asexual invaders is more likely if asexual lineages are produced infrequently or have low fitness. The generation rate and success of new asexual lineages will be influenced by the proximate mechanisms underlying transitions to asexuality. As such, characterization of these mechanisms can help explain the distribution of reproductive modes among natural populations. Here, we synthesize the literature addressing proximate causes of transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction in plants and animals. In cyclical and facultatively asexual taxa, individual mutations can cause obligate asexuality. The evolution of asexuality in obligately sexual groups is more complex, requiring the simultaneous acquisition of two traits generally controlled by different genetic factors: unreduced gamete formation and spontaneous development of unfertilized gametes. At least three 'pre-adaptations' could favour transitions to obligate asexuality in obligate sexuals. First, linkage among loci affecting separate key components of asexuality facilitates its spread, with evidence for these linkage blocks in plants. Second, asexuality should evolve more readily in haplodiploids; support for this hypothesis comes from two examples where a single locus causes transitions to asexuality. Third, standing genetic variation for the production of unreduced gametes could facilitate transitions to asexuality, but whether the ability to produce unreduced gametes contributes to the evolution of obligate asexuality remains unclear. We close by reviewing the associations between asexuality, hybridization and polyploidy, and argue that current data suggest that hybridization is more likely to play a causal role in transitions to asexuality than polyploidy. PMID:24666600

Neiman, M; Sharbel, T F; Schwander, T



Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies. PMID:22958744



AnimAl BehAvior AnimAl Biology Anthropology AviAn ScienceS BiochemiStry, moleculAr, cellulAr AnD DevelopmentAl Biology BiologicAl SyStemS engineering BiomeDicAl engineering BiophySicS BioStAtiSticS clinicAl reSeArch  

E-print Network

-depth study in behavior, biochemistry, ecology, genetics, immunology, nutrition, physiology, reproduction andAnimAl BehAvior § AnimAl Biology § Anthropology § AviAn ScienceS § BiochemiStry, moleculAr, cellulD nutrition § microBiology § moleculAr, cellulAr AnD integrAtive phySiology § neuroScience § nurSing Science

Schladow, S. Geoffrey


Stochastic signaling in biochemical cascades and genetic systems in genetically engineered living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living cells, either prokaryote or eukaryote, can be integrated within whole-cell biochips (WCBCs) for various applications. We investigate WCBCs where information is extracted from the cells via a cascade of biochemical reactions that involve gene expression. The overall biological signal is weak due to small sample volume, low intrinsic cell response, and extrinsic signal loss mechanisms. The low signal-to-noise ratio problem is aggravated during initial detection stages and limits the minimum detectable signal or, alternatively, the minimum detection time. Taking into account the stochastic nature of biochemical process, we find that the signal is accompanied by relatively large noise disturbances. In this work, we use genetically engineered microbe sensors as a model to study the biochips output signal stochastic behavior. In our model, the microbes are designed to express detectable reporter proteins under external induction. We present analytical approximated expressions and numerical simulations evaluating the fluctuations of the synthesized reporter proteins population based on a set of equations modeling a cascade of biochemical and genetic reactions. We assume that the reporter proteins decay more slowly than messenger RNA molecules. We calculate the relation between the noise of the input signal (extrinsic noise) and biochemical reaction statistics (intrinsic noise). We discuss in further details two cases: (1) a cascade with large decay rates of all biochemical reactions compared to the protein decay rate. We show that in this case, the noise amplitude has a positive linear correlation with the number of stages in the cascade. (2) A cascade which includes a stable enzymatic-binding reaction with slow decay rate. We show that in this case, the noise strongly depends on the protein decay rate. Finally, a general observation is presented stating that the noise in whole-cell biochip sensors is determined mainly by the first reactions in the genetic system with weak dependence on the number of stages in the cascade.

Daniel, Ramiz; Almog, Ronen; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi



GENESIS, a knowledge-based genetic engineering simulation system for representation of genetic data and experiment planning.  

PubMed Central

We have built a knowledge-based genetic engineering simulation system-- GENESIS-- capable of representing both domain-specific and general knowledge. Information is stored within a hierarchically-organized framework composed of structures called units. A series of sophisticated editors enables no-computer specialist molecular geneticists to construct a knowledge base through direct interaction with the computer. Three types of knowledge specific to the domain of molecular genetics, MAPS, sequences and RULES are discussed in detail with examples. PMID:6950365

Friedland, P; Kedes, L; Brutlag, D; Iwasaki, Y; Bach, R



Genetically engineered protein in hydrogels tailors stimuli-responsive characteristics.  


Certain proteins undergo a substantial conformational change in response to a given stimulus. This conformational change can manifest in different manners and result in an actuation, that is, catalytic or signalling event, movement, interaction with other proteins, and so on. In all cases, the sensing-actuation process of proteins is initiated by a recognition event that translates into a mechanical action. Thus, proteins are ideal components for designing new nanomaterials that are intelligent and can perform desired mechanical actions in response to target stimuli. A number of approaches have been undertaken to mimic nature's sensing-actuating process. We now report a new hybrid material that integrates genetically engineered proteins within hydrogels capable of producing a stimulus-responsive action mechanism. The mechanical effect is a result of an induced conformational change and binding affinities of the protein in response to a stimulus. The stimuli-responsive hydrogel exhibits three specific swelling stages in response to various ligands offering additional fine-tuned control over a conventional two-stage swelling hydrogel. The newly prepared material was used in the sensing, and subsequent gating and transport of biomolecules across a polymer network, demonstrating its potential application in microfluidics and miniaturized drug-delivery systems. PMID:15765106

Ehrick, Jason D; Deo, Sapna K; Browning, Tyler W; Bachas, Leonidas G; Madou, Marc J; Daunert, Sylvia



Endogenous allergens in the regulatory assessment of genetically engineered crops.  


A scientific approach to the assessment of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) crops is critical to maintaining objectivity and public confidence in regulatory decisions. Principles developed at the international level support regulators and enable robust and transparent safety assessments. A comparison of key constituents in the GE crop with a suitable comparator is an important element of an assessment. In Europe, endogenous allergens would be included in the comparative analysis, however this approach has been hindered by technical limitations on the ability to accurately measure identified allergenic proteins. Over recent years, improved proteomic methods have enabled researchers to focus on major allergenic proteins in conventional food crops, as information on natural variability is largely lacking. Emerging data for soybean indicate that variability in levels of major allergens already in the food supply is broad. This raises questions about the biological interpretation of differences between a GE plant and its conventional counterpart, in particular, whether any conclusions about altered allergenicity could be inferred. This paper discusses the scientific justification for requiring proteomic analysis of endogenous allergens as part of the evaluation. Ongoing scientific review and corresponding international discussion are integral to ensuring that data requirements address legitimate risk assessment questions. PMID:25128445

Graf, Lynda; Hayder, Hikmat; Mueller, Utz



Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier  

PubMed Central

Betalains are one of the major plant pigment groups found in some higher plants and higher fungi. They are not produced naturally in any plant species outside of the order Caryophyllales, nor are they produced by anthocyanin-accumulating Caryophyllales. Here, we attempted to reconstruct the betalain biosynthetic pathway as a self-contained system in an anthocyanin-producing plant species. The combined expressions of a tyrosinase gene from shiitake mushroom and a DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase gene from the four-o'clock plant resulted in successful betalain production in cultured cells of tobacco BY2 and Arabidopsis T87. Transgenic tobacco BY2 cells were bright yellow because of the accumulation of betaxanthins. LC-TOF-MS analyses showed that proline-betaxanthin (Pro-Bx) accumulated as the major betaxanthin in these transgenic BY2 cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cells also produced betaxanthins, but produced lower levels than transgenic BY2 cells. These results illustrate the success of a novel genetic engineering strategy for betalain biosynthesis. PMID:23760173

Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Mariko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Tsujimura, Ikuko; Saito, Misa; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nishihara, Masahiro



Immune Competency of a Hairless Mouse Strain for Improved Preclinical Studies in Genetically-Engineered Mice  

PubMed Central

Genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are of increasing value to preclinical therapeutics. Optical imaging is a cost-effective method of assessing deep-seated tumor growth in GEMMs whose tumors can be encoded to express luminescent or fluorescent reporters, although reporter signal attenuation would be improved if animals were fur-free. In this study, we sought to determine whether hereditable furlessness resulting from a hypomorphic mutation in the Hairless gene would or would not also affect immune competence. By assessment of humoral and cellular immunity of the SKH1 mouse line bearing the hypomorphic Hairless mutation, we determined that blood counts, immunoglobulin levels, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were comparable between SKH1 and the C57Bl/6 strain. On examination of T cell subsets, statistically significant differences in naïve T cells (1.7 vs. 3.4 × 105 cells/spleen in SKH1 vs. C57Bl/6, p=0.008) and memory T cells (1.4 vs. 0.13 × 106 cells/spleen in SKH1 vs. C57Bl/6, p=0.008) were detected. However, the numerical differences did not result in altered T cell functional response to antigen re-challenge (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) in a lymph node cell in vitro proliferative assay. Furthermore, interbreeding the SKH1 mouse line to a rhabdomyosarcoma GEMM demonstrated preserved anti-tumor responses of CD56+ Natural Killer cells and CD163+ macrophages, without any differences in tumor pathology. The fur-free GEMM was also especially amenable to multiplex optical imaging. Thus, SKH1 represents an immune competent, fur-free mouse strain which may be of use for interbreeding to other genetically-engineered mouse models of cancer for improved preclinical studies. PMID:20663932

Schaffer, Beverly S.; Grayson, Marcia H.; Wortham, Joy M.; Kubicek, Courtney B.; McCleish, Amanda T.; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Nelon, Laura D.; Brady, Michelle M.; Jung, Inkyung; Hosoyama, Tohru; Sarro, Leslea M.; Hanes, Martha A.; Rubin, Brian P.; Michalek, Joel E.; Clifford, Charles B.; Infante, Anthony J.; Keller, Charles



Genetic Animal Models of Depression Peter R. Canavello, Rupert J. Egan, Carisa L. Bergner, Peter C. Hart,  

E-print Network

- pus has been linked to some symptoms of depression (8). Additionally, antidepressant drug treatment191 Chapter 10 Genetic Animal Models of Depression Peter R. Canavello, Rupert J. Egan, Carisa L. Bergner, Peter C. Hart, Jonathan M. Cachat, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Depression, as part of a larger

Kalueff, Allan V.


Genetic improvement of reproduction : time for deeds A.R.C. Animal Breeding Research Organisation, West Mains Road,  

E-print Network

Genetic improvement of reproduction : time for deeds R.B. LAND A.R.C. Animal Breeding Research between ram testes weight and ewe fertility S.S. THORSTEINSSON S. THORGEIRSSON O.R. DYRMUNSSON (l a ram progeny testing program were analysed to estimate the heritability of testes weight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CROSSBREEDING EXPERIMENTS IN PIGS E. BRUNS. - Institut of Animal Breeding and Genetics Göttingen, BRD. Three alternative procedures for analyzing crossbreeding experiments in pigs from a German Federal Crossbreeding Experiment. The results are : i. Estimates of error mean squares

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future.The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The

Karen Aulrich; H. Böhme; R. Daenicke; Ingrid Halle; G. Flachowsky



Bioremediation of the organophosphate methyl parathion using genetically engineered and native organisms  

E-print Network

of the resulting products, p-nitrophenol (PNP), by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 53874. Simultaneous degradation of both MP and PNP was investigated using a consortium of a genetically engineered Escherichia coli and a native S. chlorophenolicum...

Diaz Casas, Adriana Z.



Genetic algorithm based optimization in engineering design using fuzzy constraints and fitness functions  

E-print Network

The motivation for this work has been the use of tools, such as genetic algorithms and fuzzy sets, to address the various issues that are involved in an engineering design optimization problem. In order to address the variety, generality...

Vijayakumar, Bhuvaneshwaran



Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw in high demand by industries. Trichoderma reesei, a prolific industrial cellulase and hemicellulase-mail: #12;Keywords Agricultural residues . Trichoderma reesei . Xylitol production

Qin, Wensheng


The establishment of genetically engineered canola populations in the U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Concerns regarding the commercial release of genetically engineered (GE) crops include naturalization, introgression to sexually compatible relatives and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species through hybridization. To date there have been few documented re...


Gene flow in genetically engineered perennial grasses: Lessons for modification of dedicated bioenergy crops  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential ecological consequences of the commercialization of genetically engineered (GD) crops have been the subject of intense debate, particularly when the GE crops are perennial and capable of outcrossing to wild relatives. The essential ecological impact issues for engi...


76 FR 63279 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered for Insect...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) of St. Louis, MO, seeking a determination of nonregulated status for soybean (Glycine max) designated as event MON 87701, which has been genetically engineered for insect resistance, stating that this...




EPA Science Inventory

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation is a major technique for the genetic engineering of plants. However, there are many economically important crop and tree species that remain highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium infection. Although attempts have been made to ...



EPA Science Inventory

Plasmid pSI30 was constructed to increase the sensitivity of detection of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and its recombinant DNA in environmental samples. his broad host-range, mobilizable plasmid contained chlorocatechol (clc) degradative genes, antibiotic resistan...


Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.  


The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B



Genetic adaptive state estimation for a jet engine compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic algorithm (GA) uses the principles of evolution, natural selection, and genetics to offer a method for parallel search of complex spaces. In this paper we develop a GA that can perform online adaptive state estimation. First, we show how to construct a genetic adaptive state estimator where a GA evolves the model in a state estimator in real

James R. Gremling; Kevin M. Passino



Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.



Contribution of Genetic Influences to Animal-to-Animal Variation in Myoglobin Content and Beef Lean Color Stability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longissimus thoracis steaks from steers (n = 464) with 0 to 50% inheritance of Angus (A), Charolais (C), Gelbvieh (G), Hereford (H), Limousin (L), Red Angus (RA), and Simmental (S) were evaluated during 6 d of display to assess genetic contributions to color stability. Color space values (CIE L* [l...


Women as body parts in the era of reproductive and genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive and genetic engineering are presented by their promoters as miracle cures for people with infertility problems or who are at genetic risk in having their desired healthy child. Focusing on the test?tube baby method (in vitro fertilization), in this article I investigate the medical reality of these technologies and their impact on women's lives as individuals and as members

Renate Klein



Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.



Scientific and regulatory challenges of developing a genetically engineered virus resistant plum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering (GE) has the potential to revolutionize fruit tree breeding and is an important addition to the fruit breeder’s "toolbox". It is an approach that can specifically target genetic improvements and allow for the development of novel, useful traits. In spite of the potential utilit...


N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust.  


Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant, confers protection to animals exposed to DEPs from oxidative stress-induced damage to the lung. To study this, male C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with either NACA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline, were exposed to DEPs (15mg/m(3)) or filtered air (1.5-3h/day) for nine consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last exposure. NACA-treated animals exposed to DEP had significant decreases in the number of macrophages and the amount of mucus plug formation in the lungs, as compared to the DEP-only exposed animals. In addition, DEP-exposed animals, pretreated with NACA, also experienced significantly lower oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Further, DEP-induced toxicity in the lungs was reversed in NACA-treated animals, as indicated by the lactate dehydrogenase levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-antioxidant, NACA, can protect the lungs from DEP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress related damage. PMID:19429263

Banerjee, Atrayee; Trueblood, Max B; Zhang, Xinsheng; Manda, Kalyan Reddy; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip D; Hagen, Donald E; Ercal, Nuran



Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.



Ethanol production from wood hydrolysate using genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis.  


An ethanologenic microorganism capable of fermenting all of the sugars released from lignocellulosic biomass through a saccharification process is essential for secondary bioethanol production. We therefore genetically engineered the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis such that it efficiently produced bioethanol from the hydrolysate of wood biomass containing glucose, mannose, and xylose as major sugar components. This was accomplished by introducing genes encoding mannose and xylose catabolic enzymes from Escherichia coli. Integration of E. coli manA into Z. mobilis chromosomal DNA conferred the ability to co-ferment mannose and glucose, producing 91 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol within 36 h. Then, by introducing a recombinant plasmid harboring the genes encoding E. coli xylA, xylB, tal, and tktA, we broadened the range of fermentable sugar substrates for Z. mobilis to include mannose and xylose as well as glucose. The resultant strain was able to ferment a mixture of 20 g/l glucose, 20 g/l mannose, and 20 g/l xylose as major sugar components of wood hydrolysate within 72 h, producing 89.8 % of the theoretical yield. The recombinant Z. mobilis also efficiently fermented actual acid hydrolysate prepared from cellulosic feedstock containing glucose, mannose, and xylose. Moreover, a reactor packed with the strain continuously produced ethanol from acid hydrolysate of wood biomass from coniferous trees for 10 days without accumulation of residual sugars. Ethanol productivity was at 10.27 g/l h at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1). PMID:22573268

Yanase, Hideshi; Miyawaki, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Mitsugu; Kawakami, Akinori; Matsumoto, Mari; Haga, Kenji; Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji



Prospects for applications of genetic engineering in pig breeding P. MULSANT, M. DALENS, Genevive ECHARD, J. GELLIN,  

E-print Network

Prospects for applications of genetic engineering in pig breeding P. MULSANT, M. DALENS, Geneviève, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex Genetic engineering provides an extremely high number of cloned mammalian DNA sequences. These sequences should be powerful tools for genetic analysis or improvement of the pig

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


‘Objection’ mapping in determining group and individual concerns regarding genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst there has been much debateregarding the importance of public acceptance ofgenetic engineering and its applications, there isevidence to indicate that objections to the technologyare likely to focus on specific applications of thetechnology, rather than genetic engineering per se.Thus it becomes important to examine the extent ofobjections associated with individual applications,rather than to assess public feeling regarding thetechnology overall. Survey

L. J. Frewer; D. Hedderley; C. Howard; R. Shepherd



Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick




EPA Science Inventory

The basis for the first U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approval for the field release of a genetically-engineered virus has been to take advantage of the biological properties of baculovirus in such a way that an engineered virus could possess enhanced pesticidal properties...


Directed evolution of RuBisCO hypermorphs through genetic selection in engineered E.coli  

E-print Network

Directed evolution of RuBisCO hypermorphs through genetic selection in engineered E.coli Monal R coli; the engineered strain requires the Synechococcus PCC6301 RuBisCO for growth in minimal mediaBisCO and other non-native metabolic enzymes. Keywords: carbon dioxide fixation/horizontal transfer/in vitro

Matsumura, Ichiro


Comparison of genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from aquatic animals in Taiwan.  


Seventy-six Taiwanese bacterial isolates including 74 from diseased, cultured, aquatic animals (54 grey mullet Mugil cephalus, 3 basket mullet Chelon alatus, 2 tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 1 grouper Epinephelus coioides, 2 yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus, 1 Borneo mullet Chelon macrolepis, 1 bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, 1 Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, and 9 giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 1 wild-caught seafood species (squid muscle collected from a restaurant) and 1 human isolate (from a patient with a history of consuming raw squid in the previously mentioned restaurant), all collected between 1999 and 2006, were confirmed by PCR assay to be Lactococcus garvieae. The phenotypic characterization was determined by rabbit anti-KG+ and KG- serums, and 74 of the 76 Taiwanese strains displayed a KG- phenotype. The genetic characterization was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genomic DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases ApaI and SmaI and separated by PFGE. Ten different L. garvieae pulsotypes were identified. Predominant pulsotypes A1a/S1a were obtained from >96% of strains (52 of 54) from grey mullet, demonstrating a clonal dissemination of L. garvieae in grey mullet in Taiwan. In experimental challenges with grey mullet and tilapia, L. garvieae pulsotypes A1/S1 and A11/S11 showed higher virulence compared with other pulsotypes. PMID:23209077

Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Liaw, Li-Ling; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Chen, Shih-Chu



Astrovirus infections in humans and animals – Molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses first identified in 1975 in children suffering from diarrhea and then described in a wide variety of animals. To date, the list of animal species susceptible to astrovirus infection has expanded to 22 animal species or families, including domestic, synantropic and wild animals, avian, and mammalian species in the terrestrial and

Paola De Benedictis; Stacey Schultz-Cherry; Andrew Burnham; Giovanni Cattoli




EPA Science Inventory

1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...


Genetics of Enteric Pathogen Shedding Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are significant human pathogens for which cattle and other food animals serve as  

E-print Network

are significant human pathogens for which cattle and other food animals serve as reservoirs. Several cattle with reduced shedding of enteric human pathogens in food animals. This effort requires an understanding of both bacterial virulence factors and animal genetics. The information provided by the sequencing of the E. coli


Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Society. Monograph Series: III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New techniques have expanded the field of biotechnology and awarded scientists an unprecedented degree of control over the genetic constitutions of living things. The knowledge of DNA science is the basis for this burgeoning industry which may be a major force in human existence. Just as it is possible to move genetic material from one organism to…

Kieffer, George H.


Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) animal models accurately re-capitulate human disease in mice and have been an important tool for the study of MPN biology and therapy. Transplantation of BCR-ABL transduced bone marrow cells into irradiated syngeneic mice established the field of MPN animal modeling and the retroviral bone marrow transplantation (BMT) assay has been used extensively since. Genetically engineered MPN animal models have enabled detailed characterization of the effects of specific MPN associated genetic abnormalities on the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartment and xenograft models have allowed the study of primary human MPN-propagating cells in vivo. All models have facilitated the pre-clinical development of MPN therapies. JAK2V617F, the most common molecular abnormality in BCR-ABL negative MPN, has been extensively studied using retroviral, transgenic, knock-in and xenograft models. MPN animal models have also been used to investigate additional genetic lesions found in human MPN and to evaluate the bone marrow microenvironment in these diseases. Finally, several genetic lesions, although not common, somatically mutated drivers of MPN in humans induce a MPN phenotype in mice. Future uses for MPN animal models will include modeling compound genetic lesions in MPN and studying myelofibrotic transformation. PMID:23009938

Mullally, Ann; Lane, Steven W.; Brumme, Kristina; Ebert, Benjamin L.



Genetically Engineered Mouse Models Reveal the Importance of Proteases as Drug Targets in Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

More than two decades of research has revealed a network of proteases that orchestrates cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. This network includes not only metalloproteinases that degrade the major macromolecules in cartilage, aggrecan and type II collagen, but also serine proteases and cysteine proteases, such as cathepsin K. The current review summarizes the role of proteases in osteoarthritis progression, based on studies in genetically engineered mouse models. In addition, a brief overview of the biochemical characteristics and features of several key proteases in this network is provided, with the aim of increasing our understanding of how they function. Collectively, based on the data published to date, it can be concluded that at least three enzymes stand out as major targets for osteoarthritis drug development: ADAMTS-5, MMP-13, and cathepsin K. Mice that lack these enzymes are protected from cartilage damage and, to a varying degree, from bone changes in surgical models of osteoarthritis. In vivo studies with selective small molecule inhibitors targeting these proteases have been performed in various animal models. Going forward, mouse models will provide a tremendous opportunity for testing the therapeutic effects of protease inhibitors, not just on progression of structural damage to the joint, but also on associated pain. PMID:23926636

Miller, Rachel E.; Lu, Yongzhi; Tortorella, Micky D.; Malfait, Anne-Marie



Transgenic Dairy Cattle: Genetic Engineering on a Large Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportu- nity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene \\

R. J. Wall; D. E. Kerr; K. R. Bondioli



Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice  

SciTech Connect

The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

Chubb, C.



Divergent maternal behavioral patterns in two genetic animal models of depression.  


Maternal behavior was examined in Flinders Sensitive-Line (FSL) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, two different genetic animal models of depression. Behavioral patterns were assessed by undisturbed observations in the nest [Post-Partum Days (PPD) 4 and 9] and post-disturbance observations ("retrieval tests") on PPD 10. Litters were randomly allocated to a mild chronic-stress condition (limiting available bedding between PPD 2 and 9) or a standard rearing condition. The findings indicated that FSL dams did not differ from control dams in the undisturbed observations. However, in the post-disturbance observations FSL dams exhibited less pup-directed behaviors, a shorter latency to first pup carrying/retrieval and more self-directed behaviors than controls (the latter effect only in dams' interaction with whole litter). In contrast, WKY dams performed more pup-directed activities (e.g., nursing and licking) and less self-directed activities in both the undisturbed and post-disturbance observations (in both dams' interaction with single-pup and with the whole-litter) compared to controls. Accordingly, WKY dams exhibited a shorter latency for first pup-licking bout (in both post-disturbance observations). The early life mild chronic-stress used in the study ('limited-bedding') had a minor effect on the dams' behavior. Overall, the study investigated for the first time the maternal behavior of WKY dams and suggests that these dams show an almost opposite behavioral pattern to that of FSL dams. The results are discussed with regard to earlier findings in the FSL strain and behavioral patterns documented in depressed human mothers. PMID:18957302

Braw, Y; Malkesman, O; Merenlender, A; Dagan, M; Bercovich, A; Lavi-Avnon, Y; Weller, A



Monitoring for genetically engineered pseudomonas species in monterey county  

SciTech Connect

A field monitoring study was conducted to determine if genetically altered Pseudomonas fluorescens or P. syringae had been applied to sites in Monterey County. A series of diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance, fluorescence ability, oxidase and arginine dihydrolase activities, hypersensitivity reaction and ice nucleation ability were conducted to screen bacteria isolated from field and control samples. No bacteria were detected from field samples which matched the expected test profiles of genetically altered bacterial products. In contrast, bacteria were consistently isolated from positive control samples with the expected characteristics of genetically altered bacteria.

Supkoff, D.; Opgenorth, D.; Lai, C.; Segawa, R.; Koehler, D.



Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.



Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts  

PubMed Central

Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

Gagnon, Kenneth B.



Genetic engineering: a matter that requires further refinement in Spanish secondary school textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with fundamental genetic principles, and how it aims to improve the genetic literacy of students. The results show that genetic engineering was normally introduced without a clear reference to the universal genetic code, protein expression or the genetic material shared by all species. In most cases it was poorly defined, without a clear explanation of all the relevant processes involved. Some procedures (such as vectors) were explained in detail without considering previous student knowledge or skills. Some books emphasized applications such as the human genome project without describing DNA sequencing. All books included possible repercussions, but in most cases only fashionable topics such as human cloning. There was an excess of information that was not always well founded and hence was unsuitable to provide a meaningful understanding of DNA technology required for citizens in the twenty-first century.

Martínez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quýlez, M. J.



ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species,

A. Linacre; L. Gusmão; W. Hecht; A. P. Hellmann; W. R. Mayr; W. Parson; M. Prinz; P. M. Schneider; N. Morling



Moral and Legal Decisions in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the moral and ethical issues raised by the imminent possibilities for genetic and reproductive manipulation of humans, the responsibilities of scientists, moralists, and social scientists, and the role of teachers in public information. (AL)

Heim, Werner G.



Review of aerospace engineering cost modelling: The genetic causal approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary intention of this paper is to review the current state of the art in engineering cost modelling as applied to aerospace. This is a topic of current interest and in addressing the literature, the presented work also sets out some of the recognised definitions of cost that relate to the engineering domain. The paper does not attempt to

R. Curran; S. Raghunathan; M. Price



The Information Value of Non-Genetic Inheritance in Plants and Animals  

PubMed Central

Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are increasingly well understood, less is known about how inheritance mechanisms evolve. Here, we present a simple but versatile model to explore the adaptive evolution of non-genetic inheritance. Our model is based on a switch mechanism that produces alternative phenotypes in response to different inputs, including genes and non-genetic factors transmitted from parents and the environment experienced during development. This framework shows how genetic and non-genetic inheritance mechanisms and environmental conditions can act as cues by carrying correlational information about future selective conditions. Differential use of these cues is manifested as different degrees of genetic, parental or environmental morph determination. We use this framework to evaluate the conditions favouring non-genetic inheritance, as opposed to genetic determination of phenotype or within-generation plasticity, by applying it to two putative examples of adaptive non-genetic inheritance: maternal effects on seed germination in plants and transgenerational phase shift in desert locusts. Our simulation models show how the adaptive value of non-genetic inheritance depends on its mechanism, the pace of environmental change, and life history characteristics. PMID:25603120

English, Sinead; Pen, Ido; Shea, Nicholas; Uller, Tobias



A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.



An arsenic-specific biosensor with genetically engineered Shewanella oneidensis in a bioelectrochemical system.  


Genetically engineered microbial biosensors have yet to realize commercial success in environmental applications due, in part, to difficulties associated with transducing and transmitting traditional bioluminescent information. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) output a direct electric signal that can be incorporated into devices for remote environmental monitoring. Here, we describe a BES-based biosensor with genetically encoded specificity for a toxic metal. By placing an essential component of the metal reduction (Mtr) pathway of Shewanella oneidensis under the control of an arsenic-sensitive promoter, we have genetically engineered a strain that produces increased current in response to arsenic when inoculated into a BES. Our BES-based biosensor has a detection limit of ~40 ?M arsenite with a linear range up to 100 ?M arsenite. Because our transcriptional circuit relies on the activation of a single promoter, similar sensing systems may be developed to detect other analytes by the swap of a single genetic part. PMID:25038536

Webster, Dylan P; TerAvest, Michaela A; Doud, Devin F R; Chakravorty, Arun; Holmes, Eric C; Radens, Caleb M; Sureka, Swati; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Angenent, Largus T



Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.



NSDL National Science Digital Library

What affects how physical characteristics are transmitted from parent to offspring? This is a question that can be answered at many levels. Molecular biologists examine the pattern of nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the effect of mutations on the proteins produced. Classical geneticists explore the patterns by which traits are transmitted through families. Medical geneticists attempt to describe and develop treatments for diseases that have a genetic component. Genetic engineers analyze how traits can be altered in organisms through modern technology. These are only a few of the strategies that scientists employ to explain the nature of heredity. Explore historical perspectives on the study of genetics and investigate how cutting-edge technology is being used to expand our understanding of heredity.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)



Use of perfusion bioreactors and large animal models for long bone tissue engineering.  


Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies for generation of new bone tissue includes the combined use of autologous or heterologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and three-dimensional (3D) scaffold materials serving as structural support for the cells, that develop into tissue-like substitutes under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. This approach is very important due to the limitations and risks associated with autologous, as well as allogenic bone grafiting procedures currently used. However, the cultivation of osteoprogenitor cells in 3D scaffolds presents several challenges, such as the efficient transport of nutrient and oxygen and removal of waste products from the cells in the interior of the scaffold. In this context, perfusion bioreactor systems are key components for bone TERM, as many recent studies have shown that such systems can provide dynamic environments with enhanced diffusion of nutrients and therefore, perfusion can be used to generate grafts of clinically relevant sizes and shapes. Nevertheless, to determine whether a developed tissue-like substitute conforms to the requirements of biocompatibility, mechanical stability and safety, it must undergo rigorous testing both in vitro and in vivo. Results from in vitro studies can be difficult to extrapolate to the in vivo situation, and for this reason, the use of animal models is often an essential step in the testing of orthopedic implants before clinical use in humans. This review provides an overview of the concepts, advantages, and challenges associated with different types of perfusion bioreactor systems, particularly focusing on systems that may enable the generation of critical size tissue engineered constructs. Furthermore, this review discusses some of the most frequently used animal models, such as sheep and goats, to study the in vivo functionality of bone implant materials, in critical size defects. PMID:23924374

Gardel, Leandro S; Serra, Luís A; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E



About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering Bernd Voedisch1*, Agnès Patoux1, Jildou Sterkenburgh2, Mirjam Buchs1, Emily Barry3, Cyril Allard1, Sabine Geisse1 From 22nd European... (15):4753-4762. doi:10.1186/1753-6561-5-S8-P132 Cite this article as: Voedisch et al.: About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering. BMC Proceedings 2011 5 (Suppl 8):P132. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take...



Animal models.  


Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L



Cellular computation and communications using engineered genetic regulatory networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present an engineering discipline for obtaining complex, predictable, and reliable cell behaviors by embedding biochemical logic circuits and programmed intercellular communications into cells. To accomplish ...

Weiss, Ron, 1970-



Vicariance and dispersal across an intermittent barrier: population genetic structure of marine animals across the Torres Strait land bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeographic barriers, some transitory in duration, are likely to have been important contributing factors to modern marine biodiversity in the Indo-Pacific region. One such barrier was the Torres Strait land bridge between continental Australia and New Guinea that persisted through much of the late Pleistocene and separated Indian and Pacific Ocean taxa. Here, we examine the patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity for marine animals with present-day distributions spanning the Torres Strait. Specifically, we investigate whether there are concordant signatures across species, consistent with either vicariance or recent colonization from either ocean basin. We survey four species of reef fishes ( Apogon doederleini, Pomacentrus coelestis, Dascyllus trimaculatus, and Acanthurus triostegus) for mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 and control region variation and contrast these results to previous mtDNA studies in diverse marine animals with similar distributions. We find substantial genetic partitioning (estimated from F-statistics and coalescent approaches) between Indian and Pacific Ocean populations for many species, consistent with regional persistence through the late Pleistocene in both ocean basins. The species-specific estimates of genetic divergence, however, vary greatly and for reef fishes we estimate substantially different divergence times among species. It is likely that Indian and Pacific Ocean populations have been isolated for multiple glacial cycles for some species, whereas for other species genetic connections have been more recent. Regional estimates of genetic diversity and directionality of gene flow also vary among species. Thus, there is no apparent consistency among historical patterns across the Torres Strait for these co-distributed marine animals.

Mirams, A. G. K.; Treml, E. A.; Shields, J. L.; Liggins, L.; Riginos, C.



On-chip whole-animal manipulation for high-throughput subcellular-resolution in-vivo drug/genetic screening  

E-print Network

Techniques for rapid and automated small-animal manipulation and immobilization are necessary for high-throughput in vivo genetic/drug screens using cellular and sub-cellular features in multicellular organisms. We present ...

Yanik, Mehmet Fatih


Capturing the Molecular and Biological Diversity of High-Grade Astrocytoma in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

High-grade astrocytoma remains a significant challenge to the clinician and researcher alike. Intense study of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors has allowed identification of frequent genetic alterations and critical core pathways in this disease. The use of novel mouse genetic tools to study the consequence of specific mutations in brain has led to the development of multiple representative genetically engineered mouse models that provided novel insights into gliomagenesis. As we learn more about the biology of high-grade astrocytoma from the study of these models, we anticipate that our improved understanding will eventually lead to greater success in clinical trials and improved outcome for patients. PMID:22287481

Chow, Lionel M.L.; Baker, Suzanne J.



Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Infected Animals Reveal Genetic Exchange in Unisexual,   Mating Type Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reproduction and genetic exchange are important for the evolution of fungal pathogens and for producing potentially infective spores. Studies to determine whether sex occurs in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii have produced enigmatic results, however: basidiospores are the most likely infective propagules, and clinical isolates are fertile and genetically diverse, consistent with a sexual species, but almost

Tien Bui; Xiaorong Lin; Richard Malik; Joseph Heitman; Dee Carter



Chapter 18 Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: A Novel Technology for Agricultural Biotechnology and Biopharmaceutical Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chloroplast genetic engineering is becoming an attractive field in plant biotechnology. It offers several unique advantages,\\u000a including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment\\u000a by maternal inheritance, as well as lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA.\\u000a The hyper-expression of recombinant proteins within plastids offers a cost effective solution

N. D. Singh; H. Daniell


OBPC Symposium: Maize 2004 & beyond—Recent advances in chloroplast genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The chloroplast genetic engineering approach offers a number of unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression,\\u000a multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing,\\u000a position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, more than 40 transgenes have been stably integrated\\u000a and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer several agronomic

Vijay Koya; Henry Daniell



On-chip whole-animal manipulation for high-throughput subcellular-resolution in-vivo drug\\/genetic screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for rapid and automated small-animal manipulation and immobilization are necessary for high-throughput in vivo genetic\\/drug screens using cellular and sub-cellular features in multicellular organisms. We present a suite of technologies for complex high-throughput whole-animal genetic and drug screens. We demonstrate a high-speed microfluidic sorter that can isolate and immobilize Caenorhabditis elegans in a well-defined geometry, an integrated chip containing

Christopher B. Rohde; Cody Gilleland; Chrysanthi Samara; Mehmet Fatih Yanik



Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001) 114 Genetic adaptive control for an inverted wedge: experiments and  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001) 1­14 Genetic adaptive control. Passino* Department of Electrical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH and real-time implementation issues will be discussed and the genetic adaptive strategy will be compared


Summary Unintended changes in plant physiology, anat-omy and metabolism as a result of genetic engineering are a  

E-print Network

, genetically engineered with the Cry1Ab Bt gene, had a higher lignin content than the genotype from whichSummary Unintended changes in plant physiology, anat- omy and metabolism as a result of genetic engineering are a concern as more transgenic plants are commercially deployed in the ecosystem. We compared


Heteroplasmy as a common state of mitochondrial genetic information in plants and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant and animal mitochondrial genomes, although quite distinct in size, structure, expression and evolutionary dynamics both may exhibit the state of heteroplasmy—the presence of more than one type of mitochondrial genome in an organism. This review is focused on heteroplasmy in plants, but we also highlight the most striking similarities and differences between plant and animal heteroplasmy. First we summarize

Beata Kmiec; Magdalena Woloszynska; Hanna Janska



Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium bovis Isolates: a Preliminary Study of Strains from Animal and Human Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into

M. P. U. Sales; G. M. Taylor; S. Hughes; M. Yates; G. Hewinson; D. B. Young; R. J. Shaw



Potential Large Animal Models for Gene Therapy of Human Genetic Diseases of Immune and Blood Cell Systems  

PubMed Central

Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system—red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets—manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutations in humans. Many of these limitations can be overcome by identifying large animals with genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system corresponding to their human disease counterparts. In this article, we describe human diseases of the cellular components of the hematopoietic system that have counterparts in large animal species, in most cases carrying mutations in the same gene (CD18 in leukocyte adhesion deficiency) or genes in interacting proteins (DNA cross-link repair 1C protein and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide in radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency). Furthermore, we describe the potential of these animal models to serve as disease-specific, preclinical models for testing the efficacy and safety of clinical interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy approaches before their use in humans with the corresponding disease. PMID:19293460

Bauer, Thomas R.; Adler, Rima L.; Hickstein, Dennis D.



An Ethical Study on the Uses of Enhancement Genetic Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of biomedical technologies are being developed that can be used for purposes other than treating diseases. Such “enhancement technologies” can be used to improve our own and future generation's life-chances. While these technologies can help people in many ways, their use raises important ethical issues. Some arguments for anti-enhancement as well as pro-enhancement seem to rest, however, on shaky foundation. Both company engineers and the general public had better learn more from technological, economical and philosophical histories. For such subjects may provide engineers with less opportunities of technological misuses and more powers of self-esteem in addition to self-control.

Kawakita, Koji


Gene therapy in dentistry: tool of genetic engineering. Revisited.  


Advances in biotechnology have brought gene therapy to the forefront of medical research. The concept of transferring genes to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed nearly half a century, but the ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology has brought this goal to reality. The feasibility of gene transfer was first demonstrated using tumour viruses. This led to development of viral and nonviral methods for the genetic modification of somatic cells. Applications of gene therapy to dental and oral problems illustrate the potential impact of this technology on dentistry. Preclinical trial results regarding the same have been very promising. In this review we will discuss methods, vectors involved, clinical implication in dentistry and scientific issues associated with gene therapy. PMID:25540850

Gupta, Khushboo; Singh, Saurabh; Garg, Kavita Nitish



Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.9, NO.1 2001, c TUBITAK Meta-Genetic Programming: Co-evolving the  

E-print Network

Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.9, NO.1 2001, c T¨UBITAK Meta-Genetic Programming: Co-evolving the Operators, Aytoun Street, Manchester, M1 3GH-UK Abstract The standard Genetic Programming approach is augmented by co-evolving the genetic operators. To do this the operators are coded as trees of indefinite length

Fernandez, Thomas


Small Animal Bone Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal bone and investigate the effects of aging, therapeutic treatments, disease, and genetic variation. In contrast to traditional strength tests on small animal bones, fracture mechanics tests display smaller variation and therefore offer the possibility of reducing sample sizes. This article provides an analysis of what such tests measure and proposes methods to reduce errors associated with testing smaller than ideal specimens. PMID:18672104

Vashishth, Deepak



Genetically Engineered Antigen Specificity in T Cells for Adoptive Immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Antigen specificity has been genetically conferred to human T cells for therapy through the transfer of sequences encoding\\u000a antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) or through the antigen-specific antibody-based chimeric antigen receptors (CARs).\\u000a By either method, the advantage of the adoptive transfer of modified T cells over immunotherapies developed to date such as\\u000a vaccines or cytokines alone is that T cells have

Bruce L. Levine


Milestones in chloroplast genetic engineering: an environmentally friendly era in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genomes defied the laws of Mendelian inheritance at the dawn of plant genetics, and continue to defy the mainstream approach to biotechnology, leading the field in an environmentally friendly direction. Recent success in engineering the chloroplast genome for resistance to herbicides, insects, disease and drought, and for production of biopharmaceuticals, has opened the door to a new era in

Henry Daniell; Muhammad S. Khan; Lori Allison



Reactions to a New Technology: Students' Ideas about Genetically Engineered Foodstuffs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the prevalence of ideas among 16 to 19 year-old students about the application of the rapidly expanding technology of genetic engineering to food production. Findings suggest that more females were cautious about these foodstuffs than were males. Contains 20 references. (DDR)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward; O'Sullivan, Helen



Enhancing the Internationalisation of Distance Education in the Biological Sciences: The DUNE Project and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Distance Educational Network of Europe (DUNE) project that aims at enhancing the development of distance education in an international context. Highlights issues relating to the delivery of distance-learning courses in a transnational forum. Describes the genetic engineering course that aims at explaining the core techniques of…

Leach, C. K.; And Others



The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley



The mammary pathology of genetically engineered mice: the consensus report and recommendations from the Annapolis meeting‡  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIH sponsored a meeting of medical and veterinary pathologists with mammary gland expertise in Annapolis in March 1999. Rapid development of mouse mammary models has accentuated the need for definitions of the mammary lesions in genetically engineered mice (GEM) and to assess their usefulness as models of human breast disease. The panel of nine pathologists independently reviewed material representing over

Robert D Cardiff; Miriam R Anver; Barry A Gusterson; Lothar Hennighausen; Roy A Jensen; Maria J Merino; Sabine Rehm; Jose Russo; Fattaneh A Tavassoli; Lalage M Wakefield; Jerrold M Ward; Jeffrey E Green



Customizable FPGA IP Core Implementation of a General-Purpose Genetic Algorithm Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware implementation of genetic algorithms (GAs) is gaining importance because of their proven effectiveness as optimization engines for real-time applications (e.g., evolvable hardware). Earlier hardware implementations suffer from major drawbacks such as absence of GA parameter programmability, rigid predefined system architecture, and lack of support for multiple fitness functions. In this paper, we report the design of an IP core

Pradeep R. Fernando; Srinivas Katkoori; Didier Keymeulen; Ricardo Salem Zebulum; Adrian Stoica



Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Probabilities and Practicalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Manipulation of genes in human beings on a large scale is not possible under present conditions because it lacks economic potential and other attractions for industry. However, preventive'' genetic engineering may be a field for vast research in the future and will perhaps be approved by governments, parishes, people and industry. (PS)

Djerassi, Carl




EPA Science Inventory

The fate and survival of genetically engineered microbes is dependent on the survival, establishment, and growth of the microbial host, as well as on the maintenance, replication, and segregation of the recombinant plasmids within the bacterial host population. The interactions o...


From Promises of Progress to Portents of Peril: Public Responses to Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, scientists at a George Washington University laboratory conducted a genetic engineering experiment that “twinned” a nonviable human embryo. The purpose was to find a way to create additional embryos for In Vitro Fertilization, but major newspapers, popular magazines and talk shows covered the experiment as if it had actually yielded a cloning technology for the mass production of

Dorothy Nelkin


'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...


Development of enzymes and enzyme systems by genetic engineering to convert biomass to sugars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

TITLE Development of Enzymes and Enzyme Systems by Genetic Engineering to Convert Biomass to Sugars ABSTRACT Plant cellulosic material is one of the most viable renewable resources for the world’s fuel and chemical feedstock needs. Currently ethanol derived from corn starch is the most common li...



EPA Science Inventory

A microcosm is described to evaluate and measure bacterial conjugation in the rhizosphere of barley and radish with strains of Pseudomonas cepacia. he purpose was to describe a standard method useful for evaluating the propensity of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to...


oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that  

E-print Network

T oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that it presents learning how to manipulate DNA from various sources into combinations that were not known to exist policy. Cancer-carrying bacteria Some of the concerns about recombinant DNA experimentation stemmed from

Cai, Long


Genetic engineering in the improvement of plants for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal concentrations in soils are locally quite high, and are still increasing due to many human activities, leading to elevated risk for health and the environment. Phytoremediation may offer a viable solution to this problem, and the approach is gaining increasing interest. Improvement of plants by genetic engineering, i.e. by modifying characteristics like metal uptake, transport and accumulation as well

S. Kärenlampi; H. Schat; J. Vangronsveld; J. A. C. Verkleij; D. van der Lelie; M. Mergeay; A. I. Tervahauta



Prospects of genetic engineering of plants for phytoremediation of toxic metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation is gaining a lot of importance in recent times as an alternate technology for removal of elemental pollutants in soil and water, which require effective methods of decontamination. Phytoremediation—the use of green plants to remove, contain or render harmless environmental pollutants—may offer an effective, environmentally nondestructive and cheap remediation method. The use of genetic engineering to modify plants for

Susan Eapen; S. F. D'Souza



Neural Network Model Predictive Control with Genetic Algorithm Optimization and Its Application to Turbofan Engine Starting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbofan engine starting is one of the most important procedures during the whole process of job, but also very complicated due to its nonlinear dynamic working procedure. Recognizing the weaknesses of predict model and traditional algorithm for rolling optimization to deal with strong nonlinear systems, this paper presents neural network model predictive control method with genetic algorithm optimization, and uses

Yu Bo; Zhu Jihong



Genetically-Engineered Pig-to-Baboon Liver Xenotransplantation: Histopathology of Xenografts and Native Organs  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation was carried out in baboons using wild-type (WT, n?=?1) or genetically-engineered pigs (?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout, GTKO), n?=?1; GTKO pigs transgenic for human CD46, n?=?7) and a clinically-acceptable immunosuppressive regimen. Biopsies were obtained from the WT pig liver pre-Tx and at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-transplantation. Biopsies of genetically-engineered livers were obtained pre-Tx, 2 h after reperfusion and at necropsy (4–7 days after transplantation). Tissues were examined by light, confocal, and electron microscopy. All major native organs were also examined. The WT pig liver underwent hyperacute rejection. After genetically-engineered pig liver transplantation, hyperacute rejection did not occur. Survival was limited to 4–7 days due to repeated spontaneous bleeding in the liver and native organs (as a result of profound thrombocytopenia) which necessitated euthanasia. At 2 h, graft histology was largely normal. At necropsy, genetically-engineered pig livers showed hemorrhagic necrosis, platelet aggregation, platelet-fibrin thrombi, monocyte/macrophage margination mainly in liver sinusoids, and vascular endothelial cell hypertrophy, confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed minimal deposition of IgM, and almost absence of IgG, C3, C4d, C5b-9, and of a cellular infiltrate, suggesting that neither antibody- nor cell-mediated rejection played a major role. PMID:22247784

Ekser, Burcin; Klein, Edwin; He, Jing; Stolz, Donna B.; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Long, Cassandra; Lin, Chih Che; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Hara, Hidetaka; Veroux, Massimiliano; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K. C.; Gridelli, Bruno



Controlled field release of a bioluminescent genetically engineered microorganism for bioremediation process monitoring and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 represents the first genetically engineered microorganism approved for field testing in the United States for bioremediation purposes. Strain HK44 harbors an introduced lux gene fused within a naphthalene degradative pathway, thereby allowing this recombinant microbe to bioluminescent as it degrades specific polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene. The bioremediation process can therefore be monitored by the detection of

Steven Ripp; David E. Nivens; Yeonghee Ahn; Claudia Werner; John Jarrell; James P. Easter; Chris D. Cox; Robert S. Burlage; Gary S. Sayler




EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to summarize the methods and concep s that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, into soil on microbemedi...


Challenges to IPM Advancement: Pesticides, Biocontrol, Genetic Engineering, and Invasive Species.  

E-print Network

77 Challenges to IPM Advancement: Pesticides, Biocontrol, Genetic Engineering, and Invasive Species to the numbers of species, types of pests, and variety of control tactics simultaneously implemented are often of transgenic crops, invasive species, and a diminishing base of scientific talent and research funding become

Hoddle, Mark S.


Biosynthesis and genetic engineering of proanthocyanidins and (iso)flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant natural products have been used since ancient times as medicines and herbal remedies. Over the past two decades, the\\u000a results of population and intervention studies, or assays in animal or cell model systems, have revealed positive health beneficial\\u000a effects for various classes of phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols. The results of such studies have ignited an interest\\u000a in being able to

Li Tian; Yongzhen Pang; Richard A. Dixon



Potential effects of animal management and genetic improvement on enteric methane emissions, emissions intensity and productivity of sheep enterprises at Cowra, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of technologies to reduce enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants are typically evaluated on individual animals with little consideration of enterprise scale impacts. While impacts of the many rumen manipulations being studied are hard to anticipate, there is adequate information to assess impacts of farm management changes and potential animal genetic changes on whole farm productivity and enteric CH4

D. J. Alcock; R. S. Hegarty



A clinically relevant large-animal model for evaluation of tissue-engineered cardiac surgical patch materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds may be useful as a tissue engineering approach toward myocardial regeneration in the infarcted heart. An appropriate large-animal model for testing the utility of biologically derived ECM in this application is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model for optimal procedural success during and after patch implantation surgery.Myocardial infarction (MI) was

Jianhua Cui; Jinsheng Li; Megumi Mathison; Fernando Tondato; Stephen P. Mulkey; Connie Micko; Nicolas A. F. Chronos; Keith A. Robinson



Using HexSim to link demography and genetics in animal and plant simulations  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulation models are essential for understanding the effects of land management practices and environmental drivers, including landscape change, shape population genetic structure and persistence probabilities. The emerging field of eco-evolutionary modeling is beginning to dev...


Association Between PRRSV ORF5 Genetic Distance and Differences in Space, Time, Ownership and Animal Sources Among Commercial Pig Herds.  


The objective of this study was to investigate associations between genetic distance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) detected in Ontario swine herds, and the distance between the herds with respect to space, time, ownership and animal sources. PRRSV sequence data between September 2004 and August 2007 were obtained from the Animal Health Laboratory of the University of Guelph. Geographical coordinates were obtained from the Ontario Pork marketing board, and network information about ownership and animal suppliers was obtained using a telephone interview. The matrices of sequence, spatial, temporal and network distances were generated and were analysed using the Mantel test, and using linear-mixed models with P-values based on random permutations. A total of 438 PRRSV isolates from 329 premises and 232 ownerships were originally included; 57 of the isolates were considered vaccine type. The Mantel correlation test indicated that there was positive correlation between sequence distance and geographic distance (r = 0.11, P = 0.001), as well as sequence distance and temporal distance (r = 0.03, P = 0.03), with similar results reported after adjusting for the ownership distance. Mantel correlogram suggested existence of spatial correlation up to ~30 km distance. Multivariable linear-mixed model for association between genetic distance and space-time distance was characterized by the three-way interaction among space, time and ownership (P < 0.001). It suggested that positive association between sequence similarity and spatial proximity exists in herds under different ownerships, but its magnitude is very small. In contrast, for pairs of herds under identical ownership, the spatial association was more complex. This could be a consequence of interactions within ownerships, or alternatively decisions made about sampling of herds for diagnostic purposes. Of the networks evaluated, ownership (P < 0.001) and gilt supplier (P < 0.001) showed the highest magnitude of association with genetic distance and should be investigated further for their impact on disease spread. PMID:25088908

Rosendal, T; Dewey, C; Friendship, R; Wootton, S; Young, B; Poljak, Z



Parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo - bridging the gap to high-performance Bayesian computation in animal breeding and genetics  

PubMed Central

Background Most Bayesian models for the analysis of complex traits are not analytically tractable and inferences are based on computationally intensive techniques. This is true of Bayesian models for genome-enabled selection, which uses whole-genome molecular data to predict the genetic merit of candidate animals for breeding purposes. In this regard, parallel computing can overcome the bottlenecks that can arise from series computing. Hence, a major goal of the present study is to bridge the gap to high-performance Bayesian computation in the context of animal breeding and genetics. Results Parallel Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms and strategies are described in the context of animal breeding and genetics. Parallel Monte Carlo algorithms are introduced as a starting point including their applications to computing single-parameter and certain multiple-parameter models. Then, two basic approaches for parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo are described: one aims at parallelization within a single chain; the other is based on running multiple chains, yet some variants are discussed as well. Features and strategies of the parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo are illustrated using real data, including a large beef cattle dataset with 50K SNP genotypes. Conclusions Parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms are useful for computing complex Bayesian models, which does not only lead to a dramatic speedup in computing but can also be used to optimize model parameters in complex Bayesian models. Hence, we anticipate that use of parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo will have a profound impact on revolutionizing the computational tools for genomic selection programs. PMID:23009363



Reproduction in farm animals in an era of rapid genetic change: will genetic change outpace our knowledge of physiology?  


Compared with other domestic species, genetic nucleus selection has gradually increased both prolificacy and productivity of the breeding sow and the post-natal growth performance of commercial progeny. However, increasing variation in litter birth weight and foetal development may be indirect consequences of interactions among multiple genes controlling prolificacy and prenatal development. Phenotypic plasticity in the litter phenotype also results from effects of sow metabolic state on the developing embryo. New genomic tools may provide the opportunity to better balance the selection of genes controlling the component traits affecting the size and quality of litters born, particularly in multiparous sows. PMID:22827386

Foxcroft, G R



Genetic Engineering of Glycinebetaine Production toward Enhancing Stress Tolerance in Plants: Metabolic Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycinebetaine (betaine) affords osmoprotection in bacteria, plants and animals, and protects cell components against harsh conditions in vitro. This and a compelling body of other evidence have encouraged the engineering of betaine production in plants lacking it. We have installed the metabolic step for oxidation of choline, a ubiquitous substance, to betaine in three diverse species, Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, and

Jun Huang; Rozina Hirji; Luc Adam; Kevin L. Rozwadowski; Joe K. Hammerlindl; Wilf A. Keller; Gopalan Selvaraj



COMMUNICATIONS Use of a Genetically Engineered Protein for the Design of a Multivalent  

E-print Network

­6). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is capable of whole animal or human imaging at high spatial and temporal agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging have low relaxivities and thus require high concentrations resolution and is an ideal modality for evaluating tissue engineering scaffolds in ViVo (7­11). Exogenous

Barron, Annelise E.


The significance of content knowledge for informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues: Applying genetics knowledge to genetic engineering issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a quantitative test of genetics concepts. Two subsets (n = 15 for each group) of the original sample representing divergent levels of content knowledge participated in individual interviews, during which they articulated positions, rationales, counterpositions, and rebuttals in response to three gene therapy scenarios and three cloning scenarios. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine the effects of content knowledge on the use of informal reasoning patterns and the quality of informal reasoning. Participants from both groups employed the same general patterns of informal reasoning. Data did indicate that differences in content knowledge were related to variations in informal reasoning quality. Participants, with more advanced understandings of genetics, demonstrated fewer instances of reasoning flaws, as defined by a priori criteria, and were more likely to incorporate content knowledge in their reasoning patterns than participants with more naïve understandings of genetics. Implications for instruction and future research are discussed.

Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.



Internet and print resources to facilitate pathology analysis when phenotyping genetically engineered rodents.  


Genetically engineered mice and rats are increasingly used as models for exploring disease progression and mechanisms. The full spectrum of anatomic, biochemical, and functional changes that develop in novel, genetically engineered mouse and rat lines must be cataloged before predictions regarding the significance of the mutation may be extrapolated to diseases in other vertebrate species, including humans. A growing list of reference materials, including books, journal articles, and websites, has been produced in the last 2 decades to assist researchers in phenotyping newly engineered rodent lines. This compilation provides an extensive register of materials related to the pathology component of rodent phenotypic analysis. In this article, the authors annotate the resources they use most often, to allow for quick determination of their relevance to research projects. PMID:21825311

Bolon, B; Couto, S; Fiette, L; Perle, K La



Metabolic engineering of a genetic selection system with tunable stringency  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of small molecules can be fine-tuned by (re)engineering metabolic flux within cells. We have adapted this approach to optimize an in vivo selection system for the conversion of prephenate to phenylpyruvate, a key step in the production of the essential aromatic amino acid phenylalanine. Careful control of prephenate concentration in a bacterial host lacking prephenate dehydratase, achieved through provision of a regulable enzyme that diverts it down a parallel biosynthetic pathway, provides the means to systematically increase selection pressure on replacements of the missing catalyst. Successful differentiation of dehydratases whose activities vary over a >50,000-fold range and the isolation of mechanistically informative prephenate dehydratase variants from large protein libraries illustrate the potential of the engineered selection strain for characterizing and evolving enzymes. Our approach complements other common methods for adjusting selection pressure and should be generally applicable to any selection system that is based on the conversion of an endogenous metabolite. PMID:17715291

Kleeb, Andreas C.; Edalat, Maryam Hansson; Gamper, Marianne; Haugstetter, Johannes; Giger, Lars; Neuenschwander, Martin; Kast, Peter; Hilvert, Donald



Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling  

PubMed Central

While the fundamental building blocks of biology are being tabulated by the various genome projects, microarray technology is setting the stage for the task of deducing the connectivity of large-scale gene networks. We show how the perturbation of carefully chosen genes in a microarray experiment can be used in conjunction with a reverse engineering algorithm to reveal the architecture of an underlying gene regulatory network. Our iterative scheme identifies the network topology by analyzing the steady-state changes in gene expression resulting from the systematic perturbation of a particular node in the network. We highlight the validity of our reverse engineering approach through the successful deduction of the topology of a linear in numero gene network and a recently reported model for the segmentation polarity network in Drosophila melanogaster. Our method may prove useful in identifying and validating specific drug targets and in deconvolving the effects of chemical compounds. PMID:12730377

Tegnér, Jesper; Yeung, M. K. Stephen; Hasty, Jeff; Collins, James J.



On Natural Genetic Engineering: Structural Dynamism in Random Boolean Networks  

E-print Network

This short paper presents an abstract, tunable model of genomic structural change within the cell lifecycle and explores its use with simulated evolution. A well-known Boolean model of genetic regulatory networks is extended to include changes in node connectivity based upon the current cell state, e.g., via transposable elements. The underlying behaviour of the resulting dynamical networks is investigated before their evolvability is explored using a version of the NK model of fitness landscapes. Structural dynamism is found to be selected for in non-stationary environments and subsequently shown capable of providing a mechanism for evolutionary innovation when such reorganizations are inherited.

Bull, Larry



Delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics by genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Several populations of adult human stem cells have been identified, but only a few of these are in routine clinical use. The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is arguably the most well characterized and the most routinely transplanted adult stem cell. Although details regarding several aspects of this cell’s phenotype are not well understood, transplant of HSCs has advanced to become the standard of care for the treatment of a range of monogenic diseases and several types of cancer. It has also proven to be an excellent target for genetic manipulation, and clinical trials have already demonstrated the usefulness of targeting this cell as a means of delivering nucleic acid therapeutics for the treatment of several previously incurable diseases. It is anticipated that additional clinical trials will soon follow, such as genetically engineering HSCs with vectors to treat monogenic diseases such as hemophilia A. In addition to the direct targeting of HSCs, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to replace virtually any engineered stem cell therapeutic, including HSCs. We now know that for the broad use of genetically-modified HSCs for the treatment of non-lethal diseases, e.g. hemophilia A, we must be able to regulate the introduction of nucleic acid sequences into these target cells. We can begin to refine transduction protocols to provide safer approaches to genetically manipulate HSCs and strategies are being developed to improve the overall safety of gene transfer. This review focuses on recent advances in the systemic delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics using genetically-modified stem cells, specifically focusing on i) the use of retroviral vectors to genetically modify HSCs, ii) the expression of fVIII from hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of hemophilia A, and iii) the use of genetically engineered hematopoietic cells generated from iPS cells as treatment for disorders of hematopoiesis. PMID:20869414

Doering, Christopher B.; Archer, David; Spencer, H. Trent



Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.  


In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 ?M for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ?M for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco



Genetic engineering of somatic cells to study and improve cardiac function  

PubMed Central

Aims To demonstrate the utility of genetically engineered excitable cells for studies of basic electrophysiology and cardiac cell therapy. Methods and results ‘Zig-zag’ networks of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were micropatterned onto thin elastomeric films to mimic the slow action potential (AP) conduction found in fibrotic myocardium. Addition of genetically engineered excitable human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293 cells) (‘Ex-293’ cells stably expressing Kir2.1, Nav1.5, and Cx43 channels) increased both cardiac conduction velocity by 370% and twitch force amplitude by 64%. Furthermore, we stably expressed mutant Nav1.5 [A1924T (fast sodium channel mutant (substitution of alanine by threonine at amino acid 1924)] channels with hyperpolarized steady-state activation and showed that, despite a 71.6% reduction in peak INa, these cells propagated APs at the same velocity as the wild-type Nav1.5-expressing Ex-293 cells. Stable expression of Cav3.3 (T-type voltage-gated calcium) channels in Ex-293 cells (to generate an ‘ExCa-293’ line) significantly increased their AP duration and reduced repolarization gradients in cocultures of these cells and NRVMs. Additional expression of an optogenetic construct [ChIEF (light-gated Channelrhodopsin mutant)]enabled light-based control of AP firing in ExCa-293 cells. Conclusion We show that, despite being non-contractile, genetically engineered excitable cells can significantly improve both electrical and mechanical function of engineered cardiac tissues in vitro. We further demonstrate the utility of engineered cells for tissue-level studies of basic electrophysiology and cardiac channelopathies. In the future, this novel platform could be utilized in the high-throughput design of new genetically encoded indicators of cell electrical function, validation, and improvement of computer models of AP conduction, and development of novel engineered somatic cell therapies for the treatment of cardiac infarction and arrhythmias. PMID:23104914

Kirkton, Robert D.; Bursac, Nenad



The hermeneutic challenge of genetic engineering: Habermas and the transhumanists.  


The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures (and thus upon the lifeworld), and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists, such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending human nature. In contrast, Habermas is a representative of those who are fearful of this technology, suggesting that it will compound the deleterious effects of the colonisation of the lifeworld, further constraining human autonomy and undermining the meaningfulness of the lifeworld by expanding the technological control and manipulation of humanity. It will be argued that these opposed positions are grounded in fundamentally different understandings of the consequences of scientific and technological advance. On one level, the transhumanists remain confident that the lifeworld has within it the resources necessary to find meaning and purpose in a society deeply infused by genetic technology. Habermas disagrees. On another level, the difference is articulated by Horkheimer and Adorno in Dialectic of Enlightenment, primarily by challenging what may be understood as a Baconian faith in science as a project for the domination of nature (where nature is an infinitely malleable material, to be dominated and shaped, without adverse consequences, purely for the purposes of human survival). While the transhumanists broadly embrace this faith, Habermas returns to something akin to Horkheimer and Adorno's pessimistic scepticism. PMID:19219641

Edgar, Andrew



Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality  

E-print Network

, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality Specialist in Cooperative Extension. Since heFrank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions System". Dr. Mitloehner received his MS degree in Animal Science and Agricultural Engineering from

Delany, Mary E.


Design and engineering aspects of a high resolution positron tomograph for small animal imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the Sherbrooke positron emission tomograph, a very high resolution device dedicated to dynamic imaging of small laboratory animals. Its distinctive features are: small discrete scintillation detectors based on avalanche photodiodes (APD) to achieve uniform, isotropic, very high spatial resolution; parallel processing for low deadtime and high count rate capability; multispectral data acquisition hardware to improve sensitivity and scatter correction; modularity to allow design flexibility and upgradability. The system implements the clam-shell'' sampling scheme and a rotating rod transmission source. All acquisition parameters can be adjusted under computer control. Temperature stability at the detector site is ensured by the use of thermoelectric modules. The initial system consists of one layer of 256 modules (two rings of detectors) defining 3 image slices in a 118 mm diameter by 10.5 mm thick field. The axial field can be extended to 50 mm using 4 layers of modules (8 rings of detectors). The design constraints and engineering aspects of an APD-based PET scanner are reviewed and preliminary results are reported.

Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Richard, P.; Rodrique, S.; Rouleau, D. (Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology)



Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Mrs. Laz




EPA Science Inventory

The article reviews the few studies that have evaluated the survival of bacterial hosts and cloning vectors (e.g., phages) and the transfer of genetic information, by the processes of conjugation, transduction, and transformation, in aquatic and terrestrial environments and on pl...


Genetically engineered poxviruses for recombinant gene expression, vaccination, and safety.  

PubMed Central

Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure-function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8876137

Moss, B



Genetically Engineered Poxviruses for Recombinant Gene Expression, Vaccination, and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure--function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients.

Moss, Bernard



Knowledge-based engineering for mould design based on the use of genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of mould design depends on one's engineering knowledge and design experience. Knowledge-based engineering (KBE) adequately utilizes such knowledge and experience to design. KBE is a very important approach for increasing the intelligence and speed-up of the time of engineering design. In recent years, the use of genetic algorithms, as an optimization method, enables a rapid development. It searches the optimum solution for a problem using the principle of "survival of the fittest". In the process of mould design, constraint conditions for important parameters are set up. Then, a genetic algorithm is used to code these parameters and search for the optimum (or approximate optimum) solution of these parameters. Compared with general KBE, the KBE based on a genetic algorithm enhances the efficiency of design and the precision of solution. It not only makes use of the knowledge and experience of experts and designers, but also utilizes the great ability and generality of genetic algorithms in searching for an optimum solution.

Jiang, Peng; Hu, Jianjun; Xu, Hongbin



Genetic diversity among Mycobacterium bovis isolates: a preliminary study of strains from animal and human sources.  


Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into five distinct genotypes based on polymorphisms at the pncA and oxyR loci, the status of the RD5 deletion region, and the spoligotype pattern. These findings suggest the existence of a spectrum of strains with genotypic characteristics between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. PMID:11724883

Sales, M P; Taylor, G M; Hughes, S; Yates, M; Hewinson, G; Young, D B; Shaw, R J



Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium bovis Isolates: a Preliminary Study of Strains from Animal and Human Sources  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into five distinct genotypes based on polymorphisms at the pncA and oxyR loci, the status of the RD5 deletion region, and the spoligotype pattern. These findings suggest the existence of a spectrum of strains with genotypic characteristics between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. PMID:11724883

Sales, M. P. U.; Taylor, G. M.; Hughes, S.; Yates, M.; Hewinson, G.; Young, D. B.; Shaw, R. J.



Developing genetically engineered mouse models to study tumor suppression  

PubMed Central

Since the late 1980s, the tools to generate mice with deletions of tumor suppressors have made it possible to study such deletions in the context of a whole animal. Deletion of some tumor suppressors results in viable mice while deletion of others yield embryo lethal phenotypes cementing the concept that genes that often go awry in cancer are also of developmental importance. More sophisticated mouse models were subsequently developed to delete a gene in a specific cell type at a specific time point. Additionally, incorporation of point mutations in a specific gene as observed in human tumors has also revealed their contributions to tumorigenesis. On the other hand, some models never develop cancer unless combined with other deletions suggesting a modifying role in tumorigenesis. This review will describe the technical aspects of generating these mice and provide examples of the outcomes obtained from alterations of different tumor suppressors. PMID:22582146

Xiong, Shunbin; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Lozano, Guillermina



Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )



Evaluation of two genetic animal models in behavioral tests of anxiety and depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety- and depression-related disorders often appear associated and may be affected by common genetic factors. The inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the outbred rat lines Floripa H and L, which were selectively bred for high and low locomotion in the central area of the open field (OF) test, respectively, have been proposed as experimental

Fedra R. Hinojosa; Luiz Spricigo; Geison S. Izídio; Gustavo R. Brüske; Douglas M. Lopes; André Ramos



Analysis of cytoplasmic and maternal effects I. A genetic model for diploid plant seeds and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic model for modified diallel crosses is proposed for estimating variance and covariance components of cytoplasmic, maternal additive and dominance effects, as well as direct additive and dominance effects. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to compare the efficiencies of minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation (MINQUE) methods. For both balanced and unbalanced mating designs, MINQUE (0\\/1), which has 0 for

J. Zhu; B. S. Weir



Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as “Crioulo,” “local,” or naturalized. From the beginning

A. da S. Mariante; A. A. Egito



Integration of Multi-objective and Interactive Genetic Algorithms and its Application to Animation Design  

E-print Network

that the motions represent is limited. Thus, it is required to generate human like motions automatically applying crossover and mutation to current population of solutions. Then, the human evaluates and selects human like motions in animation by computer graphics is a difficult task. Currently, motions

Coello, Carlos A. Coello


Anatomical Distribution and Genetic Relatedness of Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli from Healthy Companion Animals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: Escherichia coli have been targeted for studying antimicrobial resistance in companion animals due to opportunistic infections and as a surrogate for resistance patterns in zoonotic organisms. The aim of our study examined antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from various anatomical ...


The Role of Breeding and Genetics in Animal Production Improvement in the Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Availability of animal protein for human consumption is very low in the developing countries mainly because of low productivity of existing livestock; ways and means to improve productivity through breeding are discussed and some basic issues requiring further research pointed out. PMID:17248670

Rendel, Jan



Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy  

SciTech Connect

Current therapeutic approaches against the advanced stages of human solid tumors are palliative rather than curative. Many modalities, including, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination have met with only modest success for advanced metastatic cancers. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with cytotxic effects of radioisotopes. It is the ?smart? way of delivering radiation to the known and occult metastatic cancer cells and is independent of drug toxicity and/or hormone resistance. The tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) containing the unique disaccharide sialyl-Tn, is highly expressed in majority of adenocarcinomas, including carcinomas of the prostate, breast, ovaries, pancreas and colon (80-90%) compared to undetectable expression in normal tissues. Monoclonal antibody CC49, reactive with TAG-72, after conjugation to potent gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides, has been useful in selective systemic radiolocalization of disease and therapy of primary and metastatic tumor sites. However, limited therapeutic responses were observed in patients. Limited success of antibody based delivery of radioisotopes can be attributed to several factors including undesirable pharmacokinetics, poor tumor uptake and high immunogenicity of intact antibodies (IgGs). The primary factors contributing towards the failure of RIT include: 1) longer serum half-lives of the intact IgG molecules resulting in the radiotoxicity, 2) generation of human antibodies against murine antibodies (HAMA) that limits the frequency of dose administration, 3) poor diffusion rates of intact IgG due to the large size and 4) high interstitial fluid pressures (IFP) encountered in solid tumors. The major goal of our multidisciplinary project was to develop specific novel radiopharmaceuticals, with desired pharmacokinetics, for the diagnosis and therapy of solid tumors. To overcome the low uptake of radioactivity by tumors and to increase its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more compatible with RIT and RIS requirements. For RIT, delivery for sc(Fv)2 and [sc(Fv)2]2 in a fr

Surinder Batra, Ph.D.



DNA evidence for the hybridization of wild turtles in Taiwan: possible genetic pollution from trade animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys in Taiwan have uncovered turtles presumed to be hybrids based on their intermediate morphology. We sequenced\\u000a a mitochondrial (ND4) and nuclear (R35) gene of two putative hybrid individuals, along with representatives of the potential\\u000a parental species (Mauremys mutica, M. reevesii, M. sinensis), to determine their genetic identity. Based on our data, both individuals are hybrids, with independent, recent

Jonathan J. Fong; Tien-Hsi Chen



Decreased bodyweight without rebound and regulated lipoprotein metabolism by gymnemate in genetic multifactor syndrome animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this work was to find obesity control method without rebound. In our previous studies, gymnemate extracted from\\u000a Gymnema sylvestre, inhibited oleic acid absorption. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic multifactor syndrome model,\\u000a exhibits progressive overweight, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. The effect of gymnemate on obesity in OLETF was investigated.\\u000a Methods: Three groups were divided

Hong Luo; Akiko Kashiwagi; Toshiyuki Shibahara; Kazuo Yamada



Tissue engineering for total meniscal substitution: animal study in sheep model--results at 12 months.  


The aim of the study was to investigate the use of a hyaluronic acid/polycaprolactone material for meniscal tissue engineering and to evaluate the tissue regeneration after the augmentation of the implant with expanded autologous chondrocytes. Eighteen skeletally mature sheep were treated. The animals were divided into three groups: cell-free scaffold, scaffold seeded with autologous chondrocytes, and meniscectomy alone. The implant was sutured to the capsule and to the meniscal ligament. At a 12-month gross assessment, histology and histomorphometry were used to assess the meniscus implant, knee joint, and osteoarthritis development. All implants showed excellent capsular ingrowth at the periphery. The implant gross assessment showed significant differences between cell-seeded and cell-free groups (p=0.011). The histological analysis indicated a cellular colonization throughout the implanted constructs. Avascular cartilaginous tissue formation was significantly more frequent in the cell-seeded constructs. Joint gross assessment showed that sheep treated with scaffold implantation achieved a significant higher score than those underwent meniscectomy (p<0.0005), and the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score showed that osteoarthritic changes were significantly less in the cell-seeded group than in the meniscectomy group (p=0.047), even though results were not significantly superior to those of the cell-free scaffold. Seeding of the scaffold with autologous chondrocytes increases its tissue regeneration capacity, providing a better fibrocartilaginous tissue formation. The study suggests the potential of the novel hyaluronic acid/polycaprolactone scaffold for total meniscal substitution, although this approach has to be further improved before being applied into clinical practice. PMID:22500654

Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Tschon, Matilde; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Marchesini Reggiani, Leonardo; Chiari, Catharina; Nehrer, Stefan; Martin, Ivan; Salter, Donald M; Ambrosio, Luigi; Marcacci, Maurilio



Toward a Basis for the Phenotypic Gambit: Advances in the Evolutionary Genetics of Animal Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Individuals of many species, including humans, differ consistently in the way they behave. These consistent behavioral differences\\u000a among individuals are collectively known as animal personality (Gosling 2001), behavioral syndromes (Sih et al. 2004a), behavioral\\u000a strategies (Benus et al. 1990), or behavioral profiles (Rodgers et al. 1997). Each of these terms, to some extent, describe\\u000a an emergent phenomenon of the total

Kees van Oers; David L. Sinn


Animal model integration to AutDB, a genetic database for autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the post-genomic era, multi-faceted research on complex disorders such as autism has generated diverse types of molecular information related to its pathogenesis. The rapid accumulation of putative candidate genes\\/loci for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ASD-related animal models poses a major challenge for systematic analysis of their content. We previously created the Autism Database (AutDB) to provide a

Ajay Kumar; Rachna Wadhawan; Catherine Croft Swanwick; Ravi Kollu; Saumyendra N Basu; Sharmila Banerjee-Basu



Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA.  


Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LC-PUFA) in oilseeds has been one of the key targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ?3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from endogenous ?-linolenic acid (ALA), we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid (PL) lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG, and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1?9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provided insights into where DHA accumulated and combined with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds. PMID:25225497

Zhou, Xue-Rong; Callahan, Damien L; Shrestha, Pushkar; Liu, Qing; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P



Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA  

PubMed Central

Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LC-PUFA) in oilseeds has been one of the key targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ?3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from endogenous ?-linolenic acid (ALA), we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid (PL) lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG, and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1?9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provided insights into where DHA accumulated and combined with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds. PMID:25225497

Zhou, Xue-Rong; Callahan, Damien L.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Liu, Qing; Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.



Genetically engineered theranostic mesenchymal stem cells for the evaluation of the anticancer efficacy of enzyme/prodrug systems.  


Over the past decade, various enzyme/prodrug systems such as thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV), yeast cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (yCD/5-FC) and nitroreductase/CB1954 (NTR/CB1954) have been used for stem cell mediated suicide gene therapy of cancer. Yet, no study has been conducted to compare and demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using one system over another. Knowing that each enzyme/prodrug system has its own strengths and weaknesses, we utilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a medium to perform for the first time a comparative study that illustrated the impact of subtle differences among these systems on the therapeutic outcome. For therapeutic purposes, we first genetically modified MSCs to stably express a panel of four suicide genes including TK (TK007 and TK(SR39) mutants), yeast cytosine deaminase:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (yCD:UPRT) and nitroreductase (NTR). Then, we evaluated the anticancer efficacies of the genetically engineered MSCs in vitro and in vivo by using SKOV3 cell line which is sensitive to all four enzyme/prodrug systems. In addition, all MSCs were engineered to stably express luciferase gene making them suitable for quantitative imaging and dose-response relationship studies in animals. Considering the limitations imposed by the prodrugs' bystander effects, our findings show that yCD:UPRT/5-FC is the most effective enzyme/prodrug system among the ones tested. Our findings also demonstrate that theranostic MSCs are a reliable medium for the side-by-side evaluation and screening of the enzyme/prodrug systems at the preclinical level. The results of this study could help scientists who utilize cell-based, non-viral or viral vectors for suicide gene therapy of cancer make more informed decisions when choosing enzyme/prodrug systems. PMID:25575867

Nouri, Faranak Salman; Wang, Xing; Hatefi, Arash



Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man.  


There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-?3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including 'growth factor name', 'in vivo', 'model/animal', 'human', and 'bone tissue engineering'. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area. PMID:25284140

Gothard, D; Smith, E L; Kanczler, J M; Rashidi, H; Qutachi, O; Henstock, J; Rotherham, M; El Haj, A; Shakesheff, K M; Oreffo, R O C



Comparison of heat flux in wild-type and genetically-engineered Chinese Hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is claimed, though not without dispute, that genetically engineered mammalian cells grow more slowly than their progenitor\\u000a cells because the recombinant gene system causes a metabolic burden. This was found to be the case for CHO cells transfected\\u000a with expression vectors forcytochrome b5. The slower growth was associated with lower metabolic activity measured by heat flux and mitochondrial activity

A. H. Kidane; Y. Guan; P. M. Evans; M. A. Kaderbhai; R. B. Kemp



Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance – a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineering inherent crop resistance to insect pests offers the potential of a user-friendly, environment-friendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture in the 21st century. Work to date has concentrated on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Impressive results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been

Vaughan A. Hilder; Donald Boulter



Three-Dimensional Structure of a Genetically Engineered Variant of Porcine Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional structure of a genetically engineered variant of porcine growth hormone, methionyl porcine somatotropin (MPS), has been determined at 2.8- angstrom resolution, using single crystal x-ray diffraction techniques. Phases were obtained by use of a single isomorphous K2OsCl6 derivative and were improved by use of the density modification procedure. The MPS structure is predominantly helical. It consists mainly of

Sherin S. Abdel-Meguid; Huey-Sheng Shieh; Ward W. Smith; Henry E. Dayringer; Bernard N. Violand; Larry A. Bentle



Systemic delivery of human growth hormone by injection of genetically engineered myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant gene encoding human growth hormone (hGH) was stably introduced into cultured myoblasts with a retroviral vector. After injection of genetically engineered myoblasts into mouse muscle, hGH could be detected in serum for 3 months. The fate of injected myoblasts was assessed by coinfecting the cells with two retroviral vectors, one encoding hGH and the other encoding β-galactosidase from

J. Dhawan; L. C. Pan; G. K. Pavlath; M. A. Travis; A. M. Lanctot; H. M. Blau



The Reconciliation of Science & Religion in Light of Human Genetic Engineering Innovation  

E-print Network

The never-ending question of “physis ” vs. “nomos ” (or “natural progression ” vs. “human intervention”) has plagued the human race since the days of classical rhetoric in ancient Greece. No lucid conclusions have yet been indisputably drawn. With the human innovation of genetic engineering, it has become even more vital to make such a distinction in order that progressive action can be taken to procure a prosperous future for the

Robyn Thomas; An Introduction


Anti-genetic engineering activism and scientized politics in the case of “contaminated” Mexican maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The struggle over genetically-engineered (GE) maize in Mexico reveals a deep conflict over the criteria used in the governance\\u000a of agri-food systems. Policy debate on the topic of GE maize has become “scientized,” granting experts a high level of political\\u000a authority, and narrowing the regulatory domain to matters that can be adjudicated on the basis of scientific information or\\u000a “managed”

Abby J. Kinchy



Interrogating Resistance to Targeted Therapy Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the advent of cancer genome sequencing and rationally designed targeted therapeutics, mouse models of human cancer might\\u000a seem destined to become relics of a bygone era. Instead, the engineering of mouse genomes continues to evolve, yielding versatile\\u000a and powerful research tools for modeling targeted therapy. Just as the first wave of cancer-prone transgenic mice helped unravel\\u000a the genetic events

Edward Gunther


Can we guarantee the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Concern about the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment arises from the undesirable results of earlier new technologies and introduced organisms. Progress towards safe release is complicated by the varied views of a diverse society, confusion of process and product, problems with existing methods, and the lack of practical experience with real releases. No categorically safe novel organisms exist, but a progressive series of releases should allow risks to be systematically reduced.40 references.

Keeler, K.H.



Tipping points in seaweed genetic engineering: scaling up opportunities in the next decade.  


Seaweed genetic engineering is a transgenic expression system with unique features compared with those of heterotrophic prokaryotes and higher plants. This study discusses several newly sequenced seaweed nuclear genomes and the necessity that research on vector design should consider endogenous promoters, codon optimization, and gene copy number. Seaweed viruses and artificial transposons can be applied as transformation methods after acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of viral infections in seaweeds and transposon patterns in seaweed genomes. After cultivating transgenic algal cells and tissues in a photobioreactor, a biosafety assessment of genetically modified (GM) seaweeds must be conducted before open-sea application. We propose a set of programs for the evaluation of gene flow from GM seaweeds to local/geographical environments. The effective implementation of such programs requires fundamentally systematic and interdisciplinary studies on algal physiology and genetics, marine hydrology, reproductive biology, and ecology. PMID:24857961

Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song



[Study on the efficacy of genetically engineered vaccines against hepatitis B for interruption of perinatal transmission].  


The infectivity rate of newborn babies who had been borne from HBsAG(+), HBeAg(+) and anti-HBc(+) mothers was very high (85%). 142 babies born in the hospital were divided into three groups, in this study. In the group 1, 57 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms recombinant DNA vaccinia vaccines against hepatitis B. The injections were given at newborn, 1 month, and 6 months, respectively. In group 2, 41 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B at same time were intervals as group 1. In group 3, 44 newborn babies were inoculated with 10 micrograms as same vaccines as group 2 HBIG plus 1ml (200 U/ml), at same time intervals as group 1. The immune pretection rates of newborn babies in three groups were 88.2%, 85.9% and 100%, respectively. The anti-HBs pasitive conversion rates were 82%, 86% and 98%, respectively. The group 3 was compared with group 1 and 2. Statistical analysis showed the significant differences (P < 0.05). The result showed the immune program of group 3 was superior to that of group 1 and 2, and none of the 44 babies in group 3 were infected. The efficacy of immunization by genetic engineering vaccines were superior to that of blood-derived vaccine. The genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B would be more useful for interruption of perinatal transmission of HBV. PMID:8631089

Kang, P; Shen, X M; Yu, H M



Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.  


Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches. PMID:23190258

Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara



A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others




EPA Science Inventory

Intact soil-core microcosms were studied to determine their applicability for evaluating the transport, survival and potential ecosystem effects of genetically engineered microorganisms before they are released into the environment. oi1-core microcosms were planted with wheat and...



EPA Science Inventory

Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram nega...



EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes and evaluates research from several laboratories that deals with the detection of ecological effects induced through exposure of microbes or plants to genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMS) and microbial pest control agents (MPCAS) . The development o...


Different methods of genetically engineering plants Â? Robert HorschSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Robert Horsch DNAi Location:Manipulation>Techniques>transferring & storing>interviews Agrobacterium or gene gun? Robert Horsch compares the random power of a gene gun with the natural genetic engineering abilities of agrobacterium.



Convergence of stem cell behaviors and genetic regulation between animals and plants: insights from the Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal lineage.  


Plants and animals are two successful, but vastly different, forms of complex multicellular life. In the 1600 million years since they shared a common unicellular ancestor, representatives of these kingdoms have had ample time to devise unique strategies for building and maintaining themselves, yet they have both developed self-renewing stem cell populations. Using the cellular behaviors and the genetic control of stomatal lineage of Arabidopsis as a focal point, we find current data suggests convergence of stem cell regulation at developmental and molecular levels. Comparative studies between evolutionary distant groups, therefore, have the power to reveal the logic behind stem cell behaviors and benefit both human regenerative medicine and plant biomass production. PMID:25184043

Matos, Juliana L; Bergmann, Dominique C



Whole-body multicolor spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging for development of target-specific optical contrast agents using genetically engineered probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target-specific contrast agents are being developed for the molecular imaging of cancer. Optically detectable target-specific agents are promising for clinical applications because of their high sensitivity and specificity. Pre clinical testing is needed, however, to validate the actual sensitivity and specificity of these agents in animal models, and involves both conventional histology and immunohistochemistry, which requires large numbers of animals and samples with costly handling. However, a superior validation tool takes advantage of genetic engineering technology whereby cell lines are transfected with genes that induce the target cell to produce fluorescent proteins with characteristic emission spectra thus, identifying them as cancer cells. Multicolor fluorescence imaging of these genetically engineered probes can provide rapid validation of newly developed exogenous probes that fluoresce at different wavelengths. For example, the plasmid containing the gene encoding red fluorescent protein (RFP) was transfected into cell lines previously developed to either express or not-express specific cell surface receptors. Various antibody-based or receptor ligand-based optical contrast agents with either green or near infrared fluorophores were developed to concurrently target and validate cancer cells and their positive and negative controls, such as ?-D-galactose receptor, HER1 and HER2 in a single animal/organ. Spectrally resolved fluorescence multicolor imaging was used to detect separate fluorescent emission spectra from the exogenous agents and RFP. Therefore, using this in vivo imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the target-specific optical contrast agents, thus reducing the number of animals needed to conduct these experiments.

Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hama, Yukihiro; Koyama, Yoshinori; Barrett, Tristan; Urano, Yasuteru; Choyke, Peter L.



Capturing the Sustainability Agenda: Organic Foods and Media Discourses on Food Scares, Environment, Genetic Engineering, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper undertakes a content analysis of newspaper articles from Australia, the UK, and the US concerned with a variety of issues relevant to sustainable food and agriculture from 1996 to 2002. It then goes on to identify the various ways in which sustainability, organic food and agriculture, genetic engineering, genetically modified foods, and food safety are framed both in

Stewart Lockie



Genetic threshold hypothesis of neocortical spike-and-wave discharges in the rat: An animal model of petit mal epilepsy  

SciTech Connect

Neocortical high-voltage spike-and-wave discharges (HVS) in the rat are an animal model of petit mal epilepsy. Genetic analysis of total duration of HVS (s/12 hr) in reciprocal F1 and F2 hybrids of F344 and BN rats indicated that the phenotypic variability of HVS cannot be explained by simple, monogenic Mendelian model. Biometrical analysis suggested the presence of additive, dominance, and sex-linked-epistatic effects, buffering maternal influence, and heterosis. High correlation was observed between average duration (s/episode) and frequency of occurrence of spike-and-wave episodes (n/12 hr) in parental and segregating generations, indicating that common genes affect both duration and frequency of the spike-and-wave pattern. We propose that both genetic and developmental - environmental factors control an underlying quantitative variable, which, above a certain threshold level, precipitates HVS discharges. These findings, together with the recent availability of rat DNA markers for total genome mapping, pave the way to the identification of genes that control the susceptibility of the brain to spike-and-wave discharges. 67 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Vadasz, C.; Fleischer, A. [Nathan Kline Inst. for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY (United States); Carpi, D.; Jando, G. [State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)] [and others



Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

R?szer, Tamás; Pintye, Éva; Benk?, Ilona



Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals  

SciTech Connect

Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

Roszer, Tamas [Research Group of Apoptosis and Genomics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4012 Debrecen, PO Box 6. (Hungary); Pintye, Eva [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary); Benko', Ilona [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary)



The apoptotic initiator caspase-8: its functional ubiquity and genetic diversity during animal evolution.  


The caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play multiple roles in apoptosis, inflammation, and cellular differentiation. Caspase-8 (Casp8), which was first identified in humans, functions as an initiator caspase in the apoptotic signaling mediated by cell-surface death receptors. To understand the evolution of function in the Casp8 protein family, casp8 orthologs were identified from a comprehensive range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including sponges and cnidarians, and characterized at both the gene and protein levels. Some introns have been conserved from cnidarians to mammals, but both losses and gains have also occurred; a new intron arose during teleost evolution, whereas in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the casp8 gene is intronless and is organized in an operon with a neighboring gene. Casp8 activities are near ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Exogenous expression of a representative range of nonmammalian Casp8 proteins in cultured mammalian cells induced cell death, implying that these proteins possess proapoptotic activity. The cnidarian Casp8 proteins differ considerably from their bilaterian counterparts in terms of amino acid residues in the catalytic pocket, but display the same substrate specificity as human CASP8, highlighting the complexity of spatial structural interactions involved in enzymatic activity. Finally, it was confirmed that the interaction with an adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein, is also evolutionarily ancient. Thus, despite structural diversity and cooption to a variety of new functions, the ancient origins and near ubiquitous distribution of this activity across the animal kingdom emphasize the importance and utility of Casp8 as a central component of the metazoan molecular toolkit. PMID:25205508

Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kouhei; Iwata, Hiroaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Satou, Yutaka; Funayama, Noriko; Nozaki, Masami; Yajima, Mamiko; Nishimura, Osamu; Higuchi, Mayura; Chiba, Kumiko; Yoshimoto, Michi; Kimura, Haruna; Gracey, Andrew Y; Shimizu, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Gotoh, Osamu; Akasaka, Koji; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Miller, David J



An engineered small RNA-mediated genetic switch based on a ribozyme expression platform  

PubMed Central

An important requirement for achieving many goals of synthetic biology is the availability of a large repertoire of reprogrammable genetic switches and appropriate transmitter molecules. In addition to engineering genetic switches, the interconnection of individual switches becomes increasingly important for the construction of more complex genetic networks. In particular, RNA-based switches of gene expression have become a powerful tool to post-transcriptionally program genetic circuits. RNAs used for regulatory purposes have the advantage to transmit, sense, process and execute information. We have recently used the hammerhead ribozyme to control translation initiation in a small molecule-dependent fashion. In addition, riboregulators have been constructed in which a small RNA acts as transmitter molecule to control translation of a target mRNA. In this study, we combine both concepts and redesign the hammerhead ribozyme to sense small trans-acting RNAs (taRNAs) as input molecules resulting in repression of translation initiation in Escherichia coli. Importantly, our ribozyme-based expression platform is compatible with previously reported artificial taRNAs, which were reported to act as inducers of gene expression. In addition, we provide several insights into key requirements of riboregulatory systems, including the influences of varying transcriptional induction of the taRNA and mRNA transcripts, 5?-processing of taRNAs, as well as altering the secondary structure of the taRNA. In conclusion, we introduce an RNA-responsive ribozyme-based expression system to the field of artificial riboregulators that can serve as reprogrammable platform for engineering higher-order genetic circuits. PMID:23585277

Klauser, Benedikt; Hartig, Jörg S.



Developing genetically engineered encapsulin protein cage nanoparticles as a targeted delivery nanoplatform.  


Protein cage nanoparticles are excellent candidates for use as multifunctional delivery nanoplatforms because they are built from biomaterials and have a well-defined structure. A novel protein cage nanoparticle, encapsulin, isolated from thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima, is prepared and developed as a versatile template for targeted delivery nanoplatforms through both chemical and genetic engineering. It is pivotal for multifunctional delivery nanoplatforms to have functional plasticity and versatility to acquire targeting ligands, diagnostic probes, and drugs simultaneously. Encapsulin is genetically engineered to have unusual heat stability and to acquire multiple functionalities in a precisely controlled manner. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell binding peptide (SP94-peptide, SFSIIHTPILPL) is chosen as a targeting ligand and displayed on the surface of engineered encapsulin (Encap_loophis42C123) through either chemical conjugation or genetic insertion. The effective and selective targeted delivery of SP94-peptide displaying encapsulin (SP94-Encap_loophis42C123) to HepG2 cells is confirmed by fluorescent microscopy imaging. Aldoxorubicin (AlDox), an anticancer prodrug, is chemically loaded to SP94-Encap_loophis42C123 via thiol-maleimide Michael-type addition, and the efficacy of the delivered drugs is evaluated with a cell viability assay. SP94-Encap_loophis42C123-AlDox shows comparable killing efficacy with that of free drugs without the platform's own cytotoxicity. Functional plasticity and versatility of the engineered encapsulin allow us to introduce targeting ligands, diagnostic probes, and therapeutic reagents simultaneously, providing opportunities to develop multifunctional delivery nanoplatforms. PMID:25180761

Moon, Hyojin; Lee, Jisu; Min, Junseon; Kang, Sebyung



Pathophysiology of Acute Experimental Pancreatitis: Lessons from Genetically Engineered Animal Models and New Molecular Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of acute pancreatitis is growing and worldwide population-based studies report a doubling or tripling since the 1970s. 25% of acute pancreatitis are severe and associated with histological changes of necrotizing pancreatitis. There is still no specific medical treatment for acute pancreatitis. The average mortality resides around 10%. In order to develop new specific medical treatment strategies for acute

Claus Schäfer; Anne Barbara Tietz; Burkhard Göke



Site-specific selfish genes as tools for the control and genetic engineering of natural populations.  


Site-specific selfish genes exploit host functions to copy themselves into a defined target DNA sequence, and include homing endonuclease genes, group II introns and some LINE-like transposable elements. If such genes can be engineered to target new host sequences, then they can be used to manipulate natural populations, even if the number of individuals released is a small fraction of the entire population. For example, a genetic load sufficient to eradicate a population can be imposed in fewer than 20 generations, if the target is an essential host gene, the knockout is recessive and the selfish gene has an appropriate promoter. There will be selection for resistance, but several strategies are available for reducing the likelihood of it evolving. These genes may also be used to genetically engineer natural populations, by means of population-wide gene knockouts, gene replacements and genetic transformations. By targeting sex-linked loci just prior to meiosis one may skew the population sex ratio, and by changing the promoter one may limit the spread of the gene to neighbouring populations. The proposed constructs are evolutionarily stable in the face of the mutations most likely to arise during their spread, and strategies are also available for reversing the manipulations. PMID:12803906

Burt, Austin



Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control  

SciTech Connect

On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.



Genetic engineering of crops: a ray of hope for enhanced food security.  


Crop improvement has been a basic and essential chase since organized cultivation of crops began thousands of years ago. Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The changing global climatic conditions are making them worse and pointing toward food insecurity. Agriculture biotechnology or genetic engineering has allowed us to look into and understand the complex nature of abiotic stresses and measures to improve the crop productivity under adverse conditions. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in