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1

Genetic Engineering and the Integrity of Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering evokes a number of objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. The concept of animal integrity is often invoked to articulate these kind of objections. Moreover, in reaction to the advent of genetic engineering, the concept has been extended from the level of

Rob De Vries

2006-01-01

2

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

3

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

4

Obstructive nephropathy: insights from genetically engineered animals.  

PubMed

Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), (myo)fibroblast accumulation, increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and tubular atrophy. During the last decade genetically modified animals are increasingly used to study the development of obstructive nephropathy. Although the use of these animals (mainly knockouts) has highlighted some pitfalls of this approach (compensation by closely related gene products, absence of temporal knockouts) it has brought important information about the role of specific gene-products in the pathogenesis of obstructive nephropathy. Besides confirming the important pathologic role for angiotensin II (Ang II) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in obstructive nephropathy, these animals have shown the complexity of the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis involving a large number of closely functionally related molecules. More interestingly, the use of these animals has led to the discovery of unexpected and contradictory roles (both potentially pro- and antifibrotic) for Ang II, for ECM degrading enzymes matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue plasminogen activators (PAs), for plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and for the adhesion molecule osteopontin (OPN) in obstructive nephropathy. Further use of these animals, especially in combination with pharmacologic tools, should help to better identify potential antifibrotic strategies in obstructive nephropathy. PMID:16105023

Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P

2005-09-01

5

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

6

‘Ethical concepts regarding the genetic engineering of laboratory animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic value and animal integrity are two key concepts in the debate on the ethics of the genetic engineering of laboratory\\u000a animals. These concepts have, on the one hand, a theoretical origin and are, on the other hand, based on the moral beliefs\\u000a of people not directly involved in the genetic modification of animals. This ‘external’ origin raises the question

R. B. M. de Vries

2006-01-01

7

Role of genetically engineered animals in future food production.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) animals are likely to have an important role in the future in meeting the food demand of a burgeoning global population. There have already been many notable achievements using this technology in livestock, poultry and aquatic species. In particular, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to produce virus-resistant animals is a rapidly-developing area of research. However, despite the promise of this technology, very few GE animals have been commercialised. This review aims to provide information so that veterinarians and animal health scientists are better able to participate in the debate on GE animals. PMID:23438464

McColl, K A; Clarke, B; Doran, T J

2013-03-01

8

Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

Traci Warkentin

9

Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

Traci Warkentin

2006-01-01

10

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)|

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

11

Bad Ethics, Good Ethics and the Genetic Engineering of Animals in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineers have been remiss in addressing ethical and social issues emerging from this powerful new technology, a technology whose implications for agriculture are profound. As a conse- quence of this failure, society has been uneasy about genetic engineering of animals and has had difficulty distinguishing between genuine and spurious ethical issues the technology occasions. Many of the most prominent

Bernard E. Rollin

2010-01-01

12

Zinc-finger nucleases: a powerful tool for genetic engineering of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of genetically modified animals or plants with gene-targeted deletions or modifications is a powerful tool\\u000a to analyze gene function, study disease and produce organisms of economical interest. Until recently, the generation of animals\\u000a with gene targeted manipulations has been accomplished by homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells or cloning\\u000a through nuclear transfer and has been limited

Séverine Rémy; Laurent Tesson; Séverine Ménoret; Claire Usal; Andrew M. Scharenberg; Ignacio Anegon

2010-01-01

13

Genetic engineering of milk composition: modification of milk components in lactating transgenic animals.  

PubMed

Recent progress in recombinant DNA technology as well as in embryo manipulation and transfer has made the introduction of specific genes into the germline of animals relatively commonplace. With appropriate genetic constructs expression of the inserted genes in transgenic animals can be controlled in a tissue-specific and in a differentiation-specific manner; thus, it is now possible to consider alteration of the composition of milk produced by a lactating animal in any of a variety of ways. There is a growing list of foreign milk proteins that have been expressed, and one can envisage placing almost any protein gene of interest under the control of the cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements of a milk protein gene. Modification of milk composition can be extended not only to the proteins of commodity value but also, by manipulation of key metabolic enzymes, to fat, lactose, and other minerals in milk. PMID:8328404

Yom, H C; Bremel, R D

1993-08-01

14

Guidance for Industry: Regulation of Genetically Engineered Animals Containing Heritable Recombinant DNA Constructs. Final Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its first demonstration as proof of principle by Cohen and Boyer in 1973, recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has been applied to microorganisms, plants, and animals. Various agencies across the US government (USG) have provided guidance and regulatio...

2009-01-01

15

Genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

This series reviews new developments in recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Each volume consists of 3 - 4 mini-reviews. Volume 7 contains two articles on aspects of molecular parasitology and one review on gene expression in animal cells of biotechnological interest.

Rigby, P.

1988-01-01

16

Genetic engineering in biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone; insulin; treatment of blood cells, Talasemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; and more nutritious soya), transfer to higher organisms, and cellular fusion; (3) biological risks and precautions; (4) possible applications (production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, alcohol, chemicals, enzymes, peptides, viral antigens, monoclonal antibodies, genes, proteins, and insecticides; metal extraction; nitrogen fixation; biodegradation; and new varieties of plants and animals; and (5) international activities.

Bedate, C.A.; Morales, J.C.; Lopez, E.H.

1981-09-01

17

Sodium reabsorption in aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron: news and contributions from genetically engineered animals.  

PubMed

The precise adaptation of renal sodium excretion to systemic needs is to a large extent achieved by the regulation of sodium re-absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Transcellular sodium re-absorption by the segment-specific cells of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (often called principal cells) is mainly controlled at the level of the expression and activity levels of the epithelial sodium channel, the apical amiloride-sensitive sodium influx pathway. Recent investigations have identified the first early aldosterone-induced proteins that act on epithelial sodium channel function in expression systems. Indirect evidence suggests that one of these aldosterone-induced proteins, the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase SGK1, plays a central integratory role in the control of epithelial sodium channel surface expression and activity, also in the mammalian kidney. Gene-modified animals lacking epithelial sodium channel subunits or expressing mutant subunits have substantiated the central role of the epithelial sodium channel in sodium re-absorption and blood pressure control, as well as for neonatal lung liquid clearance. Mice overexpressing or lacking specific hormones or their receptors have been used to study their role in sodium transport regulation, but the study of mouse physiology appears to lag behind the generation of gene-modified mice. Nonetheless, these new animal models have had a strong impact on research, by stimulating the integration of knowledge and techniques learned from reductionistic molecular approaches into tissue and animal studies, thus breaking down barriers and stimulating collaborations. PMID:11195050

Verrey, F

2001-01-01

18

Genetic engineering fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Presenting the basics of biochemistry and molecular biology as they pertain to the field of genetic engineering. This book explains the biological and chemical principles of recombinant DNA technology - covering essential material in a reasonably condensed and easy-to-read form. The authors emphasize techniques used to isolate and clone specific genes from bacteria, plants, and animals, and methods of scaling-up the formation of the gene product for commercial applications. They analyze problems encountered in scaling-up the microprocessing of biochemical procedures.

Kammermeyer, K. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (USA))

1989-01-01

19

Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this

Carl A. PINKERT

2003-01-01

20

(Genetically engineered microorganisms)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler attended the First International Conference on the Release of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms at the request of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The purpose of the conference was to provide an international forum for the discussion of the issues and concerns related to the release of genetically engineered microorganisms for environmental and agricultural applications. The cost of attendance

Sharples

1988-01-01

21

Attitudes towards genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the main results of the analyses of the German Biotech Survey and gives an overview on the public perception of genetic engineering in Germany, which is very differentiated and dominated by ambivalence. Unlike the perception of genetic engineering in general, the perception of the different applications of this technology are almost very distinctive - medical applications are

Jürgen Hampel; Uwe Pfenning; Hans Peter Peters

2000-01-01

22

Genetically modified animals: ethical issues.  

PubMed

The method of ethical analysis is reviewed and applied to questions relating to the unintended consequences, ownership, and metaphysical significance of genetically modified animals. The question of how genetics and recombinant DNA discoveries have an impact on human understanding of the moral community and the limits of acceptable action are emphasized. The potential for genetically modified animals presents a challenge to implicit norms for defining these boundaries. Four philosophical responses to this challenge are reviewed: fundamentalism, conventionalism, dualism, and naturalism. The naturalist response is most consistent with contemporary biology, but it also entails that animals have limited moral significance. PMID:11653153

Thompson, Paul B

1993-01-01

23

Genetic engineering and pharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering now allows biological synthesis and large-scale production of several proteins with therapeutic potential. The principal challenge in this sphere is to identify new, medically and commercially significant targets - the province of cell biologists, physiologists and biochemists. In the future, genetic engineering will surely provide invaluable tools for the study of the molecular basis of cellular control and pathophysiology, which will permit biochemists and medicinal chemists to design novel medicines.

Vane, John; Cuatrecasas, Pedro

1984-11-01

24

Safe genetically engineered plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes

D. Rosellini; F. Veronesi

2007-01-01

25

Genetic Engineering of a Mouse  

PubMed Central

Genetic engineering is the process of modifying an organism’s genetic composition by adding foreign genes to produce desired traits or evaluate function. Dr. Jon W. Gordon and Sterling Professor Emeritus at Yale Dr. Frank H. Ruddle were pioneers in mammalian gene transfer research. Their research resulted in production of the first transgenic animals, which contained foreign DNA that was passed on to offspring. Transgenic mice have revolutionized biology, medicine, and biotechnology in the 21st century. In brief, this review revisits their creation of transgenic mice and discusses a few evolving applications of their transgenic technology used in biomedical research.

Jones, Dennis

2011-01-01

26

Paper Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

27

Paper Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

28

A Genetic Engineering Approach to Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on con- cepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the

John S. Gero; Vladimir A. Kazakov

2001-01-01

29

A Genetic Engineering Approach to Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard

John S. Gero; Vladimir Kazakov

2006-01-01

30

Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)|

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

31

Safe genetically engineered plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

2007-10-01

32

Progress and prospects: genetic engineering in xenotransplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we summarize the work published over the last 2 years using genetic modifications of animals in the field of xenotransplantation. Genetic engineering of the donor has become a powerful tool in xenotransplantation, both for the inactivation of one particular porcine gene and for the addition of human genes with the goal of overcoming xenogeneic barriers. We summarize

S Le Bas-Bernardet; I Anegon; G Blancho

2008-01-01

33

Genetic Engineering of Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The words biotechnology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, and high throughput genomic analysis have engendered awe,\\u000a doubtfulness, ambivalence, and hope from scientists and the public alike. The technologies justify the responses, for they\\u000a are undoubtedly the most powerful biological research tools in existence today. They are not, however, new tools that have\\u000a suddenly burst upon us. Rather, as with most new

Norma L. Trolinder

34

Engineering animal models of dystonia.  

PubMed

Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal involuntary movements that are prolonged and often cause twisting and turning. Several genetically modified worms, fruit flies, and rodents have been generated as models of genetic dystonias, in particular DYT1, DYT11, and DYT12 dystonias. Although these models do not show overt dystonic symptoms, the rodent models exhibit motor deficits in specialized behavioral tasks, such as the rotarod and beam-walking tests. For example, in a rodent model of DYT12 dystonia, which is generally stress triggered, motor deficits are observed only after the animal is stressed. Moreover, in a rodent model of DYT1 dystonia, the motor and electrophysiological deficits can be rescued by trihexyphenidyl, a common anticholinergic medication used to treat dystonic symptoms in human patients. Biochemically, the DYT1 and DYT11 animal models also share some similarities to patients, such as a reduction in striatal D2 dopamine receptor and binding activities. In addition, conditional knockout mouse models for DYT1 and DYT11 dystonia demonstrate that loss of the causal dystonia-related proteins in the striatum leads to motor deficits. Interestingly, loss of the DYT1 dystonia causal protein in Purkinje cells shows an improvement in motor performance, suggesting that gene therapy targeting of the cerebellum or intervention in its downstream pathways may be useful. Finally, recent studies using DYT1 dystonia worm and mouse models led to a potential novel therapeutic agent, which is currently undergoing clinical trials. These results indicate that genetic animal models are powerful tools to elucidate the pathophysiology and to further develop new therapeutics for dystonia. PMID:23893455

Oleas, Janneth; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Deandrade, Mark P; Pisani, Antonio; Li, Yuqing

2013-06-15

35

Genetically engineered plasmonic nanoarrays.  

PubMed

In the present Letter, we demonstrate how the design of metallic nanoparticle arrays with large electric field enhancement can be performed using the basic paradigm of engineering, namely the optimization of a well-defined objective function. Such optimization is carried out by coupling a genetic algorithm with the analytical multiparticle Mie theory. General design criteria for best enhancement of electric fields are obtained, unveiling the fundamental interplay between the near-field plasmonic and radiative photonic coupling. Our optimization approach is experimentally validated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements, which demonstrate how genetically optimized arrays, fabricated using electron beam lithography, lead to order of ten improvement of Raman enhancement over nanoparticle dimer antennas, and order of one hundred improvement over optimal nanoparticle gratings. A rigorous design of nanoparticle arrays with optimal field enhancement is essential to the engineering of numerous nanoscale optical devices such as plasmon-enhanced biosensors, photodetectors, light sources and more efficient nonlinear optical elements for on chip integration. PMID:22381056

Forestiere, Carlo; Pasquale, Alyssa J; Capretti, Antonio; Miano, Giovanni; Tamburrino, Antonello; Lee, Sylvanus Y; Reinhard, Björn M; Dal Negro, Luca

2012-03-07

36

A genetic engineering approach to genetic algorithms.  

PubMed

We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard GA, it provides some computational advantages as well as a tool for automatic generation of hierarchical genetic representations specifically tailored to suit certain classes of problems. PMID:11290285

Gero, J S; Kazakov, V

2001-01-01

37

Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations.  

PubMed

By comparing strategies of genetic alterations introduced in genetic engineering with spontaneously occurring genetic variation, we have come to conclude that both processes depend on several distinct and specific molecular mechanisms. These mechanisms can be attributed, with regard to their evolutionary impact, to three different strategies of genetic variation. These are local nucleotide sequence changes, intragenomic rearrangement of DNA segments and the acquisition of a foreign DNA segment by horizontal gene transfer. Both the strategies followed in genetic engineering and the amounts of DNA sequences thereby involved are identical to, or at least very comparable with, those involved in natural genetic variation. Therefore, conjectural risks of genetic engineering must be of the same order as those for natural biological evolution and for conventional breeding methods. These risks are known to be quite low. There is no scientific reason to assume special long-term risks for GM crops. For future agricultural developments, a road map is designed that can be expected to lead, by a combination of genetic engineering and conventional plant breeding, to crops that can insure food security and eliminate malnutrition and hunger for the entire human population on our planet. Public-private partnerships should be formed with the mission to reach the set goals in the coming decades. PMID:20472106

Arber, Werner

2010-05-22

38

Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)|

Boone, C. Keith

1984-01-01

39

Genetically engineered vaccines.  

PubMed

The application of recombinant DNA technology to allergen research has provided the sequence information and genetic material to produce new types of allergy vaccines. One general strategy has been to use the knowledge to produce synthetic peptides that represent selected T-cell or B-cell epitopes. The production of genetically engineered allergens provides an alternative strategy to construct hypoallergenic vaccines, which can provide a better and less selected representation of the epitopes. Many strategies have been used to produce such hypoallergens, and their ability to reduce allergenicity has been amply demonstrated by skin and nasal provocation tests. The retention of T cell-stimulating activity has also been demonstrated, and a consistent feature of the vaccines has been, despite the reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding reactivity, the ability to induce anti-allergen IgG antibody. The lead hypoallergens have been polypeptide fragments and trimeric constructs of the birch allergen Bet v 1. A clinical trial with these medicaments has shown the ability to modify IgE and IgG antibody production, skin test reactivity, and symptom scores. This is the first trial of a recombinant allergy vaccine, and it has set a benchmark for further studies. A new generation of hypoallergens is now being produced based on the detailed knowledge of the tertiary structures of the allergens and of the T-cell and B-cell epitopes. The modifications have been made to change the topography of the allergens while retaining a stable, folding structure. In the case of Bet v 1, tertiary structures of hypoallergens have been determined. Structurally modeled hypoallergens have been produced for pollen, venom, food, and latex allergens, with promising characteristics from preclinical studies. PMID:15842957

Thomas, Wayne R; Hales, Belinda J; Smith, Wendy-Anne

2005-05-01

40

Genetically engineered antibodies.  

PubMed

The technology needed to genetically engineer antibodies is evolving rapidly and the potential utility of these novel reagents is being explored with vigor. The process includes cloning of the antibody genes, their in vitro manipulation and mutagenesis, expression in a suitable host/vector system, and, for commercial production, scale-up, purification, and product evaluation. At each step, significant advances have been achieved recently. For example: at first, antibody genes were cloned from genomic libraries by using adjacent DNA probes; techniques for rapid sequencing by primer extension of total mRNA allowed more specific screening with synthesized oligomers; finally, antibody genes can now be created de novo by chemical synthesis. Moreover, such synthesis allows total control over the antibody sequence so that molecules of any configuration can be produced. New reagents created in this way include murine antibodies whose constant regions and variable-region frameworks have been replaced with human sequence to enhance immunocompatibility with patients, to switch immunoglobulin class, or both. PMID:2673580

Moore, G P

1989-09-01

41

Genetic Models of Hypertension in Experimental Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic animal models are central to ongoing efforts to elucidate the pathophysiology and genetic basis of hypertension. The rat is the leading species in experimental hypertension. Several rat models of hypertension are available for research, including inbred strains, congenic lines, transgenic animals and recombinant inbred strains. Each of these models has been designed to express different phenotypes, including spontaneous hypertension,

Yoram Yagil; Chana Yagil

2001-01-01

42

Environmental risks of genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Before release into commerce, genetically engineered organisms are first assessed for possible risks, including risks to the\\u000a environment. The present paper first identifies the environmental risks recognized by regulators, and reviews the parameters\\u000a considered predictive of risk. Recent field-scale studies suggest opportunities for improvement of the environmental risk\\u000a assessment process. Risks unique to genetically engineered crops – if any –

E. Ann Clark

2006-01-01

43

Genetic engineering of handwriting representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experiments with genetically engineered feature sets for recognition of online handwritten characters. These representations stem from a nondescript decomposition of the character frame into a set of rectangular regions, possibly overlapping each represented by a vector of 7 fuzzy variables. Efficient new feature sets are automatically discovered using genetic programming techniques. Recognition experiments conducted on isolated digits

Alexandre Lemieux; C. Gagne; Marc Parizeau

2002-01-01

44

Congenital and Genetic Disease in Domestic Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)

Mulvihill, John J.

1972-01-01

45

Genetic Engineering Workshop Report, 2010  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies (TMT) program. The high-level goal of TMT is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve this goal, there is a need to assess the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, potential application as well as detection and mitigation strategies. LLNL was tasked to coordinate a workshop to determine the scope of investments that DTRA should make to stay current with the rapid advances in genetic engineering technologies, so that accidental or malicious uses of GE technologies could be adequately detected and characterized. Attachment A is an earlier report produced by LLNL for TMT that provides some relevant background on Genetic Engineering detection. A workshop was held on September 23-24, 2010 in Springfield, Virginia. It was attended by a total of 55 people (see Attachment B). Twenty four (44%) of the attendees were academic researchers involved in GE or bioinformatics technology, 6 (11%) were from DTRA or the TMT program management, 7 (13%) were current TMT performers (including Jonathan Allen and Tom Slezak of LLNL who hosted the workshop), 11 (20%) were from other Federal agencies, and 7 (13%) were from industries that are involved in genetic engineering. Several attendees could be placed in multiple categories. There were 26 attendees (47%) who were from out of the DC area and received travel assistance through Invitational Travel Orders (ITOs). We note that this workshop could not have been as successful without the ability to invite experts from outside of the Beltway region. This workshop was an unclassified discussion of the science behind current genetic engineering capabilities. US citizenship was not required for attendance. While this may have limited some discussions concerning risk, we felt that it was more important for this first workshop to focus on the scientific state of the art. We also consciously chose to not dwell on matters of policy (for example, screening of commercial gene or oligo synthesis orders), as multiple other forums for policy discussion have taken place in recent years. We acknowledge that other workshops on topics relevant to genetic engineering should be held, some of which may need to take place at higher classification levels. The workshop moderators would like to acknowledge the enthusiastic participation of the attendees in the discussions. Special thanks are given to Sofi Ibrahim, for his extensive assistance on helping this report reach its final form. The genetic engineering workshop brought together a diverse mix of genetic engineering pioneers and experts, Federal agency representatives concerned with abuses of genetic engineering, TMT performers, bioinformatics experts, and representatives from industry involved with large-scale genetic engineering and synthetic biology. Several talks established the current range of genetic engineering capabilities and the relative difficulties of identifying and characterizing the results of their use. Extensive discussions established a number of recommendations to DTRA of how to direct future research investments so that any mis-use of genetic engineering techniques can be promptly identified and characterized.

Allen, J; Slezak, T

2010-11-03

46

Genetically Engineered ART Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This chapter focuses on the evolution of ARTMAP architectures, us- ing genetic algorithms, with the objective of improving generalization performance and alleviating the ART category proliferation problem. We refer to the resulting architectures as GFAM, GEAM, and GGAM. We demonstrate through extensive experimentation that evolved ARTMAP architectures exhibit good generalization and are of small size, while consuming reasonable computational

Ahmad Al-daraiseh; Assem Kaylani; Michael Georgiopoulos; Mansooreh Mollaghasemi; Annie S. Wu; Georgios C. Anagnostopoulos

2007-01-01

47

Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)|

Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

1991-01-01

48

Genetic Engineering Workshop Report, 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies (TMT) program. The high-level goal of TMT is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve this goal, there is a need to assess the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, potential application as well as detection and mitigation strategies. LLNL was

J Allen; T Slezak

2010-01-01

49

Research on Man, Genetic Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a critique of present-day social-biologism and neogenetics, the social-ethical problem of genetic engineering. The sections of the report are as follows: (1) prospect of man (a critique of present-day social-biologism and neogenetics--...

I. T. Frolov

1975-01-01

50

Naturalness and the genetic modification of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years it has been recognised that so-called intrinsic concerns about genetic modification (GM) of plants and animals, for food in particular, have an important role in the public perception of GM. One of these concerns is the view that GM is ‘unnatural’. This article gives an overview of the often conflicting views on the argument of

Henk Verhoog

2003-01-01

51

Genetic engineering and modern enzymology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of genetic engineering in the solution of problems involving enzymology is demonstrated. The method for the cloning and mutagenesis of protein and enzyme genes and the possibilities of genetic engineering for the study of the structure and functions of enzymes and their active centres and for the determination of the relation between the structure and stability of protein molecules are examined. The role of directed site-specific mutagenesis in the study of the structure and mechanism of the action of enzymes as well as their stability is indicated. The investigation of the mechanism and factors determining the stability of enzymes with the aid of aminoacid substitutions has led to prospects for protein design — the creation of proteins with new specified properties and improved stability. The bibliography includes 301 references.

Kutuzova, G. D.; Dement'eva, E. I.; Ugarova, N. N.

1989-11-01

52

Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

53

Genetically engineered avidins and streptavidins.  

PubMed

Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin, (strept)avidin, are proteins widely utilized in a number of applications in life science, ranging from purification and labeling techniques to diagnostics, and from targeted drug delivery to nanotechnology. (Strept)avidin-biotin technology relies on the extremely tight and specific affinity between (strept)avidin and biotin (dissociation constant, K(d) approximately 10(-14)-10(-16) M). (Strept)avidins are also exceptionally stable proteins. To study their ligand binding and stability characteristics, the two proteins have been extensively modified both chemically and genetically. There are excellent accounts of this technology and chemically modified (strept)avidins, but no comprehensive reviews exist concerning genetically engineered (strept)avidins. To fill this gap, we here go through the genetically engineered (strept)avidins, summarizing how these constructs were designed and how they have improved our understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of these proteins, and the benefits they have provided for (strept)avidin-biotin technology. PMID:17086379

Laitinen, O H; Hytönen, V P; Nordlund, H R; Kulomaa, M S

2006-12-01

54

Animal Models for Genetic Neuromuscular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal,\\u000a sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of\\u000a progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have\\u000a been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models

Mariz Vainzof; Danielle Ayub-Guerrieri; Paula C. G. Onofre; Poliana C. M. Martins; Vanessa F. Lopes; Dinorah Zilberztajn; Lucas S. Maia; Karen Sell; Lydia U. Yamamoto

2008-01-01

55

Genetically engineered plants: environmental issues  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant DNA technology and the universality of the genetic code make it possible to transfer genes from other organisms including those in other phyla, into plants. Cultivating genetically engineered crop plants might pose two environmental risks: negative environmental effects of a modified genotype itself and the possible movement of that unique DNA to other organisms. In order to properly assess which experiments should be done and under what conditions an overseeing group is needed, a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) overseeing group could gather reviewers familiar with the issues of DNA technology and could assert jurisdiction over the independently run state agricultural organisations. A group of reputable scientists in the appropriate fields could analyse the scientific issues.

Hauptli, H.; Newell, N.; Goodman, R.M.

1985-05-01

56

Genetic engineering of plant lipids.  

PubMed

Vegetable oils are a major component of human diets, comprising as much as 25% of average caloric intake. Until recently, it was not possible to exert significant control over the chemical composition of vegetable oils derived from different plants. However, the advent of genetic engineering has provided novel opportunities to tailor the composition of plant-derived lipids so that they are optimized with respect to food functionality and human dietary needs. In order to exploit this new capability, it is essential for food scientists and nutritionists to define the lipid compositions that would be most desirable for various purposes. PMID:10448522

Broun, P; Gettner, S; Somerville, C

1999-01-01

57

Current Status of Genetic Engineering of Lactobacillus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a UNIDO publication on genetic engineering of lactobacillus applicable in food fermentation processes and production of lactic acid. It covers: classification of lactobacilli; genetics; development of a recombinant DNA system; vectors; transformat...

C. A. Batt A. J. Sinskey

1985-01-01

58

Application of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for the Production of Improved Human and Animal Vaccines with Particular Reference to Tropical Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Background and justification (Important infectious diseases, Techniques involved in attacking the problems, Construction of Recombinant DNA, Cell technology, The potential use of Recombinant DNA Technology for production of human and animal vacc...

A. Bukhari U. Pettersson

1982-01-01

59

Nonadditive genetic effects in animal behavior.  

PubMed

Heritabilities, commonly used to predict evolutionary potential, are notoriously low for behaviors. Apart from strong contributions of environmental variance in reducing heritabilities, the additive genetic components can be very low, especially when they are camouflaged by nonadditive genetic effects. We first report the heritabilities of courtship traits in founder-flush and control populations of the housefly (Musca domestica L.). We estimated the heritability of each male and female display through the regression of the courtships involving daughters and sons (with randomly selected mates) onto the "midparental" courtship values of their parents. Overall, the average heritability was significantly (P = .012) higher for the parent-daughter assays than for the parent-son assays. We attributed the low (even negative) heritabilities to genotype-by-environment interactions whereby the male's behavior is influenced by the "environment" of his mating partner's preferences for the display, generating epistasis through indirect genetic effects. Moreover, bottlenecked lines had up to 800% of the heritability of the controls, suggesting "conversion" of additive genetic variance from nonadditive components. Second, we used line-cross assays on separate populations that had been selected for divergence in mating behavior to identify dominance and epistasis through heterosis and outbreeding depression in courtship. Finally, our literature review confirms the prevalence of such low heritabilities (i.e., a conservative mean of 0.38) and nonadditive genetics in other behavioral repertoires (64% of the studies). We conclude that animal behavior is especially prone to the gamut of quantitative genetic complexities that can result in negative heritabilities, negative selection responses, inbreeding depression, conversion, heterosis, and outbreeding depression. PMID:18707477

Meffert, Lisa M; Hicks, Sara K; Regan, Jennifer L

2002-12-01

60

Genetically engineered mice and their use in aging research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered animal models have been and will continue to be invaluable for exploring the basic mechanisms involved\\u000a in the aging process as well as in extending our understanding of diseases found to be more prevalent in the older human population.\\u000a Continued development of such in vivo systems will allow scientists to further dissect the role genetic and environmental\\u000a factors

Julie K. Andersen

2001-01-01

61

Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.  

PubMed

It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first genetic diseases to be approached with the techniques of recombinant DNA technology. Diagnostic testing, using cloned DNA, is already underway and therapeutic trials are predicted for the near future. Every observer of this rapidly growing field has to define for himself when the future is. For the potential carrier of haemophilia B, the future is now. For the physician managing the patient with a haemophilic inhibitor, the future can't come soon enough. And, for those who are concerned with man's tampering with the gene pools of living things, from viruses to humans, the future comes too quickly to be dealt with in a rational and understanding way. PMID:3930118

Fass, D N; Toole, J J

1985-06-01

62

Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.

2008-10-06

63

Natural genetic engineering in evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of molecular genetics have frequently been difficult to explain by conventional evolutionary theory. New findings about the genetic conservation of protein structure and function across very broad taxonomic boundaries, the mosaic structure of genomes and genetic loci, and the molecular mechanisms of genetic change all point to a view of evolution as involving the rearrangement of basic genetic

J. A. Shapiro

1992-01-01

64

Precision genetic engineering in large mammals.  

PubMed

Precision genetic engineering based on stable chromosomal insertion of exogenous DNA in the genomes of large mammals is immensely important for the development of improved biomedical models, pharmaceutical research and an accelerated breeding progress. Precision genetic engineering requires (i) a known locus of genomic integration, (ii) a defined status of foreign DNA, (iii) that transgene expression is unaffected by neighbouring chromosomal sequences, (iv) endogenous genes are not mutated and (v) no unwanted DNA sequences are present. Recently, advanced molecular techniques exploiting exogenous enzymes have opened the possibilities for more sophisticated genetic engineering. Here, we critically review current developments of enzyme-catalysed approaches for targeted transgenesis in large mammals. PMID:22521716

Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A

2012-04-20

65

Impacts of Applied Genetics: Micro-Organisms, Plants and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the application of classical and molecular genetic technologies to micro-organisms, plants, and animals. Current developments are especially rapid in the application of genetic technologies to micro-organisms; these were studied in th...

1981-01-01

66

Genetically engineered herbicide resistance, part one  

Microsoft Academic Search

I pulled weeds out of half-mile rows of soybeans on Grandma and Grandpa's farm long before I heard of any controversy about herbicide resistance and genetic engineering. Twenty years ago, Gordie, Richard, Greg, and I \\

Gary Comstock; Greg Brown

1989-01-01

67

Genetic Engineering Applications In Crop Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of crop plants is one of, or perhaps, the most influential technologies in agriculture for plant improvement\\u000a of the 21st century. The food and fiber requirements of approximately 10 billion people need to be met with existing resources\\u000a that are currently limited. Biotechnology, and specifically genetic engineering, can greatly expand those limits. The potential\\u000a of agricultural biotechnology and

M. E. John; J. Mc D. Stewart

68

Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from the blood of patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer these cells to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will then be multiplied and infused into the patients to fight their cancer.

69

Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

Sinsheimer, Robert L.

1970-01-01

70

Domestic-animal genomics: deciphering the genetics of complex traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the 'grand challenges' in modern biology is to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity within and among species. Thousands of years of selective breeding of domestic animals has created a diversity of phenotypes among breeds that is only matched by that observed among species in nature. Domestic animals therefore constitute a unique resource for understanding the genetic

Michel Georges; Leif Andersson

2004-01-01

71

Genetical Engineering of Handwriting Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experiments with genetically engi- neered feature sets for recognition of on-line handwritten characters. These representations stem from a nondescript decomposition of the character frame into a set of rectan- gular regions, possibly overlapping, each represented by a vector of 7 fuzzy variables. Efficient new feature sets are automatically discovered using genetic programming techniques. Recognition experiments conducted on

Alexandre Lemieux; Christian Gagn; Marc Parizeau

2002-01-01

72

Genetic engineering and the use of bovine somatotropin  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade there has been an unfortunate reappearance in our society of an antitechnology and antiscience attitude. This is exemplified by those advocates who would ban all animals in research and block fetal tissue studies and by those who support creationism. An especially vocal group consists of those people who are against any form of genetic engineering regardless of the benefits or potential benefits that might be realized.

Grossman, C.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA) Xavier Univ., Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1990-08-22

73

Modern problems of population genetics in animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge in animal husbandry derives from a complex of disciplines, and in this review the theory of one of these (population genetics) is discussed with regard to animal improvement, but with consideration of its implications in the other disciplines together with contributions from these to animal improvement programmes.

J. S. F. Barker

1967-01-01

74

Genetic Programming Evolution of Controllers for 3-D Character Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant paradigm for 3-D character animation requires an animator to specify the values for all degrees of f reedom of an articulated figure at key frames. Specifying motion that is physically believable and biologically plausible is a tedious practice requiring great skill. We use evolutionary techniques (specifically Genetic Programming) as a means of controller synthesis for character animation. Controllers

Larry Gritz; James K. Hahn

1997-01-01

75

Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tutorial and overview of genetic algorithms for electromagnetic optimization. Genetic-algorithm (GA) optimizers are robust, stochastic search methods modeled on the concepts of natural selection and evolution. The relationship between traditional optimization techniques and the GA is discussed. Step-by-step implementation aspects of the GA are detailed, through an example with the objective of providing useful guidelines for

J. Michael Johnson; V. Rahmat-Samii

1997-01-01

76

Genetic Heterogeneity of Cloned Animal Virus Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE procedure used to purify genetically a virus preparation does not guarantee the homogeneity of the derived population1. Genetic purity can be defined by markers characteristic of a given virus. During studies of the selective effects of cloned and uncloned lines of human epithelial cells on a relatively non-cytopathic strain of type 2 poliovirus, MEF12,3, efforts to obtain genetically pure

Kenneth J. McCormick; William H. Murphy

1969-01-01

77

Animal models for vascular tissue-engineering.  

PubMed

Because of rise in cardiovascular disease throughout the world, there is increasing demand for small diameter blood vessels as replacement grafts. The present review focuses on the animal models that have been used to test small-diameter TEVs with emphasis on the attributes of each model. Small animal models are used to test short-term patency and address mechanistic hypotheses; and large, preclinical animal models are employed to test long-term patency, remodeling and function in an environment mimicking human physiology. We also discuss recent clinical trials that employed laboratory fabricated TEVs and showed very promising results. Ultimately, animal models provide a testing platform for optimizing vascular grafts before clinical use in patients without suitable autologous vessels. PMID:23769861

Swartz, Daniel D; Andreadis, Stelios T

2013-06-13

78

Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in \\

R. S. Wotton

2005-01-01

79

Students grasp complex concepts through animation [power engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents examples which show how computer animation may be used in teaching electrical power engineering subjects. The topics covered include: transmission system transients; power transformer saturation; and electric machine operation

J. Hess; C. Richard; H. Brown; D. Smith; Boyu Hou; Yilu Liu; Wilson Xu

1998-01-01

80

[Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].  

PubMed

Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling. PMID:23338641

Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

81

Genetic Engineering of Allergens: Future Therapeutic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of allergens for specific immunotherapy should aim at the production of modified molecules with reduced IgE-binding epitopes (hypoallergens), while preserving structural motifs necessary for T cell recognition (T cell epitopes) and for induction of IgG antibodies reactive with the natural allergen (blocking antibodies). Common approaches for engineering of hypoallergens usually require knowledge of T and B cell epitopes

Fátima Ferreira; Michael Wallner; Heimo Breiteneder; Arnulf Hartl; Josef Thalhamer; Christof Ebner

2002-01-01

82

Genetic engineering in marine cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of microalgae producing useful materials have been isolated from marine environments. For their industrial application,\\u000a widely applicable and stable gene expression is required. It is necessary to establish gene transfer methods as an essential\\u000a first step in genetic manipulation. Although gene transfer techniques for cyanobacteria have been developed, only naturally\\u000a transformable strains have been used. Here, we describe

Tadashi Matsunaga; Haruko Takeyama

1995-01-01

83

Genetic engineering of carotenoid formation in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health promoting and aesthetic qualities of carotenoids have triggered considerable interest in enhancing their levels in crop plants, particularly in fruits and vegetables. One of the main crops of choice is the tomato, since it is readily available in both fresh and processed produce. There are several reports of the use of genetic engineering to increase levels of lycopene

Eugenia M. A. Enfissi; Paul D. Fraser; Peter M. Bramley

2006-01-01

84

Genetic Engineering of Forest Woody Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of genetic engineering (GE) of forest woody plants is considered with special reference to the materials of the International Conference “Wood, Breeding, Biotechnology and Industrial Expectations” held in France in June, 2001. Main tree species subjected to GE are listed, aims of constructing transgenic plants discussed, and methods described. Major achievements in the field are considered along

O. S. Mashkina; A. K. Butorina

2003-01-01

85

Plant genetic engineering for crop improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant genetic engineering has long since left its experimental stage: transgenic plants with resistance to viruses, bacteria, fungi, various pests and abiotic stresses have already been released in their hundreds. Transgenic plants can produce better fruits and food of higher quality than wild-types, and can be used as bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important compounds. This review portrays some

G. Kahl; P. Winter

1995-01-01

86

Genetic engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremeditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation uses plants and associated microbes to remove, sequester, and detoxify contaminants, particularly trace elements. The great potential of this low-cost, low-management approach has spurred researchers to increase the efficiency of this natural process through the use of genetic engineering. Plants used for phytoremediation face a primary stress emanating from the high local concentrations of contaminants as well as possible

DANIKA L. LEDUC; NORMAN TERRY

87

Intelligent sales forecasting engine using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Times series techniques have been extensively used for Sales forecasting. Research has established that a combination forecast works better than a single forecast. Our research attempts to design an Intelligent Forecasting Engine which will use a combination forecasting technique. This design is based on use of Genetic Algorithms, for selecting the best methods to combine for forecasting. Early results demonstrate

M. Vijayalakshmi; Bernard Menezes; Rohit Menon; Aniket Divecha; Rajesh Ravindran; Kamal Mehta

2010-01-01

88

GENETIC ENGINEERING USING HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In the past few years, in vivo technologies have emerged that, due to their efficiency and simplicity, may one day replace standard genetic engineering tech- niques. Constructs can be made on plasmids or directly on the Escherichia colichromo- some from PCR products or synthetic oligonucleotides by homologous recombination. This is possible because bacteriophage-encoded recombination functions efficiently re- combine

Donald L. Court; James A. Sawitzke; Lynn C. Thomason

2002-01-01

89

Genetically engineered mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and motor neuron disease. Here we emphasize the use of genetically engineered mouse models that are instrumental for understanding why AD is a neuronal disease, and for validating attractive therapeutic targets. In motor neuron diseases, Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase and survival motor neuron

Huaibin Cai; David R. Borchelt; Donald L. Price; Philip C. Wong

2002-01-01

90

CORN GENETICS AND ANIMAL FEEDING VALUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Grain and forage from corn plants vary in composition and digestibility due to genetics and numerous environmental factors. For decades, corn hybrids have been selected based on agronomics (yield, disease and insect resistance). In addition, hybrids have been developed or selected for specific traits desired in specialty markets (food manufacturing properties: popcorn, white color, waxy, high amylose). More recently,

Fred Owens

91

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

92

THE ROLE OF GENETICS ON ANIMAL HEALTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript is a brief review of the challenges and approaches for selecting livestock for disease resistance. Animal health and well being have become increasingly important issues for producers and consumers. Pathogens have often evolved into strains resistant to common vaccines and antibioti...

93

What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)|

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2000-01-01

94

Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discussions that occurred at the convocation on the genetic engineering of plants are summarized. Some of the ways that genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems are addressed. For example, researchers are attempting to develop herb...

1984-01-01

95

Genetic engineering of Lactobacillus diolivorans.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a toolbox for genetic manipulation of Lactobacillus diolivorans, a promising production organism for 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. Two major findings play a key role for successful transformation of this organism: (1) the absence of a native plasmid, because a native plasmid is a major obstacle for transformation of L. diolivorans, and (2) the absence of DNA methylation. A suitable expression plasmid, pSHM, for homologous and heterologous protein expression in L. diolivorans was constructed. This plasmid is based on the replication origin repA of L. diolivorans. The native glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter is used for constitutive expression of the genes of interest. Functional expression of genes in L. diolivorans was shown with two examples: production of green fluorescent protein resulted in a 40- to 60-fold higher fluorescence of the obtained clones compared with the wild-type strain. Finally, the homologous overexpression of a putatively NADPH-dependent 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase improved 1,3-propanediol production by 20% in batch cultures. PMID:23638657

Pflügl, Stefan; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

2013-05-23

96

Stuart Barker’s Contributions to Population Genetics and Animal Breeding: Exploring Fitness, Evolution and Animal Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stuart Barker’s initial contributions to genetics during the mid-1950s were down-to-earth instructive articles on genotype-by-environment\\u000a interaction in cattle and random-sample tests for chicken strains, and pedigree analyses of Australian cattle breeds. Taking\\u000a up a lectureship in animal genetics at the University of Sydney, Stuart rapidly became involved in experimental population\\u000a genetics research with Drosophila. He also conducted some of the

Frank W. Nicholas; Keith Hammond

97

Non-additive genetic effects in animal selection.  

PubMed

Genetic evaluation of purebred farm animals has been carried out for about half a century, employing additive approximation to describe the genetic background. An evaluated animal has been attributed a single breeding value for each trait of the breeding goal. The predicted additive genetic value of an animal equals the average breeding value of its parents. Although the selection based on the additive approach has proved successful, there still is a possibility of increasing the reliability of the breeding value estimation by accounting for non-additive genetic effects of dominance and epistasis, disregarded in the additive model. In the non-additive model, the expected quality of the progeny equals the average of the parents plus an effect resulting from the interaction between the parents. In this case, the evaluated animal may have as many breeding values as there are possible candidates to mate to, for each trait. The dominance and epistatic effects have already been accounted for in selecting animals or populations for some crossbreeding plans (combining ability, heterosis, and recombination loss). Also, using crossbreds for the sake of the breeding value estimation of purebred animals requires removing the non-additive effects from the crossbred performance and distributing the additive component between the purebreds. Combining ability is more and more discussed as a factor for matings within breed to produce terminal progeny. PMID:14564022

?ukaszewicz, M

2001-01-01

98

Molecular-based environmental risk assessment of three varieties of genetically engineered cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of animal biotechnology has led to an increase in attention to biosafety issues. Here we evaluated the impact\\u000a of genetically engineered cows on the environment. The probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial\\u000a communities in cow gut and soil were tested using three varieties of genetically engineered cows that were previously transformed\\u000a with a

Jianxiang Xu; Jie Zhao; Jianwu Wang; Yaofeng Zhao; Lei Zhang; Mingxing Chu; Ning Li

99

Genetic engineering of microalgae for fuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Significant progress has been made toward the successful genetic engineering of microalgal species with high potential for\\u000a fuel production. Foreign DNA has been transferred into a green alga,Chlorella ellipsoidea, and has been successfully expressed in this heterologous system. In addition, electroporation has shown promise as a means\\u000a of introducing DNA into intact algal cells. We have analyzed the composition of

Terri G. Dünahay; Eric E. Jarvis; Kathryn G. Zeiler; Paul G. Roessler; Lewis M. Brown

1992-01-01

100

Environmentally friendly approaches to genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Several environmental problems related to plant genetic engineering may prohibit advancement of this technology and prevent\\u000a realization of its full potential. One such common concern is the demonstrated escape of foreign genes through pollen dispersal\\u000a from transgenic crop plants to their weedy relatives, creating super weeds or causing gene pollution among other crops or\\u000a toxicity of transgenic pollen to nontarget

Henry Daniell

1999-01-01

101

Ryanodine receptor studies using genetically engineered mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ryanodine receptors (RyR) regulate intracellular Ca2+ release in many cell types and have been implicated in a number of inherited human diseases. Over the past 15years genetically engineered mouse models have been developed to elucidate the role that RyRs play in physiology and pathophysiology. To date these models have implicated RyRs in fundamental biological processes including excitation–contraction coupling and long

Alexander Kushnir; Matthew J. Betzenhauser; Andrew R. Marks

2010-01-01

102

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

103

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

104

ASAS centennial paper: Future needs in animal breeding and genetics.  

PubMed

The past century has seen animal breeding and genetics evolve and expand from definition and validation of basic population genetics theory to development of selection index theory to today's relatively sophisticated genetic prediction systems enabling industry genetic improvement. The end of the first century of the American Society of Animal Science coincides with the rapid movement of the field into the era of genome-enabled genetic improvement and precision management systems. Led by recent research infrastructure investments by the United States and international partners to develop chicken, bovine, swine, ovine, and equine "genomic toolboxes," the animal breeding community is poised to play a crucial role in the century to come. These genomic toolboxes provide the needed platforms for developing whole-genome selection programs based on linkage disequilibrium for a wide spectrum of traits; allow the opportunity to redefine genetic prediction based on allele sharing as opposed to traditional pedigree relationships; and provide for the first time simultaneous information upon which to practice genetic selection and plan precision management of specific genotypes, all early in the life of the animal. An area of major focus will be mining of the genomes through systems biology approaches to better understand gene and metabolic networks--what has previously been lumped into poorly understood genotype by environment and genotype by genotype interactions. Perhaps the greatest obstacle to the successful merger of genomic and quantitative approaches will be the lack of necessary animal resource populations to appropriately define and measure phenotypes (i.e., the so-called phenomic gap) for difficult-to-measure traits such as resistance to disease and stress, adaptability, longevity, and efficiency of nutrient utilization. Additionally, because of de-emphasis of quantitative genetics and animal breeding programs in academia over the past quarter century, a dearth of qualified young scientists to effectively mine the genomes must immediately be addressed. Although the motivating factors may have changed, the need for high-quality animal breeding and genetics research and education has never been greater. PMID:18952735

Green, R D

2008-10-24

105

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

106

Smart and genetically engineered biomaterials and drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, synthesis, and properties of novel stimuli-sensitive and genetically engineered biomaterials and drug delivery systems are reviewed. Two approaches to their engineering are presented. One approach is to improve the traditional methods of synthesis, as demonstrated by the example of controlled copolymerization of ?-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides. The other approach, discussed in more detail, uses genetic engineering methods. The design

Jind?ich Kope?ek

2003-01-01

107

Latina Feminist Metaphysics and Genetically Engineered Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I critique two popular, non-scientific attitudes toward genetically engineered foods. In doing so, I will be\\u000a employing the concepts of ambiguity, purity\\/impurity, control\\/resistance, and unity\\/diversity as developed by Latina feminist\\u000a metaphysicians. I begin by casting a critical eye toward a specific anti-biotech account of transgenic food crops, an account\\u000a that I will argue relies on an anti-feminist

Lisa A. Bergin

2009-01-01

108

Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)|

Ramsey, Paul

1972-01-01

109

Bridging Animal and Human Models: Translating From (and to) Animal Genetics  

PubMed Central

Genetics play an important role in the development and course of alcohol abuse, and understanding the genetic contributions to this disorder may lead to improved preventative and therapeutic strategies in the future. Studies both in humans and in animal models are necessary to fully understand the neurobiology of alcoholism from the molecular to the cognitive level. By dissecting the complex facets of alcoholism into discrete, well-defined phenotypes that are measurable in both human populations and animal models of the disease, researchers will be better able to translate findings across species and integrate the knowledge obtained from various disciplines. Some of the key areas of alcoholism research where consilience between human and animal studies is possible are alcohol withdrawal severity, sensitivity to rewards, impulsivity, and dysregulated alcohol consumption.

Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

2013-01-01

110

Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

1975-01-01

111

Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)|

Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

1975-01-01

112

Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential contribution of genetic engineering to agriculture is discussed. Research opportunities presented by the new genetic technologies, as well as their implications for funding and training in the plant sciences are discussed. (ERA citation 10:0...

1984-01-01

113

Genetic engineering of plants. Agricultural research opportunities and policy concerns  

SciTech Connect

The potential contribution of genetic engineering to agriculture is discussed. Research opportunities presented by the new genetic technologies, as well as their implications for funding and training in the plant scineces are discussed. (ACR)

Not Available

1984-01-01

114

Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.  

PubMed

It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering. PMID:17516148

Gunderson, Martin

2007-05-22

115

Estimating genetic parameters in natural populations using the "animal model".  

PubMed Central

Estimating the genetic basis of quantitative traits can be tricky for wild populations in natural environments, as environmental variation frequently obscures the underlying evolutionary patterns. I review the recent application of restricted maximum-likelihood "animal models" to multigenerational data from natural populations, and show how the estimation of variance components and prediction of breeding values using these methods offer a powerful means of tackling the potentially confounding effects of environmental variation, as well as generating a wealth of new areas of investigation.

Kruuk, Loeske E B

2004-01-01

116

Population Size Does Not Influence Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within-species genetic diversity is thought to reflect population size, history, ecology, and ability to adapt. Using a comprehensive collection of polymorphism data sets covering ~3000 animal species, we show that the widely used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker does not reflect species abundance or ecology: mtDNA diversity is not higher in invertebrates than in vertebrates, in marine than in terrestrial species,

Eric Bazin; Sylvain Glémin; Nicolas Galtier

2006-01-01

117

Genetic and genomic interactions of animals with different ploidy levels.  

PubMed

Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex and dynamic process that likely plays a crucial role for the evolution and persistence of polyploid animals. See also other articles in this themed issue. PMID:23751376

Bogart, J P; Bi, K

2013-06-08

118

Genetically engineered immune privileged Sertoli cells  

PubMed Central

Sertoli cells are immune privileged cells, important for controlling the immune response to male germ cells as well as maintaining the tolerogenic environment in the testis. Additionally, ectopic Sertoli cells have been shown to survive and protect co-grafted cells when transplanted across immunological barriers. The survival of ectopic Sertoli cells has led to the idea that they could be used in cell based gene therapy. In this review, we provide a brief overview of testis immune privilege and Sertoli cell transplantation, factors contributing to Sertoli cell immune privilege, the challenges faced by viral vector gene therapy, the use of immune privileged cells in cell based gene therapy and describe several recent studies on the use of genetically engineered Sertoli cells to provide continuous delivery of therapeutic proteins.

Kaur, Gurvinder; Long, Charles R.; Dufour, Jannette M.

2012-01-01

119

PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer'?s decision to purchase GM

Abdullahi O. Abdulkadri; Simone Pinnock; Paula F. Tennant

2004-01-01

120

Genetically Engineered Mice by Pronuclear DNA microinjection  

PubMed Central

The generation of transgenic mice by DNA microinjection is a powerful tool to investigate the molecular regulation of gene expression, development, and disease. The power of this technology is that foreign DNA can be introduced into every cell of a developing organism and the phenotypic impact of this genetic modification can be investigated in a system under the constraints of normal development and physiology. The generation of transgenic mice requires the preparation of the transgene DNA construction, collection of one-cell fertilized mouse embryos, injection of the transgene into mouse embryos, and transfer of the surviving embryos. Mice born from such manipulations are then screened for the presence of the transgene. The execution of these procedures requires a highly efficient system otherwise the cost of the generation of these mice can be cost prohibitive. However, the production of these animals can serve as an invaluable research resource.

DeMayo, Janet L.; Wang, Jie; Liang, Dongcai; Zhang, Ruina; DeMayo, Francesco J.

2012-01-01

121

Phenotyping of Genetically Engineered Mice: Humane, Ethical, Environmental, and Husbandry Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of genetically engineered (GE) mice in scientific research has raised many concerns about the ani- mal welfare of such mice. The types of welfare concerns may differ within the three stages that comprise the estab- lishment of GE animal models: development, production, and research use. The role and impact of the members of the research team on

Marilyn J. Brown; Kathleen A. Murray

122

Biodiesel production from genetically engineered microalgae: Future of bioenergy in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current biomass sources for energy production in Iran include sewerage as well as agricultural, animal, food industry and municipal solid wastes, and are anticipated to account for about 14% of national energy consumption in near future. However, due to the considerable progress made in genetic engineering of various plants in Iran during the last decade and the great potentials of

Meisam Tabatabaei; Masoud Tohidfar; Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani; Mohammadreza Safarnejad; Mohammad Pazouki

2011-01-01

123

Future Forests: Forecasting Social and Ecological Consequences of Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering could result in a dramatic transformation of the forest products industry, increasing corporate economic power and concentrating timber production in those regions most suited to industrial-scale tree plantations. We briefly review arguments in favor of and in opposition to genetic engineering in forestry, and describe the constellation of forces promoting this technology. We then examine possible social consequences

CONNER BAILEY; PETER R. SINCLAIR; MARK R. DUBOIS

2004-01-01

124

Antibiotic-free chloroplast genetic engineering – an environmentally friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages over nuclear genetic engineering, including gene containment and hyperexpression. However, introducing thousands of copies of transgenes into the chloroplast genome amplifies the antibiotic resistance genes. Two recent articles report different and novel strategies to either remove antibiotic resistance genes or select chloroplast transformants without using these genes. This should eliminate their potential transfer to

Henry Daniell; Peter O Wiebe; Alicia Fernandez-San Millan

2001-01-01

125

Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

Roberts, Leslie

126

Genetic Engineering of Optical Properties of Biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baker's yeast cells are easily cultured and can be manipulated genetically to produce large numbers of bioparticles (cells and mitochondria) with controllable size and optical properties. We have recently employed nanolaser spectroscopy to study the refractive index of individual cells and isolated mitochondria from two mutant strains. Results show that biomolecular changes induced by mutation can produce bioparticles with radical changes in refractive index. Wild-type mitochondria exhibit a distribution with a well-defined mean and small variance. In striking contrast, mitochondria from one mutant strain produced a histogram that is highly collapsed with a ten-fold decrease in the mean and standard deviation. In a second mutant strain we observed an opposite effect with the mean nearly unchanged but the variance increased nearly a thousand-fold. Both histograms could be self-consistently modeled with a single, log-normal distribution. The strains were further examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure changes in protein composition. All of these data show that genetic manipulation of cells represents a new approach to engineering optical properties of bioparticles.

Gourley, Paul; Naviaux, Robert; Yaffe, Michael

2008-03-01

127

Genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells: applications in spine therapy.  

PubMed

Spine disorders and intervertebral disc degeneration are considered the main causes for the clinical condition commonly known as back pain. Spinal fusion by implanting autologous bone to produce bony bridging between the two vertebrae flanking the degenerated-intervertebral disc is currently the most efficient treatment for relieving the symptoms of back pain. However, donor-site morbidity, complications and the long healing time limit the success of this approach. Novel developments undertaken by regenerative medicine might bring more efficient and available treatments. Here we discuss the pros and cons of utilizing genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells for inducing spinal fusion. The combination of the stem cells, gene and carrier are crucial elements for achieving optimal spinal fusion in both small and large animal models, which hopefully will lead to the development of clinical applications. PMID:19105619

Aslan, Hadi; Sheyn, Dima; Gazit, Dan

2009-01-01

128

Genetic engineering and lignin biosynthetic regulation in forest tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of forest tree species is regarded as a strategy to reduce worldwide pressure on natural forests, to conserve\\u000a genetic resources and ameliorate stress on global climate, and to meet growing demand for forest wood and timber products.\\u000a Genetic engineering approaches toward the control or management of fungal pathogens, arthropod herbivores, bacterial and viral\\u000a diseases, the use of pest

Tang Wei; Janet Ogbon; Aquilla McCoy

2001-01-01

129

Unraveling the genetics of chronic kidney disease using animal models.  

PubMed

Identifying genes underlying common forms of kidney disease in humans has proven difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for several complex traits are concordant among mice, rats, and humans, suggesting that genetic findings from these animal models are relevant to human disease. Therefore, we reviewed the literature on genetic studies of kidney disease in rat and mouse and examined the concordance between kidney disease QTL across species. Fifteen genomic regions contribute to kidney disease in the rat, with 12 replicated either in a separate rat cross or in another species. Five loci found in humans were concordant to QTL found in the rat. Two of these were found by homology to a previously identified rat QTL on chromosome 1, demonstrating that kidney disease loci in animal models can predict the location of kidney disease loci in humans. In contrast to the rat, the mouse has been underutilized in the genetic analysis of polygenic kidney disease, although mutagenesis and QTL analysis in the mouse are likely to contribute new findings in the near future. Knowledge of kidney disease loci conserved between the mouse and rat will identify prime candidate loci to test for association with chronic kidney disease in humans. PMID:15297276

Korstanje, Ron; DiPetrillo, Keith

2004-09-01

130

Genetic control of programmed cell death during animal development  

PubMed Central

The elimination by programmed cell death of ‘unwanted’ cells is a common feature of animal development. Genetic studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse have not only revealed the molecular machineries that cause the programmed demise of specific cells, but have also allowed us to get a glimpse of the types of pathways that regulate these machineries during development. Rather than giving a broad overview of programmed cell death during development, the current review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of specific programmed cell death events during nematode, fly and mouse development. These studies have revealed that many of the regulatory pathways involved have additional important roles in development, which confirms that the programmed cell death fate is an integral aspect of animal development.

Conradt, Barbara

2009-01-01

131

Transgenic animal models of neurodegeneration based on human genetic studies  

PubMed Central

The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease.

Richie, Christopher T.; Hoffer, Barry J.; Airavaara, Mikko

2011-01-01

132

Reversible gelation of genetically engineered macromolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering of protein-based polymers offers distinct advantages over conventional synthesis of polymers. Microorganisms can synthesize high molecular weight materials, in relatively large quantities, that are inherently stereoregular, monodisperse, and of controlled sequence. In addition, specific secondary and higher order structures are determined by this protein sequence. As a result, scientists can design polymers to have unique structural features found in natural protein materials and functional properties that are inherent in certain peptide sequences. For this reason, genetic engineering principles were used to create a set of artificial genes that encode twelve macromolecules having both alpha-helical and disordered coil protein sequences with the last amino acid being cysteine (cys) or tryptophan (trp). Triblock copolymer sequences having coiled-coil protein ends, A or B, where A and B represent alpha-helical acidic and basic leucine zipper proteins, separated by a water soluble flexible spacer coil protein, C, where C represents ((AG)sb3PEG) sbn (n = 10 or 28), showed reversible physical gelation behavior. This behavior is believed to result from the aggregation of two or more helices that form physical crosslinks with the disordered coil domain retaining solvent and preventing precipitation of the chain. Diffising wave spectroscopy was used to investigate the gelation behavior of ACsb{10}Acys in buffer when environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, and concentration were varied. The dynamic intensity autocorrelation function recorded over time for 5% (w/v) ACsb{10}Acys showed that the protein behaved as a gel at pH 6.7-8.0 and that the melting point was between 40sp°C and 48sp°C. In addition to the triblock results, the incorporation of 5sp',5sp',5sp'-trifluoroleucine (Tfl) in place of leucine (Leu) in the A and B blocks was accomplished by synthesizing proteins in bacterial hosts auxotrophic for Leu. The substitution of Tfl for Leu in A and B was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Amino acid analyses performed on purified Tfl A and Tfl B populations suggested 66% and 38% levels of Tfl substitution, respectively. Thermal denaturation temperatures measured by circular dichroism of the Tfl containing helices were higher than those of the corresponding Leu containing helices by 8sp°C and 13sp°C for A and B respectively.

Petka, Wendy Ann

133

Genetic engineering of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Genetic engineering has been successfully applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for different purposes: extension of substrate range, improvement of productivity and yield, elimination of by-products, improvement of process performance and cellular properties, and extension of product range. The potential of genetically engineered yeasts for the massive production of biofuels as bioethanol and other nonfuel products from renewable resources as lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates has been recognized. For such applications, robust industrial strains of S. cerevisiae have to be used. Here, some relevant genetic and genomic characteristics of industrial strains are discussed in relation to the problematic of the genetic engineering of such strains. General molecular tools applicable to the manipulation of S. cerevisiae industrial strains are presented and examples of genetically engineered industrial strains developed for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass are given. PMID:22160914

Le Borgne, Sylvie

2012-01-01

134

UNDERSTANDING RAMPs THROUGH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODELS  

PubMed Central

The family of Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs) consists of three members, RAMP1, 2 and 3, which are each encoded by a separate gene and have diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Biochemical and pharmacological studies in cultured cells have shown that RAMPs can modulate several aspects of G receptor (GPCR) signaling, including receptor trafficking, ligand binding affinity, second messenger signaling and receptor desensitization. Moreover, these studies have shown that RAMPs can interact with several GPCRs other than the canonical calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), with which they were first identified. Given these expanding roles for RAMPs, it becomes interesting to question how these biochemical and pharmacological properties bear significance in normal or disease physiology. To this end, several gene targeted knockout and transgenic models have been generated and characterized in recent years. Fortunately, they have each supported important roles for RAMPs during embryonic development and adulthood. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent findings from gene targeted knockout mouse models and transgenic over-expression models, and gives special consideration to how comparative phenotyping approaches and conditional deletion strategies can be highly beneficial. In the future, these genetically engineered mouse models will provide both insights and tools for the exploitation of RAMP-based therapies for the treatment of human diseases.

Kadmiel, Mahita; Fritz-Six, Kimberly L.; Caron, Kathleen M.

2013-01-01

135

Antimicrobial functionalized genetically engineered spider silk  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered fusion proteins offer potential as multifunctional biomaterials for medical use. Fusion or chimeric proteins can be formed using recombinant DNA technology by combining nucleotide sequences encoding different peptides or proteins that are otherwise not found together in nature. In the present study, three new fusion proteins were designed, cloned and expressed and assessed for function, by combining the consensus sequence of dragline spider silk with three different antimicrobial peptides. The human antimicrobial peptides human neutrophil defensin 2 (HNP-2), human neutrophil defensins 4 (HNP-4) and hepcidin were fused to spider silk through bioengineering. The spider silk domain maintained its self-assembly features, a key aspect of these new polymeric protein biomaterials, allowing the formation of ?-sheets to lock in structures via physical interactions without the need for chemical cross-linking. These new functional silk proteins were assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram - Escherichia coli and Gram + Staphylococcus aureus and microbicidal activity was demonstrated. Dynamic light scattering was used to assess protein aggregation to clarify the antimicrobial patterns observed. Attenuated-total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) were used to assess the secondary structure of the new recombinant proteins. In vitro cell studies with a human osteosarcoma cell line (SaOs-2) demonstrated the compatibility of these new proteins with mammalian cells.

Gomes, Silvia; Leonor, Isabel B.; Mano, Joao F.; Reis, Rui L.; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

136

Modeling medulloblastoma with genetically engineered mice.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma is a malignant tumor that arises in the cerebellum in children, presumably by transformation of granule neuron precursor cells. In vivo models of medulloblastoma in genetically engineered mice have shown that activation of signal transduction pathways that stimulate proliferation and inhibit differentiation of neural progenitor cells during cerebellar development initiate medulloblastoma formation. Activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh)/Patched signaling pathway in the postnatal cerebellum is sufficient to induce medulloblastoma in mice. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway by insulin-like growth factor-II, inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, loss of DNA damage repair mechanisms, and ectopic expression of Myc oncoproteins cooperate with Shh/Patched signaling to enhance tumor formation in mice. Ectopic expression of alpha and beta interferons in the developing brain also induces Shh-mediated medulloblastoma formation, suggesting a possible role for antiviral response in the genesis of medulloblastoma. By revealing which cell signaling proteins can initiate medulloblastoma formation, mouse models have enabled investigators to identify molecular targets for designing new therapies. Small-molecule inhibitors of the Shh/Patched and PI3K pathways are potential chemotherapeutic agents for patients with medulloblastoma. PMID:16398471

Fults, Daniel W

2005-11-15

137

Regulatory and Biosafety Issues in Relation to Transgenic Animals in Food and Agriculture, Feeds Containing Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) and Veterinary Biologics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of

H. P. S. Kochhar; G. A. Gifford; S. Kahn

138

Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

2012-01-01

139

Genetically engineered, attenuated whole-cell vaccine approaches for malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria remains one of the most significant infectious diseases affecting human populations in developing countries. The quest for an efficacious malaria vaccine has been ongoing for nearly a century with limited success. The identification of malaria parasite antigens focused efforts on the development of subunit vaccines but has so far yielded only one partially efficacious vaccine candidate, RTS/S. The lack of high vaccine efficacy observed to date with subunit vaccine candidates raises doubts that the development of a single antigen or even a multi-antigen malaria subunit vaccine is possible. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated in animal studies and experimental clinical studies that immunizations with live-attenuated sporozoite stages of the malaria parasite confer long lasting, sterile protection against infection, providing a benchmark for vaccine development. These early successful vaccinations with live-attenuated malaria parasites did not however, promote a developmental path forward for such a vaccine approach. The discovery of genetically engineered parasite strains that are fully attenuated during the early asymptomatic liver infection and confer complete sterile protection in animal malaria models support the development of a live attenuated sporozoite vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum and its accelerated safety and efficacy testing in malaria challenge models and in malaria endemic areas.

Vaughan, Ashley M.; Wang, Ruobing; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

2013-01-01

140

Evaluating the Maintenance and Effects of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concepts and methods were identified for their utility in evaluating the persistence and potential perturbations of genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment. Novel uses of DNA reassociation kinetics and gene probe technologies, in conjunct...

G. S. Saylor C. Harris C. Pettigrew D. Pacia A. Breen

1987-01-01

141

"Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)|

Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.

1980-01-01

142

The ecological risks of genetically engineered organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly publicized studies have suggested environmental risks of releasing genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) and have renewed concerns over the evaluation and regulation of these products in domestic and international arenas. I present an overview of the risks of GEOs and the available evidence addressing these and discuss the challenges for risk assessment. Main categories of risk include non-target effects from GEOs, emergence of new viral diseases, and the spread of invasive (weedy) characteristics. Studies have detected non-target effects in some cases but not all; however, much less information exists on other risks, in part due to a lack of conceptual knowledge. For example, general models for predicting invasiveness are not well developed for any introduced organism. The risks of GEOs appear comparable to those for any introduced species or organism, but the magnitude of the risk or the pathway of exposure to the risk can differ among introduced organisms. Therefore, assessing the risks requires a case-by-case analysis so that any differences can be identified. Challenges to assessing risks to valued ecosystems include variability in effects and ecosystem complexity. Ecosystems are a dynamic and complex network of biological and physical interactions. Introducing a new biological entity, such as a GEO, may potentially alter any of these interactions, but evaluating all of these is unrealistic. Effects on a valued ecosystem could vary greatly depending on the geographical location of the experimental site, the GEO used, the plot size of the experiment (scaling effects), and the biological and physical parameters used in the experiment. Experiments that address these sources of variability will provide the most useful information for risk assessments.

Wolfenbarger, Lareesa

2001-03-01

143

Tree Structure Maintenance in Collaborative Genetic Software Engineering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Genetic Software Engineering behavior-tree notation we can translate each individual functional requirement, use case, constraint or system behavior into its corresponding formal graphic behavior-tree representation. Real-time collaborative Genetic Software Engineering systems allow a group of users to view and edit the same behavior-tree representation at the same time from different sites. In the collaborative CASE system, in addition to

Kai Lin; David Chen; Chengzheng Sun; Geoff Dromey

144

Rhizobia species : A Boon for “Plant Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since past three decades new discoveries in plant genetic engineering have shown remarkable potentials for crop improvement.\\u000a Agrobacterium Ti plasmid based DNA transfer is no longer the only efficient way of introducing agronomically important genes into plants.\\u000a Recent studies have explored a novel plant genetic engineering tool, Rhizobia sp., as an alternative to Agrobacterium, thereby expanding the choice of bacterial

Urmi Patel; Sarika Sinha

145

Genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal types of human cancer for which there are no effective therapies. Deep sequencing of PDAC tumors has revealed the presence of a high number of mutations (>50) that affect at least a dozen key signaling pathways. This scenario highlights the urgent need to develop experimental models that faithfully reproduce the natural history of these human tumors in order to understand their biology and to design therapeutic approaches that might effectively interfere with their multiple mutated pathways. Over the last decade, several models, primarily based on the genetic activation of resident KRas oncogenes knocked-in within the endogenous KRas locus have been generated. These models faithfully reproduce the histological lesions that characterize human pancreatic tumors. Decoration of these models with additional mutations, primarily involving tumor suppressor loci known to be also mutated in human PDAC tumors, results in accelerated tumor progression and in the induction of invasive and metastatic malignancies. Mouse PDACs also display a desmoplastic stroma and inflammatory responses that closely resemble those observed in human patients. Interestingly, adult mice appear to be resistant to PDAC development unless the animals undergo pancreatic damage, mainly in the form of acute, chronic or even temporary pancreatitis. In this review, we describe the most representative models available to date and how their detailed characterization is allowing us to understand their cellular origin as well as the events involved in tumor progression. Moreover, their molecular dissection is starting to unveil novel therapeutic strategies that could be translated to the clinic in the very near future. PMID:23506980

Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

2013-02-11

146

Possible people, complaints, and the distinction between genetic planning and genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the understanding of genetics have led to the belief that it may become possible to use genetic engineering to manipulate the DNA of humans at the embryonic stage to produce certain desirable traits. Although this currently cannot be done on a large scale, many people nevertheless object in principle to such practices. Most often, they argue that genetic

James J Delaney

2011-01-01

147

Molecular genetics as a diagnostic tool in farm animals.  

PubMed

In this review, the importance of molecular genetics for diagnostic applications in animal production and breeding is underlined. Recently, several new techniques and methods based on gene technology have been developed, such as the polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the use of microsatellite polymorphism. The examples include detection of favourable alleles of genes coding for milk proteins, recognition of negative recessive alleles in hereditary syndromes, the use of microsatellite variants for breeding purposes and parentage control, and application of specific DNA-probes for identification of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa and the sex of embryos. It is to be understood that this list is not complete and more applications will undoubtedly show up in the future. For this review, the authors have mainly selected areas where they themselves or their co-workers have gained experience. PMID:9704105

Stranzinger, G; Went, D F

1996-01-01

148

Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.  

PubMed

The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value. PMID:22571623

de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

2012-06-25

149

Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits,

Justin James Grevich; Henry Daniell

2005-01-01

150

Applications of Genetic Algorithm in Polymer Science and Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last several years, genetic algorithm (GA) has gained wide acceptance as a robust optimization algorithm in almost all areas of science and engineering. Polymer science and engineering is no exception. Researchers in this field have devoted considerable attention to the optimization of polymer productionusing objective functions and constraints that lead to products having desired material properties. Multiple-objective functions

Rahul B. Kasat; Ajay K. Ray; Santosh K. Gupta

2003-01-01

151

Genetic engineering of reproductive sterility in forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containment of transgenes inserted into genetically engineered forest trees will probably be necessary before most commercial uses are possible. This is a consequence of (1) high rates of gene dispersal by pollen and seed, (2) proximity of engineered trees in plantations to natural or feral stands of interfertile species, and (3) potentially undesirable ecological effects if certain transgenes become widely

Steven H. Strauss; William H. Rottmann; Amy M. Brunner; Lorraine A. Sheppard

1995-01-01

152

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

153

Site-specific recombination for genetic engineering in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site-specific recombination has been developed into a genetic engineering tool for higher eukaryotes. The manipulation of newly introduced DNA is now possible in the course of genetic transformation procedures, thus making the process more predictable and reliable. Also, a wide variety of chromosomal rearrangements using site-specific recombination have been documented both in metazoan and plant species. Applying such methods to

L. A. Lyznik; W. J. Gordon-Kamm; Y. Tao

2003-01-01

154

The promise of genetically engineered mice for cancer prevention studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated genetic technologies have led to the development of mouse models of human cancers that recapitulate important features of human oncogenesis. Many of these genetically engineered mouse models promise to be very relevant and relatively rapid systems for determining the efficacy of chemopreventive agents and their mechanisms of action. The validation of such models for chemoprevention will help the selection

Tamaro Hudson; Jeffrey E. Green

2005-01-01

155

Genetic Engineering and Trade: Panacea or Dilemma for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates of the use of genetic engineering techniques in agriculture contend that this new biotechnology promises increased productivity, better use of natural resources and more nutritious foods. Opponents are concerned about potentially adverse implications for the environment and food safety. In response to consumer reactions against genetically modified (GM) foods, in some countries crop production is being segregated into GM

Karen Thierfelder; Sherman Robinson

2001-01-01

156

Genetic Engineering and Trade: Panacea or Dilemma for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates of the use of genetic engineering techniques in agriculture contend that this new biotechnology promises increased productivity, better use of natural resources and more nutritious foods. Opponents, on the other hand, are concerned about potentially adverse implications for the environment and food safety. In response to consumer reactions against genetically modified (GM) foods in some countries - particularly in

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Sherman Robinson; Karen Thierfelder

2000-01-01

157

New Constitutive Vectors: Useful Genetic Engineering Tools for Biocatalysis  

PubMed Central

Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis.

Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

158

Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.

1984-01-01

159

Obesity: from animal models to human genetics to practical applications.  

PubMed

Although many animal models are used in genetic studies, the mouse is most common. Analysis of single-gene mutations, linkage analysis in crossbred strains, and gene targeting are the primary techniques used to associate obesity phenotypes with specific genes or alleles. The orthologous human gene can then be tested, either in linkage studies in families or in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), for effect on the phenotype. Frequent lack of concordance between mouse and human obesity genes may be due to the difference in phenotypes measured in humans (body mass index) versus mouse (fat mass or % body fat), lack of intermediate phenotypes, and the fact that identified genes account for only a small percentage of the heritability of common obesity, suggesting that many genes remain unknown. New technology allows analysis of individual genomes at a reasonable cost, making large-scale obesity genome projects in humans feasible. Such projects could identify common allelic variants that contribute to obesity and to variable individual response to obesity therapy. Currently, family history may be more predictive than genetics for risk of obesity, but individual testing could ultimately guide therapy and, in the aggregate, guide public health policy. The primary limitation to development of genotype-based diets is that successful randomized diet trials of widely ranging macronutrient content, adequately powered for finding rare Mendelian mutations, have not been performed. PMID:21036332

Warden, Craig H; Fisler, Janis S

2010-01-01

160

Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis.

Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.

2009-01-01

161

Genetic Algorithms in Engineering and Computer Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents 13 Parallel Genetic Algorithms for Optimisation in CFD : : : : : : : : 1 13.1 INTRODUCTION : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 13.2 CFD ANALYSIS FOR AEROSPACE DESIGN : : : :

Edited J. P'eriaux; G. Winter; John Wiley Sons; Thomas Back

1995-01-01

162

GENETIC ENGINEERING TO AVOID GENETIC NEGLECT: FROM CHANCE TO RESPONSIBILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTCurrently our assessment of whether someone is a good parent depends on the environmental inputs (or lack of such inputs) they give their children. But new genetic intervention technologies, to which we may soon have access, mean that how good a parent is will depend also on the genetic inputs they give their children. Each new piece of available technology

JESSICA HAMMOND

2010-01-01

163

Prospects for Genetic Engineering in Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetically modified plants now constitute a significant portion of the worlds agricultural output. Genetically modified corn, soybean, canola, rice, and cotton are being adopted by growers in both industrialized and developing nations at an increasing rate. The most popular products have been eng...

164

Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.  

PubMed

Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A better knowledge of the pathophysiology of these disorders can help to understand autism. Different other candidate genes have been tested, positive results await replications in other samples. Animal models have been developed, generally by knocking out the different candidate genes. Behaviour studies have mainly focused on anxiety and learning paradigms. Another group of models results from surgical or toxic lesions of candidate regions in the brain, in general during development. The tools to analyse these animals are not yet standardised, and an important effort needs to be undertaken. PMID:11827743

Andres, Christian

2002-01-01

165

Genetically-Engineered Proteins For Functional Nanoinorganics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overarching goals in this DURINT project have been: 1. Combinatorial selection and post-selection engineering polypeptides that have specific affinity to inorganic surfaces (GEPI); 2. Understanding the nature of protein molecular binding on inorganic ...

M. Sarikaya

2007-01-01

166

German politics of genetic engineering and its deconstruction.  

PubMed

Policy-making, as exemplified by biotechnology policy, can be understood as an attempt to manage a field of discursivity, to construct regularity in a dispersed multitude of combinable elements. Following this perspective of politics as a textual process, the paper interprets the politicization of genetic engineering in Germany as a defence of the political as a regime of heterogeneity, as a field of 'dissensus' rather than 'consensus', and a rejection of the idea that the framing of technological transformation is an autonomous process. From its beginning in the early 1970s, genetic engineering was symbolically entrenched as a key technology of the future, and as an integral element of the German politics of modernization. Attempts by new social movements and the Green Party to displace the egalitarian imaginary of democratic discourse into the politics of genetic engineering were construed by the political élites as an attack on the political order of post-World War II Germany. The 1990 Genetic Engineering Law attempted a closure of this controversy. But it is precisely the homogenizing idiom of this 'settlement' which continues to nourish the social movements and their radical challenge to the definitions and codings of the politics of genetic engineering. PMID:11614113

Gottweis, H

1995-05-01

167

Field performance of a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)--mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts--has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field--ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area--were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S; McKemey, Andrew R; Morrison, Neil I; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S; Phillips, Caroline E; Miller, Ernie D; Rose, Robert I; Staten, Robert T; Donnelly, Christl A; Alphey, Luke

2011-09-13

168

Genetic Engineering of Enhanced Microbial Nitrification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgenesis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposab...

M. Carsiotis S. Khanna

1989-01-01

169

Diorama Engine - A 3D Directing Tool for 3D Computer Animation Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in 3D computer graphics technologies have enabled 3D computer animation to become a popular method of storytelling. However, the tools which provide access to the technology are targeted mainly at trained professionals, and are seldom easy enough for a director to use. We present Diorama engine, a 3D directing tool for 3D computer animation. Diorama engine is a

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara

2003-01-01

170

Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

171

Genetic engineering to avoid genetic neglect: from chance to responsibility.  

PubMed

Currently our assessment of whether someone is a good parent depends on the environmental inputs (or lack of such inputs) they give their children. But new genetic intervention technologies, to which we may soon have access, mean that how good a parent is will depend also on the genetic inputs they give their children. Each new piece of available technology threatens to open up another way that we can neglect our children. Our obligations to our children and our susceptibilities to corresponding legal and moral sanctions may be about to explosively increase. In this paper I argue that we should treat conventional neglect and 'genetic neglect' - failing to use genetic intervention technologies to prevent serious diseases and disabilities - morally consistently. I conclude that in a range of cases parents will have a moral obligation to use genetic treatments to prevent serious disabilities in their children. My particular focus is on prenatal interventions and their impact of the bodily integrity of expectant mothers. I conclude that although bodily integrity constrains moral obligations, it is outweighed in a range of cases. PMID:20394109

Hammond, Jessica

2010-05-01

172

Illuminating cancer systems with genetically engineered mouse models and coupled luciferase reporters in vivo.  

PubMed

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful noninvasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMM) of cancer, which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, posttranslational processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation, and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a noninvasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiologic means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

2013-04-12

173

TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection  

SciTech Connect

A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

2009-12-04

174

Genetically Engineered Materials for Biofuels Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agrivida, Inc., is an agricultural biotechnology company developing industrial crop feedstocks for the fuel and chemical industries. Agrivida's crops have improved processing traits that enable efficient, low cost conversion of the crops' cellulosic components into fermentable sugars. Currently, pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of the major cell wall components, cellulose and hemicellulose, into fermentable sugars is the most expensive processing step that prevents widespread adoption of biomass in biofuels processes. To lower production costs we are consolidating pretreatment and enzyme production within the crop. In this strategy, transgenic plants express engineered cell wall degrading enzymes in an inactive form, which can be reactivated after harvest. We have engineered protein elements that disrupt enzyme activity during normal plant growth. Upon exposure to specific processing conditions, the engineered enzymes are converted into their active forms. This mechanism significantly lowers pretreatment costs and enzyme loadings (>75% reduction) below those currently available to the industry.

Raab, Michael

2012-02-01

175

Genetic engineering versus natural evolution: Genetic algorithms with deterministic operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms (GA) have several important features that predestine them to solve design problems. Their main disadvantage however is the excessively long run-time that is needed to deliver satisfactory results for large instances of complex design problems. The main aims of this paper are (1) to demonstrate that the effective and efficient application of the GA concept to design problem

Lech Józwiak; Adam Postula

2002-01-01

176

Genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells using TALE nucleases.  

PubMed

Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that TALENs employing the specific architectures described here mediate site-specific genome modification in human pluripotent cells with similar efficiency and precision as do zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). PMID:21738127

Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P; Cost, Gregory J; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Jaenisch, Rudolf

2011-07-07

177

Assessing people's attitudes towards animal use and genetic modification using a web-based interactive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to compare people's attitudes towards different uses of research animals, the use of animal models with and without genetic modification, genetically modified (GM) food versus non-food products, and the role of information in decision-making. Using an interactive, online survey, we probed participant views on 2 examples of research on domestic pigs 1) to reduce

Catherine A. Schuppli; Daniel M. Weary

178

The economic valuation of farm animal genetic resources: a survey of available methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic erosion of domestic animal diversity has placed 30% of the world's breeds at risk of extinction, often as a result of government policy\\/programmes. Conservation and sustainable development of animal genetic resources (AnGR) require a broad focus that includes the many ‘adaptive’ breeds that survive well in the low external input agriculture typical of developing countries. Environmental economic valuation methodologies

Adam G. Drucker; Veronica Gomez; Simon Anderson

2001-01-01

179

Use of Genetically Modified Viruses and Genetically Engineered Virus-vector Vaccines: Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number

Vivian S. W. Chan

2006-01-01

180

Conceptual, methodological and ethical issues in genetic engineering (1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to the potential of gene therapy to alleviate illness and death particularly for many rare human genetic disorders\\u000a and specific forms of cancer is presented. At present, genetic engineering, that is gene therapy to correct some of these\\u000a disorders based on new molecular biology procedures is a possibility in the near future especially those with single gene\\u000a mendelian

A. Falek

1990-01-01

181

Techniques for genetic engineering in mycobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of mycobacterial genetics has experienced quick technical developments in the past ten years, despite a relatively slow start, caused by difficulties in accessing these recalcitrant species. The study of mycobacterial pathogenesis is important in the development of new ways of treating tuberculosis and leprosy, now that the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has reduced the effectiveness of current therapies.

Jo Hermans; Jan A. M. de Bont

1996-01-01

182

Genetic engineering in insects of agricultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past five years have witnessed the extension of genetic transformation techniques into 11 insect species covering four orders within the Insecta. While the robustness of these transformation systems can be improved, there is now a highly likely probability that transformation of a given insect species will ensue, provided transposable element-containing plasmid DNA can be effectively delivered to the embryo

Peter W Atkinson

2002-01-01

183

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS WITH RESISTANCE TO INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic transformation technology allows genes to be moved across species, greatly improving the opportunities to breed plants for insect control. The Cry1Ac protein in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., was registered by Monsanto as Bollgard, and targeted to tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fab),...

184

Detection and quantification of genetically engineered crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have recently attracted the attention of agricultural, medical and food scientists and governments of many countries in the world due to an increasing concern that the recombinant gene(s) inserted into an organism may result in unforeseen effects. Therefore, there is a need to regulate each transgenic event so that the officially approved events will be

Asfaw Adugna; Tewodros Mesfin

2008-01-01

185

Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the proposed research is to first establish a plasmid-mediated genetic transformation system for the sulfur degrading Sulfolobus, and then to clone and overexpress the genes encoding the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes from Sulfolobus- as well as from other microorganisms, to develop a Sulfolobus-based microbial process for the removal of both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal.

Ho, N.W.Y.

1991-01-01

186

Animals in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following books relate to the issues surrounding the use of animals for both food and clothing. Farmers may appreciate the increased productivity of factory farming, but the view of animals as production units and the sometimes questionable treatment of animals in some factory farms raises ethical concerns for those interested in animal welfare issues. Genetic engineering, of both plants

Beth Roberts

2004-01-01

187

Genetically engineered mouse models of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, affecting more than 1% of the population over age 60. The most common feature of PD is a resting tremor, though there are many systemic neurological effects, such as incontinence and sleep disorders. PD is histopathologically identified by the presence of Lewy bodies (LB), proteinaceous inclusions constituted primarily by ?-synuclein. To date, there is no effective treatment to slow or stop disease progression. To help understand disease pathogenesis and identify potential therapeutic targets, many genetic mouse models have been developed. By far the most common of these models are the wildtype and mutant ?-synuclein transgenic mice, because ?-synuclein was the first protein shown to have a direct effect on PD pathogenesis and progression. There are many other gene-disrupted or -mutated models currently available, which are based on genetic anomalies identified in the human disease. In addition, there are also models which examine genes that may contribute to disease onset or progression but currently have no identified causative PD mutations. These genes are part of signaling pathways important for maintaining neuronal function in the nigrostriatal pathway. This review will summarize the most commonly used of the genetic mouse models currently available for PD research. We will examine how these models have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis and progression, as well as aided in identification of potential therapeutic targets in this disorder.

Crabtree, Donna M; Zhang, Jianhua

2011-01-01

188

Genetically modified potato plants in nutrition and prevention of diseases in humans and animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) become a real constituent of our lives and nowadays, they are commonly introduced into the food chain of people and animals in some states. Among higher organisms, plants are used above all for genetic modifications; potatoes are a suitable model plants for this purpose. Nowa- days, a number of various genetic modifications of potato plants are

R. PRIBYLOVA; I. PAVLIK; M. BARTOS

2006-01-01

189

Genetically Engineered Organisms, Wildlife, and Habitat: A Workshop Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today, 89 percent of all soybeans, 83 percent of cotton, and 61 percent of corn grown in the United States are the products of genetic engineering (GE). Other GE plants, trees, microbes, insects, and fish are on the horizon. A key question related to GE c...

P. T. Whitacre

2009-01-01

190

Genetic engineering of reproductive incompetence in radiata pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An important application of genetic engineering to commercial forestry is the generation of reproductively incompetent trees. This requires isolation and characterisation of the regulatory regions of the genes expressed at the different stages of male and female reproductive-organ development. A gene family showing specific expression inPinus radiata immature male and female cone buds has been isolated and characterised. We

Aidyn Mouradov; Robert D. Teasdale

1999-01-01

191

Environmental effects of genetically engineered woody biomass crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically engineered crop plants has raised concerns about the risks these crops pose to natural and agricultural ecosystems. The potential environmental hazards of transgenic woody biomass crops is discussed, and based on the biology of these crops and their transgenes, recommend a scientific framework for assessing risk. The potential impacts of transgenes based on both characteristics of

ROSALIND R. JAMES; STEPHEN P. DIFAZIO; AMY M. BRUNNER; STEVEN H. STRAUSS

1998-01-01

192

Improving plant genetic engineering by manipulating the host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a major technique for the genetic engineering of plants. However, there are many economically important crop and tree species that remain highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium infection. Although attempts have been made to ‘improve’ transformation by altering the bacterium, future successes might come from manipulation of the plant. Recent studies that identified several plant genes involved in Agrobacterium-mediated

Stanton B Gelvin

2003-01-01

193

Genetically Engineered Nanofiber-Like Viruses For Tissue Regenerating Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display of biomimetic matrices at the nanometer scale is of great importance to the functional design of tissue regenerating materials. We have genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage (phage), naturally occurring nanofiber- like viruses, to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins. Structural orientation of these phage building blocks can be

Anna Merzlyak; Shyam Indrakanti; Seung-Wuk Lee

2009-01-01

194

Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions from Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses

Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller; Michael Lamport Commons; Geoffrey David Commons

2008-01-01

195

[The application of genetic engineering to the petroleum biodesulfurization].  

PubMed

The developed course and reaction mechanisms of petroleum biodesulfurization were introduced. The recent development of genetic engineering technology, which used in desulfuration strain's construction, reconstruction and other fields, was summarized emphatically. Its current research situation internal and overseas and the developing prospect were simply analyzed, and our research designs were submitted. PMID:11910751

Tong, M Y; Fang, X C; Ma, T; Zhang, Q

2001-11-01

196

The First Decade of Genetically Engineered Crops in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten years after the first generation of genetically engineered (GE) varieties became commercially available, adoption of these varieties by U.S. farmers is widespread for major crops. Driven by farmers' expectations of higher yields, savings in management time, and lower pesticide costs, the adoption of corn, soybean, and cotton GE varieties has increased rapidly. Despite the benefits, however, environmental and consumer

Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo; Margriet Caswell

2006-01-01

197

Genetic Engineering of Crop for Insect Resistance and Its Biosafety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered crop resistance to insects and pests offers a method of crop protection. In this review ,we focus primarily on those genes with demonstrated effects in transgenic plants ,including Bt toxins genes and those derived from plants , such as protease inhibitor genes ,alpha - amylase inhibitor genes ,lectin genes. The biosafety of insect resistance transgenic crop and the

FENG Ying

2004-01-01

198

Genomics and genetic engineering of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SNPV) of the bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been extensively used to control this insect around the world, especially in China. However, in order to compete with chemical insecticides - mainly for speed of action -novel approaches are sought to improve the efficacy of HaSNPV either by selection of superior natural variants or by genetic engineering. Prior

X. Chen

2001-01-01

199

Genetic Engineering--A Lesson on Bioethics for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A unit designed to cover the topic of genetic engineering and its ethical considerations is presented. Students are expected to learn the material while using a debate format. A list of objectives for the unit, the debate format, and the results from an opinion questionnaire are described. (KR)|

Armstrong, Kerri; Weber, Kurt

1991-01-01

200

Characterization of genetic engineering inventions in patent claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

When genetic engineering patent applications from the period before 1982 are compared to applications filed from 1982 to 1985, some development and trends can be observed. Besides the rapid increase in the number of applications, some charges are obvious as to the frequency with which various objects occur in the applications. Microorganisms per se have become more attractive for patent

Sisko Knuth; Tuula Pehu; H. G. Gyllenberg

1987-01-01

201

Genetic Engineering in Agriculture: Who Stands to Benefit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetic engineering inagriculture has been the source of much debate. Todate, arguments have focused most strongly on thepotential human health risks, the flow of geneticmaterial to related species, and ecologicalconsequences. Little attention appears to have beengiven to a more fundamental concern, namely, who willbe the beneficiaries of this technology?

Christian J. Peters

2000-01-01

202

Covalent binding of genetically engineered microorganisms to porous glass beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several covalent immobilization methods, which have been routinely used with proteins and antibodies, were studied for their ability to immobilize genetically engineered Escherichia coli cells to glass beads. The cells used in this study expressed a metal binding peptide that binds cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The initial work focused on a method employing 2.5% aminopropyltrimethoxy silane and 2.5% glutaraldehyde

Lisa C Shriver-Lake; Wm. Bryce Gammeter; Sookie S Bang; Mehran Pazirandeh

2002-01-01

203

Genetic Engineering in Indian Agriculture An Introductory Handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handbook is prepared to create an informed public debate on Genetic Engineering in agriculture and this Introductory Manual is a contribution to this debate – a debate not just on GE in agriculture per se but on democratization of science and technology.

Kavitha Kuruganti

2009-01-01

204

TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered c...

J. Allen M. Borucki R. Lenhoff T. Slezak

2009-01-01

205

The Ecological Risks and Benefits of Genetically Engineered Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of the environmental risks and benefits of adopting genetically engineered organisms are highly polarized between pro- and anti-biotechnology groups, but the current state of our knowledge is frequently overlooked in this debate. A review of existing scientific literature reveals that key experiments on both the environmental risks and benefits are lacking. The complexity of ecological systems presents considerable challenges

L. L. Wolfenbarger; P. R. Phifer

2000-01-01

206

Genetic engineering and food: what determines consumer acceptance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents experimental work which attempts to understand what psychological mechanisms are likely to influence consumer acceptance of genetically engineered food, and the relationship between consumer attitudes towards the technology and consumer acceptance of its products. Discusses the relationship between consumer risk perceptions and consumer reactions; the influence of public knowledge and understanding of the technology on attitudes; media impact; ethical

Lynn J. Frewer; Chaya Howard; Richard Shepherd

1995-01-01

207

Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics.

2012-01-01

208

Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics. PMID:23036272

Ng, Alvin Jm; Mutsaers, Anthony J; Baker, Emma K; Walkley, Carl R

2012-10-04

209

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

210

Genetic diversity and conservation of endangered animal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of biodiversity resulting from extinctions is receiving increasing attention. Over several thousands of animal species have been evaluated and recognized as endangered species. Inbreeding depression has been demonstrated in many wild animal species. Here we sequenced 655-978 bp mitochodrial D-loop region of 32 individuals from four regional giant panda populations. Sixteen haplotypes were observed. AMOVE analysis demonstrated that

Ya-ping Zhang; Xiao-xia Wang; Oliver A. Ryder; Hai-peng Li; He-ming Zhang; Yange Yong; Peng-yan Wang

2002-01-01

211

A molecular genetic approach for forensic animal species identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated potential markers within chromosomal, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) with the aim of developing a DNA based method to allow differentiation between animal species. Such discrimination tests may have important applications in the forensic science, agriculture, quarantine and customs fields. DNA samples from five different animal individuals within the same species for 10 species of

C. Bellis; K. J. Ashton; L. Freney; B. Blair; L. R. Griffiths

2003-01-01

212

Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production ?  

PubMed Central

There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H2 yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H2 production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes.

Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C.

2010-01-01

213

Taming abiotic stresses in plants through genetic engineering: current strategies and perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, major advances have been made in plant genetic engineering. The methods for stable genetic transformation as well as for regulation of introduced trans-genes have been optimised to a great deal. The major limiting factor in the widespread application of genetic engineering is the availability of the target genes. This is particularly true for engineering tolerance against

Anil Grover; Chandan Sahi; Neeti Sanan; Anita Grover

1999-01-01

214

The influence of realistic product exposure on attitudes towards genetic engineering of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes towards genetic engineering remain uncrystallized and are likely to be influenced by whatever information becomes available. One source of information about genetically engineered food is the availability of products on the supermarket shelves. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of product exposure on consumer perceptions of genetic engineering as applied to food production,

L. J. Frewer; C. Howard; R. Shepherd

1996-01-01

215

The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.  

PubMed

An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23554402

de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2013-04-01

216

Genetically engineered luminescent proteins in biosensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent proteins originally isolated from marine or terrestrial organisms have played a key role in the development of several biosensing systems. These proteins have been used in a variety of applications including, immunoassays, binding assays, cell-based sensing, high throughput screening, optical imaging, etc. Among the luminescent proteins isolated, the bioluminescent protein aequorin has been one of the proteins at the forefront in terms of its use in a vast number of biosensing systems. In our laboratory, we have employed aequorin as a label in the development of highly sensitive assays through chemical and genetic modifications from single step analysis of physiologically important molecules in biological fluids. An important aspect of optimizing these assays for clinical use involves understanding the stability of the various aequorin variants that are available. To this end we have designed several stability studies involving three important aequorin mutants, Mutant S, Mutant 5, and Mutant 53. The cysteine free aequorin, Mutant S, has been the most ubiquitously used aequorin variant in our laboratory because of its increased stability and activity as compared to native aequorin. Mutant 5 and Mutant 53 contain a single cyteine residue at position 5 and 53 in the protein, respectively. Because of the presence of a single cysteine residue, Mutant 5 and Mutant 53 both can be site-specifically conjugated. This site specific conjugation capability gives Mutant 5 and Mutant 53 an advantage over native aequorin when developing assays. Additional studies optimizing the expression, purification, and charging of aequorin Mutant S were also performed. A thorough understanding of the efficient expression, purification, and storage of these aequorin mutants will allow for the more practical utilization of these mutants in the development of future biosensing systems.

Rowe, Laura; Ensor, Mark; Scott, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

2006-03-01

217

The ethics of using genetic engineering for sex selection.  

PubMed

It is quite likely that parents will soon be able to use genetic engineering to select the sex of their child by directly manipulating the sex of an embryo. Some might think that this method would be a more ethical method of sex selection than present technologies such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) because, unlike PGD, it does not need to create and destroy "wrong gendered" embryos. This paper argues that those who object to present technologies on the grounds that the embryo is a person are unlikely to be persuaded by this proposal, though for different reasons. PMID:15681683

Liao, S Matthew

2005-02-01

218

Agent-Based Simulation of Animal Behaviour. Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper it is shown how animal behavior can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behavior, varying from purely reactive behavior to pro-active, social and adaptive behavior. The compositional devel...

C. M. Jonker J. Treur

1998-01-01

219

Prescribing diatom morphology: toward genetic engineering of biological nanomaterials.  

PubMed

The formation of inorganic materials with complex form is a widespread biological phenomenon (biomineralization). Among the most spectacular examples of biomineralization is the production by diatoms (a group of eukaryotic microalgae) of intricately nanopatterned to micropatterned cell walls made of silica (SiO2). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of diatom silica biomineralization is not only a fundamental biological problem, but also of great interest in materials engineering, as the biological self-assembly of three-dimensional (3D) inorganic nanomaterials has no man-made analog. Recently, insight into the molecular mechanism of diatom silica formation has been obtained by structural and functional analysis of biomolecules that are involved in this process. Furthermore, the rapid development of diatom molecular genetics has provided new tools for investigating the silica forming machinery of diatoms and for manipulating silica biogenesis. This has opened the door for the production, through genetic engineering, of unique 3D nanomaterials with designed structures and functionalities. PMID:17991447

Kröger, Nils

2007-11-26

220

A genetic animal model of differential sensitivity to methamphetamine reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Sensitivity to reinforcement from methamphetamine (MA) likely influences risk for MA addiction, and genetic differences are one source of individual variation. Generation of two sets of selectively bred mouse lines for high and low MA drinking has shown that genetic factors influence MA intake, and pronounced differences in sensitivity to rewarding and aversive effects of MA play a significant role. Further validation of these lines as a unique genetic model relevant to MA addiction was obtained using operant methods to study MA reinforcement. High and low MA drinking line mice were used to test the hypotheses that: 1) oral and intracerebroventricular (ICV) MA serve as behavioral reinforcers, and 2) MA exhibits greater reinforcing efficacy in high than low MA drinking mice. Operant responses resulted in access to an MA or non-MA drinking tube or intracranial delivery of MA. Behavioral activation consequent to orally consumed MA was determined. MA available for consumption maintained higher levels of reinforced instrumental responding in high than low MA drinking line mice, and MA intake in the oral operant procedure was greater in high than low MA drinking line mice. Behavioral activation was associated with amount of MA consumed during operant sessions. High line mice delivered more MA via ICV infusion than did low line mice across a range of doses. Thus, genetic risk factors play a critical role in the reinforcing efficacy of MA and the oral self-administration procedure is suitable for delineating genetic contributions to MA reinforcement.

Shabani, Shkelzen; Dobbs, Lauren K; Ford, Matthew M; Mark, Gregory P; Finn, Deborah A; Phillips, Tamara J

2012-01-01

221

Reactor Engineering in Large Scale Animal Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article mainly addresses the issues associated with the engineering of large-scale free suspension culture in agitated\\u000a bioreactors >10,000 L because they have become the system of choice industrially. It is particularly concerned with problems\\u000a that become increasingly important as the scale increases. However, very few papers have been written that are actually based\\u000a on such large-scale studies and the few

Alvin W. Nienow

2006-01-01

222

Patent coupling analysis of primary organizations in genetic engineering research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to reveal the possible linkage among the 40 primary organizations in Genetic Engineering Research\\u000a by taking the Patent Coupling approach. The primary organizations were defined by the productivity and identified by the patent\\u000a count and Bradford Law. The author analyzed the cited patents of the patents granted by United States Patent and Trademark\\u000a Office

Szu-chia Lo

2008-01-01

223

A genetic engineering strategy to eliminate peanut allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Despite its seriousness,\\u000a to date, there is no cure. Genetic engineering strategies can provide a solution. The post-transcriptional gene silencing\\u000a (PTGS) model can be used effectively to knock out the production of allergenic proteins in peanut by specific degradation\\u000a of the endogenous target messenger RNA (mRNA). Ara h

Hortense Dodo; Koffi Konan; Olga Viquez

2005-01-01

224

Prevention of preharvest aflatoxin contamination through genetic engineering of crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practices on prevention of aflatoxin contamination of crop species include time consuming, expensive agronomic practices.\\u000a Of all the methods available to-date, conventional breeding and\\/or genetic engineering to develop host plant-based resistance\\u000a to aflatoxin-producing fungi appear to be valuable for several reasons. However, breeding for disease-resistant crops is very\\u000a time consuming, especially in tree crops, and does not lend itself

K. Rajasekaran; J. W. Cary; T. E. Cleveland

2006-01-01

225

What are the prospects for genetically engineered, disease resistant plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect and herbicide-resistant plants are the most widely grown transgenics in agricultural production. No strategy using\\u000a genetically engineered plants for disease resistance has had a comparable impact. Why is this? What are the prospects for\\u000a introducing transgenic disease resistant plants to agriculture? We review the biological background for strategies used to\\u000a make disease resistant GM crops, illustrate examples of these

David B. Collinge; Ole Søgaard Lund; Hans Thordal-Christensen

226

20 years studying p53 functions in genetically engineered mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell and molecular biological studies of p53 functions over the past 30 years have been complemented in the past 20 years by studies that use genetically engineered mice. As expected, mice that have mutant Trp53 alleles usually develop cancers of various types more rapidly than their counterparts that have wild-type Trp53 genes. These mouse studies have been instrumental in providing

Lawrence A. Donehower; Guillermina Lozano

2009-01-01

227

Ordering of Quantum Dots Using Genetically Engineered Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid crystal system was used for the fabrication of a highly ordered composite material from genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanocrystals. The bacteriophage, which formed the basis of the self-ordering system, were selected to have a specific recognition moiety for ZnS crystal surfaces. The bacteriophage were coupled with ZnS solution precursors and spontaneously evolved a self-supporting

Seung-Wuk Lee; Chuanbin Mao; Christine E. Flynn; Angela M. Belcher

2002-01-01

228

Refinement of behavioural traits in animals for the genetic dissection of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both twin and family studies have revealed the involvement of genetic factors in disorders that affect the regulation of body weight, such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. However, pinpointing the genes that contribute to these human disorders has not yet been very successful. In contrast, genetic studies in animals have been basic for the identification of many genes involved in

Martien J. H. Kas; Annemarie A. Van Elburg; Herman Van Engeland; Roger A. H. Adan

2003-01-01

229

Colonization genetics of an animal-dispersed plant (Vaccinium membranaceum) at Mount St Helens, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population founding and spatial spread may profoundly influence later population genetic structure, but their effects are difficult to quantify when population history is unknown. We examined the genetic effects of founder group formation in a recently founded population of the animal-dispersed Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) on new volcanic deposits at Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) 24 years post-eruption. Using amplified

S. YANG; J. G. BISHOP; M. S. WEBSTER

230

Gene mapping in r-bearing animals: genetic maps and comparative gene mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, there has been marked progress in gene mapping in man and some animals. Advances in gene mapping have also touched fur-bearing animals: the genetic map of mink consists of 74 genes marking all chromosomes, except the Y, and the fox map contains 35 genes marking 15 of 16 autosomes and the X chromosome. However, until recently

Oleg L. Serov; Nikolay B. Rubtsov

231

Genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from animals, food poisoning outbreaks and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has previously been investigated chiefly by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolated from various animals, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge was investigated.

Anders Johansson; Anna Aspan; Elisabeth Bagge; Viveca Båverud; Björn E Engström; Karl-Erik Johansson

2006-01-01

232

Genetically modified crop plants: Biosafety concerns and the role of chloroplast genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrollable spread of transgenes to untransformed varieties and other related wild species through cross pollination is perceived as a serious threat to environment and ecosystems. As plastid genome is inherited maternally in majority of the crop species, chloroplast genetic engineering can play vital role in addressing such an important public concern. Results from the development of insect resistant tobacco pants

V. Siva Reddy

233

Eradication of malaria through genetic engineering: the current situation.  

PubMed

Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually. Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease. Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide. However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies. In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in the Plasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed. The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication. However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles. Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms. PMID:23339908

Chong, Wing-Chui; Basir, Rusliza; Fei, Yam Mun

2013-02-01

234

Genetic Animal Models of Alcohol and Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and pharmacological responses of selectively bred and inbred rodent lines have been analyzed to elucidate many features of drug sensitivity and the adverse effects of drugs, the underlying mechanisms of drug tolerance and dependence, and the motivational states underlying drug reward and aversion. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has been used to identify provisional chromosomal locations of

John C. Crabbe; John K. Belknap; Kari J. Buck

1994-01-01

235

Genetic and Physiological Features of Reproduction in Prolific Animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and physiological functional relationships between major reproductive parameters were studied in domestic prolific mammals with special reference to selection-induced changes in fertility and mothering ability in ten generations of pigs of sino-European Tiameslan composite line, which was first bred in France. Based on our hypothesis, balance equations were derived describing highly adaptive functional coadaptations of reproductive traits. Properties of

V. S. Lankin

2004-01-01

236

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

237

Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7\\/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1\\/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic

Christian Andres

2002-01-01

238

Genomic and pedigree-based genetic parameters for scarcely recorded traits when some animals are genotyped.  

PubMed

Genetic parameters were estimated using relationships between animals that were based either on pedigree, 43,011 single nucleotide polymorphisms, or a combination of these, considering genotyped and non-genotyped animals. The standard error of the estimates and a parametric bootstrapping procedure was used to investigate sampling properties of the estimated variance components. The data set contained milk yield, dry matter intake and body weight for 517 first-lactation heifers with genotypes and phenotypes, and another 112 heifers with phenotypes only. Multivariate models were fitted using the different relationships in ASReml software. Estimates of genetic variance were lower based on genomic relationships than using pedigree relationships. Genetic variances from genomic and pedigree relationships were, however, not directly comparable because they apply to different base populations. Standard errors indicated that using the genomic relationships gave more accurate estimates of heritability but equally accurate estimates of genetic correlation. However, the estimates of standard errors were affected by the differences in scale between the 2 relationship matrices, causing differences in values of the genetic parameters. The bootstrapping results (with genetic parameters at the same level), confirmed that both heritability and genetic correlations were estimated more accurately with genomic relationships in comparison with using the pedigree relationships. Animals without genotype were included in the analysis by merging genomic and pedigree relationships. This allowed all phenotypes to be used, including those from non-genotyped animals. This combination of genomic and pedigree relationships gave the most accurate estimates of genetic variance. When a small data set is available it might be more advantageous for the estimation of genetic parameters to genotype existing animals, rather than collecting more phenotypes. PMID:21787954

Veerkamp, R F; Mulder, H A; Thompson, R; Calus, M P L

2011-08-01

239

The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

2012-01-01

240

The animal genetic resource information network (AnimalGRIN) database: A database design and implementation case  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript presents a case study that is based on an actual project for the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The NAGP collects, preserves, and documents germplasm from various breeds of livestock in the United States, in order to preserve and e...

241

Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications.

Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

2012-01-01

242

Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics  

PubMed Central

The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

Prentice, Jennifer R.; Anzar, Muhammad

2011-01-01

243

Water on Mars? / Genetically Engineered Organisms / Spring Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 46 minute radio broadcast discusses the NASA announcement in March 2004 that the rover Opportunity explored a crater on Mars that was once soaked with water - the most convincing evidence yet of a warm, wet past on Mars. Though the question of whether that water may have supported life remains, it certainly improves the odds. The second part of the broadcast discusses genetically engineered organisms. Researchers are investigating many different kinds of genetically-modified organisms, from plants that make their own pesticides, to faster-growing fish. There is discussion about the safety of such research, and what can be done to ensure that the environment is protected. Finally, there is a rundown of the spring 2004 highlights in the sky.

244

Genetically engineered microorganisms to rescue plants from frost injury.  

PubMed

Ice nucleation active bacteria belonging to genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Erwinia contribute to frost damage to plants by initiating the formation of ice in plants that would otherwise supercool and avoid the damaging ice formation. The biological control of frost injury can be achieved by the application of non-ice nucleation active bacteria to the plant surfaces before they become colonized by Ice+ species. ice genes have been cloned from Pseudomonas and isogenic Ice- derivatives constructed via genetic manipulations. These genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) have been released into the environment to control the frost damage. The incidence of frost injury to the plants has, thereby, been reduced by 50-85% during natural frosts. These GEMs do not survive in soil and show no aerial dispersal in the environment. PMID:8213308

Dar, G H; Anand, R C; Sharma, P K

1993-01-01

245

Models to examine containment and spread of genetically engineered microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered microbes (GEMs) have the potential to\\u000a revolutionize agricultural techniques by facilitating crop protection\\u000a and increased productivity. However, there has been widespread concern\\u000a regarding the potential impact these microbes may have on the\\u000a environment. Here we mathematically model the dynamics of GEMs in an\\u000a agricultural setting, focusing on parameters that can be used to\\u000a summarize the potential of modified

M. A. LEWIS; G. SCHMITZ; P. KAREIVA; J. T. TREVORS

1996-01-01

246

Perspectives for genetic engineering of poplars for enhanced phytoremediation abilities.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation potential has been widely accepted as highly stable and dynamic approach for reducing eco-toxic pollutants. Earlier reports endorse remediation abilities both in herbaceous plants as well as woody trees. Poplars are dominant trees to the ecosystem structure and functioning in riparian forests of North America Rivers and also to other part of the world. Understanding of the fact that how genetic variation in primary producer structures communities, affects species distribution, and alters ecosystem-level processes, attention was paid to investigate the perspectives of genetic modification in poplar. The present review article furnishes documented evidences for genetic engineering of Populus tree for enhanced phytoremediation abilities. The versatility of poplar as a consequence of its distinct traits, rapid growth rates, extensive root system, high perennial biomass production, and immense industrial value, bring it in the forefront of phytoremediation. Furthermore, remediative capabilities of Populus can be significantly increased by introducing cross-kingdom, non-resident genes encoding desirable traits. Available genome sequence database of Populus contribute to the determination of gene functions together with elucidating phytoremediation linked metabolic pathways. Adequate understanding of functional genomics in merger with physiology and genetics of poplar offers distinct advantage in identifying and upgrading phytoremediation potential of this model forest tree species for human welfare. PMID:20848189

Yadav, Rakesh; Arora, Pooja; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhury, Ashok

2010-09-17

247

The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations.  

PubMed

Abstract There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

2013-11-01

248

Can we use genetic and genomic approaches to identify candidate animals for targeted selective treatment.  

PubMed

Estimated breeding values (EBV) for faecal egg count (FEC) and genetic markers for host resistance to nematodes may be used to identify resistant animals for selective breeding programmes. Similarly, targeted selective treatment (TST) requires the ability to identify the animals that will benefit most from anthelmintic treatment. A mathematical model was used to combine the concepts and evaluate the potential of using genetic-based methods to identify animals for a TST regime. EBVs obtained by genomic prediction were predicted to be the best determinant criterion for TST in terms of the impact on average empty body weight and average FEC, whereas pedigree-based EBVs for FEC were predicted to be marginally worse than using phenotypic FEC as a determinant criterion. Whilst each method has financial implications, if the identification of host resistance is incorporated into a wider genomic selection indices or selective breeding programmes, then genetic or genomic information may be plausibly included in TST regimes. PMID:23683653

Laurenson, Yan C S M; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Bishop, Stephen C

2013-04-26

249

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

250

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)|

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

251

Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.

2013-01-01

252

Genetic contributions to myopic refractive error: Insights from human studies and supporting evidence from animal models.  

PubMed

Genetic studies of both population-based and recruited affected patient cohorts have identified a number of genomic regions and candidate genes that may contribute to myopic development. Scientists have developed animal models of myopia, as collection of affected tissues from patents is impractical. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing technology show promise for further elucidation of disease causing variants as in the recent identification of rare variants within ZNF644 segregating with pathological myopia. We present a review of the current research trends and findings on genetic contributions to myopic refraction including candidate loci for myopic development and their genomic convergence with expression studies of animal models inducing myopic development. PMID:23379998

Hawthorne, Felicia A; Young, Terri L

2013-02-01

253

A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference  

PubMed Central

Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative" or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (co)variance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean) being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models, residual variance on the underlying scale is not identifiable. Hence, variance of fully confounded Mendelian sampling deviations cannot be identified either, but can be inferred from the between-family variation. In the new algorithm, breeding values are sampled as in a standard animal model using the full relationship matrix, but genetic (co)variance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents) only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents). Results When applied to simulated data sets, the standard animal threshold model failed to produce useful results since samples of genetic variance always drifted towards infinity, while the new algorithm produced proper parameter estimates essentially identical to the results from a sire-dam model (given the fact that no individual records exist for the parents). Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to the sire-dam model). Conclusions The new algorithm to estimate genetic parameters via Gibbs sampling solves the bias problems typically occurring in animal threshold model analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal. Furthermore, the method considerably speeds up mixing properties of the Gibbs sampler with respect to genetic parameters, which would be an advantage of any linear or non-linear animal model.

2010-01-01

254

Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and es...

T. Kobayashi D. L. Simon

2001-01-01

255

ICLAS Working Group on Harmonization: international guidance concerning the production care and use of genetically-altered animals.  

PubMed

Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, the ‘Three Rs’ of Russell & Burch, are accepted worldwide as fundamental to the ethics of animal experimentation. The production, care and use of genetically-altered animals can pose particular challenges to the implementation of the Three Rs,1 necessitating additional considerations by those responsible for overseeing the ethical use and appropriate care of animals involved in science. The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science brings representatives of the international laboratory animal science community together to recommend acceptance of guidance documents.The harmonization of guidance concerning genetically-altered animals was seen as a priority because of the increasing globalization of research involving these animals. PMID:23563121

Rose, M; Everitt, J; Hedrich, H; Schofield, J; Dennis, M; Scott, E; Griffin, G

2013-07-01

256

Possible pitfalls investigating cell death responses in genetically engineered mouse models and derived cell lines  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered mouse models are frequently used to identify pathophysiological consequences of deregulated cell death. Targeting pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic proteins of the extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic signalling cascade is state of the art since more than two decades. Such animal models have been increasingly made use of over the past years to study loss- or gain-of-function consequences of one or more components of the molecular machinery leading to cell death. These studies have helped to separate redundant from non-redundant functions of apoptosis-related proteins in normal physiology and sometimes unravelled unexpected phenotypes. However, correct interpretation of data derived from knockout mice or derived cells and cell lines is often flawed by the comparison of cells originating from different inbred or mixed genetic backgrounds. Here we want to highlight some basic problems associated with genetic background-based modulation of cell death sensitivity and describe some methods that we use to investigate cell death responses in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. Thereby, we show that hematopoietic cells derived from wild type mice on a C57BL/6:129/SvJ recombinant mixed genetic background are significantly more resistant to spontaneous cell death or DNA-damage induced apoptosis in vitro than cells derived from inbred C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, we show as an example that C57BL/6 mice are more susceptible to ?-irradiation induced cell death after whole body irradiation in vivo and subsequent T cell lymphomagenesis.

Manzl, Claudia; Baumgartner, Florian; Peintner, Lukas; Schuler, Fabian; Villunger, Andreas

2013-01-01

257

Genetically-engineered oncolytic Newcastle disease virus effectively induces sustained remission of malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumor. Alternative treatment strategies such as oncolytic viral therapy may offer promising treatment options in the future. In this study, the oncolytic efficacy and induction of tumor remission by a genetically-engineered Newcastle disease virus (NDV(F3aa)-GFP) in MPM is tested and monitored by bioluminescent tumor imaging. Experimental Design The efficacy of NDV(F3aa)-GFP was tested against several mesothelioma cell lines in vitro. Firefly luciferase transduced MSTO-211H* orthotopic pleural mesothelioma tumor-bearing animals were treated with either single or multiple doses of NDV(F3aa)-GFP at different time points (days 1 and 10) after tumor implantation. Tumor burden was assessed by bioluminescence imaging. Results Mesothelioma cell lines exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility to NDV lysis in the following order of sensitivity: MSTO-211H>MSTO-211H*>H-2452>VAMT>JMN. In vivo studies with MSTO-211H* cells showed complete response to viral therapy in 65% of the animals within 14 days after treatment initiation. Long term survival in all of these animals was > 50 days after tumor installation (control animals <23 days). Multiple compared with single treatment showed a significantly better response (p=0.005). Conclusions NDV appears to be an efficient viral oncolytic agent in therapy of MPM in an orthotopic pleural mesothelioma tumor model.

Silberhumer, Gerd R.; Brader, Peter; Wong, Joyce; Serganova, Inna S.; Gonen, Mithat; Gonzalez, Segundo Jaime; Blasberg, Ronald; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Fong, Yuman

2012-01-01

258

Gaps, Inexperience, Inconsistencies, and Overlaps: Crisis in the Regulation of Genetically Modified Plants and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of genetically modified products pursuant to statutes enacted decades prior to the advent of biotechnology has created a regulatory system that is passive rather than proactive about risks, has difficulty adapting to biotechnology advances, and is highly fractured and inefficient-transgenic plants and animals are governed by at least twelve different statutes and five different agencies or services. The

Gregory N Mandel

2004-01-01

259

Convergent Functional Genomics of bipolar disorder: From animal model pharmacogenomics to human genetics and biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in understanding the genetic and neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder(s) has come from both human studies and animal model studies. Until recently, the lack of concerted integration between the two approaches has been hindering the pace of discovery, or more exactly, constituted a missed opportunity to accelerate our understanding of this complex and heterogeneous group of disorders. Our group

H. Le-Niculescua; M. J. McFarlanda; S. Mamidipallia; C. A. Ogdend; R. Kuczenskie; S. M. Kurianf; Ming T. Tsuange; J. I. Nurnberger Jr; A. B. Niculescua

260

Assessing the Transfer of Genetically Modified DNA from Feed to Animal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, public and scientific concerns about the environmental and food safety of GM (Genetically Modified) crops overshadow the potential benefits offered by crop biotechnology to improve food quality. One of the concerns regarding the use of GM food in human and animal nutrition is the effect that newly introduced sequences may have on the organism. In this paper, we

Raffaele Mazza; Mirko Soave; Mauro Morlacchini; Gianfranco Piva; Adriano Marocco

2005-01-01

261

Genetically modified animals in the biomedical sciences: The challenge of rapid advances & ethical demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies which permit targeted manipulation of genetic material not only provide new opportunities to explore the organization, regulation and biological or pathological function of molecular processes but, in so doing, have revolutionised the development and validation of animal models. In a very short time, we have seen rapid escalation in the development of new models, most often in mice, and

Margaret Rose; Elizabeth Grant; David Adams

262

A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

2002-01-01

263

Dehydroepiandrosterone and monoamines in the limbic system of a genetic animal model of childhood depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoamines and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were measured in a genetic animal model for childhood depression in four subcortical structures: nucleus accumbens (Nac), ventral tegmental area (VTA), amygdala and hypothalamus. The “depressive-like” strain was the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), compared to their controls, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Prepubertal FSL rats showed abnormal levels of only a few monoamines and their metabolites in

O. Malkesman; Y. Braw; E. Ram; R. Maayan; A. Weizman; N. Kinor; G. Yadid; A. Weller

2008-01-01

264

ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.  

PubMed

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

2010-11-23

265

Primer: comparative genetics of animal models of arthritis--a tool to resolve complexity.  

PubMed

Complex traits, including inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have important genetic features, but most of the responsible genes have not been conclusively identified. Genetic analysis of inbred animal models and comparative genetics--the comparison of genes between different species--might help to identify the crucial genes and to investigate more directly the biology involved. Genome-wide linkage analysis of particular genes can be assessed by genetic segregation studies, whereas disease pathways can be delineated by the use of congenic strains. To clone disease genes, the traits need to be transformed so that they are inherited in a more Mendelian manner: achieving this pattern requires isolation of the locus on a genetic background that allows high penetrance by minimization of the size of congenic fragments, genetic manipulations without associated artifacts, or identification of highly penetrant mutations by phenotypic selection. Although almost one hundred quantitative trait loci for arthritis have been identified, only a few genes have so far been positionally cloned. In this Review we highlight the possibilities of using animal models to identify genes associated with complex diseases like arthritis, illustrated with available findings for genes such as those encoding major histocompatibility complex class II, neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1/p47(phox)) and ZAP70. PMID:17299448

Holmdahl, Rikard

2007-02-01

266

Modelling of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Introduction in Closed Artificial Microcosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of introducing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEM) into simple biotic cycles of laboratory water microcosms was investigated. The survival of the recombinant strain Escherichia coli Z905 (Apr, Lux+) in microcosms depends on the type of model ecosystems. During the absence of algae blooming in the model ecosystem, the part of plasmid-containing cells E. coli decreased fast, and the structure of the plasmid was also modified. In conditions of algae blooming (Ankistrodesmus sp.) an almost total maintenance of plasmid-containing cells was observed in E.coli population. A mathematics model of GEM's behavior in water ecosystems with different level of complexity has been formulated. Mechanisms causing the difference in luminescent exhibition of different species are discussed, and attempts are made to forecast the GEM's behavior in water ecosystems.

Pechurkin, N. S.; Brilkov, A. V.; Ganusov, V. V.; Kargatova, T. V.; Maksimova, E. E.; Popova, L. Yu.

1999-01-01

267

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric ?3?4 and ?4?2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

2012-02-01

268

Ordering of Quantum Dots Using Genetically Engineered Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid crystal system was used for the fabrication of a highly ordered composite material from genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanocrystals. The bacteriophage, which formed the basis of the self-ordering system, were selected to have a specific recognition moiety for ZnS crystal surfaces. The bacteriophage were coupled with ZnS solution precursors and spontaneously evolved a self-supporting hybrid film material that was ordered at the nanoscale and at the micrometer scale into ~72-micrometer domains, which were continuous over a centimeter length scale. In addition, suspensions were prepared in which the lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of the hybrid material was controlled by solvent concentration and by the use of a magnetic field.

Lee, Seung-Wuk; Mao, Chuanbin; Flynn, Christine E.; Belcher, Angela M.

2002-05-01

269

Genetic engineering of stem cells for enhanced therapy.  

PubMed

Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for overcoming the limitations of current treatment methods. The modification of stem cell properties may be necessary to fully exploit their potential. Genetic engineering, with an abundance of methodology to induce gene expression in a precise and well-controllable manner, is particularly attractive for this purpose. There are virus-based and non-viral methods of genetic manipulation. Genome-integrating viral vectors are usually characterized by highly efficient and long-term transgene expression, at a cost of safety. Non-integrating viruses are also highly efficient in transduction, and, while safer, offer only a limited duration of transgene expression. There is a great diversity of transfectable forms of nucleic acids; however, for efficient shuttling across cell membranes, additional manipulation is required. Both physical and chemical methods have been employed for this purpose. Stem cell engineering for clinical applications is still in its infancy and requires further research. There are two main strategies for inducing transgene expression in therapeutic cells: transient and permanent expression. In many cases, including stem cell trafficking and using cell therapy for the treatment of rapid-onset disease with a short healing process, transient transgene expression may be a sufficient and optimal approach. For that purpose, mRNA-based methods seem ideally suited, as they are characterized by a rapid, highly efficient transfection, with outstanding safety. Permanent transgene expression is primarily based on the application of viral vectors, and, due to safety concerns, these methods are more challenging. There is active, ongoing research toward the development of non-viral methods that would induce permanent expression, such as transposons and mammalian artificial chromosomes. PMID:23595280

Nowakowski, Adam; Andrzejewska, Anna; Janowski, Miroslaw; Walczak, Piotr; Lukomska, Barbara

2013-01-01

270

WILL SOCIETY PERMIT THE POTENTIAL OF GENETIC ENGINEERING TO ADVANCE THE FRONTIERS OF BIOLOGY? 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering is likely to bring major advances in biology. The applications of greater understanding of biological function to agriculture are likely to be extensive. As a result of genetic engineering, new strategies for approaching and solving problems are available. There is concern, however, that the potential scientific advances and applications will be delayed because of lack of understanding and

Clifton A. Baile; Deena H. Krestel-Rickert

271

Do Physicians' Beliefs About Genetic Engineering Influence Their Likelihood of Prescribing a Biopharmaceutical? An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopharmaceuticals present one of the fastest growing segments of the pharmaceutical industry. Biopharmaceuticals are produced through genetic engineering, a technology that some believe is unethical and can have unforeseen consequences to individual health and the environment (Bredhal, 1999; Gaskell et al., 1999; Hallman et al., 2002). In this study, we investigate whether physicians' beliefs about genetic engineering have any influence

Sarath A. Nonis; Gail I. Hudson

2009-01-01

272

Inexact genetic algorithm approach to target values setting of engineering requirements in QFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Quality Function Deployment, determination of the target values for engineering requirements is the most difficult process. A fuzzy optimization model is presented for the determination of target values for engineering requirements in Quality Function Deployment. An inexact genetic algorithm approach was introduced to solve the model that takes the mutation along the weighted gradient direction as a genetic operator.

H. Bai; C. K. Kwong

2003-01-01

273

The use of genetically engineered cells for assessing CYP2D6-related polymorphic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an example of advanced testing in the field of metabolism in an industrial environment, the introduction of some novel approaches, including the use of genetically engineered cell lines for assessing CYP 2D6-related polymorphic effects is illustrated. In this paper, it is demonstrated that novel in vitro test systems can be developed by using these genetically engineered cell lines for

S Coecke; A Bogni; I Langezaal; A Worth; T Hartung; M Monshouwer

2001-01-01

274

Genetic Engineering: A Matter that Requires Further Refinement in Spanish Secondary School Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with…

Martinez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quylez, M. J.; Osada, J.

2003-01-01

275

Molecular methods for environmental monitoring and containment of genetically engineered microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans to introduce genetically engineered microorganisms into the environment has led to concerns over safety and has raised questions about how to detect and to contain such microorganisms. Specific gene sequences, such as lacZ, have been inserted into genetically engineered microorganisms to permit their phenotypic detection. Molecular methods have been developed based upon recovery of DNA from environmental samples and

Ronald M. Atlas

1992-01-01

276

Patents, modular innovation processes and distributed entrepreneurship: The case of genetically engineered vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies indicate that firms may strategically use patents in many different ways (Bureth et al., 2005). In this paper, which focuses on the development of genetically engineered vaccines, we suggest that patents are central elements to structure the development of collective innovations. Specifically, we show that the development of genetically engineered vaccines can be decomposed into three broad and

Antoine Bureth; Julien Pénin

2006-01-01

277

Social, political, legal and ethical areas of inquiry in biotechnology and genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnology and genetic engineering are having major impacts on agriculture and pharmaceuticals as well as in various environmental and industrial applications. However, social scientists and others often seem to have little understanding of these new technologies. This article identifies social, political, legal, and ethical areas of inquiry, and provides easy-to-understand examples of how biotechnology and genetic engineering are being applied.

M. D Mehta; J. J Gair

2001-01-01

278

Luminescence-based whole-cell-sensing systems for cadmium and lead using genetically engineered bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-cell-based sensing systems that respond to cadmium and lead ions have been designed and developed using genetically engineered bacteria. These systems take advantage of the ability of certain bacteria to survive in environments polluted with cadmium and lead ions. The bacteria used in this investigation have been genetically engineered to produce reporter proteins in response to the toxic ions. This

Ranjit S. Shetty; Sapna K. Deo; Puja Shah; Yan Sun; Barry P. Rosen; Sylvia Daunert

2003-01-01

279

Novel method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment.  

PubMed

A method has been devised for directly detecting and monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) by using in vitro amplification of the target DNAs by a polymerase chain reaction and then hybridizing the DNAs with a specific oligonucleotide or DNA probe. A cloned 0.3-kilobase napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) genomic DNA that did not hybridize to DNAs isolated from various microorganisms, soil sediments, and aquatic environments was inserted into a derivative of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid, pRC10, and transferred into Escherichia coli. This genetically altered microorganism, seeded into filter-sterilized lake and sewage water samples (10(4)/ml), was detected by a plate count method in decreasing numbers for 6 and 10 days of sample incubation, respectively. The new method detected the amplified unique marker (0.3-kilobase DNA) of the GEM even after 10 to 14 days of incubation. This method is highly sensitive (it requires only picogram amounts of DNA) and has an advantage over the plate count technique, which can detect only culturable microorganisms. The method may be useful for monitoring GEMs in complex environments, where discrimination between GEMs and indigenous microorganisms is either difficult or requires time-consuming tests. PMID:2667463

Chaudhry, G R; Toranzos, G A; Bhatti, A R

1989-05-01

280

Novel method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment.  

PubMed Central

A method has been devised for directly detecting and monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) by using in vitro amplification of the target DNAs by a polymerase chain reaction and then hybridizing the DNAs with a specific oligonucleotide or DNA probe. A cloned 0.3-kilobase napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) genomic DNA that did not hybridize to DNAs isolated from various microorganisms, soil sediments, and aquatic environments was inserted into a derivative of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid, pRC10, and transferred into Escherichia coli. This genetically altered microorganism, seeded into filter-sterilized lake and sewage water samples (10(4)/ml), was detected by a plate count method in decreasing numbers for 6 and 10 days of sample incubation, respectively. The new method detected the amplified unique marker (0.3-kilobase DNA) of the GEM even after 10 to 14 days of incubation. This method is highly sensitive (it requires only picogram amounts of DNA) and has an advantage over the plate count technique, which can detect only culturable microorganisms. The method may be useful for monitoring GEMs in complex environments, where discrimination between GEMs and indigenous microorganisms is either difficult or requires time-consuming tests. Images

Chaudhry, G R; Toranzos, G A; Bhatti, A R

1989-01-01

281

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Right from its inception, a main strength of Flash has been its animation capabilities. Despite the arrival of ActionScript\\u000a programming shifting the focus somewhat, animation (or tweening in Flash authoring terms) is still considered a core feature of Flash. As yet, we have no timeline functionality for animating\\u000a 3D objects aside from some limited 2.5 effects (the “postcards in space”

Rob Bateman; Richard Olsson

282

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

283

Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:23449491

Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

2013-03-01

284

Perspective on genetic engineering of agricultural crops for resistance to disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding has been the classical means of manipulating the plant genome to develop resistant cultivars for controlling plant diseases. However, genetic engineering provides an entirely new approach. Although, currently, the area planted with crops genetically modified for resistance to disease is small compared with that of crops genetically modified for tolerance to herbicides or resistance to insects, numerous strategies

S. H. De Boer

2003-01-01

285

A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).

Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo

2005-03-01

286

Developing a systematic strategy incorporating ethical, animal welfare and practical principles to guide the genetic improvement of dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have complex and diverse relationships and interactions with, and expectations of, animals; relationships which are very important. In making sense of this complexity, we draw on our values. The objective of this study was to reflect upon, develop and articulate key values guiding the genetic improvement of dairy cattle.Animal husbandry is guided by the philosophy that while animals serve

MW Fisher; DJ Mellor

2008-01-01

287

Socioeconomic Causes of Loss of Animal Genetic Diversity: Analysis and Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of breeds of domesticated animals, especially livestock, have declined rapidly. The proximate causes and processes involved in loss of breeds are outlined. Also the path-dependent effect and Swanson’s dominance-effect are discussed in relation to lock-in of breed selection. While these effects help to explain genetic erosion, they need to be supplemented to provide further explanation of biodiversity loss.

Clement A. Tisdell

2002-01-01

288

Genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC-I products, intermediates, and waste materials: Final report  

SciTech Connect

We have completed an extensive program to investigate the toxicity---including mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic potential---of SRC-I (Solvent Refined Coal-I) products, along with selected intermediates and waste materials, as represented by the SRC-I Design Baseline. The original primary objective of the toxicology program was to produce data that could be used for four main purposes: to support design of programs to ensure workers' health and safety; to help estimate environmental impacts of SRC-I technology; to support the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) premanufacturing notification process for SRC-I technology; and to promote public understanding and acceptance of the potential health effects of the emerging synfuels industry. The toxicology program consists of five main elements: (1) Genetic Toxicity Evaluations; (2) Acute Animal Toxicity Evaluations; (3) Subchronic Animal Toxicity Evaluations; (4) Chronic (life-span) Animal Carcinogenicity Evaluation; (5) Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) Monitoring and Evaluation.

Drozdowicz, B.Z.; Kelly, C.M.

1987-11-01

289

Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier  

PubMed Central

Betalains are one of the major plant pigment groups found in some higher plants and higher fungi. They are not produced naturally in any plant species outside of the order Caryophyllales, nor are they produced by anthocyanin-accumulating Caryophyllales. Here, we attempted to reconstruct the betalain biosynthetic pathway as a self-contained system in an anthocyanin-producing plant species. The combined expressions of a tyrosinase gene from shiitake mushroom and a DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase gene from the four-o'clock plant resulted in successful betalain production in cultured cells of tobacco BY2 and Arabidopsis T87. Transgenic tobacco BY2 cells were bright yellow because of the accumulation of betaxanthins. LC-TOF-MS analyses showed that proline-betaxanthin (Pro-Bx) accumulated as the major betaxanthin in these transgenic BY2 cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cells also produced betaxanthins, but produced lower levels than transgenic BY2 cells. These results illustrate the success of a novel genetic engineering strategy for betalain biosynthesis.

Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Mariko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Tsujimura, Ikuko; Saito, Misa; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nishihara, Masahiro

2013-01-01

290

Genetically engineered protein in hydrogels tailors stimuli-responsive characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain proteins undergo a substantial conformational change in response to a given stimulus. This conformational change can manifest in different manners and result in an actuation, that is, catalytic or signalling event, movement, interaction with other proteins, and so on. In all cases, the sensing-actuation process of proteins is initiated by a recognition event that translates into a mechanical action. Thus, proteins are ideal components for designing new nanomaterials that are intelligent and can perform desired mechanical actions in response to target stimuli. A number of approaches have been undertaken to mimic nature's sensing-actuating process. We now report a new hybrid material that integrates genetically engineered proteins within hydrogels capable of producing a stimulus-responsive action mechanism. The mechanical effect is a result of an induced conformational change and binding affinities of the protein in response to a stimulus. The stimuli-responsive hydrogel exhibits three specific swelling stages in response to various ligands offering additional fine-tuned control over a conventional two-stage swelling hydrogel. The newly prepared material was used in the sensing, and subsequent gating and transport of biomolecules across a polymer network, demonstrating its potential application in microfluidics and miniaturized drug-delivery systems.

Ehrick, Jason D.; Deo, Sapna K.; Browning, Tyler W.; Bachas, Leonidas G.; Madou, Marc J.; Daunert, Sylvia

2005-04-01

291

[Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food. PMID:23243988

Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

2012-01-01

292

Genetic evaluation of fertility traits of dairy cattle using a multiple-trait animal model.  

PubMed

A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits but favorably with udder health and longevity. Integrating fertility traits into a total merit selection index can halt or reverse the decline of fertility and improve the longevity of dairy cattle. PMID:18946139

Liu, Z; Jaitner, J; Reinhardt, F; Pasman, E; Rensing, S; Reents, R

2008-11-01

293

Genetically-engineered mouse models for pancreatic cancer: Advances and current limitations  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been significant progress in the development of genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) models. By introducing genetic alterations and/or signaling alterations of human pancreatic cancer into the mouse pancreas, animal models can recapitulate human disease. Pancreas epithelium-specific endogenous Kras activation develops murine pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN). Additional inactivation of p16, p53, or transforming growth factor-? signaling, in the context of Kras activation, dramatically accelerates mPanIN progression to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with abundant stromal expansion and marked fibrosis (desmoplasia). The autochthonous cancer models retain tumor progression processes from pre-cancer to cancer as well as the intact tumor microenvironment, which is superior to xenograft models, although there are some limitations and differences from human PDAC. By fully studying GEM models, we can understand the mechanisms of PDAC formation and progression more precisely, which will lead us to a breakthrough in novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as identification of the origin of PDAC.

Ijichi, Hideaki

2011-01-01

294

N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant, confers protection to animals exposed to DEPs from oxidative stress-induced damage to the lung. To study this, male C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with either NACA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline, were exposed to DEPs (15mg/m(3)) or filtered air (1.5-3h/day) for nine consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last exposure. NACA-treated animals exposed to DEP had significant decreases in the number of macrophages and the amount of mucus plug formation in the lungs, as compared to the DEP-only exposed animals. In addition, DEP-exposed animals, pretreated with NACA, also experienced significantly lower oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Further, DEP-induced toxicity in the lungs was reversed in NACA-treated animals, as indicated by the lactate dehydrogenase levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-antioxidant, NACA, can protect the lungs from DEP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress related damage. PMID:19429263

Banerjee, Atrayee; Trueblood, Max B; Zhang, Xinsheng; Manda, Kalyan Reddy; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip D; Hagen, Donald E; Ercal, Nuran

2009-03-13

295

Animal model integration to AutDB, a genetic database for autism  

PubMed Central

Background In the post-genomic era, multi-faceted research on complex disorders such as autism has generated diverse types of molecular information related to its pathogenesis. The rapid accumulation of putative candidate genes/loci for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ASD-related animal models poses a major challenge for systematic analysis of their content. We previously created the Autism Database (AutDB) to provide a publicly available web portal for ongoing collection, manual annotation, and visualization of genes linked to ASD. Here, we describe the design, development, and integration of a new module within AutDB for ongoing collection and comprehensive cataloguing of ASD-related animal models. Description As with the original AutDB, all data is extracted from published, peer-reviewed scientific literature. Animal models are annotated with a new standardized vocabulary of phenotypic terms developed by our researchers which is designed to reflect the diverse clinical manifestations of ASD. The new Animal Model module is seamlessly integrated to AutDB for dissemination of diverse information related to ASD. Animal model entries within the new module are linked to corresponding candidate genes in the original "Human Gene" module of the resource, thereby allowing for cross-modal navigation between gene models and human gene studies. Although the current release of the Animal Model module is restricted to mouse models, it was designed with an expandable framework which can easily incorporate additional species and non-genetic etiological models of autism in the future. Conclusions Importantly, this modular ASD database provides a platform from which data mining, bioinformatics, and/or computational biology strategies may be adopted to develop predictive disease models that may offer further insights into the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. It also serves as a general model for disease-driven databases curating phenotypic characteristics of corresponding animal models.

2011-01-01

296

Microcosm for Measuring Survival and Conjugation of Genetically Engineered Bacteria in Rhizosphere Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A microcosm is described to evaluate and measure bacterial conjugation in the rhizosphere of barley andd radish with strains of Pseudomonas cepacia. The purpose was to describe a standard method useful for evaluating the propensity of genetically engineer...

M. V. Walter L. A. Porteous V. J. Prince L. Ganio R. J. Seidler

1991-01-01

297

The establishment of genetically engineered canola populations in the U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Concerns regarding the commercial release of genetically engineered (GE) crops include naturalization, introgression to sexually compatible relatives and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species through hybridization. To date there have been few documented re...

298

Calibration of Greenhouse and the Field for Survival of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of current concerns regarding the release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment, the fate, survival, and effects of many GEMs will need to be evaluated in small-scale releases performed in controlled, contained envir...

K. Donegan J. Armstrong C. Matyac R. J. Seidler

1990-01-01

299

Gene flow in genetically engineered perennial grasses: Lessons for modification of dedicated bioenergy crops  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential ecological consequences of the commercialization of genetically engineered (GD) crops have been the subject of intense debate, particularly when the GE crops are perennial and capable of outcrossing to wild relatives. The essential ecological impact issues for engi...

300

Methods to Measure the Influence of Genetically Engineered Bacteria on Ecological Processes in Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the document is to summarize the methods and concepts that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, ...

G. Stotzky

1990-01-01

301

SURVIVAL DIFFERENCES AMONG FREEZE-DRIED GENETICALLY ENGINEERED AND WILD-TYPE BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Spray application is often used to introduce genetically engineered microorganisms into the environment. he risk associated with the downwind transport and survival necessitates development of tools to assess the risk associated with their airborne transport. ecause the death mec...

302

Development of New Genetic Manipulation Tools for Metabolic Engineering of Diatoms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project's goal was to develop genetic manipulation tools for metabolic engineering of diatoms for biodiesel lipid production and other purposes. New diatom selectable markers were tested, relying on mutations to antibiotic resistance in two ribosomal...

M. Hildebrand

2008-01-01

303

Ethanol production from wood hydrolysate using genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

An ethanologenic microorganism capable of fermenting all of the sugars released from lignocellulosic biomass through a saccharification process is essential for secondary bioethanol production. We therefore genetically engineered the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis such that it efficiently produced bioethanol from the hydrolysate of wood biomass containing glucose, mannose, and xylose as major sugar components. This was accomplished by introducing genes encoding mannose and xylose catabolic enzymes from Escherichia coli. Integration of E. coli manA into Z. mobilis chromosomal DNA conferred the ability to co-ferment mannose and glucose, producing 91 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol within 36 h. Then, by introducing a recombinant plasmid harboring the genes encoding E. coli xylA, xylB, tal, and tktA, we broadened the range of fermentable sugar substrates for Z. mobilis to include mannose and xylose as well as glucose. The resultant strain was able to ferment a mixture of 20 g/l glucose, 20 g/l mannose, and 20 g/l xylose as major sugar components of wood hydrolysate within 72 h, producing 89.8 % of the theoretical yield. The recombinant Z. mobilis also efficiently fermented actual acid hydrolysate prepared from cellulosic feedstock containing glucose, mannose, and xylose. Moreover, a reactor packed with the strain continuously produced ethanol from acid hydrolysate of wood biomass from coniferous trees for 10 days without accumulation of residual sugars. Ethanol productivity was at 10.27 g/l h at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1). PMID:22573268

Yanase, Hideshi; Miyawaki, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Mitsugu; Kawakami, Akinori; Matsumoto, Mari; Haga, Kenji; Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji

2012-05-11

304

[Advances in research on lignin biosynthesis and its genetic engineering].  

PubMed

Lignin, one of the main components in vascular plants, is important for the adaptation of terrestrial plants to environment during evolution. However, its presence in plants has negative effects on wood processing during pulping and stock breeding. Therefore much attention has been focused on the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. The pathways leading to the synthesis of lignin polymers have been studied for decades. Much understanding of lignin biosynthesis has been advanced. This paper reviewed the recent progress made in the various steps associated with monolignol biosynthesis. It includes the catalysis by three enzymes, i.e. p-coumarate-3-hydroxylase (C3H), ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) and caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT); the multiform biosynthetic pathway of syringyl (S) lignin in angiosperms; the biosynthesis route of guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) lignin specifically regulated by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) and the formation of the lignin macromolecule. Based on the elucidation of lignin biosynthesis pathway, it has also been given the achievements in lignin gene engineering. Many studies were concentrated on the modification of lignin content and composition. In some cases, the potential value of transgenic plants with modified lignin beneficial for pulping has been demonstrated. To better understand the mechanism of lignin biosynthesis and improve the properties of plants, new biotechnological strategies can be developed, which include combinatorial modification of multiple lignin traits in plants through multigene cotransformation, transcriptional control of lignin biosynthesis and the application of RNA interference. The identification of novel genes by molecular and genetic approaches will be useful in opening up new avenues of lignin modification in the future. PMID:15627683

Zhao, Hua-Yan; Wei, Jian-Hua; Song, Yan-Ru

2004-08-01

305

Simultaneous mercury bioaccumulation and cell propagation by genetically engineered Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered Escherichia coli JM109, which expressed merT–merP protein and metallothionein (MT), was employed in this study to evaluate its potential for mercury bioaccumulation accompanied by simultaneous cell propagation in Hg2+ solution containing organic matters. In contrast to original host, E. coli JM109 which could hardly grow at 1mg\\/L Hg2+ concentration, genetically engineered E. coli cells were able to propagate

X. W. Zhao; M. H. Zhou; Q. B. Li; Y. H. Lu; N. He; D. H. Sun; X. Deng

2005-01-01

306

Human Nature Genetically Re-Engineered: Moral Responsibilities to Future Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The prospect of human genetic germ-line engineering raises questions regarding the propriety of altering the human genome.\\u000a It raises questions as well regarding the ways in which one might understand responsibilities to the future generations who\\u000a will experience the result of such alterations. This essay explores the difficulty of disclosing content-full obligations\\u000a regarding genetic germ-line engineering. Instead, as this essay

H. Tristram Engelhardt

307

Containment of a genetically engineered microorganism during a field bioremediation application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field release of a genetically engineered microorganism was performed at the Field Lysimeter Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation.\\u000a Six large lysimeters were filled with soil that had been contaminated with a mixture of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene.\\u000a A genetically engineered bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, was sprayed onto the surface of the soil during soil loading. This strain

C. Z. Ford; G. S. Sayler; R. S. Burlage

1999-01-01

308

BASIC - A genetic algorithm for engineering problems solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces in details a genetic algorithm-called BASIC, which is designed to take advantage of well known genetic schemes so as to be able to deal with numerous optimization problems. BASIC GA follows all common steps of the genetic algorithms. It involves real representation schemes for both real and integer variables. Three biased selection schemes for reproduction; four for

Elisaveta G. Shopova; Natasha G. Vaklieva-bancheva

2006-01-01

309

Genome organization, natural genetic engineering and adaptive mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial evolution is considered in the light of molecular discoveries about genome organization, biochemical mechanisms of genetic change, and cellular control networks. Prokaryotic genetic determinants are organized as modular composites of coding sequences and protein-factor binding sites joined together during evolution. Studies of genetic change have revealed the existence of biochemical functions capable of restructuring the bacterial genome at various

James A. Shapiro

1997-01-01

310

The National Animal Germplasm Program: challenges and opportunities for poultry genetic resources.  

PubMed

In the United States, poultry genetic resources have consolidated because of economic pressures. Such consolidations can potentially jeopardize the poultry industry and the ability of research communities to respond to future challenges. To address the loss of genetic resources for all livestock and aquatic species, USDA established the National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) in 1999. Since the initiation of NAGP, population surveys have been conducted on nonindustrial chicken and turkey breeds. These surveys not only provide insight into breed status, but also serve as a benchmark for future comparisons. The survey results revealed that 20 chicken breeds and 9 turkey breeds were in various stages of being lost. The NAGP has initiated an ex situ repository for cryopreserved germplasm and tissue that already contains 59 chicken lines and 2,915 tissue samples. As the NAGP, along with its industry and university partners, continues developing the ex situ collection, there are research opportunities in cryopreserved tissue utilization and studies of genetic diversity. For cryopreserved tissues, several key research areas include improving the cryopreservation protocols for rooster and tom semen by using cryoprotectants other than glycerol and utilizing embryonic cells. Although surveys have been conducted on public research lines and rare breeds, there is a void in understanding the level of genetic diversity present in U.S. poultry populations. Therefore, an opportunity exists to perform a series of genetic diversity studies using molecular- based approaches. Such an evaluation can help clarify population differences between research lines and rare breeds and, thereby, facilitate conservation strategies. There appears to be growing consumer interest in poultry products derived from heritage breeds and/or poultry raised in nonindustrial production systems. Although the depth of such market trends is unknown, such an interest may provide an important niche for rare poultry breeds and, thereby, strengthen the genetic base. PMID:16523615

Blackburn, H D

2006-02-01

311

Behavioral testing regimens in genetic-based animal models of Parkinson's disease: cogencies and caveats.  

PubMed

Although the onset and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is fundamentally sporadic, identification of several of the genes implicated in the disease has provided significant insight concerning patho-physiological mechanisms potentially underlying sporadic PD. Moreover, such studies have caused a revolution in the way researchers view the disease. Since single genes responsible for rare familial forms of the disease have only been identified within the past few years, animal models based on these defects have only recently been generated, thereby not leaving a lot of time for their evaluation and subsequent improvement. The current article provides an extensive review of the major motor and non-motor behavioral tests used in genetically-induced Parkinsonian animals. Moreover, we assess the insights concerning the etiopathogenesis of PD generated from use of such tests and how these have improved available treatment strategies for alleviating aspects of sporadic and non-sporadic parkinsonism. PMID:23558176

Bury, Alexander; Pienaar, Ilse S

2013-04-01

312

Escherichia coli K5 heparosan fermentation and improvement by genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

N-acetyl heparosan is the precursor for the biosynthesis of the important anticoagulant drug heparin. The Escherichia coli K5 capsular heparosan polysaccharide provides a promising precursor for in vitro chemoenzymatic production of bioengineered heparin. This article explores the improvements of heparosan production for bioengineered heparin by fermentation process engineering and genetic engineering.

Wang, Zhenyu; Linhardt, Robert J

2011-01-01

313

Escherichia coli K5 heparosan fermentation and improvement by genetic engineering.  

PubMed

N-acetyl heparosan is the precursor for the biosynthesis of the important anticoagulant drug heparin. The E. coli K5 capsular heparosan polysaccharide provides a promising precursor for in vitro chemoenzymatic production of bioengineered heparin. This article explores the improvements of heparosan production for bioengineered heparin by fermentation process engineering and genetic engineering. PMID:21636991

Wang, Zhenyu; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

314

Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

2009-01-01

315

Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

2009-01-01

316

‘Objection’ mapping in determining group and individual concerns regarding genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst there has been much debateregarding the importance of public acceptance ofgenetic engineering and its applications, there isevidence to indicate that objections to the technologyare likely to focus on specific applications of thetechnology, rather than genetic engineering per se.Thus it becomes important to examine the extent ofobjections associated with individual applications,rather than to assess public feeling regarding thetechnology overall. Survey

L. J. Frewer; D. Hedderley; C. Howard; R. Shepherd

1997-01-01

317

Genetically engineered peptides for inorganics: study of an unconstrained bacterial display technology and bulk aluminum alloy.  

PubMed

The first-ever peptide biomaterial discovery using an unconstrained engineered bacterial display technology is reported. Using this approach, we have developed genetically engineered peptide binders for a bulk aluminum alloy and use molecular dynamics simulation of peptide conformational fluctuations to demonstrate sequence-dependent, structure-function relationships for metal and metal oxide interactions. PMID:23868808

Adams, Bryn L; Finch, Amethist S; Hurley, Margaret M; Sarkes, Deborah A; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N

2013-07-19

318

High efficiency site-specific genetic engineering of the mosquito genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current techniques for the genetic engineering of insect genomes utilize transposable genetic elements, which are inefficient, have limited carrying capacity and give rise to position effects and insertional mutagenesis. As an alternative, we investigated two site-specific integration mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti . One was a modified CRE\\/ lox system from phage P1 and the other a

D. D. Nimmo; L. Alphey; J. M. Meredith; P. Eggleston

2006-01-01

319

Environmental risk assessment of a genetically-engineered microorganism: Erwinia carotovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental use of genetically-engineered microorganisms (GEMs) has raised concerns over potential ecological impact. Development of microcosm systems useful in preliminary testing for risk assessment will provide useful information for predicting potential structural, functional, and genetic effects of GEM release. This study was executed to develop techniques that may be useful in risk assessment and microbial ecology, to ascertain which parameters

Orvos

1989-01-01

320

Introduction of genetic engineering in aquaculture: Ecological and ethical implications for science and governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within aquaculture, genetic engineering (GE) is emerging as a powerful method for breeding of fish and shellfish, and for developing alternative sources of feed and vaccines to combat diseases. On the other hand, the use of GE in aquaculture raises ecological, ethical and economic concerns. For instance, genetically modified (GM) feed could be spread to the aquatic environment and consumed

Anne Ingeborg Myhr; Roy Ambli Dalmo

2005-01-01

321

Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

2008-01-01

322

Genetically engineered human neural stem cells for brain repair in neurological diseases.  

PubMed

Neural stem cells (NSCs)of the central nervous system (CNS) have recently received a great deal of attention and interest for their therapeutic potential for neurological disorders. NSCs are defined as CNS progenitor cells that have the capacity for self-renewal and multipotent potential to become neurons or glial cells. Recent studies have shown that NSCs isolated from mammalian CNS including human can be propagated in vitro and then implanted into the brain of animal models of human neurological disorders. Recently, we have generated clonally derived immortalized human NSC cell lines via a retroviral vector encoded with v-myc oncogene. One of the human NSC lines, HB1.F3, was utilized in stem-cell based therapy in animal models of human neurological disorders. When F3 human NSCs were implanted into the brain of murine models of lysosomal storage diseases, stroke, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease or stroke, implanted F3 NSCs were found to migrate to the lesion sites, differentiate into neurons and glial cells, and restore functional deficits found in these neurological disorders. In animal models of brain tumors, F3 NSCs could deliver a bioactive therapeutically relevant molecules to effect a significant anti-tumor response intracranial tumor mass. Since these genetically engineered human NSCs are immortalized and continuously multiplying, there would be limitless supply of human neurons for treatment for patients suffering from neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, ALS, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. The promising field of stem cell research as it applies to regenerative medicine is still in infancy, but its potential appears limitless, and we are blessed to be involved in this exciting realm of research. PMID:17303360

Kim, Seung U

2007-02-15

323

Genetic Architecture of Tameness in a Rat Model of Animal Domestication  

PubMed Central

A common feature of domestic animals is tameness—i.e., they tolerate and are unafraid of human presence and handling. To gain insight into the genetic basis of tameness and aggression, we studied an intercross between two lines of rats (Rattus norvegicus) selected over >60 generations for increased tameness and increased aggression against humans, respectively. We measured 45 traits, including tameness and aggression, anxiety-related traits, organ weights, and levels of serum components in >700 rats from an intercross population. Using 201 genetic markers, we identified two significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tameness. These loci overlap with QTL for adrenal gland weight and for anxiety-related traits and are part of a five-locus epistatic network influencing tameness. An additional QTL influences the occurrence of white coat spots, but shows no significant effect on tameness. The loci described here are important starting points for finding the genes that cause tameness in these rats and potentially in domestic animals in general.

Albert, Frank W.; Carlborg, Orjan; Plyusnina, Irina; Besnier, Francois; Hedwig, Daniela; Lautenschlager, Susann; Lorenz, Doreen; McIntosh, Jenny; Neumann, Christof; Richter, Henning; Zeising, Claudia; Kozhemyakina, Rimma; Shchepina, Olesya; Kratzsch, Jurgen; Trut, Lyudmila; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Schoneberg, Torsten; Andersson, Leif; Paabo, Svante

2009-01-01

324

The Significance of Content Knowledge for Informal Reasoning regarding Socioscientific Issues: Applying Genetics Knowledge to Genetic Engineering Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a…

Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

2005-01-01

325

Genetic correlations between categorical morphological traits in Nelore cattle by applying Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model.  

PubMed

In this study, Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model was used to estimate genetic correlations between morphological traits (body structure, finishing precocity and muscling) in Nelore cattle evaluated at weaning and yearling. Visual scores obtained from 7651 Nelore cattle at weaning and from 4155 animals at yearling, belonging to the Brazilian Nelore Program, were used. Genetic parameters for the morphological traits were estimated by two-trait Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model. The genetic correlations between the morphological traits evaluated at two ages of the animal (weaning and yearling) were positive and high for body structure (0.91), finishing precocity (0.96) and muscling (0.94). These results indicate that the traits are mainly determined by the same set of genes of additive action and that direct selection at weaning will also result in genetic progress for the same traits at yearling. Thus, selection of the best genotypes during only one phase of life of the animal is suggested. However, genetic differences between morphological traits were better detected during the growth phase to yearling. Direct selection for body structure, finishing precocity and muscling at only one age, preferentially at yearling, is recommended as genetic differences between traits can be detected at this age. PMID:20831562

Faria, C U; Pires, B C; Vozzi, A P; Magnabosco, C U; Koury Filho, W; Viu, M A O; Oliveira, H N; Lôbo, R B

2010-10-01

326

DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR  

EPA Science Inventory

1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

327

Review of aerospace engineering cost modelling: The genetic causal approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary intention of this paper is to review the current state of the art in engineering cost modelling as applied to aerospace. This is a topic of current interest and in addressing the literature, the presented work also sets out some of the recognised definitions of cost that relate to the engineering domain. The paper does not attempt to

R. Curran; S. Raghunathan; M. Price

2004-01-01

328

Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Society. Monograph Series: III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New techniques have expanded the field of biotechnology and awarded scientists an unprecedented degree of control over the genetic constitutions of living things. The knowledge of DNA science is the basis for this burgeoning industry which may be a major force in human existence. Just as it is possible to move genetic material from one organism…

Kieffer, George H.

329

Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms with Application to Control Engineering Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint handling with genetic algorithms is then developed from a decision making perspective and characterized, with application to control system design in mind. Related genetic algorithm issues, such as the ability to maintain diverse solutions along the trade-off surface and responsiveness to on-line changes in decision policy, are also considered. The application of the multiobjective GA to three realistic problems

Carlos Manuel Mira Da Fonseca

1995-01-01

330

Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Society. Monograph Series: III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New techniques have expanded the field of biotechnology and awarded scientists an unprecedented degree of control over the genetic constitutions of living things. The knowledge of DNA science is the basis for this burgeoning industry which may be a major force in human existence. Just as it is possible to move genetic material from one organism to…

Kieffer, George H.

331

Drosophila as a novel animal model for studying the genetics of age-related memory impairment.  

PubMed

Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment (AMI) is important not only from a scientific viewpoint but also for the development of therapeutics that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. AMI has been generally considered to be an overall or nonspecific decay of memory processes that results from dysfunction of neural networks. However, behavioral genetics to test this hypothesis have not been performed previously, due, in part, to the long lifespan of animal models. Using Drosophila, the first extensive behavioral-genetic characterization of AMI has been carried out. In Drosophila, memory acquired after a single olfactory conditioning paradigm has three distinct phases: short-term memory (STM), middle-term memory (MTM), and longer-lasting anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM). Significantly, AMI results from the specific decay of only one memory component, amnesiac-dependent MTM, and not other components. Since amnesiac encodes peptides that enhance adenylyl cyclase activity, these studies suggest the importance of the cAMP signaling pathway in AMI in Drosophila, a finding consistent with several models of AMI in mammals. Although many advances have been made in the study of pathways involved in aging, much remains to be elucidated on how these pathways affect memory formation to cause AMI. Due to its short lifespan, powerful genetics, and well-characterized and conserved pathways involved in memory and lifespan, Drosophila will be a useful model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. PMID:15957577

Saitoe, Minoru; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Tamura, Takuya; Ito, Naomi

2005-01-01

332

Estimating Heritabilities and Genetic Correlations: Comparing the 'Animal Model' with Parent-Offspring Regression Using Data from a Natural Population  

PubMed Central

Quantitative genetic parameters are nowadays more frequently estimated with restricted maximum likelihood using the ‘animal model’ than with traditional methods such as parent-offspring regressions. These methods have however rarely been evaluated using equivalent data sets. We compare heritabilities and genetic correlations from animal model and parent-offspring analyses, respectively, using data on eight morphological traits in the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus). Animal models were run using either mean trait values or individual repeated measurements to be able to separate between effects of including more extended pedigree information and effects of replicated sampling from the same individuals. We show that the inclusion of more pedigree information by the use of mean traits animal models had limited effect on the standard error and magnitude of heritabilities. In contrast, the use of repeated measures animal model generally had a positive effect on the sampling accuracy and resulted in lower heritabilities; the latter due to lower additive variance and higher phenotypic variance. For most trait combinations, both animal model methods gave genetic correlations that were lower than the parent-offspring estimates, whereas the standard errors were lower only for the mean traits animal model. We conclude that differences in heritabilities between the animal model and parent-offspring regressions were mostly due to the inclusion of individual replicates to the animal model rather than the inclusion of more extended pedigree information. Genetic correlations were, on the other hand, primarily affected by the inclusion of more pedigree information. This study is to our knowledge the most comprehensive empirical evaluation of the performance of the animal model in relation to parent-offspring regressions in a wild population. Our conclusions should be valuable for reconciliation of data obtained in earlier studies as well as for future meta-analyses utilizing estimates from both traditional methods and the animal model.

Akesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan; Hasselquist, Dennis; Tarka, Maja; Hansson, Bengt

2008-01-01

333

Monitoring for Genetically Engineered 'Pseudomonas' Species in Monterey County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A field monitoring study was conducted to determine if genetically altered Pseudomonas fluorescens or P. syringae had been applied to sites in Monterey County. A series of diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance, fluorescence ability, oxidase and argin...

D. Supkoff D. Opgenorth C. Lai R. Segawa D. Koehler

1987-01-01

334

Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives.  

PubMed

This minireview explores the environmental bioremediation mediated by genetically engineered (GE) bacteria and it also highlights the limitations and challenges associated with the release of engineered bacteria in field conditions. Application of GE bacteria based remediation of various heavy metal pollutants is in the forefront due to eco-friendly and lesser health hazards compared to physico-chemical based strategies, which are less eco-friendly and hazardous to human health. A combination of microbiological and ecological knowledge, biochemical mechanisms and field engineering designs would be an essential element for successful in situ bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites using engineered bacteria. Critical research questions pertaining to the development and implementation of GE bacteria for enhanced bioremediation have been identified and poised for possible future research. Genetic engineering of indigenous microflora, well adapted to local environmental conditions, may offer more efficient bioremediation of contaminated sites and making the bioremediation more viable and eco-friendly technology. However, many challenges are to be addressed concerning the release of genetically engineered bacteria in field conditions. There are possible risks associated with the use of GE bacteria in field condition, with particular emphasis on ways in which molecular genetics could contribute to the risk mitigation. Both environmental as well as public health concerns need to be addressed by the molecular biologists. Although bioremediation of heavy metals by using the genetically engineered bacteria has been extensively reviewed in the past also, but the bio-safety assessment and factors of genetic pollution have been never the less ignored. PMID:21402131

Singh, Jay Shankar; Abhilash, P C; Singh, H B; Singh, Rana P; Singh, D P

2011-03-22

335

Engineering Nucleobases and Polymerases for an Expanded Genetic Alphabet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four natural nucleotides of DNA form base pairs capable of encoding the complex genetic information necessary for all\\u000a life; additionally, the sequence specific hybridization and enzymatic synthesis of DNA has revolutionized biotechnology. Expansion\\u000a of the genetic alphabet to include additional, orthogonal nucleotides to work within the context of natural DNA has the potential\\u000a to greatly expand this essential biopolymer's

A. M. Leconte; F. E. Romesberg

336

Genetic engineering: Moral aspects and control of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Present-day scientific advances have made it possible to use somatic cell gene therapy for the treatment of serious human\\u000a genetic disease. Gene therapy is enormously important for curing some diseases, otherwise untreatable. The technical ability\\u000a to perform germline gene alteration is also under way. Society must determine its attitude toward germline alteration and\\u000a toward intervention for the purpose of genetic

Vered H. Eisenberg; Joseph G. Schenker

1997-01-01

337

Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts.  

PubMed

Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

Gagnon, Kenneth B; Delpire, Eric

2013-01-16

338

Recent progress in henipavirus research: molecular biology, genetic diversity, animal models.  

PubMed

Nipah and Hendra virus are members of a newly identified genus of emerging paramyxoviruses, the henipaviruses. Both viruses have the ability to cause severe pulmonary infection and severe acute encephalitis. Following their discovery in the 1990s, outbreaks caused by these zoonotic paramyxoviruses have been associated with high public health and especially economic threat potential. Currently, only geographic groupings in Asia and Australia have been described for the henipaviruses. However, while few viral isolates are available and more detailed characterization is necessary, there has been recent evidence that divergent henipaviruses might be present on the African continent. This review endeavours to capture recent advances in the field of henipavirus research, with a focus on genome structure and replication mechanisms, reservoir hosts, genetic diversity, pathogenesis and animal models. PMID:22643730

Rockx, Barry; Winegar, Richard; Freiberg, Alexander N

2012-05-27

339

On the role of brain serotonin in expression of genetic predisposition to catalepsy in animal models  

SciTech Connect

The activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase, in the striatum but not in the hippocampus and midbrain of rats bred for predisposition to catalepsy was higher than in nonselected rats. Mice of the highly susceptible to catalepsy CBA strain also differed from other noncataleptic mouse strains by the highest tryptophan hydroxylase activity in the striatum. Inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase with p-chlorophenylalanine and p-chloromethamphetamine drastically decreased immobility time in hereditary predisposed to catalepsy animals. A decrease in the {sup 3}H-ketanserin specific binding in the striatum of cataleptic rats and CBA mice was found. It was suggested that this decrease in 5-HT2A serotonin receptor density represented a down regulation of the receptors due to an activation of serotonergic transmission in striatum. It is suggested that hereditary catalepsy may be resulted from genetic changes in the regulation of serotonin metabolism in striatum. 32 refs., 6 figs.

Popova, N.K.; Kulikov, A.V. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1995-06-19

340

Genetic engineering: a matter that requires further refinement in Spanish secondary school textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with fundamental genetic principles, and how it aims to improve the genetic literacy of students. The results show that genetic engineering was normally introduced without a clear reference to the universal genetic code, protein expression or the genetic material shared by all species. In most cases it was poorly defined, without a clear explanation of all the relevant processes involved. Some procedures (such as vectors) were explained in detail without considering previous student knowledge or skills. Some books emphasized applications such as the human genome project without describing DNA sequencing. All books included possible repercussions, but in most cases only fashionable topics such as human cloning. There was an excess of information that was not always well founded and hence was unsuitable to provide a meaningful understanding of DNA technology required for citizens in the twenty-first century.

Martínez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quýlez, M. J.

2003-09-01

341

Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

2012-01-01

342

An Ethical Study on the Uses of Enhancement Genetic Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of biomedical technologies are being developed that can be used for purposes other than treating diseases. Such “enhancement technologies” can be used to improve our own and future generation's life-chances. While these technologies can help people in many ways, their use raises important ethical issues. Some arguments for anti-enhancement as well as pro-enhancement seem to rest, however, on shaky foundation. Both company engineers and the general public had better learn more from technological, economical and philosophical histories. For such subjects may provide engineers with less opportunities of technological misuses and more powers of self-esteem in addition to self-control.

Kawakita, Koji

343

Genetic engineering of bacteria from managed and natural habitats  

SciTech Connect

The genetic modification of bacteria from natural and managed habitats will impact on the management of agricultural and environmental settings. Potential applications include crop production and protection, degradation or sequestration of environmental pollutants, extraction of metals from ores, industrial fermentations, and productions of enzymes, diagnostics, and chemicals. Applications of this technology will ultimately include the release of beneficial agents in the environment. If safely deployed, genetically modified bacteria should be able to provide significant benefits in the management of environmental systems and in the development of new environmental control processes. 79 refs., 3 tabs.

Lindow, S.E.; Panopoulos, N.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); McFarland, B.L. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (USA))

1989-06-16

344

Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

345

Stress hormones and emotion-regulation in two genetic animal models of depression.  

PubMed

Children of depressed parents often exhibit emotion-regulation deficits, characterized by either excessive withdrawal or approach strategies toward the mother. The current study examined behavioral and physiological emotion-regulation in preweanling pups (postnatal day 17-19) belonging to two different genetic animal models of depression, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Flinders Sensitive-Line (FSL) rats. The study also examined the effects of stress on the two animal models, hypothesizing an interactive effect of hereditary vulnerability and exposure to stress. Chronic-stress was simulated by providing limited bedding to the dam and litter for a week, in the early postnatal period. Acute-stress was generated by exposure to an adult male rat, an ethologically valid stressor. Emotion-regulation of the pups was examined using a Y-maze preference test and radioimmunoassay of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hormones (corticosterone & adreno-corticotropin/ACTH). WKY and FSL pups exhibited reduced approach-behavior toward the dam, an emotion-regulation profile reminiscent of avoidant attachment evident in many children of depressed parents. In contrast, the two animal models did not show similar HPA axis activity. FSL pups exhibited markedly lower ACTH levels compared to controls, while WKY pups did not differ from controls. With regard to the stress manipulations, the limited-bedding condition had no effect, while the acute-stressor induced overall effects on all groups, with more pronounced reactivity evident in the WKY and FSL pups. Taken together, the experiments indicate a similar behavioral profile of the two strains at the preweanling period, while suggesting HPA dysfunction in only one of the strains. PMID:16982157

Braw, Y; Malkesman, O; Merlender, A; Bercovich, A; Dagan, M; Maayan, R; Weizman, A; Weller, A

2006-09-18

346

Genetic diversity of multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from animals and humans.  

PubMed

In this study, the genetic diversities of multi-resistant Salmonella typhimurium (ST) isolates were analyzed via the application of both pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis methods, using 6 kinds of primers (REP, ERIC, SERE, BOX, P-1254 and OPB-17). And their discriminative abilities (DA) were also compared in order to determine the most effective and reliable analysis method. 118 S. typhimurium isolates, cultured from diverse animals and human patients in Korea beginning in 1993, were analyzed and subjected to a comparison of Simpson's index of diversity (SID), using both PFGE and PCR methods. PFGE by XbaI enzyme digestion allowed for discrimination into 9 pulsotypes, with high SID values (0.991) on the genomic DNA level. This shows that PFGE is a very discriminative genotypic tool, and also that multiple clones of S. typhimurium isolates had existed in domestic animals and humans in Korea since 1993. However, we could ultimately not to trace the definitive sources or animal reservoirs of specific S. typhimurium isolates examined in this study. Depending on the SID values, the combined method (7 kinds of method) was found to be the most discriminative method, followed by (in order) SERE-PCR, REP-PCR, ERIC-PCR, PFGE & OPB-17 (RAPD), P-1254 (RAPD), and BOX-PCR at the 80% clone cut-off value. This finding suggests that the REP-PCR method (which utilizes 4 primer types) may be an alternative tool to PFGE for the genotyping of S. typhimurium isolates, with comparable cost, time, and labor requirement. The establishment of a highly reliable and discriminatory method for epidemiologic analysis is considered necessary in order for researchers to trace the sources of specific pathogens and, consequently, to control and prevent the spread of epidemic S. typhimurium isolates to humans. PMID:16554725

Woo, Yong-Ku; Lee, Su-Hwa

2006-02-01

347

Chapter 18 Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: A Novel Technology for Agricultural Biotechnology and Biopharmaceutical Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chloroplast genetic engineering is becoming an attractive field in plant biotechnology. It offers several unique advantages,\\u000a including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment\\u000a by maternal inheritance, as well as lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA.\\u000a The hyper-expression of recombinant proteins within plastids offers a cost effective solution

N. D. Singh; H. Daniell

348

In situ delivery of cytokines by genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of novel approaches that allow for accurate targeting of therapeutics to the bowel mucosa is a priority in the research on inflammatory bowel disease. We have engineered Lactococcus lactis to secrete soluble, fully active, correctly processed cytokines. We have used these live, recombinant strains for the in situ delivery of mouse interleukin (mIL)-2, -6 and -10 at airway

Lothar Steidler

2002-01-01

349

Genetically engineered Sertoli cells are able to survive allogeneic transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunoprotective nature of the testis has led to numerous investigations for its ability to protect cellular grafts. Sertoli cells (SCs) are at least partially responsible for this immunoprotective environment and survive allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation. The ability of SCs to survive transplantation leads to the possibility that they could be engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins. As a model to

J M Dufour; R Hemendinger; C R Halberstadt; P Gores; D F Emerich; G S Korbutt; R V Rajotte

2004-01-01

350

Sugarcane genetic engineering research in South Africa: From gene discovery to transgene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, recombinant DNA and in vitro culture technologies have been used in concert at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) to genetically engineer\\u000a sugarcane. The purpose of such research has been two-fold, viz. to establish proof-of-principle regarding the delivery of novel input and resistance traits to sugarcane and to investigate\\u000a the genetic basis of sucrose

D. A. Watt; D. L. Sweby; B. A. M. Potier; S. J. Snyman

2010-01-01

351

Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenes is char- acterized by a high growth rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven to be an efficient means of producing secondary metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants. Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes

Zhi-Bi Hu

352

The Human Rights of the Genetically Engineered Athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional definitions of what constitutes a human being in human rights discourse fail to include the new kinds of human beings that are emerging through genetic manipulation. The prospect of such technology and the knowledge that such alterations infringe on a number of human rights and so require further consideration, in order to be clear about their appropriateness for human

Andy Miah

353

Random Search versus Genetic Programming as Engines for Collective Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have integrated the distributed search of genetic programming (GP) based systems with collective memory to form a collective adaptation search method. Such a system significantly improves search as problem complexity is increased. Since the pure GP approach does not scale well with problem complexity, a natural question is which of the two components is actually contributing to the search

Thomas Haynes

1998-01-01

354

Diesel engine systems with genetic algorithm self tuning PID controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speed control of power generation plants driven by diesel prime-movers is difficult because of the presence of a dead time and changes in parameters. This results in slow plant dynamics. In this paper, genetic algorithm self tuning PID controller based on indirect estimation of the dead time is proposed resulting in fast response at the startup and quick recovery, when

Faisal A. Mohamed; Heikki N. Koivo

2005-01-01

355

Monitoring for genetically engineered pseudomonas species in monterey county  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field monitoring study was conducted to determine if genetically altered Pseudomonas fluorescens or P. syringae had been applied to sites in Monterey County. A series of diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance, fluorescence ability, oxidase and arginine dihydrolase activities, hypersensitivity reaction and ice nucleation ability were conducted to screen bacteria isolated from field and control samples. No bacteria were detected

D. Supkoff; D. Opgenorth; C. Lai; R. Segawa; D. Koehler

1987-01-01

356

Species specificity and interspecies relatedness of NSP4 genetic groups by comparative NSP4 sequence analyses of animal rotaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Previous sequence analyses of the rotavirus nonstructural NSP4 from human and some animal rotavirus strains revealed the\\u000a presence of three distinct NSP4 alleles or genetic groups. To examine the species of origin relatedness and diversity of NSP4,\\u000a the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene encoding the NSP4 from 15 animal rotavirus strains of porcine,\\u000a equine, bovine, lapine

M. Ciarlet; F. Liprandi; M. E. Conner; M. K. Estes

2000-01-01

357

Contribution of Genetic Influences to Animal-to-Animal Variation in Myoglobin Content and Beef Lean Color Stability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longissimus thoracis steaks from steers (n = 464) with 0 to 50% inheritance of Angus (A), Charolais (C), Gelbvieh (G), Hereford (H), Limousin (L), Red Angus (RA), and Simmental (S) were evaluated during 6 d of display to assess genetic contributions to color stability. Color space values (CIE L* [l...

358

Genetically engineered murine models--contribution to our understanding of the genetics, molecular pathology and therapeutic targeting of neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) have made major contributions to a molecular understanding of several adult cancers and these results are increasingly being translated into the pre-clinical setting where GEMM will very likely make a major impact on the development of targeted therapeutics in the near future. The relationship of pediatric cancers to altered developmental programs, and their genetic simplicity relative to adult cancers provides unique opportunities for the application of new advances in GEMM technology. In neuroblastoma the well-characterized TH-MYCN GEMM is increasingly used for a variety of molecular-genetic, developmental and pre-clinical therapeutics applications. We discuss: the present and historical application of GEMM to neuroblastoma research, future opportunities, and relevant targets suitable for new GEMM strategies in neuroblastoma. We review the potential of these models to contribute both to an understanding of the developmental nature of neuroblastoma and to improved therapy for this disease. PMID:21958944

Chesler, Louis; Weiss, William A

2011-09-21

359

The hermeneutic challenge of genetic engineering: Habermas and the transhumanists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures\\u000a (and thus upon the lifeworld), and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists,\\u000a such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending\\u000a human nature.

Andrew Edgar

2009-01-01

360

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with

Ivan Tochitsky; Matthew R. Banghart; Alexandre Mourot; Jennifer Z. Yao; Benjamin Gaub; Richard H. Kramer; Dirk Trauner

2012-01-01

361

Transgene inheritance in plants genetically engineered by microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microprojectile bombardment to deliver DNA into plant cells represents a major breakthrough in the development of plant transformation\\u000a technologies and accordingly has resulted in transformation of numerous species considered recalcitrant toAgrobacterium- or protoplast-mediated transformation methods. This article attempts to review the current understanding of the molecular\\u000a and genetic behavior of transgenes introduced by microprojectile bombardment. The characteristic features of the

Wojciech P. Pawlowski; David A. Somers

1996-01-01

362

Biosynthesis and genetic engineering of proanthocyanidins and (iso)flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant natural products have been used since ancient times as medicines and herbal remedies. Over the past two decades, the\\u000a results of population and intervention studies, or assays in animal or cell model systems, have revealed positive health beneficial\\u000a effects for various classes of phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols. The results of such studies have ignited an interest\\u000a in being able to

Li Tian; Yongzhen Pang; Richard A. Dixon

2008-01-01

363

SURVIVAL AND ENUMERATION OF AEROSOLIZED AND FREEZE-DRIED GENETICALLY ENGINEERED E. COLI, UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerosol survival of a genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli demonstrated a more rapid die-off (i.e., death rate) compared to its parental wildtype. p to 77% of a freeze-dried and air-exposed genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and wildtype bacteria could be res...

364

Use of a Risk Communication Model to Evaluate Dietetics Professionals’ Viewpoints on Genetically Engineered Foods and Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex issues surrounding the application of genetic engineering to food and agriculture have generated a contentious debate among diverse interest groups. One pervasive dimension in the resultant discourse is the varying perceptions of the risks and benefits of genetically engineered foods and crops. In the risk communication model, technical information is evaluated within the context of an individual’s values

Kathy S. Roberts; Marie Boyle Struble; Christine McCullum-Gomez; Jennifer L. Wilkins

2006-01-01

365

Public concerns about general and specific applications of genetic engineering: a comparative study between the UK and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public opinion regarding the application and development of genetic engineering is likely to be an important factor influencing the future development of the technology, and its subsequent application within the commercial sector. Recent studies have been carried out which have assessed public attitudes to biotechnology, and in particular genetic engineering, but there is little empirical work to understand cross-cultural differences

Anna Saba; Anna Moles; Lynn J. Frewer

1998-01-01

366

Development of an animal model for across-herd genetic evaluation of number born alive in swine.  

PubMed

An animal model and computer software were developed to conduct across-herd genetic evaluations using data from producers participating in the Sow Productivity Index program of the American Yorkshire Club. The final data set consisted of 61,596 litter records from 1986 to early 1990. The animal model included fixed contemporary group effects and random additive direct, service sire, permanent environmental, and residual effects. Additive genetic relationships among animals were included. A separate relationship matrix for service sires and their sires was also included. A data set similar to the Yorkshire field data was simulated to use in testing the animal model. The simulated data set consisted of 40 herds, each with 120 reproducing dams and either four or five sires. Six generations of simulated data were produced, resulting in 20,605 litter records. These records were then evaluated using the animal model for number of pigs born alive. Finally, correlations between the true breeding values from the simulation and the predicted breeding values were computed. The correlation between the 918 true and predicted sire breeding values was considerably lower for the animal model without a service sire effect than when it was included (.53 vs .74, respectively). However, the difference was cut in half (.66 vs .77) when only sires with greater than five daughter records were included. The high accuracy of the animal model with a random service sire effect indicates that the proposed model adequately accounts for the variation found in records for number of pigs born alive. PMID:8376227

Woodward, B W; Mabry, J W; See, M T; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L

1993-08-01

367

MICROCOSM FOR MEASURING SURVIVAL AND CONJUGATION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA IN RHIZOSPHERE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A microcosm is described to evaluate and measure bacterial conjugation in the rhizosphere of barley and radish with strains of Pseudomonas cepacia. he purpose was to describe a standard method useful for evaluating the propensity of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to...

368

912. Accelerated Chondrogenesis in Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing BMP2 Genetically Engineered Chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Articular cartilage injury and erosion is a common cause of joint pain often leading to osteoarthritis and permanent morbidity. This research sought to determine if genetically engineered chondrocytes can sustain chondrogenesis in a biodegradable nanofiber scaffold. We hypothesized that chondrocytes would adhere, seed, proliferate, and produce extracellular matrix proteins typical of articular cartilage within a polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffold and this

Robert T. Gorsline; Jin Nam; Prasarn Tangkawattana; John Lannutti; Alicia L. Bertone

2006-01-01

369

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant, genetically engineered, live-attenuated vaccine against canine blastomycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blastomycosis is a severe, commonly fatal infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis in dogs that live in the United States, Canada, and parts of Africa. The cost of treating an infection can be expensive, and no vaccine against this infection is commercially available. A genetically engineered live-attenuated strain of B. dermatitidis lacking the major virulence factor BAD-1 successfully

M Wüthrich; T Krajaejun; V Shearn-Bochsler; C Bass; H I Filutowicz; Alfred M Legendre; B S Klein

2011-01-01

370

Stability of Herbicide Resistance over 8 Years of Coppice in Field-Grown, Genetically Engineered Poplars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide resistance may be useful for reducing costs and environmental impacts, and improving yields, during weed control in poplar plantations. However, genetically engineered traits can sometimes show instability, which would compromise their commercial value. To study the stability of herbicide resistance, we analyzed resistance to the contact herbicide glufosinate in 384 transgenic plants originating from 32 gene-insertion events created within

Jingyi Li; Richard Meilan; Cathleen Ma; Michael Barish; Steven H. Strauss

2008-01-01

371

Evaluating technology oversight through multiple frameworks: A case study of genetically engineered cotton in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oversight systems for emerging technologies involve a diversity of institutions, stakeholders, and goals; yet they are usually based upon one or a few perspectives. This paper uses a multi-framework approach to evaluate the oversight system for genetically engineered organisms in India. It uses four established frameworks — policy options, risk assessment, risk management and regulatory oversight — and ethics, to

Kana Talukder; Jennifer Kuzma

2008-01-01

372

Monolignol biosynthesis and genetic engineering of lignin in trees, a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes our previous and current research on genetic engineering of lignin biosynthesis for the purposes of improving wood pulping and bleaching efficiency. For these purposes, our targets were to produce transgenic trees with low content of lignin that is also chemically reactive (high lignin S\\/G ratio). Using aspen as a model species, we have characterized the biochemical functions

Vincent L. Chiang

2006-01-01

373

Genetic engineering of a hypoallergenic trimer of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 100 million individuals suffer from birch pollen allergy. Specific immunotherapy, the only curative allergy treatment, can cause life-threatening anaphylactic side effects. Here, we report the genetic engineering of a recombinant trimer consisting of three covalently linked copies of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. The trimer exhibited profoundly reduced allergenic activity but contained similar secondary structures

Susanne Vrtala; Kora Hirtenlehner; Markus Susani; Mübeccel Akdis; Fatimah Kussebi; Cezmi A. Akdis; Kurt Blaser; Peter Hufnagl; Bernd R. Binder; Anastasia Politou; Annalisa Pastore; Luca Vangelista; Wolfgang R. Sperr; Hans Semper; Peter Valent; Christof Ebner; Dietrich Kraft; Rudolf Valenta

2001-01-01

374

Using Genetic Engineering to Find Modular Structures and Activation Functions for Architectures of Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

. An Evolutionary Algorithm is used to optimize the architecture andactivation functions of an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). It will be shown thatit is possible, with the help of a graph-database and Genetic Engineering, to findmodular structures for these networks. Some new graph-rewritings are used to constructfamilies of architectures from these modular structures. Simulation resultsfor two problems are given. An

Christoph M. Friedrich; Claudio Moraga

1997-01-01

375

Engineering Case Studies Using Parameterless Penalty Non-dominated Ranked Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm PPNRGA have been used for solving engineering design problems with multiple objectives. Although there exists a number of classical techniques, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have an edge over the classical methods where they can find multiple Pareto optimal solutions in one single simulation run. The new proposed algorithm is a parameterless penalty non-dominated ranking GA

Omar Al Jadaan; Ahmad Jabas; Wael Abdula; Lakshmi Rajamani; Essa Zaiton; C. R. Rao

2009-01-01

376

Milestones in chloroplast genetic engineering: an environmentally friendly era in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genomes defied the laws of Mendelian inheritance at the dawn of plant genetics, and continue to defy the mainstream approach to biotechnology, leading the field in an environmentally friendly direction. Recent success in engineering the chloroplast genome for resistance to herbicides, insects, disease and drought, and for production of biopharmaceuticals, has opened the door to a new era in

Henry Daniell; Muhammad S. Khan; Lori Allison

2002-01-01

377

Consumption choices concerning the genetically engineered, organically grown, and traditionally grown foods: An experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While debate over the new agricultural biotechnology has been relatively muted, food may come under increased scrutiny when consumers confront new products. The American public may demand regulations such as labeling. To test the influence of defining\\/labeling products, an experiment gave subjects choices between organically and traditionally grown or between genetically engineered and traditionally grown food for lunch. Logistic regression

Patrick Stewart

2000-01-01

378

Transplantation of Genetically Engineered Primary Cells for the Analysis of Gene Function in CNS Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation of genetically engineered primary cells into the CNS allows an analysis of gene function that is often not otherwise possible, such as with germ line mutations that result in embryonic lethality or that have pleiotropic effects. We describe the methods and use of this approach for the analysis of gene function during the development of oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells

Randall D. McKinnon; George A. Zazanis

1996-01-01

379

Genetically engineered neural networks for predicting prostate cancer progression after radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To use pathologic, morphometric, DNA ploidy, and clinical data to develop and test a genetically engineered neural network (GENN) for the prediction of biochemical (prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) progression after radical prostatectomy in a select group of men with clinically localized prostate cancer.Methods. Two hundred fourteen men who underwent anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer were selected

Steven R Potter; M. Craig Miller; Leslie A Mangold; Kerrie A Jones; Jonathan I Epstein; Robert W Veltri; Alan W Partin

1999-01-01

380

Genetic engineering of embryonic stem cells via site-directed DNA recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent advances in genetic engi- neering of mammals utilizing DNA recombination tech- niques to produce targeted genome modifications. The general objective of these technologies is to discover novel gene functions via manipulation of gene expres- sion, regulation, or encoded protein sequences. The ad- vantage of gene site-directed DNA recombination is that the engineered variant remains in the

Anna Norman; Mark MacInnes

2002-01-01

381

Non-germline genetically engineered mouse models for translational cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer have affected virtually all areas of cancer research. However, the accelerated discovery of new cancer genes emerging from large-scale cancer genomics and new chemical entities pouring from the drug discovery pipeline have strained the capacity of traditional germline mouse models to provide crucial insights. This Review introduces new approaches to modelling cancer, with

Joerg Heyer; Lawrence N. Kwong; Scott W. Lowe; Lynda Chin

2010-01-01

382

CALIBRATION OF GREENHOUSE AND FIELD FOR SURVIVAL OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of current concerns regarding the release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment, the fate, survival, and effects of many GEMs will need to be evaluated in small-scale releases performed in controlled, contained environments. n this study, th...

383

Enhancing the Internationalisation of Distance Education in the Biological Sciences: The DUNE Project and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Distance Educational Network of Europe (DUNE) project that aims at enhancing the development of distance education in an international context. Highlights issues relating to the delivery of distance-learning courses in a transnational forum. Describes the genetic engineering course that aims at explaining the core techniques of…

Leach, C. K.; And Others

1997-01-01

384

Optical Design of LCOS Optical Engine and Optimization With Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates an optical design of miniature of LCOS optical engine and optics with white light-emitting diode (LED) and the most importantly, proposes a new optimization method for non-image optics via Genetic Algorithm (GA) written in Optical Software ASAP, in order to achieve best performance for light efficiency and uniformity. Thanks to the development of modern digital equipment, optimization

Chien-Chung Chen; Cheng-Mu Tsai; Yi Chin Fang

2009-01-01

385

IMPACTS OF THE ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS ON FARM FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops by U.S. farmers suggests that these technologies have been perceived to improve farm financial performance. This study develops and applies an econometric model to data from corn and soybean producers in order to evaluate the financial impacts of the adoption of GE crops. Results indicate that the adoption of GE crops has

William D. McBride; Hisham S. El-Osta

2002-01-01

386

A Genetically Engineered Crop's Impact on Pesticide Use: A Revealed-Preference Index Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revealed-preference-based method is proposed for assessment of the environmental and human health impact of genetically engineered (GE) crops. This method employs the relative pesticide toxicity information from farmers' pesticide choices combined with volume of pesticides as an alternative to previous methods which are based on volume only, on number of pesticide applications, or on stated preferences. The method is

Olha Sydorovych; Michele C. Marra

2007-01-01

387

Molecular biology of mosquito vitellogenesis: from basic studies to genetic engineering of antipathogen immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying stage- and tissue-specific expression of genes activated by a blood meal is of great importance for current efforts directed towards utilizing molecular genetics to develop novel strategies of mosquito and pathogen control. Regulatory regions of such genes can be used to express anti-pathogen effector molecules in engineered vectors in a precise temporal and spatial manner,

Alexander S. Raikhel; Vladimir A. Kokoza; Jinsong Zhu; David Martin; Sheng-Fu Wang; Chao Li; Guoqiang Sun; Abdoulaziz Ahmed; Neal Dittmer; Geoff Attardo

2002-01-01

388

Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Probabilities and Practicalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Manipulation of genes in human beings on a large scale is not possible under present conditions because it lacks economic potential and other attractions for industry. However, preventive'' genetic engineering may be a field for vast research in the future and will perhaps be approved by governments, parishes, people and industry. (PS)|

Djerassi, Carl

1972-01-01

389

The Use of Simple Models in the Teaching of Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggestions for instructional improvement are provided in two topic areas. Explains the use of models in helping students to visualize selected concepts in genetic engineering and recommends the use of tropical tuber crops for encouraging students to conduct practical investigations. (ML)|

Nicholl, Desmond S. T.

1986-01-01

390

'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...

391

Neuropathology of genetically engineered mice: consensus report and recommendations from an international forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mouse Models of Cancer Consortium of the NCI sponsored a meeting of neuropathologists and veterinary pathologists in New York City in November of 2000. A rapidly growing number of genetically engineered mice (GEM) predisposed to tumors of the nervous system have led to a concomitant need for neuropathological evaluation and validation of these models. A panel of 13 pathologists

William A Weiss; Mark Israel; Charles Cobbs; Eric Holland; C David James; David N Louis; Cheryl Marks; Andrea I McClatchey; Tim Roberts; Terry Van Dyke; Cynthia Wetmore; Ing-Ming Chiu; Marco Giovannini; Abhijit Guha; Robert J Higgins; Silvia Marino; Ivan Radovanovic; Karlyne Reilly; Ken Aldape

2002-01-01

392

From Promises of Progress to Portents of Peril: Public Responses to Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, scientists at a George Washington University laboratory conducted a genetic engineering experiment that “twinned” a nonviable human embryo. The purpose was to find a way to create additional embryos for In Vitro Fertilization, but major newspapers, popular magazines and talk shows covered the experiment as if it had actually yielded a cloning technology for the mass production of

Dorothy Nelkin

393

Reactions to a New Technology: Students' Ideas about Genetically Engineered Foodstuffs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the prevalence of ideas among 16 to 19 year-old students about the application of the rapidly expanding technology of genetic engineering to food production. Findings suggest that more females were cautious about these foodstuffs than were males. Contains 20 references. (DDR)|

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward; O'Sullivan, Helen

1998-01-01

394

Enhancing the Internationalisation of Distance Education in the Biological Sciences: The DUNE Project and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Distance Educational Network of Europe (DUNE) project that aims at enhancing the development of distance education in an international context. Highlights issues relating to the delivery of distance-learning courses in a transnational forum. Describes the genetic engineering course that aims at explaining the core techniques of…

Leach, C. K.; And Others

1997-01-01

395

METHODS TO MEASURE THE INFLUENCE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA ON ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to summarize the methods and concep s that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, into soil on microbemedi...

396

The Impacts of Adopting Genetically Engineered Crops in the USA: The Case of Bt Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an econometric model to analyze the onfarm impact of adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops on pesticide use and yields after controlling for other factors. The model, which corrects for self-selection and simultaneity and is consistent with profit maximization, is used to estimate the relationship between Bt corn adoption and insecticide use and yields using data from

Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo; Jiayi Li

2005-01-01

397

Perception of risks and benefits of in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of new biotechnology in medicine has become an everday experience, but many people still express concern about biotechnology. Concerns are evoked particularly by the phrases genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization (IVF), and these concerns persist despite more than a decade of their use in medicine. Mailed nationwide opinion surveys on attitudes to biotechnology were conducted in Japan,

Darryl R. J. Macer

1994-01-01

398

Can we guarantee the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment arises from the undesirable results of earlier new technologies and introduced organisms. Progress towards safe release is complicated by the varied views of a diverse society, confusion of process and product, problems with existing methods, and the lack of practical experience with real releases. No categorically safe novel organisms

Kathleen H. Keeler

1988-01-01

399

Impact of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium with Enhanced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Marine Phytoplankton Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indigenous marine Achromobacter sp. was isolated from coastal Georgia seawater and modified in the laboratory by introduction of a plasmid with aphoAhybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase. The effects of this ''indigenous'' genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) on phos- phorus cycling were determined in seawater microcosms following the addition of a model dissolved organic phosphorus compound, glycerol

PATRICIA A. SOBECKY; MARK A. SCHELL; MARY ANN MORAN; ANDROBERT E. HODSON

1996-01-01

400

Lentivectors encoding immunosuppressive proteins genetically engineer pancreatic ?-cells to correct diabetes in allogeneic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of genetic engineering with lentivectors to protect transplanted cells from allogeneic rejection was examined using, as a model, type 1 diabetes treatment with ?-cell transplantation, whose widespread use has been limited by the requirement for sustained immunosuppressive treatment to prevent graft rejection. We examined whether lentivectors expressing select immunosuppressive proteins encoded by the adenoviral genome early region 3

T Kojaoghlanian; A Joseph; A Follenzi; J H Zheng; M Leiser; N Fleischer; M S Horwitz; T P DiLorenzo; H Goldstein

2009-01-01

401

Assessing the risks of invasion for genetically engineered plants: Acceptable evidence and reasonable doubt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural biotechnology has generated concern over the risk of producing new invasive species or exacerbating current weed problems. In this paper, we introduce the regulatory context for assessing invasiveness of genetically engineered organisms in the United States and review the evidence presented by companies arguing for deregulation of particular transgenic crops. The context of invasion ecology is then used to

Peter Kareiva

1996-01-01

402

Methods to measure the influence of genetically engineered bacteria on ecological processes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the document is to summarize the methods and concepts that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, into soil on microbemediated ecological processes in soil. The potential impacts of GEMs on the structure and function of natural environments into

Stotzky

1990-01-01

403

Effects of genetically engineered microorganisms on nitrogen transformations and nitrogen-transforming microbial populations in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal concern about releasing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment is their potential adverse effects on the environment, whether caused directly or indirectly by the GEMs. The effects of five GEMs on ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification in soil were studied. With the possible exception of a strain of Enterobacter cloacae carrying a plasmid, no consistent statistically or ecologically

R. A. Jones; M. W. Broder; G. Stotzky

1991-01-01

404

The Establishment of Genetically Engineered Canola Populations in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns regarding the commercial release of genetically engineered (GE) crops include naturalization, introgression to sexually compatible relatives and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species through hybridization. To date there have been few documented reports of escape leading some researchers to question the environmental risks of biotech products. In this study we conducted a systematic roadside survey

Meredith G. Schafer; Andrew A. Ross; Jason P. Londo; Connie A. Burdick; E. Henry Lee; Steven E. Travers; Peter K. van de Water; Cynthia L. Sagers; Alfredo Herrera-Estrella

2011-01-01

405

Online optimization of an engine controller by means of a genetic algorithm using history of search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, online optimization of an engine controller by means of genetic algorithms (GA) is discussed. In optimization of real complex systems through experiments and computer simulation using random variables, optimization methods must cope with uncertainty of objective function and limitation of possible number of evaluation. Sano et al. (2000) proposed a GA utilizing history of search (GA

Y. Sano; H. Kita; I. Kamihira; M. Yamaguchi

2000-01-01

406

The Theory and Practice of Genetically Engineered Crops and Agricultural Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically engineered (GE) crops has focused predominantly on enhancing conventional pest control approaches. Scientific assessments show that these GE crops generally deliver significant economic and some environmental benefits over their conventional crop alternatives. However, emerging evidence indicates that current GE crops will not foster sustainable cropping systems unless the negative environmental and social feedback effects are properly

David E. Ervin; Leland L. Glenna; Raymond A. Jussaume Jr.

2011-01-01

407

GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT: ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE BIOTECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethics of genetic engineering, or genethics in current jargon, is one of those areas of debate which needs to be constantly reviewed in the light of the rapidly expanding science of biotechnology. It could be argued that the revolution taking place within biology will be as significant to our existence as Newton's and Einstein's ideas were for physics. The

CELIA E. DEANE-DRUMMOND

1995-01-01

408

Process development of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars using genetically engineered yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose and xylose are the major fermentable substrates present in lignocellulosic biomass, a potential feedstock for the commercial fuel ethanol production. Past research in this area has indicated that xylose fermentation and ethanol tolerance of the fermenting microorganism are major bottlenecks in the design of an economical fuel ethanol production process. The development of xylose fermenting yeasts by genetic engineering

Mahesh Subramaniam Krishnan

1996-01-01

409

The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1996-01-01

410

The mammary pathology of genetically engineered mice: the consensus report and recommendations from the Annapolis meeting‡  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIH sponsored a meeting of medical and veterinary pathologists with mammary gland expertise in Annapolis in March 1999. Rapid development of mouse mammary models has accentuated the need for definitions of the mammary lesions in genetically engineered mice (GEM) and to assess their usefulness as models of human breast disease. The panel of nine pathologists independently reviewed material representing over

Robert D Cardiff; Miriam R Anver; Barry A Gusterson; Lothar Hennighausen; Roy A Jensen; Maria J Merino; Sabine Rehm; Jose Russo; Fattaneh A Tavassoli; Lalage M Wakefield; Jerrold M Ward; Jeffrey E Green

2000-01-01

411

Genetic engineering: Risks and hazards as perceived by the German public  

Microsoft Academic Search

What do people associate with 'genetic engineering', and what are the resources they mobilize for gaining orientation and the ability to assess this new technology? These are the central questions discussed in this paper. The theses are based on 48 'Leitfadeninterviews', made between 1995 and 1997 and complemented by a representative survey carried out in Germany in 1997, which contains

Michael M. Zwick

2000-01-01

412

Development of repressible sterility to prevent the establishment of feral populations of exotic and genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposals to farm non-native and genetically modified species are often highly contentious because there is no reliable method of ensuring that they do not escape, reproduce and become environmental problems. Suggested approaches to prevent breeding outside hatcheries are unable to guarantee sterility in both sexes or cannot easily be applied to animals. We developed and tested on two contentious groups

Ronald Thresher; Peter Grewe; Jawahar G. Patil; Steven Whyard; Christopher M. Templeton; Atra Chaimongol; Christopher M. Hardy; Lynette A. Hinds; Rex Dunham

2009-01-01

413

Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future.The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The

Karen Aulrich; H. Böhme; R. Daenicke; Ingrid Halle; G. Flachowsky

2001-01-01

414

Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

415

Genetic engineering of Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus as an improved biopesticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The smoky-brown cockroach (Periplaneta fuliginosa) densovirus (PfDNV) has previously shown potential in urban pest control. To improve its efficacy as a biopesticide, the\\u000a genome of PfDNV was engineered by inserting the insect-specific toxin gene BmKIT1 in the open reading frame encoding the major\\u000a structural proteins. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker was tagged to the BmKIT1 at its C-terminus for

H. Jiang; J. M. Zhang; J. P. Wang; B. Yang; C. F. Liu; J. Lu; Y. Y. Hu

2007-01-01

416

Ultrasensitive reporter protein detection in genetically engineered bacteria.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the use of laser-induced fluorescence confocal spectroscopy to measure analyte-stimulated enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) synthesis by genetically modified Escherichia coli bioreporter cells. Induction is measured in cell lysates and, since the spectroscopic focal volume is approximately the size of one bioreporter cell, also in individual live bacteria. This is, to our knowledge, the first ever proof-of-concept work utilizing instrumentation with single-molecule detection capability to monitor bioreporter response. Although we use arsenic inducible bioreporters here, the method is extensible to gfp/egfp bioreporters that are responsive to other substances. PMID:15859581

Wells, Mona; Gösch, Michael; Rigler, Rudolf; Harms, Hauke; Lasser, Theo; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

2005-05-01

417

Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.  

PubMed

The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

2013-04-06

418

Genetic Engineering of Glycinebetaine Production toward Enhancing Stress Tolerance in Plants: Metabolic Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycinebetaine (betaine) affords osmoprotection in bacteria, plants and animals, and protects cell components against harsh conditions in vitro. This and a compelling body of other evidence have encouraged the engineering of betaine production in plants lacking it. We have installed the metabolic step for oxidation of choline, a ubiquitous substance, to betaine in three diverse species, Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, and

Jun Huang; Rozina Hirji; Luc Adam; Kevin L. Rozwadowski; Joe K. Hammerlindl; Wilf A. Keller; Gopalan Selvaraj

2000-01-01

419

Genetic engineering of Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus as an improved biopesticide.  

PubMed

The smoky-brown cockroach (Periplaneta fuliginosa) densovirus (PfDNV) has previously shown potential in urban pest control. To improve its efficacy as a biopesticide, the genome of PfDNV was engineered by inserting the insect-specific toxin gene BmKIT1 in the open reading frame encoding the major structural proteins. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker was tagged to the BmKIT1 at its C-terminus for in vivo imaging using Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CFSM). Using a virion rescue strategy, the genomes of recombinant and wild-type (wt) PfDNV were then cotransfected in P. fuliginosa nymphs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the inserted BmkIT1 genes were expressed in the P. fuliginosa nymphs 48 h after cotransfection. CFSM and transmission electron microscopy also confirmed the generation of virus particles and expression of BmKIT1-GFP fusion protein in the cotransfected nymphs. The recombinant viruses remained infective to P. fuliginosa nymphs in feeding tests. Using the LT(50) bioassay method, the coninfection of the recombinant and wt PfDNV killed the P. fuliginosa nymphs approximate 32% faster than wt PfDNV only. This is the first report showing the improvement of engineered densovirus for the potential application of biopesticide. PMID:17057943

Jiang, H; Zhang, J M; Wang, J P; Yang, B; Liu, C F; Lu, J; Hu, Y Y

2006-10-23

420

Cardiac stem cell genetic engineering using the ?MHC promoter  

PubMed Central

Aims Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) show potential as a cellular therapeutic approach to blunt tissue damage and facilitate reparative and regenerative processes after myocardial infarction. Despite multiple published reports of improvement, functional benefits remain modest using normal stem cells delivered by adoptive transfer into damaged myocardium. The goal of this study is to enhance survival and proliferation of CSCs that have undergone lineage commitment in early phases as evidenced by expression of proteins driven by the ?-myosin heavy chain (?MHC) promoter. The early increased expression of survival kinases augments expansion of the cardiogenic CSC pool and subsequent daughter progeny. Materials & methods Normal CSCs engineered with fluorescent reporter protein constructs under control of the ?MHC promoter show transgene protein expression, confirming activity of the promoter in CSCs. Cultured CSCs from both nontransgenic and cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing survival kinases driven by the ?MHC promoter were analyzed to characterize transgene expression following treatments to promote differentiation in culture. Results & conclusion Therapeutic genes controlled by the ?MHC promoter can be engineered into and expressed in CSCs and cardiomyocyte progeny with the goal of improving the efficacy of cardiac stem cell therapy.

Bailey, Brandi; Izarra, Alberto; Alvarez, Roberto; Fischer, Kimberlee M; Cottage, Christopher T; Quijada, Pearl; Diez-Juan, Antonio; Sussman, Mark A

2010-01-01

421

The hermeneutic challenge of genetic engineering: Habermas and the transhumanists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures (and thus upon the lifeworld), and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists, such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending human nature. In contrast, Habermas is a representative of those who are fearful of this technology, suggesting that it will compound the deleterious effects of the colonisation of the lifeworld, further constraining human autonomy and undermining the meaningfulness of the lifeworld by expanding the technological control and manipulation of humanity. It will be argued that these opposed positions are grounded in fundamentally different understandings of the consequences of scientific and technological advance. On one level, the transhumanists remain confident that the lifeworld has within it the resources necessary to find meaning and purpose in a society deeply infused by genetic technology. Habermas disagrees. On another level, the difference is articulated by Horkheimer and Adorno in Dialectic of Enlightenment, primarily by challenging what may be understood as a Baconian faith in science as a project for the domination of nature (where nature is an infinitely malleable material, to be dominated and shaped, without adverse consequences, purely for the purposes of human survival). While the transhumanists broadly embrace this faith, Habermas returns to something akin to Horkheimer and Adorno's pessimistic scepticism. PMID:19219641

Edgar, Andrew

2009-02-15

422

Genetically engineered live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine candidates.  

PubMed Central

We have generated new influenza A virus live attenuated vaccine candidates by site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics. By mutating specific amino acids in the PB2 polymerase subunit, two temperature-sensitive (ts) attenuated viruses were obtained. Both candidates have 38 degrees C shutoff temperatures in MDCK cells, are attenuated in the respiratory tracts of mice and ferrets, and have very low reactogenicity in ferrets. Infection of mice or ferrets with either mutant conferred significant protection from challenge with the homologous wild-type virus. Three tests for genetic stability were used to assess the propensity for reversion to virulence: 14 days of replication in nude mice, growth at 37 degrees C in tissue culture, and serial passage in ferrets. One candidate, which contains mutations intended to reduce the ability of PB2 to bind to cap structures, was stable in all three assays, whereas the second candidate, which contains mutations found only in other ts strains of influenza virus, lost its ts phenotype in the last two assays. This approach has therefore enabled the creation of live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine candidates suitable for human testing.

Parkin, N T; Chiu, P; Coelingh, K

1997-01-01

423

Polyurethane scaffolds seeded with genetically engineered skeletal myoblasts: a promising tool to regenerate myocardial function.  

PubMed

In animal models, intramyocardial injection of primary skeletal myoblasts is supposed to promote tissue regeneration and to improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. The usage of genetically engineered myoblasts overexpressing the paracrine factors involved in tissue repair is believed to enhance these effects. However, cell therapy via injection is always accompanied by a high death rate of the injected cells. Here, we describe the construction of a growth factor-producing myoblast-seeded scaffold to overcome this limitation. Skeletal myoblasts were isolated and expanded from newborn Lewis rats. Cells were seeded on polyurethane (PU) scaffolds (Artelon) and transfected with DNA of VEGF-A, HGF, SDF-1, or Akt1 using the lipid-based Metafectene Pro method. Overexpression was verified by ELISA, RT-PCR (VEGF-A, HGF, and SDF-1) and Western blot analysis (Akt1). The seeded scaffolds were transplanted onto damaged myocardium of Lewis rats 2 weeks after myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, their therapeutic potential in vivo was analyzed by measurement of infarction size and capillary density. Primary rat skeletal myoblasts seeded on PU scaffolds were efficiently transfected, achieving transfection rates of 20%. In vitro, we noted a significant increase in expression of VEGF-A, HGF, SDF-1, and Akt1 after transfection. In vivo, transplantation of growth factor-producing myoblast-seeded scaffolds resulted in enhanced angiogenesis (VEGF-A, HGF, and Akt1) or a reduced infarction zone (SDF-1 and Akt1) in the ischemically damaged myocardium. In summary, we constructed a growth factor-producing myoblast-seeded scaffold which combines the beneficial potential of stem cell transplantation with the promising effects of gene-therapeutic approaches. Because this matrix also allows us to circumvent previous cell application drawbacks, it may represent a promising tool for tissue regeneration and the re-establishment of cardiac function after myocardial infarction. PMID:20420589

Blumenthal, Britta; Golsong, Peter; Poppe, Annika; Heilmann, Claudia; Schlensak, Christian; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Siepe, Matthias

2010-02-01

424

Understanding the genetic and molecular pathogenesis of Friedreich's ataxia through animal and cellular models  

PubMed Central

In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease. These advances were the subject of the 4th International Friedreich’s Ataxia Conference held on 5th–7th May in the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France. More than 200 scientists gathered from all over the world to present the results of research spanning all areas of investigation into FRDA (including clinical aspects, FRDA pathogenesis, genetics and epigenetics of the disease, development of new models of FRDA, and drug discovery). This review provides an update on the understanding of frataxin function, developments of animal and cellular models of the disease, and recent advances in trying to uncover potential molecules for therapy.

Martelli, Alain; Napierala, Marek; Puccio, Helene

2012-01-01

425

Genetically Engineered Poxviruses for Recombinant Gene Expression, Vaccination, and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure--function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients.

Moss, Bernard

1996-10-01

426

Social approach in genetically engineered mouse lines relevant to autism.  

PubMed

Profound impairment in social interaction is a core symptom of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Deficits can include a lack of interest in social contact and low levels of approach and proximity to other children. In this study, a three-chambered choice task was used to evaluate sociability and social novelty preference in five lines of mice with mutations in genes implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Fmr1(tm1Cgr/Y)(Fmr1(-/y)) mice represent a model for fragile X, a mental retardation syndrome that is partially comorbid with autism. We tested Fmr1(-/y)mice on two genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J and FVB/N-129/OlaHsd (FVB/129). Targeted disruption of Fmr1 resulted in low sociability on one measure, but only when the mutation was expressed on FVB/129. Autism has been associated with altered serotonin levels and polymorphisms in SLC6A4 (SERT), the serotonin transporter gene. Male mice with targeted disruption of Slc6a4 displayed significantly less sociability than wild-type controls. Mice with conditional overexpression of Igf-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) offered a model for brain overgrowth associated with autism. Igf-1 transgenic mice engaged in levels of social approach similar to wild-type controls. Targeted disruption in other genes of interest, En2 (engrailed-2) and Dhcr7, was carried on genetic backgrounds that showed low levels of exploration in the choice task, precluding meaningful interpretations of social behavior scores. Overall, results show that loss of Fmr1 or Slc6a4 gene function can lead to deficits in sociability. Findings from the fragile X model suggest that the FVB/129 background confers enhanced susceptibility to consequences of Fmr1 mutation on social approach. PMID:19016890

Moy, S S; Nadler, J J; Young, N B; Nonneman, R J; Grossman, A W; Murphy, D L; D'Ercole, A J; Crawley, J N; Magnuson, T R; Lauder, J M

2008-11-11

427

Delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics by genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Several populations of adult human stem cells have been identified, but only a few of these are in routine clinical use. The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is arguably the most well characterized and the most routinely transplanted adult stem cell. Although details regarding several aspects of this cell's phenotype are not well understood, transplant of HSCs has advanced to become the standard of care for the treatment of a range of monogenic diseases and several types of cancer. It has also proven to be an excellent target for genetic manipulation, and clinical trials have already demonstrated the usefulness of targeting this cell as a means of delivering nucleic acid therapeutics for the treatment of several previously incurable diseases. It is anticipated that additional clinical trials will soon follow, such as genetically engineering HSCs with vectors to treat monogenic diseases such as hemophilia A. In addition to the direct targeting of HSCs, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to replace virtually any engineered stem cell therapeutic, including HSCs. We now know that for the broad use of genetically modified HSCs for the treatment of non-lethal diseases, e.g. hemophilia A, we must be able to regulate the introduction of nucleic acid sequences into these target cells. We can begin to refine transduction protocols to provide safer approaches to genetically manipulate HSCs and strategies are being developed to improve the overall safety of gene transfer. This review focuses on recent advances in the systemic delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics using genetically modified stem cells, specifically focusing on i) the use of retroviral vectors to genetically modify HSCs, ii) the expression of fVIII from hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of hemophilia A, and iii) the use of genetically engineered hematopoietic cells generated from iPS cells as treatment for disorders of hematopoiesis. PMID:20869414

Doering, Christopher B; Archer, David; Spencer, H Trent

2010-09-30

428

Perception of risks and benefits of in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and biotechnology.  

PubMed

The use of new biotechnology in medicine has become an everyday experience, but many people still express concern about biotechnology. Concerns are evoked particularly by the phrases genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization (IVF), and these concerns persist despite more than a decade of their use in medicine. Mailed nationwide opinion surveys on attitudes to biotechnology were conducted in Japan, among samples of the public (N = 551), high school biology teachers (N = 228), scientists (N = 555) and nurses (N = 301). People do see more benefits coming from science than harm when balanced against the risks. There were especially mixed perceptions of benefit and risk about IVF and genetic engineering, and a relatively high degree of worry compared to other developments of science and technology. A discussion of assisted reproductive technologies and surrogacy in Japan is also made. The opinions of people in Japan were compared to the results of previous surveys conducted in Japan, and international surveys conducted in Australia, China, Europe, New Zealand, U.K. and U.S.A. Japanese have a very high awareness of biotechnology, 97% saying that they had heard of the word. They also have a high level of awareness of IVF and genetic engineering. Genetic engineering was said to be a worthwhile research area for Japan by 76%, while 58% perceived research on IVF as being worthwhile, however 61% were worried about research on IVF or genetic engineering. Japanese expressed more concern about IVF and genetic engineering than New Zealanders. The major reason cited for rejection of genetic manipulation research in Japan and New Zealand was that it was seen as interfering with nature, playing God or as unethical. The emotions concerning these technologies are complex, and we should avoid using simplistic public opinion data as measures of public perceptions. The level of concern expressed by scientists and teachers in Japan suggest that public education "technology promotion campaigns" will not reduce concern about science and technology. Such concern should be valued as discretion that is basic to increasing the bioethical maturity of a society, rather than being feared. PMID:8146712

Macer, D R

1994-01-01

429

Developing genetically engineered mouse models to study tumor suppression  

PubMed Central

Since the late 1980s, the tools to generate mice with deletions of tumor suppressors have made it possible to study such deletions in the context of a whole animal. Deletion of some tumor suppressors results in viable mice while deletion of others yield embryo lethal phenotypes cementing the concept that genes that often go awry in cancer are also of developmental importance. More sophisticated mouse models were subsequently developed to delete a gene in a specific cell type at a specific time point. Additionally, incorporation of point mutations in a specific gene as observed in human tumors has also revealed their contributions to tumorigenesis. On the other hand, some models never develop cancer unless combined with other deletions suggesting a modifying role in tumorigenesis. This review will describe the technical aspects of generating these mice and provide examples of the outcomes obtained from alterations of different tumor suppressors.

Xiong, Shunbin; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Lozano, Guillermina

2012-01-01

430

Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy  

SciTech Connect

Current therapeutic approaches against the advanced stages of human solid tumors are palliative rather than curative. Many modalities, including, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination have met with only modest success for advanced metastatic cancers. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with cytotxic effects of radioisotopes. It is the ?smart? way of delivering radiation to the known and occult metastatic cancer cells and is independent of drug toxicity and/or hormone resistance. The tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) containing the unique disaccharide sialyl-Tn, is highly expressed in majority of adenocarcinomas, including carcinomas of the prostate, breast, ovaries, pancreas and colon (80-90%) compared to undetectable expression in normal tissues. Monoclonal antibody CC49, reactive with TAG-72, after conjugation to potent gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides, has been useful in selective systemic radiolocalization of disease and therapy of primary and metastatic tumor sites. However, limited therapeutic responses were observed in patients. Limited success of antibody based delivery of radioisotopes can be attributed to several factors including undesirable pharmacokinetics, poor tumor uptake and high immunogenicity of intact antibodies (IgGs). The primary factors contributing towards the failure of RIT include: 1) longer serum half-lives of the intact IgG molecules resulting in the radiotoxicity, 2) generation of human antibodies against murine antibodies (HAMA) that limits the frequency of dose administration, 3) poor diffusion rates of intact IgG due to the large size and 4) high interstitial fluid pressures (IFP) encountered in solid tumors. The major goal of our multidisciplinary project was to develop specific novel radiopharmaceuticals, with desired pharmacokinetics, for the diagnosis and therapy of solid tumors. To overcome the low uptake of radioactivity by tumors and to increase its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more compatible with RIT and RIS requirements. For RIT, delivery for sc(Fv)2 and [sc(Fv)2]2 in a fr

Surinder Batra, Ph.D.

2006-02-27

431

Molecular evolution and genetic engineering of C4 photosynthetic enzymes.  

PubMed

The majority of terrestrial plants, including many important crops such as rice, wheat, soybean, and potato, are classified as C(3) plants that assimilate atmospheric CO(2) directly through the C(3) photosynthetic pathway. C(4) plants, such as maize and sugarcane, evolved from C(3) plants, acquiring the C(4) photosynthetic pathway in addition to the C(3) pathway to achieve high photosynthetic performance and high water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies. Consequently, the transfer of C(4) traits to C(3) plants is one strategy being adopted for improving the photosynthetic performance of C(3) plants. The recent application of recombinant DNA technology has made considerable progress in the molecular engineering of photosynthetic genes in the past ten years. It has deepened understanding of the evolutionary scenario of the C(4) photosynthetic genes. The strategy, based on the evolutionary scenario, has enabled enzymes involved in the C(4) pathway to be expressed at high levels and in desired locations in the leaves of C(3) plants. Although overproduction of a single C(4) enzyme can alter the carbon metabolism of C(3) plants, it does not show any positive effects on photosynthesis. Transgenic C(3) plants overproducing multiple enzymes are now being produced for improving the photosynthetic performance of C(3) plants. PMID:12493846

Miyao, Mitsue

2003-01-01

432

Genetic engineering of taxol biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Baccatin III, an intermediate of Taxol biosynthesis and a useful precursor for semisynthesis of the anti-cancer drug, is produced in yew (Taxus) species by a sequence of 15 enzymatic steps from primary metabolism. Ten genes encoding enzymes of this extended pathway have been described, thereby permitting a preliminary attempt to reconstruct early steps of taxane diterpenoid (taxoid) metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial production host. Eight of these taxoid biosynthetic genes were functionally expressed in yeast from episomal vectors containing one or more gene cassettes incorporating various epitope tags to permit protein surveillance and differentiation of those pathway enzymes of similar size. All eight recombinant proteins were readily detected by immunoblotting using specific monoclonal antibodies and each expressed protein was determined to be functional by in vitro enzyme assay, although activity levels differed considerably between enzyme types. Using three plasmids carrying different promoters and selection markers, genes encoding five sequential pathway steps leading from primary isoprenoid metabolism to the intermediate taxadien-5alpha- acetoxy-10beta-ol were installed in a single yeast host. Metabolite analysis showed that yeast isoprenoid precursors could be utilized in the reconstituted pathway because products accumulated from the first two engineered pathway steps (leading to the committed intermediate taxadiene); however, a pathway restriction was encountered at the first cytochrome P450 hydroxylation step. The means of overcoming this limitation are described in the context of further development of this novel approach for production of Taxol precursors and related taxoids in yeast. PMID:16161138

Dejong, JingHong M; Liu, Yule; Bollon, Arthur P; Long, Robert M; Jennewein, Stefan; Williams, David; Croteau, Rodney B

2006-02-01

433

Towards programming languages for genetic engineering of living cells.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology aims at producing novel biological systems to carry out some desired and well-defined functions. An ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells. We introduce such a programming language, which allows logical interactions between potentially undetermined proteins and genes to be expressed in a modular manner. Programs can be translated by a compiler into sequences of standard biological parts, a process that relies on logic programming and prototype databases that contain known biological parts and protein interactions. Programs can also be translated to reactions, allowing simulations to be carried out. While current limitations on available data prevent full use of the language in practical applications, the language can be used to develop formal models of synthetic systems, which are otherwise often presented by informal notations. The language can also serve as a concrete proposal on which future language designs can be discussed, and can help to guide the emerging standard of biological parts which so far has focused on biological, rather than logical, properties of parts. PMID:19369220

Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew

2009-04-15

434

The significance of content knowledge for informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues: Applying genetics knowledge to genetic engineering issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a quantitative test of genetics concepts. Two subsets (n = 15 for each group) of the original sample representing divergent levels of content knowledge participated in individual interviews, during which they articulated positions, rationales, counterpositions, and rebuttals in response to three gene therapy scenarios and three cloning scenarios. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine the effects of content knowledge on the use of informal reasoning patterns and the quality of informal reasoning. Participants from both groups employed the same general patterns of informal reasoning. Data did indicate that differences in content knowledge were related to variations in informal reasoning quality. Participants, with more advanced understandings of genetics, demonstrated fewer instances of reasoning flaws, as defined by a priori criteria, and were more likely to incorporate content knowledge in their reasoning patterns than participants with more naïve understandings of genetics. Implications for instruction and future research are discussed.

Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

2005-01-01

435

A methodology for engine design using multi-dimensional modelling and genetic algorithms with validation through experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for internal combustion engine design has been formulated which incorporates multidimensional modelling and experiments to optimize and simulate direct injection diesel engine combustion and emissions formation. The computer code KIVA-GA performs full-cycle engine simulations within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) global optimization code. The methodology is applied to optimize a heavy-duty diesel truck engine. The study

P. K. Senecal; D. T. Montgomery; R. D. Reitz

2000-01-01

436

Towards the development of better crops by genetic transformation using engineered plant chromosomes.  

PubMed

Plant Biotechnology involves manipulation of genetic material to develop better crops. Keeping in view the challenges being faced by humanity in terms of shortage of food and other resources, we need to continuously upgrade the genomic technologies and fine tune the existing methods. For efficient genetic transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated as well as direct delivery methods have been used successfully. However, these methods suffer from many disadvantages especially in terms of transfer of large genes, gene complexes and gene silencing. To overcome these problems, recently, some efforts have been made to develop genetic transformation systems based on engineered plant chromosomes called minichromosomes or plant artificial chromosomes. Two approaches namely, "top-down" or "bottom-up" have been used for minichromosomes. The former involves engineering of the existing chromosomes within a cell and the latter de novo assembling of chromosomes from the basic constituents. While some success has been achieved using these chromosomes as vectors for genetic transformation in maize, however, more studies are needed to extend this technology to crop plants. The present review attempts to trace the genesis of minichromosomes and discusses their potential of development into plant artificial chromosome vectors. The use of these vectors in genetic transformation will greatly ameliorate the food problem and help to achieve the UN Millennium development goals. PMID:21249368

Dhar, Manoj K; Kaul, Sanjana; Kour, Jasmeet

2011-01-20

437

Divergent maternal behavioral patterns in two genetic animal models of depression.  

PubMed

Maternal behavior was examined in Flinders Sensitive-Line (FSL) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, two different genetic animal models of depression. Behavioral patterns were assessed by undisturbed observations in the nest [Post-Partum Days (PPD) 4 and 9] and post-disturbance observations ("retrieval tests") on PPD 10. Litters were randomly allocated to a mild chronic-stress condition (limiting available bedding between PPD 2 and 9) or a standard rearing condition. The findings indicated that FSL dams did not differ from control dams in the undisturbed observations. However, in the post-disturbance observations FSL dams exhibited less pup-directed behaviors, a shorter latency to first pup carrying/retrieval and more self-directed behaviors than controls (the latter effect only in dams' interaction with whole litter). In contrast, WKY dams performed more pup-directed activities (e.g., nursing and licking) and less self-directed activities in both the undisturbed and post-disturbance observations (in both dams' interaction with single-pup and with the whole-litter) compared to controls. Accordingly, WKY dams exhibited a shorter latency for first pup-licking bout (in both post-disturbance observations). The early life mild chronic-stress used in the study ('limited-bedding') had a minor effect on the dams' behavior. Overall, the study investigated for the first time the maternal behavior of WKY dams and suggests that these dams show an almost opposite behavioral pattern to that of FSL dams. The results are discussed with regard to earlier findings in the FSL strain and behavioral patterns documented in depressed human mothers. PMID:18957302

Braw, Y; Malkesman, O; Merenlender, A; Dagan, M; Bercovich, A; Lavi-Avnon, Y; Weller, A

2008-10-17

438

Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice  

SciTech Connect

The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

Chubb, C.

1987-10-01

439

Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.  

PubMed Central

The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

Chubb, C

1987-01-01

440

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2002-06-10

441

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2000-06-01

442

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2001-06-11

443

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

1999-06-01

444

Understanding public responses to genetic engineering through exploring intentions to purchase a hypothetical functional food derived from genetically modified dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the likely market response to the products of genetic engineering is crucial to their success. Views of a random selection of the public were obtained for a hypothetical milk product derived from cows genetically modified to produce a compound giving consumers protection from gastroenteritis or food poisoning. Approximately 55% of the sample (n = 1684) would not have purchased

B. H. Small; T. G. Parminter; M. W. Fisher

2005-01-01

445

Genetic engineering of woody plants: current and future targets in a stressful environment.  

PubMed

Abiotic stress is a major factor in limiting plant growth and productivity. Environmental degradation, such as drought and salinity stresses, will become more severe and widespread in the world. To overcome severe environmental stress, plant biotechnologies, such as genetic engineering in woody plants, need to be implemented. The adaptation of plants to environmental stress is controlled by cascades of molecular networks including cross-talk with other stress signaling mechanisms. The present review focuses on recent studies concerning genetic engineering in woody plants for the improvement of the abiotic stress responses. Furthermore, it highlights the recent advances in the understanding of molecular responses to stress. The review also summarizes the basis of a molecular mechanism for cell wall biosynthesis and the plant hormone responses to regulate tree growth and biomass in woody plants. This would facilitate better understanding of the control programs of biomass production under stressful conditions. PMID:21288247

Osakabe, Yuriko; Kajita, Shinya; Osakabe, Keishi

2011-02-28

446

Selection systems based on dominant-negative transcription factors for precise genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Diverse tools are available for performing genetic modifications of microorganisms. However, new methods still need to be developed for performing precise genomic engineering without introducing any undesirable side-alteration. Indeed for functional analyses of genomic elements, as well as for some industrial applications, only the desired mutation should be introduced at the locus considered. This article describes a new approach fulfilling these requirements, based on the use of selection systems consisting in truncated genes encoding dominant-negative transcription factors. We have demonstrated dominant-negative effects mediated by truncated Gal4p and Arg81p proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, interfering with galactose and arginine metabolic pathways, respectively. These genes can be used as positive and negative markers, since they provoke both growth inhibition on substrates and resistance to specific drugs. These selection markers have been successfully used for precisely deleting HO and URA3 in wild yeasts. This genetic engineering approach could be extended to other microorganisms.

Dutoit, Raphael; Dubois, Evelyne; Jacobs, Eric

2010-01-01

447

Containment of a genetically engineered microorganism during a field bioremediation application.  

PubMed

A field release of a genetically engineered microorganism was performed at the Field Lysimeter Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Six large lysimeters were filled with soil that had been contaminated with a mixture of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. A genetically engineered bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, was sprayed onto the surface of the soil during soil loading. This strain contains a fusion between the lux genes of Vibrio fischeri and the promoter for the lower pathway of naphthalene degradation, enabling the strain to become bioluminescent when it is degrading naphthalene. Release of the bacteria outside the lysimeters was monitored, using selective agar plates and one-stage Anderson air samplers. Although approximately 10(14) bacteria were sprayed during the loading process, escape was only detected sporadically; the highest incidence of bacterial escape was found when the relative humidity and wind speed were low. PMID:10222588

Ford, C Z; Sayler, G S; Burlage, R S

1999-03-01

448

Reduction of Sample Size Requirements by Bilateral Versus Unilateral Research Designs in Animal Models for Cartilage Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Advanced tissue engineering approaches for articular cartilage repair in the knee joint rely on translational animal models. In these investigations, cartilage defects may be established either in one joint (unilateral design) or in both joints of the same animal (bilateral design). We hypothesized that a lower intraindividual variability following the bilateral strategy would reduce the number of required joints. Standardized osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of 18 rabbits. In 12 animals, defects were produced unilaterally (unilateral design; n=12 defects), while defects were created bilaterally in 6 animals (bilateral design; n=12 defects). After 3 weeks, osteochondral repair was evaluated histologically applying an established grading system. Based on intra- and interindividual variabilities, required sample sizes for the detection of discrete differences in the histological score were determined for both study designs (?=0.05, ?=0.20). Coefficients of variation (%CV) of the total histological score values were 1.9-fold increased following the unilateral design when compared with the bilateral approach (26 versus 14%CV). The resulting numbers of joints needed to treat were always higher for the unilateral design, resulting in an up to 3.9-fold increase in the required number of experimental animals. This effect was most pronounced for the detection of small-effect sizes and estimating large standard deviations. The data underline the possible benefit of bilateral study designs for the decrease of sample size requirements for certain investigations in articular cartilage research. These findings might also be transferred to other scoring systems, defect types, or translational animal models in the field of cartilage tissue engineering.

Orth, Patrick; Zurakowski, David; Alini, Mauro; Cucchiarini, Magali

2013-01-01

449

Skeletal tissue engineering—from in vitro studies to large animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a tissue with a strong regenerative potential. New strategies for tissue engineering of bone should therefore only focus on defects with a certain size that will not heal spontaneously. In the development of tissue-engineered constructs many variables may play a role, e.g. the source of the cells used, the design and mechanical properties of the scaffold and the

Pieter Buma; Willem Schreurs; Nico Verdonschot

2004-01-01

450

Genetic and cellular aspects of the establishment of histocompatible stem cells: information gained from an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of patient-specific histocompatible stem cells may be an alternative for overcoming current limitations\\u000a in stem cell engineering. We are developing an animal model to assist the establishment of histocompatible, autologous stem\\u000a cells. In this process, we obtained valuable information on establishing and characterizing stem cells. As an initial step,\\u000a we succeeded in establishing histocompatible stem cells using preantral

Jeong Mook Lim; Seung Pyo Gong

2011-01-01

451

Patent analysis of genetic engineering research in Japan, Korea and Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to reveal the research growth, the distribution of research productivity and impact of genetic engineering\\u000a research in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by taking patent bibliometrics approach. This study uses quantitative methods adopt from\\u000a bibliometrics to analyze the patents granted to Japan, Korea and Taiwan by United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)\\u000a from 1991

Szu-chia Lo

2007-01-01

452

Application of EBV-based artificial chromosome to genetic engineering of mammalian cells and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gene transduction offers a fundamental technology to analyze, manipulate, and regulate functions of mammalian cells, gene delivery systems so far established remains insufficient in terms of the efficiencies of delivery and expression as well as long-term stability. We have examined various non-viral gene transduction systems, including synthetic macromolecules and physical procedures, to genetically engineer a variety of cells\\/tissues\\/organs. Noteworthy,

Tsunao Kishida; Masaharu Shin-Ya; Jiro Imanishi; Osam Mazda

2005-01-01

453

Continuous delivery of human and mouse erythropoietin in mice by genetically engineered polymer encapsulated myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transplantation of polymer encapsulated myoblasts genetically engineered to secrete erythropoietin (Epo) may obviate the need for repeated parenteral administration of recombinant Epo as a treatment for chronic renal failure, cancer or AIDS-associated anemia. To explore this possibility, the human and mouse Epo cDNAs under the control of the housekeeping mouse PGK-1 promoter were transfected into mouse C2C12 myoblasts, which

E Régulier; BL Schneider; N Déglon; Y Beuzard; P Aebischer

1998-01-01

454

Growth of genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere.  

PubMed Central

The effect of the addition of a recombinant plasmid containing the pglA gene encoding an alpha-1,4-endopolygalacturonase from Pseudomonas solanacearum on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere was determined. Despite a high level of polygalacturonase production by genetically engineered P. putida and P. aeruginosa, the results suggest that polygalacturonase production had little effect on the growth of these strains in soil or rhizosphere.

Yeung, K H; Schell, M A; Hartel, P G

1989-01-01

455

Interrogating Resistance to Targeted Therapy Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the advent of cancer genome sequencing and rationally designed targeted therapeutics, mouse models of human cancer might\\u000a seem destined to become relics of a bygone era. Instead, the engineering of mouse genomes continues to evolve, yielding versatile\\u000a and powerful research tools for modeling targeted therapy. Just as the first wave of cancer-prone transgenic mice helped unravel\\u000a the genetic events

Edward Gunther

456

Recent advances in plant biotechnology and genetic engineering for production of secondary metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time people are using plants not only as crop cultures but also for obtaining of various chemicals. Currently plants\\u000a remain one of the most important and essential sources of biologically active compounds in spite of progress in chemical or\\u000a microbial synthesis. In our review we compare potentials and perspectives of modern genetic engineering approaches for pharmaceutical\\u000a biotechnology

Y. V. Sheludko

2010-01-01

457

Probing p53 biological functions through the use of genetically engineered mouse models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p53 tumor suppressor gene is rendered dysfunctional in the majority of human cancers. To model the effects of p53 dysfunction in an experimentally manipulable organismal context, genetically engineered inbred mice have been the models of choice. Transgenic and knock-out technologies have been utilized to generate an array of different p53 germ line alterations. As expected, many (though not all)

Laura D. Attardi; Lawrence A. Donehower

2005-01-01

458

Comparison of phytase from genetically engineered Aspergillus and canola in weanling pig diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six crossbred pigs with an aver- age weight of 9.0 kg were used in a 5-wk trial to compare the efficacy of genetically engineered Aspergillus fi- cuum phytase, expressed in Aspergillus niger (Na- tuphos) or in canola seed (Phytaseed), for enhancing the utilization of phytate P in corn-soybean meal-based diets fed to young pigs and to evaluate the safety of

Z. B. Zhang; E. T. Kornegay; J. S. Radcliffe; J. H. Wilson; H. P. Veit

2009-01-01

459

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT IN U.S. AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoption of genetically engineered crops with traits for pest management has risen dramatically since their commercial introduction in the mid-1990's. The farm-level impacts of such crops on pesticide use, yields, and net returns vary with the crop and technology examined. Adoption of herbicide-tolerant cotton led to significant increase in yields and net returns, but was not associated with significant changes

Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo; William D. McBride

2000-01-01

460

Genetically-Engineered Pig-to-Baboon Liver Xenotransplantation: Histopathology of Xenografts and Native Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotopic liver transplantation was carried out in baboons using wild-type (WT, n = 1) or genetically-engineered pigs (?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout, GTKO), n = 1; GTKO pigs transgenic for human CD46, n = 7) and a clinically-acceptable immunosuppressive regimen. Biopsies were obtained from the WT pig liver pre-Tx and at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-transplantation. Biopsies of

Burcin Ekser; Edwin Klein; Jing He; Donna B. Stolz; Gabriel J. Echeverri; Cassandra Long; Chih Che Lin; Mohamed Ezzelarab; Hidetaka Hara; Massimiliano Veroux; David Ayares; David K. C. Cooper; Bruno Gridelli

2012-01-01

461

Release of transforming plasmid DNA from actively growing genetically engineered Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the transforming ability of the extracellular plasmid DNA released from a genetically engineered Escherichia coli pEGFP and the culturing conditions for the release of transforming DNA. The transforming ability was evaluated by transformation of competent cells with filtrates of E. coli pEGFP cultures. The number of transformants increased with time when E. coli pEGFP cells grew exponentially in

Nobuyoshi Ishii; Kazuaki Matsui; Shoichi Fuma; Hiroshi Takeda; Zen’ichiro Kawabata

2004-01-01

462

Genetically engineered poly-gamma-glutamate producer from Bacillus subtilis ISW1214.  

PubMed

The pgsBCA-gene disruptant from Bacillus subtilis ISW1214, i.e., MA41, does not produce poly-gamma-glutamate (PGA). We newly constructed an MA41 recombinant bearing the plasmid-borne PGA synthetic system, in which PGA production was strictly controlled by the use of xylose. Unlike the parent strain, ISW1214, the genetically engineered strain produced abundant PGA in both L-glutamate-rich and D-glutamate-rich media. PMID:16861819

Ashiuchi, Makoto; Shimanouchi, Kazuya; Horiuchi, Terumi; Kamei, Tohru; Misono, Haruo

2006-07-01

463

Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance – a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineering inherent crop resistance to insect pests offers the potential of a user-friendly, environment-friendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture in the 21st century. Work to date has concentrated on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Impressive results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been

Vaughan A. Hilder; Donald Boulter

1999-01-01

464

Three-Dimensional Structure of a Genetically Engineered Variant of Porcine Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional structure of a genetically engineered variant of porcine growth hormone, methionyl porcine somatotropin (MPS), has been determined at 2.8- angstrom resolution, using single crystal x-ray diffraction techniques. Phases were obtained by use of a single isomorphous K2OsCl6 derivative and were improved by use of the density modification procedure. The MPS structure is predominantly helical. It consists mainly of

Sherin S. Abdel-Meguid; Huey-Sheng Shieh; Ward W. Smith; Henry E. Dayringer; Bernard N. Violand; Larry A. Bentle

1987-01-01

465

Systemic delivery of human growth hormone by injection of genetically engineered myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant gene encoding human growth hormone (hGH) was stably introduced into cultured myoblasts with a retroviral vector. After injection of genetically engineered myoblasts into mouse muscle, hGH could be detected in serum for 3 months. The fate of injected myoblasts was assessed by coinfecting the cells with two retroviral vectors, one encoding hGH and the other encoding β-galactosidase from

J. Dhawan; L. C. Pan; G. K. Pavlath; M. A. Travis; A. M. Lanctot; H. M. Blau

1991-01-01

466

Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker  

SciTech Connect

Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

1990-06-01

467

Concise review: genetically engineered stem cell therapy targeting angiogenesis and tumor stroma in gastrointestinal malignancy.  

PubMed

Cell-based gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of human malignancy. Genetically engineered cells if delivered to sites of disease could alleviate symptoms or even cure cancer through expression of therapeutic or suicide transgene products. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), nonhematopoietic multipotent cells found primarily in bone marrow, have garnered particular interest as potential tumor-targeting vehicles due to their innate tumortropic homing properties. However, recent strategies go further than simply using MSCs as vehicles and use the stem cell-specific genetic make-up to restrict transgene expression to tumorigenic environments using tumor-tissue specific promoters. This addresses one of the concerns with this novel therapy that nonselective stem cell-based therapy could induce cancer rather than treat it. Even minimal off-target effects can be deleterious, motivating recent strategies to not only enhance MSC homing but also engineer them to make their antitumor effect selective to sites of malignancy. This review will summarize the advances made in the past decade toward developing novel cell-based cancer therapies using genetically engineered MSCs with a focus on strategies to achieve and enhance tumor specificity and their application to targeting gastrointestinal malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:23132810

Keung, Emily Z; Nelson, Peter J; Conrad, Claudius

2013-02-01

468

Use of Bioluminescence for Detection of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Released into the Environment  

PubMed Central

The persistence and movement of strain JS414 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, which was genetically engineered to bioluminesce, were monitored during a limited field introduction. Bioluminescence and traditional dilution plate counts were determined. Strain JS414 was applied to cabbage plants and surrounding soil by mist inoculation, by wound inoculation, by scattering infested debris among plants, and by incorporating bacteria into the soil. Bioluminescent X. campestris pv. campestris was detected in plant samples and in the rhizosphere up to 6 weeks after inoculation. Movement to uninoculated plants was detected on one occasion, but movement from the immediate release area was not detected. Strain JS414 was detected in soil samples beneath mist- and wound-inoculated plants only at intentionally infested locations and in aerial samples only on the day of inoculation. Our bioluminescence methods proved to be as sensitive as plating methods for detecting the genetically engineered microorganisms in environmental samples. Our results demonstrate that transgenic incorporation of the luxCDABE operon provides a non-labor-intensive, sensitive detection method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in nature. Images

Shaw, Joe J.; Dane, Fenny; Geiger, Dorothy; Kloepper, Joseph W.

1992-01-01

469

Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.  

PubMed

Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches. PMID:23190258

Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

2012-11-28

470

DEVELOPMENT OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED STRESS TOLERANT ETHANOLOGENIC YEASTS USING INTEGRATED FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS FOR EFFECTIVE BIOMASS CONVERSION TO ETHANOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inhibitory compounds generated during acid hydrolysis of renewable agricultural biomass interfere with subsequent ethanol fermentation. We elucidate the chemical stress tolerance mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using genomic expression analysis; and develop genetically engineered novel ethan...

471

Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.  

PubMed

Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans. PMID:17264194

Mameli, M

2007-02-01

472

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)|

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

473

Potential of Biotechnology for the Gulf Region and the Role of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB); Potential of biotechnology for the countries in the Gulf Region (Hydrocarbon microbiology, Agriculture); The role of the ICGEB in supporting research and development program...

1984-01-01

474

Different methods of genetically engineering plants ÃÂ Robert HorschSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Robert Horsch DNAi Location:Manipulation>Techniques>transferring & storing>interviews Agrobacterium or gene gun? Robert Horsch compares the random power of a gene gun with the natural genetic engineering abilities of agrobacterium.

2008-10-06

475

EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETECTING ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS FROM GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS AND PEST CONTROL AGENTS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes and evaluates research from several laboratories that deals with the detection of ecological effects induced through exposure of microbes or plants to genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMS) and microbial pest control agents (MPCAS) . The development o...

476

Genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells reduce behavioral deficits in the YAC 128 mouse model of Huntington's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the transplantation of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), genetically engineered to over-express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor deficits and neurodegeneration in YAC 128 transgenic mice. MSCs, harvested from mouse femurs, were genetically engineered to over-express BDNF and\\/or NGF and these cells, or

Nicholas D. Dey; Matthew C. Bombard; Bartholomew P. Roland; Stacy Davidson; Ming Lu; Julien Rossignol; Michael I. Sandstrom; Reid L. Skeel; Laurent Lescaudron; Gary L. Dunbar

2010-01-01

477

THE USE OF GENOMICS IN GENETIC SELECTION PROGRAMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS TOLERANCE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acclimation of domestic animals to high environmental temperature typically results in lower production as animals lower their metabolic rate and feed intake to accommodate the increased heat load, (1). Ideally, one would like to simultaneously select for increased production and thermal resistance to increased thermal load. This will require simultaneous identification and selection for improved heat dissipation and production mechanisms.

Robert J. Collier; Yasuhiro Kobayashi; Paula Gentry

478

Heteroplasmy as a common state of mitochondrial genetic information in plants and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant and animal mitochondrial genomes, although quite distinct in size, structure, expression and evolutionary dynamics both may exhibit the state of heteroplasmy—the presence of more than one type of mitochondrial genome in an organism. This review is focused on heteroplasmy in plants, but we also highlight the most striking similarities and differences between plant and animal heteroplasmy. First we summarize

Beata Kmiec; Magdalena Woloszynska; Hanna Janska

2006-01-01

479

Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineeredgenetically sterile’ (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. Conclusions/Significance After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains.

Raduan, Norzahira; Kwee Wee, Lim; Hong Ming, Wong; Guat Ney, Teoh; Rahidah A.A., Siti; Salman, Sawaluddin; Subramaniam, Selvi; Nordin, Oreenaiza; Hanum A.T., Norhaida; Angamuthu, Chandru; Marlina Mansor, Suria; Lees, Rosemary S.; Naish, Neil; Scaife, Sarah; Gray, Pam; Labbe, Genevieve; Beech, Camilla; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Han Lim, Lee; Wasi A., Nazni; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-01-01

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Genetically engineered virulent phage banks in the detection and control of emergent pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Natural outbreaks of multidrug-resistant microorganisms can cause widespread devastation, and several can be used or engineered as agents of bioterrorism. From a biosecurity standpoint, the capacity to detect and then efficiently control, within hours, the spread and the potential pathological effects of an emergent outbreak, for which there may be no effective antibiotics or vaccines, become key challenges that must be met. We turned to phage engineering