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1

ANIMAL INTEGRITY, ANIMAL DIGNITY, AND GENETIC ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bernard Rollin argues that it is permissible to change an animal’s telos through genetic engineering, if it doesn’t harm the animal’s welfare. Recent attempts to undermine his argument rely either on the claim that diminishing certain capacities always harms an animal’s welfare or on the claim that it always violates an animal’s integrity. I argue that these fail. However, respect

SARA ELIZABETH; GAVRELL ORTIZ

2004-01-01

2

Genetic Engineering and the Integrity of Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering evokes a number of objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. The concept of animal integrity is often invoked to articulate these kind of objections. Moreover, in reaction to the advent of genetic engineering, the concept has been extended from the level of

Rob De Vries

2006-01-01

3

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

4

Genetic engineering applications in animal breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbreviations: ES: embryonic stem cells ESR: estrogen receptor locus IGF-I: insulin-like growth factor I MAS: Marker-assisted selection QTL: quantitative trait loci This paper discusses the use of genetic engineering applications in animal breeding, including a description of the methods, their potential and current uses and ethical issues. Genetic engineering is the name of a group of techniques used to identify,

Hugo H. Montaldo

2006-01-01

5

Spontaneous and genetically engineered animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preclinical development of anticancer drugs has been based primarily on the transplantation of murine or human cancers into mice. Alternatives to these transplantation models are animals that naturally develop cancers with features relevant to the human disease. The first group of these models arises in mice that are genetically engineered to develop cancer. The second group includes pet dogs

K Hansen; C Khanna

2004-01-01

6

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

7

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

8

‘Ethical concepts regarding the genetic engineering of laboratory animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic value and animal integrity are two key concepts in the debate on the ethics of the genetic engineering of laboratory\\u000a animals. These concepts have, on the one hand, a theoretical origin and are, on the other hand, based on the moral beliefs\\u000a of people not directly involved in the genetic modification of animals. This ‘external’ origin raises the question

R. B. M. de Vries

2006-01-01

9

Genetically engineered mice as animal models for NIDDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered animals carrying defined alterations in their genome can represent invaluable tools for better understanding complex polygenic diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) at the molecular level. The structure or expression of a number of genes potentially involved in insulin action or pancreatic ?-cell function have recently been altered in the mouse using transgenic or gene-targeting approaches. The

Rajiv L Joshi; Betty Lamothe; Danielle Bucchini; Jacques Jami

1997-01-01

10

Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands and Joost P Schanstra*  

E-print Network

1 Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands Genetically Engineered Animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end stage renal.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00486.x #12;2 Short title Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

12

Bad Ethics, Good Ethics and the Genetic Engineering of Animals in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineers have been remiss in addressing ethical and social issues emerging from this powerful new technology, a technology whose implications for agriculture are profound. As a conse- quence of this failure, society has been uneasy about genetic engineering of animals and has had difficulty distinguishing between genuine and spurious ethical issues the technology occasions. Many of the most prominent

Bernard E. Rollin

2010-01-01

13

DO GENETICALLY ENGINEERED (GE) CROPS IMPACT ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD PRODUCTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically engineered (GE) varieties of alfalfa, a major livestock feedstuff, raises questions about the effects of feeding this product to food-producing animals. There is a wealth of peer-reviewed studies examining the effects of feeding GE crops to livestock. Hundreds of scientific studies have found no difference in the productive performance or health of livestock that have been

Alison Van Eenennaam

14

Facilitation of an international approach for data sharing and acquisition in relation to genetically-engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) published CCAC guidelines on: transgenic animals. Because this was recognized to be a rapidly evolving field, a commitment was made to revise the guidelines within a few years. CCAC is now working on draft guidelines on: genetically-engineered animals. This paper outlines some of the changes that are being proposed in the

Gilly Griffin; Clément Gauthier

15

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille  

E-print Network

Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism a wide variety of genetically modified organisms have been created to date for numerous research purposesGenetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department

Sibille, Etienne

16

The emergence of the genetically engineered animal models in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: a case study of process innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explain the emergence of new short-term tests for carcinogenicity involving genetically engineered animals for the purposes of pharmaceutical regulation. Drawing on some long-standing theories of technological innovation, we argue that the alteration of carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals, which occurred from 1998, did not result solely, or perhaps even mainly, from internal logical and technical developments

John Abraham; Rachel Ballinger

2012-01-01

17

Zinc-finger nucleases: a powerful tool for genetic engineering of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of genetically modified animals or plants with gene-targeted deletions or modifications is a powerful tool\\u000a to analyze gene function, study disease and produce organisms of economical interest. Until recently, the generation of animals\\u000a with gene targeted manipulations has been accomplished by homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells or cloning\\u000a through nuclear transfer and has been limited

Séverine Rémy; Laurent Tesson; Séverine Ménoret; Claire Usal; Andrew M. Scharenberg; Ignacio Anegon

2010-01-01

18

Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Discovery Education website serves as a repository of instructional materials for educators seeking to help their charges learn about everything from the solar system to genetically modified organisms. This particular lesson plan deals with the science and technology of genetic engineering and it is intended to be used by advanced high school and community college students. Users will appreciate the fact that the entire plan is well-organized and divided into 12 sections including Objectives, Discussion Questions, and Procedures. The Discussion Questions are thoughtful and well-articulated and one can imagine that each query might generate more than a bit of meditation and close consideration.

Morrissette-Johnson, Winona

19

Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

20

Genetic Engineering and Other Factors That Might Affect Human-Animal Interactions in the Research Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence exists, particularly in the welfare literature of nonhuman animals on the farm, that the interaction between nonhuman animals and the personnel who care for them can have a strong effect on the animals' behavior, productivity, and welfare. Among species commonly used for biomedical research, mice appear to be the least-preferred species in animal care facilities. A review of the

Julie Comber; Gilly Griffin

2007-01-01

21

Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general look at the process of crop genetic engineering.This is the first of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. The six lessons after this are DNA and DNA Extraction, Gene Cloning, Gene Regions, Gene Modification, Gene Gun, and Backcross Breeding.

22

Patents for genetically modified animals.  

PubMed

Should genetically engineered animals be patented? This issue has been one of the most contentious as lawmakers have grappled with how best to protect intellectual property. Since the 1980 case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a living microorganism is patentable, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has determined that plants and nonhuman animals can be patented. These policy decisions have led to congressional debate on whether animals should be patentable subject matter. Patenting of living organisms is unique for three reasons: the invention itself is alive; the invention in some instances can reproduce itself; and the invention sometimes cannot be adequately described for patent specification purposes, leading to the need for deposit of the invention for patent purposes. PMID:8505268

O'Connor, K W

1993-01-01

23

Genetic engineering in floriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global flower industry thrives on novelty. Genetic engineering is providing a valuable means of expanding the floriculture gene pool so promoting the generation of new commercial varieties. Commercialisation of genetically engineered flowers is currently confined to novel coloured carnations. However, further products are expected given the level of activity in the field. In general terms engineered traits are valuable

Yoshikazu Tanaka; Yukihisa Katsumoto; Filippa Brugliera; John Mason

2005-01-01

24

Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this

Carl A. PINKERT

2003-01-01

25

Genetically engineered foods  

MedlinePLUS

... Health, National Research Council. Safety of genetically engineered foods: Approaches to assessing unintended health effects. National Academies Press. 2004. Key S, Ma JK, Drake PM. Genetically modified plants and human health. J R Soc Med. ...

26

Genetic engineering in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone;

C. A. Bedate; J. C. Morales; E. H. Lopez

1981-01-01

27

Genetically engineered neural transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural transmission is a communication between neurons and target cells, resulting in behavioral and physiological changes. Defective or altered neural transmission is thought to occur in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses. To probe the biological consequences of defective or altered neural transmission, various genetically engineered transgenic mouse models have been developed, together with conventional pharmacological manipulation. Via genetic manipulation, we are

J H Son; T H Joh

1997-01-01

28

[Applications of genetically modified animals].  

PubMed

The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

Houdebine, Louis-Marie

2009-01-01

29

Genetic Engineering in Floriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous attractive floricultural crops have been developed by extensive hybridization and mutational breeding which suffer\\u000a from genetic constraint intrinsic to each plant species. Breeding by utilizing genetic engineering has liberated such constraint\\u000a and any genes from any organisms can be used to make novel floricultural crops. Novel violet\\/blue colored carnation and rose\\u000a have been developed by expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes

Yoshikazu Tanaka; Ryutaro Aida

30

Phenomenology and Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaving aside the residual issues of alleged benefits and possible misfortunes, I suggest that genetic modification is something fundamentally different in scope from traditional techniques of animal and crop selection. The difference lies in the Aristotelian understanding of what a thing, in fact, is. According to Aristotle in his Physics, a thing, a being, a tomato, etc. is what it

D. W. Lauer

31

Lignin genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lignins play important roles in plants, they often represent an obstacle to the utilization of plant biomass in different areas: pulp industry, forage digestibility. The recent characterization of different lignification genes has stimulated research programmes aimed at modifying the lignin profiles of plants through genetic engineering (antisense and sense suppression of gene expression). The first transgenic plants with a

Alain M. Boudet; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati

1996-01-01

32

Paper Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

33

Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.

JONATHAN W. MOORE (;)

2006-03-01

34

Progress and prospects: genetic engineering in xenotransplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we summarize the work published over the last 2 years using genetic modifications of animals in the field of xenotransplantation. Genetic engineering of the donor has become a powerful tool in xenotransplantation, both for the inactivation of one particular porcine gene and for the addition of human genes with the goal of overcoming xenogeneic barriers. We summarize

S Le Bas-Bernardet; I Anegon; G Blancho

2008-01-01

35

Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

36

Safe genetically engineered plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

2007-10-01

37

Genetic engineering and the patent office  

SciTech Connect

Higher life forms created through genetic engineering are now recognized as potentially patentable. On 7 April 1987, the US Patent and Trademark Office announced that it now considers non-naturally occurring non-human multi-cellular living organisms, including animals, to be patentable subject matter. The response to this announcement has been an emotion controversy centering on the patent office. The announcement has become the lightning rod for all of the practical and moral questions surrounding the overwhelming potential of genetic engineering. Environmentalists claim that genetic engineering will ruin the ecology. The Humane Society of the US, headquartered in Washington, DC, claims that genetic engineering will cause undo suffering to animals produced through genetic experiments and may ultimately lead to the demise of overly engineered animal species. Religious fundamentalists claim that genetic engineering is wrongfully tinkering with the handiwork of the Almighty. While it may be good that such questions are being raised, the patent office is being wrongly singled out as the source of the problem. This paper discusses the legal problems that patents on new lifeforms have caused.

Sheldon, J.G.; Anderson, D.L.

1987-10-01

38

Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Its Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how engineers apply their understanding of DNA to manipulate specific genes to produce desired traits, and how engineers have used this practice to address current problems facing humanity. They learn what genetic engineering means and examples of its applications, as well as moral and ethical problems related to its implementation. Students fill out a flow chart to list the methods to modify genes to create GMOs and example applications of bacteria, plant and animal GMOs.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

39

GENETIC ALGORITHMS CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING P. J. FLEMING R. C. PURSHOUSE Department. 789 May 2001 #12;Genetic algorithms in control systems engineering P. J. Fleming and R. C. Purshouse of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering University of Sheffield Sheffield, S1 3JD UK Research Report No

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

40

Therapeutic uses of microencapsulated genetically engineered cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microencapsulated genetically engineered cells have the potential to treat a wide range of diseases. For example, in experimental animals, implanted microencapsulated cells have been used to secrete growth hormone to treat dwarfism, neurotrophic factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ?-endorphin to decrease pain, factor XI for hemophilia B, and nerve growth factors to protect axotomized neurons. For some applications, microencapsulated cells

Satya Prakash

1998-01-01

41

Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

Boone, C. Keith

1984-01-01

42

Genetically Engineered Food: The Science Behind the  

E-print Network

Genetically Engineered Food: The Science Behind the Controversy Toby Bradshaw Washington Research that you: · Know more, and perhaps worry less, about the genetic engineering (GE) of food plants · Know;Genetically engineered (GE) or genetically modified (GM)? · Genetic engineering -- Intentional transfer

Bradshaw, Toby

43

International Patent Trends in Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering  

NSF Publications Database

International Patent Trends in Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering (June 18, 1999) This report is ... This report examines international patenting of genetic engineering technologies as a proxy for ...

44

Genetically engineered antibodies and their application to brain delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques of genetic engineering and expression have been applied to the production of antibodies in a variety of expression systems. Combinatorial libraries produced in bacteriophage may present an alternative to animal immunization as a source of antigen-binding specificities. Transfectomas which express genetically engineered antibody genes provide one approach to overcoming some of the limitations inherent in classical monoclonal antibodies. Novel

Sherie L. Morrison; Seung-Uon Shin

1995-01-01

45

Environmental risks of genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Before release into commerce, genetically engineered organisms are first assessed for possible risks, including risks to the\\u000a environment. The present paper first identifies the environmental risks recognized by regulators, and reviews the parameters\\u000a considered predictive of risk. Recent field-scale studies suggest opportunities for improvement of the environmental risk\\u000a assessment process. Risks unique to genetically engineered crops – if any –

E. Ann Clark

2006-01-01

46

Genetic engineering of Minnesota superfish.  

PubMed

There is a chronic need to develop growth-enhanced fish for aquaculture. To meet this need we have developed techniques for genetically engineering fish to grow larger and faster. We found that the major difficulty in genetically engineering fish is the extremely high rate of mosaicism due to the late integration of transgenes into the genome. This delay also reduces the chances of passage of the transgene through the germ line. Consequently, we have engineered new vectors and mechanisms for accelerating the rate of integration of exogenous DNA into fish chromosomes. PMID:8652135

Hackett, P B

1996-01-01

47

Photothermal Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Optical methods for manipulation of cellular function have enabled deconstruction of genetic and neural circuits in vitro and in vivo. Plasmonic gold nanomaterials provide an alternative platform for external optical ...

Deisseroth, Karl

48

The farm animal genetic resources of Montenegro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review of farm animal genetic resources, degree of danger of extinction and way of preservation of certain autochthonous breeds of livestock in Montenegro was the aim of this article. Origin, geographical distribution, population size, morphological and productive traits of the important populations of livestock, as brachyceros breed of cattle - Busha, coarse wool domestic breeds of sheep (Pivska, Zetska

Bozidarka Markovic; M. Markovic; N. Adzic

2007-01-01

49

Genetic Engineering Workshop Report, 2010  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies (TMT) program. The high-level goal of TMT is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve this goal, there is a need to assess the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, potential application as well as detection and mitigation strategies. LLNL was tasked to coordinate a workshop to determine the scope of investments that DTRA should make to stay current with the rapid advances in genetic engineering technologies, so that accidental or malicious uses of GE technologies could be adequately detected and characterized. Attachment A is an earlier report produced by LLNL for TMT that provides some relevant background on Genetic Engineering detection. A workshop was held on September 23-24, 2010 in Springfield, Virginia. It was attended by a total of 55 people (see Attachment B). Twenty four (44%) of the attendees were academic researchers involved in GE or bioinformatics technology, 6 (11%) were from DTRA or the TMT program management, 7 (13%) were current TMT performers (including Jonathan Allen and Tom Slezak of LLNL who hosted the workshop), 11 (20%) were from other Federal agencies, and 7 (13%) were from industries that are involved in genetic engineering. Several attendees could be placed in multiple categories. There were 26 attendees (47%) who were from out of the DC area and received travel assistance through Invitational Travel Orders (ITOs). We note that this workshop could not have been as successful without the ability to invite experts from outside of the Beltway region. This workshop was an unclassified discussion of the science behind current genetic engineering capabilities. US citizenship was not required for attendance. While this may have limited some discussions concerning risk, we felt that it was more important for this first workshop to focus on the scientific state of the art. We also consciously chose to not dwell on matters of policy (for example, screening of commercial gene or oligo synthesis orders), as multiple other forums for policy discussion have taken place in recent years. We acknowledge that other workshops on topics relevant to genetic engineering should be held, some of which may need to take place at higher classification levels. The workshop moderators would like to acknowledge the enthusiastic participation of the attendees in the discussions. Special thanks are given to Sofi Ibrahim, for his extensive assistance on helping this report reach its final form. The genetic engineering workshop brought together a diverse mix of genetic engineering pioneers and experts, Federal agency representatives concerned with abuses of genetic engineering, TMT performers, bioinformatics experts, and representatives from industry involved with large-scale genetic engineering and synthetic biology. Several talks established the current range of genetic engineering capabilities and the relative difficulties of identifying and characterizing the results of their use. Extensive discussions established a number of recommendations to DTRA of how to direct future research investments so that any mis-use of genetic engineering techniques can be promptly identified and characterized.

Allen, J; Slezak, T

2010-11-03

50

Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

1991-01-01

51

Public Responses to Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Public Responses to Genetic Engineering Betsy Hanson and Dorothy Nelkin Free Associations Mervyn the institutional formula of Western Europe and the United States: private property, market price sys- tems progressive. As the Dupont Company has reminded us for decades, there is better living through better

Delaware, University of

52

Animal Models for Genetic Neuromuscular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal,\\u000a sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of\\u000a progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have\\u000a been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models

Mariz Vainzof; Danielle Ayub-Guerrieri; Paula C. G. Onofre; Poliana C. M. Martins; Vanessa F. Lopes; Dinorah Zilberztajn; Lucas S. Maia; Karen Sell; Lydia U. Yamamoto

2008-01-01

53

Genetically engineered cytoplasmic male sterility.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility, conditioned by some maternally inherited plant mitochondrial genomes, is the most expedient method to produce uniform populations of pollen-sterile plants on a commercial scale. Plant mitochondrial genomes are not currently amenable to genetic transformation, but genetic manipulation of the plastid genome allows engineering of maternally inherited traits in some species. A recent study has shown that the Acinetobacter beta-ketothiolase gene, expressed in the Nicotiana tabacum plastid, conditions maternally inherited male sterility, laying the groundwork for new approaches to control pollen fertility in crop plants. PMID:16356756

Chase, Christine D

2006-01-01

54

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic  

E-print Network

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic Purity of Seed Stocks KENT J yield. Seeds carry the genetic traits incorporated by years of breeding and selection to create quality. The genetic purity of seeds (i.e., the percentage of contamination by seeds or genetic material

Bradford, Kent

55

MILESTONES LEADING TO THE GENETIC ENGINEERING OF BACULOVIRUSES AS EXPRESSION  

E-print Network

MILESTONES LEADING TO THE GENETIC ENGINEERING OF BACULOVIRUSES AS EXPRESSION VECTOR SYSTEMS and Infection VI. Genetically Engineered Viral Pesticides A. Development of Genetically Engineered Baculovirus, therapeutics, and diagnostics. The genetic engineering of the baculovirus polyhedrin gene promoter

Summers, Max D.

56

Genetic engineering and modern enzymology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of genetic engineering in the solution of problems involving enzymology is demonstrated. The method for the cloning and mutagenesis of protein and enzyme genes and the possibilities of genetic engineering for the study of the structure and functions of enzymes and their active centres and for the determination of the relation between the structure and stability of protein molecules are examined. The role of directed site-specific mutagenesis in the study of the structure and mechanism of the action of enzymes as well as their stability is indicated. The investigation of the mechanism and factors determining the stability of enzymes with the aid of aminoacid substitutions has led to prospects for protein design — the creation of proteins with new specified properties and improved stability. The bibliography includes 301 references.

Kutuzova, G. D.; Dement'eva, E. I.; Ugarova, N. N.

1989-11-01

57

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

2014-01-01

58

Genetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in WalnutGenetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in Walnut Bei Fei and Richard Meilan  

E-print Network

Genetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in WalnutGenetic Engineering of Reproductive plantations, fine hardwoods are being genetically engineered for a variety of commercially important traits conditions. Objectives Develop a stable and reliable system to genetically engineer reproductive sterility

59

Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

2012-01-01

60

Genetically engineered plants: environmental issues  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant DNA technology and the universality of the genetic code make it possible to transfer genes from other organisms including those in other phyla, into plants. Cultivating genetically engineered crop plants might pose two environmental risks: negative environmental effects of a modified genotype itself and the possible movement of that unique DNA to other organisms. In order to properly assess which experiments should be done and under what conditions an overseeing group is needed, a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) overseeing group could gather reviewers familiar with the issues of DNA technology and could assert jurisdiction over the independently run state agricultural organisations. A group of reputable scientists in the appropriate fields could analyse the scientific issues.

Hauptli, H.; Newell, N.; Goodman, R.M.

1985-05-01

61

Coevolution in Commercial Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

article addresses the problem of selection criteria and mechanisms at work in the production of scientific and technological knowledge. The two dichotomies of scientific-technological knowledge and public—private returns are used to specify four ideal-type environments, which consist of institutions and incentives and which influence the creation and selection of new knowledge. The theoretical arguments about knowledge evolution over time in relation to different selection environments and about coevolution of knowledge producers and institutions are then examined in the case of commercial genetic engineering for Pharmaceuticals. 1.

Maureen Mckelvey

62

Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

63

Genetic Engineering Challenge - Preventing Vitamin A Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Genetic Engineering Challenge - How can scientists develop a type of rice that could prevent vitamin A deficiency?" is an analysis and discussion activity. This activity begins with an introduction to vitamin A deficiency, rice seeds, and genetic engineering. Next, several questions challenge students to design a basic plan that could produce a genetically engineered rice plant that makes rice grains that contain pro-vitamin A. Subsequent information and questions guide students in developing an understanding of the basic techniques of genetic engineering. Students use fundamental molecular biology concepts as they think about how to solve a practical problem. This activity can be used to introduce students to genetic engineering or to reinforce basic understanding of genetic engineering.

Waldron, Ingrid

64

Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations  

E-print Network

Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations Fred W. Allendorf1,2,3 , Phillip R. England4~o, Portugal 6 Division of Population Genetics, Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, S-10691 of population subdivision, loss of genetic variation, and selective genetic changes. To sustain the productivity

65

Phytoremediation of Organomercurial Compounds via Chloroplast Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg), especially in organic form, is a highly toxic pollutant affecting plants, animals, and man. In plants, the primary target of Hg damage is the chloroplast; Hg inhibits electron transport and photosynthesis. In the present study, chloroplast genetic engineering is used for the first time to our knowledge to enhance the capacity of plants for phyto- remediation. This was

Oscar N. Ruiz; Hussein S. Hussein; Norman Terry; Henry Daniell

2003-01-01

66

Genetically Engineered Mengo Virus Vaccination of Multiple Captive Wildlife Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Au-

Kay A. Backues; Marchel Hill; Ann C. Palmenberg; Christine Miller; Kenneth F. Soike

67

Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.

2008-10-06

68

Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae  

PubMed Central

Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization. PMID:24710110

Rasala, Beth A.; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

69

V.: A genetic engineering approach to genetic algorithms  

E-print Network

We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard GA, it provides some computational advantages as well as a tool for automatic generation of hierarchical genetic representations specifically tailored to suit certain classes of problems.

John S. Gero; Vladimir Kazakov

70

Genetic Heterogeneity of Cloned Animal Virus Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE procedure used to purify genetically a virus preparation does not guarantee the homogeneity of the derived population1. Genetic purity can be defined by markers characteristic of a given virus. During studies of the selective effects of cloned and uncloned lines of human epithelial cells on a relatively non-cytopathic strain of type 2 poliovirus, MEF12,3, efforts to obtain genetically pure

Kenneth J. McCormick; William H. Murphy

1969-01-01

71

Genetically Engineered Mice: The Holes in the Sum of the Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few can refute the enormous impact that genetically engineered mice have had on biomedical research. In the 18 years since Gordon and colleagues first reported that cloned genes injected into the pronuclei of mouse zygotes could integrate with the genome to be subsequently ex- pressed like endogenous genes (1), genetically engineered mice have carved out an unprecedented share of animal-

David G. Brownstein

72

[Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].  

PubMed

Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling. PMID:23338641

Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

2012-01-01

73

Monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in freshwater microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effectiveness of gene probe methods for tracking genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in the environment was tested by inoculating nutrient-supplemented freshwater microcosms withAlcaligenes A5 (a naturally occurring 4-chlorobiphenyl degrader) orPseudomonas cepacia AC1100 (a genetically engineered 2, 4, 5 T-degrader) and following the fates of the introduced bacterial populations. Colony hybridization of the viable heterotrophic bacterial populations and dot blot

R. J. Steffan; A. Breen; R. M. Atlas; G. S. Sayler

1989-01-01

74

Genetic engineering and new pollution control technologies  

SciTech Connect

This book documents the basis for using genetic technology to develop new pollution controls for waste treatment. It describes the state of the art and recommends future research. In addition it provides background information for decision-makers in the evaluation of opportunities for improving biological waste treatment. The following subject areas are included: pollution problems; potentially amenable to genetic engineering; gene manipulation methods; limits to biodegradation; and release to the environment of engineered microorganisms.

Johnston, J.B.; Robinson, S.G.

1984-01-01

75

Congenital hydrocephalus in genetically engineered mice.  

PubMed

There is evidence that genetic factors play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Identification of the genes involved in the development of this neurologic disorder in animal models may elucidate factors responsible for the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in hydrocephalic humans. The authors report here a brief summary of findings from 12 lines of genetically engineered mice that presented with autosomal recessive congenital hydrocephalus. This study illustrates the value of knockout mice in identifying genetic factors involved in the development of congenital hydrocephalus. Findings suggest that dysfunctional motile cilia represent the underlying pathogenetic mechanism in 8 of the 12 lines (Ulk4, Nme5, Nme7, Kif27, Stk36, Dpcd, Ak7, and Ak8). The likely underlying cause in the remaining 4 lines (RIKEN 4930444A02, Celsr2, Mboat7, and transgenic FZD3) was not determined, but it is possible that some of these could also have ciliary defects. For example, the cerebellar malformations observed in RIKEN 4930444A02 knockout mice show similarities to a number of developmental disorders, such as Joubert, Meckel-Gruber, and Bardet-Biedl syndromes, which involve mutations in cilia-related genes. Even though the direct relevance of mouse models to hydrocephalus in humans remains uncertain, the high prevalence of familial patterns of inheritance for congenital hydrocephalus in humans suggests that identification of genes responsible for development of hydrocephalus in mice may lead to the identification of homologous modifier genes and susceptibility alleles in humans. Also, characterization of mouse models can enhance understanding of important cell signaling and developmental pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. PMID:21746835

Vogel, P; Read, R W; Hansen, G M; Payne, B J; Small, D; Sands, A T; Zambrowicz, B P

2012-01-01

76

Genetically engineered dual-band fractal antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractal antenna engineering concepts have been successfully combined with genetic algorithms to develop a powerful design optimization tool. The genetic optimization approach developed can simultaneously optimize the geometry of a fractal antenna, locations of loads, component values of loads, and the projected length of the fractal antenna. The results suggest that a 30-55% size reduction can be achieved by optimizing

D. H. Werner; P. L. Werner

2001-01-01

77

Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from the blood of patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer these cells to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will then be multiplied and infused into the patients to fight their cancer.

78

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

E-print Network

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Ivan ion channels as well, and introduce the genetically engineered, light-controlled nAChR (Lin proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light- sensitive ligands, innately `blind

Trauner, Dirk

79

Pertussis toxins, other antigens become likely targets for genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

Genetically engineered pertussis vaccines have yet to be fully tested clinically. But early human, animal, and in vitro studies indicate effectiveness in reducing toxic effects due to Bordetella pertussis. The licensed pertussis vaccines consists of inactivated whole cells of the organism. Although highly effective, they have been associated with neurologic complications. While the evidence continues to mount that these complications are extremely rare, if they occur at all, it has affected the public's acceptance of pertussis immunization.

Marwick, C.

1990-11-14

80

Genetic engineering and the use of bovine somatotropin  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade there has been an unfortunate reappearance in our society of an antitechnology and antiscience attitude. This is exemplified by those advocates who would ban all animals in research and block fetal tissue studies and by those who support creationism. An especially vocal group consists of those people who are against any form of genetic engineering regardless of the benefits or potential benefits that might be realized.

Grossman, C.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA) Xavier Univ., Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1990-08-22

81

EMBR - A Realtime Animation Engine for Interactive Embodied Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embodied agents are a powerful paradigm for current and future multimodal interfaces, yet require high eort and expertise for their creation, assembly and animation control. Therefore, open anima- tion engines and high-level control languages are required to make em- bodied agents accessible to researchers and developers. In this paper, we present EMBR, a new realtime character animation engine that of-

Alexis Heloir; Michael Kipp

2009-01-01

82

Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tutorial and overview of genetic algorithms for electromagnetic optimization. Genetic-algorithm (GA) optimizers are robust, stochastic search methods modeled on the concepts of natural selection and evolution. The relationship between traditional optimization techniques and the GA is discussed. Step-by-step implementation aspects of the GA are detailed, through an example with the objective of providing useful guidelines for

J. Michael Johnson; V. Rahmat-Samii

1997-01-01

83

Genetic Engineering of Probiotic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the advent of the era of genomics and proteomics, the molecular mechanisms of beneficial characteristics of probiotics\\u000a are gradually being elucidated. These studies while paving the way for concrete evidence of the beneficial effects of probiotics\\u000a have also lead to the idea of improved probiotics through genetic modification. Genetically Modified (GM) probiotics are mainly\\u000a concerned with the improved survival

T. C. Bamunuarachchige; H. A. M. Wickramasinghe; D. M. J. C. Dissanayaka; N. A. D. Wickramarathna

84

Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. PMID:24741309

Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; MacKay, J Andrew

2014-01-01

85

Genetically engineered pesticide biodegradation by Gliocladium virens  

E-print Network

GENETICALLY ENGINEERFD PESTICIDE BIODEGRADATION BY GLIOCZADIUM VIRENS A Thesis by JANET MARIE SUPAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Maj or Subj ect: Plant Pathology GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PESTICIDE BIODEGRADATION BY GLIOGLADIVM UIRENS A Thesis by JANET MARIE SUPAK Approved as to style and content by: A' Michael D. Thomas (Co-Ch of Committee) Charles M...

Supak, Janet Marie

2012-06-07

86

Genetic engineering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a review.  

PubMed

Genetic engineering has been used for decades to mutate and delete genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome with the translational goal of producing attenuated mutants with conserved susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics. The development of plasmids and mycobacteriophages that can transfer DNA into the M. tuberculosis chromosome has effectively overcome M. tuberculosis slow growth rate and the capsule and mycolic acid wall, which limit DNA uptake. The use of genetic engineering techniques has shed light on many aspects of pathogenesis mechanisms, including cellular growth, mycolic acid biosynthesis, metabolism, drug resistance and virulence. Moreover, such research gave clues to the development of new vaccines or new drugs for routine clinical practice. The use of genetic engineering tools is mainly based on the underlying concept that altering or reducing the M. tuberculosis genome could decrease its virulence. A contrario, recent post-genomic analyses indicated that reduced bacterial genomes are often associated with increased bacterial virulence and that M. tuberculosis acquired genes by lateral genetic exchange during its evolution. Therefore, ancestors utilizing genetic engineering to add genes to the M. tuberculosis genome may lead to new vaccines and the availability of M. tuberculosis isolates with increased susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics. PMID:22789498

Lamrabet, Otmane; Drancourt, Michel

2012-09-01

87

"This food may contain ..." What nurses should know about genetically engineered foods.  

PubMed

Genetic engineering has been in existence since 1973. The process involves placing genetic DNA from one organism into another. Genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) are the name given to such new species of plants created through this process. Proponents of GEOs assert that foods we are now able to produce have greater nutritional value, longer shelf life, better appearance, taste and smell. There are positive benefits to genetic engineering of plants and animals. A growing concern for the health safety of genetically engineered plants and foods is developing among the cautious. The purpose of this article is to define genetic engineering, present benefits and risks, describe the impact on human health, and address implications for nursing. PMID:15499316

Whitney, Stuart L; Maltby, Hendrika J; Carr, Jeanine M

2004-01-01

88

Animal Models for Vascular Tissue-Engineering  

PubMed Central

Due to rise in cardiovascular disease throughout the world, there is increasing demand for small diameter blood vessels as replacement grafts. The present review focuses on the animal models that have been used to test small-diameter TEVs with emphasis on the attributes of each model. Small animal models are used to test short-term patency and address mechanistic hypotheses; and large, pre-clinical animal models are employed to test long-term patency, remodeling and function in an environment mimicking human physiology. We also discuss recent clinical trials that employed laboratory fabricated TEVs and showed very promising results. Ultimately, animal models provide a testing platform for optimizing vascular grafts before clinical use in patients without suitable autologous vessels. PMID:23769861

Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

2013-01-01

89

GENETIC ENGINEERING USING HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In the past few years, in vivo technologies have emerged that, due to their efficiency and simplicity, may one day replace standard genetic engineering tech- niques. Constructs can be made on plasmids or directly on the Escherichia colichromo- some from PCR products or synthetic oligonucleotides by homologous recombination. This is possible because bacteriophage-encoded recombination functions efficiently re- combine

Donald L. Court; James A. Sawitzke; Lynn C. Thomason

2002-01-01

90

Genetically engineered mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and motor neuron disease. Here we emphasize the use of genetically engineered mouse models that are instrumental for understanding why AD is a neuronal disease, and for validating attractive therapeutic targets. In motor neuron diseases, Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase and survival motor neuron

Huaibin Cai; David R. Borchelt; Donald L. Price; Philip C. Wong

2002-01-01

91

Integrated Pest Management and Genetically Engineered Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. EU directives lay down, that genetically engineered (GE) organisms should neither cause direct nor indirect negative (acute or long-term) effects and pesticide use should be founded on the principles of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is an important international political goal. 2. Results of field tests and studies on integrated farming and on the agricultural practice in GE

G. Schütte

92

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

93

What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2000-01-01

94

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

95

Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle  

PubMed Central

There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492

2011-01-01

96

Lecturers and Academic Staff: Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Lecturers and Academic Staff: Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Full-Time Total Technicians and Teaching Assistants The Departments of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering have a number and genetic engineering. Inthe very nearfuture it is seriously considering establishing a M~ters program

97

Animal Models for the Evaluation of Tissue Engineering Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the last decade, tissue engineering has attracted a considerable amount of attention in medical research. Obviously, tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs need to be tested for their safety and efficacy before they can be used in the daily clinic. At present, animal\\u000a models offer the best possibility to do so. Each medical specialty favors its own specific model to test tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs.

Daniel A. W. Oortgiesen; Gert J. Meijer; Rob B. M. Vries; X. Frank Walboomers; John A. Jansen

98

Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering.  

PubMed Central

Viruses have developed successful strategies for propagation at the expense of their host cells. Efficient gene expression, genome multiplication, and invasion of the host are enabled by virus-encoded genetic elements, many of which are well characterized. Sequences derived from plant DNA and RNA viruses can be used to control expression of other genes in vivo. The main groups of plant virus genetic elements useful in genetic engineering are reviewed, including the signals for DNA-dependent and RNA-dependent RNA synthesis, sequences on the virus mRNAs that enable translational control, and sequences that control processing and intracellular sorting of virus proteins. Use of plant viruses as extrachromosomal expression vectors is also discussed, along with the issue of their stability. PMID:8531885

Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J

1995-01-01

99

Molecular-based environmental risk assessment of three varieties of genetically engineered cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of animal biotechnology has led to an increase in attention to biosafety issues. Here we evaluated the impact\\u000a of genetically engineered cows on the environment. The probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial\\u000a communities in cow gut and soil were tested using three varieties of genetically engineered cows that were previously transformed\\u000a with a

Jianxiang Xu; Jie Zhao; Jianwu Wang; Yaofeng Zhao; Lei Zhang; Mingxing Chu; Ning Li

100

Environmentally friendly approaches to genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Several environmental problems related to plant genetic engineering may prohibit advancement of this technology and prevent\\u000a realization of its full potential. One such common concern is the demonstrated escape of foreign genes through pollen dispersal\\u000a from transgenic crop plants to their weedy relatives, creating super weeds or causing gene pollution among other crops or\\u000a toxicity of transgenic pollen to nontarget

Henry Daniell

1999-01-01

101

Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria as biodiesel feedstock.  

SciTech Connect

Algal biofuels are a renewable energy source with the potential to replace conventional petroleum-based fuels, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The economic feasibility of commercial algal fuel production, however, is limited by low productivity of the natural algal strains. The project described in this SAND report addresses this low algal productivity by genetically engineering cyanobacteria (i.e. blue-green algae) to produce free fatty acids as fuel precursors. The engineered strains were characterized using Sandia's unique imaging capabilities along with cutting-edge RNA-seq technology. These tools are applied to identify additional genetic targets for improving fuel production in cyanobacteria. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates successful fuel production from engineered cyanobacteria, identifies potential limitations, and investigates several strategies to overcome these limitations. This project was funded from FY10-FY13 through the President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a program sponsored by the LDRD office at Sandia National Laboratories.

Ruffing, Anne M.; Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Jones, Howland D. T.

2013-01-01

102

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

Engineering, Virginia Tech Katharine F. Knowlton, Assistant Professor, Dairy Science, Virginia Tech on the environment. Although most environmental concerns related to animal agriculture have focused on water quality by-product of animal waste due to the often inefficient conversion of feed nitrogen into animal

Liskiewicz, Maciej

103

How genetic analysis tests theories of animal aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each animal species displays a specific life span, rate of aging and pattern of development of age-dependent diseases. The genetic bases of these related features are being studied experimentally in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems as well as in humans through medical records. Three types of mutants are being analyzed: (i) short-lived mutants that are prone to age-dependent diseases and

Siegfried Hekimi

2006-01-01

104

Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling  

E-print Network

Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling Jesper contained in the genetic circuit. A natural plan of attack is to use a forward engineering approach, wherebyDynamics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215; Division of Computational Biology

Babu, M. Madan

105

Dep. Of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Study plan(2005-2006)  

E-print Network

Dep. Of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Study plan(2005-2006) First semesterMicrobiology lab1 240216 or Con 240231Genetics3240107 240233Cell Biology3240107240232Genetics lab1 240232 240234Hu man Genetics2240231240352 Environmental Biotechnology 3240216 240335Cytogenetics1240234240471

106

Philadelphia University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Philadelphia University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Haematology Syllabus-General Aspects 2 1 Types of Anemias 3, 4. 5 2 Genetic Disorders of Haemoglobin 6 3 Bone Marrow Disorders 7 2

107

Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  

PubMed

Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

2014-01-01

108

Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.  

PubMed

It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering. PMID:17516148

Gunderson, Martin

2007-01-01

109

Estimating genetic parameters in natural populations using the "animal model".  

PubMed Central

Estimating the genetic basis of quantitative traits can be tricky for wild populations in natural environments, as environmental variation frequently obscures the underlying evolutionary patterns. I review the recent application of restricted maximum-likelihood "animal models" to multigenerational data from natural populations, and show how the estimation of variance components and prediction of breeding values using these methods offer a powerful means of tackling the potentially confounding effects of environmental variation, as well as generating a wealth of new areas of investigation. PMID:15306404

Kruuk, Loeske E B

2004-01-01

110

Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.  

PubMed

Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock feed in the developmental and regulatory pipelines. Additionally, advanced techniques to affect targeted genome modifications are emerging, and it is not clear whether these will be encompassed by the current GE process-based trigger for regulatory oversight. There is a pressing need for international harmonization of both regulatory frameworks for GE crops and governance of advanced breeding techniques to prevent widespread disruptions in international trade of livestock feedstuffs in the future. PMID:25184846

Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

2014-10-01

111

PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer'?s decision to purchase GM

Abdullahi O. Abdulkadri; Simone Pinnock; Paula F. Tennant

2004-01-01

112

Phenotyping of Genetically Engineered Mice: Humane, Ethical, Environmental, and Husbandry Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of genetically engineered (GE) mice in scientific research has raised many concerns about the ani- mal welfare of such mice. The types of welfare concerns may differ within the three stages that comprise the estab- lishment of GE animal models: development, production, and research use. The role and impact of the members of the research team on

Marilyn J. Brown; Kathleen A. Murray

113

Biodiesel production from genetically engineered microalgae: Future of bioenergy in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current biomass sources for energy production in Iran include sewerage as well as agricultural, animal, food industry and municipal solid wastes, and are anticipated to account for about 14% of national energy consumption in near future. However, due to the considerable progress made in genetic engineering of various plants in Iran during the last decade and the great potentials of

Meisam Tabatabaei; Masoud Tohidfar; Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani; Mohammadreza Safarnejad; Mohammad Pazouki

2011-01-01

114

The use of genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer for nutrition and cancer chemoprevention research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to modify the expression of specific genes in the mouse through genetic engineering technologies allows for the generation of previously unavailable models for prostate cancer prevention research. Although animal models have existed for some time for the study of prostate cancer prevention (primarily in the rat), it is uncertain if the mechanisms that drive prostate carcinogenesis in these

Russell D. Klein

2005-01-01

115

Genetic aspects of autism spectrum disorders: insights from animal models.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development, and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute toward the formation, stabilization, and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD. PMID:24605088

Banerjee, Swati; Riordan, Maeveen; Bhat, Manzoor A

2014-01-01

116

The role of genetic engineering in livestock production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the use of genetic engineering in livestock production. We examine the main two different aspects of genetic engineering: cloning and transgenesis. After commenting what has been expected from both techniques in livestock production in the last 25 years, the practical difficulties for implementing cloning and transgenesis are examined. Apart from technical difficulties, problems derived from the

A. Blasco

2008-01-01

117

Horizontal Gene Transfer - The Hidden Hazards of Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Transgenic pollen and baby bees Horizontal gene transfer may spread transgenes to the entire biosphere Genetic engineering is unregulated horizontal gene transfer Artificial vectors enhance horizontal gene transfer What are the hazards of horizontal gene transfer? Potential hazards of horizontal gene transfer from genetic engineering Transgenic DNA may be more likely to transfer horizontally than non-transgenic DNA Reasons to

Mae-wan Ho

118

Antibiotic-free chloroplast genetic engineering – an environmentally friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages over nuclear genetic engineering, including gene containment and hyperexpression. However, introducing thousands of copies of transgenes into the chloroplast genome amplifies the antibiotic resistance genes. Two recent articles report different and novel strategies to either remove antibiotic resistance genes or select chloroplast transformants without using these genes. This should eliminate their potential transfer to

Henry Daniell; Peter O Wiebe; Alicia Fernandez-San Millan

2001-01-01

119

CLASS 4.6: 05/01/07 GENETIC ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

allele b. Protocol for gene targeting i. Modify the gene - make - clone it ii. Introduce the cloned DNA-funded labs C. Molecular Biology of Cancer: 1. Introduction - Disease in which - Leads to - Tumor cells can1 CLASS 4.6: 05/01/07 GENETIC ENGINEERING A. Recombinant DNA: 1. Cloning a. Genetic engineering

Andres, Andrew

120

In Situ Survival of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms in a Tropical  

E-print Network

In Situ Survival of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms in a Tropical Aquatic Environment A. J & Sons, Inc. INTRODUCTION An accidental or deliberate release of genetically engi- neered microorganisms of their manipulated DNA to other microorganisms. Prediction of the fate of the GEMs and their engineered DNA

Hazen, Terry

121

Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

Roberts, Leslie

122

Genetic Engineering of Optical Properties of Biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baker's yeast cells are easily cultured and can be manipulated genetically to produce large numbers of bioparticles (cells and mitochondria) with controllable size and optical properties. We have recently employed nanolaser spectroscopy to study the refractive index of individual cells and isolated mitochondria from two mutant strains. Results show that biomolecular changes induced by mutation can produce bioparticles with radical changes in refractive index. Wild-type mitochondria exhibit a distribution with a well-defined mean and small variance. In striking contrast, mitochondria from one mutant strain produced a histogram that is highly collapsed with a ten-fold decrease in the mean and standard deviation. In a second mutant strain we observed an opposite effect with the mean nearly unchanged but the variance increased nearly a thousand-fold. Both histograms could be self-consistently modeled with a single, log-normal distribution. The strains were further examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure changes in protein composition. All of these data show that genetic manipulation of cells represents a new approach to engineering optical properties of bioparticles.

Gourley, Paul; Naviaux, Robert; Yaffe, Michael

2008-03-01

123

A comparative risk assessment of genetically engineered, mutagenic, and conventional wheat production systems  

E-print Network

A comparative risk assessment of genetically engineered, mutagenic, and conventional wheat; accepted 27 July 2005 Key words: biotechnology, genetically engineered crops, GMO, herbicide exposure biotechnologies, such as genetic engineering and mutagenic techniques, have lagged behind other crop species

Peterson, Robert K. D.

124

Towards Reverse Engineering of Genetic Regulatory Networks Zelmina Lubovac  

E-print Network

1 Towards Reverse Engineering of Genetic Regulatory Networks Zelmina Lubovac , Björn Olsson understanding of reverse engineering of regulatory networks. One of the aspects that have not been considered to a great extent in the development of reverse engineering approaches is combinatorial regulation

Chang, Joseph T.

125

Genetic consequences of animal translocations: A case study using the field cricket, Gryllus campestris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal relocations have become a common tool in nature conservation, but the genetic consequences of such projects have rarely been studied in insects. As both natural and artificial formation of new populations may lead to genetic drift (founder effect), decreased genetic diversity and increased rates of inbreeding, genetic analyses can provide valuable information to evaluate the success of a relocation

K. A. Witzenberger; A. Hochkirch

2008-01-01

126

Natural genetic engineering: intelligence & design in evolution?  

PubMed Central

There are many things that I like about James Shapiro's new book "Evolution: A View from the 21st Century" (FT Press Science, 2011). He begins the book by saying that it is the creation of novelty, and not selection, that is important in the history of life. In the presence of heritable traits that vary, selection results in the evolution of a population towards an optimal composition of those traits. But selection can only act on changes - and where does this variation come from? Historically, the creation of novelty has been assumed to be the result of random chance or accident. And yet, organisms seem 'designed'. When one examines the data from sequenced genomes, the changes appear NOT to be random or accidental, but one observes that whole chunks of the genome come and go. These 'chunks' often contain functional units, encoding sets of genes that together can perform some specific function. Shapiro argues that what we see in genomes is 'Natural Genetic Engineering', or designed evolution: "Thinking about genomes from an informatics perspective, it is apparent that systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process than the conventional view of evolution as a select-biased random walk through limitless space of possible DNA configurations" (page 6). In this review, I will have a look at four topics: 1.) why I think genomics is not the whole story; 2.) my own perspective of E. coli genomics, and how I think it relates to this book; 3.) a brief discussion on "Intelligence, Design, and Evolution"; and finally, 4.) a section "in defense of the central dogma".

2011-01-01

127

NATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Epigenetic Regulation of Mammalian  

E-print Network

NATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Epigenetic Regulation of Mammalian Genomes, and combina- tions thereof, specify various chromatin states Natural Genetic Engineering and Natural Genome

Jordan, King

128

The Genetic Engineering of Motor Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular motors are a remarkable feature within living organisms that are responsible for directional mechanical motion, which is driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Actin-binding molecular motors are of specific interest in the field of nanotechnology as filamentous actin is capable of carrying cargo, such as quantum dots, while it is translocated along a motor coated surface. The binding regions of motor proteins, which are known to interact with actin, such as Myosin, have been thoroughly examined and identified. Rapid genetic engineering of the ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, adenosine kinase, to incorporate these binding regions is possible through the use of site- directed mutagenesis. The sequences, which were mutated into the ADK wt gene, were incorporated in an unstructured loop region. During the phosphate transfer, the mutants switch between open and closed conformational states. The binding affinity of the sequences to the actin is altered during this conformational switch, thus causing the motor to move along actin filament. The ADK mutants and their interaction with filamentous actin was monitored by an in vitro motility assay. Two different mutants of ADK were found to have retained enzymatic functionality after the mutagenesis as well as function as actin-based motor proteins.

Hartz, Rachael M.

129

Accelerating cancer modeling with RNAi and nongermline genetically engineered mouse models.  

PubMed

For more than two decades, genetically engineered mouse models have been key to our mechanistic understanding of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recently, the massive quantity of data emerging from cancer genomics studies has demanded a corresponding increase in the efficiency and throughput of in vivo models for functional testing of putative cancer genes. Already a mainstay of cancer research, recent innovations in RNA interference (RNAi) technology have extended its utility for studying gene function and genetic interactions, enabling tissue-specific, inducible and reversible gene silencing in vivo. Concurrent advances in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture and genome engineering have accelerated several steps of genetically engineered mouse model production and have facilitated the incorporation of RNAi technology into these models. Here, we review the current state of these technologies and examine how their integration has the potential to dramatically enhance the throughput and capabilities of animal models for cancer. PMID:24184755

Livshits, Geulah; Lowe, Scott W

2013-11-01

130

Accelerating Cancer Modeling with RNAi and Nongermline Genetically Engineered Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

For more than two decades, genetically engineered mouse models have been key to our mechanistic understanding of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recently, the massive quantity of data emerging from cancer genomics studies has demanded a corresponding increase in the efficiency and throughput of in vivo models for functional testing of putative cancer genes. Already a mainstay of cancer research, recent innovations in RNA interference (RNAi) technology have extended its utility for studying gene function and genetic interactions, enabling tissue-specific, inducible and reversible gene silencing in vivo. Concurrent advances in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture and genome engineering have accelerated several steps of genetically engineered mouse model production and have facilitated the incorporation of RNAi technology into these models. Here, we review the current state of these technologies and examine how their integration has the potential to dramatically enhance the throughput and capabilities of animal models for cancer. PMID:24184755

Livshits, Geulah; Lowe, Scott W.

2014-01-01

131

QUERY DRIVEN SIMULATION AS A TOOL FOR GENETIC ENGINEERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations\\/animations of genetic structures and functions, simula- tions of actual or conceived experiments, and animations of algorithms such as simulated annealing, which is used to reconstruct a chromosome from its clonable DNA fragments, will be useful to genetics researchers and students alike. In this paper, we discuss the design of an integrated simulation\\/object-oriented database system that can be used by

John A. Miller; Jonathan Arnold; Krys J. Kochut; A. Jamie Cuticchia; Walter D. Potter

1992-01-01

132

"Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)

Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.

1980-01-01

133

Genetically engineered phage fibers and coatings for antibacterial applications  

E-print Network

Multifunctionality can be imparted to protein-based fibers and coatings via either synthetic or biological approaches. Here, we demonstrate potent antimicrobial functionality of genetically engineered, phage-based fibers ...

Mao, Joan Y

2009-01-01

134

Widespread phenotypic and genetic divergence along altitudinal gradients in animals.  

PubMed

Altitudinal gradients offer valuable study systems to investigate how adaptive genetic diversity is distributed within and between natural populations and which factors promote or prevent adaptive differentiation. The environmental clines along altitudinal gradients tend to be steep relative to the dispersal distance of many organisms, providing an opportunity to study the joint effects of divergent natural selection and gene flow. Temperature is one variable showing consistent altitudinal changes, and altitudinal gradients can therefore provide spatial surrogates for some of the changes anticipated under climate change. Here, we investigate the extent and patterns of adaptive divergence in animal populations along altitudinal gradients by surveying the literature for (i) studies on phenotypic variation assessed under common garden or reciprocal transplant designs and (ii) studies looking for signatures of divergent selection at the molecular level. Phenotypic data show that significant between-population differences are common and taxonomically widespread, involving traits such as mass, wing size, tolerance to thermal extremes and melanization. Several lines of evidence suggest that some of the observed differences are adaptively relevant, but rigorous tests of local adaptation or the link between specific phenotypes and fitness are sorely lacking. Evidence for a role of altitudinal adaptation also exists for a number of candidate genes, most prominently haemoglobin, and for anonymous molecular markers. Novel genomic approaches may provide valuable tools for studying adaptive diversity, also in species that are not amenable to experimentation. PMID:24128377

Keller, I; Alexander, J M; Holderegger, R; Edwards, P J

2013-12-01

135

The need to conserve farm animal genetic resources in Africa: should policy makers be concerned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines key factors contributing to the erosion of animal genetic resources and discusses strategic options for policy makers. The ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1993 represents an international consensus to conserve biodiversity including that of farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR). In Africa, conservation of agricultural biodiversity is inbuilt into the low input–low output production

Clemens B. A. Wollny

2003-01-01

136

The economic valuation of farm animal genetic resources: a survey of available methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic erosion of domestic animal diversity has placed 30% of the world's breeds at risk of extinction, often as a result of government policy\\/programmes. Conservation and sustainable development of animal genetic resources (AnGR) require a broad focus that includes the many ‘adaptive’ breeds that survive well in the low external input agriculture typical of developing countries. Environmental economic valuation methodologies

Adam G. Drucker; Veronica Gomez; Simon Anderson

2001-01-01

137

Assessing people's attitudes towards animal use and genetic modification using a web-based interactive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to compare people's attitudes towards different uses of research animals, the use of animal models with and without genetic modification, genetically modified (GM) food versus non-food products, and the role of information in decision-making. Using an interactive, online survey, we probed participant views on 2 examples of research on domestic pigs 1) to reduce

Catherine A. Schuppli; Daniel M. Weary

138

Risk from genetically engineered and modified marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the emerging industries of warmwater marine fish mariculture, genetic engineering and classical genetic improvement programmes have been initiated for a variety of exclusively marine fish. These programmes have the potential to perturb allele and genotype frequencies, or introduce novel alleles and genes into conspecific wild populations. Despite concerns to the contrary, the following hypothesis remains to be

Wayne Knibb

1997-01-01

139

Genetic Algorithms in Engineering and Computer Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents 13 Parallel Genetic Algorithms for Optimisation in CFD : : : : : : : : 1 13.1 INTRODUCTION : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 13.2 CFD ANALYSIS FOR AEROSPACE DESIGN : : : :

Edited J. P'eriaux; G. Winter; John Wiley Sons; Thomas Back

1995-01-01

140

Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.

1984-01-01

141

Genetic engineering of reproductive sterility in forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containment of transgenes inserted into genetically engineered forest trees will probably be necessary before most commercial uses are possible. This is a consequence of (1) high rates of gene dispersal by pollen and seed, (2) proximity of engineered trees in plantations to natural or feral stands of interfertile species, and (3) potentially undesirable ecological effects if certain transgenes become widely

Steven H. Strauss; William H. Rottmann; Amy M. Brunner; Lorraine A. Sheppard

1995-01-01

142

Genetic engineering of fibrous proteins: spider dragline silk and collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various strategies have been employed to genetically engineer fibrous proteins. Two examples, the subject of this review, include spider dragline silk from Nephila clavipes and collagen. These proteins are highlighted because of their unique mechanical and biological properties related to controlled release, biomaterials and tissue engineering. Cloning and expression of native genes and synthetic artificial variants of the consensus sequence

Cheryl Wong Po Foo; David L Kaplan

2002-01-01

143

HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING PHENOMENOLOGY OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PLANT SENTINELS  

E-print Network

HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING PHENOMENOLOGY OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PLANT SENTINELS D. Simmonsa , J engineered plant sentinels as measured by spectral imaging remote sensors is investigated. Plant sentinels of a chemical inducer such as hazardous chemicals or environmental pollutants. This work investigates the use

Kerekes, John

144

Transfer of Genetically Engineered Cells to the Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rat, cultured cells injected into the renal circulation are entrapped in the glomerulus. This peculiar property allows to create chimeric glomeruli in which genetically engineered cells are populated. Using glomerular cells engineered in vitro, it is feasible to generate glomeruli that produce recombinant gene products. This approach would be useful for identification of local function of a certain

Masanori Kitamura

1999-01-01

145

Roadmap: Engineering Technology Computer Design Animation and Game Design Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Engineering Technology ­ Computer Design Animation and Game Design ­ Bachelor of Science: [14 Credit Hours] CDAG 34001 Computer Animation III 3 CDAG 34004 Technology of Light, Color, Design 3 See Kent Core Summary on page 2 #12;Roadmap: Engineering Technology ­ Computer Design Animation

Khan, Javed I.

146

Computing genetic evaluations through application of generalized least squares to an animal model  

E-print Network

Computing genetic evaluations through application of generalized least squares to an animal model G.F.S. HUDSON Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, U.S.A. Summary The animal model for performance data is rewritten in the form of a fixed model with uncorrelated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

The regulation of the complement system: insights from genetically-engineered mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system is very tightly regulated by fluid-phase and membrane-bound factors that prevent injury to self-tissues. The study of genetically engineered animals with targeted deletion or gain of function mutations has highlighted the important role that many of the complement inhibitors play in vivo. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of approach are discussed and the insights gained

Daniel Turnberg; Marina Botto

2003-01-01

148

Genetic engineering to avoid genetic neglect: from chance to responsibility.  

PubMed

Currently our assessment of whether someone is a good parent depends on the environmental inputs (or lack of such inputs) they give their children. But new genetic intervention technologies, to which we may soon have access, mean that how good a parent is will depend also on the genetic inputs they give their children. Each new piece of available technology threatens to open up another way that we can neglect our children. Our obligations to our children and our susceptibilities to corresponding legal and moral sanctions may be about to explosively increase. In this paper I argue that we should treat conventional neglect and 'genetic neglect' - failing to use genetic intervention technologies to prevent serious diseases and disabilities - morally consistently. I conclude that in a range of cases parents will have a moral obligation to use genetic treatments to prevent serious disabilities in their children. My particular focus is on prenatal interventions and their impact of the bodily integrity of expectant mothers. I conclude that although bodily integrity constrains moral obligations, it is outweighed in a range of cases. PMID:20394109

Hammond, Jessica

2010-05-01

149

Genetic Programming Evolution of Controllers for 3D Character Animation  

E-print Network

of the char­ acter are evolved using the goals of the animation as an objective function, resulting in physically plausible motion. We discuss the development of objective functions used to guide the controller of character animation was refined, particularly at Disney Studios, animators identified specific properties

Fernandez, Thomas

150

Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection. PMID:16333121

Edelmann, Anke; Kruger, Monika; Schmid, Jan

2005-01-01

151

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw. The xylitol production by T. reesei can be enhanced by genetic engineering of blocking further xylitol and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria e

Qin, Wensheng

152

Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.  

PubMed

The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value. PMID:22571623

de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

2012-12-01

153

The value of animal models in predicting genetic susceptibility to complex diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

For a long time, genetic studies of complex diseases were most successfully conducted in animal models. However, the field of genetics is now rapidly evolving, and human genetics has also started to produce strong candidate genes for complex diseases. This raises the question of how to continue gene-finding attempts in animals and how to use animal models to enhance our understanding of gene function. In this review we summarize the uses and advantages of animal studies in identification of disease susceptibility genes, focusing on rheumatoid arthritis. We are convinced that animal genetics will remain a valuable tool for the identification and investigation of pathways that lead to disease, well into the future. PMID:19490601

Ahlqvist, Emma; Hultqvist, Malin; Holmdahl, Rikard

2009-01-01

154

Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

2011-01-01

155

German politics of genetic engineering and its deconstruction.  

PubMed

Policy-making, as exemplified by biotechnology policy, can be understood as an attempt to manage a field of discursivity, to construct regularity in a dispersed multitude of combinable elements. Following this perspective of politics as a textual process, the paper interprets the politicization of genetic engineering in Germany as a defence of the political as a regime of heterogeneity, as a field of 'dissensus' rather than 'consensus', and a rejection of the idea that the framing of technological transformation is an autonomous process. From its beginning in the early 1970s, genetic engineering was symbolically entrenched as a key technology of the future, and as an integral element of the German politics of modernization. Attempts by new social movements and the Green Party to displace the egalitarian imaginary of democratic discourse into the politics of genetic engineering were construed by the political élites as an attack on the political order of post-World War II Germany. The 1990 Genetic Engineering Law attempted a closure of this controversy. But it is precisely the homogenizing idiom of this 'settlement' which continues to nourish the social movements and their radical challenge to the definitions and codings of the politics of genetic engineering. PMID:11614113

Gottweis, H

1995-05-01

156

Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.  

PubMed

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768

Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

1999-04-01

157

Roadmap: Engineering Technology -Computer Design, Animation and Game Design -Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Animation Theory 3 EERT 22018 PC/Network Engineering and Troubleshooting or TECH 33016 PC/Network Engineering and Troubleshooting 3 MATH 11022 Trigonometry 3 KMC Kent Core Requirement 3 Semester Six [13

Khan, Javed I.

158

Illuminating Cancer Systems With Genetically-Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful non-invasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, post-transcriptional processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a non-invasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiological means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

2013-01-01

159

Animals in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following books relate to the issues surrounding the use of animals for both food and clothing. Farmers may appreciate the increased productivity of factory farming, but the view of animals as production units and the sometimes questionable treatment of animals in some factory farms raises ethical concerns for those interested in animal welfare issues. Genetic engineering, of both plants

Beth Roberts

2004-01-01

160

TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection  

SciTech Connect

A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

2009-12-04

161

Genetic dissection of phenotypic diversity in farm animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animal populations harbour rich collections of mutations with phenotypic effects that have been purposefully enriched by breeding. Most of these mutations do not have pathological phenotypic consequences, in contrast to the collections of deleterious mutations in model organisms or those causing inherited disorders in humans. Farm animals are of particular interest for identifying genes that control growth, energy metabolism,

Leif Andersson

2001-01-01

162

Genetic Programming for Reverse Engineering Mark Harman, William B. Langdon and Westley Weimer  

E-print Network

Genetic Programming for Reverse Engineering Mark Harman, William B. Langdon and Westley Weimer of Genetic Programming (GP) and Genetic Improvement (GI) to reverse engineering. Section II presents that form part of a `GP4RE' research agenda; genetic programming applications for reverse engineering. II

Harman, Mark

163

Applications of genetic engineering in veterinary medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutation of just one gene will cause abnormal cell behavior leading to the synthesis of a dysfunctional protein. This mutation will inevitably result in the cell functioning only marginally or not at all. Other genetic mutations interfere with the cell’s normal life cycle, especially the cell-division cycle. The goal behind recombinant DNA technology is to deliver the correct version

Kadriye Ciftci; Peter Trovitch

2000-01-01

164

Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the proposed research is to first establish a plasmid-mediated genetic transformation system for the sulfur degrading Sulfolobus, and then to clone and overexpress the genes encoding the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes from Sulfolobus- as well as from other microorganisms, to develop a Sulfolobus-based microbial process for the removal of both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal.

Ho, N.W.Y.

1991-01-01

165

Detection and quantification of genetically engineered crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have recently attracted the attention of agricultural, medical and food scientists and governments of many countries in the world due to an increasing concern that the recombinant gene(s) inserted into an organism may result in unforeseen effects. Therefore, there is a need to regulate each transgenic event so that the officially approved events will be

Asfaw Adugna; Tewodros Mesfin

2008-01-01

166

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF ENHANCED MICROBIAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgensis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposable genes on methods for p...

167

Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how transgenic technology has the potential of medical therapy, but it raises questions about these issues: creation of new life forms and crossing species boundaries, long-term effects on human health and the environment, blending of nonhuman animal and human DNA , and unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences.

Linda MacDonald Glenn (;)

2004-06-01

168

Genetic algorithms to support software engineering experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical software engineering is concerned with running experimental studies in order to establish a broad knowledge base to assist software developers in evaluating models, methods and techniques. Running multiple experimental studies is mandatory, but complex and the cost is high. Besides, replications may impose constraints difficult to meet in real contexts. Researchers face additional problems and cost restrictions when conducting

Rogério Eduardo Garcia; Maria Cristina Ferreira De Oliveira; José Carlos Maldonado

2005-01-01

169

ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10  

E-print Network

ABE Agricultural and Biological Engineering F9 ADDL Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab G10 AERO Aerospace Science Laboratory C11 AGAD Agricultural Administration Building G8 AHF Animal Holding Facility G10 AQUA Boilermaker Aquatic Center D6 AR Armory G6 ARMS Armstrong (Neil) Hall of Engineering G5 ASTL

170

A genetic animal model of differential sensitivity to methamphetamine reinforcement  

PubMed Central

Sensitivity to reinforcement from methamphetamine (MA) likely influences risk for MA addiction, and genetic differences are one source of individual variation. Generation of two sets of selectively bred mouse lines for high and low MA drinking has shown that genetic factors influence MA intake, and pronounced differences in sensitivity to rewarding and aversive effects of MA play a significant role. Further validation of these lines as a unique genetic model relevant to MA addiction was obtained using operant methods to study MA reinforcement. High and low MA drinking line mice were used to test the hypotheses that: 1) oral and intracerebroventricular (ICV) MA serve as behavioral reinforcers, and 2) MA exhibits greater reinforcing efficacy in high than low MA drinking mice. Operant responses resulted in access to an MA or non-MA drinking tube or intracranial delivery of MA. Behavioral activation consequent to orally consumed MA was determined. MA available for consumption maintained higher levels of reinforced instrumental responding in high than low MA drinking line mice, and MA intake in the oral operant procedure was greater in high than low MA drinking line mice. Behavioral activation was associated with amount of MA consumed during operant sessions. High line mice delivered more MA via ICV infusion than did low line mice across a range of doses. Thus, genetic risk factors play a critical role in the reinforcing efficacy of MA and the oral self-administration procedure is suitable for delineating genetic contributions to MA reinforcement. PMID:22280875

Shabani, Shkelzen; Dobbs, Lauren K; Ford, Matthew M; Mark, Gregory P; Finn, Deborah A; Phillips, Tamara J

2012-01-01

171

Animal genetic resources conservation in The Netherlands and Europe: Poultry perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased global use of highly productive breeds of farm animals has been coupled to loss of genetic diversity in most species. In European countries, various governmental, non-governmental, and private organizations try to preserve genetic diversity of livestock in situ (e.g., by stimulating the use of indigenous, rare breeds by farmers; in nature reserves; or in noncommercial farms). In the case

H. Woelders; C. A. Zuidberg; S. J. Hiemstra

2006-01-01

172

Colonization genetics of an animal-dispersed plant (Vaccinium membranaceum) at Mount St Helens, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population founding and spatial spread may profoundly influence later population genetic structure, but their effects are difficult to quantify when population history is unknown. We examined the genetic effects of founder group formation in a recently founded population of the animal-dispersed Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) on new volcanic deposits at Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) 24 years post-eruption. Using amplified

S. YANG; J. G. BISHOP; M. S. WEBSTER

173

Primer: comparative genetics of animal models of arthritis—a tool to resolve complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex traits, including inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have important genetic features, but most of the responsible genes have not been conclusively identified. Genetic analysis of inbred animal models and comparative genetics—the comparison of genes between different species—might help to identify the crucial genes and to investigate more directly the biology involved. Genome-wide linkage analysis of particular genes can be assessed by

Rikard Holmdahl

2007-01-01

174

From analysis of mutants to genetic engineering.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the research of developing transgenic barley for synthesis of recombinant proteins with practical significance and of metabolic engineering of proanthocyanidin-free barley. The results were obtained by graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and visiting scientists at the Carlsberg Laboratory from 1972-1996 and during the past ten years at Washington State University. It is written in appreciation of their enthusiasm, skill, and perseverance. PMID:17067283

von Wettstein, Diter

2007-01-01

175

The Ecological Risks and Benefits of Genetically Engineered Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of the environmental risks and benefits of adopting genetically engineered organisms are highly polarized between pro- and anti-biotechnology groups, but the current state of our knowledge is frequently overlooked in this debate. A review of existing scientific literature reveals that key experiments on both the environmental risks and benefits are lacking. The complexity of ecological systems presents considerable challenges

L. L. Wolfenbarger; P. R. Phifer

2000-01-01

176

Genetic engineering and food: what determines consumer acceptance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents experimental work which attempts to understand what psychological mechanisms are likely to influence consumer acceptance of genetically engineered food, and the relationship between consumer attitudes towards the technology and consumer acceptance of its products. Discusses the relationship between consumer risk perceptions and consumer reactions; the influence of public knowledge and understanding of the technology on attitudes; media impact; ethical

Lynn J. Frewer; Chaya Howard; Richard Shepherd

1995-01-01

177

Interactive Genetic Engineering of Evolved Video Game Content  

E-print Network

by the multi- player space shooter called Galactic Arms Race (GAR) can be further"genetically engineered for demonstrating this new technique is Galac- tic Arms Race (GAR)1 [2, 3], a multi-player space shooter in which to the parameterized content space. This paper presents such a technique that enables players to manually customize

Stanley, Kenneth O.

178

Mouse nomenclature and maintenance of genetically engineered mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern genetic engineering technologies enable us to manipulate the mouse genome in increasingly complex ways to model human biology and disease. As a result, the number of mouse strains carrying transgenes or induced mutations has increased markedly. Thorough understanding of strain and gene nomenclature is essential to ensure that investigators know what kind of mouse they have, and what to

C C Linder

2003-01-01

179

Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions from Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses

Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller; Michael Lamport Commons; Geoffrey David Commons

2008-01-01

180

GOLD NANOROD PHOTOTHERMAL THERAPY IN A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL  

E-print Network

GOLD NANOROD PHOTOTHERMAL THERAPY IN A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL OF SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA and biology than subcutaneous xenograft models. Using polyethylene glycol (PEG)- coated gold nanorods (PEG in xenograft models and which may be of future clinical interest. Keywords: Gold nanorods; photothermal

Bhatia, Sangeeta

181

A Simple Interactive Introduction to Teaching Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, at key stage 4, students aged 14-15 studying GCSE Core Science or Unit 1 of the GCSE Biology course are required to be able to describe the process of genetic engineering to produce bacteria that can produce insulin. The simple interactive introduction described in this article allows students to consider the problem, devise a model and…

Child, Paula

2013-01-01

182

Genetic engineering applications to biotechnology in the genus Bacillus  

SciTech Connect

This review presents a global picture of current applications and capabilities of genetic engineering to biotechnology in Bacillus, particularly B. subtilis, so that the academic biotechnologist, the industrial microbiologist, and the manager may turn to one source to study this subject. 236 references.

Workman, W.E.; McLinden, J.H.; Dean, D.H.

1986-06-09

183

Genetic engineering of reproductive incompetence in radiata pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An important application of genetic engineering to commercial forestry is the generation of reproductively incompetent trees. This requires isolation and characterisation of the regulatory regions of the genes expressed at the different stages of male and female reproductive-organ development. A gene family showing specific expression inPinus radiata immature male and female cone buds has been isolated and characterised. We

Aidyn Mouradov; Robert D. Teasdale

1999-01-01

184

Genetic Animal Models of Alcohol and Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and pharmacological responses of selectively bred and inbred rodent lines have been analyzed to elucidate many features of drug sensitivity and the adverse effects of drugs, the underlying mechanisms of drug tolerance and dependence, and the motivational states underlying drug reward and aversion. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has been used to identify provisional chromosomal locations of

John C. Crabbe; John K. Belknap; Kari J. Buck

1994-01-01

185

Animated agents in K-12 engineering outreach: Preferred agent characteristics across age levels  

E-print Network

for animated agents and their individual characteristics, or how those preferences change accord- ingAnimated agents in K-12 engineering outreach: Preferred agent characteristics across age levels Amy 30 March 2013 Keywords: Age levels Agent characteristics Animated agent K-12 outreach a b s t r a c

Reisslein, Martin

186

Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics. PMID:23036272

2012-01-01

187

A molecular genetic approach for forensic animal species identification.  

PubMed

This study investigated potential markers within chromosomal, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) with the aim of developing a DNA based method to allow differentiation between animal species. Such discrimination tests may have important applications in the forensic science, agriculture, quarantine and customs fields. DNA samples from five different animal individuals within the same species for 10 species of animal (including human) were analysed. DNA extraction and quantitation followed by PCR amplification and GeneScan visualisation formed the basis of the experimental analysis. Five gene markers from three different types of genes were investigated. These included genomic markers for the beta-actin and TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Mitochondrial DNA markers, designed by Bataille et al. [Forensic Sci. Int. 99 (1999) 165], examined the Cytochrome b gene and Hypervariable Displacement Loop (D-Loop) region. Finally, a ribosomal RNA marker for the 28S rRNA gene optimised by Naito et al. [J. Forensic Sci. 37 (1992) 396] was used as a possible marker for speciation. Results showed a difference of only several base pairs between all species for the beta-actin and 28S markers, with the exception of Sus scrofa (pig) beta-actin fragment length, which produced a significantly smaller fragment. Multiplexing of Cytochrome b and D-Loop markers gave limited species information, although positive discrimination of human DNA was evident. The most specific and discriminatory results were shown using the TP53 gene since this marker produced greatest fragment size differences between animal species studied. Sample differentiation for all species was possible following TP53 amplification, suggesting that this gene could be used as a potential animal species identifier. PMID:12850402

Bellis, C; Ashton, K J; Freney, L; Blair, B; Griffiths, L R

2003-07-01

188

REVERSE ENGINEERING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING  

E-print Network

REVERSE ENGINEERING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING John R. Koza Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, koza@stanford.edu William Mydlowec Genetic Programming Inc., Los Altos, California

Fernandez, Thomas

189

Engineering Redox-Sensitive Linkers for Genetically Encoded FRET-Based  

E-print Network

Engineering Redox-Sensitive Linkers for Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors VLADIMIR LPhysics, §Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, jjPathobiology, { Division of Nutritional Sciences, and #Center tool for studying normal cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Genet- ically encoded

Kenis, Paul J. A.

190

78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2013-02-27

191

77 FR 41350 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2012-07-13

192

78 FR 66891 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2013-11-07

193

76 FR 63279 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered for Insect...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-10-12

194

76 FR 8707 - Syngenta Seeds, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically Engineered To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-02-15

195

76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-07-07

196

76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-02-02

197

76 FR 80869 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered for Drought...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-12-27

198

NATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Learning from Bacteria about Natural  

E-print Network

NATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Learning from Bacteria about Natural, and in some Natural Genetic Engineering and Natural Genome Editing: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1178: 78­90 (2009

Jacob, Eshel Ben

199

Genetic engineering of human ES and iPS cells using TALE nucleases  

E-print Network

Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription ...

Hockemeyer, Dirk

200

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon, Justyna Petke, Iman Hemati Moghadam,  

E-print Network

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon Learning, Genetic Improve- ment, Search Based Software Engineering 1. INTRODUCTION Many Artificial Engineering approach called `genetic improvement' could be extended to provide online adaptivity. Search Based

Fernandez, Thomas

201

Genetic engineering of algae for enhanced biofuel production.  

PubMed

There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H(2) yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H(2) production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C

2010-04-01

202

Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production ?  

PubMed Central

There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H2 yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H2 production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C.

2010-01-01

203

Genetic engineering of live attenuated influenza viruses.  

PubMed

The first live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was licensed in the USA in 2003; it is a trivalent vaccine composed of two type A (H1N1 and H3N2) and one type B influenza virus each at 10(7) fluorescent focus units (FFU). Each influenza vaccine strain is a reassortant virus that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from a wild-type influenza virus and the six internal protein gene segments from a master donor virus (MDV) of either cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or B/Ann Arbor/1/66. MDV confers the cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive, and attenuation phenotypes to the vaccine strains. The reassortant vaccine seeds are currently produced by reverse genetics and amplified in specific pathogen-free (SPF) 9-11 days old embryonated chicken eggs for manufacture. In addition, MDCK cell culture manufacture processes have been developed to produce LAIV for research use and with modifications for clinical and/or commercial grade material production. PMID:22528159

Jin, Hong; Chen, Zhongying; Liu, Jonathan; Kemble, George

2012-01-01

204

Focused in vivo genetic analysis of implanted engineered myofascial constructs.  

PubMed

Successfully engineering functional muscle tissue either in vitro or in vivo to treat muscle defects rather than using the host muscle transfer would be revolutionary. Tissue engineering is on the cutting edge of biomedical research, bridging a gap between the clinic and the bench top. A new focus on skeletal muscle tissue engineering has led investigators to explore the application of satellite cells (autologous muscle precursor cells) as a vehicle for engineering tissues either in vitro or in vivo. However, few skeletal muscle tissue-engineering studies have reported on successful generation of living tissue substitutes for functional skeletal muscle replacement. Our model system combines a novel aligned collagen tube and autologous skeletal muscle satellite cells to create an engineered tissue repair for a surgically created ventral hernia as previously reported [SA Fann, L Terracio, W Yan, et al., A model of tissue-engineered ventral hernia repair, J Invest Surg. 2006;19(3):193-205]. Several key features we specifically observe are the significant persistence of transplanted skeletal muscle cell mass within the engineered repair, the integration of new tissue with adjacent native muscle, and the presence of significant neovascularization. In this study, we report on our experience investigating the genetic signals important to the integration of neoskeletal muscle tissue. The knowledge gained from our model system applies to the repair of severely injured extremities, maxillofacial reconstructions, and restorative procedures following tumor excision in other areas of the body. PMID:19191156

Propst, John T; Fann, Stephen A; Franchini, Jessica L; Lessner, Susan M; Rose, John R; Hansen, Karyn J; Terracio, Louis; Yost, Michael J

2009-01-01

205

The influence of realistic product exposure on attitudes towards genetic engineering of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes towards genetic engineering remain uncrystallized and are likely to be influenced by whatever information becomes available. One source of information about genetically engineered food is the availability of products on the supermarket shelves. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of product exposure on consumer perceptions of genetic engineering as applied to food production,

L. J. Frewer; C. Howard; R. Shepherd

1996-01-01

206

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 13 (2000) 611623 Genetic adaptive state estimation$  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 13 (2000) 611­623 Genetic adaptive state in a nonlinear jet engine. Our main conclusion is that the genetic adaptive state estimator has the potential Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Estimation; Genetic algorithms; Jet engine surge=stall control 1

207

Reversible Hydrogels from Self-Assembling Genetically Engineered Protein Block Copolymers  

E-print Network

Reversible Hydrogels from Self-Assembling Genetically Engineered Protein Block Copolymers Chunyu Xu-soluble polyelectrolyte segment flanked by two coiled-coil domains was synthesized by genetic engineering methods antibodies that can form complexes with antigens,20 and genetically engineered proteins containing coiled

Breedveld, Victor

208

Green Pacific Biologicals Rapid & stable nuclear genetic engineering of eukaryotic algae  

E-print Network

to Investors · Rapid & stable nuclear genetic engineering of eukaryotic algae · WW exclusive license Max Planck's competitive advantage? Rapid & stable algae nuclear genetic engineering Wild-typeWild-typeWild-type GPBStrainGPBStrainGPBStrain #12;Green Pacific Biologicals Organism with high levels of oils Powerful genetic engineering GPB [no

209

The pedestrian watchmaker: Genetic clocks from engineered oscillators Natalie A. Cookson a  

E-print Network

Review The pedestrian watchmaker: Genetic clocks from engineered oscillators Natalie A. Cookson and indus- trial pursuits that now includes all of genetic engineering. While the watchmaker analogy does the connection of engineered components in a controlled physical environment. Genetic circuits, on the other hand

Hasty, Jeff

210

Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed.

Johnson, E. J.

1982-01-01

211

The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

2012-01-01

212

Negative-Strand RNA Viruses: Genetic Engineering and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative-strand RNA viruses are a broad group of animal viruses that comprise several important human pathogens, including influenza, measles, mumps, rabies, respiratory syncytial, Ebola, and hantaviruses. The development of new strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of negative-strand RNA viruses has provided us with new tools to study the structure--function relationships of the viral components and their contributions to

Peter Palese; Hongyong Zheng; Othmar G. Engelhardt; Stephan Pleschka; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre

1996-01-01

213

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

214

Transgenic Mouse Models of CNS Tumors: Using Genetically Engineered Murine Models to Study the Role of p21Ras in Glioblastoma Multiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust animal models have come to the forefront of understanding GBM biology and cancer biology in general. Specifically,\\u000a genetically engineered murine models or GEMs have provided a great deal of understanding in investigating the role of p21-Ras\\u000a in GBM. Elevation of Ras activity is a molecular hallmark of GBM and is under intense investigation. Several animal models\\u000a have been engineered

Diana Munoz; Sameer Agnihotri; Abhijit Guha

215

Ordering of Quantum Dots Using Genetically Engineered Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid crystal system was used for the fabrication of a highly ordered composite material from genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanocrystals. The bacteriophage, which formed the basis of the self-ordering system, were selected to have a specific recognition moiety for ZnS crystal surfaces. The bacteriophage were coupled with ZnS solution precursors and spontaneously evolved a self-supporting

Seung-Wuk Lee; Chuanbin Mao; Christine E. Flynn; Angela M. Belcher

2002-01-01

216

What are the prospects for genetically engineered, disease resistant plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect and herbicide-resistant plants are the most widely grown transgenics in agricultural production. No strategy using\\u000a genetically engineered plants for disease resistance has had a comparable impact. Why is this? What are the prospects for\\u000a introducing transgenic disease resistant plants to agriculture? We review the biological background for strategies used to\\u000a make disease resistant GM crops, illustrate examples of these

David B. Collinge; Ole Søgaard Lund; Hans Thordal-Christensen

217

Bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater by genetically engineered Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered E. coli, which express both a Hg2+ transport system and metallothionein, were tested for their ability to remove mercury from wastewater. The wastewater contained more than ten different ions, including 2.58 mg\\/l mercury, and its pH was 9.6. Mercury uptake was faster from the wastewater than from distilled water, probably because of the higher ionic strength, as the

X. Deng; D. B. Wilson

2001-01-01

218

Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.  

PubMed

Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200 embryos exist presently. An important challenge for this program is to make the different segments of society realize the importance of the conservation of animal genetic resources. PMID:11775972

Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

2002-01-01

219

Eradication of malaria through genetic engineering: the current situation.  

PubMed

Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually. Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease. Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide. However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies. In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in the Plasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed. The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication. However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles. Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms. PMID:23339908

Chong, Wing-Chui; Basir, Rusliza; Fei, Yam Mun

2013-02-01

220

Refinement of behavioural traits in animals for the genetic dissection of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Both twin and family studies have revealed the involvement of genetic factors in disorders that affect the regulation of body weight, such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. However, pinpointing the genes that contribute to these human disorders has not yet been very successful. In contrast, genetic studies in animals have been basic for the identification of many genes involved in the regulation of various physiological processes of energy metabolism. We thus plan to review here ways in which findings from animal studies and what is known about behavioural diversity in the human population with eating disorders can be combined. This would probably optimise phenotype-based candidate gene analysis in humans. PMID:14623346

Kas, Martien J H; Van Elburg, Annemarie A; Van Engeland, Herman; Adan, Roger A H

2003-11-01

221

The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations  

PubMed Central

There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve

2013-01-01

222

Genetics of hypertension: From experimental animals to humans  

PubMed Central

Essential hypertension affects 20 to 30% of the population worldwide and contributes significantly to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Heridability of blood pressure is around 15 to 40% but there are also substantial environmental factors affecting blood pressure variability. It is assumed that blood pressure is under the control of a large number of genes each of which has only relatively mild effects. It has therefore been difficult to discover the genes that contribute to blood pressure variation using traditional approaches including candidate gene studies and linkage studies. Animal models of hypertension, particularly in the rat, have led to the discovery of quantitative trait loci harbouring one or several hypertension related genes, but translation of these findings into human essential hypertension remains challenging. Recent development of genotyping technology made large scale genome-wide association studies possible. This approach and the study of monogenic forms of hypertension has led to the discovery of novel and robust candidate genes for human essential hypertension, many of which require functional analysis in experimental models. PMID:20035862

Delles, Christian; McBride, Martin W.; Graham, Delyth; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Dominiczak, Anna F.

2010-01-01

223

Versatile RNA-sensing transcriptional regulators for engineering genetic networks  

PubMed Central

The widespread natural ability of RNA to sense small molecules and regulate genes has become an important tool for synthetic biology in applications as diverse as environmental sensing and metabolic engineering. Previous work in RNA synthetic biology has engineered RNA mechanisms that independently regulate multiple targets and integrate regulatory signals. However, intracellular regulatory networks built with these systems have required proteins to propagate regulatory signals. In this work, we remove this requirement and expand the RNA synthetic biology toolkit by engineering three unique features of the plasmid pT181 antisense-RNA-mediated transcription attenuation mechanism. First, because the antisense RNA mechanism relies on RNA-RNA interactions, we show how the specificity of the natural system can be engineered to create variants that independently regulate multiple targets in the same cell. Second, because the pT181 mechanism controls transcription, we show how independently acting variants can be configured in tandem to integrate regulatory signals and perform genetic logic. Finally, because both the input and output of the attenuator is RNA, we show how these variants can be configured to directly propagate RNA regulatory signals by constructing an RNA-meditated transcriptional cascade. The combination of these three features within a single RNA-based regulatory mechanism has the potential to simplify the design and construction of genetic networks by directly propagating signals as RNA molecules. PMID:21555549

Lucks, Julius B.; Qi, Lei; Mutalik, Vivek K.; Wang, Denise; Arkin, Adam P.

2011-01-01

224

Genetic structure and diversity of animal populations exposed to metal pollution.  

PubMed

Studying the genetic diversity of wild populations that are affected by pollution provides a basis for estimating the risks of environmental contamination to both wildlife, and indirectly to humans. Such research strives to produce both a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which genetic diversity is affected,and the long-term effects of the pollutants involved.In this review, we summarize key aspects of the field of genetic ecotoxicology that encompasses using genetic patterns to examine metal pollutants as environmental stressors of natural animal populations. We address genetic changes that result from xenobiotic exposure versus genetic alterations that result from natural ecological processes. We also describe the relationship between metal exposure and changes in the genetic diversity of chronically exposed populations, and how the affected populations respond to environmental stress. Further, we assess the genetic diversity of animal populations that were exposed to metals, focusing on the literature that has been published since the year 2000.Our review disclosed that the most common metals found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb; however, differences in the occurrence between aquatic (Cd=Zn>Cu>Pb>Hg) and terrestrial (Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni)environments were observed. Several molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in impacted populations, the order of the most common ones of which were SSR's > allozyme > RAPD's > mtDNA sequencing> other molecular markers.Genetic diversity was reduced for nearly all animal populations that were exposed to a single metal, or a mixture of metals in aquatic ecosystems (except in Hyalella azteca, Littorina littorea, Salmo trutta, and Gobio gobio); however, the pattern was less clear when terrestrial ecosystems were analyzed.We propose that future research in the topic area of this paper emphasizes seven key areas of activity that pertain to the methodological design of genetic ecotoxicological studies. Collectively, these points are designed to provide more accurate data and a deeper understanding of the relationship between alterations in genetic diversity of impacted populations and metal exposures. In particular, we believe that the exact nature of all tested chemical pollutants be clearly described, biomarkers be included, sentinel organisms be used, testing be performed at multiple experimental sites, reference populations be sampled in close geographical proximity to where pollution occurs, and genetic structure parameters and high-throughput technology be more actively employed. Furthermore, we propose a new class of biomarkers,termed "biomarkers of permanent effect," which may include measures of genetic variability in impacted populations. PMID:24158580

Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio

2014-01-01

225

The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.  

PubMed

An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23554402

de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2013-04-01

226

Animated Engineering Tutors: Middle School Students' Preferences and Rationales on Multiple  

E-print Network

tutor such as gender, age, personality, and clothing. Results showed that for teaching engineering perceptions of the learning experience. An animated pedagogical agent (APA) is a human-like or otherwise animated on-screen character appearing in a computer-based instructional module [1][2][3]. Common

Reisslein, Martin

227

Impact Assessment of a Microprocessor Animation on Student Learning and Motivation in Computer Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the impact of using custom animation software to teach second\\/third year computer\\/electrical engineering students in the microprocessing systems course at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Over the span of 13 years' experience with teaching the course, the difficulties and limitations with conventional lectures and visual aids led to the development of custom animation of

Ken Ferens; Marcia Friesen; Sandra Ingram

2007-01-01

228

Intelligent Computing in Engineering -ICE08 Resolving Incorrect Occlusion in Augmented Reality Animations  

E-print Network

Intelligent Computing in Engineering - ICE08 24 Resolving Incorrect Occlusion in Augmented Reality Animations of Simulated Construction Operations A H Behzadan 1 , V R Kamat 1 1 University of Michigan, Ann convincing representations of the mod- eled processes. As a tradeoff, however, an AR animation must be able

Kamat, Vineet R.

229

Variability in Gene Expression and Tumor Formation within Genetically Homogeneous Animal Populations in Bioassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable variation in susceptibility to tissue-specific tumor formation in response to chronic treatment with low or intermediate dose levels of putative carcinogens is observed within populations of genetically homogeneous test animals under controlled environmental conditions. Experimental evidence from National Toxicology Program studies is reviewed, as are studies of differing degrees of carcinogenic response and tumor promotion among iso- and congenic

George L. Wolff

1996-01-01

230

Genetically modified animals in the biomedical sciences: The challenge of rapid advances & ethical demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies which permit targeted manipulation of genetic material not only provide new opportunities to explore the organization, regulation and biological or pathological function of molecular processes but, in so doing, have revolutionised the development and validation of animal models. In a very short time, we have seen rapid escalation in the development of new models, most often in mice, and

Margaret Rose; Elizabeth Grant; David Adams

231

A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

2002-01-01

232

Convergent Functional Genomics of bipolar disorder: From animal model pharmacogenomics to human genetics and biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in understanding the genetic and neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder(s) has come from both human studies and animal model studies. Until recently, the lack of concerted integration between the two approaches has been hindering the pace of discovery, or more exactly, constituted a missed opportunity to accelerate our understanding of this complex and heterogeneous group of disorders. Our group

H. Le-Niculescua; M. J. McFarlanda; S. Mamidipallia; C. A. Ogdend; R. Kuczenskie; S. M. Kurianf; Ming T. Tsuange; J. I. Nurnberger Jr; A. B. Niculescua

233

Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla population of Bwindi  

E-print Network

Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla The International Gorilla Conservation Program, P.O. Box 48177, Nairobi, Kenya e Uganda Wildlife Authority, P.O. Box form 6 October 2008 Accepted 17 October 2008 Available online 3 December 2008 Keywords: Gorilla

Dever, Jennifer A.

234

Elucidation of the neurobiology of depression: insights from a novel genetic animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of drugs for the effective treatment of depressive disorders requires elucidation of factors that are critical for clinically antidepressant effects. During the past 4 years, we have studied in situ neurochemical alterations in the brain that may underlie depressive behavior. This was achieved using the genetically-selected Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) of rats (a unique animal model of depression), before

Gal Yadid; Rachel Nakash; Ilana Deri; Grin Tamar; Noa Kinor; Iris Gispan; Abraham Zangen

2000-01-01

235

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

236

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

237

Reactor Engineering in Large Scale Animal Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article mainly addresses the issues associated with the engineering of large-scale free suspension culture in agitated\\u000a bioreactors >10,000 L because they have become the system of choice industrially. It is particularly concerned with problems\\u000a that become increasingly important as the scale increases. However, very few papers have been written that are actually based\\u000a on such large-scale studies and the few

Alvin W. Nienow

2006-01-01

238

ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.  

PubMed

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

2011-11-01

239

Universal genetic assay for engineering extracellular protein expression.  

PubMed

A variety of strategies now exist for the extracellular expression of recombinant proteins using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli . However, secreted proteins often accumulate in the culture medium at levels that are too low to be practically useful for most synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. The situation is compounded by the lack of generalized screening tools for optimizing the secretion process. To address this challenge, we developed a genetic approach for studying and engineering protein-secretion pathways in E. coli . Using the YebF pathway as a model, we demonstrate that direct fluorescent labeling of tetracysteine-motif-tagged secretory proteins with the biarsenical compound FlAsH is possible in situ without the need to recover the cell-free supernatant. High-throughput screening of a bacterial strain library yielded superior YebF expression hosts capable of secreting higher titers of YebF and YebF-fusion proteins into the culture medium. We also show that the method can be easily extended to other secretory pathways, including type II and type III secretion, directly in E. coli . Thus, our FlAsH-tetracysteine-based genetic assay provides a convenient, high-throughput tool that can be applied generally to diverse secretory pathways. This platform should help to shed light on poorly understood aspects of these processes as well as to further assist in the construction of engineered E. coli strains for efficient secretory-protein production. PMID:24200127

Haitjema, Charles H; Boock, Jason T; Natarajan, Aravind; Dominguez, Miguel A; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Keating, David H; Withers, Sydnor T; DeLisa, Matthew P

2014-02-21

240

REVERSE ENGINEERING BY MEANS OF GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA  

E-print Network

REVERSE ENGINEERING BY MEANS OF GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA John R, to automatically reverse engineer the network from the data. Genetic programming (Koza, Bennett, Andre, and Keane. Koza Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford

Fernandez, Thomas

241

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602262 Weaving Genetically Engineered Functionality into Mechanically  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602262 Weaving Genetically Engineered Functionality into Mechanically Robust using M13 filamentous viruses (or bacter- iophages). This work applies genetic engineering, chemical, the production of functionalized fibers has posed a challenge in materials science and engineering. Here we

Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

242

A CAL program to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering—a change from the traditional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. The pro-gram makes extensive use of colour, graphics, and animation and is aimed at A-level students of biology. Students select, from a menu, to investigate one of a number of identified processes involved in the overall production of a protein,

D. G. Dewhurst; A. S. Meehan; A. Williams; D. Woods

1989-01-01

243

Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

1990-01-01

244

[Genetic engineering and trends in the research on new vaccines].  

PubMed

The elaboration of vaccines, initially purely empirical, can now be made on a more rational basis thanks to our progresses in understanding the immune system and to our ability in expressing or mimicking immunogenic but innocuous parts of pathogens. We describe some of the factors contributing to the impressive acceleration in the research for new vaccines including the impact of genetic engineering. This impact is important both for the search of relevant immunogens and for their presentation to the host. We develop, in particular, the example of oral vaccines with live bacteria. PMID:2461790

Hofnung, M

1988-01-01

245

Genetic engineering: Rifkin strikes at corn this time.  

PubMed

As a result of a threatened suit by Jeremy Rifkin, Stanford University has postponed an experiment involving a test plot of genetically-engineered corn. At issue is an injunction forbidding the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health from approving federal funding of experiments entailing the release of recombinant DNA into the environment. Rifkin's legal argument is that an environmnental impact statement must be filed for both commercially- and federally-funded research. It is expected that Rifkin's demand for equal treatment regardless of funding source will be agreed to by NIH. PMID:6588294

Budiansky, S

246

Breakthrough in chloroplast genetic engineering of agronomically important crops  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment by maternal inheritance, as well as a lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA. More than 40 transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed using the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer desired agronomic traits or express high levels of vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals. Despite such significant progress, this technology has not been extended to major crops. However, highly efficient soybean, carrot and cotton plastid transformation has recently been accomplished through somatic embryogenesis using species-specific chloroplast vectors. This review focuses on recent exciting developments in this field and offers directions for further research and development. PMID:15866001

Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi; Dufourmantel, Nathalie

2012-01-01

247

Colonization genetics of an animal-dispersed plant (Vaccinium membranaceum) at Mount St Helens, Washington.  

PubMed

Population founding and spatial spread may profoundly influence later population genetic structure, but their effects are difficult to quantify when population history is unknown. We examined the genetic effects of founder group formation in a recently founded population of the animal-dispersed Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) on new volcanic deposits at Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) 24 years post-eruption. Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and assignment tests, we determined sources of the newly founded population and characterized genetic variation within new and source populations. Our analyses indicate that while founders were derived from many sources, about half originated from a small number of plants that survived the 1980 eruption in pockets of remnant soil embedded within primary successional areas. We found no evidence of a strong founder effect in the new population; indeed genetic diversity in the newly founded population tended to be higher than in some of the source regions. Similarly, formation of the new population did not increase among-population genetic variance, and there was no evidence of kin-structured dispersal in the new population. These results indicate that high gene flow among sources and long-distance dispersal were important processes shaping the genetic diversity in this young V. membranaceum population. Other species with similar dispersal abilities may also be able to colonize new habitats without significant reduction in genetic diversity or increase in differentiation among populations. PMID:18194163

Yang, S; Bishop, J G; Webster, M S

2008-02-01

248

Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise - the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.  

PubMed

The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:25290946

Hudson-Shore, Michelle

2014-09-01

249

Animal genetic resource trade flows: The utilization of newly imported breeds and the gene flow of imported animals in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal germplasm exchange has recently received attention as a product of the FAO's State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources effort. Some have advocated a need to explore policies and regulations on the exchange of germplasm (e.g., Hiemstra, S.J., Drucker, A., Tvedt, M., Louwaars, N., Oldenbroek, J., Awgichew, K., Kebede, S., Bhat, P., da Silva Mariante, A. 2006. Exchange, use

Harvey Blackburn; Douglas Gollin

2009-01-01

250

POTENTIAL FOR TRANSFER AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ENGINEERED GENETIC SEQUENCES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The transfer of recombinant DNA molecules from the introduced organism to natural populations of bacteria may be an important factor in assessing the outcomes of planned release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. As genetic transfer is further investigated,...

251

Genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from animals, food poisoning outbreaks and sludge  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has previously been investigated chiefly by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolated from various animals, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge was investigated. Results We used PFGE to examine the genetic diversity of 95 C. perfringens type A isolates from eight different sources. The isolates were also examined for the presence of the beta2 toxin gene (cpb2) and the enterotoxin gene (cpe). The cpb2 gene from the 28 cpb2-positive isolates was also partially sequenced (519 bp, corresponding to positions 188 to 706 in the consensus cpb2 sequence). The results of PFGE revealed a wide genetic diversity among the C. perfringens type A isolates. The genetic relatedness of the isolates ranged from 58 to 100% and 56 distinct PFGE types were identified. Almost all clusters with similar patterns comprised isolates with a known epidemiological correlation. Most of the isolates from pig, horse and sheep carried the cpb2 gene. All isolates originating from food poisoning outbreaks carried the cpe gene and three of these also carried cpb2. Two evolutionary different populations were identified by sequence analysis of the partially sequenced cpb2 genes from our study and cpb2 sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Conclusion As revealed by PFGE, there was a wide genetic diversity among C. perfringens isolates from different sources. Epidemiologically related isolates showed a high genetic similarity, as expected, while isolates with no obvious epidemiological relationship expressed a lesser degree of genetic similarity. The wide diversity revealed by PFGE was not reflected in the 16S rRNA sequences, which had a considerable degree of sequence similarity. Sequence comparison of the partially sequenced cpb2 gene revealed two genetically different populations. This is to our knowledge the first study in which the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolates both from different animals species, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge has been investigated. PMID:16737528

Johansson, Anders; Aspan, Anna; Bagge, Elisabeth; Baverud, Viveca; Engstrom, Bjorn E; Johansson, Karl-Erik

2006-01-01

252

[Animal welfare aspects of biotechnology].  

PubMed

It's difficult to value the effects on animals caused by genetic engineering. Nowadays an enormous increase on animal tests is taken place. The detrimental alterations of small number of living born gene altered animals are in literature explained by deficiencies in method and the increased growth is described with deficient mechanisms on regulation. Not only the intention to increase productivity by genetic engineering but also the method to improve by fragments (genes) not facing the animals totality is against prevention of cruelty to animals. PMID:2351056

Idel, A

1990-04-01

253

Animal models of human genetic diseases: do they need to be faithful to be useful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advances in molecular genetics, animal models of human diseases are becoming more numerous and more refined every\\u000a year. Despite this, one must recognize that they generally do not faithfully and comprehensively mimic the homologous human\\u000a disease. Faced with these imperfections, some geneticists believe that these models are of little value, while for others,\\u000a on the contrary, they are

Jean-Louis Guénet

2011-01-01

254

Animal cloning applications in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this article will be to outline the potential benefits of cloning technology to the animal agricultural industry and highlight some of the possibilities for combining the tools offered by nuclear transfer, animal genomics, and genetic engineering to make improved animal agricultural products.

RAYMOND L. PAGE; SAKTHIKUMAR AMBADY

2004-01-01

255

Barriers and paths to market for genetically engineered crops.  

PubMed

Each year, billions of dollars are invested in efforts to improve crops through genetic engineering (GE). These activities have resulted in a surge of publications and patents on technologies and genes: a momentum in basic research that, unfortunately, is not sustained throughout the subsequent phases of product development. After more than two decades of intensive research, the market for transgenic crops is still dominated by applications of just a handful of methods and genes. This discrepancy between research and development reflects difficulties in understanding and overcoming seven main barriers-to-entry: (1) trait efficacy in the field, (2) critical product concepts, (3) freedom-to-operate, (4) industry support, (5) identity preservation and stewardship, (6) regulatory approval and (7) retail and consumer acceptance. In this review, I describe the various roadblocks to market for transgenic crops and also discuss methods and approaches on how to overcome these, especially in the United States. PMID:19968823

Rommens, Caius M

2010-02-01

256

Poplar genetic engineering: promoting desirable wood characteristics and pest resistance.  

PubMed

Worldwide biomass demand for industrial applications, especially for production of biofuels, is increasing. Extended cultivation of fast growing trees such as poplars may contribute to satisfy the need for renewable resources. However, lignin, which constitutes about 20-30% of woody biomass, renders poplar wood recalcitrant to saccharification. Genetic engineering of the enzymes of the lignification pathway has resulted in drastic decreases in lignin and greatly improved the carbohydrate yield for ethanol fermentation. While uncovering key enzymes for lignification facilitated rapid biotechnological progress, knowledge on field performance of low-lignin poplars is still lagging behind. The major biotic damage is caused by poplar rust fungi (Melampsora larici-populina), whose defense responses involve lignification and production of phenolic compounds. Therefore, manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway may be critical and should be tightly linked with new strategies for improved poplar rust tolerance. Emerging novel concepts for wood improvement are discussed. PMID:23681587

Polle, A; Janz, D; Teichmann, T; Lipka, V

2013-07-01

257

Comparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity is the amount of variation observed between DNA sequences from distinct individuals of a given species. This pivotal concept of population genetics has implications for species health, domestication, management and conservation. Levels of genetic diversity seem to vary greatly in natural populations and species, but the determinants of this variation, and particularly the relative influences of species biology and ecology versus population history, are still largely mysterious. Here we show that the diversity of a species is predictable, and is determined in the first place by its ecological strategy. We investigated the genome-wide diversity of 76 non-model animal species by sequencing the transcriptome of two to ten individuals in each species. The distribution of genetic diversity between species revealed no detectable influence of geographic range or invasive status but was accurately predicted by key species traits related to parental investment: long-lived or low-fecundity species with brooding ability were genetically less diverse than short-lived or highly fecund ones. Our analysis demonstrates the influence of long-term life-history strategies on species response to short-term environmental perturbations, a result with immediate implications for conservation policies. PMID:25141177

Romiguier, J; Gayral, P; Ballenghien, M; Bernard, A; Cahais, V; Chenuil, A; Chiari, Y; Dernat, R; Duret, L; Faivre, N; Loire, E; Lourenco, J M; Nabholz, B; Roux, C; Tsagkogeorga, G; Weber, A A-T; Weinert, L A; Belkhir, K; Bierne, N; Glémin, S; Galtier, N

2014-11-13

258

Molecular methods for environmental monitoring and containment of genetically engineered microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plans to introduce genetically engineered microorganisms into the environment has led to concerns over safety and has raised questions about how to detect and to contain such microorganisms. Specific gene sequences, such as lacZ, have been inserted into genetically engineered microorganisms to permit their phenotypic detection. Molecular methods have been developed based upon recovery of DNA from environmental samples and

Ronald M. Atlas

1992-01-01

259

The use of genetically engineered cells for assessing CYP2D6-related polymorphic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an example of advanced testing in the field of metabolism in an industrial environment, the introduction of some novel approaches, including the use of genetically engineered cell lines for assessing CYP 2D6-related polymorphic effects is illustrated. In this paper, it is demonstrated that novel in vitro test systems can be developed by using these genetically engineered cell lines for

S Coecke; A Bogni; I Langezaal; A Worth; T Hartung; M Monshouwer

2001-01-01

260

Genetic Engineering: A Matter that Requires Further Refinement in Spanish Secondary School Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with…

Martinez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quylez, M. J.; Osada, J.

2003-01-01

261

Genetically engineered pigs as a source for clinical red blood cell transfusion.  

PubMed

The transfusion of animal blood or red blood cells (RBCs) into humans goes back to 1667, and the practice persisted until the early 1900s. In recent years, in part because of the shortage of acceptable and safe human blood worldwide, there has been renewed interest in the possibility of using genetically-engineered pigs as sources of RBCs for clinical transfusion. Pigs are becoming available in which the cells, tissues, and organs are to some extent protected from the human immune response. This extends significant protection from antibody-mediated complement lysis. Transfusion of these RBCs into nonhuman primates, however, indicates that they are rapidly lost from the circulation, almost certainly through the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Further genetic manipulation may resolve this problem. In view of the potential advantages of pig RBCs with regard to the absence of infectious microorganisms and the rapid progress being made in genetically modifying pigs, pig RBCs may eventually become a feasible source of blood for clinical transfusion. PMID:20513556

Cooper, David K C; Hara, Hidetaka; Yazer, Mark

2010-06-01

262

Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops.  

PubMed

Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We introduced the first enzyme involved in fructan synthesis, the sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (isolated from Jerusalem artichoke), into sugar beet. The transgenic sugar beet showed a dramatic change in the nature of the accumulated sugar, 90% of the sucrose being converted into fructan. The use of transgenic sugar beet for the production and isolation of fructans will result in a more efficient plant production system of fructans and should promote their use in human food. The second example shows how the over-expression of the key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis could increase anti-oxidant levels in tomato. Introduction of a highly expressed chalcone isomerase led to a seventyfold increase of the amount of quercetin glucoside, which is a strong anti-oxidant in tomato. We were also able to modify the essential amino acid content of potato in order to increase its nutritional value. The introduction of a feedback insensitive bacterial gene involved in biosynthesis of aspartate family amino acids led to a sixfold increase of the lysine content. Because the use of a bacterial gene could appear to be controversial, we also introduced a mutated form of the plant key enzyme of lysine biosynthesis (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) in potato. This modification led to a 15 times increase of the lysine content of potato. This increase of the essential amino acid lysine influences the nutritional value of potato, which normally has low levels of several essential amino acids. These three examples show how the metabolism of primary constituents of the plant cell such as sugar or amino acids, but also of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, can be modified by genetic engineering. Producing fructan, a soluble fiber, increasing the level of flavonoids, an antioxidant, in tomato or increasing the level of essential amino acids in potato are all clear examples of plant genetic modifications with possible positive effects on human nutrition. PMID:12071305

Sévenier, Robert; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Bino, Raoul; Koops, Andries J

2002-06-01

263

Animal model integration to AutDB, a genetic database for autism  

PubMed Central

Background In the post-genomic era, multi-faceted research on complex disorders such as autism has generated diverse types of molecular information related to its pathogenesis. The rapid accumulation of putative candidate genes/loci for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ASD-related animal models poses a major challenge for systematic analysis of their content. We previously created the Autism Database (AutDB) to provide a publicly available web portal for ongoing collection, manual annotation, and visualization of genes linked to ASD. Here, we describe the design, development, and integration of a new module within AutDB for ongoing collection and comprehensive cataloguing of ASD-related animal models. Description As with the original AutDB, all data is extracted from published, peer-reviewed scientific literature. Animal models are annotated with a new standardized vocabulary of phenotypic terms developed by our researchers which is designed to reflect the diverse clinical manifestations of ASD. The new Animal Model module is seamlessly integrated to AutDB for dissemination of diverse information related to ASD. Animal model entries within the new module are linked to corresponding candidate genes in the original "Human Gene" module of the resource, thereby allowing for cross-modal navigation between gene models and human gene studies. Although the current release of the Animal Model module is restricted to mouse models, it was designed with an expandable framework which can easily incorporate additional species and non-genetic etiological models of autism in the future. Conclusions Importantly, this modular ASD database provides a platform from which data mining, bioinformatics, and/or computational biology strategies may be adopted to develop predictive disease models that may offer further insights into the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. It also serves as a general model for disease-driven databases curating phenotypic characteristics of corresponding animal models. PMID:21272355

2011-01-01

264

Quantitative Assessment of In Vivo HIV Protease Activity Using Genetically Engineered QD-Based  

E-print Network

, establishment of a different genetically modified cell line for all the mutated protease and cleavage siteQuantitative Assessment of In Vivo HIV Protease Activity Using Genetically Engineered QD-Based FRET of anti-HIV therapy. However, the constant genetic drift in the virus leads to accumulation of mutations

Chen, Wilfred

265

Contribution of genetic influences to animal-to-animal variation in myoglobin content and beef lean color stability.  

PubMed

Longissimus thoracis steaks from steers (n = 464) with 0 to 50% inheritance of Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental were evaluated during 6 d of display to assess genetic contributions to color stability. Color space values [CIE L* (lightness), a* (redness), b* (yellowness)], chroma, color change (DeltaE), and surface metmyoglobin (K/S 572/525) were determined on d 0 and 6 of display. Myoglobin concentration was highly heritable (0.85), but ultimate pH was weakly heritable (0.06). Day 0 L* values were moderately heritable (0.24). Variation in metmyoglobin, L*, and DeltaE on d 6 was moderately explained by genetic factors (41, 40, and 29%, respectively). Change during display was moderately heritable for a* (0.31), b* (0.23), chroma (0.35), and surface metmyoglobin (0.29). At the start of display, Angus steaks had greater (P < 0.05) L* values than those from all breeds except Charolais. On d 6, Angus steaks had greater (P < 0.05) L* (50.0) values than Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Simmental steaks (46.1, 44.0, and 44.5, respectively). Day 0 values for a*, b*, chroma, and DeltaE were not affected by breed (P > 0.05). On d 6, a* values were greater (P < 0.05) for Charolais and Limousin steaks (31.1 and 30.5) than Angus, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (27.4, 27.7, and 26.3, respectively). Thus, a* changed less (P < 0.05) in Charolais and Limousin steaks (1.8 and 2.6, respectively) vs. steaks from other breeds. Day 6 b* values were greater (P < 0.05) in Charolais (24.5) and Limousin steaks (24.0) vs. Gelbvieh (22.2), Hereford (21.9), and Red Angus steaks (21.4). Thus, b* values changed less (P < 0.05) in Charolais and Limousin steaks (1.5 and 1.7, respectively) than in Angus, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (4.3, 3.8, 4.4, and 5.1, respectively). After 6 d of display, Charolais and Limousin steaks had greater chroma (P < 0.05; 39.5 and 38.8, respectively) compared with Angus, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (35.4, 35.3, and 33.9, respectively). Less (P < 0.05) change in chroma occurred for Charolais and Limousin (2.1 and 2.8, respectively) than in Angus, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Red Angus steaks (7.1, 6.6, 7.4, and 9.0, respectively). Myoglobin concentration was less for Charolais and Limousin (P < 0.05; 2.77 and 2.72, respectively) compared with Gelbvieh, Red Angus, and Simmental steaks (3.62, 3.43, and 3.71, respectively). Breeds did not differ in pH (P > 0.05). These data suggest Charolais- and Limousin-carcasses produced steaks with greater lean color stability than Angus, Hereford, and Red Angus carcasses. Furthermore, these findings suggest that genetics contribute substantially to animal-to-animal variation in lean color, particularly in maintaining color. PMID:19966159

King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Kuehn, L A; Kemp, C M; Rodriguez, A B; Thallman, R M; Wheeler, T L

2010-03-01

266

In order to build up a system of international cooperative research in the field of animal biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School  

E-print Network

biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School of BioagriculturalPurpose In order to build up a system of international cooperative research in the field of animal in the research and development units of companies, including those affiliated to established research institutes

Takahashi, Ryo

267

76 FR 63278 - Bayer CropScience LP; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Cotton Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-10-12

268

78 FR 51706 - Bayer CropScience LP; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2013-08-21

269

Genetic Engineering of Self-Assembled Protein Hydrogel Based on Elastin-like Sequences with Metal Binding Functionality  

E-print Network

Genetic Engineering of Self-Assembled Protein Hydrogel Based on Elastin-like Sequences with Metal genetic engineering.1,2 By preprogram- ming the coding information within a DNA template, precise control

Chen, Wilfred

270

A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

271

Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from humans and animals in Australia.  

PubMed Central

Genetic relationships amongst 115 mainly Australian isolates of Mycobacterium avium were assessed using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE). The isolates were divided into 58 electrophoretic types (ETs), with a mean genetic diversity of 0.29. Isolates from humans were closely related to but distinct from those cultured from birds, whilst some porcine isolates belonged to the same ETs as certain human isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to differentiate related isolates, and those from birds and some from other animals, including pigs, were distinguished from the human isolates. The results of MEE and PFGE suggested that certain strains of M. avium may be transmitted between birds and pigs, but there was no clear evidence of transmission to humans. The serovar of the M. avium isolates was not obviously related to their ET assignment or their PFGE type. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8626003

Feizabadi, M. M.; Robertson, I. D.; Cousins, D. V.; Dawson, D.; Chew, W.; Gilbert, G. L.; Hampson, D. J.

1996-01-01

272

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Griffith, Christopher

273

Practical Training in Microalgae Utilization with Key Industry Engineering Group Key Industry Engineering Group s.r.o. has developed a biotechnology for the production of an animal  

E-print Network

Engineering Group s.r.o. has developed a biotechnology for the production of an animal feed product based medium which is then applied directly to the animals during feeding. The use of this suspension has shown effective in improving the health and immune system of animals, thus reducing mortality, as well as showing

274

Genetic Animal Models of Depression Peter R. Canavello, Rupert J. Egan, Carisa L. Bergner, Peter C. Hart,  

E-print Network

191 Chapter 10 Genetic Animal Models of Depression Peter R. Canavello, Rupert J. Egan, Carisa L feelings of guilt, and thoughts of suicide (1). Depression is widespread across different age and social groups, and is in part genetically determined (2, 3). Twice as prevalent in women as in men, major

Kalueff, Allan V.

275

Genetic Algorithms: A Fundamental Component of an Optimization Toolkit for Improved Engineering Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization is being increasing applied to engineering de- sign problems throughout the world. iSIGHT is a generic engineering design environment that provides engineers with an optimization toolkit of leading optimization algorithms and an optimization advisor to solve their optimization needs. This paper focuses on the key role played by the toolkit's genetic algorithm in providing a robust, general purpose solution

Siu Shing Tong; David J. Powell

2003-01-01

276

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon, Justyna Petke, Iman Hemati Moghadam,  

E-print Network

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon engineer. In this paper we outline how a Search Based Software Engineering approach called `genetic ABSTRACT This paper1 presents a brief outline of an approach to online genetic improvement. We argue

Harman, Mark

277

Standard Review Genetic engineering, ecosystem change, and agriculture: an update  

E-print Network

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), alternatively called biotech crops, dominate soybean and cotton production and are rapidly increasing their fraction of market share for maize and rice in the U.S. Engineered canola is important in Canada, soybeans are dominant in Argentina and Brazil, and cotton is prominent in China and India. Adoption is much slower elsewhere, in large part due to concerns for potential ecosystem effects that may occur through development of weedy plants, by selection of herbicide resistant weeds and by effects of insecticidal proteins on nontarget insects. The precautionary principle is invoked by critics concerned that one must know in advance the effects of GMOs before releasing them. Alteration of weed species composition of agricultural fields is well documented to occur under herbicide selection pressure. Gene flow to wild relatives of crop plants can be shown under herbicide selection, and one instance (sunflower) is provided for insect resistance transfer leading to increased seed production by a weedy relative. Detailed stewardship programs have been developed by seed producers to minimize risks of gene flow. Although herbicides and insecticides are known to have major effects on agroecosystems, the ecosystem impacts of GMOs per se, thus far appear to be small.

Lawrence C. Davis

2006-01-01

278

Genetic engineering of bacteria for lignocellulose conversion to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The dominant cost for U.S. ethanol fuel production today is the substrate, corn starch. Expansion of this fermentation process to include additional substrates such as lignocellulose offers great potential to reduce this cost and increase the use of ethanol as a fuel additive. Lignocellulose is a more complex substrate than starch and is a mixture of carbohydrate polymers (hemicellulose and cellulose) and lignin. This substrate needs both depolymerization to release sugars and fermentation of mixed hexose and pentose sugars. During the past few years the authors` laboratory has developed a series of genetically engineered bacteria which efficiently ferment all of the sugars present in lignocellulose. This was done by inserting a portable, artificial operon containing the Z. mobilis genes for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase into other bacteria which have the native ability to metabolize diverse sugars. Organisms are now being developed which also produce some of the enzymes needed for the depolymerization of cellulose, cellotriose, xylobiose, xylotriose, maltose, maltotriose, etc. improving the process by eliminating the requirement for monomeric sugars for fermentation. Efficiencies of conversion exceed 90% of theoretical yields. These organisms are being commercialized for fuel ethanol production.

Ingram, L.O. [Univ. of Florida, Gainsville, FL (United States)

1993-12-31

279

Genetically engineered protein in hydrogels tailors stimuli-responsive characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain proteins undergo a substantial conformational change in response to a given stimulus. This conformational change can manifest in different manners and result in an actuation, that is, catalytic or signalling event, movement, interaction with other proteins, and so on. In all cases, the sensing-actuation process of proteins is initiated by a recognition event that translates into a mechanical action. Thus, proteins are ideal components for designing new nanomaterials that are intelligent and can perform desired mechanical actions in response to target stimuli. A number of approaches have been undertaken to mimic nature's sensing-actuating process. We now report a new hybrid material that integrates genetically engineered proteins within hydrogels capable of producing a stimulus-responsive action mechanism. The mechanical effect is a result of an induced conformational change and binding affinities of the protein in response to a stimulus. The stimuli-responsive hydrogel exhibits three specific swelling stages in response to various ligands offering additional fine-tuned control over a conventional two-stage swelling hydrogel. The newly prepared material was used in the sensing, and subsequent gating and transport of biomolecules across a polymer network, demonstrating its potential application in microfluidics and miniaturized drug-delivery systems.

Ehrick, Jason D.; Deo, Sapna K.; Browning, Tyler W.; Bachas, Leonidas G.; Madou, Marc J.; Daunert, Sylvia

2005-04-01

280

Stochastic signaling in biochemical cascades and genetic systems in genetically engineered living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living cells, either prokaryote or eukaryote, can be integrated within whole-cell biochips (WCBCs) for various applications. We investigate WCBCs where information is extracted from the cells via a cascade of biochemical reactions that involve gene expression. The overall biological signal is weak due to small sample volume, low intrinsic cell response, and extrinsic signal loss mechanisms. The low signal-to-noise ratio problem is aggravated during initial detection stages and limits the minimum detectable signal or, alternatively, the minimum detection time. Taking into account the stochastic nature of biochemical process, we find that the signal is accompanied by relatively large noise disturbances. In this work, we use genetically engineered microbe sensors as a model to study the biochips output signal stochastic behavior. In our model, the microbes are designed to express detectable reporter proteins under external induction. We present analytical approximated expressions and numerical simulations evaluating the fluctuations of the synthesized reporter proteins population based on a set of equations modeling a cascade of biochemical and genetic reactions. We assume that the reporter proteins decay more slowly than messenger RNA molecules. We calculate the relation between the noise of the input signal (extrinsic noise) and biochemical reaction statistics (intrinsic noise). We discuss in further details two cases: (1) a cascade with large decay rates of all biochemical reactions compared to the protein decay rate. We show that in this case, the noise amplitude has a positive linear correlation with the number of stages in the cascade. (2) A cascade which includes a stable enzymatic-binding reaction with slow decay rate. We show that in this case, the noise strongly depends on the protein decay rate. Finally, a general observation is presented stating that the noise in whole-cell biochip sensors is determined mainly by the first reactions in the genetic system with weak dependence on the number of stages in the cascade.

Daniel, Ramiz; Almog, Ronen; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

2010-04-01

281

Human, food and animal Campylobacter spp. isolated in Portugal: High genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance rates.  

PubMed

Infections by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food being the main source of infection. In this study, a total of 196 Campylobacter strains (125 isolates from humans, 39 from retail food and 32 from food animal sources) isolated in Portugal between 2009 and 2012 were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and flaA short variable region (SVR) typing. Susceptibility to six antibiotics as well as the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance phenotypes was also studied. Based on MLST typing, C. coli strains were genetically more conserved, with a predominant clonal complex (CC828), than C. jejuni strains. In contrast, C. coli isolates were genetically more variable than C. jejuni with regard to flaA-SVR typing. A high rate of resistance was observed for quinolones (100% to nalidixic acid, >90% to ciprofloxacin) and, in general, resistance was more common among C. coli, especially for erythromycin (40.2% vs. 6.7%). In addition, most isolates (86%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial families. Besides the expected point mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, detected polymorphisms in the cmeABC locus likely play a role in the multiresistant phenotype. This study provides for the first time an overview of the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains from Portugal. It also shows a worrying antibiotic multiresistance rate and the emergence of Campylobacter strains resistant to antibiotics of human use. PMID:25130097

Duarte, Andreia; Santos, Andrea; Manageiro, Vera; Martins, Ana; Fraqueza, Maria J; Caniça, Manuela; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica

2014-10-01

282

The establishment of genetically engineered canola populations in the U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Concerns regarding the commercial release of genetically engineered (GE) crops include naturalization, introgression to sexually compatible relatives and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species through hybridization. To date there have been few documented re...

283

USE OF A NOVEL PLASMID TO MONITOR THE FATE OF A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA STRAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Plasmid pSI30 was constructed to increase the sensitivity of detection of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and its recombinant DNA in environmental samples. his broad host-range, mobilizable plasmid contained chlorocatechol (clc) degradative genes, antibiotic resistan...

284

Genetic algorithm based optimization in engineering design using fuzzy constraints and fitness functions  

E-print Network

The motivation for this work has been the use of tools, such as genetic algorithms and fuzzy sets, to address the various issues that are involved in an engineering design optimization problem. In order to address the variety, generality...

Vijayakumar, Bhuvaneshwaran

2012-06-07

285

IMPROVING PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING BY MANIPULATING THE HOST. (R829479C001)  

EPA Science Inventory

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation is a major technique for the genetic engineering of plants. However, there are many economically important crop and tree species that remain highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium infection. Although attempts have been made to ...

286

Gene flow in genetically engineered perennial grasses: Lessons for modification of dedicated bioenergy crops  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential ecological consequences of the commercialization of genetically engineered (GD) crops have been the subject of intense debate, particularly when the GE crops are perennial and capable of outcrossing to wild relatives. The essential ecological impact issues for engi...

287

Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

2008-01-01

288

Women as body parts in the era of reproductive and genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive and genetic engineering are presented by their promoters as miracle cures for people with infertility problems or who are at genetic risk in having their desired healthy child. Focusing on the test?tube baby method (in vitro fertilization), in this article I investigate the medical reality of these technologies and their impact on women's lives as individuals and as members

Renate Klein

1991-01-01

289

ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO THE RELEASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of these studies show that GEMs (Genetically Engineered Microorganisms) have the potential to survive, to transfer their novel genetic information, and to affect some microbe-mediated ecological processes in soil. he magnitude of these phenomena in soil in situ, howev...

290

Nuclear and plastid genetic engineering of plants: Comparison of opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant genetic engineering is one of the key technologies for crop improvement as well as an emerging approach for producing recombinant proteins in plants. Both plant nuclear and plastid genomes can be genetically modified, yet fundamental functional differences between the eukaryotic genome of the plant cell nucleus and the prokaryotic-like genome of the plastid will have an impact on key

Benjamin Meyers; Adi Zaltsman; Benoît Lacroix; Stanislav V. Kozlovsky; Alexander Krichevsky

2010-01-01

291

Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies. PMID:22958744

2012-01-01

292

The Significance of Content Knowledge for Informal Reasoning regarding Socioscientific Issues: Applying Genetics Knowledge to Genetic Engineering Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a…

Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

2005-01-01

293

Exploring Dynamics of Molybdate in Living Animal Cells by a Genetically Encoded FRET Nanosensor  

PubMed Central

Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for almost all living organisms including animals. Mo is used as a catalytic center of molybdo-enzymes for oxidation/reduction reactions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. Whilst living cells are known to import inorganic molybdate oxyanion from the surrounding environment, the in vivo dynamics of cytosolic molybdate remain poorly understood as no appropriate indicator is available for this trace anion. We here describe a genetically encoded Förester-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET)-based nanosensor composed of CFP, YFP and the bacterial molybdate-sensor protein ModE. The nanosensor MolyProbe containing an optimized peptide-linker responded to nanomolar-range molybdate selectively, and increased YFP:CFP fluorescence intensity ratio by up to 109%. By introduction of the nanosensor, we have been able to successfully demonstrate the real-time dynamics of molybdate in living animal cells. Furthermore, time course analyses of the dynamics suggest that novel oxalate-sensitive- and sulfate-resistant- transporter(s) uptake molybdate in a model culture cell. PMID:23472155

Nakanishi, Yoichi; Iida, Syuntaro; Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Tomioka, Rie; Maeshima, Masayoshi

2013-01-01

294

Establishment of the mathematical model for diagnosing the engine valve faults by genetic  

E-print Network

; Unfortunately, the FFT-based methods failed to deal with non-stationary signals. Therefore, some time1 Establishment of the mathematical model for diagnosing the engine valve faults by genetic programming Wen-xian Yang Institute of Vibration Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi

Fernandez, Thomas

295

Genetic algorithm and artificial neural network for engine optimisation of efficiency and NOx emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithm (GA) and neural network analysis are used to predict the effects of design and operational parameters on engine efficiency and NOx emissions of a natural gas engine. A computer program to calculate the amount of NOx emissions based on a reaction kinetic model is developed. The validity of this program is verified by measurements from a turbocharged, lean-burn,

Ugur Kesgin

2004-01-01

296

20 Years of hypertension research using genetically modified animals: no clinically promising approaches in sight.  

PubMed

The incidence of essential or primary hypertension is increasing, especially in the northern hemisphere, but although the disease displays clear symptoms, its aetiology appears very complex, and thus no causal treatment is available yet. In the 1990's, genetically modified animals (GMO) were considered to be the key to solving this problem of high complexity. However, until now, although a few approaches have shown that old, well-known drugs have a positive effect (decrease of blood pressure) on such animal models of hypertension, no approach has appeared in the literature of this area of research which might indicate a direct connection between GMO and a therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent this type of hypertension in humans. Instead, criticism of the GMO approach has accumulated in the last years, arguing that it is misleading as this disease does not have a monogenic cause and so complementary regulatory mechanisms could prevent the true identification of the function of the modified genes. Furthermore, the technology is best developed in mice, whose physiology of blood pressure is different from that of humans. Because of species specificity, it is not easy to extrapolate the results from animal models of hypertension to human hypertension. Also, in the years 2000 to 2004 a reorientation of the technology and the aims of this kind of research took place. Therefore, although these approaches are without exception deemed "very promising" in the literature, it cannot be expected that research on GMO will make any contribution to a new therapeutic strategy in the near future. PMID:19326032

Stingl, Lavinia; Völkel, Manfred; Lindl, Toni

2009-01-01

297

Prospects for applications of genetic engineering in pig breeding P. MULSANT, M. DALENS, Genevive ECHARD, J. GELLIN,  

E-print Network

Prospects for applications of genetic engineering in pig breeding P. MULSANT, M. DALENS, Geneviève, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex Genetic engineering provides an extremely high number of cloned mammalian DNA sequences. These sequences should be powerful tools for genetic analysis or improvement of the pig

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Replication-competent, Nonneuroinvasive Genetically Engineered Herpes Virus Is Highly Effective in the Treatment of Therapy-resistant Experimental Human Tumors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetically engineered, nonneurotropic herpes simplex virus (R7020) with a proven safety profile in both animals and humans was found effective in the treatment of large xenotransplanted tumors arising from a radiation- and chemotherapy-resistant human epidermoid carcinoma and a hormone-refractory prostate adenocarcinoma. R7020 replicated to high titer and caused rapid regression of the human tumor xenografts. Tumor destruction was accelerated

Sunil J. Advani; Sze Y. Yan; G. Yancey Gillespie; James M. Markert; Richard J. Whitley; Bernard Roizman; Ralph R. Weichselbaum

1999-01-01

299

Production of Bioethanol and Biobutanol Using Genetically Engineered.  

E-print Network

??In this dissertation, the different Escherichia coli strains were engineered for producing bioethanol from the lignocellulosic biomass, and biobutanol from glucose. The recombinant whole-cell biocatalyst… (more)

Ryu, Sh

2010-01-01

300

Transgenic Dairy Cattle: Genetic Engineering on a Large Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportu- nity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene \\

R. J. Wall; D. E. Kerr; K. R. Bondioli

1997-01-01

301

DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR  

EPA Science Inventory

1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

302

Monitoring for genetically engineered pseudomonas species in monterey county  

SciTech Connect

A field monitoring study was conducted to determine if genetically altered Pseudomonas fluorescens or P. syringae had been applied to sites in Monterey County. A series of diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance, fluorescence ability, oxidase and arginine dihydrolase activities, hypersensitivity reaction and ice nucleation ability were conducted to screen bacteria isolated from field and control samples. No bacteria were detected from field samples which matched the expected test profiles of genetically altered bacterial products. In contrast, bacteria were consistently isolated from positive control samples with the expected characteristics of genetically altered bacteria.

Supkoff, D.; Opgenorth, D.; Lai, C.; Segawa, R.; Koehler, D.

1987-01-01

303

Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future.The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The

Karen Aulrich; H. Böhme; R. Daenicke; Ingrid Halle; G. Flachowsky

2001-01-01

304

Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts  

PubMed Central

Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

Gagnon, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

305

Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives.  

PubMed

This minireview explores the environmental bioremediation mediated by genetically engineered (GE) bacteria and it also highlights the limitations and challenges associated with the release of engineered bacteria in field conditions. Application of GE bacteria based remediation of various heavy metal pollutants is in the forefront due to eco-friendly and lesser health hazards compared to physico-chemical based strategies, which are less eco-friendly and hazardous to human health. A combination of microbiological and ecological knowledge, biochemical mechanisms and field engineering designs would be an essential element for successful in situ bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites using engineered bacteria. Critical research questions pertaining to the development and implementation of GE bacteria for enhanced bioremediation have been identified and poised for possible future research. Genetic engineering of indigenous microflora, well adapted to local environmental conditions, may offer more efficient bioremediation of contaminated sites and making the bioremediation more viable and eco-friendly technology. However, many challenges are to be addressed concerning the release of genetically engineered bacteria in field conditions. There are possible risks associated with the use of GE bacteria in field condition, with particular emphasis on ways in which molecular genetics could contribute to the risk mitigation. Both environmental as well as public health concerns need to be addressed by the molecular biologists. Although bioremediation of heavy metals by using the genetically engineered bacteria has been extensively reviewed in the past also, but the bio-safety assessment and factors of genetic pollution have been never the less ignored. PMID:21402131

Singh, Jay Shankar; Abhilash, P C; Singh, H B; Singh, Rana P; Singh, D P

2011-07-01

306

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

307

Cellular computation and communications using engineered genetic regulatory networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present an engineering discipline for obtaining complex, predictable, and reliable cell behaviors by embedding biochemical logic circuits and programmed intercellular communications into cells. To accomplish ...

Weiss, Ron, 1970-

2001-01-01

308

Comparison of genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from aquatic animals in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Seventy-six Taiwanese bacterial isolates including 74 from diseased, cultured, aquatic animals (54 grey mullet Mugil cephalus, 3 basket mullet Chelon alatus, 2 tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 1 grouper Epinephelus coioides, 2 yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus, 1 Borneo mullet Chelon macrolepis, 1 bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, 1 Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, and 9 giant freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 1 wild-caught seafood species (squid muscle collected from a restaurant) and 1 human isolate (from a patient with a history of consuming raw squid in the previously mentioned restaurant), all collected between 1999 and 2006, were confirmed by PCR assay to be Lactococcus garvieae. The phenotypic characterization was determined by rabbit anti-KG+ and KG- serums, and 74 of the 76 Taiwanese strains displayed a KG- phenotype. The genetic characterization was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genomic DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases ApaI and SmaI and separated by PFGE. Ten different L. garvieae pulsotypes were identified. Predominant pulsotypes A1a/S1a were obtained from >96% of strains (52 of 54) from grey mullet, demonstrating a clonal dissemination of L. garvieae in grey mullet in Taiwan. In experimental challenges with grey mullet and tilapia, L. garvieae pulsotypes A1/S1 and A11/S11 showed higher virulence compared with other pulsotypes. PMID:23209077

Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Liaw, Li-Ling; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Chen, Shih-Chu

2012-12-01

309

Genetic correction using engineered nucleases for gene therapy applications.  

PubMed

Genetic mutations in humans are associated with congenital disorders and phenotypic traits. Gene therapy holds the promise to cure such genetic disorders, although it has suffered from several technical limitations for decades. Recent progress in gene editing technology using tailor-made nucleases, such as meganucleases (MNs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) and, more recently, CRISPR/Cas9, has significantly broadened our ability to precisely modify target sites in the human genome. In this review, we summarize recent progress in gene correction approaches of the human genome, with a particular emphasis on the clinical applications of gene therapy. PMID:24329887

Li, Hongmei Lisa; Nakano, Takao; Hotta, Akitsu

2014-01-01

310

Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.  

PubMed

Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed. PMID:20099113

Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

2010-01-01

311

A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2001-01-01

312

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

313

Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

314

An arsenic-specific biosensor with genetically engineered Shewanella oneidensis in a bioelectrochemical system.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered microbial biosensors have yet to realize commercial success in environmental applications due, in part, to difficulties associated with transducing and transmitting traditional bioluminescent information. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) output a direct electric signal that can be incorporated into devices for remote environmental monitoring. Here, we describe a BES-based biosensor with genetically encoded specificity for a toxic metal. By placing an essential component of the metal reduction (Mtr) pathway of Shewanella oneidensis under the control of an arsenic-sensitive promoter, we have genetically engineered a strain that produces increased current in response to arsenic when inoculated into a BES. Our BES-based biosensor has a detection limit of ~40 ?M arsenite with a linear range up to 100 ?M arsenite. Because our transcriptional circuit relies on the activation of a single promoter, similar sensing systems may be developed to detect other analytes by the swap of a single genetic part. PMID:25038536

Webster, Dylan P; TerAvest, Michaela A; Doud, Devin F R; Chakravorty, Arun; Holmes, Eric C; Radens, Caleb M; Sureka, Swati; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Angenent, Largus T

2014-12-15

315

Genetically Engineered Grapevines Carrying GFLV Coat Protein and Antifreeze Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Biotic and abiotic stress has a negative effect on both the quality and quantity of grape production. Like many woody crops, grape has been relatively recalcitrant to in vitro manipulations. The crucial point in the process of genetic transformation is to have cells that are able to both regenerate and be transformed. A regeneration system seems to be a

Georgy P. GUTORANOV; Ivan J. TSVETKOV; Violeta M. COLOVA-TSOLOVA; Atanas I. ATANASSOV

316

Genetic engineering of flavonoid pigments to modify flower color in floricultural plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in genetic transformation techniques enable the production of desirable and novel flower colors in some important\\u000a floricultural plants. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors is now a practical technology as typified by commercialization\\u000a of a transgenic blue rose and blue carnation. Many researchers exploit knowledge of flavonoid biosynthesis effectively to\\u000a obtain unique flower colors. So far, the main

Masahiro NishiharaTakashi Nakatsuka; Takashi Nakatsuka

2011-01-01

317

About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering Bernd Voedisch1*, Agnès Patoux1, Jildou Sterkenburgh2, Mirjam Buchs1, Emily Barry3, Cyril Allard1, Sabine Geisse1 From 22nd European... (15):4753-4762. doi:10.1186/1753-6561-5-S8-P132 Cite this article as: Voedisch et al.: About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering. BMC Proceedings 2011 5 (Suppl 8):P132. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take...

2011-11-22

318

Pressure for a select committee on human embryo research and genetic engineering.  

PubMed

By a commanding majority of almost five million votes, this year's Labour Party conference agreed that Labour Members of Parliament should not be permitted to let their consciences decide their votes on "issues affecting the reproductive rights of women." The targets for this censure were the 44 Labour MPs who backed Enoch Powell's bill to outlaw experiments on embryos. Conservative supporters of the Powell bill are countering their defeat by advocating a Parliamentary select committee to examine "matters of human embryo research and human genetic engineering." McKie comments that they are thus shifting emphasis from "fertility," which has public support, to genetic engineering, which generates fear. PMID:11644451

McKie, David

1985-11-01

319

An Ethical Study on the Uses of Enhancement Genetic Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of biomedical technologies are being developed that can be used for purposes other than treating diseases. Such “enhancement technologies” can be used to improve our own and future generation's life-chances. While these technologies can help people in many ways, their use raises important ethical issues. Some arguments for anti-enhancement as well as pro-enhancement seem to rest, however, on shaky foundation. Both company engineers and the general public had better learn more from technological, economical and philosophical histories. For such subjects may provide engineers with less opportunities of technological misuses and more powers of self-esteem in addition to self-control.

Kawakita, Koji

320

History of Oncolytic Viruses: Genesis to Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the turn of the nineteenth century, when their existence was first recognized, viruses have attracted considerable interest as possible agents of tumor destruction. Early case reports emphasized regression of cancers during naturally acquired virus infections, providing the basis for clinical trials where body fluids containing human or animal viruses were used to transmit infections to cancer patients. Most often

Elizabeth Kelly; Stephen J Russell

2007-01-01

321

Genetics of Enteric Pathogen Shedding Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are significant human pathogens for which cattle and other food animals serve as  

E-print Network

Genetics of Enteric Pathogen Shedding Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on human health of food-borne outbreaks make it highly desirable to identify genetic traits associated bacterial virulence factors and animal genetics. The information provided by the sequencing of the E. coli

322

Parametric design of rocket engine turbopumps with genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rocket engine, the main turbopump parameters must be estimated considering that the power output of the turbine essentially has to equal the power demand of the pump. Considering the properties of the turbine drive gas (specific heat, temperature and other features), the strength limits of the turbine materials, and the likely pressure drop, it is possible to determine

R. Burian; A. Hetem; J. Miraglia; C. A. C. Caetano

2011-01-01

323

The hermeneutic challenge of genetic engineering: Habermas and the transhumanists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures\\u000a (and thus upon the lifeworld), and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists,\\u000a such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending\\u000a human nature.

Andrew Edgar

2009-01-01

324

Transgene inheritance in plants genetically engineered by microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microprojectile bombardment to deliver DNA into plant cells represents a major breakthrough in the development of plant transformation\\u000a technologies and accordingly has resulted in transformation of numerous species considered recalcitrant toAgrobacterium- or protoplast-mediated transformation methods. This article attempts to review the current understanding of the molecular\\u000a and genetic behavior of transgenes introduced by microprojectile bombardment. The characteristic features of the

Wojciech P. Pawlowski; David A. Somers

1996-01-01

325

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with

Ivan Tochitsky; Matthew R. Banghart; Alexandre Mourot; Jennifer Z. Yao; Benjamin Gaub; Richard H. Kramer; Dirk Trauner

2012-01-01

326

Biosynthesis and genetic engineering of proanthocyanidins and (iso)flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant natural products have been used since ancient times as medicines and herbal remedies. Over the past two decades, the\\u000a results of population and intervention studies, or assays in animal or cell model systems, have revealed positive health beneficial\\u000a effects for various classes of phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols. The results of such studies have ignited an interest\\u000a in being able to

Li Tian; Yongzhen Pang; Richard A. Dixon

2008-01-01

327

Summary Unintended changes in plant physiology, anat-omy and metabolism as a result of genetic engineering are a  

E-print Network

, genetically engineered with the Cry1Ab Bt gene, had a higher lignin content than the genotype from whichSummary Unintended changes in plant physiology, anat- omy and metabolism as a result of genetic engineering are a concern as more transgenic plants are commercially deployed in the ecosystem. We compared

328

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001) 114 Genetic adaptive control for an inverted wedge: experiments and  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001) 1­14 Genetic adaptive control. Passino* Department of Electrical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH and real-time implementation issues will be discussed and the genetic adaptive strategy will be compared

329

ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species,

A. Linacre; L. Gusmão; W. Hecht; A. P. Hellmann; W. R. Mayr; W. Parson; M. Prinz; P. M. Schneider; N. Morling

2011-01-01

330

On Natural Genetic Engineering: Structural Dynamism in Random Boolean Networks  

E-print Network

This short paper presents an abstract, tunable model of genomic structural change within the cell lifecycle and explores its use with simulated evolution. A well-known Boolean model of genetic regulatory networks is extended to include changes in node connectivity based upon the current cell state, e.g., via transposable elements. The underlying behaviour of the resulting dynamical networks is investigated before their evolvability is explored using a version of the NK model of fitness landscapes. Structural dynamism is found to be selected for in non-stationary environments and subsequently shown capable of providing a mechanism for evolutionary innovation when such reorganizations are inherited.

Bull, Larry

2012-01-01

331

The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1996-01-01

332

The mammary pathology of genetically engineered mice: the consensus report and recommendations from the Annapolis meeting‡  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIH sponsored a meeting of medical and veterinary pathologists with mammary gland expertise in Annapolis in March 1999. Rapid development of mouse mammary models has accentuated the need for definitions of the mammary lesions in genetically engineered mice (GEM) and to assess their usefulness as models of human breast disease. The panel of nine pathologists independently reviewed material representing over

Robert D Cardiff; Miriam R Anver; Barry A Gusterson; Lothar Hennighausen; Roy A Jensen; Maria J Merino; Sabine Rehm; Jose Russo; Fattaneh A Tavassoli; Lalage M Wakefield; Jerrold M Ward; Jeffrey E Green

2000-01-01

333

Genetic engineering of grain and pasture legumes for improved nutritive value  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes work aimed at the improvement of the nutritive value of grain and forage legumes using gene transfer techniques. Two traits which are amenable to manipulation by genetic engineering have been identified. These are plant protein quality and lignin content. In order to increase the quality of protein provided by the legume grains peas and lupins, we are

L. M. Tabe; C. M. Higgins; W. C. McNabb; T. J. V. Higgins

1993-01-01

334

Bystander effect-mediated gene therapy of gliomas using genetically engineered neural stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to migrate toward a tumor mass, genetically engineered NSCs were used for the treatment of gliomas. We first evaluated the “bystander effect” between NSCs transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene (NSCtk) and C6 rat glioma cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. A potent bystander effect was

Shaoyi Li; Tsutomu Tokuyama; Junkoh Yamamoto; Masayo Koide; Naoki Yokota; Hiroki Namba

2005-01-01

335

Genetically engineered mice for studies of stress-related clinical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered mice with a specific deletion of targeted genes provide a novel and useful tool to study the endogenous mechanisms underlying aberrant behaviour. In this review we take the stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical) system as an example to demonstrate how refined molecular technologies have allowed to target individual genes involved in stress hormone regulation. We describe different gene targeting methods:

Marianne B Müller; Martin E Keck

2002-01-01

336

Neuropathology of genetically engineered mice: consensus report and recommendations from an international forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mouse Models of Cancer Consortium of the NCI sponsored a meeting of neuropathologists and veterinary pathologists in New York City in November of 2000. A rapidly growing number of genetically engineered mice (GEM) predisposed to tumors of the nervous system have led to a concomitant need for neuropathological evaluation and validation of these models. A panel of 13 pathologists

William A Weiss; Mark Israel; Charles Cobbs; Eric Holland; C David James; David N Louis; Cheryl Marks; Andrea I McClatchey; Tim Roberts; Terry Van Dyke; Cynthia Wetmore; Ing-Ming Chiu; Marco Giovannini; Abhijit Guha; Robert J Higgins; Silvia Marino; Ivan Radovanovic; Karlyne Reilly; Ken Aldape

2002-01-01

337

Protection of non-murine mammals against encephalomyocarditis virus using a genetically engineered Mengo virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered Mengo viruses with artificial deletions in the 5? noncoding poly(C) tracts are highly attenuated for pathogenicity when introduced as live vaccines into the natural murine host. Inoculation produces lifelong protective immunity without disease or viral persistence. This report extends the vaccination studies to non-murine hosts, including baboons, macaques and domestic pigs, all of which are susceptible to severe

Jorge E. Osorio; Gene B. Hubbard; Kenneth F. Soike; Marc Girard; Sylvie van der Werf; Jean-Claude Moulin; Ann C. Palmenberg

1996-01-01

338

Genetic engineering of a hypoallergenic trimer of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 100 million individuals suffer from birch pollen allergy. Specific immunotherapy, the only curative allergy treatment, can cause life-threatening anaphylactic side effects. Here, we report the genetic engineering of a recombinant trimer consisting of three covalently linked copies of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. The trimer exhibited profoundly reduced allergenic activity but contained similar secondary structures

Susanne Vrtala; Kora Hirtenlehner; Markus Susani; Mübeccel Akdis; Fatimah Kussebi; Cezmi A. Akdis; Kurt Blaser; Peter Hufnagl; Bernd R. Binder; Anastasia Politou; Annalisa Pastore; Luca Vangelista; Wolfgang R. Sperr; Hans Semper; Peter Valent; Christof Ebner; Dietrich Kraft; Rudolf Valenta

2001-01-01

339

Non-germline genetically engineered mouse models for translational cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer have affected virtually all areas of cancer research. However, the accelerated discovery of new cancer genes emerging from large-scale cancer genomics and new chemical entities pouring from the drug discovery pipeline have strained the capacity of traditional germline mouse models to provide crucial insights. This Review introduces new approaches to modelling cancer, with

Joerg Heyer; Lawrence N. Kwong; Scott W. Lowe; Lynda Chin

2010-01-01

340

Reactions to a New Technology: Students' Ideas about Genetically Engineered Foodstuffs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the prevalence of ideas among 16 to 19 year-old students about the application of the rapidly expanding technology of genetic engineering to food production. Findings suggest that more females were cautious about these foodstuffs than were males. Contains 20 references. (DDR)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward; O'Sullivan, Helen

1998-01-01

341

Enhancing the Internationalisation of Distance Education in the Biological Sciences: The DUNE Project and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Distance Educational Network of Europe (DUNE) project that aims at enhancing the development of distance education in an international context. Highlights issues relating to the delivery of distance-learning courses in a transnational forum. Describes the genetic engineering course that aims at explaining the core techniques of…

Leach, C. K.; And Others

1997-01-01

342

Challenges to IPM Advancement: Pesticides, Biocontrol, Genetic Engineering, and Invasive Species.  

E-print Network

77 Challenges to IPM Advancement: Pesticides, Biocontrol, Genetic Engineering, and Invasive Species of transgenic crops, invasive species, and a diminishing base of scientific talent and research funding become to the numbers of species, types of pests, and variety of control tactics simultaneously implemented are often

Hoddle, Mark S.

343

Automated sorting of genetically engineered embryonic stem cells for generation of mouse models  

E-print Network

Automated sorting of genetically engineered embryonic stem cells for generation of mouse models of such mice via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a tedious process. A combination of embryonic stem mouse generation using CellProcessor technology. (a) The F1 Hybrid ESC Art4.12 was chosen

Cai, Long

344

[Genetic engineering potential and perspectives in the management of critical ischemia].  

PubMed

The paper presents a new approach to management of lower limb critical ischemia which implements recent advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering technologies. A new original compound incorporating angiogenin gene was developed to activate neoangiogenesis processes after injection into living tissues. Experimental data evidence a potential efficacy of new method for complex management of critical ischemia. PMID:14657927

Konstantinov, B A; Bochkov, N P; Gavrilenko, A V; Voronov, D A; Tarantul, V Z; Sheremet'eva, G F; Skrylev, S I; Kha?darova, N V

2003-01-01

345

Biomedical Social Science, Unit VI: Population Growth and Genetic Engineering. Student Text. Revised Version, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of lessons and class activities covers two major concepts: (1) population growth and (2) genetic engineering. Lessons consist of readings, questions and answers, and problems of projects where appropriate. Issues are posed in as much as possible in a manner intended to cause the student to reach conclusions and values without being…

Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

346

The Use of Simple Models in the Teaching of Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for instructional improvement are provided in two topic areas. Explains the use of models in helping students to visualize selected concepts in genetic engineering and recommends the use of tropical tuber crops for encouraging students to conduct practical investigations. (ML)

Nicholl, Desmond S. T.

1986-01-01

347

oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that  

E-print Network

T oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that it presents policy. Cancer-carrying bacteria Some of the concerns about recombinant DNA experimentation stemmed from feared that bacteria carry- ing SV40 DNA might escape and cause cancer in people infected, so we chose

Cai, Long

348

Lentivectors encoding immunosuppressive proteins genetically engineer pancreatic ?-cells to correct diabetes in allogeneic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of genetic engineering with lentivectors to protect transplanted cells from allogeneic rejection was examined using, as a model, type 1 diabetes treatment with ?-cell transplantation, whose widespread use has been limited by the requirement for sustained immunosuppressive treatment to prevent graft rejection. We examined whether lentivectors expressing select immunosuppressive proteins encoded by the adenoviral genome early region 3

T Kojaoghlanian; A Joseph; A Follenzi; J H Zheng; M Leiser; N Fleischer; M S Horwitz; T P DiLorenzo; H Goldstein

2009-01-01

349

Genetic Engineering with Bacillus thuringiensis and Conventional Approaches for Insect Resistance in Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of resistance management is to slow and ideally reverse the development of resistance in the pest population. Since 1996, million of acres of crops have been planted that are genetically engineered with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect resistance. The novelty for resistance management is that with Bt technology it is possible to control the principal force in an

Hugo Cerda; Maurizio G. Paoletti

2004-01-01

350

CALIBRATION OF GREENHOUSE AND FIELD FOR SURVIVAL OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of current concerns regarding the release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment, the fate, survival, and effects of many GEMs will need to be evaluated in small-scale releases performed in controlled, contained environments. n this study, th...

351

GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT: ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE BIOTECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethics of genetic engineering, or genethics in current jargon, is one of those areas of debate which needs to be constantly reviewed in the light of the rapidly expanding science of biotechnology. It could be argued that the revolution taking place within biology will be as significant to our existence as Newton's and Einstein's ideas were for physics. The

CELIA E. DEANE-DRUMMOND

1995-01-01

352

44 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN JUNE 2006 lthough the term "genetic engineering" has been in  

E-print Network

44 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN JUNE 2006 A lthough the term "genetic engineering" has been in use SLIMFILMS COPYRIGHT 2006 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. #12;www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 45 CREDIT COPYRIGHT 2006 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. #12;46 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN JUNE 2006 and combine them in increasingly

Collins, James J.

353

MICROCOSM FOR MEASURING SURVIVAL AND CONJUGATION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA IN RHIZOSPHERE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A microcosm is described to evaluate and measure bacterial conjugation in the rhizosphere of barley and radish with strains of Pseudomonas cepacia. he purpose was to describe a standard method useful for evaluating the propensity of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to...

354

[The use of genetic engineering in veterinary medicine with examples from epidemiology, diagnosis and drug production].  

PubMed

The results of genetic engineering have reached practical veterinary medicine already. Nevertheless there is a great lack of knowledge among those veterinarians who usually do not work with these methods. Therefore we want to give an introduction into the advantages and dangers of this technology concerning veterinary medicine. Some important analytical methods are explained. Related viruses such as WEE and EEE or canine parvovirus, feline parvovirus and mink enteritis virus, or the related coronaviruses FIPV and TGEV serve as examples for the possibilities in molecular diagnosis and epidemic monitoring. The history of the gl- mutants of PRV, now prescribed as vaccine strains in the FRG, is an example of the development of genetic engineered vaccines. A new generation of vaccines based on recombinant vaccinia viruses is imminent. Thus we have to be aware of the high risks and responsibility of everybody who is involved in these new systems, especially the scientist who produces genetically altered organisms. PMID:2112273

Mayr, A; Hübert, P

1990-04-01

355

Optimization of Aero Engine Acceleration Control in Combat State Based on Genetic Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to drastically exploit the potential of the aero engine and improve acceleration performance in the combat state, an on-line optimized controller based on genetic algorithms is designed for an aero engine. For testing the validity of the presented control method, detailed joint simulation tests of the designed controller and the aero engine model are performed in the whole flight envelope. Simulation test results show that the presented control algorithm has characteristics of rapid convergence speed, high efficiency and can fully exploit the acceleration performance potential of the aero engine. Compared with the former controller, the designed on-line optimized controller (DOOC) can improve the security of the acceleration process and greatly enhance the aero engine thrust in the whole range of the flight envelope, the thrust increases an average of 8.1% in the randomly selected working states. The plane which adopts DOOC can acquire better fighting advantage in the combat state.

Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

2012-03-01

356

Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.9, NO.1 2001, c TUBITAK Meta-Genetic Programming: Co-evolving the  

E-print Network

Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.9, NO.1 2001, c T¨UBITAK Meta-Genetic Programming: Co-evolving the Operators, Aytoun Street, Manchester, M1 3GH-UK Abstract The standard Genetic Programming approach is augmented by co-evolving the genetic operators. To do this the operators are coded as trees of indefinite length

Fernandez, Thomas

357

Genetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What affects how physical characteristics are transmitted from parent to offspring? This is a question that can be answered at many levels. Molecular biologists examine the pattern of nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the effect of mutations on the proteins produced. Classical geneticists explore the patterns by which traits are transmitted through families. Medical geneticists attempt to describe and develop treatments for diseases that have a genetic component. Genetic engineers analyze how traits can be altered in organisms through modern technology. These are only a few of the strategies that scientists employ to explain the nature of heredity. Explore historical perspectives on the study of genetics and investigate how cutting-edge technology is being used to expand our understanding of heredity.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

358

SelenoDB 2.0: annotation of selenoprotein genes in animals and their genetic diversity in humans  

PubMed Central

SelenoDB (http://www.selenodb.org) aims to provide high-quality annotations of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements. Selenoproteins are proteins that contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) and the first release of the database included annotations for eight species. Since the release of SelenoDB 1.0 many new animal genomes have been sequenced. The annotations of selenoproteins in new genomes usually contain many errors in major databases. For this reason, we have now fully annotated selenoprotein genes in 58 animal genomes. We provide manually curated annotations for human selenoproteins, whereas we use an automatic annotation pipeline to annotate selenoprotein genes in other animal genomes. In addition, we annotate the homologous genes containing cysteine (Cys) instead of Sec. Finally, we have surveyed genetic variation in the annotated genes in humans. We use exon capture and resequencing approaches to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in more than 50 human populations around the world. We thus present a detailed view of the genetic divergence of Sec- and Cys-containing genes in animals and their diversity in humans. The addition of these datasets into the second release of the database provides a valuable resource for addressing medical and evolutionary questions in selenium biology. PMID:24194593

Romagne, Frederic; Santesmasses, Didac; White, Louise; Sarangi, Gaurab K.; Mariotti, Marco; Hubler, Ron; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genis; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Guigo, Roderic; Castellano, Sergi

2014-01-01

359

Internet and print resources to facilitate pathology analysis when phenotyping genetically engineered rodents.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered mice and rats are increasingly used as models for exploring disease progression and mechanisms. The full spectrum of anatomic, biochemical, and functional changes that develop in novel, genetically engineered mouse and rat lines must be cataloged before predictions regarding the significance of the mutation may be extrapolated to diseases in other vertebrate species, including humans. A growing list of reference materials, including books, journal articles, and websites, has been produced in the last 2 decades to assist researchers in phenotyping newly engineered rodent lines. This compilation provides an extensive register of materials related to the pathology component of rodent phenotypic analysis. In this article, the authors annotate the resources they use most often, to allow for quick determination of their relevance to research projects. PMID:21825311

Bolon, B; Couto, S; Fiette, L; Perle, K La

2012-01-01

360

A comparative study of three different biomaterials in the engineering of skeletal muscle using a rat animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects caused by traumatic or postsurgical loss of muscle mass may result in severe impairments of the functionality of skeletal muscle. Tissue engineering represents a possible approach to replace the lost or defective muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of three different biomaterials as scaffolds for rat myoblasts, using a new animal model. PKH26-fluorescent-stained cultured

F. S Kamelger; R Marksteiner; E Margreiter; G Klima; G Wechselberger; S Hering; H Piza

2004-01-01

361

Redirection of sialic acid metabolism in genetically engineered Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Most microorganisms do not produce sialic acid (sialate), and those that do appear to use a biosynthetic mechanism distinct from mammals. Genetic hybrids of nonpathogenic, sialate-negative laboratory Escherichia coli K-12 strains designed for the de novo synthesis of the polysialic acid capsule from E. coli K1 proved useful in elucidating the genetics and biochemistry of capsule biosynthesis. In this article we propose a dynamic model of sialometabolism to investigate the effects of biosynthetic neu (N-acetylneuraminic acid) and catabolic nan (N-acylneuraminate) mutations on the flux of intermediates through the sialate synthetic pathway. Intracellular sialate concentrations were determined by high pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results indicated that a strain carrying a null defect in the gene encoding polysialyltransferase (neuS) accumulated > 50 times more CMP-sialic acid than the wild type when strains were grown in a minimal medium supplemented with glucose and casamino acids. Metabolic accumulation of CMP-sialic acid depended on a functional sialic acid synthase (neuB), as shown by the inability of a strain lacking this enzyme to accumulate a detectable endogenous sialate pool. The neuB mutant concentrated trace sialate from the medium, indicating its potential value for quantitative analysis of free sialic acids in complex biological samples. The function of the sialate aldolase (encoded by nanA) in limiting intermediate flux through the synthetic pathway was determined by analyzing free sialate accumulation in neuA (CMP-sialic acid synthetase) nanA double mutants. The combined results demonstrate how E. coli avoids a futile cycle in which biosynthetic sialate induces the system for its own degradation and indicate the feasibility of generating sialooligosaccharide precursors through targeted manipulation of sialate metabolism. PMID:11447132

Ringenberg, M; Lichtensteiger, C; Vimr, E

2001-07-01

362

The significance of content knowledge for informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues: Applying genetics knowledge to genetic engineering issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a quantitative test of genetics concepts. Two subsets (n = 15 for each group) of the original sample representing divergent levels of content knowledge participated in individual interviews, during which they articulated positions, rationales, counterpositions, and rebuttals in response to three gene therapy scenarios and three cloning scenarios. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine the effects of content knowledge on the use of informal reasoning patterns and the quality of informal reasoning. Participants from both groups employed the same general patterns of informal reasoning. Data did indicate that differences in content knowledge were related to variations in informal reasoning quality. Participants, with more advanced understandings of genetics, demonstrated fewer instances of reasoning flaws, as defined by a priori criteria, and were more likely to incorporate content knowledge in their reasoning patterns than participants with more naïve understandings of genetics. Implications for instruction and future research are discussed.

Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

2005-01-01

363

Genetic Engineering of Glycinebetaine Production toward Enhancing Stress Tolerance in Plants: Metabolic Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycinebetaine (betaine) affords osmoprotection in bacteria, plants and animals, and protects cell components against harsh conditions in vitro. This and a compelling body of other evidence have encouraged the engineering of betaine production in plants lacking it. We have installed the metabolic step for oxidation of choline, a ubiquitous substance, to betaine in three diverse species, Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, and

Jun Huang; Rozina Hirji; Luc Adam; Kevin L. Rozwadowski; Joe K. Hammerlindl; Wilf A. Keller; Gopalan Selvaraj

2000-01-01

364

Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.  

PubMed

In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 ?M for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ?M for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

2012-12-01

365

Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Infected Animals Reveal Genetic Exchange in Unisexual,   Mating Type Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reproduction and genetic exchange are important for the evolution of fungal pathogens and for producing potentially infective spores. Studies to determine whether sex occurs in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii have produced enigmatic results, however: basidiospores are the most likely infective propagules, and clinical isolates are fertile and genetically diverse, consistent with a sexual species, but almost

Tien Bui; Xiaorong Lin; Richard Malik; Joseph Heitman; Dee Carter

2008-01-01

366

Role of reproductive technologies and genetic resource banks in animal conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combination with modern reproductive technologies, there is potential to use frozen and stored germplasm (genetic resource banks) to support conservation measures for the main- tenance of genetic diversity in threatened species. However, turning this idea into reality is a complex process, requiring interdisciplinary collaboration and clearly defined goals. As the number of species deserving the attention of conservation scientists

William V. Holt; Amanda R. Pickard

367

SURVIVAL OF, AND GENETIC TRANSFER BY, GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The article reviews the few studies that have evaluated the survival of bacterial hosts and cloning vectors (e.g., phages) and the transfer of genetic information, by the processes of conjugation, transduction, and transformation, in aquatic and terrestrial environments and on pl...

368

Vicariance and dispersal across an intermittent barrier: population genetic structure of marine animals across the Torres Strait land bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeographic barriers, some transitory in duration, are likely to have been important contributing factors to modern marine biodiversity in the Indo-Pacific region. One such barrier was the Torres Strait land bridge between continental Australia and New Guinea that persisted through much of the late Pleistocene and separated Indian and Pacific Ocean taxa. Here, we examine the patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity for marine animals with present-day distributions spanning the Torres Strait. Specifically, we investigate whether there are concordant signatures across species, consistent with either vicariance or recent colonization from either ocean basin. We survey four species of reef fishes ( Apogon doederleini, Pomacentrus coelestis, Dascyllus trimaculatus, and Acanthurus triostegus) for mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 and control region variation and contrast these results to previous mtDNA studies in diverse marine animals with similar distributions. We find substantial genetic partitioning (estimated from F-statistics and coalescent approaches) between Indian and Pacific Ocean populations for many species, consistent with regional persistence through the late Pleistocene in both ocean basins. The species-specific estimates of genetic divergence, however, vary greatly and for reef fishes we estimate substantially different divergence times among species. It is likely that Indian and Pacific Ocean populations have been isolated for multiple glacial cycles for some species, whereas for other species genetic connections have been more recent. Regional estimates of genetic diversity and directionality of gene flow also vary among species. Thus, there is no apparent consistency among historical patterns across the Torres Strait for these co-distributed marine animals.

Mirams, A. G. K.; Treml, E. A.; Shields, J. L.; Liggins, L.; Riginos, C.

2011-12-01

369

Structure-function strategies to improve the pharmacological value of animal toxins  

E-print Network

synthesis or genetic engineering. Unfortunately, they rarely display the required characteristics in terms engineering ­ Pros and cons In animal venoms, peptide sizes are mainly in the range of 0.4 to 8.0 k genetic engineering, making the former approach more appropriate to improve the structural and functional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

370

Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of Plasmodium berghei DNA.  

PubMed

DNA of Plasmodium berghei is difficult to manipulate in Escherichia coli by conventional restriction and ligation methods due to its high content of adenine and thymine (AT) nucleotides. This limits our ability to clone large genes and to generate complex vectors for modifying the parasite genome. We here describe a protocol for using lambda Red recombinase to modify inserts of a P. berghei genomic DNA library constructed in a linear, low-copy, phage-derived vector. The method uses primer extensions of 50 bp, which provide sufficient homology for an antibiotic resistance marker to recombine efficiently with a P. berghei genomic DNA insert in E. coli. In a subsequent in vitro Gateway reaction the bacterial marker is replaced with a cassette for selection in P. berghei. The insert is then released and used for transfection. The basic techniques we describe here can be adapted to generate highly efficient vectors for gene deletion, tagging, targeted mutagenesis, or genetic complementation with larger genomic regions. PMID:22990774

Pfander, Claudia; Anar, Burcu; Brochet, Mathieu; Rayner, Julian C; Billker, Oliver

2013-01-01

371

Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy  

SciTech Connect

Current therapeutic approaches against the advanced stages of human solid tumors are palliative rather than curative. Many modalities, including, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination have met with only modest success for advanced metastatic cancers. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with cytotxic effects of radioisotopes. It is the ?smart? way of delivering radiation to the known and occult metastatic cancer cells and is independent of drug toxicity and/or hormone resistance. The tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) containing the unique disaccharide sialyl-Tn, is highly expressed in majority of adenocarcinomas, including carcinomas of the prostate, breast, ovaries, pancreas and colon (80-90%) compared to undetectable expression in normal tissues. Monoclonal antibody CC49, reactive with TAG-72, after conjugation to potent gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides, has been useful in selective systemic radiolocalization of disease and therapy of primary and metastatic tumor sites. However, limited therapeutic responses were observed in patients. Limited success of antibody based delivery of radioisotopes can be attributed to several factors including undesirable pharmacokinetics, poor tumor uptake and high immunogenicity of intact antibodies (IgGs). The primary factors contributing towards the failure of RIT include: 1) longer serum half-lives of the intact IgG molecules resulting in the radiotoxicity, 2) generation of human antibodies against murine antibodies (HAMA) that limits the frequency of dose administration, 3) poor diffusion rates of intact IgG due to the large size and 4) high interstitial fluid pressures (IFP) encountered in solid tumors. The major goal of our multidisciplinary project was to develop specific novel radiopharmaceuticals, with desired pharmacokinetics, for the diagnosis and therapy of solid tumors. To overcome the low uptake of radioactivity by tumors and to increase its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more compatible with RIT and RIS requirements. For RIT, delivery for sc(Fv)2 and [sc(Fv)2]2 in a fr

Surinder Batra, Ph.D.

2006-02-27

372

Risk Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2006 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00763.x Genetically Engineered Plants, Endangered Species,  

E-print Network

Risk Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2006 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00763.x Genetically Engineered,3 and Paula M. Davis4 Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays) containing insecticidal endotoxin-of-ways, and managed forest lands (Swengel, 1995). Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays L.) con- taining insecticidal

Peterson, Robert K. D.

373

Animal models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

2012-01-01

374

Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA  

PubMed Central

Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LC-PUFA) in oilseeds has been one of the key targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ?3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from endogenous ?-linolenic acid (ALA), we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid (PL) lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG, and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1?9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provided insights into where DHA accumulated and combined with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds. PMID:25225497

Zhou, Xue-Rong; Callahan, Damien L.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Liu, Qing; Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.

2014-01-01

375

Engineered temperature compensation in a synthetic genetic clock  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology by providing the means to reengineer and reprogram cellular regulatory mechanisms. However, synthetic gene circuits are often unreliable, as changes to environmental conditions can fundamentally alter a circuit’s behavior. One way to improve robustness is to use intrinsic properties of transcription factors within the circuit to buffer against intra- and extracellular variability. Here, we describe the design and construction of a synthetic gene oscillator in Escherichia coli that maintains a constant period over a range of temperatures. We started with a previously described synthetic dual-feedback oscillator with a temperature-dependent period. Computational modeling predicted and subsequent experiments confirmed that a single amino acid mutation to the core transcriptional repressor of the circuit results in temperature compensation. Specifically, we used a temperature-sensitive lactose repressor mutant that loses the ability to repress its target promoter at high temperatures. In the oscillator, this thermoinduction of the repressor leads to an increase in period at high temperatures that compensates for the decrease in period due to Arrhenius scaling of the reaction rates. The result is a transcriptional oscillator with a nearly constant period of 48 min for temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 41 °C. In contrast, in the absence of the mutation the period of the oscillator drops from 60 to 30 min over the same temperature range. This work demonstrates that synthetic gene circuits can be engineered to be robust to extracellular conditions through protein-level modifications. PMID:24395809

Hussain, Faiza; Gupta, Chinmaya; Hirning, Andrew J.; Ott, William; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Josic, Kresimir; Bennett, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

376

Engineered temperature compensation in a synthetic genetic clock.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology by providing the means to reengineer and reprogram cellular regulatory mechanisms. However, synthetic gene circuits are often unreliable, as changes to environmental conditions can fundamentally alter a circuit's behavior. One way to improve robustness is to use intrinsic properties of transcription factors within the circuit to buffer against intra- and extracellular variability. Here, we describe the design and construction of a synthetic gene oscillator in Escherichia coli that maintains a constant period over a range of temperatures. We started with a previously described synthetic dual-feedback oscillator with a temperature-dependent period. Computational modeling predicted and subsequent experiments confirmed that a single amino acid mutation to the core transcriptional repressor of the circuit results in temperature compensation. Specifically, we used a temperature-sensitive lactose repressor mutant that loses the ability to repress its target promoter at high temperatures. In the oscillator, this thermoinduction of the repressor leads to an increase in period at high temperatures that compensates for the decrease in period due to Arrhenius scaling of the reaction rates. The result is a transcriptional oscillator with a nearly constant period of 48 min for temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 41 °C. In contrast, in the absence of the mutation the period of the oscillator drops from 60 to 30 min over the same temperature range. This work demonstrates that synthetic gene circuits can be engineered to be robust to extracellular conditions through protein-level modifications. PMID:24395809

Hussain, Faiza; Gupta, Chinmaya; Hirning, Andrew J; Ott, William; Matthews, Kathleen S; Josic, Kresimir; Bennett, Matthew R

2014-01-21

377

On-chip whole-animal manipulation for high-throughput subcellular-resolution in-vivo drug/genetic screening  

E-print Network

Techniques for rapid and automated small-animal manipulation and immobilization are necessary for high-throughput in vivo genetic/drug screens using cellular and sub-cellular features in multicellular organisms. We present ...

Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

378

Genetically engineered insertional mutagenesis in mice to model cancer: Sleeping Beauty.  

PubMed

The ability to accurately model human cancer in mice enables in vivo examination of the biological mechanisms related to cancer initiation and progression as well as preclinical testing of new anticancer treatments and potential targets. The emergence of the genetically engineered Sleeping Beauty system of insertional mutagenesis has led to the development of a new generation of genetic mouse models of cancer and identification of novel cancer-causing genes. This chapter reviews the published cancer models of Sleeping Beauty and strategies using available strains to generate several models of cancer. PMID:25064115

Howell, Viive M; Colvin, Emily K

2014-01-01

379

Genetic engineering and the development of new pollution control technologies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early 1983. It identifies a number of research topics that are likely to contribute to new pollution treatment techniques. These include the basic mechanisms underlying microbical co-metabolism and oligotrophy; molecular genetics in filamentous fungi, in strict anaerobes and in archaebacteria; directed evolution of enzymes and metabolic pathways; and studies to advance understanding of dehalogenations by microbes.

Johnston, J.B.; Robinson, S.G.

1984-01-01

380

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2002-06-10

381

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

1999-06-01

382

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2000-06-01

383

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2001-06-11

384

Using HexSim to link demography and genetics in animal and plant simulations  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulation models are essential for understanding the effects of land management practices and environmental drivers, including landscape change, shape population genetic structure and persistence probabilities. The emerging field of eco-evolutionary modeling is beginning to dev...

385

Potential Large Animal Models for Gene Therapy of Human Genetic Diseases of Immune and Blood Cell Systems  

PubMed Central

Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system—red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets—manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutations in humans. Many of these limitations can be overcome by identifying large animals with genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system corresponding to their human disease counterparts. In this article, we describe human diseases of the cellular components of the hematopoietic system that have counterparts in large animal species, in most cases carrying mutations in the same gene (CD18 in leukocyte adhesion deficiency) or genes in interacting proteins (DNA cross-link repair 1C protein and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide in radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency). Furthermore, we describe the potential of these animal models to serve as disease-specific, preclinical models for testing the efficacy and safety of clinical interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy approaches before their use in humans with the corresponding disease. PMID:19293460

Bauer, Thomas R.; Adler, Rima L.; Hickstein, Dennis D.

2009-01-01

386

Transgenesis in Animal Agriculture: Addressing Animal Health and Welfare Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Food and Drug Administration’s final Guidance for Industry on the regulation of transgenesis in animal agriculture\\u000a has paved the way for the commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) farm animals. The production-related diseases associated\\u000a with extant breeding technologies are reviewed, as well as the predictable welfare consequences of continued emphasis on prolificacy\\u000a at the potential expense of physical fitness.

Michael Greger

387

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Human Cancer for Drug Discovery and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models for cancer research, although not perfect, have traditionally been crucial to the drug discovery and development\\u000a process. Recent advances in genetically modified mice have created opportunities to model many aspects of cancer biology,\\u000a which established xenograft models ignore. Selection of the right model will be of increasing importance in the search for\\u000a efficacious human therapeutics. These improved mouse

Rónán C. O’Hagan; Min Wu; William M. Rideout; Yinghui Zhou; Joerg Heyer

388

A methodology for engine design using multi-dimensional modelling and genetic algorithms with validation through experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for internal combustion engine design has been formulated which incorporates multidimensional modelling and experiments to optimize and simulate direct injection diesel engine combustion and emissions formation. The computer code KIVA-GA performs full-cycle engine simulations within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) global optimization code. The methodology is applied to optimize a heavy-duty diesel truck engine. The study

P. K. Senecal; D. T. Montgomery; R. D. Reitz

2000-01-01

389

Selection systems based on dominant-negative transcription factors for precise genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Diverse tools are available for performing genetic modifications of microorganisms. However, new methods still need to be developed for performing precise genomic engineering without introducing any undesirable side-alteration. Indeed for functional analyses of genomic elements, as well as for some industrial applications, only the desired mutation should be introduced at the locus considered. This article describes a new approach fulfilling these requirements, based on the use of selection systems consisting in truncated genes encoding dominant-negative transcription factors. We have demonstrated dominant-negative effects mediated by truncated Gal4p and Arg81p proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, interfering with galactose and arginine metabolic pathways, respectively. These genes can be used as positive and negative markers, since they provoke both growth inhibition on substrates and resistance to specific drugs. These selection markers have been successfully used for precisely deleting HO and URA3 in wild yeasts. This genetic engineering approach could be extended to other microorganisms. PMID:20702421

Dutoit, Raphaël; Dubois, Evelyne; Jacobs, Eric

2010-10-01

390

Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain ATCC 43816 KPPR1, a Rifampin-Resistant Mutant Commonly Used in Animal, Genetic, and Molecular Biology Studies  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an urgent public health threat due to the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains causing serious, and frequently fatal, infections. To facilitate genetic, molecular, and immunological studies of this pathogen, we report the complete chromosomal sequence of a genetically tractable, prototypical strain used in animal models.

Broberg, Christopher A.; Wu, Weisheng; Cavalcoli, James D.; Miller, Virginia L.

2014-01-01

391

Can we guarantee the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Concern about the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment arises from the undesirable results of earlier new technologies and introduced organisms. Progress towards safe release is complicated by the varied views of a diverse society, confusion of process and product, problems with existing methods, and the lack of practical experience with real releases. No categorically safe novel organisms exist, but a progressive series of releases should allow risks to be systematically reduced.40 references.

Keeler, K.H.

1988-01-01

392

Three-Dimensional Structure of a Genetically Engineered Variant of Porcine Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional structure of a genetically engineered variant of porcine growth hormone, methionyl porcine somatotropin (MPS), has been determined at 2.8- angstrom resolution, using single crystal x-ray diffraction techniques. Phases were obtained by use of a single isomorphous K2OsCl6 derivative and were improved by use of the density modification procedure. The MPS structure is predominantly helical. It consists mainly of

Sherin S. Abdel-Meguid; Huey-Sheng Shieh; Ward W. Smith; Henry E. Dayringer; Bernard N. Violand; Larry A. Bentle

1987-01-01

393

Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance – a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineering inherent crop resistance to insect pests offers the potential of a user-friendly, environment-friendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture in the 21st century. Work to date has concentrated on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Impressive results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been

Vaughan A. Hilder; Donald Boulter

1999-01-01

394

Construction and characterization of Escherichia coli genetically engineered for bioremediation of Hg(2+)-contaminated environments.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli strains were genetically engineered to express an Hg2+ transport system and metallothionein. Overexpression of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or pea metallothionein significantly increased the bioaccumulation of Hg2+ transported by MerT and MerP and protected the cells from the accumulated Hg2+. The recombinant strains have excellent properties for bioremediation of Hg(2+)-contaminated environments. PMID:9172366

Chen, S; Wilson, D B

1997-01-01

395

The Reconciliation of Science & Religion in Light of Human Genetic Engineering Innovation  

E-print Network

The never-ending question of “physis ” vs. “nomos ” (or “natural progression ” vs. “human intervention”) has plagued the human race since the days of classical rhetoric in ancient Greece. No lucid conclusions have yet been indisputably drawn. With the human innovation of genetic engineering, it has become even more vital to make such a distinction in order that progressive action can be taken to procure a prosperous future for the

Robyn Thomas; An Introduction

396

Effect of ?-Cell Toxins on Genetically Engineered Insulin-Secreting Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The betacyte is a genetically engineered insulin-secreting liver cell line that is glucose responsive. Whether this cell is affected by specific ?-cell toxins is unknown. To explore this possibility we exposed these cells and those from the NIT-1 ?-cell line (positive controls) to the toxins streptozotocin (STZ, 2.5–20mM), alloxan (ALL, 2.5–20mM), and pentamidine (PENT, 10?6–1mM). STZ and ALL were added

Bernard E Tuch; Sandy Beynon; Muhammad T Tabiin; Regina Sassoon; Rebecca J Goodman; Ann M Simpson

1997-01-01

397

doi:10.4061/2011/623095 Review Article tRNA Modification and Genetic Code Variations in Animal Mitochondria  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2011 K. Watanabe and S.-i. Yokobori. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In animal mitochondria, six codons have been known as nonuniversal genetic codes, which vary in the course of animal evolution. They are UGA (termination codon in the universal genetic code changes to Trp codon in all animal mitochondria), AUA (Ile to Met in most metazoan mitochondria), AAA (Lys to Asn in echinoderm and some platyhelminth mitochondria), AGA/AGG (Arg to Ser in most invertebrate, Arg to Gly in tunicate, and Arg to termination in vertebrate mitochondria), and UAA (termination to Tyr in a planaria and a nematode mitochondria, but conclusive evidence is lacking in this case). We have elucidated that the anticodons of tRNAs deciphering these nonuniversal codons (tRNA Trp for UGA, tRNA Met for AUA, tRNA Asn for AAA, and tRNA Ser and tRNA Gly for AGA/AGG) are all modified; tRNA Trp has 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNA Met has 5-formylcytidine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNA Ser has 7-methylguanosine and tRNA Gly has 5-taurinomethyluridine in their anticodon wobble position, and tRNA Asn has pseudouridine in the anticodon second position. This review aims to clarify the structural relationship between these nonuniversal codons and the corresponding tRNA anticodons including modified nucleosides and to speculate on the possible mechanisms for explaining the evolutional changes of these nonuniversal codons in the course of animal evolution. 1.

Kimitsuna Watanabe; Shin-ichi Yokobori

2011-01-01

398

Prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from animals, foods and humans in Iceland.  

PubMed

The prevalence of resistant bacteria in food products in Iceland is unknown, and little is known of the prevalence in production animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from healthy pigs and broiler chicken, pork, broiler meat, slaughterhouse personnel and outpatients in Iceland. A total of 419 E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using a microbroth dilution method (VetMIC), and resistant strains were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All samples were screened for enrofloxacin-resistant strains with selective agar plates. The resistance rates among E. coli isolates were moderate to high from caecal and meat samples of pigs (54.1% and 28%), broilers (33.6% and 52%) and slaughterhouse personnel (39.1%), whereas isolates from outpatients showed moderate resistance rates (23.1%). Of notice was resistance to quinolones (minimum inhibitory concentrations: nalidixic acid > or = 32, ciprofloxacin > or = 0.12 and enrofloxacin > or = 0.5), particularly among broiler and broiler meat isolates (18.2% and 36%), as there is no known antimicrobial selection pressure in the broiler production in Iceland. The majority (78.6%) of the resistant E. coli isolates was genotypically different, based on PFGE fingerprint analyses and clustering was limited. However, the same resistance pattern and pulsotype were found among isolates from broiler meat and a slaughterhouse worker, indicating spread of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from animals to humans. Diverse resistance patterns and pulsotypes suggest the presence of a large population of resistant E. coli in production animals in Iceland. This study gives baseline information on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from production animals, and their food products in Iceland and the moderate to high resistance rates emphasize the need for continuing surveillance. Further studies on the origin of the resistant strains and the genetic relatedness of strains of different origin are needed. PMID:19912612

Thorsteinsdottir, T R; Haraldsson, G; Fridriksdottir, V; Kristinsson, K G; Gunnarsson, E

2010-05-01

399

Tipping points in seaweed genetic engineering: scaling up opportunities in the next decade.  

PubMed

Seaweed genetic engineering is a transgenic expression system with unique features compared with those of heterotrophic prokaryotes and higher plants. This study discusses several newly sequenced seaweed nuclear genomes and the necessity that research on vector design should consider endogenous promoters, codon optimization, and gene copy number. Seaweed viruses and artificial transposons can be applied as transformation methods after acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of viral infections in seaweeds and transposon patterns in seaweed genomes. After cultivating transgenic algal cells and tissues in a photobioreactor, a biosafety assessment of genetically modified (GM) seaweeds must be conducted before open-sea application. We propose a set of programs for the evaluation of gene flow from GM seaweeds to local/geographical environments. The effective implementation of such programs requires fundamentally systematic and interdisciplinary studies on algal physiology and genetics, marine hydrology, reproductive biology, and ecology. PMID:24857961

Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

2014-05-01

400

Tipping Points in Seaweed Genetic Engineering: Scaling Up Opportunities in the Next Decade  

PubMed Central

Seaweed genetic engineering is a transgenic expression system with unique features compared with those of heterotrophic prokaryotes and higher plants. This study discusses several newly sequenced seaweed nuclear genomes and the necessity that research on vector design should consider endogenous promoters, codon optimization, and gene copy number. Seaweed viruses and artificial transposons can be applied as transformation methods after acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of viral infections in seaweeds and transposon patterns in seaweed genomes. After cultivating transgenic algal cells and tissues in a photobioreactor, a biosafety assessment of genetically modified (GM) seaweeds must be conducted before open-sea application. We propose a set of programs for the evaluation of gene flow from GM seaweeds to local/geographical environments. The effective implementation of such programs requires fundamentally systematic and interdisciplinary studies on algal physiology and genetics, marine hydrology, reproductive biology, and ecology. PMID:24857961

Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

2014-01-01

401

Use of Bioluminescence for Detection of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Released into the Environment  

PubMed Central

The persistence and movement of strain JS414 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, which was genetically engineered to bioluminesce, were monitored during a limited field introduction. Bioluminescence and traditional dilution plate counts were determined. Strain JS414 was applied to cabbage plants and surrounding soil by mist inoculation, by wound inoculation, by scattering infested debris among plants, and by incorporating bacteria into the soil. Bioluminescent X. campestris pv. campestris was detected in plant samples and in the rhizosphere up to 6 weeks after inoculation. Movement to uninoculated plants was detected on one occasion, but movement from the immediate release area was not detected. Strain JS414 was detected in soil samples beneath mist- and wound-inoculated plants only at intentionally infested locations and in aerial samples only on the day of inoculation. Our bioluminescence methods proved to be as sensitive as plating methods for detecting the genetically engineered microorganisms in environmental samples. Our results demonstrate that transgenic incorporation of the luxCDABE operon provides a non-labor-intensive, sensitive detection method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in nature. Images PMID:1311542

Shaw, Joe J.; Dane, Fenny; Geiger, Dorothy; Kloepper, Joseph W.

1992-01-01

402

Concise review: genetically engineered stem cell therapy targeting angiogenesis and tumor stroma in gastrointestinal malignancy.  

PubMed

Cell-based gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of human malignancy. Genetically engineered cells if delivered to sites of disease could alleviate symptoms or even cure cancer through expression of therapeutic or suicide transgene products. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), nonhematopoietic multipotent cells found primarily in bone marrow, have garnered particular interest as potential tumor-targeting vehicles due to their innate tumortropic homing properties. However, recent strategies go further than simply using MSCs as vehicles and use the stem cell-specific genetic make-up to restrict transgene expression to tumorigenic environments using tumor-tissue specific promoters. This addresses one of the concerns with this novel therapy that nonselective stem cell-based therapy could induce cancer rather than treat it. Even minimal off-target effects can be deleterious, motivating recent strategies to not only enhance MSC homing but also engineer them to make their antitumor effect selective to sites of malignancy. This review will summarize the advances made in the past decade toward developing novel cell-based cancer therapies using genetically engineered MSCs with a focus on strategies to achieve and enhance tumor specificity and their application to targeting gastrointestinal malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:23132810

Keung, Emily Z; Nelson, Peter J; Conrad, Claudius

2013-02-01

403

Potential effects of animal management and genetic improvement on enteric methane emissions, emissions intensity and productivity of sheep enterprises at Cowra, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of technologies to reduce enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants are typically evaluated on individual animals with little consideration of enterprise scale impacts. While impacts of the many rumen manipulations being studied are hard to anticipate, there is adequate information to assess impacts of farm management changes and potential animal genetic changes on whole farm productivity and enteric CH4

D. J. Alcock; R. S. Hegarty

2011-01-01

404

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

405

An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.  

PubMed

The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them. PMID:18551237

Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

2008-01-01

406

Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man.  

PubMed

There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-?3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including 'growth factor name', 'in vivo', 'model/animal', 'human', and 'bone tissue engineering'. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area. PMID:25284140

Gothard, D; Smith, E L; Kanczler, J M; Rashidi, H; Qutachi, O; Henstock, J; Rotherham, M; El Haj, A; Shakesheff, K M; Oreffo, R O C

2014-01-01

407

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

408

Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.  

PubMed

Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans. PMID:17264194

Mameli, M

2007-02-01

409

EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETECTING ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS FROM GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS AND PEST CONTROL AGENTS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes and evaluates research from several laboratories that deals with the detection of ecological effects induced through exposure of microbes or plants to genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMS) and microbial pest control agents (MPCAS) . The development o...

410

Potential of Biotechnology for the Gulf Region and the Role of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB); Potential of biotechnology for the countries in the Gulf Region (Hydrocarbon microbiology, Agriculture); The role of the ICGEB in supporting research and development program...

1984-01-01

411

FIELD CALIBRATION OF SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS FOR EVALUATING FATE AND EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram nega...

412

INTACT SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS FOR EVALUATING THE FATE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE RELEASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Intact soil-core microcosms were studied to determine their applicability for evaluating the transport, survival and potential ecosystem effects of genetically engineered microorganisms before they are released into the environment. oi1-core microcosms were planted with wheat and...

413

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute;)

2001-06-01

414

The program for phenotyping of genetically modified animals at AstraZeneca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified mice offer a wide range of possibilities in preclinical drug discovery, e.g. for use in target identification, target validation and disease model generation. However, genomic modification and alteration in gene expression may cause unpredicted phenotypic alterations in the organism other than the intended ones. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of establishing the phenotype

Anna-Lena Berg; Mohammad Bohlooly-Y

2006-01-01

415

Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium bovis Isolates: a Preliminary Study of Strains from Animal and Human Sources  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into five distinct genotypes based on polymorphisms at the pncA and oxyR loci, the status of the RD5 deletion region, and the spoligotype pattern. These findings suggest the existence of a spectrum of strains with genotypic characteristics between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. PMID:11724883

Sales, M. P. U.; Taylor, G. M.; Hughes, S.; Yates, M.; Hewinson, G.; Young, D. B.; Shaw, R. J.

2001-01-01

416

Environmental risk assessment of a genetically-engineered microorganism: Erwinia carotovora  

SciTech Connect

Environmental use of genetically-engineered microorganisms (GEMs) has raised concerns over potential ecological impact. Development of microcosm systems useful in preliminary testing for risk assessment will provide useful information for predicting potential structural, functional, and genetic effects of GEM release. This study was executed to develop techniques that may be useful in risk assessment and microbial ecology, to ascertain which parameters are useful in determining risk and to predict risk from releasing an engineered strain of Erwinia carotovora. A terrestrial microcosm system for use in GEM risk assessment studies was developed for use in assessing alterations of microbial structure and function that may be caused by introducing the engineered strain of E. carotovora. This strain is being developed for use as a biological control agent for plant soft rot. Parameters that were monitored included survival and intraspecific competition of E. carotovora, structural effects upon both total bacterial populations and numbers of selected bacterial genera, effects upon activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, effects upon soil nutrients, and potential for gene transfer into or out of the engineered strain.

Orvos, D.R.

1989-01-01

417

Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as “Crioulo,” “local,” or naturalized. From the beginning

A. da S. Mariante; A. A. Egito

2002-01-01

418

Integration of Multi-objective and Interactive Genetic Algorithms and its Application to Animation Design  

E-print Network

humans. The former method allows flexibility in designing arbitrary motion, but at the same time ] and the IGA so as to take subjective factors into consideration and reduce the number of evaluations by the human. The proposed method is applied to a problem of generating animation of a pass-motion of two hands

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

419

Animations as a tool for enhancing teaching and learning outcomes in Civil Engineering courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many students today are visual learners and little inclined to study printed materials or text-based online courses. Animations can serve as effective multimedia tools to engage these students while facilitating and enhancing the student learning experience by explaining difficult concepts through visual means instead of the traditional way of heavy textual based presentation. The importance of animations would further be

Vasantha Aravinthan; John Worden

2010-01-01

420

Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in Glossina palpalis palpalis and domestic animals of the Fontem sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Human African Trypanosomiasis is still a public health threat in Cameroon. To assess Trypanosoma brucei strains circulating in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, we conducted a genetic structure study using microsatellites to assess genotypes circulating in both tsetse flies and domestic animals. Method For this study, pyramidal traps were set up and 2695 tsetse flies were collected and 1535 (57%) living flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Furthermore, blood samples were collected from 397 domestic animals (pigs, goats, sheep and dogs). DNA was extracted from midguts and blood samples, and specific primers were used to identify trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon. All positive samples were genetically characterized with seven microsatellite markers. Results Seventy five (4.7%) midguts of tsetse flies and 140 (35.2%) domestic animals were found infected by trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon. The genetic characterization of 215 Trypanozoon positive samples (75 from tsetse and 140 from animals) revealed a genetic diversity between Trypanosoma brucei circulating in tsetse and domestic animals. Of these positive samples, 87 (40.5%) single infections were used here to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in tsetse and domestic animals. The dendrogram illustrating the genetic similarities between Trypanosoma brucei genotypes was subdivided into four clusters. The samples from tsetse belonged to the same cluster whereas the samples from domestic animals and espcially pigs were distributed in the four clusters. Conclusion Pigs appeared as the animal species harboring the highest number of different Trypanosoma brucei strains. They may play an important role in the propagation of different genotypes. The FST values revealed a sub structuration of Trypanosoma brucei according to hosts and sometimes villages. The data obtained from this study may have considerable importance for the understanding of the transmission and the spread of specific genotypes of Trypanosoma brucei. PMID:24690359

2014-01-01

421

Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineeredgenetically sterile’ (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. Conclusions/Significance After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains. PMID:22970102

Raduan, Norzahira; Kwee Wee, Lim; Hong Ming, Wong; Guat Ney, Teoh; Rahidah A.A., Siti; Salman, Sawaluddin; Subramaniam, Selvi; Nordin, Oreenaiza; Hanum A.T., Norhaida; Angamuthu, Chandru; Marlina Mansor, Suria; Lees, Rosemary S.; Naish, Neil; Scaife, Sarah; Gray, Pam; Labbe, Genevieve; Beech, Camilla; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Han Lim, Lee; Wasi A., Nazni; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-01-01

422

Developing genetically engineered encapsulin protein cage nanoparticles as a targeted delivery nanoplatform.  

PubMed

Protein cage nanoparticles are excellent candidates for use as multifunctional delivery nanoplatforms because they are built from biomaterials and have a well-defined structure. A novel protein cage nanoparticle, encapsulin, isolated from thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima, is prepared and developed as a versatile template for targeted delivery nanoplatforms through both chemical and genetic engineering. It is pivotal for multifunctional delivery nanoplatforms to have functional plasticity and versatility to acquire targeting ligands, diagnostic probes, and drugs simultaneously. Encapsulin is genetically engineered to have unusual heat stability and to acquire multiple functionalities in a precisely controlled manner. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell binding peptide (SP94-peptide, SFSIIHTPILPL) is chosen as a targeting ligand and displayed on the surface of engineered encapsulin (Encap_loophis42C123) through either chemical conjugation or genetic insertion. The effective and selective targeted delivery of SP94-peptide displaying encapsulin (SP94-Encap_loophis42C123) to HepG2 cells is confirmed by fluorescent microscopy imaging. Aldoxorubicin (AlDox), an anticancer prodrug, is chemically loaded to SP94-Encap_loophis42C123 via thiol-maleimide Michael-type addition, and the efficacy of the delivered drugs is evaluated with a cell viability assay. SP94-Encap_loophis42C123-AlDox shows comparable killing efficacy with that of free drugs without the platform's own cytotoxicity. Functional plasticity and versatility of the engineered encapsulin allow us to introduce targeting ligands, diagnostic probes, and therapeutic reagents simultaneously, providing opportunities to develop multifunctional delivery nanoplatforms. PMID:25180761

Moon, Hyojin; Lee, Jisu; Min, Junseon; Kang, Sebyung

2014-10-13

423

Comparative genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human and animal listeriosis cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human sporadic and epidemic cases (n fl 119) and from animal cases (n fl 76) were characterized by automated ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) typing of the virulence genes actA and hly. This combination of typing methods differentiated 39 distinctive strains, each reflecting a unique combination of ribotypes, hly and actA alleles. Simpson's index

Gregory T. Jeffers; James L. Bruce; Patrick L. McDonough; Janet Scarlett; Kathryn J. Boor; Martin Wiedmann

2001-01-01

424

Causation of nervous system tumors in children: insights from traditional and genetically engineered animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric neurogenic tumors include primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), especially medulloblastoma; ependymomas and choroid plexus papillomas; astrocytomas; retinoblastoma; and sympathetic neuroblastoma. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, although uncommon in childhood, are also significant because they can result from exposures of children to ionizing radiation. Specific chromosomal loci and specific genes are related to each of these tumor types. Virtually all these

Jerry M Rice

2004-01-01

425

Genetic engineering of crops: a ray of hope for enhanced food security.  

PubMed

Crop improvement has been a basic and essential chase since organized cultivation of crops began thousands of years ago. Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The changing global climatic conditions are making them worse and pointing toward food insecurity. Agriculture biotechnology or genetic engineering has allowed us to look into and understand the complex nature of abiotic stresses and measures to improve the crop productivity under adverse conditions. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in model plants as well as agriculturally important crop plants to develop abiotic stress-tolerant plants for crop improvement. The views presented here are an attempt toward realizing the potential of genetic engineering for improving crops to better tolerate abiotic stresses in the era of climate change, which is now essential for global food security. There is great urgency in speeding up crop improvement programs that can use modern biotechnological tools in addition to current breeding practices for providing enhanced food security. PMID:24686131

Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Ritu; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

2014-01-01

426

Engineering modular and tunable genetic amplifiers for scaling transcriptional signals in cascaded gene networks  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology aims to control and reprogram signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realize repurposed, beneficial applications. Here we report the design and construction of a set of modular and gain-tunable genetic amplifiers in Escherichia coli capable of amplifying a transcriptional signal with wide tunable-gain control in cascaded gene networks. The devices are engineered using orthogonal genetic components (hrpRS, hrpV and PhrpL) from the hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene regulatory network in Pseudomonas syringae. The amplifiers can linearly scale up to 21-fold the transcriptional input with a large output dynamic range, yet not introducing significant time delay or significant noise during signal amplification. The set of genetic amplifiers achieves different gains and input dynamic ranges by varying the expression levels of the underlying ligand-free activator proteins in the device. As their electronic counterparts, these engineered transcriptional amplifiers can act as fundamental building blocks in the design of biological systems by predictably and dynamically modulating transcriptional signal flows to implement advanced intra- and extra-cellular control functions. PMID:25030903

Wang, Baojun; Barahona, Mauricio; Buck, Martin

2014-01-01

427

Genetic engineering of plants for improved crop production. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of genetic engineering to improve crop production. Genetic alterations of plants to provide insect protection, herbicide resistance, disease resistance, improved quality, and higher yield are discussed. Methods used to develop environmentally tolerant crops that are able to withstand extremes of temperature, reduced water consumption, and reduced fertilizer requirements are examined. Genetic engineering of microorganisms that are beneficial to plants is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

428

Whole-body multicolor spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging for development of target-specific optical contrast agents using genetically engineered probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target-specific contrast agents are being developed for the molecular imaging of cancer. Optically detectable target-specific agents are promising for clinical applications because of their high sensitivity and specificity. Pre clinical testing is needed, however, to validate the actual sensitivity and specificity of these agents in animal models, and involves both conventional histology and immunohistochemistry, which requires large numbers of animals and samples with costly handling. However, a superior validation tool takes advantage of genetic engineering technology whereby cell lines are transfected with genes that induce the target cell to produce fluorescent proteins with characteristic emission spectra thus, identifying them as cancer cells. Multicolor fluorescence imaging of these genetically engineered probes can provide rapid validation of newly developed exogenous probes that fluoresce at different wavelengths. For example, the plasmid containing the gene encoding red fluorescent protein (RFP) was transfected into cell lines previously developed to either express or not-express specific cell surface receptors. Various antibody-based or receptor ligand-based optical contrast agents with either green or near infrared fluorophores were developed to concurrently target and validate cancer cells and their positive and negative controls, such as ?-D-galactose receptor, HER1 and HER2 in a single animal/organ. Spectrally resolved fluorescence multicolor imaging was used to detect separate fluorescent emission spectra from the exogenous agents and RFP. Therefore, using this in vivo imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the target-specific optical contrast agents, thus reducing the number of animals needed to conduct these experiments.

Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hama, Yukihiro; Koyama, Yoshinori; Barrett, Tristan; Urano, Yasuteru; Choyke, Peter L.

2007-02-01

429

Stems to GEMs: impact of stem cell technology on engineered animal models.  

PubMed

Collectively, these presentations introduced the audience to the roles of ES cells in generating phenotypes of transgenic animals,and they provided examples where the GEMs were used to define molecular mechanisms of disease or where ES cells were used as a therapeutic modality. Points of discussion among audience members reinforced the importance of strain-associated background lesions in animal models, technological advances in imaging functional biology, opportunities for stem cell therapies, and ubiquitination in regulation of cell proliferation. The 2012 American College of Veterinary Pathologists symposium ‘‘Evolutionary Aspects of Animal Models’’ will focus on the proper selection of a relevant animal model in biomedical research as critical to investigative success. Recent work characterizing rapid evolutionary changes and differences in physiology between species questions the validity of some comparative models. Dr. Robert Hamlin will be speaking on cardiovascular disease in ‘‘Animals as Models of Human Cardiovascular Disease: Or the Search to Overcome Outdated Evolutionary Homeostatic Mechanisms.’’ Dr. Stefan Niewiesk will discuss evolutionary factors that affect modeling the human immune system in ‘‘Of Mice and Men: Evolutionarily, What Are the Best Rodent Models of the Human Immune System for Infectious Disease Research?’’ Dr. Steven Austad will consider evolution in ‘‘Evolutionary Aspects of Animal Models of Aging.’’Finally, Dr. Elizabeth Uhl will conclude the session with ‘‘Modeling Disease Phenotypes: How an Evolutionary Perspective Enhances the Questions.’’ PMID:21865606

Halpern, Wendy; McArthur, Mark; Galbreath, Elizabeth; Uhl, Elizabeth; Buck, Wayne; Whitley, Elizabeth

2011-09-01

430

Epidemiological and Genetic Data Supporting the Transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among Human and Domestic Animals  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI?=?7.0–11.7%) and 61.9% (95% CI?=?51.2–71.2%), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR?=?3.5; 95% CI?=?1.53–8.00; p?=?0.003), walking barefooted (OR?=?5.6; 95% CI?=?2.91–10.73; p<0.001) and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR?=?2.9; 95% CI?=?1.19–7.15; p?=?0.009) were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. Conclusion This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats) populations. PMID:22347515

Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Traub, Rebecca; Mahmud, Rohela; Mistam, Mohd Sani

2012-01-01

431

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts  

PubMed Central

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley—Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus. PMID:21444312

Rowntree, Jennifer K.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

432

Analysis and design of a genetic circuit for dynamic metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

Recent advances in synthetic biology have equipped us with new tools for bioprocess optimization at the genetic level. Previously, we have presented an integrated in silico design for the dynamic control of gene expression based on a density-sensing unit and a genetic toggle switch. In the present paper, analysis of a serine-producing Escherichia coli mutant shows that an instantaneous ON-OFF switch leads to a maximum theoretical productivity improvement of 29.6% compared to the mutant. To further the design, global sensitivity analysis is applied here to a mathematical model of serine production in E. coli coupled with a genetic circuit. The model of the quorum sensing and the toggle switch involves 13 parameters of which 3 are identified as having a significant effect on serine concentration. Simulations conducted in this reduced parameter space further identified the optimal ranges for these 3 key parameters to achieve productivity values close to the maximum theoretical values. This analysis can now be used to guide the experimental implementation of a dynamic metabolic engineering strategy and reduce the time required to design the genetic circuit components. PMID:23654263

Anesiadis, Nikolaos; Kobayashi, Hideki; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

2013-08-16

433

Exopolysaccharide production by a genetically engineered Enterobacter cloacae strain for microbial enhanced oil recovery.  

PubMed

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a petroleum biotechnology for manipulating function and/or structure of microbial environments existing in oil reservoirs for prolonged exploitation of the largest source of energy. In this study, an Enterobacter cloacae which is capable of producing water-insoluble biopolymers at 37°C and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at higher temperature. The resultant transformants, GW3-3.0, could produce exopolysaccharide up to 8.83 g l(-1) in molasses medium at 54°C. This elevated temperature was within the same temperature range as that for many oil reservoirs. The transformants had stable genetic phenotype which was genetically fingerprinted by RAPD analysis. Core flooding experiments were carried out to ensure effective controlled profile for the simulation of oil recovery. The results have demonstrated that this approach has a promising application potential in MEOR. PMID:21444201

Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Zhong, Weizhang; Xiao, Meng; Yi, Wenjing; Yu, Li; Fu, Pengcheng

2011-05-01

434

Phytosequestration: Carbon Biosequestration by Plants and the Prospects of Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photosynthetic assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by land plants offers the underpinnings for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. A proportion of the C captured in plant biomass is partitioned to roots, where it enters the pools of soil organic C and soil inorganic C and can be sequestered for millennia. Bioenergy crops serve the dual role of providing biofuel that offsets fossil-fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sequestering C in the soil through extensive root systems. Carbon captured in plant biomass can also contribute to C sequestration through the deliberate addition of biochar to soil, wood burial, or the use of durable plant products. Increasing our understanding of plant, microbial, and soil biology, and harnessing the benefits of traditional genetics and genetic engineering, will help us fully realize the GHG mitigation potential of phytosequestration.

Christer Jansson (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory;)

2010-10-01

435

Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality  

E-print Network

Frank Mitloehner is an expert for agricultural air quality, animal-environmental interactions, and agricultural engineering. He is a Professor and Air Quality Specialist in Cooperative Extension. Since he

Delany, Mary E.

436

Mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated AZI1 - an attractive candidate for genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein kinases and their targets have been in the limelight of plant stress research. Signaling pathways mediating the responses to multiple stresses deserve particular attention. In a recent study, we reported AZI1, a member of the lipid transfer protein family, to play a role in MPK3-mediated responses to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. MPK3 controls AZI1 at the transcriptional and posttranslational level. The AZI1 protein has several properties that make it very attractive for genetic engineering. A model of multi-level control of AZI1 by MPK3 is proposed, and strategies toward optimizing AZI1 protein properties are briefly discussed. PMID:24518841

Pitzschke, Andrea; Datta, Sneha; Persak, Helene

2014-01-01

437

Mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated AZI1 - an attractive candidate for genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinases and their targets have been in the limelight of plant stress research. Signaling pathways mediating the responses to multiple stresses deserve particular attention. In a recent study, we reported AZI1, a member of the lipid transfer protein family, to play a role in MPK3-mediated responses to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. MPK3 controls AZI1 at the transcriptional and posttranslational level. The AZI1 protein has several properties that make it very attractive for genetic engineering. A model of multi-level control of AZI1 by MPK3 is proposed, and strategies toward optimizing AZI1 protein properties are briefly discussed. PMID:24518841

Pitzschke, Andrea; Datta, Sneha; Persak, Helene

2014-01-01

438

Experimental therapy of human glioma by means of a genetically engineered virus mutant  

SciTech Connect

Malignant gliomas are the most common malignant brain tumors and are almost always fatal. A thymidine kinase-negative mutant of herpes simplex virus-1 (dlsptk) that is attenuated for neurovirulence was tested as a possible treatment for gliomas. In cell culture, dlsptk killed two long-term human glioma lines and three short-term human glioma cell populations. In nude mice with implanted subcutaneous and subrenal U87 human gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk caused growth inhibition. In nude mice with intracranial U87 gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk prolonged survival. Genetically engineered viruses such as dlsptk merit further evaluation as novel antineoplastic agents.

Martuza, R.L.; Malick, A.; Markert, J.M.; Ruffner, K.L.; Coen, D.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

1991-05-10

439

The WAG/Rij strain: a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression [corrected].  

PubMed

A great number of clinical observations show a relationship between epilepsy and depression. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy, including absence epilepsy, has a genetic basis. The review provides evidence that WAG/Rij rats can be regarded as a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression. WAG/Rij rats, originally developed as an animal model of human absence epilepsy, share many EEG and behavioral characteristics resembling absence epilepsy in humans, including the similarity of action of various antiepileptic drugs. Behavioral studies indicate that WAG/Rij rats exhibit depression-like symptoms: decreased investigative activity in the open field test, increased immobility in the forced swimming test, and decreased sucrose consumption and preference (anhedonia). In addition, WAG/Rij rats adopt passive strategies in stressful situations, express some cognitive disturbances (reduced long-term memory), helplessness, and submissiveness, inability to make choice and overcome obstacles, which are typical for depressed patients. Elevated anxiety is not a characteristic (specific) feature of WAG/Rij rats; it is a characteristic for only a sub-strain of WAG/Rij rats susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Interestingly, WAG/Rij rats display a hyper-response to amphetamine similar to anhedonic depressed patients. WAG/Rij rats are sensitive only to chronic, but not acute, antidepressant treatments, suggesting that WAG/Rij rats fulfill a criterion of predictive validity for a putative animal model of depression. However, more and different antidepressant drugs still await evaluation. Depression-like behavioral symptoms in WAG/Rij rats are evident at baseline conditions, not exclusively after stress. Experiments with foot-shock stress do not point towards higher stress sensitivity at both behavioral and hormonal levels. However, freezing behavior (coping deficits) and blunted response of 5HT in the frontal cortex to uncontrollable sound stress, increased c-fos expression in the terminal regions of the meso-cortico-limbic brain systems and greater DA response of the mesolimbic system to forced swim stress suggest that WAG/Rij rats are vulnerable to some, but not to all types of stressors. We propose that genetic absence epileptic WAG/Rij rats have behavioral depression-like symptoms, are vulnerable to stress and might represent a model of chronic low-grade depression (dysthymia). Both 5HT and DAergic abnormalities detected in the brain of WAG/Rij rats are involved in modulation of vulnerability to stress and provocation of behavioral depression-like symptoms. The same neurotransmitter systems modulate SWDs as well. Recent studies suggest that the occurrence and repetition of absence seizures are a precipitant of depression-like behavior. Whether the neurochemical changes are primary to depression-like behavioral alterations remains to be determined. In conclusion, the WAG/Rij rats can be considered as a genetic animal model for absence epilepsy with comorbidity of dysthymia. This model can be used to investigate etiology, pathogenic mechanisms and treatment of a psychiatric comorbidity, such as depression in absence epilepsy, to reveal putative genes contributing to comorbid depressive disorder, and to screen novel psychotropic drugs with a selective and/or complex (dual) action on both pathologies. PMID:21093520

Sarkisova, Karine; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

2011-06-01

440

RAPD variation and population genetic structure in Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae), an animal-dispersed tree.  

PubMed

We examined the patterns of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variation among seven Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae) populations extending over approximately 100 km2 to examine local differentiation in relation to spatial isolation due to both geographical distance and differences in elevation. No less than 51. 4% of the RAPD loci were polymorphic, but very few were fixed and among-population variation accounted for 16.46% of variation in RAPD patterns. Mean gene diversity was 0.1441, with mean Nei's genetic diversity for individual populations ranging between 0.089 and 0.149. Mean GST value across loci was 0.1935 (range, 0.0162-0.4685), giving an average estimate for Nm of 1.191. These results suggest extensive gene flow among populations, but higher GST and lower Nm values relative to other outcrossing, woody species with endozoochorous dispersal, also suggest a process of isolation by distance. The combined effect of both geographical and elevation distances and nonoverlapping flowering and fruiting phenophases on the GST matrix was partially significant, revealing only marginal isolation of the P. mahaleb populations. The matrix correlation between estimated Nm values among populations and the geographical + elevation distance matrices (r = -0.4623, P = 0.07), suggests a marginal trend for more isolated populations to exchange less immigrants. Long-distance seed dispersal by efficient medium-sized frugivorous birds and mammals is most likely associated to the high levels of within-population genetic diversity. However, vicariance factors and demographic bottlenecks (high postdispersal seed and seedling mortality) explain comparatively high levels of local differentiation. PMID:10972769

Jordano, P; Godoy, J A

2000-09-01

441

Anatomical and genetic study of an ancient animal tooth showing brachyodont and hypsodont mixed taxonomical characteristics.  

PubMed

A non-human dental piece was found in a Roman Empire tomb dated the 3rd century A.C. in Zaragoza (Spain). The morphology of this piece showed mixed brachyodont (carnivores) and hypsodont (herbivores) characteristics. As a result, the taxonomical assignation of the piece was impossible. Therefore, a protocol based on the DNA sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial region (COI) was applied. For this purpose, a pair of primers able to amplify this region in a large variety of animals was designed. The results point to a species of the Genus Bos (Family Bovidae). This assignation was later confirmed by these quencing of a short fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop region. A complete morphological description of the tooth is presented together with the DNA sequence study and comparison protocol. PMID:23740506

Monteagudo, L V; Obón, J A; Whyte, A; Tejedor, M T; Whyte, J; Cisneros, A

2013-05-01

442

Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals  

SciTech Connect

Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

Roszer, Tamas [Research Group of Apoptosis and Genomics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4012 Debrecen, PO Box 6. (Hungary); Pintye, Eva [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary); Benko', Ilona [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University (Hungary)

2008-12-08

443

Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

R?szer, Tamás; Pintye, Éva; Benk?, Ilona

2008-12-01

444

The Apoptotic Initiator Caspase-8: Its Functional Ubiquity and Genetic Diversity during Animal Evolution.  

PubMed

The caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play multiple roles in apoptosis, inflammation, and cellular differentiation. Caspase-8 (Casp8), which was first identified in humans, functions as an initiator caspase in the apoptotic signaling mediated by cell-surface death receptors. To understand the evolution of function in the Casp8 protein family, casp8 orthologs were identified from a comprehensive range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including sponges and cnidarians, and characterized at both the gene and protein levels. Some introns have been conserved from cnidarians to mammals, but both losses and gains have also occurred; a new intron arose during teleost evolution, whereas in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the casp8 gene is intronless and is organized in an operon with a neighboring gene. Casp8 activities are near ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Exogenous expression of a representative range of nonmammalian Casp8 proteins in cultured mammalian cells induced cell death, implying that these proteins possess proapoptotic activity. The cnidarian Casp8 proteins differ considerably from their bilaterian counterparts in terms of amino acid residues in the catalytic pocket, but display the same substrate specificity as human CASP8, highlighting the complexity of spatial structural interactions involved in enzymatic activity. Finally, it was confirmed that the interaction with an adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein, is also evolutionarily ancient. Thus, despite structural diversity and cooption to a variety of new functions, the ancient origins and near ubiquitous distribution of this activity across the animal kingdom emphasize the importance and utility of Casp8 as a central component of the metazoan molecular toolkit. PMID:25205508

Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kouhei; Iwata, Hiroaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Satou, Yutaka; Funayama, Noriko; Nozaki, Masami; Yajima, Mamiko; Nishimura, Osamu; Higuchi, Mayura; Chiba, Kumiko; Yoshimoto, Michi; Kimura, Haruna; Gracey, Andrew Y; Shimizu, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Gotoh, Osamu; Akasaka, Koji; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Miller, David J

2014-12-01

445

Formation mechanism of chalcogenide nanocrystals confined inside genetically engineered virus-like particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineered virus-like particles (VLP) are attractive for fabricating nanostructured materials for applications in diverse areas such as catalysis, drug delivery, biomedicine, composites, etc. Basic understanding of the interaction between the inorganic guest and biomolecular host is thus important for the controlled synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles inside VLP and rational assembly of ordered VLP-based hierarchical nanostructures. We have investigated in detail the formation mechanism and growth kinetics of semiconducting nanocrystals confined inside genetically engineered bacteriophage P22 VLP using semiconducting CdS as a prototypical example. The selective nucleation and growth of CdS at the engineered sites is found to be uniform during the early stage, followed by a more stochastic growth process. Furthermore, kinetic studies reveal that the presence of an engineered biotemplate helps in significantly retarding the reaction rate. These findings provide guidance for the controlled synthesis of a wide range of other inorganic materials confined inside VLP, and are of practical importance for the rational design of VLP-based hierarchical nanostuctures.

Zhou, Ziyou; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Li, Rui; Prevelige, Peter E.; Gupta, Arunava

2014-01-01

446

Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for detection, fate, and survival analysis of genetically engineered microorganisms and their recombinant genetic material  

SciTech Connect

The research included in this document represents the current scientific information available regarding the applicability of terrestrial microcosms and related methodologies for evaluating detection methods and the fate and survival of microorganisms in the environment. The three terrestrial microcosms described in this document were used to evaluate the survival and fate of recombinant bacteria in soils and in association with plant surfaces and insects and their transport through soil with percolating water and root systems, and to test new methods and procedures to improve detection and enumeration of bacteria in soil. Simple (potting soil composed of peat mix and perlite, lacking environmental control and monitoring) and complex microcosms (agricultural soil with partial control and monitoring of environmental conditions) were demonstrated to be useful tools for preliminary assessments of microbial viability in terrestrial ecosystems. These studies evaluated the survival patterns of Enterobacter cloacae (pBR322) in soil and on plant surfaces and the ingestion of this same microorganism by cutworms and survival in the foregut and frass. The Versacore microcosm design was used to monitor the fate and competitiveness of genetically engineered bacteria in soil. Both selective media and gene probes were used successfully to follow the fate of two recombinant Pseudomonas sp. introduced into Versacore microcosms. Intact soil-core microcosms were employed to evaluate the fate and transport of genetically altered Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in soil and the plant rhizosphere. The usefulness of these various microcosms as a tool for risk assessment is underscored by the ease in obtaining soil from a proposed field release site to evaluate subsequent GEM fate and survival.

Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

1989-02-01

447

Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.  

PubMed

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn. PMID:11865766

Aulrich, K; Böhme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G

2001-01-01

448

Genetic threshold hypothesis of neocortical spike-and-wave discharges in the rat: An animal model of petit mal epilepsy  

SciTech Connect

Neocortical high-voltage spike-and-wave discharges (HVS) in the rat are an animal model of petit mal epilepsy. Genetic analysis of total duration of HVS (s/12 hr) in reciprocal F1 and F2 hybrids of F344 and BN rats indicated that the phenotypic variability of HVS cannot be explained by simple, monogenic Mendelian model. Biometrical analysis suggested the presence of additive, dominance, and sex-linked-epistatic effects, buffering maternal influence, and heterosis. High correlation was observed between average duration (s/episode) and frequency of occurrence of spike-and-wave episodes (n/12 hr) in parental and segregating generations, indicating that common genes affect both duration and frequency of the spike-and-wave pattern. We propose that both genetic and developmental - environmental factors control an underlying quantitative variable, which, above a certain threshold level, precipitates HVS discharges. These findings, together with the recent availability of rat DNA markers for total genome mapping, pave the way to the identification of genes that control the susceptibility of the brain to spike-and-wave discharges. 67 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Vadasz, C.; Fleischer, A. [Nathan Kline Inst. for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY (United States); Carpi, D.; Jando, G. [State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)] [and others

1995-02-27

449

Genetic Engineering of Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax and In Vitro Differentiation under Axenic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite's biology. This is in part due to the fact that no reproducible experimental methods had been developed to maintain the different evolutive forms of this trypanosome under laboratory conditions. Appropriate protocols were developed in the 1990s for the axenic maintenance of three major animal Trypanosoma species: T. b. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. These pioneer studies rapidly led to the successful genetic manipulation of T. b. brucei and T. congolense. Advances were made in the understanding of these parasites' biology and virulence, and new drug targets were identified. By contrast, challenging in vitro conditions have been developed for T. vivax in the past, and this per se has contributed to defer both its genetic manipulation and subsequent gene function studies. Here we report on the optimization of non-infective T. vivax epimastigote axenic cultures and on the process of parasite in vitro differentiation into metacyclic infective forms. We have also constructed the first T. vivax specific expression vector that drives constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter gene. This vector was then used to establish and optimize epimastigote transfection. We then developed highly reproducible conditions that can be used to obtain and select stably transfected mutants that continue metacyclogenesis and are infectious in immunocompetent rodents. PMID:22216367

D'Archivio, Simon; Medina, Mathieu; Cosson, Alain; Chamond, Nathalie; Rotureau, Brice; Minoprio, Paola; Goyard, Sophie

2011-01-01

450

Activation of the macroautophagic system in scrapie-infected experimental animals and human genetic prion diseases  

PubMed Central

Macroautophagy is an important process for removing misfolded and aggregated protein in cells, the dysfunction of which has been directly linked to an increasing number of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the details of macroautophagy in prion diseases remain obscure. Here we demonstrated that in the terminal stages of scrapie strain 263K-infected hamsters and human genetic prion diseases, the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) was converted from the cytosolic form to the autophagosome-bound membrane form. Macroautophagy substrate sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) and polyubiquitinated proteins were downregulated in the brains of sick individuals, indicating enhanced macroautophagic protein degradation. The levels of mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) and phosphorylated MTOR (p-MTOR) were significantly decreased, which implies that this enhancement of the macroautophagic response is likely through the MTOR pathway which is a negative regulator for the initiation of macroautophagy. Dynamic assays of the autophagic system in the brains of scrapie experimental hamsters after inoculation showed that alterations of the autophagic system appeared along with the deposits of PrPSc in the infected brains. Immunofluorescent assays revealed specific staining of autophagosomes in neurons that were not colocalized with deposits of PrPSc in the brains of scrapie infected hamsters, however, autophagosome did colocalize with PrPSc in a prion-infected cell line after treatment with bafilomycin A1. These results suggest that activation of macroautophagy in brains is a disease-correlative phenomenon in prion diseases. PMID:22874564

Xu, Yin; Tian, Chan; Wang, Shao-Bin; Xie, Wu-Ling; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Qi; Chen, Cao; Dong, Xiao-Ping

2012-01-01

451

The morality of socioscientific issues: Construal and resolution of genetic engineering dilemmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to negotiate and resolve socioscientific issues has been posited as integral components of scientific literacy. Although philosophers and science educators have argued that socioscientific issues inherently involve moral and ethical considerations, the ultimate arbiters of morality are individual decision-makers. This study explored the extent to which college students construe genetic engineering issues as moral problems. Twenty college students participated in interviews designed to elicit their ideas, reactions, and feelings regarding a series of gene therapy and cloning scenarios. Qualitative analyses revealed that moral considerations were significant influences on decision-making, indicating a tendency for students to construe genetic engineering issues as moral problems. Students engaged in moral reasoning based on utilitarian analyses of consequences as well as the application of principles. Issue construal was also influenced by affective features such as emotion and intuition. In addition to moral considerations, a series of other factors emerged as important dimensions of socioscientific decision-making. These factors included personal experiences, family biases, background knowledge, and the impact of popular culture. The implications for classroom science instruction and future research are discussed.

Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

2004-01-01

452

Engineering modular and orthogonal genetic logic gates for robust digital-like synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

Modular and orthogonal genetic logic gates are essential for building robust biologically based digital devices to customize cell signalling in synthetic biology. Here we constructed an orthogonal AND gate in Escherichia coli using a novel hetero-regulation module from Pseudomonas syringae. The device comprises two co-activating genes hrpR and hrpS controlled by separate promoter inputs, and a ?54-dependent hrpL promoter driving the output. The hrpL promoter is activated only when both genes are expressed, generating digital-like AND integration behaviour. The AND gate is demonstrated to be modular by applying new regulated promoters to the inputs, and connecting the output to a NOT gate module to produce a combinatorial NAND gate. The circuits were assembled using a parts-based engineering approach of quantitative characterization, modelling, followed by construction and testing. The results show that new genetic logic devices can be engineered predictably from novel native orthogonal biological control elements using quantitatively in-context characterized parts. PMID:22009040

Wang, Baojun; Kitney, Richard I; Joly, Nicolas; Buck, Martin

2011-01-01

453

Genetically engineered plants and foods: a scientist's analysis of the issues (part II).  

PubMed

Genetic engineering provides a means to introduce genes into plants via mechanisms that are different in some respects from classical breeding. A number of commercialized, genetically engineered (GE) varieties, most notably canola, cotton, maize and soybean, were created using this technology, and at present the traits introduced are herbicide and/or pest tolerance. In 2007 these GE crops were planted in developed and developing countries on more than 280 million acres (113 million hectares) worldwide, representing nearly 10% of rainfed cropland. Although the United States leads the world in acres planted with GE crops, the majority of this planting is on large acreage farms. In developing countries, adopters are mostly small and resource-poor farmers. For farmers and many consumers worldwide, planting and eating GE crops and products made from them are acceptable and even welcomed; for others GE crops raise food and environmental safety questions, as well as economic and social issues. In Part I of this review, some general and food issues related to GE crops and foods were discussed. In Part II, issues related to certain environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods are addressed, with responses linked to the scientific literature. PMID:19400729

Lemaux, Peggy G

2009-01-01

454

Automated Generation of Dynamic Walk-Through Animations of Simulated Engineering Operations in Augmented Reality Environments  

E-print Network

in Augmented Reality Environments Amir H. Behzadan Department of Construction Management and Civil Engineering lifecycle. This paper presents ARVISCOPE, an Augmented Reality (AR) visualization tool capable of creating in recent years is Augmented Reality (AR). The main difference between an AR-based and a VR

Kamat, Vineet R.

455

Native homing endonucleases can target conserved genes in humans and in animal models  

E-print Network

grail of gene therapy and genetic engineering. It promises to markedly reduce the risks associated in crop bio-engineering (6), in the production of model cell lines (7,8) animal models (9), inducedNative homing endonucleases can target conserved genes in humans and in animal models Adi Barzel1

Pupko, Tal

456

Rapid, continuous purification of proteins in a microfluidic device using genetically-engineered partition tags.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening assays of native and recombinant proteins are increasingly crucial in life science research, including fields such as drug screening and enzyme engineering. These assays are typically highly parallel, and require minute amounts of purified protein per assay. To address this need, we have developed a rapid, automated microscale process for isolating specific proteins from sub-microlitre volumes of E. Coli cell lysate. Recombinant proteins are genetically tagged to drive partitioning into the PEG-rich phase of a flowing aqueous two-phase system, which removes approximately 85% of contaminating proteins, as well as unwanted nucleic acids and cell debris, on a simple microfluidic device. Inclusion of the genetic tag roughly triples recovery of the autofluorescent protein AcGFP1, and also significantly improves recovery of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST), from nearly zero recovery for the wild-type enzyme, up to 40% with genetic tagging. The extraction process operates continuously, with only a single step from cell lysate to purified protein, and does not require expensive affinity reagents or troublesome chromatographic steps. The two-phase system is mild and does not disrupt protein function, as evidenced by recovery of active enzymes and functional fluorescent protein from our microfluidic process. The microfluidic aqueous two-phase extraction forms the core component of an integrated lab-on-a-chip device comprising cell culture, lysis, purification and analysis on a single device. PMID:18369506

Meagher, Robert J; Light, Yooli K; Singh, Anup K

2008-04-01

457

Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made them think, 75% enjoyed it, and 89% felt that they learned something. We discuss the potential impact the films might have on public knowledge, health literacy, and attitudes toward the science of tissue engineering. PMID:21943030

Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

2012-03-01

458

Designing an Action Selection Engine for Behavioral Animation of Intelligent Virtual Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a new action selection scheme for behavioral animation in computer graphics. This scheme provides a powerful\\u000a mechanism for the determination of the sequence of actions to be performed by the virtual agents emulating real world’s life.\\u000a In particular, the present contribution focuses on the description of the system architecture and some implementation issues.\\u000a Then, the performance of

Francisco Luengo; Andrés Iglesias

2005-01-01

459

Space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon ?1b and screening of higher yielding strains.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon ?1b. The genetically engineered bacteria expressing the recombinant interferon ?1b were sent into outer space on the Chinese Shenzhou VIII spacecraft. After the 17 day space flight, mutant strains that highly expressed the target gene were identified. After a series of screening of spaceflight-treated bacteria and the quantitative comparison of the mutant strains and original strain, we found five strains that showed a significantly higher production of target proteins, compared with the original strain. Our results support the notion that the outer space environment has unique effects on the mutation breeding of microorganisms, including genetically engineered strains. Mutant strains that highly express the target protein could be obtained through spaceflight-induced mutagenesis. PMID:24096450

Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Changting; Liu, Jinyi; Fang, Xiangqun; Xu, Chen; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang

2014-03-01

460

How can plant genetic engineering contribute to cost-effective fish vaccine development for promoting sustainable aquaculture?  

PubMed

Aquaculture, the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 % of the world's food fish (FAO in The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 2010). The global aquaculture production of food fish reached 62.7 million tonnes in 2011 and is continuously increasing with an estimated production of food fish of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012 (a 9.4 % increase in 1 year, FAO, www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140 ). Aquaculture is not only important for sustainable protein-based food fish production but also for the aquaculture industry and economy worldwide. Disease prevention is the key issue to maintain a sustainable development of aquaculture. Widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, resulting in water and soil pollution. Thus, vaccination is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to combat diseases in aquaculture to manage fish health. Furthermore, when compared to >760 vaccines against human diseases, there are only about 30 fish vaccines commercially available, suggesting the urgent need for development and cost-effective production of fish vaccines for managing fish health, especially in the fast growing fish farming in Asia where profit is minimal and therefore given high priority. Plant genetic engineering has made significant contributions to production of biotech crops for food, feed, valuable recombinant proteins etc. in the past three decades. The use of plants for vaccine production offers several advantages such as low cost, safety and easy scaling up. To date a large number of plant-derived vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins have been produced for human health, of which a few have been made commercially available. However, the development of animal vaccines in plants, especially fish vaccines by genetic engineering, has not yet been addressed. Therefore, there is a need to exploit plant biotechnology for cost effective fish vaccine development in plants, in particular, edible crops for oral fish vaccines. This review provides insight into (1) the current status of fish vaccine and vaccination in aquaculture, (2) plant biotechnology and edible crops for fish vaccines for oral administration, (3) regulatory constraints and (4) conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:23729352

Clarke, Jihong Liu; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Lössl, Andreas G; Martinussen, Inger; Daniell, Henry

2013-09-01

461

A Quantitative Volumetric Micro-Computed Tomography Method to Analyze Lung Tumors in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genetically engineered, conditional mouse models of lung tumor formation, K-rasLSL-G12D and K-rasLSL-G12D\\/ p53LSL-R270H, are commonly used to model human lung cancer. Developed by Tyler Jacks and colleagues, these models have been invaluable to study in vivo lung cancer initiation and progression in a genetically and physiologi- cally relevant context. However, heterogeneity, multiplicity and complexity of tumor formation in these

Brian B. Haines; Kimberly A. Bettano; Melissa Chenard; Raquel S. Sevilla; Christopher Ware; H. Angagaw; Christopher T. Winkelmann; Christopher Tong; John F. Reilly; Cyrille Surand; Weisheng Zhang

462

Genetic engineering: Baculoviruses as expression vectors. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of baculoviruses in genetic engineering. Baculoviruses produce large quantities of a specific gene. Topics include genetic replication, expression of selected genes in host cells, and protein expression using baculoviruses. Baculovirus introduction into mammals causing antibody expression is considered, and implications on vaccine programs are briefly discussed. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

463

Biochemical, genetic, and metabolic engineering strategies to enhance coproduction of 1-propanol and ethanol in engineered Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

We recently reported the heterologous production of 1-propanol in Escherichia coli via extended dissimilation of succinate under anaerobic conditions through expression of the endogenous sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon. In the present work, we demonstrate high-level coproduction of 1-propanol and ethanol by developing novel engineered E. coli strains with effective cultivation strategies. Various biochemical, genetic, metabolic, and physiological factors affecting relative levels of acidogenesis and solventogenesis during anaerobic fermentation were investigated. In particular, CPC-PrOH3, a plasmid-free propanogenic E. coli strain derived by activating the Sbm operon on the genome, showed high levels of solventogenesis accounting for up to 85 % of dissimilated carbon. Anaerobic fed-batch cultivation of CPC-PrOH3 with glycerol as the major carbon source produced high titers of nearly 7 g/L 1-propanol and 31 g/L ethanol, implying its potential industrial applicability. The activated Sbm pathway served as an ancillary channel for consuming reducing equivalents upon anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol, resulting in an enhanced glycerol dissimilation and a major metabolic shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. PMID:25301579

Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Westbrook, Adam; Akawi, Lamees; Pyne, Michael E; Moo-Young, Murray; Chou, C Perry

2014-11-01

464

Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra possessing transcription activator-like effectors used for genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra is a causal agent of bacterial pustule disease in soybean. This bacterium possesses transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors which are useful for genetic/protein engineering applications in higher organisms including plants and humans. Here, we report that the draft genome sequence consists of 5,337,885-bp double-stranded DNA encoding 4674 open reading frames (ORFs) in 13 different contigs. This genome sequence would be useful in applications of TAL effectors in genetic engineering and in elucidating virulence factors against plants. PMID:24657734

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Park, Hye-Jee; Ryu, Sangryeol; Han, Sang-Wook

2014-06-10

465

Interim report on the genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC-I products, intermediates, and waste materials. Appendix G. Sample history and documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document traces the history of the samples used in the genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC products, process intermediates, and waste materials. It begins with a brief summary (Table G-1, page G.1.2), which indicates the source, further processing, storage, and transmittals of all sample materials used in the testing. This summary is followed by more detailed descriptions of

B. Z. Drozdowicz; C. M. Kelly

1983-01-01

466

A DNA Science research and training programme for Secondary School and Junior College teachers and students on genetic polymorphisms in human, animals and plants in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to train teachers and students to be competent in the principles and practice of DNA science by working on genetic polymorphisms of humans, animals and plants in Singapore. MOE has provided JC and Secondary Schools in Singapore the life sciences research facilities and equipment which cost millions of dollar s. This project is therefore

Koh CL; Chin HLC; Lum SKY; Tan J; Ang DTJ

467

Application of TILLING and EcoTILLING as Reverse Genetic Approaches to Elucidate the Function of Genes in Plants and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the fairly recent advent of inexpensive, rapid sequencing technologies that continue to improve sequenc- ing efficiency and accuracy, many species of animals, plants, and microbes have annotated genomic information publicly available. The focus on genomics has thus been shifting from the collection of whole sequenced genomes to the study of functional genomics. Reverse genetic approaches have been used for

N. A. Barkley; M. L. Wang

2008-01-01

468

Development of a novel genetically modified bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for detection of fluoroquinolones in animal-derived foods.  

PubMed

Fluoroquinolones (FQNs) are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The residues and antimicrobial resistance of such antibiotics are a major public health concern. To realize multianalyte detection of FQN residues, a genetically modified bacterium, Escherichia coli pK12 harboring plasmid pRecAlux3, was constructed in this study to develop a bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for the detection of FQNs in animal-derived foods. This assay was based on the principle of induction of an SOS response by FQNs via inducing the recA-promoter-fused luciferase reporter gene existing on the plasmid pRecAlux3. E. coli pK12 was able to recognize 11 FQNs: difloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. This method could be applied to 11 edible tissues, including milk, fish muscle, and the muscles, livers, and kidneys of cattle, chickens, and pigs, with a very simple and rapid sample extraction procedure using only phosphate-buffered saline. The limits of detection of the FQNs were between 12.5 and 100 ?g kg(-1), all of which were lower than the maximum residue limits. Most of the recoveries of the FQNs were in the range from 60 to 120 %, and the interassay coefficients of variation were less than 30 %. This method, confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography, is reliable and can be used as both a screening test and a semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of FQN is known. PMID:25354889

Cheng, Guyue; Dong, Xiaobing; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

2014-12-01

469

Influence of animals obtained using embryo transfer on the genetic evaluation of growth in Simmental beef cattle with random regression models.  

PubMed

Weight records of Simmental beef cattle were used in a genetic evaluation of growth with and without embryo transfer (ET). A random regression model in which ET individuals were excluded (RRM1) contained 29,510 records from 10,659 animals, while another model that did not exclude these animals (RRM2) contained 62,895 records from 23,160 animals. The fixed and random regressions were represented by continuous functions, and a model with an order of three for the fixed curve and random effects was used to consider the homogeneity of residual variance. In general, the (co)variance components were similar in both models, except the maternal permanent environment and residual components. The direct heritability in RRM1 and RRM2 showed the same behavior with oscillations along the growth curve and were slightly higher in RRM1. Generally, the estimated correlations were the same and smaller as the ages distanced themselves. The inclusion of animals from ET in genetic evaluations can be done using random regression models; the inclusion of these animals would provide potential accuracy gains and greater genetic gains per unit time because of the reduction in the generation interval from the use of this reproductive technique. PMID:24301959

Mota, R R; Lopes, P S; Marques, L F A; Silva, L P; Conceição Pessoa, M; Almeida Torres, R; Resende, M D V

2013-01-01

470

The influence of animals from embryo transfer on the genetic evaluation of growth in Simmental beef cattle by using multi-trait models  

PubMed Central

The weight records from Simmental beef cattle were used in a genetic evaluation of growth with or without the inclusion of animals obtained by embryo transfer. A multi-trait model in which embryo transfer individuals were excluded (MTM1) contained 29,510 records from 10,659 animals, while another model without exclusion of these animals (MTM2) contained 62,895 weight records from 23,160 animals. The weight records were adjusted for ages of 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The (co)variance components were similar in both models, except for maternal permanent environment variance. Direct heritabilities (h2d) in MTM1 were 0.04, 0.11, 0.20, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.42, while in MTM2 they were 0.11, 0.11, 0.17, 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26 for 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days of age, respectively. Estimates of h2d in MTM1 were higher than in MTM2 for the weight at 365 days of age. Genetic correlations between weights in both models ranged from moderate to high, suggesting that these traits may be determined mainly by the same genes. Animals from embryo transfer may be included in the genetic evaluation of Simmental beef cattle in Brazil; this inclusion may provide potential gains in accuracy and genetic gains by reducing the interval between generations. PMID:23569407

Mota, Rodrigo Reis; Lopes, Paulo Savio; Marques, Luiz Fernando Aarao; da Silva, Luciano Pinheiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Almeida Torres, Robledo

2013-01-01

471

The influence of animals from embryo transfer on the genetic evaluation of growth in Simmental beef cattle by using multi-trait models.  

PubMed

The weight records from Simmental beef cattle were used in a genetic evaluation of growth with or without the inclusion of animals obtained by embryo transfer. A multi-trait model in which embryo transfer individuals were excluded (MTM1) contained 29,510 records from 10,659 animals, while another model without exclusion of these animals (MTM2) contained 62,895 weight records from 23,160 animals. The weight records were adjusted for ages of 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The (co)variance components were similar in both models, except for maternal permanent environment variance. Direct heritabilities (h(2) d) in MTM1 were 0.04, 0.11, 0.20, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.42, while in MTM2 they were 0.11, 0.11, 0.17, 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26 for 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days of age, respectively. Estimates of h(2) d in MTM1 were higher than in MTM2 for the weight at 365 days of age. Genetic correlations between weights in both models ranged from moderate to high, suggesting that these traits may be determined mainly by the same genes. Animals from embryo transfer may be included in the genetic evaluation of Simmental beef cattle in Brazil; this inclusion may provide potential gains in accuracy and genetic gains by reducing the interval between generations. PMID:23569407

Mota, Rodrigo Reis; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; Marques, Luiz Fernando Aarão; da Silva, Luciano Pinheiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Almeida Torres, Robledo

2013-03-01

472

The Establishment of Genetically Engineered Canola Populations in the U.S.  

PubMed Central

Concerns regarding the commercial release of genetically engineered (GE) crops include naturalization, introgression to sexually compatible relatives and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species through hybridization. To date there have been few documented reports of escape leading some researchers to question the environmental risks of biotech products. In this study we conducted a systematic roadside survey of canola (Brassica napus) populations growing outside of cultivation in North Dakota, USA, the dominant canola growing region in the U.S. We document the presence of two escaped, transgenic genotypes, as well as non-GE canola, and provide evidence of novel combinations of transgenic forms in the wild. Our results demonstrate that feral populations are large and widespread. Moreover, flowering times of escaped populations, as well as the fertile condition of the majority of collections suggest that these populations are established and persistent outside of cultivation. PMID:21998689

Schafer, Meredith G.; Ross, Andrew A.; Londo, Jason P.; Burdick, Connie A.; Lee, E. Henry; Travers, Steven E.; Van de Water, Peter K.; Sagers, Cynthia L.

2011-01-01

473

Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here. PMID:24402175

Li, Hong-Ye; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

2014-01-01