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1

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

2

Spontaneous and genetically engineered animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preclinical development of anticancer drugs has been based primarily on the transplantation of murine or human cancers into mice. Alternatives to these transplantation models are animals that naturally develop cancers with features relevant to the human disease. The first group of these models arises in mice that are genetically engineered to develop cancer. The second group includes pet dogs

K Hansen; C Khanna

2004-01-01

3

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

4

Role of genetically engineered animals in future food production.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered (GE) animals are likely to have an important role in the future in meeting the food demand of a burgeoning global population. There have already been many notable achievements using this technology in livestock, poultry and aquatic species. In particular, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to produce virus-resistant animals is a rapidly-developing area of research. However, despite the promise of this technology, very few GE animals have been commercialised. This review aims to provide information so that veterinarians and animal health scientists are better able to participate in the debate on GE animals. PMID:23438464

McColl, K A; Clarke, B; Doran, T J

2013-03-01

5

Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

Traci Warkentin

2006-01-01

6

Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

Traci Warkentin

7

Genetically engineered mice as animal models for NIDDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered animals carrying defined alterations in their genome can represent invaluable tools for better understanding complex polygenic diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) at the molecular level. The structure or expression of a number of genes potentially involved in insulin action or pancreatic ?-cell function have recently been altered in the mouse using transgenic or gene-targeting approaches. The

Rajiv L Joshi; Betty Lamothe; Danielle Bucchini; Jacques Jami

1997-01-01

8

Improving human and animal health using genetically engineered goats expressing lysozyme in their milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of genetic engineering should not be undertaken lightly as it requires extensive infrastructure and inputs before the genetically engineered animal enters a breeding and selection scheme; it does not provide a mechanism for bypassing good animal breeding and selection practices. However, there are instances where GE can provide an opportunity to address a problem in animal agriculture for

J. D. Murray; E. A. Maga

9

Genetically Engineered Animal Models of Human Neurodegenerative Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a single gene, engineered to be normally or abnormally expressed, can be evaluated in vivo through the development of transgenic animals. Application of this approach in the study of human neurological problems is contributing to an increased understanding of the pathogenic components operative in a variety of disorders. These include Alzheimer's disease, prion encephalopathies, motor neuron disease

Linda S. Higgins; Barbara Cordell

1995-01-01

10

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

2000-01-01

11

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

2011-09-22

12

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

13

DO GENETICALLY ENGINEERED (GE) CROPS IMPACT ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD PRODUCTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of genetically engineered (GE) varieties of alfalfa, a major livestock feedstuff, raises questions about the effects of feeding this product to food-producing animals. There is a wealth of peer-reviewed studies examining the effects of feeding GE crops to livestock. Hundreds of scientific studies have found no difference in the productive performance or health of livestock that have been

Alison Van Eenennaam

14

Modeling human listeriosis in natural and genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a human foodborne infection leading to gastroenteritis, meningoencephalitis and maternofetal infections. InlA and InlB, two L. monocytogenes surface proteins, interact with their respective receptors E-cadherin and Met and mediate bacterial entry into human cultured cells. Here, we present protocols for studying listeriosis in three complementary animal models: (i) the human E-cadherin (hEcad) transgenic mouse line; (ii)

Olivier Disson; Georgios Nikitas; Solène Grayo; Olivier Dussurget; Pascale Cossart; Marc Lecuit

2009-01-01

15

Role of stem cells in large animal genetic engineering in the TALENs-CRISPR era.  

PubMed

The establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and gene targeting technologies in mice has revolutionised the field of genetics. The relative ease with which genes can be knocked out, and exogenous sequences introduced, has allowed the mouse to become the prime model for deciphering the genetic code. Not surprisingly, the lack of authentic ESCs has hampered the livestock genetics field and has forced animal scientists into adapting alternative technologies for genetic engineering. The recent discovery of the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by upregulation of a handful of reprogramming genes has offered renewed enthusiasm to animal geneticists. However, much like ESCs, establishing authentic iPSCs from the domestic animals is still beset with problems, including (but not limited to) the persistent expression of reprogramming genes and the lack of proven potential for differentiation into target cell types both in vitro and in vivo. Site-specific nucleases comprised of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulated interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) emerged as powerful genetic tools for precisely editing the genome, usurping the need for ESC-based genetic modifications even in the mouse. In this article, in the aftermath of these powerful genome editing technologies, the role of pluripotent stem cells in livestock genetics is discussed. PMID:24305178

Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L

2013-01-01

16

Facilitation of an international approach for data sharing and acquisition in relation to genetically-engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) published CCAC guidelines on: transgenic animals. Because this was recognized to be a rapidly evolving field, a commitment was made to revise the guidelines within a few years. CCAC is now working on draft guidelines on: genetically-engineered animals. This paper outlines some of the changes that are being proposed in the

Gilly Griffin; Clément Gauthier

17

Zinc-finger nucleases: a powerful tool for genetic engineering of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of genetically modified animals or plants with gene-targeted deletions or modifications is a powerful tool\\u000a to analyze gene function, study disease and produce organisms of economical interest. Until recently, the generation of animals\\u000a with gene targeted manipulations has been accomplished by homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells or cloning\\u000a through nuclear transfer and has been limited

Séverine Rémy; Laurent Tesson; Séverine Ménoret; Claire Usal; Andrew M. Scharenberg; Ignacio Anegon

2010-01-01

18

Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

19

Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Discovery Education website serves as a repository of instructional materials for educators seeking to help their charges learn about everything from the solar system to genetically modified organisms. This particular lesson plan deals with the science and technology of genetic engineering and it is intended to be used by advanced high school and community college students. Users will appreciate the fact that the entire plan is well-organized and divided into 12 sections including Objectives, Discussion Questions, and Procedures. The Discussion Questions are thoughtful and well-articulated and one can imagine that each query might generate more than a bit of meditation and close consideration.

Morrissette-Johnson, Winona

20

Genetic Engineering & Xenotransplantation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article about xenotransplantation, or transplanting organs/tissues from other species to humans, offers hope to Type I diabetes sufferers because: insulin-producing tissue in animals (islets) has been isolated in tests, some human trials were successful with transplanted islets from human cadavers, and genetic engineering could create a 'super' islet that will survive after xenotransplantation.

Shane Grey (Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Australia;)

2000-05-01

21

Genetic Engineering and Other Factors That Might Affect Human-Animal Interactions in the Research Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence exists, particularly in the welfare literature of nonhuman animals on the farm, that the interaction between nonhuman animals and the personnel who care for them can have a strong effect on the animals' behavior, productivity, and welfare. Among species commonly used for biomedical research, mice appear to be the least-preferred species in animal care facilities. A review of the

Julie Comber; Gilly Griffin

2007-01-01

22

Guidance for Industry: Regulation of Genetically Engineered Animals Containing Heritable Recombinant DNA Constructs. Final Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its first demonstration as proof of principle by Cohen and Boyer in 1973, recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology has been applied to microorganisms, plants, and animals. Various agencies across the US government (USG) have provided guidance and regulatio...

2009-01-01

23

Genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

This series reviews new developments in recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Each volume consists of 3 - 4 mini-reviews. Volume 7 contains two articles on aspects of molecular parasitology and one review on gene expression in animal cells of biotechnological interest.

Rigby, P.

1988-01-01

24

Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent\\u000a years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented\\u000a negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus\\u000a in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems

Teshome Mebatsion

25

Genetically engineered foods  

MedlinePLUS

... Health, National Research Council. Safety of genetically engineered foods: Approaches to assessing unintended health effects. National Academies Press. 2004. Key S, Ma JK, Drake PM. Genetically modified plants and human health. J R Soc Med. ...

26

Genetic aspects of animal reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the investigations of Prof. L. V. Krushinsky and his colleagues into the genetics of complex behaviors in mammals. The ability of animals to extrapolate the direction of a food stimulus movement was investigated in wild and domesticated foxes (including different fur-color mutants), wild brown rats, and laboratory rats and mice. Wild animals (raised in the laboratory) were

I. I. Poletaeva; N. V. Popova; L. G. Romanova

1993-01-01

27

Genetic engineering in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone;

C. A. Bedate; J. C. Morales; E. H. Lopez

1981-01-01

28

Genetic engineering and pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering now allows biological synthesis and large-scale production of several proteins with therapeutic potential. The principal challenge in this sphere is to identify new, medically and commercially significant targets - the province of cell biologists, physiologists and biochemists. In the future, genetic engineering will surely provide invaluable tools for the study of the molecular basis of cellular control and

John Vane; Pedro Cuatrecasas

1984-01-01

29

Safe genetically engineered plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes

D. Rosellini; F. Veronesi

2007-01-01

30

Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.

JONATHAN W. MOORE (;)

2006-03-01

31

Genetics of graviperception in animals.  

PubMed

Gravity is a constant stimulus for life on Earth and most organisms have evolved structures to sense gravitational force and incorporate its influence into their behavioral repertoire. Here we focus attention on animals and their diverse structures for perceiving and responding to the gravitational vector-one of the few static reference stimuli for any mobile organism. We discuss vertebrate, arthropod, and nematode models from the perspective of the role that genetics is playing in our understanding of graviperception in each system. We describe the key sensory structures in each class of organism and present what is known about the genetic control of development of these structures and the molecular signaling pathways operating in the mature organs. We also discuss the role of large genetic screens in identifying specific genes with roles in mechanosensation and graviperception. PMID:16291213

Beckingham, Kathleen M; Texada, Michael J; Baker, Dean A; Munjaal, Ravi; Armstrong, J Douglas

2005-01-01

32

(Genetically engineered microorganisms)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the First International Conference on the Release of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms at the request of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The purpose of the conference was to provide an international forum for the discussion of the issues and concerns related to the release of genetically engineered microorganisms for environmental and agricultural applications. The cost of attendance was paid by UNEP, a group with whom a small Work-for-Others contract (to participate in developing international biosafety guidelines) is under discussion.

Sharples, F.E.

1988-04-18

33

76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for Herbicide Tolerance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...which has been genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance without the use of plant pest...which has been genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance, does not meet the...

2011-07-07

34

Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

35

Safe genetically engineered plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

2007-10-01

36

Genetic engineering and the patent office  

SciTech Connect

Higher life forms created through genetic engineering are now recognized as potentially patentable. On 7 April 1987, the US Patent and Trademark Office announced that it now considers non-naturally occurring non-human multi-cellular living organisms, including animals, to be patentable subject matter. The response to this announcement has been an emotion controversy centering on the patent office. The announcement has become the lightning rod for all of the practical and moral questions surrounding the overwhelming potential of genetic engineering. Environmentalists claim that genetic engineering will ruin the ecology. The Humane Society of the US, headquartered in Washington, DC, claims that genetic engineering will cause undo suffering to animals produced through genetic experiments and may ultimately lead to the demise of overly engineered animal species. Religious fundamentalists claim that genetic engineering is wrongfully tinkering with the handiwork of the Almighty. While it may be good that such questions are being raised, the patent office is being wrongly singled out as the source of the problem. This paper discusses the legal problems that patents on new lifeforms have caused.

Sheldon, J.G.; Anderson, D.L.

1987-10-01

37

Genetically Engineered Food AD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.

Lana Hays (Saint Henry District High School REV)

2005-04-11

38

[Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].  

PubMed

Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches. PMID:19129956

Schmidt, Kirsten

2008-01-01

39

Animal genetic resource trade flows: Economic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout human history, livestock producers have relied on a vibrant international exchange of genetic resources to achieve improvements in the quality and productivity of their animals. In recent years, however, some observers have argued that changes in the legal, technological, and economic environment now imply that international exchanges of animal genetic resources (AnGR) systematically benefit rich countries at the expense

Douglas Gollin; Eric Van Dusen; Harvey Blackburn

2009-01-01

40

Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

Boone, C. Keith

1984-01-01

41

Congenital and Genetic Disease in Domestic Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)

Mulvihill, John J.

1972-01-01

42

Deciphering the genetic basis of animal domestication  

PubMed Central

Genomic technologies for livestock and companion animal species have revolutionized the study of animal domestication, allowing an increasingly detailed description of the genetic changes accompanying domestication and breed development. This review describes important recent results derived from the application of population and quantitative genetic approaches to the study of genetic changes in the major domesticated species. These include findings of regions of the genome that show between-breed differentiation, evidence of selective sweeps within individual genomes and signatures of demographic events. Particular attention is focused on the study of the genetics of behavioural traits and the implications for domestication. Despite the operation of severe bottlenecks, high levels of inbreeding and intensive selection during the history of domestication, most domestic animal species are genetically diverse. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. The major insights from the surveyed studies are highlighted and directions for future study are suggested.

Wiener, Pamela; Wilkinson, Samantha

2011-01-01

43

International Patent Trends in Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering  

NSF Publications Database

International Patent Trends in Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering (June 18, 1999) This report is ... competitiveness. This report examines international patenting of genetic engineering technologies as ...

44

Animal genetic resource trade flows: Economic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout human history, livestock producers have relied on a vibrant international exchange of genentic resources to achieve improvements in the quality and productivity of their animals. In recent years, however, some observers have argued that changes in the legal, technological, and economic environment now imply that international exchanges of animal genetic resources (AnGR) systematically benefit rich countries at the expense

Douglas Gollin; Eric Van Dusen; Harvey Blackburn

2008-01-01

45

Genetically Modified Animals and Pharmacological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the\\u000a domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of\\u000a the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in\\u000a generating affordable models of human disease although

Dominic J. Wells

46

University Students' Knowledge and Attitude about Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering and biotechnology made possible of gene transfer without discriminating microorganism, plant, animal or human. However, although these scientific techniques have benefits, they cause arguments because of their ethical and social impacts. The arguments about ethical ad social impacts of biotechnology made clear that not only getting basic knowledge about biotechnology and genetic engineering, also ethical and social issues

Nilay Keskin Samanci; Orçun Bozkurt

47

Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

Wells, Dominic J

2010-01-01

48

Genetic engineering of handwriting representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experiments with genetically engineered feature sets for recognition of online handwritten characters. These representations stem from a nondescript decomposition of the character frame into a set of rectangular regions, possibly overlapping each represented by a vector of 7 fuzzy variables. Efficient new feature sets are automatically discovered using genetic programming techniques. Recognition experiments conducted on isolated digits

Alexandre Lemieux; C. Gagne; Marc Parizeau

2002-01-01

49

Genetic engineering and the patent office  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher life forms created through genetic engineering are now recognized as potentially patentable. On 7 April 1987, the US Patent and Trademark Office announced that it now considers non-naturally occurring non-human multi-cellular living organisms, including animals, to be patentable subject matter. The response to this announcement has been an emotion controversy centering on the patent office. The announcement has become

Jeffrey G. Sheldon; Denton L. Anderson

1987-01-01

50

Genetic Engineering Workshop Report, 2010  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies (TMT) program. The high-level goal of TMT is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve this goal, there is a need to assess the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, potential application as well as detection and mitigation strategies. LLNL was tasked to coordinate a workshop to determine the scope of investments that DTRA should make to stay current with the rapid advances in genetic engineering technologies, so that accidental or malicious uses of GE technologies could be adequately detected and characterized. Attachment A is an earlier report produced by LLNL for TMT that provides some relevant background on Genetic Engineering detection. A workshop was held on September 23-24, 2010 in Springfield, Virginia. It was attended by a total of 55 people (see Attachment B). Twenty four (44%) of the attendees were academic researchers involved in GE or bioinformatics technology, 6 (11%) were from DTRA or the TMT program management, 7 (13%) were current TMT performers (including Jonathan Allen and Tom Slezak of LLNL who hosted the workshop), 11 (20%) were from other Federal agencies, and 7 (13%) were from industries that are involved in genetic engineering. Several attendees could be placed in multiple categories. There were 26 attendees (47%) who were from out of the DC area and received travel assistance through Invitational Travel Orders (ITOs). We note that this workshop could not have been as successful without the ability to invite experts from outside of the Beltway region. This workshop was an unclassified discussion of the science behind current genetic engineering capabilities. US citizenship was not required for attendance. While this may have limited some discussions concerning risk, we felt that it was more important for this first workshop to focus on the scientific state of the art. We also consciously chose to not dwell on matters of policy (for example, screening of commercial gene or oligo synthesis orders), as multiple other forums for policy discussion have taken place in recent years. We acknowledge that other workshops on topics relevant to genetic engineering should be held, some of which may need to take place at higher classification levels. The workshop moderators would like to acknowledge the enthusiastic participation of the attendees in the discussions. Special thanks are given to Sofi Ibrahim, for his extensive assistance on helping this report reach its final form. The genetic engineering workshop brought together a diverse mix of genetic engineering pioneers and experts, Federal agency representatives concerned with abuses of genetic engineering, TMT performers, bioinformatics experts, and representatives from industry involved with large-scale genetic engineering and synthetic biology. Several talks established the current range of genetic engineering capabilities and the relative difficulties of identifying and characterizing the results of their use. Extensive discussions established a number of recommendations to DTRA of how to direct future research investments so that any mis-use of genetic engineering techniques can be promptly identified and characterized.

Allen, J; Slezak, T

2010-11-03

51

Genetically Engineered ART Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This chapter focuses on the evolution of ARTMAP architectures, us- ing genetic algorithms, with the objective of improving generalization performance and alleviating the ART category proliferation problem. We refer to the resulting architectures as GFAM, GEAM, and GGAM. We demonstrate through extensive experimentation that evolved ARTMAP architectures exhibit good generalization and are of small size, while consuming reasonable computational

Ahmad Al-daraiseh; Assem Kaylani; Michael Georgiopoulos; Mansooreh Mollaghasemi; Annie S. Wu; Georgios C. Anagnostopoulos

2007-01-01

52

"Genetically Engineered" Nanoelectronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantum mechanical functionality of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared-photodetectors (QWIPs), quantum well lasers, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) is enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The design and optimization of such devices requires a fundamental understanding of electron transport in such dimensions. The Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO) is a general-purpose quantum device design and analysis tool based on a fundamental non-equilibrium electron transport theory. NEW was combined with a parallelized genetic algorithm package (PGAPACK) to evolve structural and material parameters to match a desired set of experimental data. A numerical experiment that evolves structural variations such as layer widths and doping concentrations is performed to analyze an experimental current voltage characteristic. The genetic algorithm is found to drive the NEMO simulation parameters close to the experimentally prescribed layer thicknesses and doping profiles. With such a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment design synthesis can be performed.

Klimeck, Gerhard; Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.; Stoica, Adrian; Cwik, Thomas

2000-01-01

53

Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

1991-01-01

54

Organic agriculture versus genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objections of organic agriculture against genetic engineering as presented in the 2002 Position Statement of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) are analysed. The objections can be grouped into three categories: risks to human health and the environment, socio-ethical objections, and incompatibility with the principles of sustainable agriculture. As to threats to human health and the environment

H. Verhoog

2007-01-01

55

Reactions to a New Technology: students' ideas about genetically engineered foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the prevalence of ideas among 16?19 year old students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. A closed?form questionnaire with items about genetically engineered vegetables and animals was completed by 386 students from 13 further education institutes. The most common ideas about the advantages of genetically engineered foods were those of

Ruaraidh Hill; Martin Stanisstreet; Edward Boyes; Helen O'Sullivan

1998-01-01

56

Genetically engineered humanized mouse models for preclinical antibody studies.  

PubMed

The use of genetic engineering has vastly improved our capabilities to create animal models relevant in preclinical research. With the recent advances in gene-editing technologies, it is now possible to very rapidly create highly tunable mouse models as needs arise. Here, we provide an overview of genetic engineering methods, as well as the development of humanized neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) models and their use for monoclonal antibody in vivo studies. PMID:24150980

Proetzel, Gabriele; Wiles, Michael V; Roopenian, Derry C

2014-04-01

57

Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

58

Influence of Genetic Background on Genetically Engineered Mouse Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

The history of mouse genetics, which involves the study of strain-dependent phenotype variability, makes it clear that the genetic background onto which a gene-targeted allele is placed can cause considerable variation in genetically engineered mouse (GEM) phenotype. This variation can present itself as completely different phenotypes, as variations in penetrance of phenotype, or as variable expressivity of phenotype. In this chapter we provide examples from gene-targeting literature showing each of these types of phenotype variation. We discuss ways in which modifier genes can affect the phenotype of a mouse with a mutant gene, and we give examples of modifier locus identification. We also review approaches to minimize gene polymorphism and flanking gene differences between experimental animals, and between them and their controls. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of performing the first analysis of a knockout mouse on a mixed genetic background. We conclude that a mixed background provides the quickest preview of possible strain-dependent phenotypes (1, 2). Finally, we review recent approaches to improving genetic diversity by generating new inbred strains that encompass a broader range of alleles within the mouse species.

Doetschman, Thomas

2010-01-01

59

Genetically Engineered Microelectronic Infrared Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A genetic algorithm is used for design of infrared filters and in the understanding of the material structure of a resonant tunneling diode. These two components are examples of microdevices and nanodevices that can be numerically simulated using fundamental mathematical and physical models. Because the number of parameters that can be used in the design of one of these devices is large, and because experimental exploration of the design space is unfeasible, reliable software models integrated with global optimization methods are examined The genetic algorithm and engineering design codes have been implemented on massively parallel computers to exploit their high performance. Design results are presented for the infrared filter showing new and optimized device design. Results for nanodevices are presented in a companion paper at this workshop.

Cwik, Tom; Klimeck, Gerhard

1998-01-01

60

Genetic engineering in biomimetic composites.  

PubMed

Composites represent a class of materials with properties that are obtained by combining the functions of different components. Combining soft and stiff components without losing toughness is typically very difficult with current synthetic tools. There are many natural materials for which this problem has been solved. Examples such as wood and seashells have inspired many scientists to seek tougher, stronger and lighter materials. This review describes how genetic engineering can help in building new composites with better properties. Specifically, we emphasize that functional molecules can be engineered by following the design principles of natural composite materials. This field is emerging but has already shown promising results and much progress in the next few years is expected. PMID:22310297

Laaksonen, Päivi; Szilvay, Géza R; Linder, Markus B

2012-04-01

61

Molecular Genetics of Ubiquinone Biosynthesis in Animals  

PubMed Central

Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q (CoQ), is a redox-active lipid present in all cellular membranes where it functions in a variety of cellular processes. The best known functions of UQ are to act as a mobile electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and to serve as a lipid soluble antioxidant in cellular membranes. All eukaryotic cells synthesize their own UQ. Most of the current knowledge on the UQ biosynthetic pathway was obtained by studying Escherichia coli and S. cerevisiae UQ-deficient mutants. The orthologues of all the genes known from yeast studies to be involved in UQ biosynthesis have subsequently been found in higher organisms. Animal mutants with different genetic defects in UQ biosynthesis display very different phenotypes, despite the fact that in all these mutants the same biosynthetic pathway is affected. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the eukaryotic biosynthesis of UQ, with focus on the biosynthetic genes identified in animals, including C. elegans, rodents and humans. Moreover, we review the phenotypes of mutants in these genes and discuss the functional consequences of UQ deficiency in general.

Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried

2014-01-01

62

Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.

2008-10-06

63

Genetically Engineered Mengo Virus Vaccination of Multiple Captive Wildlife Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Au-

Kay A. Backues; Marchel Hill; Ann C. Palmenberg; Christine Miller; Kenneth F. Soike

64

Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae  

PubMed Central

Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

Rasala, Beth A.; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

65

Advanced Animation Engine for User-Interface Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an improved animation system for user-interface robots. The animation system is based on the animation engine presented by van Breemen, A.J.N. (2004), and uses animation channels for playing and blending multiple animations concurrently. The presented improvement is twofold. First, this paper describes an extension to the computational structure of an animation channel. A fading mechanism is added

Albert J. N. Van Breemen; Yan Xue

2006-01-01

66

Domesticating Animals in Africa: Implications of Genetic and Archaeological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication is an ongoing co-evolutionary process rather than an event or invention. Recent zooarchaeological and animal\\u000a genetics research has prompted a thorough revision of our perspectives on the history of domestic animals in Africa. Genetic\\u000a analyses of domestic animal species have revealed that domestic donkeys are descended from African ancestors, opened a debate\\u000a over the contribution of indigenous aurochs to

Diane Gifford-Gonzalez; Olivier Hanotte

2011-01-01

67

Genetics and genetic engineering of Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present knowledge on the genetics of the ethanologenic anaerobeZymomonas mobilis includes background information on: size, restriction, and to some extent hybridization, analysis of indigenous plasmids; mutagenesis and isolation of a wide variety of auxotrophic, drug resistant and conditional mutants; construction of shuttle cloning vectors able to replicate and express inZ. mobilis; development of gene transfer systems based on conjugal mobilization

G. A. Sprenger; M. A. Typas; C. Drainas

1993-01-01

68

New Photonic Materials from Genetically Engineered Bacteriorhodopsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic research has been conducted on genetic engineering and synthesis of light-activated protein bacteriorhodopsin, and on a number of analogs for use in device application based on development of new photonic materials derived from bacteriorhodopsin.

R. Needleman

1999-01-01

69

Genetically Engineered Animal Models of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of transgenic research has proven to be a powerful and popular tool for investigating the contribution of specific genes known or suspected to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Many different experimental approaches have been pursued in an effort to mimic one or more of the numerous and diverse features characterizing Alzheimer's disease. Results have been

Linda S. Higgins; Barbara Cordell

1996-01-01

70

Genetically engineered crops: from idea to product.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered crops were first commercialized in 1994 and since then have been rapidly adopted, enabling growers to more effectively manage pests and increase crop productivity while ensuring food, feed, and environmental safety. The development of these crops is complex and based on rigorous science that must be well coordinated to create a plant with desired beneficial phenotypes. This article describes the general process by which a genetically engineered crop is developed from an initial concept to a commercialized product. PMID:24579994

Prado, Jose Rafael; Segers, Gerrit; Voelker, Toni; Carson, Dave; Dobert, Raymond; Phillips, Jonathan; Cook, Kevin; Cornejo, Camilo; Monken, Josh; Grapes, Laura; Reynolds, Tracey; Martino-Catt, Susan

2014-01-01

71

Genetically engineered foodstuffs: school students’ views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered foodstuffs are now becoming commercially available. A closed?form questionnaire to explore how such foods might be received was completed by 416 school students in English National Curriculum Years 7 (age 11–12 years), 9 (age 13–14) and 11 (age 15–16). The most commonly perceived benefits of genetically engineered foodstuffs were improved productivity and extended storage; few students thought they

Ruaraidh Hill; Martin Stanisstreet; Edward Boyes; Helen OSullivan

1999-01-01

72

Design Process Reuse Based on Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product design process has essential traits and behavior bearing an analogy with the genetic traits of organisms. Based on this point of view, this paper introduces an idea that genetic engineering into design process reuse. Firstly, types of process knowledge required in process reuse are studied. The extraction and representation of process bases are also discussed. Secondly, the design process

Shurong Tong; Bo Li; Keqin Wang

2007-01-01

73

Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from the blood of patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer these cells to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will then be multiplied and infused into the patients to fight their cancer.

74

Quantitative genetics of energy balance--lessons from animal models.  

PubMed

Evidence for quantitative genetic variation in components of energy balance in animals is overwhelming. Much of this evidence is drawn from livestock species and relevant rodent models, especially long-term selection lines. This mini-review summarizes findings from several animal studies that have characterized quantitative genetic variation in energy intake and energy expenditure. Applications of this information toward understanding and treatment of human obesity are explored. PMID:10023737

Pomp, D; Nielsen, M K

1999-01-01

75

Genetical Engineering of Handwriting Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experiments with genetically engi- neered feature sets for recognition of on-line handwritten characters. These representations stem from a nondescript decomposition of the character frame into a set of rectan- gular regions, possibly overlapping, each represented by a vector of 7 fuzzy variables. Efficient new feature sets are automatically discovered using genetic programming techniques. Recognition experiments conducted on

Alexandre Lemieux; Christian Gagn; Marc Parizeau

2002-01-01

76

Pertussis toxins, other antigens become likely targets for genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

Genetically engineered pertussis vaccines have yet to be fully tested clinically. But early human, animal, and in vitro studies indicate effectiveness in reducing toxic effects due to Bordetella pertussis. The licensed pertussis vaccines consists of inactivated whole cells of the organism. Although highly effective, they have been associated with neurologic complications. While the evidence continues to mount that these complications are extremely rare, if they occur at all, it has affected the public's acceptance of pertussis immunization.

Marwick, C.

1990-11-14

77

Genetic engineering and the use of bovine somatotropin  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade there has been an unfortunate reappearance in our society of an antitechnology and antiscience attitude. This is exemplified by those advocates who would ban all animals in research and block fetal tissue studies and by those who support creationism. An especially vocal group consists of those people who are against any form of genetic engineering regardless of the benefits or potential benefits that might be realized.

Grossman, C.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA) Xavier Univ., Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1990-08-22

78

Bridging the regeneration gap: genetic insights from diverse animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has recently been made in our understanding of animal regenerative biology, spurred on by the use of a wider range of model organisms and an increasing ability to use genetic tools in traditional models of regeneration. This progress has begun to delineate differences and similarities in the regenerative capabilities and mechanisms among diverse animal species, and to address

Panagiotis A. Tsonis; Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2006-01-01

79

Genetically Engineered Microelectronic Infrared Filters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A genetic algorithm is used for design of infrared filters and in the understanding of the material structure of a resonant tunneling diode. These two components are examples of microdevices and nanodevices that can be numerically simulated using fundamen...

T. Cwik G. Klimeck

1998-01-01

80

Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in \\

R. S. Wotton

2005-01-01

81

Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tutorial and overview of genetic algorithms for electromagnetic optimization. Genetic-algorithm (GA) optimizers are robust, stochastic search methods modeled on the concepts of natural selection and evolution. The relationship between traditional optimization techniques and the GA is discussed. Step-by-step implementation aspects of the GA are detailed, through an example with the objective of providing useful guidelines for

J. Michael Johnson; V. Rahmat-Samii

1997-01-01

82

CORN GENETICS AND ANIMAL FEEDING VALUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Grain and forage from corn plants vary in composition and digestibility due to genetics and numerous environmental factors. For decades, corn hybrids have been selected based on agronomics (yield, disease and insect resistance). In addition, hybrids have been developed or selected for specific traits desired in specialty markets (food manufacturing properties: popcorn, white color, waxy, high amylose). More recently,

Fred Owens

83

Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins.

Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; MacKay, J Andrew

2014-01-01

84

'New' genetics and genetic engineering: Feminist analysis needed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Reductionism, Determinism and Feminist Values track.\\u000aIn 1953, Franklin, Crick, Watson, and Wilkins discovered the molecular structure of chromosomes. From this Crick proclaimed 'the central dogma,' that inheritance is reduced to a DNA-RNA-protein sequence to determine the generation of every genetic trait. This 'dogma' inspired the Human Genome Project (HGP) and also genetic engineering

Becky Holmes

2010-01-01

85

Genetic Engineering of Allergens: Future Therapeutic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of allergens for specific immunotherapy should aim at the production of modified molecules with reduced IgE-binding epitopes (hypoallergens), while preserving structural motifs necessary for T cell recognition (T cell epitopes) and for induction of IgG antibodies reactive with the natural allergen (blocking antibodies). Common approaches for engineering of hypoallergens usually require knowledge of T and B cell epitopes

Fátima Ferreira; Michael Wallner; Heimo Breiteneder; Arnulf Hartl; Josef Thalhamer; Christof Ebner

2002-01-01

86

Development of genetically engineered human sperm immunocontraceptives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contraceptive vaccines targeting sperm are an exciting proposition. This review is focused on anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines and genetically engineered human antibodies that can be used as immunocontraceptives. Various methods of vaccinology and antibody engineering have been used to obtain multi-epitope contraceptive vaccines and human single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from immunoinfertile and vasectomized men. Contraceptive vaccines comprised of various

Rajesh K. Naz

2009-01-01

87

Genetically caused retarded growth in animals.  

PubMed

Growth process of animals is regulated by a multitude of physiological pathways among which components of the somatotropic axis play a key role. A number of severe, simply inherited growth disturbances have been identified in humans, laboratory and farm animals. These disorders are controlled by defective alleles at major loci referring to hormones or hormone receptors, e.g. growth hormone receptor for the recessive sex-linked dwarfism (dw) in chickens and the recessive autosomal Laron-type dwarfism in man, and growth hormone releasing hormone receptor for the recessive "little" mutation (lit) in mice. Apart from these particular cases, growth rate is a quantitative polygenic trait which has a moderate heritability (close to 0.30) and is influenced by prenatal and postnatal maternal effects. Increase in the average coefficient of inbreeding in a population is also known to result in lower growth rate. Divergent selection experiments have shown that upward or downward selection on growth is effective, sometimes with asymmetrical responses, but patterns of changes in underlying physiological traits appear to differ among experiments. PMID:11025190

Sellier, P

2000-08-01

88

Animal Models for the Evaluation of Tissue Engineering Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the last decade, tissue engineering has attracted a considerable amount of attention in medical research. Obviously, tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs need to be tested for their safety and efficacy before they can be used in the daily clinic. At present, animal\\u000a models offer the best possibility to do so. Each medical specialty favors its own specific model to test tissue-engineered\\u000a constructs.

Daniel A. W. Oortgiesen; Gert J. Meijer; Rob B. M. Vries; X. Frank Walboomers; John A. Jansen

89

Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors.  

PubMed

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940

Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten

2014-01-01

90

Genetically engineered herbicide resistance, part two  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should we continue to support publicly funded research on genetically engineered herbicide resistant crops? In Part One, I discussed the difference between science and ethics, presented a brief history of weed control, and explained three moral principles undergirding my environmentalist perspective. I then argued that unqualified endorsement (E) of the research is unjustified, as is unqualified opposition (O). In Part

Gary Comstock

1990-01-01

91

Genetic engineering and contemporary democratic theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering is discussed in relation to contemporary theories of individual rights, such as natural rights and liberalism, and theories of societal good, such as utilitarianism and the public interest. The social responsibility to future generations is explored. Different rationales for justifying limitations on reproductive rights are presented and discussed.

Robert H. Blank

1982-01-01

92

Genetic Engineering of Forest Woody Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of genetic engineering (GE) of forest woody plants is considered with special reference to the materials of the International Conference “Wood, Breeding, Biotechnology and Industrial Expectations” held in France in June, 2001. Main tree species subjected to GE are listed, aims of constructing transgenic plants discussed, and methods described. Major achievements in the field are considered along

O. S. Mashkina; A. K. Butorina

2003-01-01

93

Genetic engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremeditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation uses plants and associated microbes to remove, sequester, and detoxify contaminants, particularly trace elements. The great potential of this low-cost, low-management approach has spurred researchers to increase the efficiency of this natural process through the use of genetic engineering. Plants used for phytoremediation face a primary stress emanating from the high local concentrations of contaminants as well as possible

DANIKA L. LEDUC; NORMAN TERRY

94

Facts and fiction of genetically engineered food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of genetically engineered (GE) foods has been raising several concerns and controversies that divide not only the general public but also the scientific community. The fear and importance of the new tech- nology, as well as commercial interests, have supported many of the ongoing discussions. The recent increase in the number of GE foods approved for import into

Rita Batista; Maria Margarida Oliveira

2009-01-01

95

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

96

Genetically Engineered Fluorescent Voltage Reporters  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent membrane voltage indicators that enable optical imaging of neuronal circuit operations in the living mammalian brain are powerful tools for biology and particularly neuroscience. Classical voltage-sensitive dyes, typically low molecular-weight organic compounds, have been in widespread use for decades but are limited by issues related to optical noise, the lack of generally applicable procedures that enable staining of specific cell populations, and difficulties in performing imaging experiments over days and weeks. Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) represent a newer alternative that overcomes several of the limitations inherent to classical voltage-sensitive dyes. We critically review the fundamental concepts of this approach, the variety of available probes and their state of development.

2012-01-01

97

What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2000-01-01

98

Synovial Sarcoma: From Genetics to Genetic-based Animal Modeling  

PubMed Central

Synovial sarcomas are highly aggressive mesenchymal cancers that show modest response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, suggesting a definite need for improved biotargeted agents. Progress has been hampered by the lack of insight into pathogenesis of this deadly disease. The presence of a specific diagnostic t(X;18) translocation leading to expression of the unique SYT-SSX fusion protein in effectively all cases of synovial sarcoma suggests a role in the etiology. Other nonspecific anomalies such as overexpression of Bcl-2, HER-2/neu, and EGFR have been reported, but their role in the pathogenesis remains unclear. Using gene targeting, we recently generated mice conditionally expressing the human SYT-SSX2 fusion gene from mouse endogenous ROSA26 promoter in chosen tissue types in the presence of Cre recombinase. These mice develop synovial sarcoma when SYT-SSX2 is expressed within myoblasts, thereby identifying a source of this enigmatic tumor and establishing a mouse model of this disease that recapitulates the clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and transcriptional profile of human synovial sarcomas. We review the genetics of synovial sarcoma and discuss the usefulness of genetics-based mouse models as a valuable research tool in the hunt for key molecular determinants of this lethal disease as well as a preclinical platform for designing and evaluating novel treatment strategies.

Haldar, Malay; Randall, R. Lor

2008-01-01

99

Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering.  

PubMed Central

Viruses have developed successful strategies for propagation at the expense of their host cells. Efficient gene expression, genome multiplication, and invasion of the host are enabled by virus-encoded genetic elements, many of which are well characterized. Sequences derived from plant DNA and RNA viruses can be used to control expression of other genes in vivo. The main groups of plant virus genetic elements useful in genetic engineering are reviewed, including the signals for DNA-dependent and RNA-dependent RNA synthesis, sequences on the virus mRNAs that enable translational control, and sequences that control processing and intracellular sorting of virus proteins. Use of plant viruses as extrachromosomal expression vectors is also discussed, along with the issue of their stability.

Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J

1995-01-01

100

Genetically Engineered Bacteria for Genotoxicity Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the introduction of the Salmonella typhimuriummammalian microsome mutagenicity assay (the Ames test)over three decades ago, there has been a constant development of additional genotoxicity assays based upon the use of genetically\\u000a engineered microorganisms. Such assays rely either on reversion principles similar to those of the Ames test or on promoter-reporter\\u000a fusions that generate a quantifiable dose-dependent signal in

Alva Biran; Pedahzur Rami; Sebastian Buchinger; Reifferscheid Georg; Shimshon Belkin

101

Managing Genetic Diversity, Fitness and Adaptation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we first analyse the objectives to consider in preserving diversity, fitness and adaptability of farm animal\\u000a genetic resources (AnGR), given the links between genetic diversity and fitness-adaptedness (FA) traits. Ways to measure diversity\\u000a are then presented, and tools available for managing genetic diversity within given economic constraints are described, under\\u000a a theoretical framework proposed by Martin Weitzman.

Louis Ollivier; Jean-Louis Foulley

102

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

103

Expanding and reprogramming the genetic code of cells and animals.  

PubMed

Genetic code expansion and reprogramming enable the site-specific incorporation of diverse designer amino acids into proteins produced in cells and animals. Recent advances are enhancing the efficiency of unnatural amino acid incorporation by creating and evolving orthogonal ribosomes and manipulating the genome. Increasing the number of distinct amino acids that can be site-specifically encoded has been facilitated by the evolution of orthogonal quadruplet decoding ribosomes and the discovery of mutually orthogonal synthetase/tRNA pairs. Rapid progress in moving genetic code expansion from bacteria to eukaryotic cells and animals (C. elegans and D. melanogaster) and the incorporation of useful unnatural amino acids has been aided by the development and application of the pyrrolysyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase/tRNA pair for unnatural amino acid incorporation. Combining chemoselective reactions with encoded amino acids has facilitated the installation of posttranslational modifications, as well as rapid derivatization with diverse fluorophores for imaging. PMID:24555827

Chin, Jason W

2014-06-01

104

Estimating genetic parameters in natural populations using the "animal model".  

PubMed Central

Estimating the genetic basis of quantitative traits can be tricky for wild populations in natural environments, as environmental variation frequently obscures the underlying evolutionary patterns. I review the recent application of restricted maximum-likelihood "animal models" to multigenerational data from natural populations, and show how the estimation of variance components and prediction of breeding values using these methods offer a powerful means of tackling the potentially confounding effects of environmental variation, as well as generating a wealth of new areas of investigation.

Kruuk, Loeske E B

2004-01-01

105

Natural and Genetically Engineered Proteins for Tissue Engineering.  

PubMed

To overcome the limitations of traditionally used autografts, allografts and, to a lesser extent, synthetic materials, there is the need to develop a new generation of scaffolds with adequate mechanical and structural support, control of cell attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation and with bio-resorbable features. This suite of properties would allow the body to heal itself at the same rate as implant degradation. Genetic engineering offers a route to this level of control of biomaterial systems. The possibility of expressing biological components in nature and to modify or bioengineer them further, offers a path towards multifunctional biomaterial systems. This includes opportunities to generate new protein sequences, new self-assembling peptides or fusions of different bioactive domains or protein motifs. New protein sequences with tunable properties can be generated that can be used as new biomaterials. In this review we address some of the most frequently used proteins for tissue engineering and biomedical applications and describe the techniques most commonly used to functionalize protein-based biomaterials by combining them with bioactive molecules to enhance biological performance. We also highlight the use of genetic engineering, for protein heterologous expression and the synthesis of new protein-based biopolymers, focusing the advantages of these functionalized biopolymers when compared with their counterparts extracted directly from nature and modified by techniques such as physical adsorption or chemical modification. PMID:22058578

Gomes, Sílvia; Leonor, Isabel B; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Kaplan, David L

2012-01-01

106

Natural and Genetically Engineered Proteins for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

To overcome the limitations of traditionally used autografts, allografts and, to a lesser extent, synthetic materials, there is the need to develop a new generation of scaffolds with adequate mechanical and structural support, control of cell attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation and with bio-resorbable features. This suite of properties would allow the body to heal itself at the same rate as implant degradation. Genetic engineering offers a route to this level of control of biomaterial systems. The possibility of expressing biological components in nature and to modify or bioengineer them further, offers a path towards multifunctional biomaterial systems. This includes opportunities to generate new protein sequences, new self-assembling peptides or fusions of different bioactive domains or protein motifs. New protein sequences with tunable properties can be generated that can be used as new biomaterials. In this review we address some of the most frequently used proteins for tissue engineering and biomedical applications and describe the techniques most commonly used to functionalize protein-based biomaterials by combining them with bioactive molecules to enhance biological performance. We also highlight the use of genetic engineering, for protein heterologous expression and the synthesis of new protein-based biopolymers, focusing the advantages of these functionalized biopolymers when compared with their counterparts extracted directly from nature and modified by techniques such as physical adsorption or chemical modification.

Gomes, Silvia; Leonor, Isabel B.; Mano, Joao F.; Reis, Rui L.

2011-01-01

107

Negative-strand RNA viruses: genetic engineering and applications.  

PubMed Central

The negative-strand RNA viruses are a broad group of animal viruses that comprise several important human pathogens, including influenza, measles, mumps, rabies, respiratory syncytial, Ebola, and hantaviruses. The development of new strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of negative-strand RNA viruses has provided us with new tools to study the structure-function relationships of the viral components and their contributions to the pathogenicity of these viruses. It is also now possible to envision rational approaches--based on genetic engineering techniques--to design live attenuated vaccines against some of these viral agents. In addition, the use of different negative-strand RNA viruses as vectors to efficiently express foreign polypeptides has also become feasible, and these novel vectors have potential applications in disease prevention as well as in gene therapy. Images Fig. 1

Palese, P; Zheng, H; Engelhardt, O G; Pleschka, S; Garcia-Sastre, A

1996-01-01

108

Attitudes Toward Genetic Engineering: The Dilemma of the Genetically Abnormal Child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethicists and scientists have grappled with issues of genetic engineering for years, yet the position of the lay public on this topic remains largely unexplored. This study examines the attitudes of potential consumers — i.e., women of childbearing age — toward seven medical procedures for genetic engineering. We define genetic engineering as the use of medical procedures to terminate the

Gay Young; Cherylon Robinson

1984-01-01

109

Geomorphological implications of engineering bed sediments by lotic animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: < 10- 6- < 10- 15) for nine sediment variables describing baseflow and flood-induced sediment transport as well as sediment surface modifications. For example, bioturbator biomass and/or algal abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~ 70 and ~ 90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial sediments over three orders of magnitude and (ii) frequencies of mass transport events over five orders of magnitude. The fastest way to identify promising subsequent research routes in this field would be through a variety of abundance manipulations of lotic organisms (animals and plants having different mechanistic sediment-engineering abilities) in real rivers in combination with a simple approach to assess the critical shear stress in situ for varying types of sediments. This would require joint research by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists, and ecologists.

Statzner, Bernhard

2012-07-01

110

Inclusion of genetically identical animals to a numerator relationship matrix and modification of its inverse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of animal breeding, estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values are routinely conducted by analyzing quantitative traits. Using an animal model and including the direct inverse of a numerator relationship matrix (NRM) into a mixed model has made these analyses possible. However, a method including a genetically identical animal (GIA) in NRM if genetic relationships

Takuro Oikawa; Kazuhiro Yasuda

2009-01-01

111

Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

Ramsey, Paul

1972-01-01

112

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

113

Assuring consumer safety without animals: Applications for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals in their everyday lives through interactions with the environment and through the use of consumer products. It is a basic requirement that these products are tested to assure they are safe under normal and reasonably foreseeable conditions of use. Within the European Union, the majority of tests used for generating toxicological data rely on animals. However recent changes in legislation (e.g., 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive and REACH) are driving researchers to develop and adopt non-animal alternative methods with which to assure human safety. Great strides have been made to this effect, but what other opportunities/technologies exist that could expedite this? Tissue engineering has increasing scope to contribute to replacing animals with scientifically robust alternatives in basic research and safety testing, but is this application of the technology being fully exploited? This review highlights how the consumer products industry is applying tissue engineering to ensure chemicals are safe for human use without using animals, and identifies areas for future development and application of the technology. PMID:19794902

Westmoreland, Carl; Holmes, Anthony M

2009-04-01

114

Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

1975-01-01

115

Genetically engineered myoblast sheet for therapeutic angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, which results in more serious consequences of ischemic events in peripheral tissues such as the lower extremities. Cell therapy has been tested as a treatment for peripheral ischemia that functions by inducing angiogenesis in the ischemic region. However, the poor survival and engraftment of transplanted cells limit the efficacy of cell therapy. In order to overcome such challenges, we applied genetically engineered cell sheets using a cell-interactive and thermosensitive hydrogel and nonviral polymer nanoparticles. C2C12 myoblast sheets were formed on Tetronic-tyramine (Tet-TA)-RGD hydrogel prepared through a highly efficient and noncytotoxic enzymatic reaction. The myoblast sheets were then transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plasmids using poly(?-amino ester) nanoparticles to increase the angiogenic potential of the sheets. The transfection increased the VEGF expression and secretion from the C2C12 sheets. The enhanced angiogenic effect of the VEGF-transfected C2C12 sheets was confirmed using an in vitro capillary formation assay. More importantly, the transplantation of the VEGF-transfected C2C12 sheets promoted the formation of capillaries and arterioles in ischemic muscles, attenuated the muscle necrosis and fibrosis progressed by ischemia, and eventually prevented ischemic limb loss. In conclusion, the combination of cell sheet engineering and genetic modification can provide more effective treatment for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:24304175

Lee, Joan; Jun, Indong; Park, Hyun-Ji; Kang, Taek Jin; Shin, Heungsoo; Cho, Seung-Woo

2014-01-13

116

Transgenic animal models of neurodegeneration based on human genetic studies  

PubMed Central

The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease.

Richie, Christopher T.; Hoffer, Barry J.; Airavaara, Mikko

2011-01-01

117

Genetic control of programmed cell death during animal development  

PubMed Central

The elimination by programmed cell death of ‘unwanted’ cells is a common feature of animal development. Genetic studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse have not only revealed the molecular machineries that cause the programmed demise of specific cells, but have also allowed us to get a glimpse of the types of pathways that regulate these machineries during development. Rather than giving a broad overview of programmed cell death during development, the current review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of specific programmed cell death events during nematode, fly and mouse development. These studies have revealed that many of the regulatory pathways involved have additional important roles in development, which confirms that the programmed cell death fate is an integral aspect of animal development.

Conradt, Barbara

2009-01-01

118

Animal Cloning: Consumer FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... from clones to be used in making pet food. Is cloning the same as genetic engineering? No, cloning is not the same as genetic engineering. Genetic engineering involves adding, taking away, or modifying genes, ... means of breeding food animals. The point of cloning is to increase ...

119

Phenotyping of Genetically Engineered Mice: Humane, Ethical, Environmental, and Husbandry Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing use of genetically engineered (GE) mice in scientific research has raised many concerns about the ani- mal welfare of such mice. The types of welfare concerns may differ within the three stages that comprise the estab- lishment of GE animal models: development, production, and research use. The role and impact of the members of the research team on

Marilyn J. Brown; Kathleen A. Murray

120

Facts and fiction of genetically engineered food.  

PubMed

The generation of genetically engineered (GE) foods has been raising several concerns and controversies that divide not only the general public but also the scientific community. The fear and importance of the new technology, as well as commercial interests, have supported many of the ongoing discussions. The recent increase in the number of GE foods approved for import into the European Union and the increasingly global commercial food trades justify revisiting the facts and fiction surrounding this technology with the aim of increasing public awareness for well-informed decisions. Techniques that have recently become available for assessing food quality and its impact on human health, as well as the wealth of scientific data previously generated, clearly support the safety of commercialized GE products. PMID:19324440

Batista, Rita; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

2009-05-01

121

Genetically engineered antibody molecules and their application.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin genes can be efficiently expressed following transfection into myeloma cells. Using protoplast fusion, transfection frequencies greater than 10(-3) can be achieved. Compatible plasmids containing two different selectible markers are used to simultaneously deliver heavy and light chain genes to the same cell. To produce molecules with differing specificities the rearranged and expressed variable regions can be cloned from the appropriate hybridoma. In some cases, variable regions from cDNAs can be inserted into the expression vectors. It is possible to manipulate the immunoglobulin genes and produce novel antibody molecules. Antibodies have been produced in which the variable regions from mouse antibodies have been joined to human constant regions. In addition, antibodies with altered constant regions have been produced. These genetically engineered antibodies provide a unique set of reagents to study structure-function relationships within the molecule. They also can potentially be used in the diagnosis and therapy of human disease. PMID:3327412

Morrison, S L; Wims, L; Wallick, S; Tan, L; Oi, V T

1987-01-01

122

Unraveling chemokine and chemokine receptor expression patterns using genetically engineered mice.  

PubMed

Over the past 25 years, genetically engineered mouse models have become an integral and invaluable research tool to develop our understanding of mammalian physiology and pathology. This unit describes methods for generating transgenic mice, focusing on reporter animals relevant to chemokine receptor and ligand expression. Specifically, we describe the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) engineering and embryonic stem cell manipulation to generate "knock in" and transgenic mice. PMID:23625496

Yona, Simon; Kim, Ki-Wook; Haffner, Rebecca; Jung, Steffen

2013-01-01

123

The role of genetic engineering in livestock production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the use of genetic engineering in livestock production. We examine the main two different aspects of genetic engineering: cloning and transgenesis. After commenting what has been expected from both techniques in livestock production in the last 25 years, the practical difficulties for implementing cloning and transgenesis are examined. Apart from technical difficulties, problems derived from the

A. Blasco

2008-01-01

124

Social Movement Organizations' Reactions to Genetic Engineering in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous social movement organizations are actively opposing genetic engineering in agriculture. This article looks at a coalition of movement groups opposing biotechnology and (b) the leading U.S. advocacy groups to determine the breadth of movement resistance. Movements resisting genetic engineering are acting consistently with their previous positions on issues, indicating a high degree of narrative fidelity between belief and action.

ANN ELIZABETH REISNER

2001-01-01

125

Targeting the mucosa: genetically engineered vaccines and mucosal immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery that inoculation of DNA leads to strong and long lasting immune responses generated enthusiasm to assess the efficacy of various genetically engineered vaccines against mucosally acquired infections. Various techniques have been used to generate the most suitable DNA vaccines, ranging from immunization with naked DNA to utilizing genetically engineered recombinant viruses and bacteria to deliver the DNA. Different

L Stevceva; AG Abimiku; G Franchini

2000-01-01

126

Fusion expression of antibacterial peptide salmine from genetically engineered bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a genetically engineered Escherichia coli for potential mass production of antibacterial peptide salmine instead of extraction from fish sperm, three primers designed according to amino acid sequence of salmine were used to construct an oligonucleotide fragment (SAL) encoding salmine. SAL was inserted into a pEC vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) to construct genetically engineered bacteria

Chengchu Liu; Chunxiao Wang; Jingjing Liu; Jianzhang Lu; Yi-Cheng Su

2010-01-01

127

A FreeMarket Environmentalist Approach to Genetically Engineered Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although great numbers of the world's population still suffer from starvation, the possibility for genetically engineered foods to alleviate the problem creates great controversy. The authors address common concerns raised by anti-market opponents of the genetically engineered food industry and offer free-market approaches to the apparent dilemma. While such opponents always promote government intervention to alleviate the possible negative outcomes

Christie Laporte; Walter Block

2005-01-01

128

Genetic engineering and lignin biosynthetic regulation in forest tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of forest tree species is regarded as a strategy to reduce worldwide pressure on natural forests, to conserve\\u000a genetic resources and ameliorate stress on global climate, and to meet growing demand for forest wood and timber products.\\u000a Genetic engineering approaches toward the control or management of fungal pathogens, arthropod herbivores, bacterial and viral\\u000a diseases, the use of pest

Tang Wei; Janet Ogbon; Aquilla McCoy

2001-01-01

129

Engineering in the biological substrate: information processing in genetic circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the rapidly evolving efforts to analyze, model, simulate, and engineer genetic and biochemical information processing systems within living cells. We begin by showing that the fundamental elements of information processing in electronic and genetic systems are strikingly similar, and follow this theme through a review of efforts to create synthetic genetic circuits. In particular, we describe and review

MICHAEL L. SIMPSON; CHRIS D. COX; GREGORY D. PETERSON; GARY S. SAYLER

2004-01-01

130

Molecular genetics as a diagnostic tool in farm animals.  

PubMed

In this review, the importance of molecular genetics for diagnostic applications in animal production and breeding is underlined. Recently, several new techniques and methods based on gene technology have been developed, such as the polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the use of microsatellite polymorphism. The examples include detection of favourable alleles of genes coding for milk proteins, recognition of negative recessive alleles in hereditary syndromes, the use of microsatellite variants for breeding purposes and parentage control, and application of specific DNA-probes for identification of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa and the sex of embryos. It is to be understood that this list is not complete and more applications will undoubtedly show up in the future. For this review, the authors have mainly selected areas where they themselves or their co-workers have gained experience. PMID:9704105

Stranzinger, G; Went, D F

1996-01-01

131

Genetic variants and animal models in SNCA and Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD; MIM 168600) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a variety of motor and non-motor features. To date, at least 20 loci and 15 disease-causing genes for parkinsonism have been identified. Among them, the ?-synuclein (SNCA) gene was associated with PARK1/PARK4. Point mutations, duplications and triplications in the SNCA gene cause a rare dominant form of PD in familial and sporadic PD cases. The ?-synuclein protein, a member of the synuclein family, is abundantly expressed in the brain. The protein is the major component of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in dopaminergic neurons in PD. Further understanding of its role in the pathogenesis of PD through various genetic techniques and animal models will likely provide new insights into our understanding, therapy and prevention of PD. PMID:24768741

Deng, Hao; Yuan, Lamei

2014-05-01

132

Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs), but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these toxins could contribute to the progression of PD. While most cases of PD are sporadic, specific mutations in genes that cause familial forms of PD have led to provide new insights into its pathogenesis. This paper focuses on animal models of both toxin-induced and genetically determined PD that have provided significant insight for understanding this disease. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and limitations of representative models.

Hisahara, Shin; Shimohama, Shun

2011-01-01

133

Genetic diversity of blastocystis in livestock and zoo animals.  

PubMed

Blastocystis is a common unicellular anaerobic eukaryote that inhabits the large intestine of many animals worldwide, including humans. The finding of Blastocystis in faeces in mammals and birds has led to proposals of zoonotic potential and that these hosts may be the source of many human infections. Blastocystis is, however, a genetically diverse complex of many distinct organisms (termed subtypes; STs), and sampling to date has been limited, both geographically and in the range of hosts studied. In order to expand our understanding of host specificity of Blastocystis STs, 557 samples were examined from various non-primate animal hosts and from a variety of different countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. STs were identified using 'barcoding' of the small subunit rRNA gene using DNA extracted either from culture or directly from faeces. The host and geographic range of several STs has thereby been greatly expanded and the evidence suggests that livestock is not a major contributor to human infection. Two new STs were detected among the barcode sequences obtained; for these, and for three others where the data were incomplete, the corresponding genes were fully sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. PMID:23770574

Alfellani, Mohammed A; Taner-Mulla, Derya; Jacob, Alison S; Imeede, Christine Atim; Yoshikawa, Hisao; Stensvold, C Rune; Clark, C Graham

2013-07-01

134

Reversible gelation of genetically engineered macromolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering of protein-based polymers offers distinct advantages over conventional synthesis of polymers. Microorganisms can synthesize high molecular weight materials, in relatively large quantities, that are inherently stereoregular, monodisperse, and of controlled sequence. In addition, specific secondary and higher order structures are determined by this protein sequence. As a result, scientists can design polymers to have unique structural features found in natural protein materials and functional properties that are inherent in certain peptide sequences. For this reason, genetic engineering principles were used to create a set of artificial genes that encode twelve macromolecules having both alpha-helical and disordered coil protein sequences with the last amino acid being cysteine (cys) or tryptophan (trp). Triblock copolymer sequences having coiled-coil protein ends, A or B, where A and B represent alpha-helical acidic and basic leucine zipper proteins, separated by a water soluble flexible spacer coil protein, C, where C represents ((AG)sb3PEG) sbn (n = 10 or 28), showed reversible physical gelation behavior. This behavior is believed to result from the aggregation of two or more helices that form physical crosslinks with the disordered coil domain retaining solvent and preventing precipitation of the chain. Diffising wave spectroscopy was used to investigate the gelation behavior of ACsb{10}Acys in buffer when environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, and concentration were varied. The dynamic intensity autocorrelation function recorded over time for 5% (w/v) ACsb{10}Acys showed that the protein behaved as a gel at pH 6.7-8.0 and that the melting point was between 40sp°C and 48sp°C. In addition to the triblock results, the incorporation of 5sp',5sp',5sp'-trifluoroleucine (Tfl) in place of leucine (Leu) in the A and B blocks was accomplished by synthesizing proteins in bacterial hosts auxotrophic for Leu. The substitution of Tfl for Leu in A and B was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Amino acid analyses performed on purified Tfl A and Tfl B populations suggested 66% and 38% levels of Tfl substitution, respectively. Thermal denaturation temperatures measured by circular dichroism of the Tfl containing helices were higher than those of the corresponding Leu containing helices by 8sp°C and 13sp°C for A and B respectively.

Petka, Wendy Ann

135

Natural genetic engineering: intelligence & design in evolution?  

PubMed Central

There are many things that I like about James Shapiro's new book "Evolution: A View from the 21st Century" (FT Press Science, 2011). He begins the book by saying that it is the creation of novelty, and not selection, that is important in the history of life. In the presence of heritable traits that vary, selection results in the evolution of a population towards an optimal composition of those traits. But selection can only act on changes - and where does this variation come from? Historically, the creation of novelty has been assumed to be the result of random chance or accident. And yet, organisms seem 'designed'. When one examines the data from sequenced genomes, the changes appear NOT to be random or accidental, but one observes that whole chunks of the genome come and go. These 'chunks' often contain functional units, encoding sets of genes that together can perform some specific function. Shapiro argues that what we see in genomes is 'Natural Genetic Engineering', or designed evolution: "Thinking about genomes from an informatics perspective, it is apparent that systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process than the conventional view of evolution as a select-biased random walk through limitless space of possible DNA configurations" (page 6). In this review, I will have a look at four topics: 1.) why I think genomics is not the whole story; 2.) my own perspective of E. coli genomics, and how I think it relates to this book; 3.) a brief discussion on "Intelligence, Design, and Evolution"; and finally, 4.) a section "in defense of the central dogma".

2011-01-01

136

Antimicrobial functionalized genetically engineered spider silk  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered fusion proteins offer potential as multifunctional biomaterials for medical use. Fusion or chimeric proteins can be formed using recombinant DNA technology by combining nucleotide sequences encoding different peptides or proteins that are otherwise not found together in nature. In the present study, three new fusion proteins were designed, cloned and expressed and assessed for function, by combining the consensus sequence of dragline spider silk with three different antimicrobial peptides. The human antimicrobial peptides human neutrophil defensin 2 (HNP-2), human neutrophil defensins 4 (HNP-4) and hepcidin were fused to spider silk through bioengineering. The spider silk domain maintained its self-assembly features, a key aspect of these new polymeric protein biomaterials, allowing the formation of ?-sheets to lock in structures via physical interactions without the need for chemical cross-linking. These new functional silk proteins were assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram - Escherichia coli and Gram + Staphylococcus aureus and microbicidal activity was demonstrated. Dynamic light scattering was used to assess protein aggregation to clarify the antimicrobial patterns observed. Attenuated-total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) were used to assess the secondary structure of the new recombinant proteins. In vitro cell studies with a human osteosarcoma cell line (SaOs-2) demonstrated the compatibility of these new proteins with mammalian cells.

Gomes, Silvia; Leonor, Isabel B.; Mano, Joao F.; Reis, Rui L.; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

137

Seeking Perfection: A Kantian Look at Human Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic\\u000a genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation.\\u000a In fact, Kant’s moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering—even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This\\u000a is true of Kant’s imperfect duties to seek one’s

Martin Gunderson

2007-01-01

138

Genetic Engineering and the Amelioration of Genetic Defect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the claims for a brave new world of genetic manipulation" and concludes that if we could agree upon applying genetic (or any other effective) remedies to global problems we probably would need no rescourse to them. Suggests that effective methods of preventing genetic disease are prevention of mutations and detection and containment of…

Lederberg, Joshua

1970-01-01

139

Accelerating Cancer Modeling with RNAi and Nongermline Genetically Engineered Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

For more than two decades, genetically engineered mouse models have been key to our mechanistic understanding of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recently, the massive quantity of data emerging from cancer genomics studies has demanded a corresponding increase in the efficiency and throughput of in vivo models for functional testing of putative cancer genes. Already a mainstay of cancer research, recent innovations in RNA interference (RNAi) technology have extended its utility for studying gene function and genetic interactions, enabling tissue-specific, inducible and reversible gene silencing in vivo. Concurrent advances in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture and genome engineering have accelerated several steps of genetically engineered mouse model production and have facilitated the incorporation of RNAi technology into these models. Here, we review the current state of these technologies and examine how their integration has the potential to dramatically enhance the throughput and capabilities of animal models for cancer.

Livshits, Geulah; Lowe, Scott W.

2014-01-01

140

QUERY DRIVEN SIMULATION AS A TOOL FOR GENETIC ENGINEERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations\\/animations of genetic structures and functions, simula- tions of actual or conceived experiments, and animations of algorithms such as simulated annealing, which is used to reconstruct a chromosome from its clonable DNA fragments, will be useful to genetics researchers and students alike. In this paper, we discuss the design of an integrated simulation\\/object-oriented database system that can be used by

John A. Miller; Jonathan Arnold; Krys J. Kochut; A. Jamie Cuticchia; Walter D. Potter

1992-01-01

141

Genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal types of human cancer for which there are no effective therapies. Deep sequencing of PDAC tumors has revealed the presence of a high number of mutations (>50) that affect at least a dozen key signaling pathways. This scenario highlights the urgent need to develop experimental models that faithfully reproduce the natural history of these human tumors in order to understand their biology and to design therapeutic approaches that might effectively interfere with their multiple mutated pathways. Over the last decade, several models, primarily based on the genetic activation of resident KRas oncogenes knocked-in within the endogenous KRas locus have been generated. These models faithfully reproduce the histological lesions that characterize human pancreatic tumors. Decoration of these models with additional mutations, primarily involving tumor suppressor loci known to be also mutated in human PDAC tumors, results in accelerated tumor progression and in the induction of invasive and metastatic malignancies. Mouse PDACs also display a desmoplastic stroma and inflammatory responses that closely resemble those observed in human patients. Interestingly, adult mice appear to be resistant to PDAC development unless the animals undergo pancreatic damage, mainly in the form of acute, chronic or even temporary pancreatitis. In this review, we describe the most representative models available to date and how their detailed characterization is allowing us to understand their cellular origin as well as the events involved in tumor progression. Moreover, their molecular dissection is starting to unveil novel therapeutic strategies that could be translated to the clinic in the very near future. PMID:23506980

Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

2013-04-01

142

"Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)

Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.

1980-01-01

143

Genetic Engineering and the Development of New Pollution Control Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early ...

J. B. Johnston S. G. Robinson

1984-01-01

144

Genetic materials at the gene engineering division, RIKEN BioResource Center.  

PubMed

Genetic materials are one of the most important and fundamental research resources for studying biological phenomena. Scientific need for genetic materials has been increasing and will never cease. Ever since it was established as RIKEN DNA Bank in 1987, the Gene Engineering Division of RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC) has been engaged in the collection, maintenance, storage, propagation, quality control, and distribution of genetic resources developed mainly by the Japanese research community. When RIKEN BRC was inaugurated in 2001, RIKEN DNA Bank was incorporated as one of its six Divisions, the Gene Engineering Division. The Gene Engineering Division was selected as a core facility for the genetic resources of mammalian and microbe origin by the National BioResource Project (NBRP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan in 2002. With support from the scientific community, the Division now holds over 3 million clones of genetic materials for distribution. The genetic resources include cloned DNAs, gene libraries (e.g., cDNA and genomic DNA cloned into phage, cosmid, BAC, phosmid, and YAC), vectors, hosts, recombinant viruses, and ordered library sets derived from animal cells, including human and mouse cells, microorganisms, and viruses. Recently genetic materials produced by a few MEXT national research projects were transferred to the Gene Engineering Division for further dissemination. The Gene Engineering Division performs rigorous quality control of reproducibility, restriction enzyme mapping and nucleotide sequences of clones to ensure the reproducibility of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Users can easily access our genetic materials through the internet and obtain the DNA resources for a minimal fee. Not only the materials, but also information of features and technology related to the materials are provided via the web site of RIKEN BRC. Training courses are also given to transfer the technology for handling viral vectors. RIKEN BRC supports scientists around the world in the use of valuable genetic materials. PMID:20484845

Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Murata, Takehide; Pan, Jianzhi; Nakade, Koji; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Ugai, Hideyo; Kimura, Makoto; Kujime, Yukari; Hirose, Megumi; Masuzaki, Satoko; Yamasaki, Takahito; Kurihara, Chitose; Okubo, Masato; Nakano, Yuri; Kusa, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Inabe, Kumiko; Ueno, Kazuko; Obata, Yuichi

2010-01-01

145

Possible people, complaints, and the distinction between genetic planning and genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the understanding of genetics have led to the belief that it may become possible to use genetic engineering to manipulate the DNA of humans at the embryonic stage to produce certain desirable traits. Although this currently cannot be done on a large scale, many people nevertheless object in principle to such practices. Most often, they argue that genetic

James J Delaney

2011-01-01

146

Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2012: another increase in experimentation - genetically-altered animals dominate again.  

PubMed

The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2012 reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with just over 4.1 million procedures being started in that year. Despite the previous year's indication that the dominance of the production and use of genetically-altered (GA, i.e. genetically-modified animals plus animals with harmful genetic defects) animal might be abating, it returned with a vengeance in 2012. Breeding increased from 43% to 48% of all procedures, and GA animals were involved in 59% of all the procedures. Indeed, if the breeding of these animals were removed from the statistics, the total number of procedures would actually decline by 2%. In order to honour their pledge to reduce animal use in science, the Coalition Government will have to address this issue. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:24168136

Hudson-Shore, Michelle

2013-09-01

147

Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.  

PubMed

The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value. PMID:22571623

de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

2012-12-01

148

Genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells using TALE nucleases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at

Dirk Hockemeyer; Haoyi Wang; Samira Kiani; Christine S Lai; Qing Gao; John P Cassady; Lei Zhang; Yolanda Santiago; Jeffrey C Miller; Bryan Zeitler; Jennifer M Cherone; Xiangdong Meng; Sarah J Hinkley; Edward J Rebar; Philip D Gregory; Fyodor D Urnov; Rudolf Jaenisch

2011-01-01

149

Reward and anxiety in genetic animal models of childhood depression.  

PubMed

One of the most important criteria for major depressive disorder in adults and in children and adolescents as well, is the loss of interest in or pleasure from typically enjoyable experiences or activities: anhedonia. Anxiety is frequently co-morbid with depression. We examined reward and anxiety in genetic animal models of childhood depression. Two different "depressed" lines were studied: the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) and their controls, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) line and their controls, Wistar rats. Recently, we found that prepubertal rats (about 35 days old) from these lines exhibited increased immobility in the swim test, and abnormal social play observed after 24-h isolation. We hypothesized that FSL and WKY prepubertal rats will further show anhedonia in two different behavioral assays: the conditioned place preference test (CPP), examining the rewarding aspect of social interaction and the saccharin preference test. Behavior in the open field paradigm and freezing behavior in the CPP apparatus were also used as measures of anxiety. WKY, but not FSL prepubertal rats, consumed less of the saccharin solution compared to their control line. FSL, and WKY prepubertal rats found social interaction to be rewarding to a similar extent as their control lines, in the CPP test. Only the WKY rats showed anxiety in behavior in the open field and freezing behavior in the CPP paradigm. The results suggest that WKY prepubertal rats are anxious and sensitive to stress-induced anhedonia, while FSL prepubertal rats exhibit none of these symptoms. PMID:16055204

Malkesman, O; Braw, Y; Zagoory-Sharon, O; Golan, O; Lavi-Avnon, Y; Schroeder, M; Overstreet, D H; Yadid, G; Weller, A

2005-10-14

150

The economic valuation of farm animal genetic resources: a survey of available methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic erosion of domestic animal diversity has placed 30% of the world's breeds at risk of extinction, often as a result of government policy\\/programmes. Conservation and sustainable development of animal genetic resources (AnGR) require a broad focus that includes the many ‘adaptive’ breeds that survive well in the low external input agriculture typical of developing countries. Environmental economic valuation methodologies

Adam G. Drucker; Veronica Gomez; Simon Anderson

2001-01-01

151

Genetic engineering of doxorubicin production in Streptomyces peucetius : a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The genetics and biochemistry of daunorubicin and doxorubicin production by Streptomyces peucetius is reviewed, with a focus on how such information can be used for the genetic engineering of strains having improved titers\\u000a of these two antitumor antibiotics.

C R Hutchinson; A L Colombo

1999-01-01

152

The promise of genetically engineered mice for cancer prevention studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated genetic technologies have led to the development of mouse models of human cancers that recapitulate important features of human oncogenesis. Many of these genetically engineered mouse models promise to be very relevant and relatively rapid systems for determining the efficacy of chemopreventive agents and their mechanisms of action. The validation of such models for chemoprevention will help the selection

Tamaro Hudson; Jeffrey E. Green

2005-01-01

153

New Constitutive Vectors: Useful Genetic Engineering Tools for Biocatalysis  

PubMed Central

Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis.

Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

154

GENETIC ENGINEERING TO AVOID GENETIC NEGLECT: FROM CHANCE TO RESPONSIBILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTCurrently our assessment of whether someone is a good parent depends on the environmental inputs (or lack of such inputs) they give their children. But new genetic intervention technologies, to which we may soon have access, mean that how good a parent is will depend also on the genetic inputs they give their children. Each new piece of available technology

JESSICA HAMMOND

2010-01-01

155

Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits,

Justin James Grevich; Henry Daniell

2005-01-01

156

Transfer of Genetically Engineered Cells to the Glomerulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rat, cultured cells injected into the renal circulation are entrapped in the glomerulus. This peculiar property allows to create chimeric glomeruli in which genetically engineered cells are populated. Using glomerular cells engineered in vitro, it is feasible to generate glomeruli that produce recombinant gene products. This approach would be useful for identification of local function of a certain

Masanori Kitamura

1999-01-01

157

Genetically modified potato plants in nutrition and prevention of diseases in humans and animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) become a real constituent of our lives and nowadays, they are commonly introduced into the food chain of people and animals in some states. Among higher organisms, plants are used above all for genetic modifications; potatoes are a suitable model plants for this purpose. Nowa- days, a number of various genetic modifications of potato plants are

R. PRIBYLOVA; I. PAVLIK; M. BARTOS

2006-01-01

158

The regulation of the complement system: insights from genetically-engineered mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system is very tightly regulated by fluid-phase and membrane-bound factors that prevent injury to self-tissues. The study of genetically engineered animals with targeted deletion or gain of function mutations has highlighted the important role that many of the complement inhibitors play in vivo. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of approach are discussed and the insights gained

Daniel Turnberg; Marina Botto

2003-01-01

159

Genetic engineering to avoid genetic neglect: from chance to responsibility.  

PubMed

Currently our assessment of whether someone is a good parent depends on the environmental inputs (or lack of such inputs) they give their children. But new genetic intervention technologies, to which we may soon have access, mean that how good a parent is will depend also on the genetic inputs they give their children. Each new piece of available technology threatens to open up another way that we can neglect our children. Our obligations to our children and our susceptibilities to corresponding legal and moral sanctions may be about to explosively increase. In this paper I argue that we should treat conventional neglect and 'genetic neglect' - failing to use genetic intervention technologies to prevent serious diseases and disabilities - morally consistently. I conclude that in a range of cases parents will have a moral obligation to use genetic treatments to prevent serious disabilities in their children. My particular focus is on prenatal interventions and their impact of the bodily integrity of expectant mothers. I conclude that although bodily integrity constrains moral obligations, it is outweighed in a range of cases. PMID:20394109

Hammond, Jessica

2010-05-01

160

Genetic Engineering of Enhanced Microbial Nitrification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgenesis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposab...

M. Carsiotis S. Khanna

1989-01-01

161

Diorama Engine - A 3D Directing Tool for 3D Computer Animation Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in 3D computer graphics technologies have enabled 3D computer animation to become a popular method of storytelling. However, the tools which provide access to the technology are targeted mainly at trained professionals, and are seldom easy enough for a director to use. We present Diorama engine, a 3D directing tool for 3D computer animation. Diorama engine is a

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara

2003-01-01

162

Robust Engineering Design with Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper introduces a new robust optimization technique which performs tolerance and parameter design using a genetic algorithm.\\u000a It is demonstrated how tolerances for control parameters can be specified while reducing the product’s sensitivity to noise\\u000a factors. As generations of solutions undergo standard genetic operations, new designs evolve, which exhibit several important\\u000a characteristics. First, all control parameters in an evolved

Babak Forouraghi

2004-01-01

163

Oncolytic virus therapy using genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for cancer. They can replicate in situ, spread, and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. In addition, oncolytic HSV-1 can transfer and express foreign genes in host cells. The phase I clinical study with G207, a double-mutated HSV-1, in recurrent malignant glioma patients has shown that oncolytic HSV-1 can be safely administered into human brains. The therapeutic benefits of oncolytic HSV-1 depend on the extent of both intratumoral viral replication and induction of host antitumor immune responses. We develop new-generation oncolytic HSV-1 by enhancing these properties while retaining the safety features. G47delta was created from G207 by introducing another genetic mutation. Compared with G207, G47delta showed 1) better stimulation of human antitumor immune cells, 2) better growth properties leading to higher virus yields and increased cytopathic effect in vitro, 3) better antitumor efficacy in both immuno-competent and -incompetent animals, and 4) preserved safety in the brain of HSV-1-sensitive mice. Preparation is under way for a clinical trial using G47delta in progressive glioblastoma patients. G47delta is also suited as a backbone vector for expressing foreign molecules. Using bacterial artificial chromosome and two DNA recombinases, we have created an "armed" oncolytic HSV-1 generation system that allows insertion of transgene(s) into the genome of G47delta in a rapid and accurate manner. We found that expression of immunostimulatory molecules can significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of G47delta. Based on these advances, we anticipate that oncolytic virus therapy using oncolytic HSV-1 will soon be established as an important modality of cancer treatment. PMID:17981691

Todo, Tomoki

2008-01-01

164

The value of animal models in predicting genetic susceptibility to complex diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

For a long time, genetic studies of complex diseases were most successfully conducted in animal models. However, the field of genetics is now rapidly evolving, and human genetics has also started to produce strong candidate genes for complex diseases. This raises the question of how to continue gene-finding attempts in animals and how to use animal models to enhance our understanding of gene function. In this review we summarize the uses and advantages of animal studies in identification of disease susceptibility genes, focusing on rheumatoid arthritis. We are convinced that animal genetics will remain a valuable tool for the identification and investigation of pathways that lead to disease, well into the future.

Ahlqvist, Emma; Hultqvist, Malin; Holmdahl, Rikard

2009-01-01

165

Illuminating cancer systems with genetically engineered mouse models and coupled luciferase reporters in vivo.  

PubMed

Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful noninvasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMM) of cancer, which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, posttranslational processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation, and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a noninvasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiologic means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

2013-06-01

166

Advances in animal cell technology: Cell engineering, evaluation and exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this volume, basic and applied researchers and industrial microbiologists present advances being made and new strategies in animal cell technology. Based on the Seventh General Meeting of the European Society for Animal Cell Technology, the 62 reports consolidate extensive new data on the application of animal cell cultures as an increasingly important source of useful biological products. Papers are

R. Spier; W. Guildford; B. Hennessen

1987-01-01

167

Animal Ecosystem Engineers Modulate the Diversity-Invasibility Relationship  

PubMed Central

Background Invasions of natural communities by non-indigenous species are currently rated as one of the most important global-scale threats to biodiversity. Biodiversity itself is known to reduce invasions and increase stability. Disturbances by ecosystem engineers affect the distribution, establishment, and abundance of species but this has been ignored in studies on diversity-invasibility relationships. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined natural plant invasion into 46 plots varying in the number of plant species (1, 4, and 16) and plant functional groups (1, 2, 3, and 4) for three years beginning two years after the establishment of the Jena Experiment. We sampled subplots where earthworms were artificially added and others where earthworm abundance was reduced. We also performed a seed-dummy experiment to investigate the role of earthworms as secondary seed dispersers along a plant diversity gradient. Horizontal dispersal and burial of seed dummies were significantly reduced in subplots where earthworms were reduced in abundance. Seed dispersal by earthworms decreased with increasing plant species richness and presence of grasses but increased in presence of small herbs. These results suggest that dense vegetation inhibits the surface activity of earthworms. Further, there was a positive relationship between the number of earthworms and the number and diversity of invasive plants. Hence, earthworms decreased the stability of grassland communities against plant invasion. Conclusions/Significance Invasibility decreased and stability increased with increasing plant diversity and, most remarkably, earthworms modulated the diversity-invasibility relationship. While the impacts of earthworms were unimportant in low diverse (low earthworm densities) and high diverse (high floral structural complexity) plant communities, earthworms decreased the stability of intermediate diverse plant communities against plant invasion. Overall, the results document that fundamental processes in plant communities like plant seed burial and invader establishment are modulated by soil fauna calling for closer cooperation between soil animal and plant ecologists.

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scheu, Stefan

2008-01-01

168

Genetic engineering versus natural evolution: Genetic algorithms with deterministic operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms (GA) have several important features that predestine them to solve design problems. Their main disadvantage however is the excessively long run-time that is needed to deliver satisfactory results for large instances of complex design problems. The main aims of this paper are (1) to demonstrate that the effective and efficient application of the GA concept to design problem

Lech Józwiak; Adam Postula

2002-01-01

169

Use of Genetically Modified Viruses and Genetically Engineered Virus-vector Vaccines: Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number

Vivian S. W. Chan

2006-01-01

170

Genetic engineering of crops as potential source of genetic hazard in the human diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of genetic engineering of crop plants to improve the reliability and quality of the world food supply have been contrasted with public concerns raised about the food safety of the resulting products. Debates have concentrated on the possible unforeseen risks associated with the accumulation of new metabolites in crop plants that may contribute to toxins, allergens and genetic

Anthony J. Conner; Jeanne M. E. Jacobs

1999-01-01

171

TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection  

SciTech Connect

A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

2009-12-04

172

Genetic dissection of phenotypic diversity in farm animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animal populations harbour rich collections of mutations with phenotypic effects that have been purposefully enriched by breeding. Most of these mutations do not have pathological phenotypic consequences, in contrast to the collections of deleterious mutations in model organisms or those causing inherited disorders in humans. Farm animals are of particular interest for identifying genes that control growth, energy metabolism,

Leif Andersson

2001-01-01

173

Genetically Engineered Materials for Biofuels Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agrivida, Inc., is an agricultural biotechnology company developing industrial crop feedstocks for the fuel and chemical industries. Agrivida's crops have improved processing traits that enable efficient, low cost conversion of the crops' cellulosic components into fermentable sugars. Currently, pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of the major cell wall components, cellulose and hemicellulose, into fermentable sugars is the most expensive processing step that prevents widespread adoption of biomass in biofuels processes. To lower production costs we are consolidating pretreatment and enzyme production within the crop. In this strategy, transgenic plants express engineered cell wall degrading enzymes in an inactive form, which can be reactivated after harvest. We have engineered protein elements that disrupt enzyme activity during normal plant growth. Upon exposure to specific processing conditions, the engineered enzymes are converted into their active forms. This mechanism significantly lowers pretreatment costs and enzyme loadings (>75% reduction) below those currently available to the industry.

Raab, Michael

2012-02-01

174

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF ENHANCED MICROBIAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgensis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposable genes on methods for p...

175

Techniques for genetic engineering in mycobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of mycobacterial genetics has experienced quick technical developments in the past ten years, despite a relatively slow start, caused by difficulties in accessing these recalcitrant species. The study of mycobacterial pathogenesis is important in the development of new ways of treating tuberculosis and leprosy, now that the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has reduced the effectiveness of current therapies.

Jo Hermans; Jan A. M. de Bont

1996-01-01

176

GENETIC ALGORITHM TOOLS FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAs have been shown to be an effective strategy in the off- line design of control systems by a number of practitioners. For example, Krishnakumar and Goldberg (1) and Bramlette and Cusin (2) have demonstrated how genetic optimization methods can be used to derive superior controller structures in aerospace applications in less time (in terms of function evaluations) than that

A. J. Chipperfield; P. J. Fleming; C. M. Fonseca

1994-01-01

177

Genetically engineered mouse models for skin research: taking the next step  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered mouse models are invaluable to investigators in nearly all areas of biomedical research. The use of genetically engineered mice has allowed researchers to explore fundamental functions of genes in a mammal that shares substantial similarities with human physiology and pathology. Genetically engineered mice are often used as animal models of human diseases that are vital tools in investigating disease development and in developing and testing novel therapies. Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells allows endogenous genes to be specifically altered. As knowledge regarding precise genetic abnormalities underlying a variety of dermatological conditions continues to emerge, the ability to introduce corresponding alterations in endogenous gene loci in mice, often at a single base pair level, has become essential for detailed studies of these genetic diseases. In this review, we provide examples of mouse models harboring modified endogenous gene(s), generated using the technique commonly referred to as the “knock-in” approach, to exemplify the important and sometimes superior role of this methodology in dermatological research.

Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R.

2009-01-01

178

Conceptual, methodological and ethical issues in genetic engineering (1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to the potential of gene therapy to alleviate illness and death particularly for many rare human genetic disorders\\u000a and specific forms of cancer is presented. At present, genetic engineering, that is gene therapy to correct some of these\\u000a disorders based on new molecular biology procedures is a possibility in the near future especially those with single gene\\u000a mendelian

A. Falek

1990-01-01

179

Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how transgenic technology has the potential of medical therapy, but it raises questions about these issues: creation of new life forms and crossing species boundaries, long-term effects on human health and the environment, blending of nonhuman animal and human DNA , and unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences.

Linda MacDonald Glenn (;)

2004-06-01

180

Genetically engineered T cells for the treatment of cancer  

PubMed Central

T-cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to treat disseminated cancer. However, it has been limited by the ability to isolate and expand T cells restricted to tumour-associated antigens. Using ex vivo gene transfer, T cells from patients can be genetically engineered to express a novel T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor to specifically recognize a tumour-associated antigen and thereby selectively kill tumour cells. Indeed, genetically engineered T cells have recently been successfully used for cancer treatment in a small number of patients. Here we review the recent progress in the field, and summarize the challenges that lie ahead and the strategies being used to overcome them.

Essand, M; Loskog, A S I

2013-01-01

181

Genetically Engineered Pores Sensing Metal Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stochastic sensing with pore-forming proteins has been established as a means for sensing metal ions by using engineered forms of alpha-hemolysin as the sensor elements. The alpha-hemolysin pore is a heptamer, which has disadvantages for certain manipulat...

H. Bayley S. Conlan

2000-01-01

182

Considerations on Genetic Connectedness Between Management Units Under an Animal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Connectedness,among,management,use of one of three alternative measures,is proposed; units (e.g., herds , differences cannot be computed, respectively). Key Words: Connectedness, Animal Models, Genetic Evaluation

B. W. Kennedy; D. Trus

2010-01-01

183

Genetic polymorphism in drug metabolism and toxicity: Linking animal research and risk assessment in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major challenges facing toxicology is to bridge the gap between animal research and risk assessment in man. In this meeting, the genetic polymorphism of drug metabolizing enzymes in relation to drug toxicity will be described.

Tetsuo Satoh

184

Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species are ordinarily conceived of as being native or non-native to either a geographical location or an ecological community. I submit that species may also be native or non-native to human communities. I argue, by way of an analogy with varieties of domesticated and cultivated species, that this sense of nativity is grounded by the cultural relationships human communities have

R. B. M. deVries

2008-01-01

185

Current development in genetic engineering strategies of Bacillus species  

PubMed Central

The complete sequencing and annotation of the genomes of industrially-important Bacillus species has enhanced our understanding of their properties, and allowed advances in genetic manipulations in other Bacillus species. Post-genomic studies require simple and highly efficient tools to enable genetic manipulation. Here, we summarize the recent progress in genetic engineering strategies for Bacillus species. We review the available genetic tools that have been developed in Bacillus species, as well as methods developed in other species that may also be applicable in Bacillus. Furthermore, we address the limitations and challenges of the existing methods, and discuss the future research prospects in developing novel and useful tools for genetic modification of Bacillus species.

2014-01-01

186

Advances in animal cell technology: Cell engineering, evaluation and exploitation  

SciTech Connect

In this volume, basic and applied researchers and industrial microbiologists present advances being made and new strategies in animal cell technology. Based on the Seventh General Meeting of the European Society for Animal Cell Technology, the 62 reports consolidate extensive new data on the application of animal cell cultures as an increasingly important source of useful biological products. Papers are grouped into five sections, the first of which addresses safety issues related to the use of continuous cell lines, recombinant DNA technology, and cell culture media. Papers in the second section cover the present status of strategies of foreign gene expression in cultured animal cells. The third group of papers focuses on cell biological and physiological aspects in the mass production of animal cells. New advances in the technology of large-scale animal cell production are described in the fourth section. The final section is devoted to the large-scale production of animal cell products. Monoclonal antibodies and protein for qtherapeutic use such as growth factors, immunomodulators and hormones are covered.

Spier, R.; Guildford, W.; Hennessen, B.

1987-01-01

187

Genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from animals, food poisoning outbreaks and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has previously been investigated chiefly by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolated from various animals, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge was investigated.

Anders Johansson; Anna Aspan; Elisabeth Bagge; Viveca Båverud; Björn E Engström; Karl-Erik Johansson

2006-01-01

188

Genomic and pedigree-based genetic parameters for scarcely recorded traits when some animals are genotyped  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters were estimated using relationships between animals that were based either on pedigree, 43,011 single nucleotide polymorphisms, or a combination of these, considering genotyped and non-genotyped animals. The standard error of the estimates and a parametric bootstrapping procedure was used to investigate sampling properties of the estimated variance components. The data set contained milk yield, dry matter intake and

R. F. Veerkamp; H. A. Mulder; R. Thompson; M. P. L. Calus

2011-01-01

189

Applied genetic engineering has a place in petroleum production  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the very leading edge of high technology for the eighties is the merger of applied genetic engineering and the emerging technologies for enhanced oil recovery. Within a reservoir, gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, or methane can be produced from a fermentation process that will increase the reservoir pressure and push more oil out. Various polysaccharides or mucopolysaccharides can

Crull

1982-01-01

190

GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early 1983. It identifies a num...

191

Genomics and genetic engineering of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SNPV) of the bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has been extensively used to control this insect around the world, especially in China. However, in order to compete with chemical insecticides - mainly for speed of action -novel approaches are sought to improve the efficacy of HaSNPV either by selection of superior natural variants or by genetic engineering. Prior

X. Chen

2001-01-01

192

MULTIPLE CRITERIA GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND OPERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates the application of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to multiplecriteria problems in engineering design and operation. The GA is an evolutionarycomputing technique which applies Darwinian principles such as survival of the fittest,mating and mutation to a population of individuals to evolve good solutions to a broadrange of problems. GAs are normally used as single criterion optimisers. However, aMultiple Criteria

David Todd

1997-01-01

193

Adaptive Markov Recombination Genetic Engineering with Active Partial Solution Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new class of 'crossover' algo- rithms that are used in what we coin the Genetic Engineer- ing strategy. These algorithms explicitly consider the fit- ness of all subsets of candidate solutions when creating the next iteration of candidate solutions. If the fitness of indi- vidual solutions is correlated to the fitness of their subsets,

Arvid Halma; Remi Turk

194

Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the

T. E. Ward; D. F. Bruhn; D. F. Bulmer

1989-01-01

195

Genetically Engineered Organisms, Wildlife, and Habitat: A Workshop Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today, 89 percent of all soybeans, 83 percent of cotton, and 61 percent of corn grown in the United States are the products of genetic engineering (GE). Other GE plants, trees, microbes, insects, and fish are on the horizon. A key question related to GE c...

P. T. Whitacre

2009-01-01

196

Genetic Engineering--A Lesson on Bioethics for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unit designed to cover the topic of genetic engineering and its ethical considerations is presented. Students are expected to learn the material while using a debate format. A list of objectives for the unit, the debate format, and the results from an opinion questionnaire are described. (KR)

Armstrong, Kerri; Weber, Kurt

1991-01-01

197

Genetic engineering applications to biotechnology in the genus Bacillus  

SciTech Connect

This review presents a global picture of current applications and capabilities of genetic engineering to biotechnology in Bacillus, particularly B. subtilis, so that the academic biotechnologist, the industrial microbiologist, and the manager may turn to one source to study this subject. 236 references.

Workman, W.E.; McLinden, J.H.; Dean, D.H.

1986-06-09

198

Genetically Engineered Mice: Tools To Understand Craniofacial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we provide a survey of the experimental approaches used to generate genetically engineered mice. Two specific examples are presented that demonstrate the applicability of these approaches to craniofacial development. In the first, a promoter analysis of the Msx2 gene is presented which illustrates the cis regulatory interactions that define cell-specific gene expression. In the second, a mouse

Michael A. Ignelzi; Yi-Hsin Liu; Robert E. Maxson; Malcolm L. Snead

1995-01-01

199

Environmental effects of genetically engineered woody biomass crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of genetically engineered crop plants has raised concerns about the risks these crops pose to natural and agricultural ecosystems. The potential environmental hazards of transgenic woody biomass crops is discussed, and based on the biology of these crops and their transgenes, recommend a scientific framework for assessing risk. The potential impacts of transgenes based on both characteristics of

ROSALIND R. JAMES; STEPHEN P. DIFAZIO; AMY M. BRUNNER; STEVEN H. STRAUSS

1998-01-01

200

Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics.

2012-01-01

201

Phytoremediation of organomercurial compounds via chloroplast genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg), especially in organic form, is a highly toxic pollutant affecting plants, animals, and man. In plants, the primary target of Hg damage is the chloroplast; Hg inhibits electron transport and photosynthesis. In the present study, chloroplast genetic engineering is used for the first time to our knowledge to enhance the capacity of plants for phytoremediation. This was achieved by integrating a native operon containing the merA and merB genes (without any codon modification), which code for mercuric ion reductase (merA) and organomercurial lyase (merB), respectively, into the chloroplast genome in a single transformation event. Stable integration of the merAB operon into the chloroplast genome resulted in high levels of tolerance to the organomercurial compound, phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) when grown in soil containing up to 400 micro M PMA; plant dry weights of the chloroplast transformed lines were significantly higher than those of wild type at 100, 200, and 400 micro M PMA. That the merAB operon was stably integrated into the chloroplast genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern-blot analyses. Northern-blot analyses revealed stable transcripts that were independent of the presence or absence of a 3'-untranslated region downstream of the coding sequence. The merAB dicistron was the more abundant transcript, but less abundant monocistrons were also observed, showing that specific processing occurs between transgenes. The use of chloroplast transformation to enhance Hg phytoremediation is particularly beneficial because it prevents the escape of transgenes via pollen to related weeds or crops and there is no need for codon optimization to improve transgene expression. Chloroplast transformation may also have application to other metals that affect chloroplast function. PMID:12857816

Ruiz, Oscar N; Hussein, Hussein S; Terry, Norman; Daniell, Henry

2003-07-01

202

Genetic Comparison of the Rhabdoviruses from Animals and Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 160 viral species in the Rhabdovidae family, most of which can be grouped into one of the six genera including Vesiculovirus, Lyssavirus, Ephemerovirus, Novirhabdovirus, Cytorhabdovirus, and Nucleorhabdovirus. These viruses are not only morphologically similar but also genetically related. Analysis of viral genes shows that rhabdoviruses are more closely related to each other than to viruses in

Z. F. Fu

203

Genetic Animal Models of Alcohol and Drug Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and pharmacological responses of selectively bred and inbred rodent lines have been analyzed to elucidate many features of drug sensitivity and the adverse effects of drugs, the underlying mechanisms of drug tolerance and dependence, and the motivational states underlying drug reward and aversion. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has been used to identify provisional chromosomal locations of

John C. Crabbe; John K. Belknap; Kari J. Buck

1994-01-01

204

76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide...believe are plant pests. Such genetically engineered (GE) organisms and products...California by the Center for Food Safety, other...

2011-02-02

205

Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.  

PubMed

Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments. PMID:19326030

Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

2009-01-01

206

Agent-Based Simulation of Animal Behaviour. Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper it is shown how animal behavior can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behavior, varying from purely reactive behavior to pro-active, social and adaptive behavior. The compositional devel...

C. M. Jonker J. Treur

1998-01-01

207

The SEA Language for System Engineering and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the hierarchical, graphical SEA Language. The SEA Language relies on extended Predicate Transition Nets that unambiguously define the semantics of graphical system specifications. These nets are also used as a basis for simulating\\/animating system specifications. The SEA Language allows to easily incorporate several user defined or standardized graphical symbols and their behaviour. Via this approach a unified

Bernd Kleinjohann; E. Kleinjohann; Jürgen Tacken

1996-01-01

208

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models in Cancer Research  

PubMed Central

Mouse models of human cancer have played a vital role in understanding tumorigenesis and answering experimental questions that other systems cannot address. Advances continue to be made that allow better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor development, and therefore the identification of better therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. We review major advances that have been made in modeling cancer in the mouse and specific areas of research that have been explored with mouse models. For example, although there are differences between mice and humans, new models are able to more accurately model sporadic human cancers by specifically controlling timing and location of mutations, even within single cells. As hypotheses are developed in human and cell culture systems, engineered mice provide the most tractable and accurate test of their validity in vivo. For example, largely through the use of these models, the microenvironment has been established to play a critical role in tumorigenesis, since tumor development and the interaction with surrounding stroma can be studied as both evolve. These mouse models have specifically fueled our understanding of cancer initiation, immune system roles, tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and the relevance of molecular diversity observed among human cancers. Currently, these models are being designed to facilitate in vivo imaging to track both primary and metastatic tumor development from much earlier stages than previously possible. Finally, the approaches developed in this field to achieve basic understanding are emerging as effective tools to guide much needed development of treatment strategies, diagnostic strategies, and patient stratification strategies in clinical research.

Walrath, Jessica C.; Hawes, Jessica J.; Van Dyke, Terry; Reilly, Karlyne M.

2012-01-01

209

The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

2012-01-01

210

Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed.

Johnson, E. J.

1982-01-01

211

Attitudes towards genetic engineering between change and stability: Results of a panel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering is not only a new modern technology but it is also a social object of technological assessment research. Genetic engineering is associated with moral and ethical concerns in society, political decisions, ecological impacts, and economics. These impacts are the foundation for the social linkages of genetic engineering. For that social linkages and cognitive association we have chosen the

Dieter Urban; Uwe Pfenning

2000-01-01

212

Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have shown that some microorganisms can play a significant role in removing the sulfur compound from coal. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and related species are such microorganisms. The objective of this project is to develop a genetic transformation system for Sulfolobus species so that they could become the ideal host to overproduce homologous and heterologous enzymes that are most effective for the removal of sulfur from coal, particularly organic sulfur. Last quarter, we have identified three chemicals that can inhibit the growth of S. Acidocaldarius. These chemicals can be part of the selection system for the development of a transformation system for S. acidocaldarius. Due to the fact that Sulfolobus shibatae B12 becomes increasingly more attractive as a host for housing genes encoding desulfurization enzymes, in this period we also studied the affect of these three chemicals to growth of S. shibatae B12. We found that S. shibatae B12 is also sensitive to these chemicals. This quarter we succeeded in the isolation and purification of the double-stranded DNA virus from S. shibatae B12. Furthermore, the individual EcoRI and BamH1 fragments of the virus have also been cloned into pUC19 plasmid. These plasmids will be used for the construction of the final E. coli-Sulfolobus shuttle vector. 5 Flurouracil (5FU) is one of the chemicals that inhibit growth of Sulfolobus. Resistance strain of S. acidocaldarius to 5FU has also been isolated. DNA from the 5FU resistance strain has also been isolated. 2 figs.

Ho, N.W.Y. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

1991-01-01

213

Vegetable oils and animal fats as alternative fuels for diesel engines with dual fuel operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils and animal fats are applicable as fuels in standard diesel engines after having adapted the fuel system for electronically controlled dual fuel regime oil\\/fat–fossil diesel. In this contribution, performance and emission characteristics of the engines running on rapeseed oil, lard, or chicken fat are given and compared to those of fossil diesel and fatty acid methyl esters. The

A. Kleinová; I. Vailing; J. Lábaj; J. Mikulec; J. Cvengroš

2011-01-01

214

Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications.

Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

2012-01-01

215

Distribution of genetic marker concentrations for fecal indicator bacteria in sewage and animal feces.  

PubMed

Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log(10) copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

Kelty, Catherine A; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A; Shanks, Orin C

2012-06-01

216

Genetic engineering of terpenoid metabolism attracts bodyguards to Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Herbivore-damaged plants release complex mixtures of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. To study the relevance of individual components of these mixtures for predator attraction, we manipulated herbivory-induced volatiles through genetic engineering. Metabolic engineering of terpenoids, which dominate the composition of many induced plant volatile bouquets, holds particular promise. By switching the subcellular localization of the introduced sesquiterpene synthase to the mitochondria, we obtained transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants emitting two new isoprenoids. These altered plants attracted carnivorous predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) that aid the plants' defense mechanisms. PMID:16179482

Kappers, Iris F; Aharoni, Asaph; van Herpen, Teun W J M; Luckerhoff, Ludo L P; Dicke, Marcel; Bouwmeester, Harro J

2005-09-23

217

Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics  

PubMed Central

The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

Prentice, Jennifer R.; Anzar, Muhammad

2011-01-01

218

Arsenite cocarcinogenesis: an animal model derived from genetic toxicology studies.  

PubMed Central

Although epidemiologic evidence shows an association between inorganic arsenic in drinking water and increased risk of skin, lung, and bladder cancers, no animal model for arsenic carcinogenesis has been successful. This lack has hindered mechanistic studies of arsenic carcinogenesis. Previously, we and others found that low concentrations (< or =5 microm) of arsenite (the likely environmental carcinogen), which are not mutagenic, can enhance the mutagenicity of other agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and alkylating agents. This enhancing effect appears to result from inhibition of DNA repair by arsenite, but not via inhibition of DNA repair enzymes. Rather, low concentrations of arsenite disrupt p53 function and upregulate cyclin D1. Failure to find an animal model for arsenic carcinogenesis might be because arsenite is not a carcinogen per se but acts as an enhancing agent (cocarcinogen) with a genotoxic partner. We tested this hypothesis with solar UVR in hairless but immunocompetent Skh1 mice. Mice were given 10 mg/L sodium arsenite in drinking water (or not) and irradiated with 1.7 KJ/m(2) solar UVR 3 times weekly. As expected, no tumors appeared in any organs in control mice or in mice given arsenite alone. After 26 weeks irradiated mice given arsenite had a 2.4-fold increase in skin tumor yield compared with mice given UVR alone. The tumors were mostly squamous cell carcinomas, and those occurring in mice given UVR plus arsenite were much larger and more invasive. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that arsenic acts as a cocarcinogen with a second (genotoxic) agent by inhibiting DNA repair and/or enhancing positive growth signaling. Skin cancers in populations drinking water containing arsenic may be caused by the enhancement by arsenic compounds of carcinogenesis induced by UVR (or other environmental agents). It is possible that lung and bladder cancers associated with arsenic in drinking water may also require a carcinogenic partner.

Rossman, Toby G; Uddin, Ahmed N; Burns, Fredric J; Bosland, Maarten C

2002-01-01

219

DNA signatures for detecting genetic engineering in bacteria  

PubMed Central

Using newly designed computational tools we show that, despite substantial shared sequences between natural plasmids and artificial vector sequences, a robust set of DNA oligomers can be identified that can differentiate artificial vector sequences from all available background viral and bacterial genomes and natural plasmids. We predict that these tools can achieve very high sensitivity and specificity rates for detecting new unsequenced vectors in microarray-based bioassays. Such DNA signatures could be important in detecting genetically engineered bacteria in environmental samples.

Allen, Jonathan E; Gardner, Shea N; Slezak, Tom R

2008-01-01

220

Ordering of Quantum Dots Using Genetically Engineered Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid crystal system was used for the fabrication of a highly ordered composite material from genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanocrystals. The bacteriophage, which formed the basis of the self-ordering system, were selected to have a specific recognition moiety for ZnS crystal surfaces. The bacteriophage were coupled with ZnS solution precursors and spontaneously evolved a self-supporting

Seung-Wuk Lee; Chuanbin Mao; Christine E. Flynn; Angela M. Belcher

2002-01-01

221

What are the prospects for genetically engineered, disease resistant plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect and herbicide-resistant plants are the most widely grown transgenics in agricultural production. No strategy using\\u000a genetically engineered plants for disease resistance has had a comparable impact. Why is this? What are the prospects for\\u000a introducing transgenic disease resistant plants to agriculture? We review the biological background for strategies used to\\u000a make disease resistant GM crops, illustrate examples of these

David B. Collinge; Ole Søgaard Lund; Hans Thordal-Christensen

222

20 years studying p53 functions in genetically engineered mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell and molecular biological studies of p53 functions over the past 30 years have been complemented in the past 20 years by studies that use genetically engineered mice. As expected, mice that have mutant Trp53 alleles usually develop cancers of various types more rapidly than their counterparts that have wild-type Trp53 genes. These mouse studies have been instrumental in providing

Lawrence A. Donehower; Guillermina Lozano

2009-01-01

223

Competitiveness of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Trichoderma virens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intraspecific competitiveness of a genetically engineered strain of Trichoderma virens was assessed relative to the non-transformed, progenitor strain and an isogenic, auxotrophic strain using a replacement series\\u000a design. The transformed strain was less fit, but appeared more competitive than the wild type or the auxotroph in this assay.\\u000a To validate this finding and to evaluate the ability of a

Mark A. Weaver; Charles M. Kenerley

2008-01-01

224

Preparation of an antibacterial peptide bovine lactoferricin by genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactoferricin (Lfcin) is an amphipathic and cationic peptide with strong antibacterial activities against a broad range of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria. It is usually generated by the pepsin-mediated digestion of lactoferrin. This paper investigated the potential for production of bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) through genetic engineering. Three primers were designed according to amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferricin and then used to

Qiang Deng; Bate; Zhuoping Ding; Chengchu Liu; Jianzhang Lu

2010-01-01

225

Procedures for microencapsulation of enzymes, cells and genetically engineered microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to microencapsulate enzyme, cells, and genetically engineered cells have been described in this article. More specific\\u000a examples of enzyme encapsulation include the microencapsulation of xanthine oxidase for Lesch-Nyhan disease; phenylalanine\\u000a ammonia lyase for pheny, ketonuria and microencapsulation of multienzyme systems with cofactor recycling for multistep enzyme\\u000a conversions. Methods for cell encapsulation include the details for encapsulating hepatocytes for liver

T. M. S. Chang; S. Prakash

2001-01-01

226

Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.  

PubMed

Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200 embryos exist presently. An important challenge for this program is to make the different segments of society realize the importance of the conservation of animal genetic resources. PMID:11775972

Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

2002-01-01

227

The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.  

PubMed

There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

2013-11-01

228

The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations  

PubMed Central

There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable.

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve

2013-01-01

229

A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference  

PubMed Central

Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative" or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (co)variance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean) being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models, residual variance on the underlying scale is not identifiable. Hence, variance of fully confounded Mendelian sampling deviations cannot be identified either, but can be inferred from the between-family variation. In the new algorithm, breeding values are sampled as in a standard animal model using the full relationship matrix, but genetic (co)variance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents) only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents). Results When applied to simulated data sets, the standard animal threshold model failed to produce useful results since samples of genetic variance always drifted towards infinity, while the new algorithm produced proper parameter estimates essentially identical to the results from a sire-dam model (given the fact that no individual records exist for the parents). Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to the sire-dam model). Conclusions The new algorithm to estimate genetic parameters via Gibbs sampling solves the bias problems typically occurring in animal threshold model analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal. Furthermore, the method considerably speeds up mixing properties of the Gibbs sampler with respect to genetic parameters, which would be an advantage of any linear or non-linear animal model.

2010-01-01

230

Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.

2013-01-01

231

Versatile RNA-sensing transcriptional regulators for engineering genetic networks  

PubMed Central

The widespread natural ability of RNA to sense small molecules and regulate genes has become an important tool for synthetic biology in applications as diverse as environmental sensing and metabolic engineering. Previous work in RNA synthetic biology has engineered RNA mechanisms that independently regulate multiple targets and integrate regulatory signals. However, intracellular regulatory networks built with these systems have required proteins to propagate regulatory signals. In this work, we remove this requirement and expand the RNA synthetic biology toolkit by engineering three unique features of the plasmid pT181 antisense-RNA-mediated transcription attenuation mechanism. First, because the antisense RNA mechanism relies on RNA-RNA interactions, we show how the specificity of the natural system can be engineered to create variants that independently regulate multiple targets in the same cell. Second, because the pT181 mechanism controls transcription, we show how independently acting variants can be configured in tandem to integrate regulatory signals and perform genetic logic. Finally, because both the input and output of the attenuator is RNA, we show how these variants can be configured to directly propagate RNA regulatory signals by constructing an RNA-meditated transcriptional cascade. The combination of these three features within a single RNA-based regulatory mechanism has the potential to simplify the design and construction of genetic networks by directly propagating signals as RNA molecules.

Lucks, Julius B.; Qi, Lei; Mutalik, Vivek K.; Wang, Denise; Arkin, Adam P.

2011-01-01

232

ICLAS Working Group on Harmonization: international guidance concerning the production care and use of genetically-altered animals.  

PubMed

Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, the ‘Three Rs’ of Russell & Burch, are accepted worldwide as fundamental to the ethics of animal experimentation. The production, care and use of genetically-altered animals can pose particular challenges to the implementation of the Three Rs,1 necessitating additional considerations by those responsible for overseeing the ethical use and appropriate care of animals involved in science. The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science brings representatives of the international laboratory animal science community together to recommend acceptance of guidance documents.The harmonization of guidance concerning genetically-altered animals was seen as a priority because of the increasing globalization of research involving these animals. PMID:23563121

Rose, M; Everitt, J; Hedrich, H; Schofield, J; Dennis, M; Scott, E; Griffin, G

2013-07-01

233

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

234

Cryobanking of farm animal gametes and embryos as a means of conserving livestock genetics.  

PubMed

In the last few decades, farm animal genetic diversity has rapidly declined, mainly due to changing market demands and intensification of agriculture. But, since the removal of single species can affect the functioning of global ecosystems, it is in the interest of international community to conserve the livestock genetics and to maintain biodiversity. Increasing awareness on the reduction of breed diversity has prompted global efforts for conservation of farm animal breeds. The goals of conservation are to keep genetic variation as gene combinations in a reversible form and to keep specific genes of interest. For this purpose two types of strategies are usually proposed: in situ and ex situ conservation. In situ conservation is the breed maintaining within the livestock production system, in its environment through the enhancement of its production characteristics. Ex situ in vivo conservation is the safeguard of live animals in zoos, wildlife parks, experimental farms or other specialized centres. Ex situ in vitro conservation is the preservation of genetic material in haploid form (semen and oocytes), diploid (embryos) or DNA sequences. In the last few years, ex situ in vitro conservation programs of livestock genetic resources have focused interest on cryopreservation of gametes, embryos and somatic cells as well as testis and ovarian tissues, effectively lengthening the genetic lifespan of individuals in a breeding program even after the death. However, although significant progress has been made in semen, oocytes and embryo cryopreservation of several domestic species, a standardized procedure has not been established yet. The aim of the present review is to describe the cryobanking purposes, the collection goals, the type of genetic material to store and the reproductive biotechnologies utilized for the cryopreservation of farm animal gametes and embryos. PMID:23477753

Mara, L; Casu, Sara; Carta, A; Dattena, M

2013-02-22

235

Dynamics of livestock production systems, drivers of change and prospects for animal genetic resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This overview analyses the key drivers of change in the global livestock sector and assesses how they are influencing current trends and future prospects in the world's diverse livestock production systems and market chains; and what are their consequent impacts on the management of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. The trends are occurring in both developing and

Carlos Sere; Zijpp van der A. J; Gabrielle Persley; Ed Rege

2008-01-01

236

Deficits in fine motor skills in a genetic animal model of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. METHODS: We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), the most commonly used

Yu Qian; Gefei Lei; Francisco X Castellanos; Hans Forssberg; Rochellys Diaz Heijtz

2010-01-01

237

A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

2002-01-01

238

ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.  

PubMed

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

2011-11-01

239

Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications.

Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

2014-01-01

240

Genetic engineering: a matter that requires further refinement in Spanish secondary school textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with fundamental genetic principles, and how

M. V. Martínez-Gracia; M. J. Gil-Quýlez; J. Osada

2003-01-01

241

A CAL program to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering—a change from the traditional approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. The pro-gram makes extensive use of colour, graphics, and animation and is aimed at A-level students of biology. Students select, from a menu, to investigate one of a number of identified processes involved in the overall production of a protein,

D. G. Dewhurst; A. S. Meehan; A. Williams; D. Woods

1989-01-01

242

Water on Mars? / Genetically Engineered Organisms / Spring Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 46 minute radio broadcast discusses the NASA announcement in March 2004 that the rover Opportunity explored a crater on Mars that was once soaked with water - the most convincing evidence yet of a warm, wet past on Mars. Though the question of whether that water may have supported life remains, it certainly improves the odds. The second part of the broadcast discusses genetically engineered organisms. Researchers are investigating many different kinds of genetically-modified organisms, from plants that make their own pesticides, to faster-growing fish. There is discussion about the safety of such research, and what can be done to ensure that the environment is protected. Finally, there is a rundown of the spring 2004 highlights in the sky.

243

Genetically engineered microorganisms to rescue plants from frost injury.  

PubMed

Ice nucleation active bacteria belonging to genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Erwinia contribute to frost damage to plants by initiating the formation of ice in plants that would otherwise supercool and avoid the damaging ice formation. The biological control of frost injury can be achieved by the application of non-ice nucleation active bacteria to the plant surfaces before they become colonized by Ice+ species. ice genes have been cloned from Pseudomonas and isogenic Ice- derivatives constructed via genetic manipulations. These genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) have been released into the environment to control the frost damage. The incidence of frost injury to the plants has, thereby, been reduced by 50-85% during natural frosts. These GEMs do not survive in soil and show no aerial dispersal in the environment. PMID:8213308

Dar, G H; Anand, R C; Sharma, P K

1993-01-01

244

Somatic structural rearrangements in genetically engineered mouse mammary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Here we present the first paired-end sequencing of tumors from genetically engineered mouse models of cancer to determine\\u000a how faithfully these models recapitulate the landscape of somatic rearrangements found in human tumors. These were models\\u000a of Trp53-mutated breast cancer, Brca1- and Brca2-associated hereditary breast cancer, and E-cadherin (Cdh1) mutated lobular breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We show that although Brca1- and Brca2-deficient mouse

Ignacio Varela; Christiaan Klijn; Phillip J Stephens; Laura J Mudie; Lucy Stebbings; Danushka Galappaththige; Hanneke van der Gulden; Eva Schut; Sjoerd Klarenbeek; Peter J Campbell; Lodewyk FA Wessels; Michael R Stratton; Jos Jonkers; P Andrew Futreal; David J Adams

2010-01-01

245

Genetic engineering of cytokinins and their application to agriculture.  

PubMed

Cytokinins are master regulators of plant growth and development. They are involved in the regulation of many important physiological and metabolic processes. Recent progress in cytokinin research at the molecular level, including identification of related genes and cytokinin receptors, plus elucidation of signal transduction, has greatly increased our understanding of cytokinin actions. Although still in its infant stage, molecular breeding of crops with altered cytokinin metabolism, when combined with the transgenic approach, has shown very promising potential for application to agriculture. In this review we briefly introduce recent progress in cytokinin molecular biology, discuss applications of cytokinin genetic engineering to agriculture, and present implications and future research directions. PMID:18855152

Ma, Qing-Hu

2008-01-01

246

Genetic engineering and breeding of drought-resistant crops.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses affecting the productivity of most field crops. Elucidation of the complex mechanisms underlying drought resistance in crops will accelerate the development of new varieties with enhanced drought resistance. Here, we provide a brief review on the progress in genetic, genomic, and molecular studies of drought resistance in major crops. Drought resistance is regulated by numerous small-effect loci and hundreds of genes that control various morphological and physiological responses to drought. This review focuses on recent studies of genes that have been well characterized as affecting drought resistance and genes that have been successfully engineered in staple crops. We propose that one significant challenge will be to unravel the complex mechanisms of drought resistance in crops through more intensive and integrative studies in order to find key functional components or machineries that can be used as tools for engineering and breeding drought-resistant crops. PMID:24313844

Hu, Honghong; Xiong, Lizhong

2014-04-29

247

Cancer Regression in Patients After Transfer of Genetically Engineered Lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the adoptive transfer of lymphocytes after host immunodepletion, it is possible to mediate objective cancer regression in human patients with metastatic melanoma. However, the generation of tumor-specific T cells in this mode of immunotherapy is often limiting. Here we report the ability to specifically confer tumor recognition by autologous lymphocytes from peripheral blood by using a retrovirus that encodes a T cell receptor. Adoptive transfer of these transduced cells in 15 patients resulted in durable engraftment at levels exceeding 10% of peripheral blood lymphocytes for at least 2 months after the infusion. We observed high sustained levels of circulating, engineered cells at 1 year after infusion in two patients who both demonstrated objective regression of metastatic melanoma lesions. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of genetically engineered cells for the biologic therapy of cancer.

Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Wunderlich, John R.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Yang, James C.; Sherry, Richard M.; Royal, Richard E.; Topalian, Suzanne L.; Kammula, Udai S.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Zheng, Zhili; Nahvi, Azam; de Vries, Christiaan R.; Rogers-Freezer, Linda J.; Mavroukakis, Sharon A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

2006-10-01

248

Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs.  

PubMed

Aggression when pigs are mixed into new social groups has negative impacts on welfare and production. Aggressive behaviour is moderately heritable and could be reduced by genetic selection. The possible wider impacts of selection for reduced aggressiveness on handling traits and activity in the home pen were investigated using 1663 male and female pedigree pigs (898 purebred Yorkshire and 765 Yorkshire × Landrace). Aggressive behaviour was observed over 24 h after pigs were mixed at 10 weeks of age into groups balanced for unfamiliarity and weight. Aggression was highly heritable (duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting h2 = 0.47 ± 0.03, and duration of delivering one-sided aggression h2 = 0.34 ± 0.03). Three weeks after mixing, home pen inactivity (indicated by the frequency of lying) was observed over 24 h. Inactivity was weakly heritable (h2 = 0.05 ± 0.01) but showed no significant genetic association with aggression. Pigs' behaviour during handling by humans was assessed on entry to, whilst inside and on exit from a weigh crate at both mixing and end of test at 22 weeks. Pigs were generally easy to handle, moving easily into and out of the crate. Scores indicating 'very difficult to move' were rare. Handling scores at weighing were weakly heritable (h2 = 0.03 to 0.17), and moderately correlated across the two weighings (rg = 0.28 to 0.76). Aggressive behaviour at mixing was genetically associated with handling at the end of test weighing: pigs that fought and delivered one-sided aggression had handling scores indicating more active behaviour at weighing (e.g. moving quickly into the crate v. fighting rg = 0.41 ± 0.05 and v. bullying rg = 0.60 ± 0.04). Also, there was a genetic association between receiving one-side aggression at mixing and producing high-pitched vocalisations in the weigh crate (rg = 0.78 ± 0.08). Correlated behavioural responses occurring across different challenging situations (e.g. social mixing and human handling) have been described by the concept of animal temperament (also known as coping styles, personality or behavioural syndromes), but this has rarely been demonstrated at the genetic level in farm animals. These findings may have practical implications for the development of breeding programmes aimed at altering animal temperament. Breeding to reduce aggression could result in some reduction in activity at weighing. This would have consequences for animal production, because pigs which are inactive at weighing take longer to move into and out of the weigh crate, and perhaps also for animal welfare. PMID:22444987

D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

2009-11-01

249

Tissue engineering in animal models for urinary diversion: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research. PMID:24964011

Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; In't Hout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Feitz, Wout

2014-01-01

250

Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research.

Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; in't Hout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2014-01-01

251

76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...soybeans are likely to pose a plant pest risk, the draft EA...tests, and health effects of genetically modified organisms and...

2011-12-16

252

The Ecology and Evolution of Animal Medication: Genetically Fixed Response versus Phenotypic Plasticity *.  

PubMed

Abstract Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the evolution of genetically fixed versus phenotypically plastic forms of medication. Our model shows that the relative benefits (the antiparasitic properties of medicinal food) and costs (side effects of medicine, the costs of searching for medicine, and the costs of plasticity itself) crucially determine whether medication is genetically fixed or phenotypically plastic. Our model suggests that animals evolve phenotypic plasticity when parasite risk (a combination of virulence and prevalence and thus a measure of the strength of parasite-mediated selection) is relatively low to moderately high and genetically fixed medication when parasite risk becomes very high. The latter occurs because at high parasite risk, the costs of plasticity are outweighed by the benefits of medication. Our model provides a simple and general framework to study the conditions that drive the evolution of alternative forms of animal medication. PMID:25061676

Choisy, Marc; de Roode, Jacobus C

2014-08-01

253

Animal genetic resource trade flows: The utilization of newly imported breeds and the gene flow of imported animals in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal germplasm exchange has recently received attention as a product of the FAO's State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources effort. Some have advocated a need to explore policies and regulations on the exchange of germplasm (e.g., Hiemstra, S.J., Drucker, A., Tvedt, M., Louwaars, N., Oldenbroek, J., Awgichew, K., Kebede, S., Bhat, P., da Silva Mariante, A. 2006. Exchange, use

Harvey Blackburn; Douglas Gollin

2009-01-01

254

Teaching Habitat and Animal Classification to Fourth Graders Using an Engineering-Design Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGO[TM] engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented.…

Marulcu, Ismail

2014-01-01

255

POTENTIAL FOR TRANSFER AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ENGINEERED GENETIC SEQUENCES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The transfer of recombinant DNA molecules from the introduced organism to natural populations of bacteria may be an important factor in assessing the outcomes of planned release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. As genetic transfer is further investigated,...

256

Targeting Orthotopic Glioma in Mice with Genetically Engineered Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Objective With the growing interests of bacteria as a targeting vector for cancer treatment, diverse genetically engineered Salmonella has been reported to be capable of targeting primary or metastatic tumor regions after intravenous injection into mouse tumor models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capability of the genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to access the glioma xenograft, which was monitored in mouse brain tumor models using optical bioluminescence imaging technique. Methods U87 malignant glioma cells (U87-MG) stably transfected with firefly luciferase (Fluc) were implanted into BALB/cAnN nude mice by stereotactic injection into the striatum. After tumor formation, attenuated S. typhimurium expressing bacterial luciferase (Lux) was injected into the tail vein. Bioluminescence signals from transfected cells or bacteria were monitored using a cooled charge-coupled device camera to identify the tumor location or to trace the bacterial migration. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed in frozen sections of mouse glioma xenograft. Results The injected S. typhimurium exclusively localized in the glioma xenograft region of U87-MG-bearing mouse. Immunofluorescence staining also demonstrated the accumulation of S. typhimurium in the brain tumors. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that S. typhimurium can target glioma xenograft, and may provide a potentially therapeutic probe for glioma.

Wen, Min; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jiang, Shen Nan; Li, Song-Yuan; Min, Jung-Joon

2014-01-01

257

Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X.  

PubMed

Here we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X (PVX) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. Three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the PVX coat protein. When larger proteins or unfavorable peptide sequences are presented, a partial fusion via the FMDV 2A sequence is preferable. When these PVX chimeras retain the ability to assemble into viral particles and are thus able to infect plants systemically, they can be utilized to inoculate susceptible plants for isolation of sufficient amounts of virus particles for subsequent chemical modification. Chemical modification is required for the display of nonbiological ligands such as fluorophores, polymers, and small drug compounds. We present three methods of chemical bioconjugation. For direct conjugation of small chemical modifiers to solvent exposed lysines, N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry can be applied. Bio-orthogonal reactions such as copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or hydrazone ligation are alternatives to achieve more efficient conjugation (e.g., when working with high molecular weight or insoluble ligands). Furthermore, hydrazone ligation offers an attractive route for the introduction of pH-cleavable cargos (e.g., therapeutic molecules). PMID:24243237

Lee, Karin L; Uhde-Holzem, Kerstin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Nicole F

2014-01-01

258

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

259

Questions and answers on biotechnology permits for genetically engineered plants and microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The brochure answers questions about permits for the importation, interstate movement, or environmental release of certain genetically engineered plants and microorganisms regulated under 7 CFR Part 340.

Not Available

1991-04-01

260

Questions and Answers on Biotechnology Permits for Genetically Engineered Plants and Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The brochure answers questions about permits for the importation, interstate movement, or environmental release of certain genetically engineered plants and microorganisms regulated under 7 CFR Part 340.

1991-01-01

261

Preclinical in vitro models from genetically engineered mice for breast and colon cancer (Review).  

PubMed

Genetically engineered mice with targeted alterations in clinically relevant oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes or DNA mismatch repair genes provide unique predictive animal models for human carcinogenesis, and cancer prevention/therapy. However, some of the genetically engineered mouse models lack target organ specificity for colon carcinogenesis. We have established, characterized and validated stable epithelial cell lines from 'normal' and 'genetically' predisposed target organs that offer innovative and mechanistic approaches, complementing in vivo studies on existing animal models for clinical breast and colon cancer. Epithelial cell lines with up- regulated Ras or myc oncogene, mutated Apc tumor suppressor gene and Mlh1 DNA mismatch repair gene provide facile experimental systems for organ site carcinogenesis and cancer prevention. Altered expression of cancer specific biomarkers and their modulation by several synthetic pharmacological agents such as retinoids, selective estrogen receptor modulators, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and specific enzyme inhibitors have been reported from our laboratory. Oncogene expressing MMEC-Ras and MMEC-myc mammary epithelial cells, Apc mutant 850Min COL and 1638N COL, and DNA mismatch repair/Apc mutant Mlh1/1638N COL colon epithelial cells exhibit aberrant cell cycle progression, down-regulated apoptosis and enhanced carcinogenic risk in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. We have reported that relative to the parental 'normal' non-neoplastic cells, genetically 'altered' pre-neoplastic cells exhibit enhanced sensitivity for growth arrest by multiple mechanistically distinct pharmacological agents. Comparative experiments on isogenic 'normal' and genetically 'altered' target cell lines facilitate cancer selective efficacy and identification of susceptible mechanistic pathways. Treatment of these genetically 'altered' pre-neoplastic cells with low dose combination of mechanistically distinct pharmacological agents as well as naturally occurring phytochemicals induce cytostatic growth arrest, alter cell cycle progression and reduce carcinogenic risk. The availability of validated technology for model development, and for mechanism based biomarker assays now establishes a novel platform to rapidly test carcinogenicity and preventive/therapeutic efficacy of novel pharmacological agents as well as naturally occurring phytochemicals. Thus, these data permit rational prioritization of efficacious lead compounds for preclinical testing and future clinical trials for prevention/therapy of breast and colon cancer. PMID:21399881

Telang, Nitin; Katdare, Meena

2011-05-01

262

Convergent Functional Genomics of Bipolar Disorder: From Animal Model Pharmacogenomics to Human Genetics and Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Progress in understanding the genetic and neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder(s) has come from both human studies and animal model studies. Until recently, the lack of concerted integration between the two approaches has been hindering the pace of discovery, or more exactly, constituted a missed opportunity to accelerate our understanding of this complex and heterogeneous group of disorders. Our group has helped overcome this “lost in translation” barrier by developing an approach called Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG). The approach integrates animal model gene expression data with human genetic linkage/association data, as well as human tissue (postmortem brain, blood) data. This Bayesian strategy for cross-validating findings extracts meaning from large datasets, and prioritizes candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for subsequent targeted, hypothesis-driven research. The CFG approach may also be particularly useful for identification of blood biomarkers of the illness.

Le-Niculescu, H.; McFarland, M. J.; Mamidipalli, S.; Ogden, C. A.; Kuczenski, R.; Kurian, S. M.; Salomon, D. R.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Nurnberger, J. I.; Niculescu, A. B.

2009-01-01

263

Animator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

Tech Directions, 2008

2008-01-01

264

tRNA Modification and Genetic Code Variations in Animal Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

In animal mitochondria, six codons have been known as nonuniversal genetic codes, which vary in the course of animal evolution. They are UGA (termination codon in the universal genetic code changes to Trp codon in all animal mitochondria), AUA (Ile to Met in most metazoan mitochondria), AAA (Lys to Asn in echinoderm and some platyhelminth mitochondria), AGA/AGG (Arg to Ser in most invertebrate, Arg to Gly in tunicate, and Arg to termination in vertebrate mitochondria), and UAA (termination to Tyr in a planaria and a nematode mitochondria, but conclusive evidence is lacking in this case). We have elucidated that the anticodons of tRNAs deciphering these nonuniversal codons (tRNATrp for UGA, tRNAMet for AUA, tRNAAsn for AAA, and tRNASer and tRNAGly for AGA/AGG) are all modified; tRNATrp has 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNAMet has 5-formylcytidine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNASer has 7-methylguanosine and tRNAGly has 5-taurinomethyluridine in their anticodon wobble position, and tRNAAsn has pseudouridine in the anticodon second position. This review aims to clarify the structural relationship between these nonuniversal codons and the corresponding tRNA anticodons including modified nucleosides and to speculate on the possible mechanisms for explaining the evolutional changes of these nonuniversal codons in the course of animal evolution.

Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Yokobori, Shin-ichi

2011-01-01

265

Surveys suck: Consumer preferences when purchasing genetically engineered foods.  

PubMed

Many studies have attempted to gauge consumers' acceptance of genetically engineered or modified (GM) foods. Surveys, asking people about attitudes and intentions, are easy-to-collect proxies of consumer behavior. However, participants tend to respond as citizens of society, not discrete individuals, thereby inaccurately portraying their potential behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior improved the accuracy of self-reported information, but its limited capacity to account for intention variance has been attributed to the hypothetical scenarios to which survey participants must respond. Valuation methods, asking how much consumers may be willing to pay or accept for GM foods, have revealed that consumers are usually willing to accept them at some price, or in some cases willing to pay a premium. Ultimately, it's consumers' actual--not intended--behavior that is of most interest to policy makers and business decision-makers. Real choice experiments offer the best avenue for revealing consumers' food choices in normal life. PMID:24281042

Powell, Douglas A

2013-01-01

266

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric ?3?4 and ?4?2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

2012-02-01

267

Bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater by genetically engineered Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered E. coli, which express both a Hg2+ transport system and metallothionein, were tested for their ability to remove mercury from wastewater. The wastewater contained more than ten different ions, including 2.58 mg/l mercury, and its pH was 9.6. Mercury uptake was faster from the wastewater than from distilled water, probably because of the higher ionic strength, as the high pH had little effect on mercury accumulation. EDTA also stimulated mercury uptake rather than inhibiting it. A hollow-fiber bioreactor was used to retain induced cells for continuous mercury uptake. The cells removed more than 99% of the mercury in the wastewater and the final amount of mercury accumulated was 26.8 mg/g cell dry weight, while none of the other ions were removed from the water. These results indicated that the induced cells had a high affinity and specificity for mercury. PMID:11499944

Deng, X; Wilson, D B

2001-07-01

268

Novel method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment.  

PubMed Central

A method has been devised for directly detecting and monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) by using in vitro amplification of the target DNAs by a polymerase chain reaction and then hybridizing the DNAs with a specific oligonucleotide or DNA probe. A cloned 0.3-kilobase napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) genomic DNA that did not hybridize to DNAs isolated from various microorganisms, soil sediments, and aquatic environments was inserted into a derivative of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmid, pRC10, and transferred into Escherichia coli. This genetically altered microorganism, seeded into filter-sterilized lake and sewage water samples (10(4)/ml), was detected by a plate count method in decreasing numbers for 6 and 10 days of sample incubation, respectively. The new method detected the amplified unique marker (0.3-kilobase DNA) of the GEM even after 10 to 14 days of incubation. This method is highly sensitive (it requires only picogram amounts of DNA) and has an advantage over the plate count technique, which can detect only culturable microorganisms. The method may be useful for monitoring GEMs in complex environments, where discrimination between GEMs and indigenous microorganisms is either difficult or requires time-consuming tests. Images

Chaudhry, G R; Toranzos, G A; Bhatti, A R

1989-01-01

269

Genetic Engineering: A Matter that Requires Further Refinement in Spanish Secondary School Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with…

Martinez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quylez, M. J.; Osada, J.

2003-01-01

270

Luminescence-based whole-cell-sensing systems for cadmium and lead using genetically engineered bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-cell-based sensing systems that respond to cadmium and lead ions have been designed and developed using genetically engineered bacteria. These systems take advantage of the ability of certain bacteria to survive in environments polluted with cadmium and lead ions. The bacteria used in this investigation have been genetically engineered to produce reporter proteins in response to the toxic ions. This

Ranjit S. Shetty; Sapna K. Deo; Puja Shah; Yan Sun; Barry P. Rosen; Sylvia Daunert

2003-01-01

271

Inexact genetic algorithm approach to target values setting of engineering requirements in QFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Quality Function Deployment, determination of the target values for engineering requirements is the most difficult process. A fuzzy optimization model is presented for the determination of target values for engineering requirements in Quality Function Deployment. An inexact genetic algorithm approach was introduced to solve the model that takes the mutation along the weighted gradient direction as a genetic operator.

H. Bai; C. K. Kwong

2003-01-01

272

Gender Differences in the Perception of Genetic Engineering Applied to Human Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire-survey of public perception of the desirability, risks, and benefits associated with current and potential applications of genetic engineering techniques to manipulate the outcome of human reproduction was conducted on 111 male and 135 female respondents. The proportion (63%) of male respondents who hold a positive impression that genetic engineering is a socially beneficial field of scientific research was

Carol L. Napolitano; Oladele A. Ogunseitan

1999-01-01

273

The influence of initial attitudes on responses to communication about genetic engineering in food production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source credibility has been thought to bean important determinant of peoples‘ reactions toinformation about technology. There has also been muchdebate about the need to communicate effectively withthe public about genetic engineering, particularlywithin the context of food production. Questionnaireswere used to investigate the impact of sourcecredibility, admission of risk uncertainty, andinitial attitude towards genetic engineering onattitudes of respondents after information provision.120

Lynn J. Frewer; Chaya Howard; Richard Shepherd

1998-01-01

274

A 3D character animation engine for multimodal interaction on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Talking virtual characters are graphical simulations of real or imaginary persons that enable natural and pleasant multimodal interaction with the user, by means of voice, eye gaze, facial expression and gestures. This paper presents an implementation of a 3D virtual character animation and rendering engine, compliant with the MPEG-4 standard, running on Symbian-based SmartPhones. Real-time animation of virtual characters on mobile devices represents a challenging task, since many limitations must be taken into account with respect to processing power, graphics capabilities, disk space and execution memory size. The proposed optimization techniques allow to overcome these issues, guaranteeing a smooth and synchronous animation of facial expressions and lip movements on mobile phones such as Sony-Ericsson's P800 and Nokia's 6600. The animation engine is specifically targeted to the development of new "Over The Air" services, based on embodied conversational agents, with applications in entertainment (interactive story tellers), navigation aid (virtual guides to web sites and mobile services), news casting (virtual newscasters) and education (interactive virtual teachers).

Sandali, Enrico; Lavagetto, Fabio; Pisano, Paolo

2005-03-01

275

Interim Report on the Genetic and Animal Toxicity Testing of SRC-I Products, Intermediates, and Waste Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the interim results of the genetic and animal toxicity testing program; of SRC-I products, process intermediates, and waste materials. It also discusses the structure of the program, including the philosophy underlying its design, as ...

B. Z. Drozdowicz C. M. Kelly

1983-01-01

276

A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

277

Genetics of alcoholism: a review of recent studies in human and animal models.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence for a significant genetic component to the risk of alcoholism. In searching for genes that contribute to this risk, several approaches may be utilized in order to identify the genetic loci underlying alcoholism susceptibility. Several candidate genes have been evaluated for their role in alcoholism; however, with the exception of the enzymes of alcohol metabolism, results from these studies have been inconsistent. Recently, two large studies have employed a genome screen methodology to identify novel genes contributing to the risk of alcoholism. As an alternative strategy, researchers have utilized mouse and rat models to identify quantitative trait loci influencing alcohol preference. Through the development of congenic lines and transgenic and knock-out animals, candidate genes can be identified and evaluated for their role in alcohol preference. PMID:10598210

Foroud, T; Li, T K

1999-01-01

278

Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Infected Animals Reveal Genetic Exchange in Unisexual, ? Mating Type Populations? †  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction and genetic exchange are important for the evolution of fungal pathogens and for producing potentially infective spores. Studies to determine whether sex occurs in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii have produced enigmatic results, however: basidiospores are the most likely infective propagules, and clinical isolates are fertile and genetically diverse, consistent with a sexual species, but almost all populations examined consist of a single mating type and have little evidence for genetic recombination. The choice of population is critical when looking for recombination, particularly when significant asexual propagation is likely and when latency may complicate assessing the origin of an isolate. We therefore selected isolates from infected animals living in the region of Sydney, Australia, with the assumption that the relatively short life spans and limited travels of the animal hosts would provide a very defined population. All isolates were mating type ? and were of molecular genotype VNI or VNII. A lack of linkage disequilibrium among loci suggested that genetic exchange occurred within both genotype groups. Four diploid VNII isolates that produced filaments and basidium-like structures when cultured in proximity to an a mating type strain were found. Recent studies suggest that compatible ?-? unions can occur in C. neoformans var. neoformans populations and in populations of the sibling species Cryptococcus gattii. As a mating type strains of C. neoformans var. grubii have never been found in Australia, or in the VNII molecular type globally, the potential for ?-? unions is evidence that ?-? unisexual mating maintains sexual recombination and diversity in this pathogen and may produce infectious propagules.

Bui, Tien; Lin, Xiaorong; Malik, Richard; Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee

2008-01-01

279

Production and characterization of genetically engineered antibody molecules.  

PubMed

Expression of antibody heavy- and light-chain genes by transfection permits the production of monoclonal antibodies with improved biological and antigen-binding properties. The immunoglobulin genes are placed in vectors containing a gene for encoding a protein that provides a biochemically selectable function in eukaryotic cells; these vectors are transfected into myeloma and hybridoma cells. Selection of drug-resistant cells permits the efficient isolation of the rare cells that express the transfected DNA. By placing heavy and light chains on plasmids with different selectable markers, one can deliver heavy- and light-chain genes simultaneously to the same cell. The transfected immunoglobulin genes are efficiently expressed and the proteins produced are a faithful mirror of the genes that were introduced. Using the standard techniques of genetic engineering and gene transfection, we can now produce antibodies of widely varying structures, including chimeric antibodies with segments derived from different species. These antibodies provide useful reagents to study structure-function relationships within the antibody molecule. Ultimately it will be possible to produce a new generation of antibody molecules with improved antigen-binding properties and effector functions. PMID:3138036

Morrison, S L; Canfield, S; Porter, S; Tan, L K; Tao, M H; Wims, L A

1988-09-01

280

N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant, confers protection to animals exposed to DEPs from oxidative stress-induced damage to the lung. To study this, male C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with either NACA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline, were exposed to DEPs (15mg/m(3)) or filtered air (1.5-3h/day) for nine consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last exposure. NACA-treated animals exposed to DEP had significant decreases in the number of macrophages and the amount of mucus plug formation in the lungs, as compared to the DEP-only exposed animals. In addition, DEP-exposed animals, pretreated with NACA, also experienced significantly lower oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Further, DEP-induced toxicity in the lungs was reversed in NACA-treated animals, as indicated by the lactate dehydrogenase levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-antioxidant, NACA, can protect the lungs from DEP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress related damage. PMID:19429263

Banerjee, Atrayee; Trueblood, Max B; Zhang, Xinsheng; Manda, Kalyan Reddy; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip D; Hagen, Donald E; Ercal, Nuran

2009-06-22

281

Comparison of the Engine Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Vegetable Oil-Based and Animal FatBased Biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

These comments are intended as a response to the Environmental Protection Agency's request for public comment on the proposed rule change to permit animal- and vegetable- derived biodiesel fuels to be grouped together. The discussion provided in this document supports the grouping of these fuels based on their similar engine performance and emissions characteristics. - Emissions comparison of animal- and

Jon Van Gerpen

1996-01-01

282

Genetically-engineered microorganisms: I. Identification, classification, and strain history.  

PubMed

We have argued that accurate identification of the microorganism will form a cornerstone of the assessment of potential hazard. Appropriate methodology for identification exists, and is continually under development and refinement. Organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection will perform certified identifications for relatively low cost. Thus there appears to be little reason that an organism should not be identified insofar as current microbiology allows prior to submission for PMN review. We suggest that a complete microbiological characterization be considered an essential element of an acceptable PMN. To accomplish this, however, current institutional arrangements for the protection of trade secret information needed in the process of identification may need to be improved. An accurate identification of the strain will often provide access to important information with which to evaluate its ecology, pathogenicity, biochemistry, and genetics. Specialized texts, the scientific literature, and professional consultation are ready sources of such information. However, a major effort should be made to establish a data base that can specifically address the needs of biohazard evaluation. This could be done, in part, by collecting information about the construction, and about the behavior in the environment of genetically-engineered microorganisms that are now under development and will soon be tested or used. Identification information may also eventually be useful for the formulation of hypotheses about possible modes of harm or about relative safety, based on phylogenetic relationships. This is a very difficult undertaking at present, however. Microbial taxonomy is currently in a process of radical reevaluation as new macromolecular sequence information reveals previously unsuspected phylogenetic relationships, and disturbs categorizations based on older types of traits such as morphology, etc. This means that both inferences about relative safety and about possible modes of harm from taxonomic relationships must be highly tentative based on current information. Regulatory authorities may wish to consider requesting confirmatory DNA hybridization data or other macromolecular sequence comparisons in cases where strong arguments related to safety must be made from taxonomic information in relatively poorly studied groups of organisms. Detailed strain histories would provide valuable information for safety evaluations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3517974

Strauss, H; Hattis, D; Page, G; Harrison, K; Vogel, S; Caldart, C

1986-03-01

283

Immune Competency of a Hairless Mouse Strain for Improved Preclinical Studies in Genetically-Engineered Mice  

PubMed Central

Genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are of increasing value to preclinical therapeutics. Optical imaging is a cost-effective method of assessing deep-seated tumor growth in GEMMs whose tumors can be encoded to express luminescent or fluorescent reporters, although reporter signal attenuation would be improved if animals were fur-free. In this study, we sought to determine whether hereditable furlessness resulting from a hypomorphic mutation in the Hairless gene would or would not also affect immune competence. By assessment of humoral and cellular immunity of the SKH1 mouse line bearing the hypomorphic Hairless mutation, we determined that blood counts, immunoglobulin levels, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were comparable between SKH1 and the C57Bl/6 strain. On examination of T cell subsets, statistically significant differences in naïve T cells (1.7 vs. 3.4 × 105 cells/spleen in SKH1 vs. C57Bl/6, p=0.008) and memory T cells (1.4 vs. 0.13 × 106 cells/spleen in SKH1 vs. C57Bl/6, p=0.008) were detected. However, the numerical differences did not result in altered T cell functional response to antigen re-challenge (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) in a lymph node cell in vitro proliferative assay. Furthermore, interbreeding the SKH1 mouse line to a rhabdomyosarcoma GEMM demonstrated preserved anti-tumor responses of CD56+ Natural Killer cells and CD163+ macrophages, without any differences in tumor pathology. The fur-free GEMM was also especially amenable to multiplex optical imaging. Thus, SKH1 represents an immune competent, fur-free mouse strain which may be of use for interbreeding to other genetically-engineered mouse models of cancer for improved preclinical studies.

Schaffer, Beverly S.; Grayson, Marcia H.; Wortham, Joy M.; Kubicek, Courtney B.; McCleish, Amanda T.; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Nelon, Laura D.; Brady, Michelle M.; Jung, Inkyung; Hosoyama, Tohru; Sarro, Leslea M.; Hanes, Martha A.; Rubin, Brian P.; Michalek, Joel E.; Clifford, Charles B.; Infante, Anthony J.; Keller, Charles

2010-01-01

284

Murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a genetically complex disease, with multiple factors having an impact on onset, progression, and response to therapy. Genetic differences/abnormalities have been found in hematopoietic stem cells from patients, as well as in B lymphocytes of individuals with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who may develop the disease. Furthermore, after the onset of CLL, additional genetic alterations occur over time, often causing disease worsening and altering patient outcomes. Therefore, being able to genetically engineer mouse models that mimic CLL or at least certain aspects of the disease will help us understand disease mechanisms and improve treatments. This notwithstanding, because neither the genetic aberrations responsible for leukemogenesis and progression nor the promoting factors that support these are likely identical in character or influences for all patients, genetically engineered mouse models will only completely mimic CLL when all of these factors are precisely defined. In addition, multiple genetically engineered models may be required because of the heterogeneity in susceptibility genes among patients that can have an effect on genetic and environmental characteristics influencing disease development and outcome. For these reasons, we review the major murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models in use at the present time, aiming to report the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:25048783

Chen, Shih-Shih; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

2014-07-01

285

KERNELPOP , a spatially explicit population genetic simulation engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual-based, spatially explicit models provide a mechanism to understand distributions of individuals on the landscape; however, few models have been coupled with population genetics. The primary benefits of such a combination is to assess performance of population- genetic estimators in realistic situations. KERNELPOP represents a flexible framework to implement almost any arbitrary population-genetic and demographic model in a spatially explicit

ALLAN E. S TRAND; JAMES M. N IEHAUS

286

Genetic adaptive state estimation for a jet engine compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic algorithm (GA) uses the principles of evolution, natural selection, and genetics to offer a method for parallel search of complex spaces. In this paper we develop a GA that can perform online adaptive state estimation. First, we show how to construct a genetic adaptive state estimator where a GA evolves the model in a state estimator in real

James R. Gremling; Kevin M. Passino

1997-01-01

287

MICROBIAL TROPHIC INTERACTIONS IN AQUATIC MICROCOSMS DESIGNED FOR TESTING GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS: A FIELD COMPARISON  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms may potentially be used as tools for evaluating the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment. xtrapolation of data to the field, however, requires that the correspondence between microcosm and field is known. icrobial trop...

288

Survival of Genetically Engineered Microbes in the Environment: Effect of Host/Vector Relationship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fate and survival of genetically engineered microbes is dependent on the survival, establishment, and growth of the microbial host, as well as on the maintenance, replication, and segregation of the recombinant plasmids within the bacterial host popul...

M. A. Devanas G. Stotzky

1988-01-01

289

Environmental Risks from Genetically Engineered Plants: EPA Research Needs for Regulatory Action.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Genetically engineered plants (GEPs) that express new or improved pesticidal properties, enhanced resistance to herbicides, improved nutritional value, and resistance to disease have been created. Heightened awareness of environmental and health concerns ...

V. Halpin M. A. Levin

1993-01-01

290

Calibration of Greenhouse and the Field for Survival of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of current concerns regarding the release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment, the fate, survival, and effects of many GEMs will need to be evaluated in small-scale releases performed in controlled, contained envir...

K. Donegan J. Armstrong C. Matyac R. J. Seidler

1990-01-01

291

Survival Differences among Freeze-Dried Genetically Engineered and Wild-Type Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the death mechanisms of freeze-dried and air-dried bacteria are thought to be similar, freeze-drying was used to investigate the survival differences between potentially airborne genetically engineered microorganisms and their wild types. To this ...

E. Israeli B. T. Shaffer J. A. Hoyt B. Lighthart L. M. Ganio

1993-01-01

292

USE OF A NOVEL PLASMID TO MONITOR THE FATE OF A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA STRAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Plasmid pSI30 was constructed to increase the sensitivity of detection of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and its recombinant DNA in environmental samples. his broad host-range, mobilizable plasmid contained chlorocatechol (clc) degradative genes, antibiotic resistan...

293

Methods to Measure the Influence of Genetically Engineered Bacteria on Ecological Processes in Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the document is to summarize the methods and concepts that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, ...

G. Stotzky

1990-01-01

294

Microcosm for Measuring Survival and Conjugation of Genetically Engineered Bacteria in Rhizosphere Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A microcosm is described to evaluate and measure bacterial conjugation in the rhizosphere of barley andd radish with strains of Pseudomonas cepacia. The purpose was to describe a standard method useful for evaluating the propensity of genetically engineer...

M. V. Walter L. A. Porteous V. J. Prince L. Ganio R. J. Seidler

1991-01-01

295

78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...introduction of certain genetically engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation...7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through...or release into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced...

2013-02-27

296

Gene flow in genetically engineered perennial grasses: Lessons for modification of dedicated bioenergy crops  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential ecological consequences of the commercialization of genetically engineered (GD) crops have been the subject of intense debate, particularly when the GE crops are perennial and capable of outcrossing to wild relatives. The essential ecological impact issues for engi...

297

Ethanol production from wood hydrolysate using genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

An ethanologenic microorganism capable of fermenting all of the sugars released from lignocellulosic biomass through a saccharification process is essential for secondary bioethanol production. We therefore genetically engineered the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis such that it efficiently produced bioethanol from the hydrolysate of wood biomass containing glucose, mannose, and xylose as major sugar components. This was accomplished by introducing genes encoding mannose and xylose catabolic enzymes from Escherichia coli. Integration of E. coli manA into Z. mobilis chromosomal DNA conferred the ability to co-ferment mannose and glucose, producing 91 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol within 36 h. Then, by introducing a recombinant plasmid harboring the genes encoding E. coli xylA, xylB, tal, and tktA, we broadened the range of fermentable sugar substrates for Z. mobilis to include mannose and xylose as well as glucose. The resultant strain was able to ferment a mixture of 20 g/l glucose, 20 g/l mannose, and 20 g/l xylose as major sugar components of wood hydrolysate within 72 h, producing 89.8 % of the theoretical yield. The recombinant Z. mobilis also efficiently fermented actual acid hydrolysate prepared from cellulosic feedstock containing glucose, mannose, and xylose. Moreover, a reactor packed with the strain continuously produced ethanol from acid hydrolysate of wood biomass from coniferous trees for 10 days without accumulation of residual sugars. Ethanol productivity was at 10.27 g/l h at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1). PMID:22573268

Yanase, Hideshi; Miyawaki, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Mitsugu; Kawakami, Akinori; Matsumoto, Mari; Haga, Kenji; Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji

2012-06-01

298

Genetically engineered ER?-positive breast cancer mouse models.  

PubMed

The majority of human breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), but this has proven challenging to model in genetically engineered mice. This review summarizes information on 21 mouse models that develop ER+ mammary cancer. Where available, information on cancer pathology and gene expression profiles is referenced to assist in understanding which histological subtype of ER+ human cancer each model might represent. ESR1, CCDN1, prolactin, TGF?, AIB1, ESPL1, and WNT1 overexpression, PIK3CA gain of function, as well as loss of P53 (Trp53) or STAT1 are associated with ER+ mammary cancer. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist efatutazone in a mouse with Brca1 and p53 deficiency and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene exposure in combination with an activated myristoylated form of AKT1 also induce ER+ mammary cancer. A spontaneous mutant in nude mice that develops metastatic ER+ mammary cancer is included. Age of cancer development ranges from 3 to 26 months and the percentage of cancers that are ER+ vary from 21 to 100%. Not all models are characterized as to their estrogen dependency and/or response to anti-hormonal therapy. Strain backgrounds include C57Bl/6, FVB, BALB/c, 129S6/SvEv, CB6F1, and NIH nude. Most models have only been studied on one strain background. In summary, while a range of models are available for studies of pathogenesis and therapy of ER+ breast cancers, many could benefit from further characterization, and opportunity for development of new models remains. PMID:24481326

Dabydeen, Sarah A; Furth, Priscilla A

2014-01-01

299

Preparation and properties of microencapsulated genetically engineered bacteria cells for oral therapy of uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microencapsulated genetically engineered bacteria cells are a novel approach of oral therapy for uremia. Klebsiella aerogenes urease genes (UreaDABCEFG) are transformed into E. coli DH5? cells through plasmid pKAU17. The transformant can use urea or ammonia as its sole nitrogen source through strain training.\\u000a The urease genetically engineered bacteria cells are entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microcapsules, which can be

Hong Gao; Yaoting Yu; Baoli Cai; Manyan Wang

2004-01-01

300

Containment of a genetically engineered microorganism during a field bioremediation application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field release of a genetically engineered microorganism was performed at the Field Lysimeter Site on the Oak Ridge Reservation.\\u000a Six large lysimeters were filled with soil that had been contaminated with a mixture of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene.\\u000a A genetically engineered bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, was sprayed onto the surface of the soil during soil loading. This strain

C. Z. Ford; G. S. Sayler; R. S. Burlage

1999-01-01

301

Enhanced atrazine removal using membrane bioreactor bioaugmented with genetically engineered microorganism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaugmentation with genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for enhanced removal of recalcitrant\\u000a pollutants was explored. An atrazine-degrading genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) with green fluorescent protein was\\u000a inoculated into an MBR and the effects of such a bioaugmentation strategy on atrazine removal were investigated. The results\\u000a show that atrazine removal was improved greatly in the bioaugmented MBR

Chun Liu; Xia Huang

2008-01-01

302

Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.  

PubMed

Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important, therefore, to improve grain protein quality. Highly nutritious grain can be tailored to functional foods to meet the needs for both specific individuals and human populations as a whole. PMID:23869957

Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

2013-12-01

303

Genetic and cellular aspects of the establishment of histocompatible stem cells: information gained from an animal model  

PubMed Central

The establishment of patient-specific histocompatible stem cells may be an alternative for overcoming current limitations in stem cell engineering. We are developing an animal model to assist the establishment of histocompatible, autologous stem cells. In this process, we obtained valuable information on establishing and characterizing stem cells. As an initial step, we succeeded in establishing histocompatible stem cells using preantral follicle cultures and subsequent parthenogenetic activation. The gene expression profile of the established stem cells was similar to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from normal fertilization. On the other hand, we propose a way to derive histocompatible, ESC-like cells by co-culturing ovarian stromal cells with feeder fibroblasts, which may allow the derivation of stem cells from somatic tissue. However, more progress regarding the establishment and elucidation on origination of established cell lines is necessary to use this genetic manipulation-free procedure. Nevertheless, relevant information on the process will help to stimulate preclinical research on cell transformation into differentiated, undifferentiated, and even cancerous cells, as well as clinical studies on the application of induced pluripotent cells.

2011-01-01

304

ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO THE RELEASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of these studies show that GEMs (Genetically Engineered Microorganisms) have the potential to survive, to transfer their novel genetic information, and to affect some microbe-mediated ecological processes in soil. he magnitude of these phenomena in soil in situ, howev...

305

Modeling Astrocytomas in a Family of Inducible Genetically Engineered Mice: Implications for Preclinical Cancer Drug Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrocytomas, the most common intracranial malignancies, are a morphologically and molecularly heterogeneous group of brain\\u000a tumors with potentially dismal patient outcomes for which few effective drugs are available. Genetically engineered mouse\\u000a (GEM) models of astrocytoma represent a powerful technique for defining the molecular and genetic abnormalities that contribute\\u000a to tumorigenesis. Based on the genetic aberrations observed in human astrocytomas, we

C. Ryan Miller; Natalie O. Karpinich; Qian Zhang; Elizabeth Bullitt; Serguei Kozlov; Terry Van Dyke

306

Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

2009-01-01

307

Genetic algorithm and artificial neural network for engine optimisation of efficiency and NOx emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithm (GA) and neural network analysis are used to predict the effects of design and operational parameters on engine efficiency and NOx emissions of a natural gas engine. A computer program to calculate the amount of NOx emissions based on a reaction kinetic model is developed. The validity of this program is verified by measurements from a turbocharged, lean-burn,

Ugur Kesgin

2004-01-01

308

Genetically engineered bacteria: An emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This minireview explores the environmental bioremediation mediated by genetically engineered (GE) bacteria and it also highlights the limitations and challenges associated with the release of engineered bacteria in field conditions. Application of GE bacteria based remediation of various heavy metal pollutants is in the forefront due to eco-friendly and lesser health hazards compared to physico-chemical based strategies, which are less

Jay Shankar Singh; P. C. Abhilash; H. B. Singh; Rana P. Singh; D. P. Singh

2011-01-01

309

Genetic causes of transitions from sexual reproduction to asexuality in plants and animals.  

PubMed

The persistence of sexual reproduction in the face of competition from asexual invaders is more likely if asexual lineages are produced infrequently or have low fitness. The generation rate and success of new asexual lineages will be influenced by the proximate mechanisms underlying transitions to asexuality. As such, characterization of these mechanisms can help explain the distribution of reproductive modes among natural populations. Here, we synthesize the literature addressing proximate causes of transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction in plants and animals. In cyclical and facultatively asexual taxa, individual mutations can cause obligate asexuality. The evolution of asexuality in obligately sexual groups is more complex, requiring the simultaneous acquisition of two traits generally controlled by different genetic factors: unreduced gamete formation and spontaneous development of unfertilized gametes. At least three 'pre-adaptations' could favour transitions to obligate asexuality in obligate sexuals. First, linkage among loci affecting separate key components of asexuality facilitates its spread, with evidence for these linkage blocks in plants. Second, asexuality should evolve more readily in haplodiploids; support for this hypothesis comes from two examples where a single locus causes transitions to asexuality. Third, standing genetic variation for the production of unreduced gametes could facilitate transitions to asexuality, but whether the ability to produce unreduced gametes contributes to the evolution of obligate asexuality remains unclear. We close by reviewing the associations between asexuality, hybridization and polyploidy, and argue that current data suggest that hybridization is more likely to play a causal role in transitions to asexuality than polyploidy. PMID:24666600

Neiman, M; Sharbel, T F; Schwander, T

2014-07-01

310

The Os/+ mouse: a genetic animal model of reduced renal mass.  

PubMed

The ROP [Ra/+ (ragged), Os/+ (oligosyndactyly), and Pt/+ (pintail)] mouse possessing the gene for oligosyndactylism (Os) was evaluated as a potential genetic animal model of reduced renal mass. Young male ROP mice that were heterozygotes with respect to the Os gene (Os/+) and their normal homozygote litter mates (+/+) were used in the present study. Approximately 50% fewer nephrons were present in the Os/+ mice than in the +/+ mice. Hypertrophic changes were detected in the epithelial cells in proximal convoluted and proximal straight tubules as well as in cortical collecting ducts in the kidneys of the Os/+ mice. Glomerular hypertrophy was also noted in the kidneys of these mice. After unilateral nephrectomy, further hypertrophic changes occurred in both Os/+ and +/+ mice, but the magnitude of compensatory growth was greater in the +/+ mice. From a functional standpoint, the Os/+ mice appeared to be capable of maintaining normal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, even after unilateral nephrectomy. The findings from the present study indicate that the ROP Os/+ mouse can be a useful animal model to study the effects of reduced renal mass. PMID:8430831

Zalups, R K

1993-01-01

311

Experimental quantification of transmission of genetically engineered pseudorabies virus.  

PubMed

There is concern that live pseudorabies virus (PRV) vaccine or PRV vector vaccine strains may spread from vaccinated to unvaccinated pigs. Moreover, it is feared that recombining PRV vaccine strains with related vaccine or wild-type strains may lead to spread and survival of recombinant PRV. To learn more about to what extent different PRV vaccine strains could spread we used a previously described experimental model to study the transmission of intranasally inoculated PRV mutant strains under experimental conditions. We used PRV strains that lacked glycoprotein E (gE) or thymidine kinase (TK), and a PRV vector vaccine (gE-, TK-, gG-) that expresses the glycoprotein E1 (E1) of hog cholera virus. In addition, we investigated whether intranasally co-inoculated gE-negative and gE-positive PRV strains competed in transmission among pigs. The extent of transmission was estimated using the reproduction ratio R. This ratio has a threshold property; when R1, the infection can spread; when R < 1, the infection will disappear. We found that R for a gE-negative strain was 10.1, and R for a TK-negative strain was 5. Furthermore, the R for the vector vaccine (gE-, TK-, gG-) expressing E1 was 0.18, and did not differ significantly from the R for the control strain without E1. The R of gE-negative strain was significantly 1 (P = 0.0005). Co-inoculation with a gE-positive field strain did not prevent the transmission of a gE-negative strain. This study shows that a small-scale experiment can be used to estimate the transmission of genetically engineered organisms in their host species. The results of this study indicate that the deletion of gE alone or TK alone is not enough to prevent spread of PRV among susceptible pigs, and that transmission of gE-negative PRV is not firmly limited by co-presence of a gE-positive strain. PMID:8701591

Mulder, W A; De Jong, M C; Priem, J; Bouma, A; Pol, J M; Kimman, T G

1995-12-01

312

Stability of transgene expression as a challenge for genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major genetic factors affecting the expression of newly introduced genes in transgenic plants including epigenetic effects are summarized. Examples of (trans)gene silencing and the genetic signals involved are given. Based on current knowledge, several strategies to generate stable transgenic lines can be followed. Although initial laboratory and field tests over few generations allow good predictions about the long-term expression

Antje Dietz-Pfeilstetter

2010-01-01

313

Microcosm for assessing survival of genetically engineered microorganisms in aquatic environments  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-contained microcosms are important for studying the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms. In this study, we describe a simple aquatic microcosm that utilizes survival chambers in a flow through or static renewal system. The model was used to study the survival of genetically engineered and wild-type strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida in the lake water environment. Temperature-dependent studies indicated that the genetically engineered microorganisms survived better or at least as well as their wild-type counterparts at 15, 25, and 30{degree}C. The genetic determinants of the genetically engineered microorganisms also remained fairly stable within the host cell under the tested conditions. In the presence of organisms indigenous to lake water, E. coli was eliminated after 20 days, whereas P. putida showed an initial decline but was able to stabilize its population after 5 days. A herbicide, Hydrothol-191, caused a significant decline in numbers of P. putida, but no significant difference was observed between the genetically engineered microorganisms and the wild-type strain. The microcosm described is simple, can be easily adapted to study a variety of environmental variables, and has the advantage that the organisms tested are constantly exposed to test waters that are continuously renewed.

Awong, J.; Bitton, G.; Chaudhry, G.R. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

1990-04-01

314

Microcosm for assessing survival of genetically engineered microorganisms in aquatic environments.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory-contained microcosms are important for studying the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms. In this study, we describe a simple aquatic microcosm that utilizes survival chambers in a flowthrough or static renewal system. The model was used to study the survival of genetically engineered and wild-type strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida in the lake water environment. Temperature-dependent studies indicated that the genetically engineered microorganisms survived better or at least as well as their wild-type counterparts at 15, 25, and 30 degrees C. The genetic determinants of the genetically engineered microorganisms also remained fairly stable within the host cell under the tested conditions. In the presence of organisms indigenous to lake water, E. coli was eliminated after 20 days, whereas P. putida showed an initial decline but was able to stabilize its population after 5 days. A herbicide, Hydrothol-191, caused a significant decline in numbers of P. putida, but no significant difference was observed between the genetically engineered microorganisms and the wild-type strain. The microcosm described is simple, can be easily adapted to study a variety of environmental variables, and has the advantage that the organisms tested are constantly exposed to test waters that are continuously renewed.

Awong, J; Bitton, G; Chaudhry, G R

1990-01-01

315

Transgenic Dairy Cattle: Genetic Engineering on a Large Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportu- nity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene \\

R. J. Wall; D. E. Kerr; K. R. Bondioli

1997-01-01

316

Review of aerospace engineering cost modelling: The genetic causal approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary intention of this paper is to review the current state of the art in engineering cost modelling as applied to aerospace. This is a topic of current interest and in addressing the literature, the presented work also sets out some of the recognised definitions of cost that relate to the engineering domain. The paper does not attempt to address the higher-level financial sector but rather focuses on the costing issues directly relevant to the engineering process, primarily those of design and manufacture. This is of more contemporary interest as there is now a shift towards the analysis of the influence of cost, as defined in more engineering related terms; in an attempt to link into integrated product and process development (IPPD) within a concurrent engineering environment. Consequently, the cost definitions are reviewed in the context of the nature of cost as applicable to the engineering process stages: from bidding through to design, to manufacture, to procurement and ultimately, to operation. The linkage and integration of design and manufacture is addressed in some detail. This leads naturally to the concept of engineers influencing and controlling cost within their own domain rather than trusting this to financers who have little control over the cause of cost. In terms of influence, the engineer creates the potential for cost and in a concurrent environment this requires models that integrate cost into the decision making process.

Curran, R.; Raghunathan, S.; Price, M.

2004-11-01

317

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

318

Moral and Legal Decisions in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the moral and ethical issues raised by the imminent possibilities for genetic and reproductive manipulation of humans, the responsibilities of scientists, moralists, and social scientists, and the role of teachers in public information. (AL)

Heim, Werner G.

1972-01-01

319

Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2002-01-01

320

Engineering Nucleobases and Polymerases for an Expanded Genetic Alphabet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four natural nucleotides of DNA form base pairs capable of encoding the complex genetic information necessary for all\\u000a life; additionally, the sequence specific hybridization and enzymatic synthesis of DNA has revolutionized biotechnology. Expansion\\u000a of the genetic alphabet to include additional, orthogonal nucleotides to work within the context of natural DNA has the potential\\u000a to greatly expand this essential biopolymer's

A. M. Leconte; F. E. Romesberg

321

Development of repressible sterility to prevent the establishment of feral populations of exotic and genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposals to farm non-native and genetically modified species are often highly contentious because there is no reliable method of ensuring that they do not escape, reproduce and become environmental problems. Suggested approaches to prevent breeding outside hatcheries are unable to guarantee sterility in both sexes or cannot easily be applied to animals. We developed and tested on two contentious groups

Ronald Thresher; Peter Grewe; Jawahar G. Patil; Steven Whyard; Christopher M. Templeton; Atra Chaimongol; Christopher M. Hardy; Lynette A. Hinds; Rex Dunham

2009-01-01

322

Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future.The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The

Karen Aulrich; H. Böhme; R. Daenicke; Ingrid Halle; G. Flachowsky

2001-01-01

323

Interim report on the genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC-I products, intermediates, and waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the interim results of the genetic and animal toxicity testing program; of SRC-I products, process intermediates, and waste materials. It also discusses the structure of the program, including the philosophy underlying its design, as well as the sources, processing, and sample handling of the materials tested. Finally, it summarizes the results of the tests completed at the

B. Z. Drozdowicz; C. M. Kelly

1983-01-01

324

Multiple Genetic Elements Carry the Tetracycline Resistance Gene tet(W) in the Animal Pathogen Arcanobacterium pyogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tet(W) gene is associated with tetracycline resistance in a wide range of bacterial species, including obligately anaerobic rumen bacteria and isolates from the human gut and oral mucosa. However, little is known about how this gene is disseminated and the types of genetic elements it is carried on. We examined tetracycline-resistant isolates of the animal commensal and opportunistic pathogen

Stephen J. Billington; B. Helen Jost

2006-01-01

325

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

326

Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts  

PubMed Central

Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes.

Gagnon, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

327

Genetic engineering of bacteria from managed and natural habitats  

SciTech Connect

The genetic modification of bacteria from natural and managed habitats will impact on the management of agricultural and environmental settings. Potential applications include crop production and protection, degradation or sequestration of environmental pollutants, extraction of metals from ores, industrial fermentations, and productions of enzymes, diagnostics, and chemicals. Applications of this technology will ultimately include the release of beneficial agents in the environment. If safely deployed, genetically modified bacteria should be able to provide significant benefits in the management of environmental systems and in the development of new environmental control processes. 79 refs., 3 tabs.

Lindow, S.E.; Panopoulos, N.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); McFarland, B.L. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (USA))

1989-06-16

328

A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2001-01-01

329

Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

330

An arsenic-specific biosensor with genetically engineered Shewanella oneidensis in a bioelectrochemical system.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered microbial biosensors have yet to realize commercial success in environmental applications due, in part, to difficulties associated with transducing and transmitting traditional bioluminescent information. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) output a direct electric signal that can be incorporated into devices for remote environmental monitoring. Here, we describe a BES-based biosensor with genetically encoded specificity for a toxic metal. By placing an essential component of the metal reduction (Mtr) pathway of Shewanella oneidensis under the control of an arsenic-sensitive promoter, we have genetically engineered a strain that produces increased current in response to arsenic when inoculated into a BES. Our BES-based biosensor has a detection limit of ~40?M arsenite with a linear range up to 100?M arsenite. Because our transcriptional circuit relies on the activation of a single promoter, similar sensing systems may be developed to detect other analytes by the swap of a single genetic part. PMID:25038536

Webster, Dylan P; TerAvest, Michaela A; Doud, Devin F R; Chakravorty, Arun; Holmes, Eric C; Radens, Caleb M; Sureka, Swati; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Angenent, Largus T

2014-12-15

331

Genetic Engineering Applied to the Development of Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simplest application of the modern genetic manipulation methods to vaccine development is the expression in microbial cells of genes from pathogens that encode surface antigens capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in the host of the pathogen involved. This procedure has been exploited successfully for development of a vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) that is now widely used. Similar

K. Murray; S. Stahl; P. G. Ashton-Rickardt

1989-01-01

332

Genetic Engineering of Bacteria from Managed and Natural Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic modification of bacteria from natural and managed habitats will impact on the management of agricultural and environmental settings. Potential applications include crop production and protection, degradation or sequestration of environmental pollutants, extraction of metals from ores, industrial fermentations, and productions of enzymes, diagnostics, and chemicals. Applications of this technology will ultimately include the release of beneficial agents in

S. E. Lindow; N. J. Panopoulos; B. L. McFarland

1989-01-01

333

Genetic engineering of bacteria from managed and natural habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic modification of bacteria from natural and managed habitats will impact on the management of agricultural and environmental settings. Potential applications include crop production and protection, degradation or sequestration of environmental pollutants, extraction of metals from ores, industrial fermentations, and productions of enzymes, diagnostics, and chemicals. Applications of this technology will ultimately include the release of beneficial agents in

S. E. Lindow; N. J. Panopoulos; B. L. McFarland

1989-01-01

334

Coarse-grained reverse engineering of genetic regulatory networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modeled genetic regulatory networks in the framework of continuous-time recurrent neural networks. A method for determining the parameters of such networks, given expression level time series data, is introduced and evaluated using artificial data. The method is also applied to a set of actual expression data from the development of rat central nervous system.

Mattias Wahde; John Hertz

2000-01-01

335

History of Oncolytic Viruses: Genesis to Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the turn of the nineteenth century, when their existence was first recognized, viruses have attracted considerable interest as possible agents of tumor destruction. Early case reports emphasized regression of cancers during naturally acquired virus infections, providing the basis for clinical trials where body fluids containing human or animal viruses were used to transmit infections to cancer patients. Most often

Elizabeth Kelly; Stephen J Russell

2007-01-01

336

Genetic engineering of human ES and iPS cells using TALE nucleases  

PubMed Central

Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here, we engineered Transcription Activation-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained hESC and iPSC single-cell-derived clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Thus, TALENs mediate site-specific genome modifications in human pluripotent cells with comparable efficiency and precision as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs).

Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P; Cost, Gregory J; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Jaenisch, Rudolf

2011-01-01

337

Solution hybridization assay for detecting genetically engineered microorganisms in environmental samples.  

PubMed

A solution hybridization method was developed for detecting genetically engineered microorganisms in environmental samples. The detection method involves recovery of DNA from the microbial community of an environmental sample followed by hybridization in solution with a radiolabeled RNA gene probe. After nuclease digestion of non-hybridized probe RNA, the DNA-RNA hybrids formed in the solution hybridization reaction are separated by sephadex or hydroxyapatite column chromatography and detected by liquid scintillation counting. Using solution hybridization-gene probe detection, as few as 100-1000 target cells per gram sediment sample of a 2,4,5-T-degrading genetically engineered microorganisms could be detected. PMID:2331372

Steffan, R T; Atlas, R M

1990-03-01

338

Is precision livestock farming an engineer's daydream or nightmare, an animal's friend or foe, and a farmer's panacea or pitfall?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of precision livestock farming (PLF), from the view point of the engineer, the farm animal and the farmer; PLF is the principal means by which ‘smart’ sensors will be used in livestock farming. It considers the technological principles upon which PLF is based, gives several examples of PLF, considers which livestock processes are suitable for

C. M. Wathes; H. H. Kristensen; J.-M. Aerts; D. Berckmans

2008-01-01

339

Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.  

PubMed

In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 ?M for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ?M for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

2012-12-01

340

Efficacy in aquatic microcosms of a genetically engineered pseudomonad applicable for bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetically engineered microorganism (GEM), Pseudomonas sp. B13 FRI (pFRC20P) (abbreviated FR120), has previously been engineered to simultaneously mineralize mixtures of methylated and chlorinated benzoic acids and phenols through a modified ortho cleavage pathway. In this study, its performance was investigated both in different types of aquatic microcosms and in pure culture to determine (1) if under simulated in situ

H. Heuer; D. F. Dwyer; K. N. Timmis; I. Wagner-Döbler

1995-01-01

341

Chapter 18 Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: A Novel Technology for Agricultural Biotechnology and Biopharmaceutical Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chloroplast genetic engineering is becoming an attractive field in plant biotechnology. It offers several unique advantages,\\u000a including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment\\u000a by maternal inheritance, as well as lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA.\\u000a The hyper-expression of recombinant proteins within plastids offers a cost effective solution

N. D. Singh; H. Daniell

342

Design and engineering aspects of a high resolution positron tomograph for small animal imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the Sherbrooke positron emission tomograph, a very high resolution device dedicated to dynamic imaging of small laboratory animals. Its distinctive features are: small discrete scintillation detectors based on avalanche photodiodes (APD) to achieve uniform, isotropic, very high spatial resolution; parallel processing for low deadtime and high count rate capability; multispectral data acquisition hardware to improve sensitivity and scatter correction; modularity to allow design flexibility and upgradability. The system implements the clam-shell'' sampling scheme and a rotating rod transmission source. All acquisition parameters can be adjusted under computer control. Temperature stability at the detector site is ensured by the use of thermoelectric modules. The initial system consists of one layer of 256 modules (two rings of detectors) defining 3 image slices in a 118 mm diameter by 10.5 mm thick field. The axial field can be extended to 50 mm using 4 layers of modules (8 rings of detectors). The design constraints and engineering aspects of an APD-based PET scanner are reviewed and preliminary results are reported.

Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Richard, P.; Rodrique, S.; Rouleau, D. (Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology)

1994-08-01

343

Genetically Engineered Live Attenuated Influenza A Virus Vaccine Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

WehavegeneratednewinfluenzaAvirusliveattenuatedvaccinecandidatesbysite-directedmutagenesisand reverse genetics. By mutating specific amino acids in the PB2 polymerase subunit, two temperature-sensitive (ts) attenuated viruses were obtained. Both candidates have 38&C shutoff temperatures in MDCK cells, are attenuated in the respiratory tracts of mice and ferrets, and have very low reactogenicity in ferrets. Infection of mice or ferrets with either mutant conferred significant protection from challenge with

NEIL T. PARKIN; PEGGY CHIU; ANDKATHLEEN COELINGH

1997-01-01

344

Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Agrobacterium rhizogenesConn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenesis char- acterized by a high growth,rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven,to be an efficient means,of producing secondary,metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants. Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes along with the Ri plasmid,

Zhi-bi Huand; Min Du

2006-01-01

345

Improving the Pathogenicity of a Nematode-Trapping Fungus by Genetic Engineering of a Subtilisin with Nematotoxic Activity  

PubMed Central

Nematophagous fungi are soil-living fungi that are used as biological control agents of plant and animal parasitic nematodes. Their potential could be improved by genetic engineering, but the lack of information about the molecular background of the infection has precluded this development. In this paper we report that a subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease designated PII is an important pathogenicity factor in the common nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. The transcript of PII was not detected during the early stages of infection (adhesion and penetration), but high levels were expressed concurrent with the killing and colonization of the nematode. Disruption of the PII gene by homologous recombination had a limited effect on the pathogenicity of the fungus. However, mutants containing additional copies of the PII gene developed a higher number of infection structures and had an increased speed of capturing and killing nematodes compared to the wild type. The paralyzing activity of PII was verified by demonstrating that a heterologous-produced PII (in Aspergillus niger) had a nematotoxic activity when added to free-living nematodes. The toxic activity of PII was significantly higher than that of other commercially available serine proteases. This is the first report showing that genetic engineering can be used to improve the pathogenicity of a nematode-trapping fungus. In the future it should be possible to express recombinant subtilisins with nematicidal activity in other organisms that are present in the habitat of parasitic nematodes (e.g., host plant).

Ahman, Johan; Johansson, Tomas; Olsson, Maja; Punt, Peter J.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Tunlid, Anders

2002-01-01

346

Improving the pathogenicity of a nematode-trapping fungus by genetic engineering of a subtilisin with nematotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Nematophagous fungi are soil-living fungi that are used as biological control agents of plant and animal parasitic nematodes. Their potential could be improved by genetic engineering, but the lack of information about the molecular background of the infection has precluded this development. In this paper we report that a subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease designated PII is an important pathogenicity factor in the common nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. The transcript of PII was not detected during the early stages of infection (adhesion and penetration), but high levels were expressed concurrent with the killing and colonization of the nematode. Disruption of the PII gene by homologous recombination had a limited effect on the pathogenicity of the fungus. However, mutants containing additional copies of the PII gene developed a higher number of infection structures and had an increased speed of capturing and killing nematodes compared to the wild type. The paralyzing activity of PII was verified by demonstrating that a heterologous-produced PII (in Aspergillus niger) had a nematotoxic activity when added to free-living nematodes. The toxic activity of PII was significantly higher than that of other commercially available serine proteases. This is the first report showing that genetic engineering can be used to improve the pathogenicity of a nematode-trapping fungus. In the future it should be possible to express recombinant subtilisins with nematicidal activity in other organisms that are present in the habitat of parasitic nematodes (e.g., host plant). PMID:12089022

Ahman, Johan; Johansson, Tomas; Olsson, Maja; Punt, Peter J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Tunlid, Anders

2002-07-01

347

Children and genetically engineered food: potentials and problems.  

PubMed

Changes in food production and dietary practices are occurring faster than our understanding of their potential impact on children's health. Traditionally, pediatric gastroenterologists have studied food with respect to its nutritive value and digestibility, its influence on metabolism, its growth-promoting characteristics, and its relationship to risk and severity of disease. Biotechnology is now expanding the science of food to include disease prevention and treatment, as well as the feeding of children on a global scale. Bioengineered ("genetically modified", or "transgenic") plants were initially developed to enhance the food supply by increasing crop yields. Such previously developed transgenic plants are now prevalent worldwide and appear in many processed food products. The implementation of the technology of genetic modulation of food plants has led to considerable fear, controversy, and confusion as the understanding of the technology is poor in the general population. This review presents an overview of genetically modified food crops and their potential unique benefits and risks to children's health. Political, economical, and ecological issues related to transgenic crops are not discussed. PMID:12394371

Perr, Hilary A

2002-10-01

348

Biosynthesis and genetic engineering of proanthocyanidins and (iso)flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant natural products have been used since ancient times as medicines and herbal remedies. Over the past two decades, the\\u000a results of population and intervention studies, or assays in animal or cell model systems, have revealed positive health beneficial\\u000a effects for various classes of phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols. The results of such studies have ignited an interest\\u000a in being able to

Li Tian; Yongzhen Pang; Richard A. Dixon

2008-01-01

349

Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory showing genetic diversity.  

PubMed

We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978

Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M

2011-04-01

350

Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.  

PubMed Central

The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

Chubb, C

1987-01-01

351

SURVIVAL AND ENUMERATION OF AEROSOLIZED AND FREEZE-DRIED GENETICALLY ENGINEERED E. COLI, UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerosol survival of a genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli demonstrated a more rapid die-off (i.e., death rate) compared to its parental wildtype. p to 77% of a freeze-dried and air-exposed genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and wildtype bacteria could be res...

352

Genetically engineered resistance to dengue-2 virus transmission in mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The control of arthropod-borne virus diseases such as dengue may ultimately require the genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors to disrupt virus transmission to human populations. To reduce the ability of mosquitoes to transmit dengue viruses, a recombinant Sindbis virus was used to transduce female Aedes aegypti with a 567-base antisense RNA targeted to the premembrane coding region of dengue type 2 (DEN-2) virus. The transduced mosquitoes were unable to support replication of DEN-2 virus in their salivary glands and therefore were not able to transmit the virus. PMID:8629025

Olson, K E; Higgs, S; Gaines, P J; Powers, A M; Davis, B S; Kamrud, K I; Carlson, J O; Blair, C D; Beaty, B J

1996-05-10

353

Genetic engineering and the development of new pollution control technologies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early 1983. It identifies a number of research topics that are likely to contribute to new pollution treatment techniques. These include the basic mechanisms

J. B. Johnston; S. G. Robinson

1984-01-01

354

Controlled field release of a bioluminescent genetically engineered microorganism for bioremediation process monitoring and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 represents the first genetically engineered microorganism approved for field testing in the United States for bioremediation purposes. Strain HK44 harbors an introduced lux gene fused within a naphthalene degradative pathway, thereby allowing this recombinant microbe to bioluminescent as it degrades specific polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene. The bioremediation process can therefore be monitored by the detection of

Steven Ripp; David E. Nivens; Yeonghee Ahn; Claudia Werner; John Jarrell; James P. Easter; Chris D. Cox; Robert S. Burlage; Gary S. Sayler

2000-01-01

355

Perception of risks and benefits of in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of new biotechnology in medicine has become an everday experience, but many people still express concern about biotechnology. Concerns are evoked particularly by the phrases genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization (IVF), and these concerns persist despite more than a decade of their use in medicine. Mailed nationwide opinion surveys on attitudes to biotechnology were conducted in Japan,

Darryl R. J. Macer

1994-01-01

356

Genetic Engineering of Zymobacter palmae for Production of Ethanol from Xylose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Its metabolic characteristics suggest that Zymobacter palmae gen. nov., sp. nov. could serve as a useful new ethanol-fermenting bacterium, but its biotechnological exploitation will require certain genetic modifications. We therefore engineered Z. palmae so as to broaden the range of its fermentable sugar substrates to include the pentose sugar xylose. The Escherichia coli genes encoding the xylose catabolic enzymes xylose

Hideshi Yanase; Dai Sato; Keiko Yamamoto; Saori Matsuda; Sho Yamamoto; Kenji Okamoto

2007-01-01

357

Protection of non-murine mammals against encephalomyocarditis virus using a genetically engineered Mengo virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered Mengo viruses with artificial deletions in the 5? noncoding poly(C) tracts are highly attenuated for pathogenicity when introduced as live vaccines into the natural murine host. Inoculation produces lifelong protective immunity without disease or viral persistence. This report extends the vaccination studies to non-murine hosts, including baboons, macaques and domestic pigs, all of which are susceptible to severe

Jorge E. Osorio; Gene B. Hubbard; Kenneth F. Soike; Marc Girard; Sylvie van der Werf; Jean-Claude Moulin; Ann C. Palmenberg

1996-01-01

358

Genetically engineered mice for studies of stress-related clinical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered mice with a specific deletion of targeted genes provide a novel and useful tool to study the endogenous mechanisms underlying aberrant behaviour. In this review we take the stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical) system as an example to demonstrate how refined molecular technologies have allowed to target individual genes involved in stress hormone regulation. We describe different gene targeting methods:

Marianne B Müller; Martin E Keck

2002-01-01

359

Genetically Engineered Crops for Pest Management in U.S. Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adoption of genetically engineered crops with traits for pest management has risen dramatically since their commercial introduction in the mid-1990's. The farm-level impacts of such crops on pesticide use, yields, and net returns vary with the crop and te...

J. Fernandez-Cornejo W. D. McBride

2000-01-01

360

SURVIVAL OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROBES IN THE ENVIRONMENT: EFFECT OF HOST/VECTOR RELATIONSHIP  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate and survival of genetically engineered microbes is dependent on the survival, establishment, and growth of the microbial host, as well as on the maintenance, replication, and segregation of the recombinant plasmids within the bacterial host population. The interactions o...

361

Reactions to a New Technology: Students' Ideas about Genetically Engineered Foodstuffs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the prevalence of ideas among 16 to 19 year-old students about the application of the rapidly expanding technology of genetic engineering to food production. Findings suggest that more females were cautious about these foodstuffs than were males. Contains 20 references. (DDR)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward; O'Sullivan, Helen

1998-01-01

362

Bystander effect-mediated gene therapy of gliomas using genetically engineered neural stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to migrate toward a tumor mass, genetically engineered NSCs were used for the treatment of gliomas. We first evaluated the “bystander effect” between NSCs transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene (NSCtk) and C6 rat glioma cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. A potent bystander effect was

Shaoyi Li; Tsutomu Tokuyama; Junkoh Yamamoto; Masayo Koide; Naoki Yokota; Hiroki Namba

2005-01-01

363

A microcosm for measuring survival and conjugation of genetically engineered bacteria in rhizosphere environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcosm is described to evaluate and measure bacterial conjugation in the rhizosphere of barley and radish with strains ofPseudomonas cepacia. The purpose was to describe a standard method useful for evaluating the propensity of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to transfer DNA to recipient bacteria. Results demonstrated the formation of transconjugants from the rhizosphere of each plant 24 h after

M. V. Walter; L. A. Porteous; V. J. Prince; L. Ganio; R. J. Seidler

1991-01-01

364

Genetically-Engineered Pig-to-Baboon Liver Xenotransplantation: Histopathology of Xenografts and Native Organs  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation was carried out in baboons using wild-type (WT, n?=?1) or genetically-engineered pigs (?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout, GTKO), n?=?1; GTKO pigs transgenic for human CD46, n?=?7) and a clinically-acceptable immunosuppressive regimen. Biopsies were obtained from the WT pig liver pre-Tx and at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-transplantation. Biopsies of genetically-engineered livers were obtained pre-Tx, 2 h after reperfusion and at necropsy (4–7 days after transplantation). Tissues were examined by light, confocal, and electron microscopy. All major native organs were also examined. The WT pig liver underwent hyperacute rejection. After genetically-engineered pig liver transplantation, hyperacute rejection did not occur. Survival was limited to 4–7 days due to repeated spontaneous bleeding in the liver and native organs (as a result of profound thrombocytopenia) which necessitated euthanasia. At 2 h, graft histology was largely normal. At necropsy, genetically-engineered pig livers showed hemorrhagic necrosis, platelet aggregation, platelet-fibrin thrombi, monocyte/macrophage margination mainly in liver sinusoids, and vascular endothelial cell hypertrophy, confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed minimal deposition of IgM, and almost absence of IgG, C3, C4d, C5b-9, and of a cellular infiltrate, suggesting that neither antibody- nor cell-mediated rejection played a major role.

Ekser, Burcin; Klein, Edwin; He, Jing; Stolz, Donna B.; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Long, Cassandra; Lin, Chih Che; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Hara, Hidetaka; Veroux, Massimiliano; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K. C.; Gridelli, Bruno

2012-01-01

365

Computer-Aided Engineering for Inference of Genetic Regulatory Networks Using Data from DNA Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological research topics gradually shift from structural genomics into functional genomics. DNA microarrays have been used to generate abundant data for exploring functions and interactions among genes. We propose a reverse-engineering strategy to predict the interactions between genes within a genetic network. Our inputs are perturbation matrices experimentally obtained from DNA microarrays. First, we make some assumptions for the interactions

Ming Jie Liou; Shih Chi Peng; Hsu-Ming Chang; Wei Yuan Chow; Chuan Yi Tang

366

Synthesis of a genetically engineered repetitive polypeptide containing periodic selenomethionine residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered proteins will play an important role in materials science. Many natural proteins have excellent materials properties such as the silks, elastin, and collagen, and, in principle, both these and entirely new protein materials can be produced from artificial genes. Good early progress has been made in this direction, including the synthesis of repetitive proteins predicted to self-assemble into

Michael J. Dougherty; Srinivas Kothakota; Thomas L. Mason; David A. Tirrell; Maurille J. Fournier

1993-01-01

367

Using Genetic Engineering to Find Modular Structures and Activation Functions for Architectures of Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

. An Evolutionary Algorithm is used to optimize the architecture andactivation functions of an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). It will be shown thatit is possible, with the help of a graph-database and Genetic Engineering, to findmodular structures for these networks. Some new graph-rewritings are used to constructfamilies of architectures from these modular structures. Simulation resultsfor two problems are given. An

Christoph M. Friedrich; Claudio Moraga

1997-01-01

368

Customizable FPGA IP Core Implementation of a General-Purpose Genetic Algorithm Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware implementation of genetic algorithms (GAs) is gaining importance because of their proven effectiveness as optimization engines for real-time applications (e.g., evolvable hardware). Earlier hardware implementations suffer from major drawbacks such as absence of GA parameter programmability, rigid predefined system architecture, and lack of support for multiple fitness functions. In this paper, we report the design of an IP core

Pradeep R. Fernando; Srinivas Katkoori; Didier Keymeulen; Ricardo Salem Zebulum; Adrian Stoica

2010-01-01

369

Process development of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars using genetically engineered yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose and xylose are the major fermentable substrates present in lignocellulosic biomass, a potential feedstock for the commercial fuel ethanol production. Past research in this area has indicated that xylose fermentation and ethanol tolerance of the fermenting microorganism are major bottlenecks in the design of an economical fuel ethanol production process. The development of xylose fermenting yeasts by genetic engineering

Mahesh Subramaniam Krishnan

1996-01-01

370

The Theory and Practice of Genetically Engineered Crops and Agricultural Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically engineered (GE) crops has focused predominantly on enhancing conventional pest control approaches. Scientific assessments show that these GE crops generally deliver significant economic and some environmental benefits over their conventional crop alternatives. However, emerging evidence indicates that current GE crops will not foster sustainable cropping systems unless the negative environmental and social feedback effects are properly

David E. Ervin; Leland L. Glenna; Raymond A. Jussaume Jr.

2011-01-01

371

Methods to measure the influence of genetically engineered bacteria on ecological processes in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the document is to summarize the methods and concepts that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, into soil on microbemediated ecological processes in soil. The potential impacts of GEMs on the structure and function of natural environments into

Stotzky

1990-01-01

372

Use of bioluminescence for detection of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment. [Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence and movement of strain JS414 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, which was genetically engineered to bioluminesce, were monitored during a limited field introduction. Bioluminescence and traditional dilution plate counts were determined. Strain JS414 was applied to cabbage plants and surrounding soil by mist inoculation, by wound inoculation, by scattering infested debris among plants, and by incorporating bacteria into

J. J. Shaw; F. Dane; D. Geiger; J. W. Kloepper

1992-01-01

373

Containment of genetically engineered organisms after application to subsurface environments. Technical completion report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of containing genetically engineered bacteria with enhanced dehalogenating properties for in situ bioremediation was investigated. (1) An agarose matrix microbead protocol and a detection system for contained microorganisms or DNA were developed. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) allowed tracking of a consortium of encapsulated organisms or several gene targets from a single species. Gene sequences encoding the enzymes

D. Crawford; R. Crawford; S. Kellogg; C. Orser; D. Ralston

1993-01-01

374

Impact of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium with Enhanced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Marine Phytoplankton Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indigenous marine Achromobacter sp. was isolated from coastal Georgia seawater and modified in the laboratory by introduction of a plasmid with aphoAhybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase. The effects of this ''indigenous'' genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) on phos- phorus cycling were determined in seawater microcosms following the addition of a model dissolved organic phosphorus compound, glycerol

PATRICIA A. SOBECKY; MARK A. SCHELL; MARY ANN MORAN; ANDROBERT E. HODSON

1996-01-01

375

Genetic engineering of a hypoallergenic trimer of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 100 million individuals suffer from birch pollen allergy. Specific immunotherapy, the only curative allergy treatment, can cause life-threatening anaphylactic side effects. Here, we report the genetic engineering of a recombinant trimer consisting of three covalently linked copies of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. The trimer exhibited profoundly reduced allergenic activity but contained similar secondary structures

Susanne Vrtala; Kora Hirtenlehner; Markus Susani; Mübeccel Akdis; Fatimah Kussebi; Cezmi A. Akdis; Kurt Blaser; Peter Hufnagl; Bernd R. Binder; Anastasia Politou; Annalisa Pastore; Luca Vangelista; Wolfgang R. Sperr; Hans Semper; Peter Valent; Christof Ebner; Dietrich Kraft; Rudolf Valenta

2001-01-01

376

The Use of Simple Models in the Teaching of Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for instructional improvement are provided in two topic areas. Explains the use of models in helping students to visualize selected concepts in genetic engineering and recommends the use of tropical tuber crops for encouraging students to conduct practical investigations. (ML)

Nicholl, Desmond S. T.

1986-01-01

377

Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Probabilities and Practicalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Manipulation of genes in human beings on a large scale is not possible under present conditions because it lacks economic potential and other attractions for industry. However, preventive'' genetic engineering may be a field for vast research in the future and will perhaps be approved by governments, parishes, people and industry. (PS)

Djerassi, Carl

1972-01-01

378

Genetic engineering: Risks and hazards as perceived by the German public  

Microsoft Academic Search

What do people associate with 'genetic engineering', and what are the resources they mobilize for gaining orientation and the ability to assess this new technology? These are the central questions discussed in this paper. The theses are based on 48 'Leitfadeninterviews', made between 1995 and 1997 and complemented by a representative survey carried out in Germany in 1997, which contains

Michael M. Zwick

2000-01-01

379

Pathology of genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic exocrine cancer: Consensus report and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several diverse genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic exocrine neoplasia have been developed. These mouse models have a spectrum of pathologic changes; however, until now, there has been no uniform nomenclature to characterize these changes. An international workshop, sponsored by The National Cancer Institute and the University of Pennsylvania, was held from December 1 to 3, 2004 with the goal

R. H. Hruban; N. V. Adsay; J. Albores-Saavedra; M. R. Anver; A. V. Biankin; G. P. Boivin; E. E. Furth; T. Furukawa; A. Klein; D. S. Klimstra; G. Kloppel; G. Y. Lauwers; D. S. Longnecker; J. Luttges; A. Maitra; G. J. A. Offerhaus; L. Perez-Gallego; M. Redston; D. A. Tuveson

2006-01-01

380

450. Novel, Injectable, Genetically Engineered Stem Cell-Based System for Anterior Spinal Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal fusion has become a popular surgical technique used to provide segmental fixation and to maintain stability and correct deformity of the spine. Stem cell–based therapy involving genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) genes can promote bone formation and lead to spinal fusion. Exogenous control and monitoring of transgene expression in vivo is of great

Rod J. Oskouian; Gadi Pelled; Yoram Zilberman; Yamit Tal; Zulma Gazit; Dan Gazit

2006-01-01

381

Discontinuities in genetic engineering for pharmaceuticals? firms jumps and lock-in in systems of Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pape criticizes the concept of 'technological discontinuities'. It argues that the concept is misleading when the skills and knowledge of an indusry are composed of multiple rather than single core technologies. In cases such as the use of genetic engineering as the basis of production in pharmaceuticals, both existing pharmaceutical firms and new biotech firms integrate the new techniques

Maureen D. Mckelvey

1996-01-01

382

Genetic engineering of plant root disease resistance by modification of the phenylpropanoid pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved soybean (or other legume) resistance to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens may be achieved via the genetic modification of the root phenylpropanoid pathway targeted at cell wall reinforcement and increased production of phytoalexins. The use of hairy root cultures can be a model for testing results of metabolic engineering.

VV Lozovaya; AV Lygin; OV Zernova; JM Widholm

2005-01-01

383

EVOLVING BUILDING BLOCKS FOR DESIGN USING GENETIC ENGINEER ING: A FORMAL APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a formal approach to the evolution of a representation for use in a design process. The approach adopted is based on concepts associated with genetic engineering. An initial set of genes representing elementa ry building blocks is evolved into a set of complex genes representing targeted building b locks. These targeted build- ing blocks have been evolved

JOHN S. GERO; VLADIMIR A. KAZAKOV

1995-01-01

384

Thermodynamic Pareto optimization of turbojet engines using multi-objective genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-objective genetic algorithms (GAs) are used for Pareto approach optimization of thermodynamic cycle of ideal turbojet engines. On this behalf, a new diversity preserving algorithm is proposed to enhance the performance of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in optimization problems with more than two objective functions. The important conflicting thermodynamic objectives that have been considered in this work are, namely, specific

K. Atashkari; N. Nariman-Zadeh; A. Pilechia; A. Jamalia

385

Genetically engineered live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine candidates.  

PubMed Central

We have generated new influenza A virus live attenuated vaccine candidates by site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics. By mutating specific amino acids in the PB2 polymerase subunit, two temperature-sensitive (ts) attenuated viruses were obtained. Both candidates have 38 degrees C shutoff temperatures in MDCK cells, are attenuated in the respiratory tracts of mice and ferrets, and have very low reactogenicity in ferrets. Infection of mice or ferrets with either mutant conferred significant protection from challenge with the homologous wild-type virus. Three tests for genetic stability were used to assess the propensity for reversion to virulence: 14 days of replication in nude mice, growth at 37 degrees C in tissue culture, and serial passage in ferrets. One candidate, which contains mutations intended to reduce the ability of PB2 to bind to cap structures, was stable in all three assays, whereas the second candidate, which contains mutations found only in other ts strains of influenza virus, lost its ts phenotype in the last two assays. This approach has therefore enabled the creation of live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine candidates suitable for human testing.

Parkin, N T; Chiu, P; Coelingh, K

1997-01-01

386

Genetically engineered live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine candidates.  

PubMed

We have generated new influenza A virus live attenuated vaccine candidates by site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics. By mutating specific amino acids in the PB2 polymerase subunit, two temperature-sensitive (ts) attenuated viruses were obtained. Both candidates have 38 degrees C shutoff temperatures in MDCK cells, are attenuated in the respiratory tracts of mice and ferrets, and have very low reactogenicity in ferrets. Infection of mice or ferrets with either mutant conferred significant protection from challenge with the homologous wild-type virus. Three tests for genetic stability were used to assess the propensity for reversion to virulence: 14 days of replication in nude mice, growth at 37 degrees C in tissue culture, and serial passage in ferrets. One candidate, which contains mutations intended to reduce the ability of PB2 to bind to cap structures, was stable in all three assays, whereas the second candidate, which contains mutations found only in other ts strains of influenza virus, lost its ts phenotype in the last two assays. This approach has therefore enabled the creation of live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine candidates suitable for human testing. PMID:9060631

Parkin, N T; Chiu, P; Coelingh, K

1997-04-01

387

Progress toward the development of a genetically engineered attenuated hepatitis A virus vaccine.  

PubMed Central

Mutations which positively affect growth of hepatitis A virus in cell culture may negatively affect growth in vivo. Therefore, development of an attenuated vaccine for hepatitis A may require a careful balancing of mutations to produce a virus that will grow efficiently in cells suitable for vaccine production and still maintain a satisfactory level of attenuation in vivo. Since such a balance could be achieved most directly by genetic engineering, we are analyzing mutations that accumulated during serial passage of the HM-175 strain of hepatitis A virus in MRC-5 cell cultures in order to determine the relative importance of the mutations for growth in MRC-5 cells and for attenuation in susceptible primates. Chimeric viral genomes of the HM-175 strain were constructed from cDNA clones derived from a virulent virus and from two attenuated viruses adapted to growth in African green monkey kidney (AGMK) and MRC-5 cells, respectively. Viruses encoded by these chimeric genomes were recovered by in vitro or in vivo transfection and assessed for their ability to grow in cultured MRC-5 cells or to cause hepatitis in primates (tamarins). The only MRC-5-specific mutations that substantially increased the efficiency of growth in MRC-5 cells were a group of four mutations in the 5' noncoding (NC) region. These 5' NC mutations and a separate group of 5' NC mutations that accumulated during earlier passages of the HM-175 virus in primary AGMK cells appeared, independently and additively, to result in decreased biochemical evidence of hepatitis in tamarins. However, neither group of 5' NC mutations had a demonstrable effect on the extent of virus excretion or liver pathology in these animals.

Funkhouser, A W; Raychaudhuri, G; Purcell, R H; Govindarajan, S; Elkins, R; Emerson, S U

1996-01-01

388

Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Its Application in Human Disease Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair is advancing both at the bench and bedside. Stem cells isolated from bone marrow are currently being tested for their therapeutic potential in a variety of clinical conditions including cardiovascular injury, kidney failure, cancer, and neurological and bone disorders. Despite the advantages, stem cell therapy is still limited by low survival, engraftment, and homing to damage area as well as inefficiencies in differentiating into fully functional tissues. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells is being explored as a means to circumvent some of these problems. This review presents the current understanding of the use of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells in human disease therapy with emphasis on genetic modifications aimed to improve survival, homing, angiogenesis, and heart function after myocardial infarction. Advancements in other disease areas are also discussed.

Hodgkinson, Conrad P.; Gomez, Jose A.; Mirotsou, Maria

2010-01-01

389

Internet and print resources to facilitate pathology analysis when phenotyping genetically engineered rodents.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered mice and rats are increasingly used as models for exploring disease progression and mechanisms. The full spectrum of anatomic, biochemical, and functional changes that develop in novel, genetically engineered mouse and rat lines must be cataloged before predictions regarding the significance of the mutation may be extrapolated to diseases in other vertebrate species, including humans. A growing list of reference materials, including books, journal articles, and websites, has been produced in the last 2 decades to assist researchers in phenotyping newly engineered rodent lines. This compilation provides an extensive register of materials related to the pathology component of rodent phenotypic analysis. In this article, the authors annotate the resources they use most often, to allow for quick determination of their relevance to research projects. PMID:21825311

Bolon, B; Couto, S; Fiette, L; Perle, K La

2012-01-01

390

Can genetic engineering for the poor pay off? An ex-ante evaluation of Golden Rice in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering (GE) in agriculture is a controversial topic in science and society at large. While some oppose genetically modified crops as proxy of an agricultural system they consider unsustainable and inequitable, the question remains whether GE can benefit the poor within the existing system and what needs to be done to deliver these benefits? Golden Rice has been genetically

Alexander J. Stein; H. P. S. Sachdev; Matin Qaim

2006-01-01

391

SelenoDB 2.0: annotation of selenoprotein genes in animals and their genetic diversity in humans.  

PubMed

SelenoDB (http://www.selenodb.org) aims to provide high-quality annotations of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements. Selenoproteins are proteins that contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) and the first release of the database included annotations for eight species. Since the release of SelenoDB 1.0 many new animal genomes have been sequenced. The annotations of selenoproteins in new genomes usually contain many errors in major databases. For this reason, we have now fully annotated selenoprotein genes in 58 animal genomes. We provide manually curated annotations for human selenoproteins, whereas we use an automatic annotation pipeline to annotate selenoprotein genes in other animal genomes. In addition, we annotate the homologous genes containing cysteine (Cys) instead of Sec. Finally, we have surveyed genetic variation in the annotated genes in humans. We use exon capture and resequencing approaches to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in more than 50 human populations around the world. We thus present a detailed view of the genetic divergence of Sec- and Cys-containing genes in animals and their diversity in humans. The addition of these datasets into the second release of the database provides a valuable resource for addressing medical and evolutionary questions in selenium biology. PMID:24194593

Romagné, Frédéric; Santesmasses, Didac; White, Louise; Sarangi, Gaurab K; Mariotti, Marco; Hübler, Ron; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genís; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Guigó, Roderic; Castellano, Sergi

2014-01-01

392

Genetically engineered poxviruses for recombinant gene expression, vaccination, and safety.  

PubMed Central

Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure-function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Moss, B

1996-01-01

393

Genetically Engineered Poxviruses for Recombinant Gene Expression, Vaccination, and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure--function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients.

Moss, Bernard

1996-10-01

394

Potentials toward genetic engineering of drought-tolerant soybean.  

PubMed

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crops in legume family. Soybean and soybean-based products are also considered as popular food for human and animal husbandry. With its high oil content, soybean has become a potential resource for the production of renewable fuel. However, soybean is considered one of the most drought-sensitive crops, with approximately 40% reduction of the yield in the worst years. Recent research progresses in elucidation of biochemical, morphological and physiological responses as well as molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to drought stress in model plants have provided a solid foundation for translational genomics of soybean toward drought tolerance. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in development of drought-tolerant soybean cultivars by gene transfer. PMID:22181694

Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

2012-12-01

395

Delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics by genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Several populations of adult human stem cells have been identified, but only a few of these are in routine clinical use. The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is arguably the most well characterized and the most routinely transplanted adult stem cell. Although details regarding several aspects of this cell’s phenotype are not well understood, transplant of HSCs has advanced to become the standard of care for the treatment of a range of monogenic diseases and several types of cancer. It has also proven to be an excellent target for genetic manipulation, and clinical trials have already demonstrated the usefulness of targeting this cell as a means of delivering nucleic acid therapeutics for the treatment of several previously incurable diseases. It is anticipated that additional clinical trials will soon follow, such as genetically engineering HSCs with vectors to treat monogenic diseases such as hemophilia A. In addition to the direct targeting of HSCs, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to replace virtually any engineered stem cell therapeutic, including HSCs. We now know that for the broad use of genetically-modified HSCs for the treatment of non-lethal diseases, e.g. hemophilia A, we must be able to regulate the introduction of nucleic acid sequences into these target cells. We can begin to refine transduction protocols to provide safer approaches to genetically manipulate HSCs and strategies are being developed to improve the overall safety of gene transfer. This review focuses on recent advances in the systemic delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics using genetically-modified stem cells, specifically focusing on i) the use of retroviral vectors to genetically modify HSCs, ii) the expression of fVIII from hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of hemophilia A, and iii) the use of genetically engineered hematopoietic cells generated from iPS cells as treatment for disorders of hematopoiesis.

Doering, Christopher B.; Archer, David; Spencer, H. Trent

2010-01-01

396

Perception of risks and benefits of in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and biotechnology.  

PubMed

The use of new biotechnology in medicine has become an everyday experience, but many people still express concern about biotechnology. Concerns are evoked particularly by the phrases genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization (IVF), and these concerns persist despite more than a decade of their use in medicine. Mailed nationwide opinion surveys on attitudes to biotechnology were conducted in Japan, among samples of the public (N = 551), high school biology teachers (N = 228), scientists (N = 555) and nurses (N = 301). People do see more benefits coming from science than harm when balanced against the risks. There were especially mixed perceptions of benefit and risk about IVF and genetic engineering, and a relatively high degree of worry compared to other developments of science and technology. A discussion of assisted reproductive technologies and surrogacy in Japan is also made. The opinions of people in Japan were compared to the results of previous surveys conducted in Japan, and international surveys conducted in Australia, China, Europe, New Zealand, U.K. and U.S.A. Japanese have a very high awareness of biotechnology, 97% saying that they had heard of the word. They also have a high level of awareness of IVF and genetic engineering. Genetic engineering was said to be a worthwhile research area for Japan by 76%, while 58% perceived research on IVF as being worthwhile, however 61% were worried about research on IVF or genetic engineering. Japanese expressed more concern about IVF and genetic engineering than New Zealanders. The major reason cited for rejection of genetic manipulation research in Japan and New Zealand was that it was seen as interfering with nature, playing God or as unethical. The emotions concerning these technologies are complex, and we should avoid using simplistic public opinion data as measures of public perceptions. The level of concern expressed by scientists and teachers in Japan suggest that public education "technology promotion campaigns" will not reduce concern about science and technology. Such concern should be valued as discretion that is basic to increasing the bioethical maturity of a society, rather than being feared. PMID:8146712

Macer, D R

1994-01-01

397

Genetic Algorithms Optimization of Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Efficiency with Air Swirl, EGR, Injection Timing and Multiple Injections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study extends the recently developed HIDECS-GA computer code to optimize diesel engine emissions and fuel economy with the existing techniques, such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections. A computational model of diesel engines named HIDECS is incorporated with the genetic algorithm (GA) to solve multi-objective optimization problems related to engine design. The phenomenological model, HIDECS code

Hiro Hiroyasu; Haiyan Miao; Tomo Hiroyasu; Mitunori Miki; Jiro Kamiura; Sinya Watanabe

398

Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Infected Animals Reveal Genetic Exchange in Unisexual,   Mating Type Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reproduction and genetic exchange are important for the evolution of fungal pathogens and for producing potentially infective spores. Studies to determine whether sex occurs in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii have produced enigmatic results, however: basidiospores are the most likely infective propagules, and clinical isolates are fertile and genetically diverse, consistent with a sexual species, but almost

Tien Bui; Xiaorong Lin; Richard Malik; Joseph Heitman; Dee Carter

2008-01-01

399

Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy  

SciTech Connect

Current therapeutic approaches against the advanced stages of human solid tumors are palliative rather than curative. Many modalities, including, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination have met with only modest success for advanced metastatic cancers. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with cytotxic effects of radioisotopes. It is the ?smart? way of delivering radiation to the known and occult metastatic cancer cells and is independent of drug toxicity and/or hormone resistance. The tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) containing the unique disaccharide sialyl-Tn, is highly expressed in majority of adenocarcinomas, including carcinomas of the prostate, breast, ovaries, pancreas and colon (80-90%) compared to undetectable expression in normal tissues. Monoclonal antibody CC49, reactive with TAG-72, after conjugation to potent gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides, has been useful in selective systemic radiolocalization of disease and therapy of primary and metastatic tumor sites. However, limited therapeutic responses were observed in patients. Limited success of antibody based delivery of radioisotopes can be attributed to several factors including undesirable pharmacokinetics, poor tumor uptake and high immunogenicity of intact antibodies (IgGs). The primary factors contributing towards the failure of RIT include: 1) longer serum half-lives of the intact IgG molecules resulting in the radiotoxicity, 2) generation of human antibodies against murine antibodies (HAMA) that limits the frequency of dose administration, 3) poor diffusion rates of intact IgG due to the large size and 4) high interstitial fluid pressures (IFP) encountered in solid tumors. The major goal of our multidisciplinary project was to develop specific novel radiopharmaceuticals, with desired pharmacokinetics, for the diagnosis and therapy of solid tumors. To overcome the low uptake of radioactivity by tumors and to increase its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more compatible with RIT and RIS requirements. For RIT, delivery for sc(Fv)2 and [sc(Fv)2]2 in a fr

Surinder Batra, Ph.D.

2006-02-27

400

Vicariance and dispersal across an intermittent barrier: population genetic structure of marine animals across the Torres Strait land bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeographic barriers, some transitory in duration, are likely to have been important contributing factors to modern marine biodiversity in the Indo-Pacific region. One such barrier was the Torres Strait land bridge between continental Australia and New Guinea that persisted through much of the late Pleistocene and separated Indian and Pacific Ocean taxa. Here, we examine the patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity for marine animals with present-day distributions spanning the Torres Strait. Specifically, we investigate whether there are concordant signatures across species, consistent with either vicariance or recent colonization from either ocean basin. We survey four species of reef fishes ( Apogon doederleini, Pomacentrus coelestis, Dascyllus trimaculatus, and Acanthurus triostegus) for mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 and control region variation and contrast these results to previous mtDNA studies in diverse marine animals with similar distributions. We find substantial genetic partitioning (estimated from F-statistics and coalescent approaches) between Indian and Pacific Ocean populations for many species, consistent with regional persistence through the late Pleistocene in both ocean basins. The species-specific estimates of genetic divergence, however, vary greatly and for reef fishes we estimate substantially different divergence times among species. It is likely that Indian and Pacific Ocean populations have been isolated for multiple glacial cycles for some species, whereas for other species genetic connections have been more recent. Regional estimates of genetic diversity and directionality of gene flow also vary among species. Thus, there is no apparent consistency among historical patterns across the Torres Strait for these co-distributed marine animals.

Mirams, A. G. K.; Treml, E. A.; Shields, J. L.; Liggins, L.; Riginos, C.

2011-12-01

401

Engineered temperature compensation in a synthetic genetic clock.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology by providing the means to reengineer and reprogram cellular regulatory mechanisms. However, synthetic gene circuits are often unreliable, as changes to environmental conditions can fundamentally alter a circuit's behavior. One way to improve robustness is to use intrinsic properties of transcription factors within the circuit to buffer against intra- and extracellular variability. Here, we describe the design and construction of a synthetic gene oscillator in Escherichia coli that maintains a constant period over a range of temperatures. We started with a previously described synthetic dual-feedback oscillator with a temperature-dependent period. Computational modeling predicted and subsequent experiments confirmed that a single amino acid mutation to the core transcriptional repressor of the circuit results in temperature compensation. Specifically, we used a temperature-sensitive lactose repressor mutant that loses the ability to repress its target promoter at high temperatures. In the oscillator, this thermoinduction of the repressor leads to an increase in period at high temperatures that compensates for the decrease in period due to Arrhenius scaling of the reaction rates. The result is a transcriptional oscillator with a nearly constant period of 48 min for temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 41 °C. In contrast, in the absence of the mutation the period of the oscillator drops from 60 to 30 min over the same temperature range. This work demonstrates that synthetic gene circuits can be engineered to be robust to extracellular conditions through protein-level modifications. PMID:24395809

Hussain, Faiza; Gupta, Chinmaya; Hirning, Andrew J; Ott, William; Matthews, Kathleen S; Josic, Kresimir; Bennett, Matthew R

2014-01-21

402

Towards programming languages for genetic engineering of living cells  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology aims at producing novel biological systems to carry out some desired and well-defined functions. An ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells. We introduce such a programming language, which allows logical interactions between potentially undetermined proteins and genes to be expressed in a modular manner. Programs can be translated by a compiler into sequences of standard biological parts, a process that relies on logic programming and prototype databases that contain known biological parts and protein interactions. Programs can also be translated to reactions, allowing simulations to be carried out. While current limitations on available data prevent full use of the language in practical applications, the language can be used to develop formal models of synthetic systems, which are otherwise often presented by informal notations. The language can also serve as a concrete proposal on which future language designs can be discussed, and can help to guide the emerging standard of biological parts which so far has focused on biological, rather than logical, properties of parts.

Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew

2009-01-01

403

Towards genetic markers in animal populations as biomonitors for human-induced environmental change.  

PubMed

Genetic markers provide potentially sensitive indicators of changes in environmental conditions because the genetic constitution of populations is normally altered well before populations become extinct. Genetic indicators in populations include overall genetic diversity, genetic changes in traits measured at the phenotypic level, and evolution at specific loci under selection. While overall genetic diversity has rarely been successfully related to environmental conditions, genetically based changes in traits have now been linked to the presence of toxins and both local and global temperature shifts. Candidate loci for monitoring stressors are emerging from information on how specific genes influence traits, and from screens of random loci across environmental gradients. Drosophila research suggests that chromosomal regions under recent intense selection can be identified from patterns of molecular variation and a high frequency of transposable element insertions. Allele frequency changes at candidate loci have been linked to pesticides, pollutants and climate change. Nevertheless, there are challenges in interpreting allele frequencies in populations, particularly when a large number of loci control a trait and when interactions between alleles influence trait expression. To meet these challenges, population samples should be collected for longitudinal studies, and experimental programmes should be undertaken to link variation at candidate genes to ecological processes. PMID:17204118

Hoffmann, Ary A; Daborn, Phillip J

2007-01-01

404

Genetic engineering and the development of new pollution control technologies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early 1983. It identifies a number of research topics that are likely to contribute to new pollution treatment techniques. These include the basic mechanisms underlying microbical co-metabolism and oligotrophy; molecular genetics in filamentous fungi, in strict anaerobes and in archaebacteria; directed evolution of enzymes and metabolic pathways; and studies to advance understanding of dehalogenations by microbes.

Johnston, J.B.; Robinson, S.G.

1984-01-01

405

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

1999-06-01

406

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2000-06-01

407

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2001-06-11

408

Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetically engineer the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans to survive in and detoxify DOE's mixed waste streams, and to develop process parameters for treating mixed wastes with such constructed strains. The goal for this project is to develop a suite of genetic tools for Deinococcus radiodurans and to use these tools to construct and test stable strains for detoxification of haloorganics in mixed wastes.

Lidstrom, Mary E.

2002-06-10

409

Properties of Genetic Recombinants (E. Coli with Shigella Flexneri) in the Bodies of Laboratory Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the present work is the isolation of genetic recombinants from the urinary bladder of guinea pigs and the intestines of white mice by means of crossing coliform Hfr strains with Shigella flexneri and studying their biochemical, serological,...

A. A. Abidov N. A. Zakirov E. F. Kalinina M. A. Abdusamatov

1969-01-01

410

Using HexSim to link demography and genetics in animal and plant simulations  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulation models are essential for understanding the effects of land management practices and environmental drivers, including landscape change, shape population genetic structure and persistence probabilities. The emerging field of eco-evolutionary modeling is beginning to dev...

411

An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.  

PubMed

The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them. PMID:18551237

Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

2008-01-01

412

Selection systems based on dominant-negative transcription factors for precise genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Diverse tools are available for performing genetic modifications of microorganisms. However, new methods still need to be developed for performing precise genomic engineering without introducing any undesirable side-alteration. Indeed for functional analyses of genomic elements, as well as for some industrial applications, only the desired mutation should be introduced at the locus considered. This article describes a new approach fulfilling these requirements, based on the use of selection systems consisting in truncated genes encoding dominant-negative transcription factors. We have demonstrated dominant-negative effects mediated by truncated Gal4p and Arg81p proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, interfering with galactose and arginine metabolic pathways, respectively. These genes can be used as positive and negative markers, since they provoke both growth inhibition on substrates and resistance to specific drugs. These selection markers have been successfully used for precisely deleting HO and URA3 in wild yeasts. This genetic engineering approach could be extended to other microorganisms.

Dutoit, Raphael; Dubois, Evelyne; Jacobs, Eric

2010-01-01

413

[Uptake of nickel from industrial wastewater by genetically engineered Escherichia coli JM109].  

PubMed

Heavy metal wastewater poses a serious threat to the environment. In comparison to the existing methods of chemical precipitation, ion exchange and carbon adsorption, biosorption is an attractive alternative for the recovery of heavy metals from industrial effluents. However, nickel ion, different from other heavy metal ions, is a more recalcitrant pollutant and has low affinity to many metal tolerant microorganisms. In this study, Escherichia coli JM109 was genetically engineered to simultaneously express a Ni2+ transport system (the product of nixA gene) andoverexpress metallothionein (MT). NixA protein has a high affinity for Ni2+, and metallothioneins (MTs) are capable of binding a variety of heavy metals including Ni2+ . The Ni2+ bioaccumulation performance of the genetically engineered E. coli JM109 was evaluated. Time-course test showed that the bioaccumulation rate was rapid, and 95% of the accumulation was achieved within the first 10 minutes. The maximum Ni2+ bioaccumulation by genetically engineered E. coli cells was dramatically increased from 1.54 mg/g to 10.11mg/g, a more than five-fold increase than that of the original E. coli strain. The isotherm was of Langmuir type. Within the tested pH range (pH 4-10), the engineered cells displayed more resistance to pH variation, retaining up to 80% of the Ni2+ binding capacity at pH 4, while the original E. coli host cells lost 80% of Ni2+ binding capacity at pH 4. The presence of Na+ and Ca2+ affected Ni2+ bioaccumulation, but the effects were not serious, as 71% and 66% of the Ni2+ binding capacities were retained respectively at the concentrations of 1000 mg/L Na+ and 1000 mg/L Ca2+ . However, Mg2+ exerted a severe adverse effect on Ni2+ bioaccumulation, 83% of Ni2+ accumulating capacity was lost when Mg2+ concentration reached 200 mg/L. The effects of different kinds of heavy metals on Ni2+ accumulating were different. The genetically engineered E. coli cell lost less than 45% of its Ni2+ bioaccumulation activity in the presence of 50 mg/L lead or cadmium, 66% in the presence of 25mg/L mercury and 84% in the presence of 40 mg/L copper. The presence of glucose did not improve Ni2+ uptake. Our study suggests that the genetically engineered E. coli JM109 has potential application for effective and efficient recovery of nickel from aqueous solutions. PMID:15969019

Deng, Xu; Li, Qing-Biao; Lu, Ying-Hua; Sun, Dao-Hua; Huang, Yi-Li

2003-05-01

414

Genetically engineered silk-elastinlike protein polymers for controlled drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silk-elastinlike class of genetically engineered protein polymers is composed of tandemly repeated silk-like (Gly–Ala–Gly–Ala–Gly–Ser) and elastin-like (Gly–Val–Gly–Val–Pro) amino acid blocks. The precision with which these polymers can be synthesized, as well as the ability to incorporate motifs that allow for gel-formation, stimuli-sensitivity, biodegradation, and biorecognition have stimulated interest in their use for controlled drug and gene delivery. This review

Zaki Megeed; Joseph Cappello; Hamidreza Ghandehari

2002-01-01

415

Swelling behavior of a genetically engineered silk-elastinlike protein polymer hydrogel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength on the equilibrium swelling ratio of physically crosslinked networks of a genetically engineered silk-elastinlike protein-based copolymer (SELP) with an amino acid repeat sequence of [(GVGVP)4GKGVP(GVGVP)3(GAGAGS)4]12 was investigated. The effects of gelation cure time and initial polymer concentration on the equilibrium swelling ratio and soluble fraction of the hydrogels

Adam A Dinerman; Joseph Cappello; Hamidreza Ghandehari; Stephen W Hoag

2002-01-01

416

Solute diffusion in genetically engineered silk–elastinlike protein polymer hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning and diffusion behavior of theophylline, vitamin B12, and cytochrome c in physically crosslinked networks of a genetically engineered silk–elastinlike protein-based (SELP) copolymer with an amino acid sequence of [(GVGVP)4GKGVP(GVGVP)3(GAGAGS)4]12 was investigated. The effect of gelation kinetics on the equilibrium swelling ratio and normalized dimensions of loaded SELP hydrogel disks before and after release studies was also examined. Size

Adam A Dinerman; Joseph Cappello; Hamidreza Ghandehari; Stephen W Hoag

2002-01-01

417

Fuzzy-decision-making problems of fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy-decision-making procedure is applied to find the optimal feed policy of a fed-batch fermentation process for fuel ethanol production using a genetically engineered Saccharomyces yeast 1400 (pLNH33). The policy consisted of feed flow rate, feed concentration, and fermentation time. The recombinant yeast 1400 (pLNH33) can utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously to produce ethanol. However, the parent yeast utilizes glucose

Feng-Sheng Wang; Chang-Huei Jing; George T. Tsao

1998-01-01

418

Optimal trade-off design of integrated fermentation processes for ethanol production using genetically engineered yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we considered a multi-stage integrated extractive fermentation with cell recycling for ethanol production using the genetically engineered Sacchromyces yeast 1400 (pLNH33), which can utilize glucose and xylose as carbon sources to produce ethanol. Each stage consists of a stirred-tank bioreactor, a cell settler and an extractor. A generalized mathematical model was formulated to express the multi-stage integrated

Ming-Liang Chen; Feng-Sheng Wang

2010-01-01

419

Release of transforming plasmid DNA from actively growing genetically engineered Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the transforming ability of the extracellular plasmid DNA released from a genetically engineered Escherichia coli pEGFP and the culturing conditions for the release of transforming DNA. The transforming ability was evaluated by transformation of competent cells with filtrates of E. coli pEGFP cultures. The number of transformants increased with time when E. coli pEGFP cells grew exponentially in

Nobuyoshi Ishii; Kazuaki Matsui; Shoichi Fuma; Hiroshi Takeda; Zen’ichiro Kawabata

2004-01-01

420

Can we guarantee the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Concern about the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment arises from the undesirable results of earlier new technologies and introduced organisms. Progress towards safe release is complicated by the varied views of a diverse society, confusion of process and product, problems with existing methods, and the lack of practical experience with real releases. No categorically safe novel organisms exist, but a progressive series of releases should allow risks to be systematically reduced.40 references.

Keeler, K.H.

1988-01-01

421

Genetic engineering of stent grafts with a highly efficient pseudotyped retroviral vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was first to compare the gene transfer efficiency of amphotrophic murine leukemia viral vector (ampho–MuLV) with the efficiency of MuLV pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSVG–MuLV) in tissue of vascular origin. The second purpose of this study was to determine cell retention after the implantation of genetically engineered stent grafts. Methods:

Darwin Eton; Thomas T. Terramani; Ying Wang; Aileen M. Takahashi; John J. Nigro; Lili Tang; Hong Yu

1999-01-01

422

Analysis of genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex viruses in human prostate cancer organotypic cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses type 1 (oHSVs) such as G47? and G207 are genetically engineered for selective replication competence in cancer cells. Several factors can influence the overall effectiveness of oHSV tropism, including HSV-1 receptor expression, extracellular matrix milieu and cellular permissiveness. We have taken advantage of human prostate organ cultures derived from radical prostatectomies to investigate oHSV tropism. In

B J Passer; C-l Wu; S Wu; S D Rabkin; R L Martuza

2009-01-01

423

Genetic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Enhanced Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) are a new class of metal-binding peptides with a repetitive metal-binding motif, (Glu-Cys)nGly, which were shown to bind heavy metals more effectively than metallothioneins. However, the limited uptake across the cell membrane is often the rate-limiting factor for the intracellular bioaccumu- lation of heavy metals by genetically engineered organisms expressing these metal-binding peptides. In this paper, two

WEON BAE; RAJESH K. MEHRA; ASHOK MULCHANDANI; WILFRED CHEN

2001-01-01

424

Genetic engineering of soft-rot bacteria for ethanol production from lignocellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The soft-rot bacteriaErwinia carotovora SR38 andErwinia chrysanthemi EC16 have been genetically engineered to efficiently produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as primary fermentation products from cellobiose, glucose and xylose. These organisms have the native ability to secrete a battery of hydrolases and lyases to aid in the solubilization of lignocellulose. Both strains of ethanologenicErwinia fermented cellobiose at twice the rate

D. S. Beall; L. O. Ingram

1993-01-01

425

Genetic engineering of bacteria and their potential for Hg 2+ bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion exchange or biosorptive processes for metalremoval generally lack specificity in metal bindingand are sensitive to ambient conditions, e.g. pH,ionic strength and the presence of metal chelators. Inthis study, cells of a genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain, JM109, which expressesmetallothionein and a Hg2+ transport system afterinduction were evaluated for their selectivity forHg2+ accumulation in the presence of sodium,magnesium, or cadmium

Shaolin Chen; David B. Wilson

1997-01-01

426

Microbial trophic interactions in aquatic microcosms designed for testing genetically engineered microorganisms: A field comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcosms may potentially be used as tools for evaluating the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms released\\u000a into the environment. Extrapolation of data to the field, however, requires that the correspondence between microcosm and\\u000a field is known. Microbial trophic interactions within the microbial loop were compared quantitatively and qualitatively between\\u000a field and microcosms containing estuarine water with and without

Niels Kroer; Richard B. Coffin

1992-01-01

427

Biosynthesis and characterization of CdS quantum dots in genetically engineered Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in genetically engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli) through the introduction of foreign genes encoding a CdS binding peptide. The CdS QDs were successfully separated from the bacteria through two methods, lysis and freezing–thawing of cells, and purified with an anion-exchange resin. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, luminescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were

Congcong Mi; Yanyan Wang; Jingpu Zhang; Huaiqing Huang; Linru Xu; Shuo Wang; Xuexun Fang; Jin Fang; Chuanbin Mao; Shukun Xu

2011-01-01

428

Fate of a genetically engineered escherichia coli bearing a plasmid in a paddy field microcosm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli DH5 a pBluescript II SK, bearing a plasmid which has a resistant gene to ampicillin as a genetically engineered bacteria (g?E. coli) and its parent E. coli DH5 a (p?E. coli), were introduced into a paddy field microcosm on the initial, 0.5th, 5th and 20th days after the microcosm was cultured. The population densities of both g?E. coli

Zen'Ichiro Kawabata; Kazuaki Matsui; Nobuyoshi Ishi

1997-01-01

429

[Genetic engineering and assisted reproduction techniques in man: a framework for sociologic analysis].  

PubMed

The possibilities opened up by genetic engineering and assisted reproduction techniques require reflection by sociologists and extensive public debate. In view of their potential as factors of social change, evaluation and control are warranted. They can be viable only if transparent and through public co-responsibility, for which an exchange of views is needed between all those who play a part in the development of said techniques. This dialogue must be wholly interdisciplinary and democratic. PMID:10822660

Sánchez Morales, M R

1999-01-01

430

Genetically-Engineered Pig-to-Baboon Liver Xenotransplantation: Histopathology of Xenografts and Native Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotopic liver transplantation was carried out in baboons using wild-type (WT, n = 1) or genetically-engineered pigs (?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout, GTKO), n = 1; GTKO pigs transgenic for human CD46, n = 7) and a clinically-acceptable immunosuppressive regimen. Biopsies were obtained from the WT pig liver pre-Tx and at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-transplantation. Biopsies of

Burcin Ekser; Edwin Klein; Jing He; Donna B. Stolz; Gabriel J. Echeverri; Cassandra Long; Chih Che Lin; Mohamed Ezzelarab; Hidetaka Hara; Massimiliano Veroux; David Ayares; David K. C. Cooper; Bruno Gridelli

2012-01-01

431

A Comparative Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered, Mutagenic, and Conventional Wheat Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties produced using modern biotechnologies, such as genetic engineering and mutagenic techniques, have lagged behind\\u000a other crop species, but are now being developed and, in the case of mutagenic wheat, commercially grown around the world.\\u000a Because these wheat varieties have emerged recently, there is a unique opportunity to assess comparatively the potential environmental\\u000a risks (human health,

Robert K. D. Peterson; Leslie M. Shama

2005-01-01

432

366. Suicide Gene Therapy of Glioma Using Genetically Engineered Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested anti-tumor activity of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the human adult bone marrow against glioma cells. MSCs were transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene (MSCtk cells) and mixed with various glioma cell lines (two human glioma cell lines, A-172 and T98G and C6 rat glioma cell line) and examined in vitro and in

Hiroki Namba; Shaoyi Li; Tsutomu Tokuyama; Junkoh Yamamoto; Naoki Yokota

2006-01-01

433

Recent advances in plant biotechnology and genetic engineering for production of secondary metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time people are using plants not only as crop cultures but also for obtaining of various chemicals. Currently plants\\u000a remain one of the most important and essential sources of biologically active compounds in spite of progress in chemical or\\u000a microbial synthesis. In our review we compare potentials and perspectives of modern genetic engineering approaches for pharmaceutical\\u000a biotechnology

Y. V. Sheludko

2010-01-01

434

Optimizing the production of animal models for target and lead validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for genetically engineered animals for drug target discovery, development and validation is growing. Transgenic animals, including mice and rats, and knockout and knock-in animals, provide useful animal models on which to test hypotheses and therapies. Tosk, Inc. has developed two gene delivery vectors based on the Drosophila P element transposon: StealthGene™ and a targeted gene delivery (TGD) vector

Patrick Fogarty

2002-01-01

435

Use of bioluminescence for detection of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment. [Xanthomonas campestris  

SciTech Connect

The persistence and movement of strain JS414 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, which was genetically engineered to bioluminesce, were monitored during a limited field introduction. Bioluminescence and traditional dilution plate counts were determined. Strain JS414 was applied to cabbage plants and surrounding soil by mist inoculation, by wound inoculation, by scattering infested debris among plants, and by incorporating bacteria into the soil. Bioluminescent X. campestris pv. campestris was detected in plant samples and in the rhizosphere up to 6 weeks after inoculation. Movement to uninoculated plants was detected on one occasion, but movement from the immediate release area was not detected. Strain JS414 was detected in soil samples beneath mist- and wound-inoculated plants only at intentionally infested locations and in aerial samples only on the day of inoculation. The authors bioluminescence methods proved to be as sensitive as plating methods for detecting the genetically engineered microorganisms in environmental samples. Their results demonstrate that transgenic incorporation of the luxCDABE operon provides a non-labor-intensive, sensitive detection method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in nature.

Shaw, J.J.; Dane, F.; Geiger, D.; Kloepper, J.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States))

1992-01-01

436

Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.  

PubMed

Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches. PMID:23190258

Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

2014-06-01

437

Use of Bioluminescence for Detection of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Released into the Environment  

PubMed Central

The persistence and movement of strain JS414 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, which was genetically engineered to bioluminesce, were monitored during a limited field introduction. Bioluminescence and traditional dilution plate counts were determined. Strain JS414 was applied to cabbage plants and surrounding soil by mist inoculation, by wound inoculation, by scattering infested debris among plants, and by incorporating bacteria into the soil. Bioluminescent X. campestris pv. campestris was detected in plant samples and in the rhizosphere up to 6 weeks after inoculation. Movement to uninoculated plants was detected on one occasion, but movement from the immediate release area was not detected. Strain JS414 was detected in soil samples beneath mist- and wound-inoculated plants only at intentionally infested locations and in aerial samples only on the day of inoculation. Our bioluminescence methods proved to be as sensitive as plating methods for detecting the genetically engineered microorganisms in environmental samples. Our results demonstrate that transgenic incorporation of the luxCDABE operon provides a non-labor-intensive, sensitive detection method for monitoring genetically engineered microorganisms in nature. Images

Shaw, Joe J.; Dane, Fenny; Geiger, Dorothy; Kloepper, Joseph W.

1992-01-01

438

[Application of genetically engineered mice model in the research of gastrointestinal tumor].  

PubMed

The gene knockout is based on the DNA homologous recombination and embryonic stem cell technology. It is an experimental method for modification of specific gene loci, which is one of the most direct means to clarifying gene functions. The similarity of genomes between mouse and human is as high as up to 95%. The life cycle of mice is relatively short, and easy to breed with stronger reproductive capacity. Therefore, the knockout mice are suitable for observing the whole process of disease pathogenesis. With genetic manipulation technology, researchers can produce the simulations of phenotypic effect by human genetic variation. This article focuses on genetically engineered mice models and their application in gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:24760653

Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Yingyan

2014-04-25

439

Tipping Points in Seaweed Genetic Engineering: Scaling Up Opportunities in the Next Decade  

PubMed Central

Seaweed genetic engineering is a transgenic expression system with unique features compared with those of heterotrophic prokaryotes and higher plants. This study discusses several newly sequenced seaweed nuclear genomes and the necessity that research on vector design should consider endogenous promoters, codon optimization, and gene copy number. Seaweed viruses and artificial transposons can be applied as transformation methods after acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of viral infections in seaweeds and transposon patterns in seaweed genomes. After cultivating transgenic algal cells and tissues in a photobioreactor, a biosafety assessment of genetically modified (GM) seaweeds must be conducted before open-sea application. We propose a set of programs for the evaluation of gene flow from GM seaweeds to local/geographical environments. The effective implementation of such programs requires fundamentally systematic and interdisciplinary studies on algal physiology and genetics, marine hydrology, reproductive biology, and ecology.

Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

2014-01-01

440

Improved metal cluster deposition on a genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved depositions of various metal clusters onto a biomolecular template were achieved using a genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Wild-type TMV was genetically altered to display multiple solid metal binding sites through the insertion of two cysteine residues within the amino-terminus of the virus coat protein. Gold, silver, and palladium clusters synthesized through in situ chemical reductions could be readily deposited onto the genetically modified template via the exposed cysteine-derived thiol groups. Metal cluster coatings on the cysteine-modified template were more densely deposited and stable than similar coatings on the unmodified wild-type template. Combined, these results confirm that the introduction of cysteine residues onto the outer surface of the TMV coat protein enhances the usefulness of this virus as a biotemplate for the deposition of metal clusters.

Lee, Sang-Yup; Royston, Elizabeth; Culver, James N.; Harris, Michael T.

2005-07-01

441

Tipping points in seaweed genetic engineering: scaling up opportunities in the next decade.  

PubMed

Seaweed genetic engineering is a transgenic expression system with unique features compared with those of heterotrophic prokaryotes and higher plants. This study discusses several newly sequenced seaweed nuclear genomes and the necessity that research on vector design should consider endogenous promoters, codon optimization, and gene copy number. Seaweed viruses and artificial transposons can be applied as transformation methods after acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of viral infections in seaweeds and transposon patterns in seaweed genomes. After cultivating transgenic algal cells and tissues in a photobioreactor, a biosafety assessment of genetically modified (GM) seaweeds must be conducted before open-sea application. We propose a set of programs for the evaluation of gene flow from GM seaweeds to local/geographical environments. The effective implementation of such programs requires fundamentally systematic and interdisciplinary studies on algal physiology and genetics, marine hydrology, reproductive biology, and ecology. PMID:24857961

Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

2014-01-01

442

Identification of cellular and genetic drivers of breast cancer heterogeneity in genetically engineered mouse tumour models.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous nature of mammary tumours may arise from different initiating genetic lesions occurring in distinct cells of origin. Here, we generated mice in which Brca2, Pten and p53 were depleted in either basal mammary epithelial cells or luminal oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative cells. Basal cell-origin tumours displayed similar histological phenotypes, regardless of the depleted gene. In contrast, luminal ER-negative cells gave rise to diverse phenotypes, depending on the initiating lesions, including both ER-negative and, strikingly, ER-positive invasive ductal carcinomas. Molecular profiling demonstrated that luminal ER-negative cell-origin tumours resembled a range of the molecular subtypes of human breast cancer, including basal-like, luminal B and 'normal-like'. Furthermore, a subset of these tumours resembled the 'claudin-low' tumour subtype. These findings demonstrate that not only do mammary tumour phenotypes depend on the interactions between cell of origin and driver genetic aberrations, but also multiple mammary tumour subtypes, including both ER-positive and -negative disease, can originate from a single epithelial cell type. This is a fundamental advance in our understanding of tumour aetiology. PMID:24615332

Melchor, Lorenzo; Molyneux, Gemma; Mackay, Alan; Magnay, Fiona-Ann; Atienza, María; Kendrick, Howard; Nava-Rodrigues, Daniel; López-García, María Ángeles; Milanezi, Fernanda; Greenow, Kirsty; Robertson, David; Palacios, José; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Smalley, Matthew J

2014-06-01

443

Effect of including inbreeding coefficients for animal and dam on estimates of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values for reproductive and growth traits of Piedmontese cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of inbreeding of animal and dam on estimates of genetic parameters and predictions of breeding values for five productive and reproductive traits of Piedmontese cattle were studied. Traits were (a) age at first insemination, (b) age at first calving, (c) 120-day weight, (d) yearling weight of males, and (e) yearling weight of females. Data for animals born from 1970

M Fioretti; A Rosati; C Pieramati; L. D Van Vleck

2002-01-01

444

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

445

Different methods of genetically engineering plants ÃÂ Robert HorschSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Robert Horsch DNAi Location:Manipulation>Techniques>transferring & storing>interviews Agrobacterium or gene gun? Robert Horsch compares the random power of a gene gun with the natural genetic engineering abilities of agrobacterium.

2008-10-06

446

FIELD CALIBRATION OF SOIL-CORE MICROCOSMS FOR EVALUATING FATE AND EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pacific Northwest Laboratory compared intact soil-core microcosms and the field for ecosystem structural and functional properties after the introduction of a model genetically engineered microorganism (GEM). This project used two distinct microbial types as model GEMs, Gram nega...

447

EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETECTING ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS FROM GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS AND PEST CONTROL AGENTS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes and evaluates research from several laboratories that deals with the detection of ecological effects induced through exposure of microbes or plants to genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMS) and microbial pest control agents (MPCAS) . The development o...

448

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute;)

2001-06-01

449

Survival and enumeration of aerosolized and freeze-dried genetically engineered E. coli , under controlled environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Aerosol survival of a genetically engineered strain ofEscherichia coli demonstrated a more rapid die-off (i.e., death rate) compared to its parental wildtype. Up to 77% of a freeze dried and air-exposed\\u000a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and wildtype bacteria could be resuscitated by the amendment of the dilution medium\\u000a with catalase or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Rehydration temperature was found to

Eitan Israeli; Brenda T. Shaffer; Bruce Lighthart

1994-01-01

450

Towards a basis for the phenotypic gambit: advances in the evolutionary genetics of animal personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of many species, including humans, differ consistently in the way they behave. These consistent behavioral differences among individuals are collectively known as animal personality (Gosling 2001), behavioral syndromes (Sih et al. 2004a), behavioral strategies (Benus et al. 1990), or behavioral profiles (Rodgers et al. 1997). Each of these terms, to some extent, describe an emergent phenomenon of the total

M. Inoue-Murayama; S. Kawamura; E. Inoue; A. Weiss; K. Van Oers; D. L. Sinn

2011-01-01

451

The Role of Breeding and Genetics in Animal Production Improvement in the Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Availability of animal protein for human consumption is very low in the developing countries mainly because of low productivity of existing livestock; ways and means to improve productivity through breeding are discussed and some basic issues requiring further research pointed out.

Rendel, Jan

1974-01-01

452

Bluetongue virus with mutated genome segment 10 to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals: a genetic DIVA approach.  

PubMed

Bluetongue virus (BTV) includes 24 serotypes and recently even more serotypes are proposed. Mass vaccination campaigns highlight the need for differential diagnostics in vaccinated populations. Bluetongue disease is routinely diagnosed by serological and virological tests by which differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle) is not possible. Real time PCR tests preferably detect all BTV serotypes (panBTV PCR tests). These PCR tests operate as frontline test to detect new BTV incursions. However, highly sensitive panBTV PCR tests can also detect currently applied inactivated and modified-live vaccines. Here, BTV with eight silent mutations in segment 10 (Seg-10) was generated by reverse genetics. This BTV mutant is not detected by a Seg-10 panBTV PCR test (genetic DIVA). Thus, inactivated BT vaccine with this mutated Seg-10 will avoid false positive PCR results post vaccination, whereas BTV infected animals can be positively diagnosed with the accompanying Seg-10 panBTV PCR test (DIVA-test) far beyond the infectious period. PMID:24021311

van Rijn, P A; van de Water, S G P; van Gennip, H G P

2013-10-17

453

Pathophysiology of Acute Experimental Pancreatitis: Lessons from Genetically Engineered Animal Models and New Molecular Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of acute pancreatitis is growing and worldwide population-based studies report a doubling or tripling since the 1970s. 25% of acute pancreatitis are severe and associated with histological changes of necrotizing pancreatitis. There is still no specific medical treatment for acute pancreatitis. The average mortality resides around 10%. In order to develop new specific medical treatment strategies for acute

Claus Schäfer; Anne Barbara Tietz; Burkhard Göke

2005-01-01

454

Causation of nervous system tumors in children: insights from traditional and genetically engineered animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric neurogenic tumors include primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), especially medulloblastoma; ependymomas and choroid plexus papillomas; astrocytomas; retinoblastoma; and sympathetic neuroblastoma. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, although uncommon in childhood, are also significant because they can result from exposures of children to ionizing radiation. Specific chromosomal loci and specific genes are related to each of these tumor types. Virtually all these

Jerry M Rice

2004-01-01

455

Escherichia coli isolates from extraintestinal organs of livestock animals harbour diverse virulence genes and belong to multiple genetic lineages.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli, the most common cause of bacteraemia in humans in the UK, can also cause serious diseases in animals. However the population structure, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes of those from extraintestinal organs of livestock animals are poorly characterised. The aims of this study were to investigate the diversity of these isolates from livestock animals and to understand if there was any correlation between the virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes and the genetic backbone of the bacteria and if these isolates were similar to those isolated from humans. Here 39 E. coli isolates from liver (n=31), spleen (n=5) and blood (n=3) of cattle (n=34), sheep (n=3), chicken (n=1) and pig (n=1) were assigned to 19 serogroups with O8 being the most common (n=7), followed by O101, O20 (both n=3) and O153 (n=2). They belong to 29 multi-locus sequence types, 20 clonal complexes with ST23 (n=7), ST10 (n=6), ST117 and ST155 (both n=3) being most common and were distributed among phylogenetic group A (n=16), B1 (n=12), B2 (n=2) and D (n=9). The pattern of a subset of putative virulence genes was different in almost all isolates. No correlation between serogroups, animal hosts, MLST types, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes was identified. The distributions of clonal complexes and virulence genes were similar to other extraintestinal or commensal E. coli from humans and other animals, suggesting a zoonotic potential. The diverse and various combinations of virulence genes implied that the infections were caused by different mechanisms and infection control will be challenging. PMID:22766078

Wu, Guanghui; Ehricht, Ralf; Mafura, Muriel; Stokes, Matthew; Smith, Noel; Pritchard, Geoff C; Woodward, Martin J

2012-11-01

456

Biocatalytic Lactone Generation in Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli and Identification of Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically altered Escherichia coli are used as biocatalysts to produce optically pure lactones from a variety of cyclic ketones as a biotechnology experiment for a biochemistry laboratory. The genetically engineered E. coli bacteria express large amounts of the enzyme cyclohexanone monooxygenase and are therefor capable of converting a variety of ketones into optically pure lactones. Separation by organic extraction and

Chad Slawson; Jon Stewart; Robert Potter

2001-01-01

457

Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in Glossina palpalis palpalis and domestic animals of the Fontem sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Human African Trypanosomiasis is still a public health threat in Cameroon. To assess Trypanosoma brucei strains circulating in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, we conducted a genetic structure study using microsatellites to assess genotypes circulating in both tsetse flies and domestic animals. Method For this study, pyramidal traps were set up and 2695 tsetse flies were collected and 1535 (57%) living flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Furthermore, blood samples were collected from 397 domestic animals (pigs, goats, sheep and dogs). DNA was extracted from midguts and blood samples, and specific primers were used to identify trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon. All positive samples were genetically characterized with seven microsatellite markers. Results Seventy five (4.7%) midguts of tsetse flies and 140 (35.2%) domestic animals were found infected by trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon. The genetic characterization of 215 Trypanozoon positive samples (75 from tsetse and 140 from animals) revealed a genetic diversity between Trypanosoma brucei circulating in tsetse and domestic animals. Of these positive samples, 87 (40.5%) single infections were used here to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in tsetse and domestic animals. The dendrogram illustrating the genetic similarities between Trypanosoma brucei genotypes was subdivided into four clusters. The samples from tsetse belonged to the same cluster whereas the samples from domestic animals and espcially pigs were distributed in the four clusters. Conclusion Pigs appeared as the animal species harboring the highest number of different Trypanosoma brucei strains. They may play an important role in the propagation of different genotypes. The FST values revealed a sub structuration of Trypanosoma brucei according to hosts and sometimes villages. The data obtained from this study may have considerable importance for the understanding of the transmission and the spread of specific genotypes of Trypanosoma brucei.

2014-01-01

458

An engineered small RNA-mediated genetic switch based on a ribozyme expression platform  

PubMed Central

An important requirement for achieving many goals of synthetic biology is the availability of a large repertoire of reprogrammable genetic switches and appropriate transmitter molecules. In addition to engineering genetic switches, the interconnection of individual switches becomes increasingly important for the construction of more complex genetic networks. In particular, RNA-based switches of gene expression have become a powerful tool to post-transcriptionally program genetic circuits. RNAs used for regulatory purposes have the advantage to transmit, sense, process and execute information. We have recently used the hammerhead ribozyme to control translation initiation in a small molecule-dependent fashion. In addition, riboregulators have been constructed in which a small RNA acts as transmitter molecule to control translation of a target mRNA. In this study, we combine both concepts and redesign the hammerhead ribozyme to sense small trans-acting RNAs (taRNAs) as input molecules resulting in repression of translation initiation in Escherichia coli. Importantly, our ribozyme-based expression platform is compatible with previously reported artificial taRNAs, which were reported to act as inducers of gene expression. In addition, we provide several insights into key requirements of riboregulatory systems, including the influences of varying transcriptional induction of the taRNA and mRNA transcripts, 5?-processing of taRNAs, as well as altering the secondary structure of the taRNA. In conclusion, we introduce an RNA-responsive ribozyme-based expression system to the field of artificial riboregulators that can serve as reprogrammable platform for engineering higher-order genetic circuits.

Klauser, Benedikt; Hartig, Jorg S.

2013-01-01

459

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Aeropropulsion Engines and Solid Modeling/Animation via the Integrated Forced Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The grant closure report is organized in the following four chapters: Chapter describes the two research areas Design optimization and Solid mechanics. Ten journal publications are listed in the second chapter. Five highlights is the subject matter of chapter three. CHAPTER 1. The Design Optimization Test Bed CometBoards. CHAPTER 2. Solid Mechanics: Integrated Force Method of Analysis. CHAPTER 3. Five Highlights: Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PX-300 Aircraft Engine. Engine with Regression and Neural Network Approximators Designed. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design. Neural Network and Regression Approximations Used in Aircraft Design.

2004-01-01

460

Conservation and management of animal genetic resources in agriculture: a challenge for German development cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although farm-animal biodiversity (FAB) played a role already in the Transfer-of- Technology phase of development cooperation and although the importance of local adaptation to the natural and economic environment is increasingly recognised, a generally accepted operational concept of FAB is still lacking. This is being sought through a recent GTZ project on agro-biodiversity. Necessary elements for a concept include avoiding

Wolfgang Bayer; Annette von Lossau

461

Genetic and enzymatic analyses of metalloprotease (aureolysin) from Staphylococcus aureus isolated from domestic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene (aur) encoding the metalloprotease (aureolysin) of Staphylococcus aureus from domestic animals was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing. The aur gene was detected in all 74 isolates from cows, pigs and chickens by PCR amplification and was classified into types I and II by PCR-RFLP patterns. The type II aur gene

Shotaro Takeuchi; Minoru Saito; Keisuke Imaizumi; Toshio Kaidoh; Hiroki Higuchi; Sachiko Inubushi

2002-01-01

462

Genetically Engineered Virulent Phage Banks in the Detection and Control of Emergent Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Natural outbreaks of multidrug-resistant microorganisms can cause widespread devastation, and several can be used or engineered as agents of bioterrorism. From a biosecurity standpoint, the capacity to detect and then efficiently control, within hours, the spread and the potential pathological effects of an emergent outbreak, for which there may be no effective antibiotics or vaccines, become key challenges that must be met. We turned to phage engineering as a potentially highly flexible and effective means to both detect and eradicate threats originating from emergent (uncharacterized) bacterial strains. To this end, we developed technologies allowing us to (1) concurrently modify multiple regions within the coding sequence of a gene while conserving intact the remainder of the gene, (2) reversibly interrupt the lytic cycle of an obligate virulent phage (T4) within its host, (3) carry out efficient insertion, by homologous recombination, of any number of engineered genes into the deactivated genomes of a T4 wild-type phage population, and (4) reactivate the lytic cycle, leading to the production of engineered infective virulent recombinant progeny. This allows the production of very large, genetically engineered lytic phage banks containing, in an E. coli host, a very wide spectrum of variants for any chosen phage-associated function, including phage host-range. Screening of such a bank should allow the rapid isolation of recombinant T4 particles capable of detecting (ie, diagnosing), infecting, and destroying hosts belonging to gram-negative bacterial species far removed from the original E. coli host.

Blois, Helene; Iris, Francois

2010-01-01

463

Diorama engine: a 3D video storyboard editor for 3D computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this sketch, we will demonstrate a video storyboard tool targeted for 3D computer animation. Our tool provides limited but specialized functions of standard 3D computer graphics software, focusing on ease of scene construction, camera control and the ability to preview in realtime. This allows for quicker and easier creation of video storyboards over existing approaches.

Koji Mikami; Toru Tokuhara; Mitsuru Kaneko

2002-01-01

464

Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control  

SciTech Connect

On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1998-11-01

465

Site-specific selfish genes as tools for the control and genetic engineering of natural populations.  

PubMed

Site-specific selfish genes exploit host functions to copy themselves into a defined target DNA sequence, and include homing endonuclease genes, group II introns and some LINE-like transposable elements. If such genes can be engineered to target new host sequences, then they can be used to manipulate natural populations, even if the number of individuals released is a small fraction of the entire population. For example, a genetic load sufficient to eradicate a population can be imposed in fewer than 20 generations, if the target is an essential host gene, the knockout is recessive and the selfish gene has an appropriate promoter. There will be selection for resistance, but several strategies are available for reducing the likelihood of it evolving. These genes may also be used to genetically engineer natural populations, by means of population-wide gene knockouts, gene replacements and genetic transformations. By targeting sex-linked loci just prior to meiosis one may skew the population sex ratio, and by changing the promoter one may limit the spread of the gene to neighbouring populations. The proposed constructs are evolutionarily stable in the face of the mutations most likely to arise during their spread, and strategies are also available for reversing the manipulations. PMID:12803906

Burt, Austin

2003-05-01

466

Insights into Wild-Type and Mutant p53 Functions Provided by Genetically Engineered Mice.  

PubMed

Recent whole-exome sequencing studies of numerous human cancers have now conclusively shown that the TP53 tumor-suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Despite extensive studies of the TP53 gene and its encoded protein (p53), our understanding of how TP53 mutations contribute to cancer initiation and progression remain incomplete. Genetically engineered mice with germline or inducible Trp53 somatic mutations have provided important insights into the mechanisms by which different types of p53 mutation influence cancer development. Trp53 germline mutations that alter specific p53 structural domains or posttranslation modification sites have benefitted our understanding of wild-type p53 functions in a whole organism context. Moreover, genetic approaches to reestablish functional wild-type p53 to p53-deficient tissues and tumors have increased our understanding of the therapeutic potential of restoring functional p53 signaling to cancers. This review outlines many of the key insights provided by the various categories of Trp53 mutant mice that have been generated by multiple genetic engineering approaches. PMID:24415648

Donehower, Lawrence A