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1

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive nephropathy: Insights from genetically engineered animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. An increasingly used animal model of obstructive nephropathy is unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). This model mimics, in an accelerated manner, the different stages of obstructive nephropathy leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis: cellular infiltration, tubular proliferation and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT),

JEAN-LOUP BASCANDS; Joost P. Schanstra

2005-01-01

2

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

3

Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands and Joost P Schanstra*  

E-print Network

1 Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically Engineered Animals Jean-Loup Bascands Genetically Engineered Animals. Congenital obstructive nephropathy is the primary cause for end stage renal.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00486.x #12;2 Short title Obstructive Nephropathy: Insights from Genetically

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

Phillips, John

1973-01-01

5

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

6

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

7

Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.  

PubMed

The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleologyTeleology , which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos Telos , and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very genetic engineering which creates this dilemma to ablate consciousness in such animal models, thereby escaping a moral impasse. PMID:24496650

Rollin, Bernard E

2015-01-01

8

Using Genetically Engineered Animal Models in the Postgenomic Era to Understand Gene Function in Alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044

Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio

2012-01-01

9

Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Discovery Education website serves as a repository of instructional materials for educators seeking to help their charges learn about everything from the solar system to genetically modified organisms. This particular lesson plan deals with the science and technology of genetic engineering and it is intended to be used by advanced high school and community college students. Users will appreciate the fact that the entire plan is well-organized and divided into 12 sections including Objectives, Discussion Questions, and Procedures. The Discussion Questions are thoughtful and well-articulated and one can imagine that each query might generate more than a bit of meditation and close consideration.

Morrissette-Johnson, Winona

10

Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

11

Genetic Engineering & Xenotransplantation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article about xenotransplantation, or transplanting organs/tissues from other species to humans, offers hope to Type I diabetes sufferers because: insulin-producing tissue in animals (islets) has been isolated in tests, some human trials were successful with transplanted islets from human cadavers, and genetic engineering could create a 'super' islet that will survive after xenotransplantation.

Shane Grey (Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Australia;)

2000-05-01

12

Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits  

E-print Network

Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits Majbritt Felleki Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish #12;Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits Abstract Animal traits differ not only

13

Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general look at the process of crop genetic engineering.This is the first of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. The six lessons after this are DNA and DNA Extraction, Gene Cloning, Gene Regions, Gene Modification, Gene Gun, and Backcross Breeding.

14

Genetically engineered foods  

MedlinePLUS

... chap 105. Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health, National Research Council. Safety of genetically engineered foods: Approaches to ...

15

Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent\\u000a years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented\\u000a negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus\\u000a in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems

Teshome Mebatsion

16

Genetic engineering in biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone; insulin; treatment of blood cells, Talasemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; and more nutritious soya), transfer to higher organisms, and cellular fusion; (3) biological risks and precautions; (4) possible applications (production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, alcohol, chemicals, enzymes, peptides, viral antigens, monoclonal antibodies, genes, proteins, and insecticides; metal extraction; nitrogen fixation; biodegradation; and new varieties of plants and animals; and (5) international activities.

Bedate, C.A.; Morales, J.C.; Lopez, E.H.

1981-09-01

17

Welfare Issues of Genetically Modified Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Genetically engineered animals have opened,new frontiers in the study of physiology and disease processes. Mutant animals offer more,accurate disease models,and increased precision for pathogenesis and treatment studies. Their use offers hope for improved,therapy to patients with conditions that currently have poor or ineffective treatments. These advantages have fostered an increase in studies using mice in recent years, a development

Melvin B. Dennis

1989-01-01

18

Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation through direct gene transfer methods holds promise for introducing novel traits to sweetpotato in cases\\u000a where no solutions by conventional breeding are available. This may be if the trait is not known in sweetpotato or it is governed\\u000a by complex inheritance. Sweetpotato is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, polyploid and out-crossing – in other words,\\u000a a challenging crop to

J. F. Kreuze; J. P. T. Valkonen; M. Ghislain

19

Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

1989-01-01

20

Disease-resistant genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Infectious disease adversely affects livestock production and animal welfare, and has impacts upon both human health and public perception of livestock production. The authors argue that the combination of new methodology that enables the efficient production of genetically-modified (GM) animals with exciting new tools to alter gene activity makes the applications of transgenic animals for the benefit of animal

C. B. A. Whitelaw; H. M. Sang

2005-01-01

21

Animal Ecosystem Engineers in Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is about animal ecosystem engineers in streams. An impressive array of animals function as ecosystem engineers in streams through a variety of activities, ranging from nest digging by anadromous salmon to benthic foraging by South American fishes, from the burrowing of aquatic insects to the trampling of hippos. These ecosystem engineers have local impacts on benthic habitat and also strongly affect downstream fluxes of nutrients and other resources. The impacts of ecosystem engineers are most likely some function of their behavior, size, and population density, modulated by the abiotic conditions of the stream. In streams, subsidies often control the body size and density of ecosystem engineers, while hydrologic energy controls their distribution, density, and life-history attributes, the habitats they create, and the resources and organisms they affect. Because ecosystem engineers can profoundly affect stream ecosystems, and because they themselves can be significantly affected positively or negatively by human activities, understanding ecosystem engineering in streams is increasingly important for the management of these ecosystems.

JONATHAN W. MOORE (;)

2006-03-01

22

Paper Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

23

Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

24

Safe genetically engineered plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

2007-10-01

25

Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Its Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how engineers apply their understanding of DNA to manipulate specific genes to produce desired traits, and how engineers have used this practice to address current problems facing humanity. They learn what genetic engineering means and examples of its applications, as well as moral and ethical problems related to its implementation. Students fill out a flow chart to list the methods to modify genes to create GMOs and example applications of bacteria, plant and animal GMOs.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

26

Genetically Engineered Food AD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Lana Hays N:Hays;Lana ORG:Saint Henry District High School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD

2005-04-11

27

GENETIC ALGORITHMS CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING P. J. FLEMING R. C. PURSHOUSE Department. 789 May 2001 #12;Genetic algorithms in control systems engineering P. J. Fleming and R. C. Purshouse of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering University of Sheffield Sheffield, S1 3JD UK Research Report No

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

28

Genetically Modified Animals and Pharmacological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the\\u000a domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of\\u000a the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in\\u000a generating affordable models of human disease although

Dominic J. Wells

29

Animal genetic manipulation--a utilitarian response.  

PubMed

I examine the process and outcomes of animal genetic manipulation ('transgenesis') with reference to its morally salient features. I consider several objections to transgenesis. I examine and reject the alleged intrinsic wrongness of 'deliberate genetic sequence alteration,' as I do the notion that transgenesis may lead to human genetic manipulation. I examine the alleged wrongness of killing inherent in transgenesis, and suggest that the concept of 'replaceability' successfully justifies such killing, although not for entities deemed to possess 'personhood.' I examine 'significant suffering' associated with transgenesis and propose the radical conclusion that, although it would be wrong to prohibit animal genetic manipulation per se, utilitarians ought to support a 'default prohibition' on transgenic experiments that entail significant suffering. PMID:12061384

Smith, Kevin R

2002-02-01

30

Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

Boone, C. Keith

1984-01-01

31

Genetically Engineered Food: The Science Behind the  

E-print Network

Genetically Engineered Food: The Science Behind the Controversy Toby Bradshaw Washington Research that you: · Know more, and perhaps worry less, about the genetic engineering (GE) of food plants · Know;Genetically engineered (GE) or genetically modified (GM)? · Genetic engineering -- Intentional transfer

Bradshaw, Toby

32

International Patent Trends in Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering  

NSF Publications Database

... Patent Trends in Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering (June 18, 1999) This report is the second in ... examines international patenting of genetic engineering technologies as a proxy for biotechnology ...

33

Photothermal Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Optical methods for manipulation of cellular function have enabled deconstruction of genetic and neural circuits in vitro and in vivo. Plasmonic gold nanomaterials provide an alternative platform for external optical ...

Deisseroth, Karl

34

"Genetically Engineered" Nanoelectronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantum mechanical functionality of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared-photodetectors (QWIPs), quantum well lasers, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) is enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The design and optimization of such devices requires a fundamental understanding of electron transport in such dimensions. The Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO) is a general-purpose quantum device design and analysis tool based on a fundamental non-equilibrium electron transport theory. NEW was combined with a parallelized genetic algorithm package (PGAPACK) to evolve structural and material parameters to match a desired set of experimental data. A numerical experiment that evolves structural variations such as layer widths and doping concentrations is performed to analyze an experimental current voltage characteristic. The genetic algorithm is found to drive the NEMO simulation parameters close to the experimentally prescribed layer thicknesses and doping profiles. With such a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment design synthesis can be performed.

Klimeck, Gerhard; Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.; Stoica, Adrian; Cwik, Thomas

2000-01-01

35

Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

1991-01-01

36

Mechanisms of acute oxygen sensing by the carotid body: Lessons from genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied carotid body (CB) glomus cell sensitivity to changes in O2 tension in three different genetically engineered animals models using thin CB slices and monitoring the secretory response to hypoxia by amperometry. Glomus cells from partially HIF-1? deficient mice exhibited a normal sensitivity to hypoxia. Animals with complete deletion of the small membrane anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase

Patricia Ortega-Sáenz; Alberto Pascual; José I. Piruat; José López-Barneo

2007-01-01

37

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic  

E-print Network

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic Purity of Seed Stocks KENT J yield. Seeds carry the genetic traits incorporated by years of breeding and selection to create quality. The genetic purity of seeds (i.e., the percentage of contamination by seeds or genetic material

Bradford, Kent

38

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

2014-01-01

39

Genetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in WalnutGenetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in Walnut Bei Fei and Richard Meilan  

E-print Network

Genetic Engineering of Reproductive Sterility in WalnutGenetic Engineering of Reproductive plantations, fine hardwoods are being genetically engineered for a variety of commercially important traits conditions. Objectives Develop a stable and reliable system to genetically engineer reproductive sterility

40

Genetic Programming Evolution of Controllers for 3D Character Animation  

E-print Network

Genetic Programming Evolution of Controllers for 3­D Character Animation Larry Gritz James K. Hahn Pixar Animation Studios 1001 W. Cutting Blvd. Richmond, CA 94804 lg@pixar.com The George Washington character animation requires an animator to specify the values for all degrees of freedom of an articulated

Fernandez, Thomas

41

Animal Models for Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the efficacy of engineered tissues, it is necessary to have (1) appropriate large animal models that mimic the clinical\\u000a setting and (2) relevant methods of monitoring the biofuntionality of these tissues. However, developing these tissue constructs\\u000a is a step-by-step process in which numerous variables such as scaffold design, source of stem cells and mode of growth factor\\u000a application

Véronique Viateau; Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou; Geneviève Guillemin; Hervé Petite

42

Genetic Engineering Challenge - Preventing Vitamin A Deficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Genetic Engineering Challenge - How can scientists develop a type of rice that could prevent vitamin A deficiency?" is an analysis and discussion activity. This activity begins with an introduction to vitamin A deficiency, rice seeds, and genetic engineering. Next, several questions challenge students to design a basic plan that could produce a genetically engineered rice plant that makes rice grains that contain pro-vitamin A. Subsequent information and questions guide students in developing an understanding of the basic techniques of genetic engineering. Students use fundamental molecular biology concepts as they think about how to solve a practical problem. This activity can be used to introduce students to genetic engineering or to reinforce basic understanding of genetic engineering.

Ingrid Waldron

43

Phytoremediation of Organomercurial Compounds via Chloroplast Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg), especially in organic form, is a highly toxic pollutant affecting plants, animals, and man. In plants, the primary target of Hg damage is the chloroplast; Hg inhibits electron transport and photosynthesis. In the present study, chloroplast genetic engineering is used for the first time to our knowledge to enhance the capacity of plants for phyto- remediation. This was

Oscar N. Ruiz; Hussein S. Hussein; Norman Terry; Henry Daniell

2003-01-01

44

Genetic engineering: inserting new DNA into a plasmid vector, 3D animation with with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how a gene can be cloned into a plasmid vector by cutting the DNA molecule using restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (in this case EcoRI), and then pasting the new piece of DNA into the plasmid at the sticky ends using an enzyme called ligase. This new recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned by being grown in bacteria cells. This is known as recombinant DNA technology.

2008-10-06

45

Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae  

PubMed Central

Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization. PMID:24710110

Rasala, Beth A.; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

46

Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.  

PubMed

Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

Müntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wüstenhagen, T

1998-08-01

47

Genetic animal models of dystonia: common features and diversities.  

PubMed

Animal models are pivotal for studies of pathogenesis and treatment of disorders of the central nervous system which in its complexity cannot yet be modeled in vitro or using computer simulations. The choice of a specific model to test novel therapeutic strategies for a human disease should be based on validity of the model for the approach: does the model reflect symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment response present in human patients? In the movement disorder dystonia, prior to the availability of genetically engineered mice, spontaneous mutants were chosen based on expression of dystonic features, including abnormal muscle contraction, movements and postures. Recent discovery of a number of genes and gene products involved in dystonia initiated research on pathogenesis of the disorder, and the creation of novel models based on gene mutations. Here we present a review of current models of dystonia, with a focus on genetic rodent models, which will likely be first choice in the future either for pathophysiological or for preclinical drug testing or both. In order to help selection of a model depending on expression of a specific feature of dystonia, this review is organized by symptoms and current knowledge of pathogenesis of dystonia. We conclude that albeit there is increasing need for research on pathogenesis of the disease and development of improved models, current models do replicate features of dystonia and are useful tools to develop urgently demanded treatment for this debilitating disorder. PMID:25034123

Richter, Franziska; Richter, Angelika

2014-10-01

48

What is morally distinctive about genetic engineering?  

PubMed

It sometimes seems that genetic engineering is suspect, both to its practitioners and to the general public, because it is perceived as being somehow unnatural. This essay argues, on the basis of an analysis of two senses of "natural," that there is nothing distinctively morally problematic about genetic engineering, at least on the grounds of its alleged unnaturalness. It does not follow that we cannot distinguish among morally legitimate and morally suspect uses of genetic engineering. But these distinctions can and should be drawn on the basis of the same considerations that enter into the evaluation of particular uses of any other medical procedure. PMID:2078584

Porter, J

1990-01-01

49

Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

2002-01-01

50

Genetically engineered pesticide biodegradation by Gliocladium virens  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE December 1990 Maj or Subj ect: Plant Pathology GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PESTICIDE BIODEGRADATION BY GLIOGLADIVM UIRENS A Thesis by JANET MARIE SUPAK Approved as to style and content by: A' Michael D. Thomas (Co-Ch of Committee) Charles M..., enerley (Co-Chair of Committ Kirk W. Brown (Member) Neal Van Al en (Head of Department) December 1990 ABSTRACT Genetically Engineered Pesticide Biodegradation by Glioc1adium virens. (December 1990) Janet Marie Supak, B, S. , Texas A&M University...

Supak, Janet Marie

1990-01-01

51

Genetically engineered crops: from idea to product.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered crops were first commercialized in 1994 and since then have been rapidly adopted, enabling growers to more effectively manage pests and increase crop productivity while ensuring food, feed, and environmental safety. The development of these crops is complex and based on rigorous science that must be well coordinated to create a plant with desired beneficial phenotypes. This article describes the general process by which a genetically engineered crop is developed from an initial concept to a commercialized product. PMID:24579994

Prado, Jose Rafael; Segers, Gerrit; Voelker, Toni; Carson, Dave; Dobert, Raymond; Phillips, Jonathan; Cook, Kevin; Cornejo, Camilo; Monken, Josh; Grapes, Laura; Reynolds, Tracey; Martino-Catt, Susan

2014-01-01

52

Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

Sinsheimer, Robert L.

1970-01-01

53

Genetically engineered dual-band fractal antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractal antenna engineering concepts have been successfully combined with genetic algorithms to develop a powerful design optimization tool. The genetic optimization approach developed can simultaneously optimize the geometry of a fractal antenna, locations of loads, component values of loads, and the projected length of the fractal antenna. The results suggest that a 30-55% size reduction can be achieved by optimizing

D. H. Werner; P. L. Werner

2001-01-01

54

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

E-print Network

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Ivan ion channels as well, and introduce the genetically engineered, light-controlled nAChR (Lin proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light- sensitive ligands, innately `blind

Trauner, Dirk

55

Behavior genetics and the domestication of animals.  

PubMed

Across species, a similar suite of traits tends to develop in response to domestication, including modifications in behavior. Reduced fear and increased stress tolerance were central in early domestication, and many domestication-related behaviors may have developed as traits correlated to reduced fear. Genetic mechanisms involved in domestication of behavior can be investigated by using top-down or bottom-up approaches, either starting from the behavior variation and searching for underlying genes or finding selected loci and then attempting to identify the associated phenotypes. Combinations of these approaches have proven powerful, and examples of results from such studies are presented and discussed. This includes loci associated with tameness in foxes and dogs, as well as loci correlated with reduced aggression and increased sociality in chickens. Finally, some examples are provided on epigenetic mechanisms in behavior, and it is suggested that selection of favorable epigenetic variants may have been an important mechanism in domestication. PMID:25384136

Jensen, Per

2014-02-01

56

Genetically modified ingredients in animal nutrition: Their safety and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The immense potential of genetic manipulation techniques is now being realized with a dramatic increase in the agricultural and industrial use of modified plants and microorganisms. Many animal feeds now include material from crop plants that have been modified for characteristics such as disease or pest resistance that are unlikely to affect their nutritional value. In addition crop plants

A. Chesson; H. J. Flint

57

Renal Tubular Cells Cultured from Genetically Modified Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of renal tubular cells from genetically modified animals opens the opportunity of biochemical, cell biology and physiological studies under strictly controlled conditions. Either primary cultures or cell lines can be used. Through two examples of primary cultures of proximal tubular cells obtained from knock-out mice, important information about the function of proteins were obtained. Mice lacking vimentin, an

Gérard Friedlander; Isabelle Runembert; François Vrtovsnik; Fabiola Terzi

1999-01-01

58

Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle  

PubMed Central

There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492

2011-01-01

59

'New' genetics and genetic engineering: Feminist analysis needed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Reductionism, Determinism and Feminist Values track.\\u000aIn 1953, Franklin, Crick, Watson, and Wilkins discovered the molecular structure of chromosomes. From this Crick proclaimed 'the central dogma,' that inheritance is reduced to a DNA-RNA-protein sequence to determine the generation of every genetic trait. This 'dogma' inspired the Human Genome Project (HGP) and also genetic engineering

Becky Holmes

2010-01-01

60

Genetically modified animal models recapitulating molecular events altered in human hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

New advancements have been made in recent years in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human liver tumorigenesis.\\u000a Experimental animal models have been widely used, especially mouse models. In this review we highlight some of the genetically\\u000a engineered mouse models that have proved to be excellent tools to study the intracellular signalling pathways altered in hepatocarcinogenesis\\u000a and establish

Aránzazu Sánchez; Isabel Fabregat

2009-01-01

61

Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. PMID:24741309

Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; MacKay, J Andrew

2014-01-01

62

Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tutorial and overview of genetic algorithms for electromagnetic optimization. Genetic-algorithm (GA) optimizers are robust, stochastic search methods modeled on the concepts of natural selection and evolution. The relationship between traditional optimization techniques and the GA is discussed. Step-by-step implementation aspects of the GA are detailed, through an example with the objective of providing useful guidelines for

J. Michael Johnson; V. Rahmat-Samii

1997-01-01

63

Genetic Engineering of Probiotic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the advent of the era of genomics and proteomics, the molecular mechanisms of beneficial characteristics of probiotics\\u000a are gradually being elucidated. These studies while paving the way for concrete evidence of the beneficial effects of probiotics\\u000a have also lead to the idea of improved probiotics through genetic modification. Genetically Modified (GM) probiotics are mainly\\u000a concerned with the improved survival

T. C. Bamunuarachchige; H. A. M. Wickramasinghe; D. M. J. C. Dissanayaka; N. A. D. Wickramarathna

64

Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.  

PubMed

In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely. PMID:14989287

Barclay, Linda

2003-01-01

65

Genetic Engineering: and the Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a transcript from a radio show, Nobel Prize Winner Sir Macfarlane Burnet stresses the critical need for scientists to regulate their own activities in genetic research and cites the potential danger of creating a new form of polio which might escape. (CL)

Australian Journal of Mental Retardation, 1977

1977-01-01

66

Meddling with Medusa: On Genetic Manipulation, Art and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Turning animals into art through genetic manipulation poses many questions for how we think about our relationship with other\\u000a species. Here, I explore three rather disparate sets of issues. First, I ask to what extent the production of such living\\u000a “artforms” really is as transgressive as advocates claim. Whether or not it counts as radical in terms of art I

Lynda Birke

67

Genetic and genomic interactions of animals with different ploidy levels.  

PubMed

Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex and dynamic process that likely plays a crucial role for the evolution and persistence of polyploid animals. See also other articles in this themed issue. PMID:23751376

Bogart, J P; Bi, K

2013-01-01

68

Genetically engineered mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and motor neuron disease. Here we emphasize the use of genetically engineered mouse models that are instrumental for understanding why AD is a neuronal disease, and for validating attractive therapeutic targets. In motor neuron diseases, Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase and survival motor neuron

Huaibin Cai; David R. Borchelt; Donald L. Price; Philip C. Wong

2002-01-01

69

GENETIC ENGINEERING USING HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract In the past few years, in vivo technologies have emerged that, due to their efficiency and simplicity, may one day replace standard genetic engineering tech- niques. Constructs can be made on plasmids or directly on the Escherichia colichromo- some from PCR products or synthetic oligonucleotides by homologous recombination. This is possible because bacteriophage-encoded recombination functions efficiently re- combine

Donald L. Court; James A. Sawitzke; Lynn C. Thomason

2002-01-01

70

What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2000-01-01

71

Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors  

PubMed Central

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940

Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten

2014-01-01

72

Modeling cancer using genetically engineered mice.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have proven to be a powerful tool to study tumorigenesis. The mouse is the preferred complex organism used in cancer studies due to the high number and versatility of genetic tools available for this species. GEM models can mimic point mutations, gene amplifications, short and large deletions, translocations, etc.; thus, most of the genetic aberrations found in human tumors can be modeled in GEM, making GEM models a very attractive system. Furthermore, recent developments in mouse genetics may facilitate the generation of GEM models with increased mutational complexity, therefore resembling human tumors better. Within this review, we will discuss the different possibilities of modeling tumorigenesis using GEM and the future developments within the field. PMID:25636462

Stiedl, Patricia; Grabner, Beatrice; Zboray, Katalin; Bogner, Edith; Casanova, Emilio

2015-01-01

73

Lecturers and Academic Staff: Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Lecturers and Academic Staff: Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Full-Time Total Technicians and Teaching Assistants The Departments of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering have a number and genetic engineering. Inthe very nearfuture it is seriously considering establishing a M~ters program

74

Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.  

PubMed

Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. PMID:25124815

Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

2014-01-01

75

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

76

Introduction: Public understanding of genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the 1980s to the late 1990s, Germany was among the forerunners for the critical debate on biotechnology and genetic engineering. In 1995, co-ordinated by the Centre of Technology in Baden-Württemberg, a joint venture research project was established. The project followed an interdisciplinary perspective and included research on attitudes, the social and cognitive embedding of attitudes, and argumentation patterns as

Jürgen Hampel; Ortwin Renn

2000-01-01

77

Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria as biodiesel feedstock.  

SciTech Connect

Algal biofuels are a renewable energy source with the potential to replace conventional petroleum-based fuels, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The economic feasibility of commercial algal fuel production, however, is limited by low productivity of the natural algal strains. The project described in this SAND report addresses this low algal productivity by genetically engineering cyanobacteria (i.e. blue-green algae) to produce free fatty acids as fuel precursors. The engineered strains were characterized using Sandia's unique imaging capabilities along with cutting-edge RNA-seq technology. These tools are applied to identify additional genetic targets for improving fuel production in cyanobacteria. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates successful fuel production from engineered cyanobacteria, identifies potential limitations, and investigates several strategies to overcome these limitations. This project was funded from FY10-FY13 through the President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a program sponsored by the LDRD office at Sandia National Laboratories.

Ruffing, Anne M.; Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Jones, Howland D. T.

2013-01-01

78

Genetic aspects of autism spectrum disorders: insights from animal models  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development, and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute toward the formation, stabilization, and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD. PMID:24605088

Banerjee, Swati; Riordan, Maeveen; Bhat, Manzoor A.

2014-01-01

79

Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling  

E-print Network

Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling Jesper contained in the genetic circuit. A natural plan of attack is to use a forward engineering approach, wherebyDynamics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215; Division of Computational Biology

Babu, M. Madan

80

Dep. Of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Study plan(2005-2006)  

E-print Network

Dep. Of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Study plan(2005-2006) First semesterMicrobiology lab1 240216 or Con 240231Genetics3240107 240233Cell Biology3240107240232Genetics lab1 240232 240234Hu man Genetics2240231240352 Environmental Biotechnology 3240216 240335Cytogenetics1240234240471

81

Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.  

PubMed

Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock feed in the developmental and regulatory pipelines. Additionally, advanced techniques to affect targeted genome modifications are emerging, and it is not clear whether these will be encompassed by the current GE process-based trigger for regulatory oversight. There is a pressing need for international harmonization of both regulatory frameworks for GE crops and governance of advanced breeding techniques to prevent widespread disruptions in international trade of livestock feedstuffs in the future. PMID:25184846

Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

2014-10-01

82

Philadelphia University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering  

E-print Network

Philadelphia University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Haematology Syllabus-General Aspects 2 1 Types of Anemias 3, 4. 5 2 Genetic Disorders of Haemoglobin 6 3 Bone Marrow Disorders 7 2

83

Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

1975-01-01

84

Natural and Genetically Engineered Proteins for Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

To overcome the limitations of traditionally used autografts, allografts and, to a lesser extent, synthetic materials, there is the need to develop a new generation of scaffolds with adequate mechanical and structural support, control of cell attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation and with bio-resorbable features. This suite of properties would allow the body to heal itself at the same rate as implant degradation. Genetic engineering offers a route to this level of control of biomaterial systems. The possibility of expressing biological components in nature and to modify or bioengineer them further, offers a path towards multifunctional biomaterial systems. This includes opportunities to generate new protein sequences, new self-assembling peptides or fusions of different bioactive domains or protein motifs. New protein sequences with tunable properties can be generated that can be used as new biomaterials. In this review we address some of the most frequently used proteins for tissue engineering and biomedical applications and describe the techniques most commonly used to functionalize protein-based biomaterials by combining them with bioactive molecules to enhance biological performance. We also highlight the use of genetic engineering, for protein heterologous expression and the synthesis of new protein-based biopolymers, focusing the advantages of these functionalized biopolymers when compared with their counterparts extracted directly from nature and modified by techniques such as physical adsorption or chemical modification. PMID:22058578

Gomes, Sílvia; Leonor, Isabel B.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

2011-01-01

85

The use of genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer for nutrition and cancer chemoprevention research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to modify the expression of specific genes in the mouse through genetic engineering technologies allows for the generation of previously unavailable models for prostate cancer prevention research. Although animal models have existed for some time for the study of prostate cancer prevention (primarily in the rat), it is uncertain if the mechanisms that drive prostate carcinogenesis in these

Russell D. Klein

2005-01-01

86

Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis. PMID:19687043

Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.

2009-01-01

87

Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

Ramsey, Paul

1972-01-01

88

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture Susan W. Gay, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems the main air quality concern related to agricultural animal production. However, ammonia emissions from that cover ammonia emissions in the United States were adopted in 1997. These regulations will have a signifi

Liskiewicz, Maciej

89

Geomorphological implications of engineering bed sediments by lotic animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: < 10- 6- < 10- 15) for nine sediment variables describing baseflow and flood-induced sediment transport as well as sediment surface modifications. For example, bioturbator biomass and/or algal abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~ 70 and ~ 90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial sediments over three orders of magnitude and (ii) frequencies of mass transport events over five orders of magnitude. The fastest way to identify promising subsequent research routes in this field would be through a variety of abundance manipulations of lotic organisms (animals and plants having different mechanistic sediment-engineering abilities) in real rivers in combination with a simple approach to assess the critical shear stress in situ for varying types of sediments. This would require joint research by fluvial geomorphologists, hydrologists, and ecologists.

Statzner, Bernhard

2012-07-01

90

Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natalia I. Valeeva; R. Pakky; K. L. Zimmermann

2012-01-01

91

Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

Roberts, Leslie

92

MILESTONES LEADING TO THE GENETIC ENGINEERING OF BACULOVIRUSES AS EXPRESSION  

E-print Network

and commercial human health needs were timely for the rapid development and cost-effective production AND VIRAL PESTICIDES Max D. Summers Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas and Infection VI. Genetically Engineered Viral Pesticides A. Development of Genetically Engineered Baculovirus

Summers, Max D.

93

A comparative risk assessment of genetically engineered, mutagenic, and conventional wheat production systems  

E-print Network

A comparative risk assessment of genetically engineered, mutagenic, and conventional wheat; accepted 27 July 2005 Key words: biotechnology, genetically engineered crops, GMO, herbicide exposure biotechnologies, such as genetic engineering and mutagenic techniques, have lagged behind other crop species

Peterson, Robert K. D.

94

78 FR 13286 - Sharing Certain Business Information Regarding the Introduction of Genetically Engineered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that...Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or...procedure, Biotechnology, Genetic engineering, Imports, Packaging...

2013-02-27

95

76 FR 8707 - Syngenta Seeds, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically Engineered To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Corn Genetically Engineered To Produce an Enzyme That Facilitates Ethanol Production AGENCY...genetically engineered to produce a microbial enzyme that facilitates ethanol production...genetically engineered to produce a microbial enzyme that facilitates ethanol...

2011-02-15

96

Genetic engineering and lignin biosynthetic regulation in forest tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of forest tree species is regarded as a strategy to reduce worldwide pressure on natural forests, to conserve\\u000a genetic resources and ameliorate stress on global climate, and to meet growing demand for forest wood and timber products.\\u000a Genetic engineering approaches toward the control or management of fungal pathogens, arthropod herbivores, bacterial and viral\\u000a diseases, the use of pest

Tang Wei; Janet Ogbon; Aquilla McCoy

2001-01-01

97

Agrobacterium: nature’s genetic engineer  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium was identified as the agent causing the plant tumor, crown gall over 100 years ago. Since then, studies have resulted in many surprising observations. Armin Braun demonstrated that Agrobacterium infected cells had unusual nutritional properties, and that the bacterium was necessary to start the infection but not for continued tumor development. He developed the concept of a tumor inducing principle (TIP), the factor that actually caused the disease. Thirty years later the TIP was shown to be a piece of a tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid excised by an endonuclease. In the next 20 years, most of the key features of the disease were described. The single-strand DNA (T-DNA) with the endonuclease attached is transferred through a type IV secretion system into the host cell where it is likely coated and protected from nucleases by a bacterial secreted protein to form the T-complex. A nuclear localization signal in the endonuclease guides the transferred strand (T-strand), into the nucleus where it is integrated randomly into the host chromosome. Other secreted proteins likely aid in uncoating the T-complex. The T-DNA encodes enzymes of auxin, cytokinin, and opine synthesis, the latter a food source for Agrobacterium. The genes associated with T-strand formation and transfer (vir) map to the Ti plasmid and are only expressed when the bacteria are in close association with a plant. Plant signals are recognized by a two-component regulatory system which activates vir genes. Chromosomal genes with pleiotropic functions also play important roles in plant transformation. The data now explain Braun’s old observations and also explain why Agrobacterium is nature’s genetic engineer. Any DNA inserted between the border sequences which define the T-DNA will be transferred and integrated into host cells. Thus, Agrobacterium has become the major vector in plant genetic engineering. PMID:25610442

Nester, Eugene W.

2015-01-01

98

Computing genetic evaluations through application of generalized least squares to an animal model  

E-print Network

Computing genetic evaluations through application of generalized least squares to an animal model G.F.S. HUDSON Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, U.S.A. Summary The animal model for performance data is rewritten in the form of a fixed model with uncorrelated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Towards Reverse Engineering of Genetic Regulatory Networks Zelmina Lubovac  

E-print Network

1 Towards Reverse Engineering of Genetic Regulatory Networks Zelmina Lubovac , Björn Olsson understanding of reverse engineering of regulatory networks. One of the aspects that have not been considered to a great extent in the development of reverse engineering approaches is combinatorial regulation

Chang, Joseph T.

100

Genetic Engineering and the Amelioration of Genetic Defect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the claims for a brave new world of genetic manipulation" and concludes that if we could agree upon applying genetic (or any other effective) remedies to global problems we probably would need no rescourse to them. Suggests that effective methods of preventing genetic disease are prevention of mutations and detection and containment of…

Lederberg, Joshua

1970-01-01

101

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models for Drug Development and Preclinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Drug development and preclinical trials are challenging processes and more than 80% to 90% of drug candidates fail to gain approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration. Predictive and efficient tools are required to discover high quality targets and increase the probability of success in the process of new drug development. One such solution to the challenges faced in the development of new drugs and combination therapies is the use of low-cost and experimentally manageable in vivo animal models. Since the 1980’s, scientists have been able to genetically modify the mouse genome by removing or replacing a specific gene, which has improved the identification and validation of target genes of interest. Now genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are widely used and have proved to be a powerful tool in drug discovery processes. This review particularly covers recent fascinating technologies for drug discovery and preclinical trials, targeted transgenesis and RNAi mouse, including application and combination of inducible system. Improvements in technologies and the development of new GEMMs are expected to guide future applications of these models to drug discovery and preclinical trials. PMID:25143803

Lee, Ho

2014-01-01

102

The Genetic Engineering of Motor Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular motors are a remarkable feature within living organisms that are responsible for directional mechanical motion, which is driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Actin-binding molecular motors are of specific interest in the field of nanotechnology as filamentous actin is capable of carrying cargo, such as quantum dots, while it is translocated along a motor coated surface. The binding regions of motor proteins, which are known to interact with actin, such as Myosin, have been thoroughly examined and identified. Rapid genetic engineering of the ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, adenosine kinase, to incorporate these binding regions is possible through the use of site- directed mutagenesis. The sequences, which were mutated into the ADK wt gene, were incorporated in an unstructured loop region. During the phosphate transfer, the mutants switch between open and closed conformational states. The binding affinity of the sequences to the actin is altered during this conformational switch, thus causing the motor to move along actin filament. The ADK mutants and their interaction with filamentous actin was monitored by an in vitro motility assay. Two different mutants of ADK were found to have retained enzymatic functionality after the mutagenesis as well as function as actin-based motor proteins.

Hartz, Rachael M.

103

Antimicrobial functionalized genetically engineered spider silk  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered fusion proteins offer potential as multifunctional biomaterials for medical use. Fusion or chimeric proteins can be formed using recombinant DNA technology by combining nucleotide sequences encoding different peptides or proteins that are otherwise not found together in nature. In the present study, three new fusion proteins were designed, cloned and expressed and assessed for function, by combining the consensus sequence of dragline spider silk with three different antimicrobial peptides. The human antimicrobial peptides human neutrophil defensin 2 (HNP-2), human neutrophil defensins 4 (HNP-4) and hepcidin were fused to spider silk through bioengineering. The spider silk domain maintained its self-assembly features, a key aspect of these new polymeric protein biomaterials, allowing the formation of ?-sheets to lock in structures via physical interactions without the need for chemical cross-linking. These new functional silk proteins were assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram - Escherichia coli and Gram + Staphylococcus aureus and microbicidal activity was demonstrated. Dynamic light scattering was used to assess protein aggregation to clarify the antimicrobial patterns observed. Attenuated-total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) were used to assess the secondary structure of the new recombinant proteins. In vitro cell studies with a human osteosarcoma cell line (SaOs-2) demonstrated the compatibility of these new proteins with mammalian cells. PMID:21458065

Gomes, Sílvia; Leonor, Isabel B.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

104

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The use of ingredients and products from genetically

Gerhard Flachowsky; Andrew Chesson; Karen Aulrich

2005-01-01

105

Conserving plant genetic diversity for dependent animal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

While population genetic diversity has broad application in species conservation, no studies have examined the community-level consequences of this diversity. We show that population genetic diversity (generated by interspecific hybridization) in a dominant riparian tree affects an arthropod community composed of 207 species. In an experimental garden, plant cross type structured the arthropod community of individual trees, and among stands

Gina Marie Wimp; William P. Young; Scott A. Woolbright; Gregory D. Martinsen; Paul Keim; Thomas G. Whitham

2004-01-01

106

Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

2012-01-01

107

"Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)

Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.

1980-01-01

108

Genetically engineered phage fibers and coatings for antibacterial applications  

E-print Network

Multifunctionality can be imparted to protein-based fibers and coatings via either synthetic or biological approaches. Here, we demonstrate potent antimicrobial functionality of genetically engineered, phage-based fibers ...

Mao, Joan Y

2009-01-01

109

Modeling the Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence with Genetic Animal Models  

PubMed Central

A diagnosis of alcohol dependence (AD) using the DSM-IV-R is categorical, based on an individual’s manifestation of three or more symptoms from a list of seven. AD risk can be traced to both genetic and environmental sources. Most genetic studies of AD risk implicitly assume that an AD diagnosis represents a single underlying genetic factor. We recently found that the criteria for an AD diagnosis represent three somewhat distinct genetic paths to individual risk. Specifically, heavy use and tolerance versus withdrawal and continued use despite problems reflected separate genetic factors. However, some data suggest that genetic risk for AD is adequately described with a single underlying genetic risk factor. Rodent animal models for alcohol-related phenotypes typically target discrete aspects of the complex human AD diagnosis. Here, we review the literature derived from genetic animal models in an attempt to determine whether they support a single-factor or multiple-factor genetic structure. We conclude that there is modest support in the animal literature that alcohol tolerance and withdrawal reflect distinct genetic risk factors, in agreement with our human data. We suggest areas where more research could clarify this attempt to align the rodent and human data. PMID:21910077

Kendler, Kenneth S.; Hitzemann, Robert J.

2012-01-01

110

Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.

1984-01-01

111

Virus resistant plums through genetic engineering - from lab to market  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering (GE) has the potential to revolutionize the genetic improvement of fruit trees and other specialty crops, to provide greater flexibility and speed in responding to changes in climate, production systems and market demands, and to maintain the competitiveness of American agricultu...

112

Colonization genetics of an animal-dispersed plant (Vaccinium membranaceum) at Mount St Helens, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population founding and spatial spread may profoundly influence later population genetic structure, but their effects are difficult to quantify when population history is unknown. We examined the genetic effects of founder group formation in a recently founded population of the animal-dispersed Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) on new volcanic deposits at Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) 24 years post-eruption. Using amplified

S. YANG; J. G. BISHOP; M. S. WEBSTER

113

Genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from animals, food poisoning outbreaks and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has previously been investigated chiefly by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolated from various animals, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge was investigated.

Anders Johansson; Anna Aspan; Elisabeth Bagge; Viveca Båverud; Björn E Engström; Karl-Erik Johansson

2006-01-01

114

Genomic and pedigree-based genetic parameters for scarcely recorded traits when some animals are genotyped  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters were estimated using relationships between animals that were based either on pedigree, 43,011 single nucleotide polymorphisms, or a combination of these, considering genotyped and non-genotyped animals. The standard error of the estimates and a parametric bootstrapping procedure was used to investigate sampling properties of the estimated variance components. The data set contained milk yield, dry matter intake and

R. F. Veerkamp; H. A. Mulder; R. Thompson; M. P. L. Calus

2011-01-01

115

Chloroplast Genetic Engineering: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits,

Justin James Grevich; Henry Daniell

2005-01-01

116

Genetic engineering of reproductive sterility in forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containment of transgenes inserted into genetically engineered forest trees will probably be necessary before most commercial uses are possible. This is a consequence of (1) high rates of gene dispersal by pollen and seed, (2) proximity of engineered trees in plantations to natural or feral stands of interfertile species, and (3) potentially undesirable ecological effects if certain transgenes become widely

Steven H. Strauss; William H. Rottmann; Amy M. Brunner; Lorraine A. Sheppard

1995-01-01

117

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw. The xylitol production by T. reesei can be enhanced by genetic engineering of blocking further xylitol and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria e

Qin, Wensheng

118

Genetic Algorithms in Engineering and Computer Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents 13 Parallel Genetic Algorithms for Optimisation in CFD : : : : : : : : 1 13.1 INTRODUCTION : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 13.2 CFD ANALYSIS FOR AEROSPACE DESIGN : : : :

Edited J. P'eriaux; G. Winter; John Wiley Sons; Thomas Back

1995-01-01

119

Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

120

MOLECULAR GENETICS APPROACHES IN FARM ANIMALS IN ROMANIA **  

E-print Network

**Plenary invited paper. Abstract: During the last three decades, major advances have been made in mammalian genetics. New methods have been developed and applied to investigating the genetics of horses and cattle and to improve theirs performance. For this article we decided to present only the genetic characterisation in horses using microsatellites. Allele frequencies, the observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) were calculated using the software program Cervus 2.0. Alleles ’ size range at individual loci varied between 84 and 253 bp. High level of polymorphism was observed for population of horses studied. Microsatellite markers are more likely than other methods to detect small differences between populations due to their high levels of allelic variation, being able to discriminate in both overall heterozygosity and mean number of alleles.

S. E. Georgescu; R. A. Vat??escu-balcan; M. Rebedea; A. Dinischiotu; M. Costache

121

Prospects for Genetic Engineering in Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetically modified plants now constitute a significant portion of the worlds agricultural output. Genetically modified corn, soybean, canola, rice, and cotton are being adopted by growers in both industrialized and developing nations at an increasing rate. The most popular products have been eng...

122

Genetically engineered Mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.  

PubMed

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. The Audubon Park Zoo, (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed EMCV vaccine with mixed results. This paper reports an attempt at vaccination against EMCV using a genetically engineered, live attenuated Mengo virus (vMC0) at the Audubon Park Zoo and Miami Metro Zoo, (Miami, Florida, USA) from December 1996 to June 1997. Several species of animals were vaccinated with vMC0, which is serologically indistinguishable from the field strain of EMCV. Serum samples were taken at the time of vaccination and again 21 days later, then submitted for serum neutralization titers against EMCV. The vaccinate species included red capped mangebey (Cercocebus torquatus), colobus (Colobus guereza), angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis), ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus ruber and Lemur variegatus variegatus), back lemur (Lemur macaco), ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), diana guenon (Cercopithicus diana), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), talapoin monkey (Cercopithecus talapoin), Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), gerenuk (Litocranius walleri), guanaco (Lama glama guanicoe), black duiker (Cephalophus niger), Vietnamese potbellied pig (Sus scrofa), babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), collard peccary (Tayass tajacu), and African crested porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis). The vaccine response was variable, with high virus neutralizing antibody titer responses in some primate species and mixed to poor responses for other species. No ill effects were seen with vaccination. PMID:10231768

Backues, K A; Hill, M; Palmenberg, A C; Miller, C; Soike, K F; Aguilar, R

1999-04-01

123

Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water  

SciTech Connect

The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

1981-01-01

124

Possible people, complaints, and the distinction between genetic planning and genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Advances in the understanding of genetics have led to the belief that it may become possible to use genetic engineering to manipulate the DNA of humans at the embryonic stage to produce certain desirable traits. Although this currently cannot be done on a large scale, many people nevertheless object in principle to such practices. Most often, they argue that genetic enhancements would harm the children who were engineered, cause societal harms, or that the risks of perfecting the procedures are too high to proceed. However, many of these same people do not have serious objections to what is called 'genetic planning' procedures (such as the selection of sperm donors with desirable traits) that essentially have the same ends. The author calls the view that genetic engineering enhancements are impermissible while genetic planning enhancements are permissible the 'popular view', and argues that the typical reasons people give for the popular view fail to distinguish the two practices. This paper provides a principle that can salvage the popular view, which stresses that offspring from genetic engineering practices have grounds for complaint because they are identical to the pre-enhanced embryo, whereas offspring who are the result of genetic planning have no such grounds. PMID:21511971

Delaney, James J

2011-07-01

125

Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also infects approximately 25% of the world’s human population. T. gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication and transmission occur i...

126

Genetically engineered mouse models for skin research: taking the next step  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered mouse models are invaluable to investigators in nearly all areas of biomedical research. The use of genetically engineered mice has allowed researchers to explore fundamental functions of genes in a mammal that shares substantial similarities with human physiology and pathology. Genetically engineered mice are often used as animal models of human diseases that are vital tools in investigating disease development and in developing and testing novel therapies. Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells allows endogenous genes to be specifically altered. As knowledge regarding precise genetic abnormalities underlying a variety of dermatological conditions continues to emerge, the ability to introduce corresponding alterations in endogenous gene loci in mice, often at a single base pair level, has become essential for detailed studies of these genetic diseases. In this review, we provide examples of mouse models harboring modified endogenous gene(s), generated using the technique commonly referred to as the “knock-in” approach, to exemplify the important and sometimes superior role of this methodology in dermatological research. PMID:18511240

Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R.

2009-01-01

127

Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

2011-01-01

128

Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

2012-01-01

129

SELECTION FOR GROWTH RATE AND POSSIBILITIES FOR GENETIC CHANGE IN ATLANTIC SALMON Dep. of Animal Genetics and Bveeding, Agvicultuval University of Norway,  

E-print Network

SELECTION FOR GROWTH RATE AND POSSIBILITIES FOR GENETIC CHANGE IN ATLANTIC SALMON T. GJEDREM Dep. of Animal Genetics and Bveeding, Agvicultuval University of Norway, I432 Ã?S- NLH, Norway The possibility for genetic change in production traits of salmon looks good when consider- ing the magnitude of genetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Genetic Programming for Reverse Engineering Mark Harman, William B. Langdon and Westley Weimer  

E-print Network

Genetic Programming for Reverse Engineering Mark Harman, William B. Langdon and Westley Weimer of Genetic Programming (GP) and Genetic Improvement (GI) to reverse engineering. Section II presents that form part of a `GP4RE' research agenda; genetic programming applications for reverse engineering. II

Harman, Mark

131

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

132

TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection  

SciTech Connect

A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

2009-12-04

133

The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

2012-01-01

134

Tools for genetic engineering of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha.  

PubMed

Hansenula polymorpha is a methylotrophic yeast species that has favorable properties for heterologous protein production and metabolic engineering. It provides an attractive expression platform with the capability to secrete high levels of commercially important proteins. Over the past few years many efforts have led to advances in the development of this microbial host including the generation of expression vectors containing strong constitutive or inducible promoters and a large array of dominant and auxotrophic markers. Moreover, highly efficient transformation procedures used to generate genetically stable strains are now available. Here, we describe these tools as well as the methods for genetic engineering of H. polymorpha. PMID:24744026

Saraya, Ruchi; Gidijala, Loknath; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

2014-01-01

135

Animal models of genetic hypertension: what can we learn for human hypertension?  

PubMed

1. The dissection of the genetic components of common complex diseases, such as hypertension, represents a major investigational challenge. The use of inbred experimental animal models of the disease represents a time-honoured approach to reducing the difficulty of this task. 2. Recent progress in molecular genetics has raised expectations that the application of powerful new techniques to established animal models of hereditary hypertension may provide important new insights into the genetic basis of human hypertension and perhaps direct access to genes involved in human hypertension. 3. These methods provide exciting opportunities, but to recognize their full potential will require the revision of many traditional and established strategies used in hypertension research. There can be little doubt that these methods, if applied wisely, will make an important contribution to our understanding of hypertension as a disease that is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. 4. Whether the applicability of results obtained in experimental animals is primarily conceptual, furthering our understanding primarily of disease mechanisms, or whether newly recognized disease-relevant genes will directly identify their human homologues as being involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in humans cannot be predicted with certainty. Either possibility fully justifies efforts and resources directed into the application of molecular genetic research to experimental animal models. PMID:8846502

Rubattu, S; Struk, B; Kreutz, R; Volpe, M; Lindpaintner, K

1995-12-01

136

Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

Wheeler, David L.

1987-01-01

137

The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.  

PubMed

There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

2013-11-01

138

The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations  

PubMed Central

There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve

2013-01-01

139

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research.

Martijn C. Nawijn; Andreas M. Bergman; Henk G. van der Poel

2008-01-01

140

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS WITH RESISTANCE TO INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic transformation technology allows genes to be moved across species, greatly improving the opportunities to breed plants for insect control. The Cry1Ac protein in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., was registered by Monsanto as Bollgard, and targeted to tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fab),...

141

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF ENHANCED MICROBIAL NITRIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgensis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposable genes on methods for p...

142

Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics  

PubMed Central

The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling. PMID:20886016

Prentice, Jennifer R.; Anzar, Muhammad

2011-01-01

143

Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how transgenic technology has the potential of medical therapy, but it raises questions about these issues: creation of new life forms and crossing species boundaries, long-term effects on human health and the environment, blending of nonhuman animal and human DNA , and unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences.

Linda MacDonald Glenn (;)

2004-06-01

144

Regulatory steps associated with use of value-added recombinant proteins and peptides screened in high-throughput for expression in genetically engineered starch and cellulosic fuel ethanol yeast strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant proteins expressed in animals have been a public concern as a perceived risk to the consumer. Animals are currently being treated with genetically engineered biologicals, such as growth hormone, or fed genetically modified plants. Similarly, various commercially-valuable proteins or pe...

145

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon, Justyna Petke, Iman Hemati Moghadam,  

E-print Network

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon Learning, Genetic Improve- ment, Search Based Software Engineering 1. INTRODUCTION Many Artificial Engineering approach called `genetic improvement' could be extended to provide online adaptivity. Search Based

Fernandez, Thomas

146

Current Progress of Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Biomedical Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract The first transgenic pigs were generated for agricultural purposes about three decades ago. Since then, the micromanipulation techniques of pig oocytes and embryos expanded from pronuclear injection of foreign DNA to somatic cell nuclear transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer, lentiviral transduction, and cytoplasmic injection. Mechanistically, the passive transgenesis approach based on random integration of foreign DNA was developed to active genetic engineering techniques based on the transient activity of ectopic enzymes, such as transposases, recombinases, and programmable nucleases. Whole-genome sequencing and annotation of advanced genome maps of the pig complemented these developments. The full implementation of these tools promises to immensely increase the efficiency and, in parallel, to reduce the costs for the generation of genetically engineered pigs. Today, the major application of genetically engineered pigs is found in the field of biomedical disease modeling. It is anticipated that genetically engineered pigs will increasingly be used in biomedical research, since this model shows several similarities to humans with regard to physiology, metabolism, genome organization, pathology, and aging. PMID:25469311

Gün, Gökhan

2014-01-01

147

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PEANUT FOR REDUCTION OF AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Through genetic engineering of peanut, we have focused mainly on two levels of protection against aflatoxin contamination: the entry of spores through insect-damaged tissues and the growth of the fungus after entry, although interfering with the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway also is of interest. T...

148

The Ecological Risks and Benefits of Genetically Engineered Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of the environmental risks and benefits of adopting genetically engineered organisms are highly polarized between pro- and anti-biotechnology groups, but the current state of our knowledge is frequently overlooked in this debate. A review of existing scientific literature reveals that key experiments on both the environmental risks and benefits are lacking. The complexity of ecological systems presents considerable challenges

L. L. Wolfenbarger; P. R. Phifer

2000-01-01

149

Genetic engineering and food: what determines consumer acceptance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents experimental work which attempts to understand what psychological mechanisms are likely to influence consumer acceptance of genetically engineered food, and the relationship between consumer attitudes towards the technology and consumer acceptance of its products. Discusses the relationship between consumer risk perceptions and consumer reactions; the influence of public knowledge and understanding of the technology on attitudes; media impact; ethical

Lynn J. Frewer; Chaya Howard; Richard Shepherd

1995-01-01

150

Genetic Engineering--A Lesson on Bioethics for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unit designed to cover the topic of genetic engineering and its ethical considerations is presented. Students are expected to learn the material while using a debate format. A list of objectives for the unit, the debate format, and the results from an opinion questionnaire are described. (KR)

Armstrong, Kerri; Weber, Kurt

1991-01-01

151

A Simple Interactive Introduction to Teaching Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, at key stage 4, students aged 14-15 studying GCSE Core Science or Unit 1 of the GCSE Biology course are required to be able to describe the process of genetic engineering to produce bacteria that can produce insulin. The simple interactive introduction described in this article allows students to consider the problem, devise a model and…

Child, Paula

2013-01-01

152

GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report relates genetic engineering and biological waste treatment, so that opportunities for its improvement can be identified and evaluated. It describes the state of development of gene manipulation and natural limits to biodegradation as of early 1983. It identifies a num...

153

GOLD NANOROD PHOTOTHERMAL THERAPY IN A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL  

E-print Network

GOLD NANOROD PHOTOTHERMAL THERAPY IN A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MOUSE MODEL OF SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA and biology than subcutaneous xenograft models. Using polyethylene glycol (PEG)- coated gold nanorods (PEG in xenograft models and which may be of future clinical interest. Keywords: Gold nanorods; photothermal

Bhatia, Sangeeta

154

77 FR 41350 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2012-07-13

155

78 FR 66891 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2013-11-07

156

REVERSE ENGINEERING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING  

E-print Network

REVERSE ENGINEERING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING John R. Koza Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, koza@stanford.edu William Mydlowec Genetic Programming Inc., Los Altos, California

Fernandez, Thomas

157

Engineering Redox-Sensitive Linkers for Genetically Encoded FRET-Based  

E-print Network

Engineering Redox-Sensitive Linkers for Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors VLADIMIR LPhysics, §Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, jjPathobiology, { Division of Nutritional Sciences, and #Center tool for studying normal cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Genet- ically encoded

Kenis, Paul J. A.

158

76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to...organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason...

2011-02-02

159

Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology. PMID:24151553

Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.

2013-01-01

160

Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla population of Bwindi  

E-print Network

Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla The International Gorilla Conservation Program, P.O. Box 48177, Nairobi, Kenya e Uganda Wildlife Authority, P.O. Box form 6 October 2008 Accepted 17 October 2008 Available online 3 December 2008 Keywords: Gorilla

Dever, Jennifer A.

161

The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

, hypochondriasis, self-harm disorders, tic disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders, in addition139 Chapter 7 The Utility of Genetically Modified Animals in Modeling OCD-Spectrum Disorders AmandaPorte, and Allan V. Kalueff Abstract Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) inflicts uncontrollable, intrusive

Kalueff, Allan V.

162

Genetically modified animals in the biomedical sciences: The challenge of rapid advances & ethical demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies which permit targeted manipulation of genetic material not only provide new opportunities to explore the organization, regulation and biological or pathological function of molecular processes but, in so doing, have revolutionised the development and validation of animal models. In a very short time, we have seen rapid escalation in the development of new models, most often in mice, and

Margaret Rose; Elizabeth Grant; David Adams

163

Gaps, Inexperience, Inconsistencies, and Overlaps: Crisis in the Regulation of Genetically Modified Plants and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of genetically modified products pursuant to statutes enacted decades prior to the advent of biotechnology has created a regulatory system that is passive rather than proactive about risks, has difficulty adapting to biotechnology advances, and is highly fractured and inefficient-transgenic plants and animals are governed by at least twelve different statutes and five different agencies or services. The

Gregory N Mandel

2004-01-01

164

Assessing the Transfer of Genetically Modified DNA from Feed to Animal Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, public and scientific concerns about the environmental and food safety of GM (Genetically Modified) crops overshadow the potential benefits offered by crop biotechnology to improve food quality. One of the concerns regarding the use of GM food in human and animal nutrition is the effect that newly introduced sequences may have on the organism. In this paper, we

Raffaele Mazza; Mirko Soave; Mauro Morlacchini; Gianfranco Piva; Adriano Marocco

2005-01-01

165

Deficits in fine motor skills in a genetic animal model of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. METHODS: We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), the most commonly used

Yu Qian; Gefei Lei; Francisco X Castellanos; Hans Forssberg; Rochellys Diaz Heijtz

2010-01-01

166

Genetic relationships among Escherichia coli isolates causing urinary tract infections in humans and animals.  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in isolates of Escherichia coli obtained mostly from urinary tract infections in humans and domesticated animals (dogs and cats) was assessed for 16 enzymes using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis to characterize chromosomal genotypes. A total of 148 isolates comprised 63 distinct electrophoretic types (ETs) and about half of the isolates belonged to one of 9 common ETs. A bootstrap analysis of genetic distance between ETs revealed three significant groups of strains. Variation in allele frequencies among groups accounted for 40% of the total genetic diversity. The majority of the common ETs fell into a major cluster of closely related strains. The recovery of multiple isolates of the same electrophoretic types and serotypes from unassociated hosts suggests that these bacteria represent uropathogenic clones that are widely disseminated in humans and animals. PMID:2645153

Whittam, T. S.; Wolfe, M. L.; Wilson, R. A.

1989-01-01

167

Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

2014-01-01

168

Genetic aspects of conservation in farm livestock Dept. Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 68583, U.S.A.  

E-print Network

Genetic aspects of conservation in farm livestock C. SMITH Dept. Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 68583, U.S.A. Concern about loss of genetic diversity in farm animals can be effectively stocks should be kept in pure form. Some other principles in conservation are ; I) to store small sam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Primer: comparative genetics of animal models of arthritis--a tool to resolve complexity.  

PubMed

Complex traits, including inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have important genetic features, but most of the responsible genes have not been conclusively identified. Genetic analysis of inbred animal models and comparative genetics--the comparison of genes between different species--might help to identify the crucial genes and to investigate more directly the biology involved. Genome-wide linkage analysis of particular genes can be assessed by genetic segregation studies, whereas disease pathways can be delineated by the use of congenic strains. To clone disease genes, the traits need to be transformed so that they are inherited in a more Mendelian manner: achieving this pattern requires isolation of the locus on a genetic background that allows high penetrance by minimization of the size of congenic fragments, genetic manipulations without associated artifacts, or identification of highly penetrant mutations by phenotypic selection. Although almost one hundred quantitative trait loci for arthritis have been identified, only a few genes have so far been positionally cloned. In this Review we highlight the possibilities of using animal models to identify genes associated with complex diseases like arthritis, illustrated with available findings for genes such as those encoding major histocompatibility complex class II, neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1/p47(phox)) and ZAP70. PMID:17299448

Holmdahl, Rikard

2007-02-01

170

Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed.

Johnson, E. J.

1982-01-01

171

The pedestrian watchmaker: Genetic clocks from engineered oscillators Natalie A. Cookson a  

E-print Network

Review The pedestrian watchmaker: Genetic clocks from engineered oscillators Natalie A. Cookson and indus- trial pursuits that now includes all of genetic engineering. While the watchmaker analogy does the connection of engineered components in a controlled physical environment. Genetic circuits, on the other hand

Hasty, Jeff

172

The influence of realistic product exposure on attitudes towards genetic engineering of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes towards genetic engineering remain uncrystallized and are likely to be influenced by whatever information becomes available. One source of information about genetically engineered food is the availability of products on the supermarket shelves. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of product exposure on consumer perceptions of genetic engineering as applied to food production,

L. J. Frewer; C. Howard; R. Shepherd

1996-01-01

173

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 13 (2000) 611623 Genetic adaptive state estimation$  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 13 (2000) 611­623 Genetic adaptive state in a nonlinear jet engine. Our main conclusion is that the genetic adaptive state estimator has the potential Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Estimation; Genetic algorithms; Jet engine surge=stall control 1

174

Reversible Hydrogels from Self-Assembling Genetically Engineered Protein Block Copolymers  

E-print Network

Reversible Hydrogels from Self-Assembling Genetically Engineered Protein Block Copolymers Chunyu Xu-soluble polyelectrolyte segment flanked by two coiled-coil domains was synthesized by genetic engineering methods antibodies that can form complexes with antigens,20 and genetically engineered proteins containing coiled

Breedveld, Victor

175

Green Pacific Biologicals Rapid & stable nuclear genetic engineering of eukaryotic algae  

E-print Network

to Investors · Rapid & stable nuclear genetic engineering of eukaryotic algae · WW exclusive license Max Planck's competitive advantage? Rapid & stable algae nuclear genetic engineering Wild-typeWild-typeWild-type GPBStrainGPBStrainGPBStrain #12;Green Pacific Biologicals Organism with high levels of oils Powerful genetic engineering GPB [no

176

Between creation, evolution and genetic engineering : biology in need of a new bioethics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological interventions into biological\\u000aprocesses through genetic engineering in\\u000athe twenty-fi rst century could speed up evolution\\u000aat the velocity of light years in comparison\\u000awith the millions of years it took for\\u000aHomo sapiens to reach this stage of evolution\\u000auntil this new millennium. Will these\\u000atechnological assays lead to an eventual recrafting\\u000aof animal and human biology and

J. A. Gupta

2009-01-01

177

Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production ?  

PubMed Central

There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H2 yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H2 production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C.

2010-01-01

178

Genetic engineering of algae for enhanced biofuel production.  

PubMed

There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H(2) yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H(2) production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C

2010-04-01

179

Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals.  

PubMed

Large-scale exploitation of wild animals and plants through fishing, hunting and logging often depends on augmentation through releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. Such releases are performed worldwide in vast numbers. Augmentation can be demographically and economically beneficial but can also cause four types of adverse genetic change to wild populations: (1) loss of genetic variation, (2) loss of adaptations, (3) change of population composition, and (4) change of population structure. While adverse genetic impacts are recognized and documented in fisheries, little effort is devoted to actually monitoring them. In forestry and wildlife management, genetic risks associated with releases are largely neglected. We outline key features of programs to effectively monitor consequences of such releases on natural populations. PMID:20688414

Laikre, Linda; Schwartz, Michael K; Waples, Robin S; Ryman, Nils

2010-09-01

180

Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise - the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.  

PubMed

The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:25290946

Hudson-Shore, Michelle

2014-09-01

181

Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources.  

PubMed

Livestock production both contributes to and is affected by climate change. In addition to the physiological effects of higher temperatures on individual animals, the consequences of climate change are likely to include increased risk that geographically restricted rare breed populations will be badly affected by disturbances. Indirect effects may be felt via ecosystem changes that alter the distribution of animal diseases or affect the supply of feed. Breeding goals may have to be adjusted to account for higher temperatures, lower quality diets and greater disease challenge. Species and breeds that are well adapted to such conditions may become more widely used. Climate change mitigation strategies, in combination with ever increasing demand for food, may also have an impact on breed and species utilization, driving a shift towards monogastrics and breeds that are efficient converters of feed into meat, milk and eggs. This may lead to the neglect of the adaptation potential of local breeds in developing countries. Given the potential for significant future changes in production conditions and in the objectives of livestock production, it is essential that the value provided by animal genetic diversity is secured. This requires better characterization of breeds, production environments and associated knowledge; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to genetic diversity; more effective in situ and ex situ conservation measures; genetic improvement programmes targeting adaptive traits in high-output and performance traits in locally adapted breeds; increased support for developing countries in their management of animal genetic resources; and wider access to genetic resources and associated knowledge. PMID:20500754

Hoffmann, Irene

2010-05-01

182

Colonization genetics of an animal-dispersed plant (Vaccinium membranaceum) at Mount St Helens, Washington.  

PubMed

Population founding and spatial spread may profoundly influence later population genetic structure, but their effects are difficult to quantify when population history is unknown. We examined the genetic effects of founder group formation in a recently founded population of the animal-dispersed Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) on new volcanic deposits at Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) 24 years post-eruption. Using amplified fragment length polymorphisms and assignment tests, we determined sources of the newly founded population and characterized genetic variation within new and source populations. Our analyses indicate that while founders were derived from many sources, about half originated from a small number of plants that survived the 1980 eruption in pockets of remnant soil embedded within primary successional areas. We found no evidence of a strong founder effect in the new population; indeed genetic diversity in the newly founded population tended to be higher than in some of the source regions. Similarly, formation of the new population did not increase among-population genetic variance, and there was no evidence of kin-structured dispersal in the new population. These results indicate that high gene flow among sources and long-distance dispersal were important processes shaping the genetic diversity in this young V. membranaceum population. Other species with similar dispersal abilities may also be able to colonize new habitats without significant reduction in genetic diversity or increase in differentiation among populations. PMID:18194163

Yang, S; Bishop, J G; Webster, M S

2008-02-01

183

Intelligent Computing in Engineering -ICE08 Resolving Incorrect Occlusion in Augmented Reality Animations  

E-print Network

Intelligent Computing in Engineering - ICE08 24 Resolving Incorrect Occlusion in Augmented Reality Animations of Simulated Construction Operations A H Behzadan 1 , V R Kamat 1 1 University of Michigan, Ann convincing representations of the mod- eled processes. As a tradeoff, however, an AR animation must be able

Kamat, Vineet R.

184

The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.  

PubMed

An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23554402

de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2013-04-01

185

Genetically engineered T cells for the treatment of cancer  

PubMed Central

T-cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to treat disseminated cancer. However, it has been limited by the ability to isolate and expand T cells restricted to tumour-associated antigens. Using ex vivo gene transfer, T cells from patients can be genetically engineered to express a novel T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor to specifically recognize a tumour-associated antigen and thereby selectively kill tumour cells. Indeed, genetically engineered T cells have recently been successfully used for cancer treatment in a small number of patients. Here we review the recent progress in the field, and summarize the challenges that lie ahead and the strategies being used to overcome them. PMID:23198862

Essand, M; Loskog, A S I

2013-01-01

186

Ordering of Quantum Dots Using Genetically Engineered Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid crystal system was used for the fabrication of a highly ordered composite material from genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanocrystals. The bacteriophage, which formed the basis of the self-ordering system, were selected to have a specific recognition moiety for ZnS crystal surfaces. The bacteriophage were coupled with ZnS solution precursors and spontaneously evolved a self-supporting

Seung-Wuk Lee; Chuanbin Mao; Christine E. Flynn; Angela M. Belcher

2002-01-01

187

Convergent Functional Genomics of Bipolar Disorder: From Animal Model Pharmacogenomics to Human Genetics and Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Progress in understanding the genetic and neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder(s) has come from both human studies and animal model studies. Until recently, the lack of concerted integration between the two approaches has been hindering the pace of discovery, or more exactly, constituted a missed opportunity to accelerate our understanding of this complex and heterogeneous group of disorders. Our group has helped overcome this “lost in translation” barrier by developing an approach called Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG). The approach integrates animal model gene expression data with human genetic linkage/association data, as well as human tissue (postmortem brain, blood) data. This Bayesian strategy for cross-validating findings extracts meaning from large datasets, and prioritizes candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for subsequent targeted, hypothesis-driven research. The CFG approach may also be particularly useful for identification of blood biomarkers of the illness. PMID:17614132

Le-Niculescu, H.; McFarland, M. J.; Mamidipalli, S.; Ogden, C. A.; Kuczenski, R.; Kurian, S. M.; Salomon, D. R.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Nurnberger, J. I.; Niculescu, A. B.

2009-01-01

188

Vegetable oils and animal fats as alternative fuels for diesel engines with dual fuel operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils and animal fats are applicable as fuels in standard diesel engines after having adapted the fuel system for electronically controlled dual fuel regime oil\\/fat–fossil diesel. In this contribution, performance and emission characteristics of the engines running on rapeseed oil, lard, or chicken fat are given and compared to those of fossil diesel and fatty acid methyl esters. The

A. Kleinová; I. Vailing; J. Lábaj; J. Mikulec; J. Cvengroš

2011-01-01

189

76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...soybeans are likely to pose a plant pest risk, the draft EA...tests, and health effects of genetically modified organisms and...

2011-12-16

190

In order to build up a system of international cooperative research in the field of animal biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School  

E-print Network

biotechnology, animal stem cell engineering and healthcare biotechnology, the Graduate School of Bioagricultural Spin-offs in Animal Biotechnology Project of Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program in Animal Biotechnology Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa

Takahashi, Ryo

191

Comparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity is the amount of variation observed between DNA sequences from distinct individuals of a given species. This pivotal concept of population genetics has implications for species health, domestication, management and conservation. Levels of genetic diversity seem to vary greatly in natural populations and species, but the determinants of this variation, and particularly the relative influences of species biology and ecology versus population history, are still largely mysterious. Here we show that the diversity of a species is predictable, and is determined in the first place by its ecological strategy. We investigated the genome-wide diversity of 76 non-model animal species by sequencing the transcriptome of two to ten individuals in each species. The distribution of genetic diversity between species revealed no detectable influence of geographic range or invasive status but was accurately predicted by key species traits related to parental investment: long-lived or low-fecundity species with brooding ability were genetically less diverse than short-lived or highly fecund ones. Our analysis demonstrates the influence of long-term life-history strategies on species response to short-term environmental perturbations, a result with immediate implications for conservation policies. PMID:25141177

Romiguier, J; Gayral, P; Ballenghien, M; Bernard, A; Cahais, V; Chenuil, A; Chiari, Y; Dernat, R; Duret, L; Faivre, N; Loire, E; Lourenco, J M; Nabholz, B; Roux, C; Tsagkogeorga, G; Weber, A A-T; Weinert, L A; Belkhir, K; Bierne, N; Glémin, S; Galtier, N

2014-11-13

192

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

193

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602262 Weaving Genetically Engineered Functionality into Mechanically  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602262 Weaving Genetically Engineered Functionality into Mechanically Robust using M13 filamentous viruses (or bacter- iophages). This work applies genetic engineering, chemical, the production of functionalized fibers has posed a challenge in materials science and engineering. Here we

Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

194

REVERSE ENGINEERING BY MEANS OF GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA  

E-print Network

REVERSE ENGINEERING BY MEANS OF GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA John R, to automatically reverse engineer the network from the data. Genetic programming (Koza, Bennett, Andre, and Keane. Koza Biomedical Informatics, Department of Medicine Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford

Fernandez, Thomas

195

Population responses to contaminant exposure in marine animals: influences of genetic diversity measured as allozyme polymorphism.  

PubMed

Current understanding of the genetic and metabolic basis of relations between heterozygosity and animal performance under non-polluted conditions is relevent to interpreting apparently inconsistent findings concerning the relative advantage of allozyme polymorphism during contaminant exposure. Many interrelated factors which may influence and even compromise those relations include species (lifestyle, reproductive behaviour etc), lifestage, environmental influences and a variety of background genetic effects (limited parentage, null alleles, aneuploidy, genomic imprinting etc). Nevertheless, there is some promise that single-locus responses may be diagnostic for specific pollutants. In addition, limited evidence to date supports the a priori expectation that reduced energy requirements for maintenance metabolism may facilitate longer survival of multiple-locus heterozygotes during exposure to contaminants with toxic effects that result either in the reduced acquisition or availability of metabolizable energy, and/or a reduction in the efficiency with which metabolizable energy is used to fuel metabolic processes. More work is required to fully establish this trend in response to specific contaminant types, to assess any direct consequences of underlying differences in protein metabolism, and to resolve the interactive effects of contaminant mixtures. But the functional value of genetic variation within populations is confirmed. Reduced genetic diversity may not only compromise the capacity of an impacted population for genetic adaptation in the face of further environmental challenge, but may also result in increased energy requirements, lower production efficiency and reduced reproductive output. These metabolic consequences of reduced genetic polymorphism would further lower that population's potential for survival under lethal conditions of contaminant exposure, and also affect the genetic makeup of populations through differential reproduction under conditions of sublethal stress. PMID:9442314

Hawkins, A J

1998-01-01

196

Genetically engineered mouse models to study prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered mouse models have become fundamental tools in the basic and translational research of prostate cancer. There is a plethora of models available to dissect the genetic alterations and aberrant signaling events associated with human prostate cancer and, furthermore, to investigate new and "personalized" therapies to treat the disease. In this chapter, we discuss some of the models recently and currently used to study prostate cancer in vivo, and some considerations when selecting an appropriate model to investigate particular aspects of the disease. We describe the methods required to isolate prostate tumors and conduct basic characterization of the tumor to determine tumor load and histopathology. We also discuss important aspects to be considered when processing samples for further analysis. PMID:25636465

Brzezinska, Elspeth A; Nixon, Colin; Patel, Rachana; Leung, Hing Y

2015-01-01

197

Genetically engineered microorganisms to rescue plants from frost injury.  

PubMed

Ice nucleation active bacteria belonging to genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Erwinia contribute to frost damage to plants by initiating the formation of ice in plants that would otherwise supercool and avoid the damaging ice formation. The biological control of frost injury can be achieved by the application of non-ice nucleation active bacteria to the plant surfaces before they become colonized by Ice+ species. ice genes have been cloned from Pseudomonas and isogenic Ice- derivatives constructed via genetic manipulations. These genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) have been released into the environment to control the frost damage. The incidence of frost injury to the plants has, thereby, been reduced by 50-85% during natural frosts. These GEMs do not survive in soil and show no aerial dispersal in the environment. PMID:8213308

Dar, G H; Anand, R C; Sharma, P K

1993-01-01

198

NATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Epigenetic Regulation of Mammalian  

E-print Network

NATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Epigenetic Regulation of Mammalian Genomes to the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate mammalian genomes, emphasizing nucleosome positioning and epigenetic histone modifications. A link between TEs and epigenetics rests on the fact that underlying genetic

Jordan, King

199

Remodelling the cavity of a transmembrane pore by genetic engineering  

E-print Network

with high affinity (the dissociation constant = 0.2 nM), in the presence of ATP (52).However, PKI has a dissociation constant (Kd) of 230 nM in the absence of ATP (53). The tight binding of PKI in the presence of ATP also requires divalent metal ions (Mn... REMODELLING THE CAVITY OF A TRANSMEMBRANE PORE BY GENETIC ENGINEERING A Dissertation by YUN HEE JUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Jung, Yunhee

2006-08-16

200

[Genetic engineering and trends in the research on new vaccines].  

PubMed

The elaboration of vaccines, initially purely empirical, can now be made on a more rational basis thanks to our progresses in understanding the immune system and to our ability in expressing or mimicking immunogenic but innocuous parts of pathogens. We describe some of the factors contributing to the impressive acceleration in the research for new vaccines including the impact of genetic engineering. This impact is important both for the search of relevant immunogens and for their presentation to the host. We develop, in particular, the example of oral vaccines with live bacteria. PMID:2461790

Hofnung, M

1988-01-01

201

Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction  

SciTech Connect

A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.

1989-05-10

202

Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

1990-01-01

203

The Splice of Life: Genetic Engineering Research Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, high-school students play the roles of genetic engineers who are competing on television for award money to fund their research. They will work in teams, each with a specialty: criminal investigation, cloning, food biotechnology, or gene therapy. Each team will use online and printed materials to research their specialty and prepare a presentation to share with the class. At the conclusion, each student will prepare a response explaining how they would award the funds. Worksheets for students are included, as well as a teacher's guide with alignments to standards and assessment materials.

2005-08-09

204

476. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Genetically Modified To Express High Levels of Erythropoietin Through Transfer of an Artificial Chromosome Engineered Using the ACE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ACE System is a versatile, reliable system for genetically modifying cell therapies, generating transgenic animals, and engineering mammalian cells for high expression of a recombinant protein. Key components of the ACE System include an artificial chromosome (Platform ACE) encoding multiple (>50) DNA site-specific integration sites (acceptor sites); a targeting vector (ACE Targeting Vector) encoding both a Platform ACE-specific DNA

Sandra Vanderbyl; Neil MacDonald; Tom Stodola; Adele Telenius; Sandra Stewart; Harry C. Ledebur; Carl F. Perez

2004-01-01

205

Breakthrough in chloroplast genetic engineering of agronomically important crops  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event and transgene containment by maternal inheritance, as well as a lack of gene silencing, position and pleiotropic effects and undesirable foreign DNA. More than 40 transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed using the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer desired agronomic traits or express high levels of vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals. Despite such significant progress, this technology has not been extended to major crops. However, highly efficient soybean, carrot and cotton plastid transformation has recently been accomplished through somatic embryogenesis using species-specific chloroplast vectors. This review focuses on recent exciting developments in this field and offers directions for further research and development. PMID:15866001

Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi; Dufourmantel, Nathalie

2012-01-01

206

Applications of Population Genetics to Animal Breeding, from Wright, Fisher and Lush to Genomic Prediction  

PubMed Central

Although animal breeding was practiced long before the science of genetics and the relevant disciplines of population and quantitative genetics were known, breeding programs have mainly relied on simply selecting and mating the best individuals on their own or relatives’ performance. This is based on sound quantitative genetic principles, developed and expounded by Lush, who attributed much of his understanding to Wright, and formalized in Fisher’s infinitesimal model. Analysis at the level of individual loci and gene frequency distributions has had relatively little impact. Now with access to genomic data, a revolution in which molecular information is being used to enhance response with “genomic selection” is occurring. The predictions of breeding value still utilize multiple loci throughout the genome and, indeed, are largely compatible with additive and specifically infinitesimal model assumptions. I discuss some of the history and genetic issues as applied to the science of livestock improvement, which has had and continues to have major spin-offs into ideas and applications in other areas. PMID:24395822

Hill, William G.

2014-01-01

207

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

208

Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in the use of animals and an increase in empirical evidence of biomedical research. PMID:24964011

Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2014-01-01

209

Genetic correlations between categorical morphological traits in Nelore cattle by applying Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model.  

PubMed

In this study, Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model was used to estimate genetic correlations between morphological traits (body structure, finishing precocity and muscling) in Nelore cattle evaluated at weaning and yearling. Visual scores obtained from 7651 Nelore cattle at weaning and from 4155 animals at yearling, belonging to the Brazilian Nelore Program, were used. Genetic parameters for the morphological traits were estimated by two-trait Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model. The genetic correlations between the morphological traits evaluated at two ages of the animal (weaning and yearling) were positive and high for body structure (0.91), finishing precocity (0.96) and muscling (0.94). These results indicate that the traits are mainly determined by the same set of genes of additive action and that direct selection at weaning will also result in genetic progress for the same traits at yearling. Thus, selection of the best genotypes during only one phase of life of the animal is suggested. However, genetic differences between morphological traits were better detected during the growth phase to yearling. Direct selection for body structure, finishing precocity and muscling at only one age, preferentially at yearling, is recommended as genetic differences between traits can be detected at this age. PMID:20831562

Faria, C U; Pires, B C; Vozzi, A P; Magnabosco, C U; Koury Filho, W; Viu, M A O; Oliveira, H N; Lôbo, R B

2010-10-01

210

Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)-A review.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

2015-02-01

211

Animated Engineering Tutors: Middle School Students' Preferences and Rationales on Multiple  

E-print Network

. Sorge, Newsom, and Hegarty [12] examined the attitudes of Hispanic middle school students towards stereotypes. Students develop a stereotypical image of a scientist as they get older and scientists drawnAnimated Engineering Tutors: Middle School Students' Preferences and Rationales on Multiple

Reisslein, Martin

212

Efficacy of Sunitinib and Radiotherapy in Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Sunitinib (SU) is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. The present study examined SU and radiotherapy (RT) in a genetically engineered mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: Primary extremity STSs were generated in genetically engineered mice. The mice were randomized to treatment with SU,

Sam S. Yoon; Lars Stangenberg; Yoon-Jin Lee; Courtney Rothrock; Jonathan M. Dreyfuss; Kwan-Hyuck Baek; Peter R. Waterman; G. Petur Nielsen; Ralph Weissleder; Umar Mahmood; Peter J. Park; Tyler Jacks; Rebecca D. Dodd; Carolyn J. Fisher; Sandra Ryeom; David G. Kirsch

2009-01-01

213

Genetic Engineering: A Matter that Requires Further Refinement in Spanish Secondary School Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with…

Martinez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quylez, M. J.; Osada, J.

2003-01-01

214

Gender Differences in the Perception of Genetic Engineering Applied to Human Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire-survey of public perception of the desirability, risks, and benefits associated with current and potential applications of genetic engineering techniques to manipulate the outcome of human reproduction was conducted on 111 male and 135 female respondents. The proportion (63%) of male respondents who hold a positive impression that genetic engineering is a socially beneficial field of scientific research was

Carol L. Napolitano; Oladele A. Ogunseitan

1999-01-01

215

Perspective on genetic engineering of agricultural crops for resistance to disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding has been the classical means of manipulating the plant genome to develop resistant cultivars for controlling plant diseases. However, genetic engineering provides an entirely new approach. Although, currently, the area planted with crops genetically modified for resistance to disease is small compared with that of crops genetically modified for tolerance to herbicides or resistance to insects, numerous strategies

S. H. De Boer

2003-01-01

216

9:00 Genetically Engineered Crops in 2014: Where are they Used; How Do they Work?  

E-print Network

AGENDA 9:00 Genetically Engineered Crops in 2014: Where are they Used; How Do they Work? Dr. Kevin:45 Academics and Journalists in GMO Communication Jon Entine, Journalist, Forbes & Genetic Literacy Project 12're confused about biotechnology, genetically modified organisms, and the role that science plays in food

Dranishnikov, Alexander

217

3-Dimensional Imaging Modalities for Phenotyping Genetically Engineered Mice  

PubMed Central

A variety of 3-dimensional (3D) digital imaging modalities are available for whole-body assessment of genetically engineered mice: magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT), optical projection tomography (OPT), episcopic and cryoimaging, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Embryo and adult mouse phenotyping can be accomplished at microscopy or near microscopy spatial resolutions using these modalities. MRM and microCT are particularly well-suited for evaluating structural information at the organ level, whereas episcopic and OPT imaging provide structural and functional information from molecular fluorescence imaging at the cellular level. UBM can be used to monitor embryonic development longitudinally in utero. Specimens are not significantly altered during preparation, and structures can be viewed in their native orientations. Technologies for rapid automated data acquisition and high-throughput phenotyping have been developed and continually improve as this exciting field evolves. PMID:22146851

Powell, K. A.; Wilson, D.

2013-01-01

218

Chilling sensitivity of Arabidopsis thaliana with genetically engineered membrane lipids.  

PubMed Central

Upon transfer of a genetically engineered Escherichia coli gene for glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the gene is transcribed and translated into an enzymatically active polypeptide. This leads to an alteration in fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. From these alterations it is evident that the enzyme is located mainly inside the plastids. The amount of saturated fatty acids in plastidial membrane lipids increased. In particular, the fraction of high-temperature melting species of phosphatidylglycerol is elevated. These molecules are thought to play a crucial role in determining chilling sensitivity of plants. An increase in sensitivity could be observed in the transgenic plants during recultivation after chilling treatment. Implications for the hypothesis of phosphatidylglycerol-determined chilling sensitivity are discussed. Images PMID:1464304

Wolter, F P; Schmidt, R; Heinz, E

1992-01-01

219

Practical Training in Microalgae Utilization with Key Industry Engineering Group Key Industry Engineering Group s.r.o. has developed a biotechnology for the production of an animal  

E-print Network

Engineering Group s.r.o. has developed a biotechnology for the production of an animal feed product based medium which is then applied directly to the animals during feeding. The use of this suspension has shown effective in improving the health and immune system of animals, thus reducing mortality, as well as showing

220

A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

221

Predicting drug responsiveness in human cancers using genetically engineered mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To use genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and orthotopic syngeneic murine transplants (OSTs) to develop gene-expression based predictors of response to anti-cancer drugs in human tumors. These mouse models offer advantages including precise genetics and an intact microenvironment/immune system. Experimental Design We examined the efficacy of four chemotherapeutic or targeted anti-cancer drugs, alone and in combination, using mouse models representing three distinct breast cancer subtypes: Basal-like (C3(1)-T-antigen GEMM), Luminal B (MMTV-Neu GEMM), and Claudin-low (T11/TP53?/? OST). We expression-profiled tumors to develop signatures that corresponded to treatment and response, then tested their predictive potential using human patient data. Results Although a single agent exhibited exceptional efficacy (i.e. lapatinib in the Neu-driven model), generally single-agent activity was modest, while some combination therapies were more active and life-prolonging. Through analysis of RNA expression in this large set of chemotherapy-treated murine tumors, we identified a pair of gene expression signatures that predicted pathological complete response to neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane therapy in human patients with breast cancer. Conclusions These results show that murine-derived gene signatures can predict response even after accounting for common clinical variables and other predictive genomic signatures, suggesting that mice can be used to identify new biomarkers for human cancer patients. PMID:23780888

Usary, Jerry; Zhao, Wei; Darr, David; Roberts, Patrick J.; Liu, Mei; Balletta, Lorraine; Karginova, Olga; Jordan, Jamie; Combest, Austin; Bridges, Arlene; Prat, Aleix; Cheang, Maggie C. U.; Herschkowitz, Jason I.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Zamboni, William; Sharpless, Norman E.; Perou, Charles M.

2013-01-01

222

Genetically Engineered Erwinia carotovora: Survival, Intraspecific Competition, and Effects upon Selected Bacterial Genera  

PubMed Central

Environmental use of genetically engineered microorganisms has raised concerns about potential ecological impact. This research evaluated the survival, competitiveness, and effects upon selected bacterial genera of wild-type and genetically engineered Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora to ascertain if differences between the wild-type and genetically engineered strains exist in soil microcosms. The engineered strain contained a chromosomally inserted gene for kanamycin resistance. No significant differences in survival in nonsterile soil over 2 months or in the competitiveness of either strain were observed when the strains were added concurrently to microcosms. For reasons that remain unclear, the engineered strain did survive longer in sterilized soil. The effects of both strains on total bacteria, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus strains, and actinomycetes were observed. While some apparent differences were observed, they were not statistically significant. A better understanding of the microbial ecology of engineered bacteria, especially pathogens genetically altered for use as biological control agents, is essential before commercial applications can be accomplished. PMID:16348212

Orvos, David R.; Lacy, George H.; Cairns, John

1990-01-01

223

Recent progress in henipavirus research: molecular biology, genetic diversity, animal models.  

PubMed

Nipah and Hendra virus are members of a newly identified genus of emerging paramyxoviruses, the henipaviruses. Both viruses have the ability to cause severe pulmonary infection and severe acute encephalitis. Following their discovery in the 1990s, outbreaks caused by these zoonotic paramyxoviruses have been associated with high public health and especially economic threat potential. Currently, only geographic groupings in Asia and Australia have been described for the henipaviruses. However, while few viral isolates are available and more detailed characterization is necessary, there has been recent evidence that divergent henipaviruses might be present on the African continent. This review endeavours to capture recent advances in the field of henipavirus research, with a focus on genome structure and replication mechanisms, reservoir hosts, genetic diversity, pathogenesis and animal models. PMID:22643730

Rockx, Barry; Winegar, Richard; Freiberg, Alexander N

2012-08-01

224

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon, Justyna Petke, Iman Hemati Moghadam,  

E-print Network

Genetic Improvement for Adaptive Software Engineering Mark Harman, Yue Jia, William B. Langdon engineer. In this paper we outline how a Search Based Software Engineering approach called `genetic ABSTRACT This paper1 presents a brief outline of an approach to online genetic improvement. We argue

Harman, Mark

225

Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies. PMID:22958744

2012-01-01

226

Exploring Dynamics of Molybdate in Living Animal Cells by a Genetically Encoded FRET Nanosensor  

PubMed Central

Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for almost all living organisms including animals. Mo is used as a catalytic center of molybdo-enzymes for oxidation/reduction reactions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. Whilst living cells are known to import inorganic molybdate oxyanion from the surrounding environment, the in vivo dynamics of cytosolic molybdate remain poorly understood as no appropriate indicator is available for this trace anion. We here describe a genetically encoded Förester-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET)-based nanosensor composed of CFP, YFP and the bacterial molybdate-sensor protein ModE. The nanosensor MolyProbe containing an optimized peptide-linker responded to nanomolar-range molybdate selectively, and increased YFP:CFP fluorescence intensity ratio by up to 109%. By introduction of the nanosensor, we have been able to successfully demonstrate the real-time dynamics of molybdate in living animal cells. Furthermore, time course analyses of the dynamics suggest that novel oxalate-sensitive- and sulfate-resistant- transporter(s) uptake molybdate in a model culture cell. PMID:23472155

Nakanishi, Yoichi; Iida, Syuntaro; Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Tomioka, Rie; Maeshima, Masayoshi

2013-01-01

227

Establishment of the mathematical model for diagnosing the engine valve faults by genetic  

E-print Network

in a six- cylinders/four-stroke cycle diesel engine, i.e. normal condition, valve-tappet clearance and gas1 Establishment of the mathematical model for diagnosing the engine valve faults by genetic programming Wen-xian Yang Institute of Vibration Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi

Fernandez, Thomas

228

Genetically encoded molecular biosensors to image histone methylation in living animals.  

PubMed

Post-translational addition of methyl groups to the amino terminal tails of histone proteins regulates cellular gene expression at various stages of development and the pathogenesis of cellular diseases, including cancer. Several enzymes that modulate these post-translational modifications of histones are promising targets for development of small molecule drugs. However, there is no promising real-time histone methylation detection tool currently available to screen and validate potential small molecule histone methylation modulators in small animal models. With this in mind, we developed genetically encoded molecular biosensors based on the split-enzyme complementation approach for in vitro and in vivo imaging of lysine 9 (H3-K9 sensor) and lysine 27 (H3-K27 sensor) methylation marks of histone 3. These methylation sensors were validated in vitro in HEK293T, HepG2, and HeLa cells. The efficiency of the histone methylation sensor was assessed by employing methyltransferase inhibitors (Bix01294 and UNC0638), demethylase inhibitor (JIB-04), and siRNA silencing at the endogenous histone K9-methyltransferase enzyme level. Furthermore, noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of histone methylation sensors confirmed the potential of these sensors in monitoring histone methylation status in response to histone methyltransferase inhibitors in living animals. Experimental results confirmed that the developed H3-K9 and H3-K27 sensors are specific and sensitive to image the drug-induced histone methylation changes in living animals. These novel histone methylation sensors can facilitate the in vitro screening and in vivo characterization of new histone methyltransferase inhibitors and accelerate the pace of introduction of epigenetic therapies into the clinic. PMID:25506787

Sekar, Thillai V; Foygel, Kira; Gelovani, Juri G; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

2015-01-20

229

A comparative analysis of insertional effects in genetically engineered plants: considerations for pre-market assessments.  

PubMed

During genetic engineering, DNA is inserted into a plant's genome, and such insertions are often accompanied by the insertion of additional DNA, deletions and/or rearrangements. These genetic changes are collectively known as insertional effects, and they have the potential to give rise to unintended traits in plants. In addition, there are many other genetic changes that occur in plants both spontaneously and as a result of conventional breeding practices. Genetic changes similar to insertional effects occur in plants, namely as a result of the movement of transposable elements, the repair of double-strand breaks by non-homologous end-joining, and the intracellular transfer of organelle DNA. Based on this similarity, insertional effects should present a similar level of risk as these other genetic changes in plants, and it is within the context of these genetic changes that insertional effects must be considered. Increased familiarity with genetic engineering techniques and advances in molecular analysis techniques have provided us with a greater understanding of the nature and impact of genetic changes in plants, and this can be used to refine pre-market assessments of genetically engineered plants and food and feeds derived from genetically engineered plants. PMID:25344849

Schnell, Jaimie; Steele, Marina; Bean, Jordan; Neuspiel, Margaret; Girard, Cécile; Dormann, Nataliya; Pearson, Cindy; Savoie, Annie; Bourbonnière, Luc; Macdonald, Philip

2015-02-01

230

Genetically engineered mouse models of human B-cell precursor leukemias.  

PubMed

B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (pB-ALLs) are the most frequent type of malignancies of the childhood, and also affect an important proportion of adult patients. In spite of their apparent homogeneity, pB-ALL comprises a group of diseases very different both clinically and pathologically, and with very diverse outcomes as a consequence of their biology, and underlying molecular alterations. Their understanding (as a prerequisite for their cure) will require a sustained multidisciplinary effort from professionals coming from many different fields. Among all the available tools for pB-ALL research, the use of animal models stands, as of today, as the most powerful approach, not only for the understanding of the origin and evolution of the disease, but also for the development of new therapies. In this review we go over the most relevant (historically, technically or biologically) genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of human pB-ALLs that have been generated over the last 20 years. Our final aim is to outline the most relevant guidelines that should be followed to generate an "ideal" animal model that could become a standard for the study of human pB-ALL leukemia, and which could be shared among research groups and drug development companies in order to unify criteria for studies like drug testing, analysis of the influence of environmental risk factors, or studying the role of both low-penetrance mutations and cancer susceptibility alterations. PMID:25486471

Hauer, Julia; Borkhardt, Arndt; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Cobaleda, César

2014-09-15

231

Stochastic signaling in biochemical cascades and genetic systems in genetically engineered living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living cells, either prokaryote or eukaryote, can be integrated within whole-cell biochips (WCBCs) for various applications. We investigate WCBCs where information is extracted from the cells via a cascade of biochemical reactions that involve gene expression. The overall biological signal is weak due to small sample volume, low intrinsic cell response, and extrinsic signal loss mechanisms. The low signal-to-noise ratio problem is aggravated during initial detection stages and limits the minimum detectable signal or, alternatively, the minimum detection time. Taking into account the stochastic nature of biochemical process, we find that the signal is accompanied by relatively large noise disturbances. In this work, we use genetically engineered microbe sensors as a model to study the biochips output signal stochastic behavior. In our model, the microbes are designed to express detectable reporter proteins under external induction. We present analytical approximated expressions and numerical simulations evaluating the fluctuations of the synthesized reporter proteins population based on a set of equations modeling a cascade of biochemical and genetic reactions. We assume that the reporter proteins decay more slowly than messenger RNA molecules. We calculate the relation between the noise of the input signal (extrinsic noise) and biochemical reaction statistics (intrinsic noise). We discuss in further details two cases: (1) a cascade with large decay rates of all biochemical reactions compared to the protein decay rate. We show that in this case, the noise amplitude has a positive linear correlation with the number of stages in the cascade. (2) A cascade which includes a stable enzymatic-binding reaction with slow decay rate. We show that in this case, the noise strongly depends on the protein decay rate. Finally, a general observation is presented stating that the noise in whole-cell biochip sensors is determined mainly by the first reactions in the genetic system with weak dependence on the number of stages in the cascade.

Daniel, Ramiz; Almog, Ronen; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

2010-04-01

232

Development of repressible sterility to prevent the establishment of feral populations of exotic and genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposals to farm non-native and genetically modified species are often highly contentious because there is no reliable method of ensuring that they do not escape, reproduce and become environmental problems. Suggested approaches to prevent breeding outside hatcheries are unable to guarantee sterility in both sexes or cannot easily be applied to animals. We developed and tested on two contentious groups

Ronald Thresher; Peter Grewe; Jawahar G. Patil; Steven Whyard; Christopher M. Templeton; Atra Chaimongol; Christopher M. Hardy; Lynette A. Hinds; Rex Dunham

2009-01-01

233

Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future.The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The

Karen Aulrich; H. Böhme; R. Daenicke; Ingrid Halle; G. Flachowsky

2001-01-01

234

Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 417426 Genetic effects on task performance, but not on age polyethism, in a  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 417­426 Genetic effects on task performance, but not on age polyethism) Abstract. Division of labour among workers in insect societies often includes two major components: age-related changes in behaviour (age polyethism) and specialization in task performance. The aim of this study

O'Donnell, Sean

235

A COMPARISON OF SIRE AND ANIMAL MODEL GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES FROM HERDS WITH HIGH AND LOW WITHIN-HERD HERITABILITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to determine if within-herd heritability (WHH) estimated with regression techniques accurately reflects heritability (h2) differences among herds and to compare sire and animal model genetic parameter estimates among herds varying in WHH. Milk, fat, and protein yiel...

236

The feasibility of ureteral tissue engineering using autologous veins: an orthotopic animal model with long term results  

PubMed Central

Background In an earlier study we demonstrated the feasibility to create tissue engineered venous scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. In this study we investigated the use of tissue engineered constructs for ureteral replacement in a long term orthotopic minipig model. In many different projects well functional ureretal tissue was established using tissue engineering in animals with short-time follow up (12 weeks). Therefore urothelial cells were harvested from the bladder, cultured, expanded in vitro, labelled with fluorescence and seeded onto the autologous veins, which were harvested from animals during a second surgery. Three days after cell seeding the right ureter was replaced with the cell-seeded matrices in six animals, while further 6 animals received an unseeded vein for ureteral replacement. The animals were sacrificed 12, 24, and 48 weeks after implantation. Gross examination, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), H&E staining, Trichrome Masson’s Staining, and immunohistochemistry with pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, smooth muscle alpha actin, and von Willebrand factor were performed in retrieved specimens. Results The IVP and gross examination demonstrated that no animals with tissue engineered ureters and all animals of the control group presented with hydronephrosis after 12 weeks. In the 24-week group, one tissue engineered and one unseeded vein revealed hydronephrosis. After 48 weeks all tissue engineered animals and none of the control group showed hydronephrosis on the treated side. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry revealed a multilayer of urothelial cells attached to the seeded venous grafts. Conclusions Venous grafts may be a potential source for ureteral reconstruction. The results of so far published ureteral tissue engineering projects reveal data up to 12 weeks after implantation. Even if the animal numbers of this study are small, there is an increasing rate of hydronephrosis revealing failure of ureteral tissue engineering with autologous matrices in time points longer than 3 months after implantation. Further investigations have to prove adequate clinical outcome and appropriate functional long-term results. PMID:25381044

2014-01-01

237

Genetically Engineered Transvestites Reveal Novel Mating Genes in Budding Yeast  

PubMed Central

Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MATa and MAT?. Two haploid cells of opposite mating types mate by signaling to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarizing and growing toward each other, and eventually fusing to form a single diploid cell. The pheromones and receptors are necessary and sufficient to define a mating type, but other mating-type-specific proteins make mating more efficient. We examined the role of these proteins by genetically engineering “transvestite” cells that swap the pheromone, pheromone receptor, and pheromone processing factors of one mating type for another. These cells mate with each other, but their mating is inefficient. By characterizing their mating defects and examining their transcriptomes, we found Afb1 (a-factor barrier), a novel MAT?-specific protein that interferes with a-factor, the pheromone secreted by MATa cells. Strong pheromone secretion is essential for efficient mating, and the weak mating of transvestites can be improved by boosting their pheromone production. Synthetic biology can characterize the factors that control efficiency in biological processes. In yeast, selection for increased mating efficiency is likely to have continually boosted pheromone levels and the ability to discriminate between partners who make more and less pheromone. This discrimination comes at a cost: weak mating in situations where all potential partners make less pheromone. PMID:24121774

Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

2013-01-01

238

Distributed classifier based on genetically engineered bacterial cell cultures.  

PubMed

We describe a conceptual design of a distributed classifier formed by a population of genetically engineered microbial cells. The central idea is to create a complex classifier from a population of weak or simple classifiers. We create a master population of cells with randomized synthetic biosensor circuits that have a broad range of sensitivities toward chemical signals of interest that form the input vectors subject to classification. The randomized sensitivities are achieved by constructing a library of synthetic gene circuits with randomized control sequences (e.g., ribosome-binding sites) in the front element. The training procedure consists in reshaping of the master population in such a way that it collectively responds to the "positive" patterns of input signals by producing above-threshold output (e.g., fluorescent signal), and below-threshold output in case of the "negative" patterns. The population reshaping is achieved by presenting sequential examples and pruning the population using either graded selection/counterselection or by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We demonstrate the feasibility of experimental implementation of such system computationally using a realistic model of the synthetic sensing gene circuits. PMID:25349924

Didovyk, Andriy; Kanakov, Oleg I; Ivanchenko, Mikhail V; Hasty, Jeff; Huerta, Ramón; Tsimring, Lev

2015-01-16

239

Selective detection of gold using genetically engineered bacterial reporters.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhimurium harbours a Au-resistance system whose expression is controlled by GolS, a transcriptional regulator of the MerR family that selectively detects Au with high sensitivity. We developed both Salmonella and genetically engineered Escherichia coli strains as Au-selective whole-cell biosensors by coupling the strictly regulated GolS-dependent golB promoter to the gfp reporter gene. The bio-reporters were evaluated under different laboratory conditions and calibrated for their use as selective Au detectors. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the regulatory protein, the transgenic E. coli sensor exhibits low background, high signal-to-noise ratio, and improved sensitivity for detection of Au ions in a wide range of concentrations (up to 470 nM) with a calculated detection limit of ?33 nM (6 µg?L(-1) or parts per billion) Au(I). The fluorescent Au-sensing bacteria exhibit also minimal interference by chemically related metals such as Cu or Ag that are commonly found in Au deposits. These highly specific and sensitive Au detectors might allow the development of rapid and robust screening tools to improve discovery and extraction procedures. PMID:21618467

Cerminati, Sebastián; Soncini, Fernando C; Checa, Susana K

2011-11-01

240

Genetic engineering in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): history, status and prospects.  

PubMed

In the last three decades, a number of attempts have been made to develop reproducible protocols for generating transgenic cowpea that permit the expression of genes of agronomic importance. Pioneer works focused on the development of such systems vis-à-vis an in vitro culture system that would guarantee de novo regeneration of transgenic cowpea arising from cells amenable to one form of gene delivery system or another, but any such system has eluded researchers over the years. Despite this apparent failure, significant progress has been made in generating transgenic cowpea, bringing researchers much nearer to their goal than thirty years ago. Now, various researchers have successfully established transgenic procedures for cowpea with evidence of inherent transgenes of interest, effected by progenies in a Mendelian fashion. New opportunities have thus emerged to optimize existing protocols and devise new strategies to ensure the development of transgenic cowpea with desirable agronomic traits. This review chronicles the important milestones in the last thirty years that have marked the evolution of genetic engineering of cowpea. It also highlights the progress made and describes new strategies that have arisen, culminating in the current status of transgenic technologies for cowpea. PMID:22179190

Citadin, Cristiane T; Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Aragão, Francisco J L

2011-01-01

241

Endogenous allergens in the regulatory assessment of genetically engineered crops.  

PubMed

A scientific approach to the assessment of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) crops is critical to maintaining objectivity and public confidence in regulatory decisions. Principles developed at the international level support regulators and enable robust and transparent safety assessments. A comparison of key constituents in the GE crop with a suitable comparator is an important element of an assessment. In Europe, endogenous allergens would be included in the comparative analysis, however this approach has been hindered by technical limitations on the ability to accurately measure identified allergenic proteins. Over recent years, improved proteomic methods have enabled researchers to focus on major allergenic proteins in conventional food crops, as information on natural variability is largely lacking. Emerging data for soybean indicate that variability in levels of major allergens already in the food supply is broad. This raises questions about the biological interpretation of differences between a GE plant and its conventional counterpart, in particular, whether any conclusions about altered allergenicity could be inferred. This paper discusses the scientific justification for requiring proteomic analysis of endogenous allergens as part of the evaluation. Ongoing scientific review and corresponding international discussion are integral to ensuring that data requirements address legitimate risk assessment questions. PMID:25128445

Graf, Lynda; Hayder, Hikmat; Mueller, Utz

2014-11-01

242

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

243

Contribution of Genetic Influences to Animal-to-Animal Variation in Myoglobin Content and Beef Lean Color Stability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longissimus thoracis steaks from steers (n = 464) with 0 to 50% inheritance of Angus (A), Charolais (C), Gelbvieh (G), Hereford (H), Limousin (L), Red Angus (RA), and Simmental (S) were evaluated during 6 d of display to assess genetic contributions to color stability. Color space values (CIE L* [l...

244

Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.  

PubMed

Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important, therefore, to improve grain protein quality. Highly nutritious grain can be tailored to functional foods to meet the needs for both specific individuals and human populations as a whole. PMID:23869957

Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

2013-12-01

245

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

246

IMPROVING PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING BY MANIPULATING THE HOST. (R829479C001)  

EPA Science Inventory

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation is a major technique for the genetic engineering of plants. However, there are many economically important crop and tree species that remain highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium infection. Although attempts have been made to ...

247

Genetic algorithm based optimization in engineering design using fuzzy constraints and fitness functions  

E-print Network

The motivation for this work has been the use of tools, such as genetic algorithms and fuzzy sets, to address the various issues that are involved in an engineering design optimization problem. In order to address the variety, generality...

Vijayakumar, Bhuvaneshwaran

2001-01-01

248

SURVIVAL DIFFERENCES AMONG FREEZE-DRIED GENETICALLY ENGINEERED AND WILD-TYPE BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Spray application is often used to introduce genetically engineered microorganisms into the environment. he risk associated with the downwind transport and survival necessitates development of tools to assess the risk associated with their airborne transport. ecause the death mec...

249

Enhanced atrazine removal using membrane bioreactor bioaugmented with genetically engineered microorganism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaugmentation with genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for enhanced removal of recalcitrant\\u000a pollutants was explored. An atrazine-degrading genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) with green fluorescent protein was\\u000a inoculated into an MBR and the effects of such a bioaugmentation strategy on atrazine removal were investigated. The results\\u000a show that atrazine removal was improved greatly in the bioaugmented MBR

Chun Liu; Xia Huang

2008-01-01

250

The regulation of genetically engineered marine organisms released into the coastal environment: an exploratory analysis  

E-print Network

, marketing and environmental testing stages, the uncertainties surrounding the hazards of releasing genetically engineered organisms into the environment are realized. Policy makers are struggling to determine how best to regulate the unknown risks... of genetically engineered aquatic species may be regulated no differently, nor present any additional problems, than those encountered during field testing of agricultural products. Ocean releases may, however, present new regulatory issues presently...

MacGregor, Carol Lea

2012-06-07

251

N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA) prevents inflammation and oxidative stress in animals exposed to diesel engine exhaust.  

PubMed

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a by-product of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), are one of the major components of air borne particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment. DEPs are composed of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), redox active semi-quinones, and transition metals, which are known to produce pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects, thereby leading to oxidative stress-induced damage in the lungs. The objective of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant, confers protection to animals exposed to DEPs from oxidative stress-induced damage to the lung. To study this, male C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with either NACA (250mg/kg body weight) or saline, were exposed to DEPs (15mg/m(3)) or filtered air (1.5-3h/day) for nine consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24h after the last exposure. NACA-treated animals exposed to DEP had significant decreases in the number of macrophages and the amount of mucus plug formation in the lungs, as compared to the DEP-only exposed animals. In addition, DEP-exposed animals, pretreated with NACA, also experienced significantly lower oxidative stress than the untreated group, as indicated by the glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. Further, DEP-induced toxicity in the lungs was reversed in NACA-treated animals, as indicated by the lactate dehydrogenase levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the thiol-antioxidant, NACA, can protect the lungs from DEP-induced inflammation and oxidative stress related damage. PMID:19429263

Banerjee, Atrayee; Trueblood, Max B; Zhang, Xinsheng; Manda, Kalyan Reddy; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip D; Hagen, Donald E; Ercal, Nuran

2009-06-22

252

Understanding the genetic and molecular pathogenesis of Friedreich’s ataxia through animal and cellular models  

PubMed Central

In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease. These advances were the subject of the 4th International Friedreich’s Ataxia Conference held on 5th–7th May in the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France. More than 200 scientists gathered from all over the world to present the results of research spanning all areas of investigation into FRDA (including clinical aspects, FRDA pathogenesis, genetics and epigenetics of the disease, development of new models of FRDA, and drug discovery). This review provides an update on the understanding of frataxin function, developments of animal and cellular models of the disease, and recent advances in trying to uncover potential molecules for therapy. PMID:22382366

Martelli, Alain; Napierala, Marek; Puccio, Hélène

2012-01-01

253

ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO THE RELEASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS TO THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of these studies show that GEMs (Genetically Engineered Microorganisms) have the potential to survive, to transfer their novel genetic information, and to affect some microbe-mediated ecological processes in soil. he magnitude of these phenomena in soil in situ, howev...

254

A Neural-Genetic Technique for Coastal Engineering: Determining Wave-induced  

E-print Network

. The GA's main role is numerical optimisation in- spired by natural evolution. GAs can be appliedA Neural-Genetic Technique for Coastal Engineering: Determining Wave-induced Seabed Liquefaction (ANNs) and genetic algorithms (GAs) are becoming an important alternative for solving problems

Blumenstein, Michael

255

Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

2008-01-01

256

Genetics of Enteric Pathogen Shedding Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are significant human pathogens for which cattle and other food animals serve as  

E-print Network

Genetics of Enteric Pathogen Shedding Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on human health of food-borne outbreaks make it highly desirable to identify genetic traits associated bacterial virulence factors and animal genetics. The information provided by the sequencing of the E. coli

257

Astrovirus infections in humans and animals – Molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses first identified in 1975 in children suffering from diarrhea and then described in a wide variety of animals. To date, the list of animal species susceptible to astrovirus infection has expanded to 22 animal species or families, including domestic, synantropic and wild animals, avian, and mammalian species in the terrestrial and

Paola De Benedictis; Stacey Schultz-Cherry; Andrew Burnham; Giovanni Cattoli

2011-01-01

258

The Significance of Content Knowledge for Informal Reasoning regarding Socioscientific Issues: Applying Genetics Knowledge to Genetic Engineering Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a…

Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

2005-01-01

259

Genetically engineered ER?-positive breast cancer mouse models.  

PubMed

The majority of human breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), but this has proven challenging to model in genetically engineered mice. This review summarizes information on 21 mouse models that develop ER+ mammary cancer. Where available, information on cancer pathology and gene expression profiles is referenced to assist in understanding which histological subtype of ER+ human cancer each model might represent. ESR1, CCDN1, prolactin, TGF?, AIB1, ESPL1, and WNT1 overexpression, PIK3CA gain of function, as well as loss of P53 (Trp53) or STAT1 are associated with ER+ mammary cancer. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist efatutazone in a mouse with Brca1 and p53 deficiency and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene exposure in combination with an activated myristoylated form of AKT1 also induce ER+ mammary cancer. A spontaneous mutant in nude mice that develops metastatic ER+ mammary cancer is included. Age of cancer development ranges from 3 to 26 months and the percentage of cancers that are ER+ vary from 21 to 100%. Not all models are characterized as to their estrogen dependency and/or response to anti-hormonal therapy. Strain backgrounds include C57Bl/6, FVB, BALB/c, 129S6/SvEv, CB6F1, and NIH nude. Most models have only been studied on one strain background. In summary, while a range of models are available for studies of pathogenesis and therapy of ER+ breast cancers, many could benefit from further characterization, and opportunity for development of new models remains. PMID:24481326

Dabydeen, Sarah A; Furth, Priscilla A

2014-06-01

260

Prospects for applications of genetic engineering in pig breeding P. MULSANT, M. DALENS, Genevive ECHARD, J. GELLIN,  

E-print Network

Prospects for applications of genetic engineering in pig breeding P. MULSANT, M. DALENS, Geneviève, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex Genetic engineering provides an extremely high number of cloned mammalian DNA sequences. These sequences should be powerful tools for genetic analysis or improvement of the pig

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

AN ECOLOGICALLY ACCEPTABLE STRATEGY FOR THE USE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACULOVIRUS PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

The basis for the first U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approval for the field release of a genetically-engineered virus has been to take advantage of the biological properties of baculovirus in such a way that an engineered virus could possess enhanced pesticidal properties...

262

Genetically engineered peptides for inorganics: study of an unconstrained bacterial display technology and bulk aluminum alloy.  

PubMed

The first-ever peptide biomaterial discovery using an unconstrained engineered bacterial display technology is reported. Using this approach, we have developed genetically engineered peptide binders for a bulk aluminum alloy and use molecular dynamics simulation of peptide conformational fluctuations to demonstrate sequence-dependent, structure-function relationships for metal and metal oxide interactions. PMID:23868808

Adams, Bryn L; Finch, Amethist S; Hurley, Margaret M; Sarkes, Deborah A; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N

2013-09-01

263

Modeling Sparse Engine Test Data Using Genetic Programming Chevron Information Technology Company  

E-print Network

of an engine test model using Genetic Programming. In particular, a two-phase modeling process is proposed are specified in various engine oil performance categories for licensing and certification (API, 1999; ASTM 1999 unavailable. In response to this change, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence II

Fernandez, Thomas

264

Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

2009-01-01

265

‘Objection’ mapping in determining group and individual concerns regarding genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst there has been much debateregarding the importance of public acceptance ofgenetic engineering and its applications, there isevidence to indicate that objections to the technologyare likely to focus on specific applications of thetechnology, rather than genetic engineering per se.Thus it becomes important to examine the extent ofobjections associated with individual applications,rather than to assess public feeling regarding thetechnology overall. Survey

L. J. Frewer; D. Hedderley; C. Howard; R. Shepherd

1997-01-01

266

DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR  

EPA Science Inventory

1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

267

Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice  

SciTech Connect

The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

Chubb, C.

1987-10-01

268

Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Society. Monograph Series: III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New techniques have expanded the field of biotechnology and awarded scientists an unprecedented degree of control over the genetic constitutions of living things. The knowledge of DNA science is the basis for this burgeoning industry which may be a major force in human existence. Just as it is possible to move genetic material from one organism to…

Kieffer, George H.

269

The Information Value of Non-Genetic Inheritance in Plants and Animals  

PubMed Central

Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are increasingly well understood, less is known about how inheritance mechanisms evolve. Here, we present a simple but versatile model to explore the adaptive evolution of non-genetic inheritance. Our model is based on a switch mechanism that produces alternative phenotypes in response to different inputs, including genes and non-genetic factors transmitted from parents and the environment experienced during development. This framework shows how genetic and non-genetic inheritance mechanisms and environmental conditions can act as cues by carrying correlational information about future selective conditions. Differential use of these cues is manifested as different degrees of genetic, parental or environmental morph determination. We use this framework to evaluate the conditions favouring non-genetic inheritance, as opposed to genetic determination of phenotype or within-generation plasticity, by applying it to two putative examples of adaptive non-genetic inheritance: maternal effects on seed germination in plants and transgenerational phase shift in desert locusts. Our simulation models show how the adaptive value of non-genetic inheritance depends on its mechanism, the pace of environmental change, and life history characteristics. PMID:25603120

English, Sinead; Pen, Ido; Shea, Nicholas; Uller, Tobias

2015-01-01

270

The information value of non-genetic inheritance in plants and animals.  

PubMed

Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are increasingly well understood, less is known about how inheritance mechanisms evolve. Here, we present a simple but versatile model to explore the adaptive evolution of non-genetic inheritance. Our model is based on a switch mechanism that produces alternative phenotypes in response to different inputs, including genes and non-genetic factors transmitted from parents and the environment experienced during development. This framework shows how genetic and non-genetic inheritance mechanisms and environmental conditions can act as cues by carrying correlational information about future selective conditions. Differential use of these cues is manifested as different degrees of genetic, parental or environmental morph determination. We use this framework to evaluate the conditions favouring non-genetic inheritance, as opposed to genetic determination of phenotype or within-generation plasticity, by applying it to two putative examples of adaptive non-genetic inheritance: maternal effects on seed germination in plants and transgenerational phase shift in desert locusts. Our simulation models show how the adaptive value of non-genetic inheritance depends on its mechanism, the pace of environmental change, and life history characteristics. PMID:25603120

English, Sinead; Pen, Ido; Shea, Nicholas; Uller, Tobias

2015-01-01

271

Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts  

PubMed Central

Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

Gagnon, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

272

Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2002-01-01

273

Genetic engineering: a matter that requires further refinement in Spanish secondary school textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with fundamental genetic principles, and how it aims to improve the genetic literacy of students. The results show that genetic engineering was normally introduced without a clear reference to the universal genetic code, protein expression or the genetic material shared by all species. In most cases it was poorly defined, without a clear explanation of all the relevant processes involved. Some procedures (such as vectors) were explained in detail without considering previous student knowledge or skills. Some books emphasized applications such as the human genome project without describing DNA sequencing. All books included possible repercussions, but in most cases only fashionable topics such as human cloning. There was an excess of information that was not always well founded and hence was unsuitable to provide a meaningful understanding of DNA technology required for citizens in the twenty-first century.

Martínez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quýlez, M. J.

2003-09-01

274

Moral and Legal Decisions in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the moral and ethical issues raised by the imminent possibilities for genetic and reproductive manipulation of humans, the responsibilities of scientists, moralists, and social scientists, and the role of teachers in public information. (AL)

Heim, Werner G.

1972-01-01

275

Animal models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

2012-01-01

276

Vicariance and dispersal across an intermittent barrier: population genetic structure of marine animals across the Torres Strait land bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeographic barriers, some transitory in duration, are likely to have been important contributing factors to modern marine biodiversity in the Indo-Pacific region. One such barrier was the Torres Strait land bridge between continental Australia and New Guinea that persisted through much of the late Pleistocene and separated Indian and Pacific Ocean taxa. Here, we examine the patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity for marine animals with present-day distributions spanning the Torres Strait. Specifically, we investigate whether there are concordant signatures across species, consistent with either vicariance or recent colonization from either ocean basin. We survey four species of reef fishes ( Apogon doederleini, Pomacentrus coelestis, Dascyllus trimaculatus, and Acanthurus triostegus) for mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 and control region variation and contrast these results to previous mtDNA studies in diverse marine animals with similar distributions. We find substantial genetic partitioning (estimated from F-statistics and coalescent approaches) between Indian and Pacific Ocean populations for many species, consistent with regional persistence through the late Pleistocene in both ocean basins. The species-specific estimates of genetic divergence, however, vary greatly and for reef fishes we estimate substantially different divergence times among species. It is likely that Indian and Pacific Ocean populations have been isolated for multiple glacial cycles for some species, whereas for other species genetic connections have been more recent. Regional estimates of genetic diversity and directionality of gene flow also vary among species. Thus, there is no apparent consistency among historical patterns across the Torres Strait for these co-distributed marine animals.

Mirams, A. G. K.; Treml, E. A.; Shields, J. L.; Liggins, L.; Riginos, C.

2011-12-01

277

Review of aerospace engineering cost modelling: The genetic causal approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary intention of this paper is to review the current state of the art in engineering cost modelling as applied to aerospace. This is a topic of current interest and in addressing the literature, the presented work also sets out some of the recognised definitions of cost that relate to the engineering domain. The paper does not attempt to

R. Curran; S. Raghunathan; M. Price

2004-01-01

278

On-chip whole-animal manipulation for high-throughput subcellular-resolution in-vivo drug/genetic screening  

E-print Network

Techniques for rapid and automated small-animal manipulation and immobilization are necessary for high-throughput in vivo genetic/drug screens using cellular and sub-cellular features in multicellular organisms. We present ...

Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

279

An arsenic-specific biosensor with genetically engineered Shewanella oneidensis in a bioelectrochemical system.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered microbial biosensors have yet to realize commercial success in environmental applications due, in part, to difficulties associated with transducing and transmitting traditional bioluminescent information. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) output a direct electric signal that can be incorporated into devices for remote environmental monitoring. Here, we describe a BES-based biosensor with genetically encoded specificity for a toxic metal. By placing an essential component of the metal reduction (Mtr) pathway of Shewanella oneidensis under the control of an arsenic-sensitive promoter, we have genetically engineered a strain that produces increased current in response to arsenic when inoculated into a BES. Our BES-based biosensor has a detection limit of ~40 ?M arsenite with a linear range up to 100 ?M arsenite. Because our transcriptional circuit relies on the activation of a single promoter, similar sensing systems may be developed to detect other analytes by the swap of a single genetic part. PMID:25038536

Webster, Dylan P; TerAvest, Michaela A; Doud, Devin F R; Chakravorty, Arun; Holmes, Eric C; Radens, Caleb M; Sureka, Swati; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Angenent, Largus T

2014-12-15

280

Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

281

A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2001-01-01

282

Role of reproductive technologies and genetic resource banks in animal conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combination with modern reproductive technologies, there is potential to use frozen and stored germplasm (genetic resource banks) to support conservation measures for the main- tenance of genetic diversity in threatened species. However, turning this idea into reality is a complex process, requiring interdisciplinary collaboration and clearly defined goals. As the number of species deserving the attention of conservation scientists

William V. Holt; Amanda R. Pickard

283

Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium bovis Isolates: a Preliminary Study of Strains from Animal and Human Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into

M. P. U. Sales; G. M. Taylor; S. Hughes; M. Yates; G. Hewinson; D. B. Young; R. J. Shaw

2001-01-01

284

Genetic analysis of ancient bones of Cervidae animals from archaeological site in Jeju, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA extracted from ancient bones of Cervidae animals was examined to identify the species and to determine the phylogenetic relationships to those from extant cervids. Abundant ancient bones were excavated from Kumsung archaeological site in Jeju Island, Korea, and were identified as Cervidae animals based on morphological features of their antlers and lower mandibles. Their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region

2007-01-01

285

Potential Large Animal Models for Gene Therapy of Human Genetic Diseases of Immune and Blood Cell Systems  

PubMed Central

Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system—red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets—manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutations in humans. Many of these limitations can be overcome by identifying large animals with genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system corresponding to their human disease counterparts. In this article, we describe human diseases of the cellular components of the hematopoietic system that have counterparts in large animal species, in most cases carrying mutations in the same gene (CD18 in leukocyte adhesion deficiency) or genes in interacting proteins (DNA cross-link repair 1C protein and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide in radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency). Furthermore, we describe the potential of these animal models to serve as disease-specific, preclinical models for testing the efficacy and safety of clinical interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy approaches before their use in humans with the corresponding disease. PMID:19293460

Bauer, Thomas R.; Adler, Rima L.; Hickstein, Dennis D.

2009-01-01

286

About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering Bernd Voedisch1*, Agnès Patoux1, Jildou Sterkenburgh2, Mirjam Buchs1, Emily Barry3, Cyril Allard1, Sabine Geisse1 From 22nd European... (15):4753-4762. doi:10.1186/1753-6561-5-S8-P132 Cite this article as: Voedisch et al.: About making a CHO production cell line “research-friendly” by genetic engineering. BMC Proceedings 2011 5 (Suppl 8):P132. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take...

2011-11-22

287

Genetic correction using engineered nucleases for gene therapy applications.  

PubMed

Genetic mutations in humans are associated with congenital disorders and phenotypic traits. Gene therapy holds the promise to cure such genetic disorders, although it has suffered from several technical limitations for decades. Recent progress in gene editing technology using tailor-made nucleases, such as meganucleases (MNs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) and, more recently, CRISPR/Cas9, has significantly broadened our ability to precisely modify target sites in the human genome. In this review, we summarize recent progress in gene correction approaches of the human genome, with a particular emphasis on the clinical applications of gene therapy. PMID:24329887

Li, Hongmei Lisa; Nakano, Takao; Hotta, Akitsu

2014-01-01

288

Genetic engineering of bacteria from managed and natural habitats  

SciTech Connect

The genetic modification of bacteria from natural and managed habitats will impact on the management of agricultural and environmental settings. Potential applications include crop production and protection, degradation or sequestration of environmental pollutants, extraction of metals from ores, industrial fermentations, and productions of enzymes, diagnostics, and chemicals. Applications of this technology will ultimately include the release of beneficial agents in the environment. If safely deployed, genetically modified bacteria should be able to provide significant benefits in the management of environmental systems and in the development of new environmental control processes. 79 refs., 3 tabs.

Lindow, S.E.; Panopoulos, N.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); McFarland, B.L. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (USA))

1989-06-16

289

Cellular computation and communications using engineered genetic regulatory networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present an engineering discipline for obtaining complex, predictable, and reliable cell behaviors by embedding biochemical logic circuits and programmed intercellular communications into cells. To accomplish ...

Weiss, Ron, 1970-

2001-01-01

290

Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain ATCC 43816 KPPR1, a Rifampin-Resistant Mutant Commonly Used in Animal, Genetic, and Molecular Biology Studies  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an urgent public health threat due to the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains causing serious, and frequently fatal, infections. To facilitate genetic, molecular, and immunological studies of this pathogen, we report the complete chromosomal sequence of a genetically tractable, prototypical strain used in animal models. PMID:25291761

Broberg, Christopher A.; Wu, Weisheng; Cavalcoli, James D.; Miller, Virginia L.

2014-01-01

291

Small Animal Bone Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal bone and investigate the effects of aging, therapeutic treatments, disease, and genetic variation. In contrast to traditional strength tests on small animal bones, fracture mechanics tests display smaller variation and therefore offer the possibility of reducing sample sizes. This article provides an analysis of what such tests measure and proposes methods to reduce errors associated with testing smaller than ideal specimens. PMID:18672104

Vashishth, Deepak

2008-01-01

292

Using HexSim to link demography and genetics in animal and plant simulations  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulation models are essential for understanding the effects of land management practices and environmental drivers, including landscape change, shape population genetic structure and persistence probabilities. The emerging field of eco-evolutionary modeling is beginning to dev...

293

Summary Unintended changes in plant physiology, anat-omy and metabolism as a result of genetic engineering are a  

E-print Network

, genetically engineered with the Cry1Ab Bt gene, had a higher lignin content than the genotype from whichSummary Unintended changes in plant physiology, anat- omy and metabolism as a result of genetic engineering are a concern as more transgenic plants are commercially deployed in the ecosystem. We compared

294

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001) 114 Genetic adaptive control for an inverted wedge: experiments and  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001) 1­14 Genetic adaptive control. Passino* Department of Electrical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH and real-time implementation issues will be discussed and the genetic adaptive strategy will be compared

295

SURVIVAL AND ENUMERATION OF AEROSOLIZED AND FREEZE-DRIED GENETICALLY ENGINEERED E. COLI, UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerosol survival of a genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli demonstrated a more rapid die-off (i.e., death rate) compared to its parental wildtype. p to 77% of a freeze-dried and air-exposed genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) and wildtype bacteria could be res...

296

Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.9, NO.1 2001, c TUBITAK Meta-Genetic Programming: Co-evolving the  

E-print Network

Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.9, NO.1 2001, c T¨UBITAK Meta-Genetic Programming: Co-evolving the Operators, Aytoun Street, Manchester, M1 3GH-UK Abstract The standard Genetic Programming approach is augmented by co-evolving the genetic operators. To do this the operators are coded as trees of indefinite length

Fernandez, Thomas

297

Non-germline genetically engineered mouse models for translational cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer have affected virtually all areas of cancer research. However, the accelerated discovery of new cancer genes emerging from large-scale cancer genomics and new chemical entities pouring from the drug discovery pipeline have strained the capacity of traditional germline mouse models to provide crucial insights. This Review introduces new approaches to modelling cancer, with

Joerg Heyer; Lawrence N. Kwong; Scott W. Lowe; Lynda Chin

2010-01-01

298

Thermodynamic Pareto optimization of turbojet engines using multi-objective genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-objective genetic algorithms (GAs) are used for Pareto approach optimization of thermodynamic cycle of ideal turbojet engines. On this behalf, a new diversity preserving algorithm is proposed to enhance the performance of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in optimization problems with more than two objective functions. The important conflicting thermodynamic objectives that have been considered in this work are, namely, specific

K. Atashkari; N. Nariman-Zadeh; A. Pilechi; A. Jamali; X. Yao

2005-01-01

299

oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that  

E-print Network

T oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that it presents policy. Cancer-carrying bacteria Some of the concerns about recombinant DNA experimentation stemmed from- sible for the metabolism of the sugar galactose into the genome of the Simian Virus. Several scientists

Cai, Long

300

METHODS TO MEASURE THE INFLUENCE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA ON ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to summarize the methods and concep s that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, into soil on microbemedi...

301

NATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Learning from Bacteria about Natural  

E-print Network

the communication-based interplay between individual bacteria and the colony. Individ- ual cells assume newly coNATURAL GENETIC ENGINEERING AND NATURAL GENOME EDITING Learning from Bacteria about Natural conditions, bacteria live in complex hierarchical communities. To conduct complex cooperative behaviors

Jacob, Eshel Ben

302

Probing the metabolism of genetically-engineered mammalian cells by heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the onset of the commercial production of target proteins by hybridoma and genetically engineered cells, there is a pressing requirement for biosensors to monitor on-line and in real-time their growth in culture. In terms of irreversible thermodynamics, most of the Gibbs energy provided in substrates for this process is dissipated as heat, with only a relatively small quantity being

R. B. Kemp; Y. Guan

1998-01-01

303

Genetic engineering in the improvement of plants for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal concentrations in soils are locally quite high, and are still increasing due to many human activities, leading to elevated risk for health and the environment. Phytoremediation may offer a viable solution to this problem, and the approach is gaining increasing interest. Improvement of plants by genetic engineering, i.e. by modifying characteristics like metal uptake, transport and accumulation as well

S. Kärenlampi; H. Schat; J. Vangronsveld; J. A. C. Verkleij; D. van der Lelie; M. Mergeay; A. I. Tervahauta

2000-01-01

304

Prospects of genetic engineering of plants for phytoremediation of toxic metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation is gaining a lot of importance in recent times as an alternate technology for removal of elemental pollutants in soil and water, which require effective methods of decontamination. Phytoremediation—the use of green plants to remove, contain or render harmless environmental pollutants—may offer an effective, environmentally nondestructive and cheap remediation method. The use of genetic engineering to modify plants for

Susan Eapen; S. F. D'Souza

2005-01-01

305

Challenges to IPM Advancement: Pesticides, Biocontrol, Genetic Engineering, and Invasive Species.  

E-print Network

77 Challenges to IPM Advancement: Pesticides, Biocontrol, Genetic Engineering, and Invasive Species of transgenic crops, invasive species, and a diminishing base of scientific talent and research funding become to the numbers of species, types of pests, and variety of control tactics simultaneously implemented are often

Hoddle, Mark S.

306

The mammary pathology of genetically engineered mice: the consensus report and recommendations from the Annapolis meeting‡  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIH sponsored a meeting of medical and veterinary pathologists with mammary gland expertise in Annapolis in March 1999. Rapid development of mouse mammary models has accentuated the need for definitions of the mammary lesions in genetically engineered mice (GEM) and to assess their usefulness as models of human breast disease. The panel of nine pathologists independently reviewed material representing over

Robert D Cardiff; Miriam R Anver; Barry A Gusterson; Lothar Hennighausen; Roy A Jensen; Maria J Merino; Sabine Rehm; Jose Russo; Fattaneh A Tavassoli; Lalage M Wakefield; Jerrold M Ward; Jeffrey E Green

2000-01-01

307

Reactions to a New Technology: Students' Ideas about Genetically Engineered Foodstuffs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the prevalence of ideas among 16 to 19 year-old students about the application of the rapidly expanding technology of genetic engineering to food production. Findings suggest that more females were cautious about these foodstuffs than were males. Contains 20 references. (DDR)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward; O'Sullivan, Helen

1998-01-01

308

Enhancing the Internationalisation of Distance Education in the Biological Sciences: The DUNE Project and Genetic Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Distance Educational Network of Europe (DUNE) project that aims at enhancing the development of distance education in an international context. Highlights issues relating to the delivery of distance-learning courses in a transnational forum. Describes the genetic engineering course that aims at explaining the core techniques of…

Leach, C. K.; And Others

1997-01-01

309

Milestones in chloroplast genetic engineering: an environmentally friendly era in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast genomes defied the laws of Mendelian inheritance at the dawn of plant genetics, and continue to defy the mainstream approach to biotechnology, leading the field in an environmentally friendly direction. Recent success in engineering the chloroplast genome for resistance to herbicides, insects, disease and drought, and for production of biopharmaceuticals, has opened the door to a new era in

Henry Daniell; Muhammad S. Khan; Lori Allison

2002-01-01

310

The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1996-01-01

311

Thermodynamic Pareto optimization of turbojet engines using multi-objective genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-objective genetic algorithms (GAs) are used for Pareto approach optimization of thermodynamic cycle of ideal turbojet engines. On this behalf, a new diversity preserving algorithm is proposed to enhance the performance of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in optimization problems with more than two objective functions. The important conflicting thermodynamic objectives that have been considered in this work are, namely, specific

K. Atashkari; N. Nariman-Zadeh; A. Pilechia; A. Jamalia

312

Molecular and pedigree analysis applied to conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of Brazilian Somali hair sheep.  

PubMed

The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation. PMID:21533896

Paiva, Samuel R; Facó, Olivardo; Faria, Danielle A; Lacerda, Thaísa; Barretto, Gabriel B; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Lobo, Raimundo N B; McManus, Concepta

2011-10-01

313

Genetic Engineering of Glycinebetaine Production toward Enhancing Stress Tolerance in Plants: Metabolic Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycinebetaine (betaine) affords osmoprotection in bacteria, plants and animals, and protects cell components against harsh conditions in vitro. This and a compelling body of other evidence have encouraged the engineering of betaine production in plants lacking it. We have installed the metabolic step for oxidation of choline, a ubiquitous substance, to betaine in three diverse species, Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, and

Jun Huang; Rozina Hirji; Luc Adam; Kevin L. Rozwadowski; Joe K. Hammerlindl; Wilf A. Keller; Gopalan Selvaraj

2000-01-01

314

Delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics by genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Several populations of adult human stem cells have been identified, but only a few of these are in routine clinical use. The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is arguably the most well characterized and the most routinely transplanted adult stem cell. Although details regarding several aspects of this cell's phenotype are not well understood, transplant of HSCs has advanced to become the standard of care for the treatment of a range of monogenic diseases and several types of cancer. It has also proven to be an excellent target for genetic manipulation, and clinical trials have already demonstrated the usefulness of targeting this cell as a means of delivering nucleic acid therapeutics for the treatment of several previously incurable diseases. It is anticipated that additional clinical trials will soon follow, such as genetically engineering HSCs with vectors to treat monogenic diseases such as hemophilia A. In addition to the direct targeting of HSCs, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to replace virtually any engineered stem cell therapeutic, including HSCs. We now know that for the broad use of genetically modified HSCs for the treatment of non-lethal diseases, e.g. hemophilia A, we must be able to regulate the introduction of nucleic acid sequences into these target cells. We can begin to refine transduction protocols to provide safer approaches to genetically manipulate HSCs and strategies are being developed to improve the overall safety of gene transfer. This review focuses on recent advances in the systemic delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics using genetically modified stem cells, specifically focusing on i) the use of retroviral vectors to genetically modify HSCs, ii) the expression of fVIII from hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of hemophilia A, and iii) the use of genetically engineered hematopoietic cells generated from iPS cells as treatment for disorders of hematopoiesis. PMID:20869414

Doering, Christopher B; Archer, David; Spencer, H Trent

2010-09-30

315

On Natural Genetic Engineering: Structural Dynamism in Random Boolean Networks  

E-print Network

This short paper presents an abstract, tunable model of genomic structural change within the cell lifecycle and explores its use with simulated evolution. A well-known Boolean model of genetic regulatory networks is extended to include changes in node connectivity based upon the current cell state, e.g., via transposable elements. The underlying behaviour of the resulting dynamical networks is investigated before their evolvability is explored using a version of the NK model of fitness landscapes. Structural dynamism is found to be selected for in non-stationary environments and subsequently shown capable of providing a mechanism for evolutionary innovation when such reorganizations are inherited.

Bull, Larry

2012-01-01

316

Genetic diversity among Mycobacterium bovis isolates: a preliminary study of strains from animal and human sources.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into five distinct genotypes based on polymorphisms at the pncA and oxyR loci, the status of the RD5 deletion region, and the spoligotype pattern. These findings suggest the existence of a spectrum of strains with genotypic characteristics between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. PMID:11724883

Sales, M P; Taylor, G M; Hughes, S; Yates, M; Hewinson, G; Young, D B; Shaw, R J

2001-12-01

317

The program for phenotyping of genetically modified animals at AstraZeneca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified mice offer a wide range of possibilities in preclinical drug discovery, e.g. for use in target identification, target validation and disease model generation. However, genomic modification and alteration in gene expression may cause unpredicted phenotypic alterations in the organism other than the intended ones. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of establishing the phenotype

Anna-Lena Berg; Mohammad Bohlooly-Y

2006-01-01

318

Improving Animal Well-Being Through Genetic Selection1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the possibilities of adapting laying hens to cages by means of genetic selection. By selecting separately for rate of lay and longevity using a kin selection method, a strain of laying hen has been developed that shows much less feather pecking and cannibalism than a control strain, and with no decrease in productivity. This experimental strain enjoys

W. M. MUIR; J. V. CRAIG

319

Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article posits that genetically modified (GM) crops and food are being grown and consumed by the public, even though: there is little scientific study about their health risks, safety test technology is inadequate to assess potential harm, they can carry unpredictable toxins, and they may increase the risk of allergenic reactions.

Arpad Pusztai (Rowett Research Institute; )

2001-06-01

320

Evaluation of two genetic animal models in behavioral tests of anxiety and depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety- and depression-related disorders often appear associated and may be affected by common genetic factors. The inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the outbred rat lines Floripa H and L, which were selectively bred for high and low locomotion in the central area of the open field (OF) test, respectively, have been proposed as experimental

Fedra R. Hinojosa; Luiz Spricigo; Geison S. Izídio; Gustavo R. Brüske; Douglas M. Lopes; André Ramos

2006-01-01

321

Risk Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2006 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00763.x Genetically Engineered Plants, Endangered Species,  

E-print Network

Risk Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2006 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00763.x Genetically Engineered,3 and Paula M. Davis4 Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays) containing insecticidal endotoxin-of-ways, and managed forest lands (Swengel, 1995). Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays L.) con- taining insecticidal

Peterson, Robert K. D.

322

The hermeneutic challenge of genetic engineering: Habermas and the transhumanists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures (and thus upon the lifeworld), and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists, such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending human nature. In contrast, Habermas is a representative of those who are fearful of this technology, suggesting that it will compound the deleterious effects of the colonisation of the lifeworld, further constraining human autonomy and undermining the meaningfulness of the lifeworld by expanding the technological control and manipulation of humanity. It will be argued that these opposed positions are grounded in fundamentally different understandings of the consequences of scientific and technological advance. On one level, the transhumanists remain confident that the lifeworld has within it the resources necessary to find meaning and purpose in a society deeply infused by genetic technology. Habermas disagrees. On another level, the difference is articulated by Horkheimer and Adorno in Dialectic of Enlightenment, primarily by challenging what may be understood as a Baconian faith in science as a project for the domination of nature (where nature is an infinitely malleable material, to be dominated and shaped, without adverse consequences, purely for the purposes of human survival). While the transhumanists broadly embrace this faith, Habermas returns to something akin to Horkheimer and Adorno's pessimistic scepticism. PMID:19219641

Edgar, Andrew

2009-06-01

323

Design and engineering aspects of a high resolution positron tomograph for small animal imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the Sherbrooke positron emission tomograph, a very high resolution device dedicated to dynamic imaging of small laboratory animals. Its distinctive features are: small discrete scintillation detectors based on avalanche photodiodes (APD) to achieve uniform, isotropic, very high spatial resolution; parallel processing for low deadtime and high count rate capability; multispectral data acquisition hardware to improve sensitivity and scatter correction; modularity to allow design flexibility and upgradability. The system implements the clam-shell'' sampling scheme and a rotating rod transmission source. All acquisition parameters can be adjusted under computer control. Temperature stability at the detector site is ensured by the use of thermoelectric modules. The initial system consists of one layer of 256 modules (two rings of detectors) defining 3 image slices in a 118 mm diameter by 10.5 mm thick field. The axial field can be extended to 50 mm using 4 layers of modules (8 rings of detectors). The design constraints and engineering aspects of an APD-based PET scanner are reviewed and preliminary results are reported.

Lecomte, R.; Cadorette, J.; Richard, P.; Rodrique, S.; Rouleau, D. (Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology)

1994-08-01

324

SURVIVAL OF, AND GENETIC TRANSFER BY, GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The article reviews the few studies that have evaluated the survival of bacterial hosts and cloning vectors (e.g., phages) and the transfer of genetic information, by the processes of conjugation, transduction, and transformation, in aquatic and terrestrial environments and on pl...

325

The Role of Breeding and Genetics in Animal Production Improvement in the Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Availability of animal protein for human consumption is very low in the developing countries mainly because of low productivity of existing livestock; ways and means to improve productivity through breeding are discussed and some basic issues requiring further research pointed out. PMID:17248670

Rendel, Jan

1974-01-01

326

Functional dynamics of living systems and genetic engineering.  

PubMed

The discussion on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's) has been centred mainly on the nature and effects on economy, human health, environment, of the few transgenic plant lines present in the market in the last eight years. On the contrary, the present paper starts with a discussion of some of the relevant changes in our basic knowledge of the structure and dynamics of living systems in the last twenty years. Contemporary Biology is then compared with what may be called the "modern paradigm" of life sciences on which present day GMO's are conceptually based. Technical, environmental, social and economic problems deriving from the unexpected, persistent prevalence of the old fashioned modern vision of life in the "spirit of time" will be thoroughly discussed with a particular attention to the virtualisation process of GMO's and the effects of the prevalence over economic, social, environmental reality of their symbolic values. PMID:15754592

Buiatti, Marcello

2004-01-01

327

Genetically Engineered Poxviruses for Recombinant Gene Expression, Vaccination, and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure--function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients.

Moss, Bernard

1996-10-01

328

Genetic engineering of Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus as an improved biopesticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The smoky-brown cockroach (Periplaneta fuliginosa) densovirus (PfDNV) has previously shown potential in urban pest control. To improve its efficacy as a biopesticide, the\\u000a genome of PfDNV was engineered by inserting the insect-specific toxin gene BmKIT1 in the open reading frame encoding the major\\u000a structural proteins. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker was tagged to the BmKIT1 at its C-terminus for

H. Jiang; J. M. Zhang; J. P. Wang; B. Yang; C. F. Liu; J. Lu; Y. Y. Hu

2007-01-01

329

Social approach in genetically engineered mouse lines relevant to autism.  

PubMed

Profound impairment in social interaction is a core symptom of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Deficits can include a lack of interest in social contact and low levels of approach and proximity to other children. In this study, a three-chambered choice task was used to evaluate sociability and social novelty preference in five lines of mice with mutations in genes implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Fmr1(tm1Cgr/Y)(Fmr1(-/y)) mice represent a model for fragile X, a mental retardation syndrome that is partially comorbid with autism. We tested Fmr1(-/y)mice on two genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J and FVB/N-129/OlaHsd (FVB/129). Targeted disruption of Fmr1 resulted in low sociability on one measure, but only when the mutation was expressed on FVB/129. Autism has been associated with altered serotonin levels and polymorphisms in SLC6A4 (SERT), the serotonin transporter gene. Male mice with targeted disruption of Slc6a4 displayed significantly less sociability than wild-type controls. Mice with conditional overexpression of Igf-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) offered a model for brain overgrowth associated with autism. Igf-1 transgenic mice engaged in levels of social approach similar to wild-type controls. Targeted disruption in other genes of interest, En2 (engrailed-2) and Dhcr7, was carried on genetic backgrounds that showed low levels of exploration in the choice task, precluding meaningful interpretations of social behavior scores. Overall, results show that loss of Fmr1 or Slc6a4 gene function can lead to deficits in sociability. Findings from the fragile X model suggest that the FVB/129 background confers enhanced susceptibility to consequences of Fmr1 mutation on social approach. PMID:19016890

Moy, S S; Nadler, J J; Young, N B; Nonneman, R J; Grossman, A W; Murphy, D L; D'Ercole, A J; Crawley, J N; Magnuson, T R; Lauder, J M

2009-03-01

330

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Human Cancer for Drug Discovery and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models for cancer research, although not perfect, have traditionally been crucial to the drug discovery and development\\u000a process. Recent advances in genetically modified mice have created opportunities to model many aspects of cancer biology,\\u000a which established xenograft models ignore. Selection of the right model will be of increasing importance in the search for\\u000a efficacious human therapeutics. These improved mouse

Rónán C. O’Hagan; Min Wu; William M. Rideout; Yinghui Zhou; Joerg Heyer

331

Decreased bodyweight without rebound and regulated lipoprotein metabolism by gymnemate in genetic multifactor syndrome animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this work was to find obesity control method without rebound. In our previous studies, gymnemate extracted from\\u000a Gymnema sylvestre, inhibited oleic acid absorption. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic multifactor syndrome model,\\u000a exhibits progressive overweight, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. The effect of gymnemate on obesity in OLETF was investigated.\\u000a Methods: Three groups were divided

Hong Luo; Akiko Kashiwagi; Toshiyuki Shibahara; Kazuo Yamada

2007-01-01

332

Genetically-modified-animal models for human infections: the Listeria paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several human pathogens exhibit a restricted host-tropism, relying on the species-specific interaction of microbial ligand(s) with host receptor(s). This specificity accounts for some of the difficulties in modeling human infections in animals. The discovery of L. monocytogenes host-specificity and elucidation of the underlying mechanism has led to the generation of transgenic mice expressing one of its human receptors, E-cadherin. This

Marc Lecuit; Pascale Cossart

2002-01-01

333

Real Artificial: Tissue-cultured Meat, Genetically Modified Farm Animals, and Fictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although touted by promoters as the cutting edge of food science, meat produced in vitro (rather than from a whole animal) is emerging more directly from developments in fine art—more specifically, from the aesthetic experiments of Australian-based artists Oron Catts and Ionat Zurr, who ask: What language do we have to describe the agency of tissue-cultured life? This essay begins

Susan McHugh

2010-01-01

334

Real Artificial: Tissue-cultured Meat, Genetically Modified Farm Animals, and Fictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Although touted by promoters as the cutting edge of food science, meat produced in vitro (rather than from a whole animal) is emerging more directly from developments in fine art—more specifically, from the aesthetic experiments of Australian-based artists Oron Catts and Ionat Zurr, who ask: What language do we have to describe the agency of tissue-cultured life? This essay begins

Susan McHugh

2010-01-01

335

Comparative genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human and animal listeriosis cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human sporadic and epidemic cases (n fl 119) and from animal cases (n fl 76) were characterized by automated ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) typing of the virulence genes actA and hly. This combination of typing methods differentiated 39 distinctive strains, each reflecting a unique combination of ribotypes, hly and actA alleles. Simpson's index

Gregory T. Jeffers; James L. Bruce; Patrick L. McDonough; Janet Scarlett; Kathryn J. Boor; Martin Wiedmann

2001-01-01

336

Genetic Factors In The Acute Response To Hypoxia In Animals Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether an inherited effect can be detected has been answered in the affirmative a number of times in human\\u000a studies showing variations between twin pairs, between families and between populations in Tibet and the Andes. There is now\\u000a evidence from studies in mice that the adult ventilatory response can be altered by engineered knockout of genes involved

KINGMAN P. STROHL

337

Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy  

SciTech Connect

Current therapeutic approaches against the advanced stages of human solid tumors are palliative rather than curative. Many modalities, including, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination have met with only modest success for advanced metastatic cancers. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with cytotxic effects of radioisotopes. It is the ?smart? way of delivering radiation to the known and occult metastatic cancer cells and is independent of drug toxicity and/or hormone resistance. The tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) containing the unique disaccharide sialyl-Tn, is highly expressed in majority of adenocarcinomas, including carcinomas of the prostate, breast, ovaries, pancreas and colon (80-90%) compared to undetectable expression in normal tissues. Monoclonal antibody CC49, reactive with TAG-72, after conjugation to potent gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides, has been useful in selective systemic radiolocalization of disease and therapy of primary and metastatic tumor sites. However, limited therapeutic responses were observed in patients. Limited success of antibody based delivery of radioisotopes can be attributed to several factors including undesirable pharmacokinetics, poor tumor uptake and high immunogenicity of intact antibodies (IgGs). The primary factors contributing towards the failure of RIT include: 1) longer serum half-lives of the intact IgG molecules resulting in the radiotoxicity, 2) generation of human antibodies against murine antibodies (HAMA) that limits the frequency of dose administration, 3) poor diffusion rates of intact IgG due to the large size and 4) high interstitial fluid pressures (IFP) encountered in solid tumors. The major goal of our multidisciplinary project was to develop specific novel radiopharmaceuticals, with desired pharmacokinetics, for the diagnosis and therapy of solid tumors. To overcome the low uptake of radioactivity by tumors and to increase its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more compatible with RIT and RIS requirements. For RIT, delivery for sc(Fv)2 and [sc(Fv)2]2 in a fr

Surinder Batra, Ph.D.

2006-02-27

338

Convergence of stem cell behaviors and genetic regulation between animals and plants: insights from the Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal lineage  

PubMed Central

Plants and animals are two successful, but vastly different, forms of complex multicellular life. In the 1600 million years since they shared a common unicellular ancestor, representatives of these kingdoms have had ample time to devise unique strategies for building and maintaining themselves, yet they have both developed self-renewing stem cell populations. Using the cellular behaviors and the genetic control of stomatal lineage of Arabidopsis as a focal point, we find current data suggests convergence of stem cell regulation at developmental and molecular levels. Comparative studies between evolutionary distant groups, therefore, have the power to reveal the logic behind stem cell behaviors and benefit both human regenerative medicine and plant biomass production. PMID:25184043

Matos, Juliana L.

2014-01-01

339

Genetically engineered theranostic mesenchymal stem cells for the evaluation of the anticancer efficacy of enzyme/prodrug systems.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, various enzyme/prodrug systems such as thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV), yeast cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (yCD/5-FC) and nitroreductase/CB1954 (NTR/CB1954) have been used for stem cell mediated suicide gene therapy of cancer. Yet, no study has been conducted to compare and demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using one system over another. Knowing that each enzyme/prodrug system has its own strengths and weaknesses, we utilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a medium to perform for the first time a comparative study that illustrated the impact of subtle differences among these systems on the therapeutic outcome. For therapeutic purposes, we first genetically modified MSCs to stably express a panel of four suicide genes including TK (TK007 and TKSR39 mutants), yeast cytosine deaminase:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (yCD:UPRT) and nitroreductase (NTR). Then, we evaluated the anticancer efficacies of the genetically engineered MSCs in vitro and in vivo by using SKOV3 cell line which is sensitive to all four enzyme/prodrug systems. In addition, all MSCs were engineered to stably express luciferase gene making them suitable for quantitative imaging and dose-response relationship studies in animals. Considering the limitations imposed by the prodrugs' bystander effects, our findings show that yCD:UPRT/5-FC is the most effective enzyme/prodrug system among the ones tested. Our findings also demonstrate that theranostic MSCs are a reliable medium for the side-by-side evaluation and screening of the enzyme/prodrug systems at the preclinical level. The results of this study could help scientists who utilize cell-based, non-viral or viral vectors for suicide gene therapy of cancer make more informed decisions when choosing enzyme/prodrug systems. PMID:25575867

Nouri, Faranak Salman; Wang, Xing; Hatefi, Arash

2015-02-28

340

Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man.  

PubMed

There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-?3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including 'growth factor name', 'in vivo', 'model/animal', 'human', and 'bone tissue engineering'. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area. PMID:25284140

Gothard, D; Smith, E L; Kanczler, J M; Rashidi, H; Qutachi, O; Henstock, J; Rotherham, M; El Haj, A; Shakesheff, K M; Oreffo, R O C

2014-01-01

341

Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA  

PubMed Central

Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 LC-PUFA) in oilseeds has been one of the key targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ?3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from endogenous ?-linolenic acid (ALA), we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid (PL) lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG, and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1?9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provided insights into where DHA accumulated and combined with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds. PMID:25225497

Zhou, Xue-Rong; Callahan, Damien L.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Liu, Qing; Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.

2014-01-01

342

Utilizing genetically engineered bacteria to produce plant-specific glucosides.  

PubMed

Plant-derived glucosides have attracted much attention due to their widespread applications. This class of products is difficult to isolate or to synthesize in pure form because of the resulting low yields. Thus, simple approaches for the generation of such glucosides would be highly beneficial. We purified and characterized a novel glucosyltransferase from plant cell suspension cultures of Rauvolfia serpentina, which showed rather low substrate specificity. We obtained its cDNA and expressed the active recombinant protein in bacteria (Escherichia coli) with excellent plant-specific glucosylation efficiencies. Compared with the plant system, the bacteria delivered the new enzyme, which was in the form of a soluble or matrix-bound enzyme, approximately 1800 times more efficiently for the synthesis of a wide range of glucosides. More importantly, the engineered E. coli strain allowed for in vivo glucosylation and release of the product into the culture medium, as shown by the formation of arbutin, which is a potent inhibitor of human melanin biosynthesis with commercial value. PMID:11505382

Arend, J; Warzecha, H; Hefner, T; Stöckigt, J

2001-09-01

343

Engineered temperature compensation in a synthetic genetic clock  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology by providing the means to reengineer and reprogram cellular regulatory mechanisms. However, synthetic gene circuits are often unreliable, as changes to environmental conditions can fundamentally alter a circuit’s behavior. One way to improve robustness is to use intrinsic properties of transcription factors within the circuit to buffer against intra- and extracellular variability. Here, we describe the design and construction of a synthetic gene oscillator in Escherichia coli that maintains a constant period over a range of temperatures. We started with a previously described synthetic dual-feedback oscillator with a temperature-dependent period. Computational modeling predicted and subsequent experiments confirmed that a single amino acid mutation to the core transcriptional repressor of the circuit results in temperature compensation. Specifically, we used a temperature-sensitive lactose repressor mutant that loses the ability to repress its target promoter at high temperatures. In the oscillator, this thermoinduction of the repressor leads to an increase in period at high temperatures that compensates for the decrease in period due to Arrhenius scaling of the reaction rates. The result is a transcriptional oscillator with a nearly constant period of 48 min for temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 41 °C. In contrast, in the absence of the mutation the period of the oscillator drops from 60 to 30 min over the same temperature range. This work demonstrates that synthetic gene circuits can be engineered to be robust to extracellular conditions through protein-level modifications. PMID:24395809

Hussain, Faiza; Gupta, Chinmaya; Hirning, Andrew J.; Ott, William; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Josi?, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

344

Can we guarantee the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Concern about the safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environment arises from the undesirable results of earlier new technologies and introduced organisms. Progress towards safe release is complicated by the varied views of a diverse society, confusion of process and product, problems with existing methods, and the lack of practical experience with real releases. No categorically safe novel organisms exist, but a progressive series of releases should allow risks to be systematically reduced.40 references.

Keeler, K.H.

1988-01-01

345

Interrogating Resistance to Targeted Therapy Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the advent of cancer genome sequencing and rationally designed targeted therapeutics, mouse models of human cancer might\\u000a seem destined to become relics of a bygone era. Instead, the engineering of mouse genomes continues to evolve, yielding versatile\\u000a and powerful research tools for modeling targeted therapy. Just as the first wave of cancer-prone transgenic mice helped unravel\\u000a the genetic events

Edward Gunther

346

Construction and characterization of Escherichia coli genetically engineered for bioremediation of Hg(2+)-contaminated environments.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli strains were genetically engineered to express an Hg2+ transport system and metallothionein. Overexpression of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or pea metallothionein significantly increased the bioaccumulation of Hg2+ transported by MerT and MerP and protected the cells from the accumulated Hg2+. The recombinant strains have excellent properties for bioremediation of Hg(2+)-contaminated environments. PMID:9172366

Chen, S; Wilson, D B

1997-01-01

347

Three-Dimensional Structure of a Genetically Engineered Variant of Porcine Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional structure of a genetically engineered variant of porcine growth hormone, methionyl porcine somatotropin (MPS), has been determined at 2.8- angstrom resolution, using single crystal x-ray diffraction techniques. Phases were obtained by use of a single isomorphous K2OsCl6 derivative and were improved by use of the density modification procedure. The MPS structure is predominantly helical. It consists mainly of

Sherin S. Abdel-Meguid; Huey-Sheng Shieh; Ward W. Smith; Henry E. Dayringer; Bernard N. Violand; Larry A. Bentle

1987-01-01

348

Systemic delivery of human growth hormone by injection of genetically engineered myoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant gene encoding human growth hormone (hGH) was stably introduced into cultured myoblasts with a retroviral vector. After injection of genetically engineered myoblasts into mouse muscle, hGH could be detected in serum for 3 months. The fate of injected myoblasts was assessed by coinfecting the cells with two retroviral vectors, one encoding hGH and the other encoding β-galactosidase from

J. Dhawan; L. C. Pan; G. K. Pavlath; M. A. Travis; A. M. Lanctot; H. M. Blau

1991-01-01

349

Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance – a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineering inherent crop resistance to insect pests offers the potential of a user-friendly, environment-friendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture in the 21st century. Work to date has concentrated on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Impressive results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been

Vaughan A. Hilder; Donald Boulter

1999-01-01

350

Effect of ?-Cell Toxins on Genetically Engineered Insulin-Secreting Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The betacyte is a genetically engineered insulin-secreting liver cell line that is glucose responsive. Whether this cell is affected by specific ?-cell toxins is unknown. To explore this possibility we exposed these cells and those from the NIT-1 ?-cell line (positive controls) to the toxins streptozotocin (STZ, 2.5–20mM), alloxan (ALL, 2.5–20mM), and pentamidine (PENT, 10?6–1mM). STZ and ALL were added

Bernard E Tuch; Sandy Beynon; Muhammad T Tabiin; Regina Sassoon; Rebecca J Goodman; Ann M Simpson

1997-01-01

351

Tipping Points in Seaweed Genetic Engineering: Scaling Up Opportunities in the Next Decade  

PubMed Central

Seaweed genetic engineering is a transgenic expression system with unique features compared with those of heterotrophic prokaryotes and higher plants. This study discusses several newly sequenced seaweed nuclear genomes and the necessity that research on vector design should consider endogenous promoters, codon optimization, and gene copy number. Seaweed viruses and artificial transposons can be applied as transformation methods after acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of viral infections in seaweeds and transposon patterns in seaweed genomes. After cultivating transgenic algal cells and tissues in a photobioreactor, a biosafety assessment of genetically modified (GM) seaweeds must be conducted before open-sea application. We propose a set of programs for the evaluation of gene flow from GM seaweeds to local/geographical environments. The effective implementation of such programs requires fundamentally systematic and interdisciplinary studies on algal physiology and genetics, marine hydrology, reproductive biology, and ecology. PMID:24857961

Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

2014-01-01

352

Improved metal cluster deposition on a genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved depositions of various metal clusters onto a biomolecular template were achieved using a genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Wild-type TMV was genetically altered to display multiple solid metal binding sites through the insertion of two cysteine residues within the amino-terminus of the virus coat protein. Gold, silver, and palladium clusters synthesized through in situ chemical reductions could be readily deposited onto the genetically modified template via the exposed cysteine-derived thiol groups. Metal cluster coatings on the cysteine-modified template were more densely deposited and stable than similar coatings on the unmodified wild-type template. Combined, these results confirm that the introduction of cysteine residues onto the outer surface of the TMV coat protein enhances the usefulness of this virus as a biotemplate for the deposition of metal clusters.

Lee, Sang-Yup; Royston, Elizabeth; Culver, James N.; Harris, Michael T.

2005-07-01

353

Concise review: genetically engineered stem cell therapy targeting angiogenesis and tumor stroma in gastrointestinal malignancy.  

PubMed

Cell-based gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of human malignancy. Genetically engineered cells if delivered to sites of disease could alleviate symptoms or even cure cancer through expression of therapeutic or suicide transgene products. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), nonhematopoietic multipotent cells found primarily in bone marrow, have garnered particular interest as potential tumor-targeting vehicles due to their innate tumortropic homing properties. However, recent strategies go further than simply using MSCs as vehicles and use the stem cell-specific genetic make-up to restrict transgene expression to tumorigenic environments using tumor-tissue specific promoters. This addresses one of the concerns with this novel therapy that nonselective stem cell-based therapy could induce cancer rather than treat it. Even minimal off-target effects can be deleterious, motivating recent strategies to not only enhance MSC homing but also engineer them to make their antitumor effect selective to sites of malignancy. This review will summarize the advances made in the past decade toward developing novel cell-based cancer therapies using genetically engineered MSCs with a focus on strategies to achieve and enhance tumor specificity and their application to targeting gastrointestinal malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:23132810

Keung, Emily Z; Nelson, Peter J; Conrad, Claudius

2013-02-01

354

Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker  

SciTech Connect

Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

1990-06-01

355

Different methods of genetically engineering plants ÃÂ Robert HorschSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Robert Horsch DNAi Location:Manipulation>Techniques>transferring & storing>interviews Agrobacterium or gene gun? Robert Horsch compares the random power of a gene gun with the natural genetic engineering abilities of agrobacterium.

2008-10-06

356

A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

1989-01-01

357

"Suspended animation," my mother's wife and cultural discernment: considerations for genetic research among immigrants.  

PubMed

One of the most difficult contemporary issues facing the bioethics of clinical research is balancing the maintaining of a universality of ethics standards with a sensitivity to cultural issues and differences. The concept of "vulnerability" for research subjects is especially apt for investigating the ethical and cultural issues surrounding the conduct of genetic research among new immigrants to the United States, using the Sudanese Nuer and Dinka tribes, recently settled in the Midwest, as an example. Issues of cultural vulnerability arise for some immigrants, related to relationship to the earth and to kinship issues, that threaten the narrative richness of a subject's life as well as the way she situates herself in the world. PMID:16292606

Kissell, Judith Lee

2005-01-01

358

RAPD variation and population genetic structure in Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae), an animal-dispersed tree.  

PubMed

We examined the patterns of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variation among seven Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae) populations extending over approximately 100 km2 to examine local differentiation in relation to spatial isolation due to both geographical distance and differences in elevation. No less than 51. 4% of the RAPD loci were polymorphic, but very few were fixed and among-population variation accounted for 16.46% of variation in RAPD patterns. Mean gene diversity was 0.1441, with mean Nei's genetic diversity for individual populations ranging between 0.089 and 0.149. Mean GST value across loci was 0.1935 (range, 0.0162-0.4685), giving an average estimate for Nm of 1.191. These results suggest extensive gene flow among populations, but higher GST and lower Nm values relative to other outcrossing, woody species with endozoochorous dispersal, also suggest a process of isolation by distance. The combined effect of both geographical and elevation distances and nonoverlapping flowering and fruiting phenophases on the GST matrix was partially significant, revealing only marginal isolation of the P. mahaleb populations. The matrix correlation between estimated Nm values among populations and the geographical + elevation distance matrices (r = -0.4623, P = 0.07), suggests a marginal trend for more isolated populations to exchange less immigrants. Long-distance seed dispersal by efficient medium-sized frugivorous birds and mammals is most likely associated to the high levels of within-population genetic diversity. However, vicariance factors and demographic bottlenecks (high postdispersal seed and seedling mortality) explain comparatively high levels of local differentiation. PMID:10972769

Jordano, P; Godoy, J A

2000-09-01

359

Evaluation of Animal Genetic and Physiological Factors That Affect the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Controlling the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle at the pre-harvest level is critical to reduce outbreaks of this pathogen in humans. Multilayers of factors including the environmental and bacterial factors modulate the colonization and persistence of E. coli O157 in cattle that serve as a reservoir of this pathogen. Here, we report animal factors contributing to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle. We observe the lowest number of E. coli O157 in Brahman breed when compared with other crosses in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd, and bulls excrete more E. coli O157 than steers in the pens where cattle were housed together. The presence of super-shedders, cattle excreting >105 CFU/rectal anal swab, increases the concentration of E. coli O157 in the pens; thereby super-shedders enhance transmission of this pathogen among cattle. Molecular subtyping analysis reveal only one subtype of E. coli O157 in the multibreed herd, indicating the variance in the levels of E. coli O157 in cattle is influenced by animal factors. Furthermore, strain tracking after relocation of the cattle to a commercial feedlot reveals farm-to-farm transmission of E. coli O157, likely via super-shedders. Our results reveal high risk factors in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle whereby animal genetic and physiological factors influence whether this pathogen can persist in cattle at high concentration, providing insights to intervene this pathogen at the pre-harvest level. PMID:23405204

Jeon, Soo Jin; Elzo, Mauricio; DiLorenzo, Nicolas; Lamb, G. Cliff; Jeong, Kwang Cheol

2013-01-01

360

Whole-body multicolor spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging for development of target-specific optical contrast agents using genetically engineered probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target-specific contrast agents are being developed for the molecular imaging of cancer. Optically detectable target-specific agents are promising for clinical applications because of their high sensitivity and specificity. Pre clinical testing is needed, however, to validate the actual sensitivity and specificity of these agents in animal models, and involves both conventional histology and immunohistochemistry, which requires large numbers of animals and samples with costly handling. However, a superior validation tool takes advantage of genetic engineering technology whereby cell lines are transfected with genes that induce the target cell to produce fluorescent proteins with characteristic emission spectra thus, identifying them as cancer cells. Multicolor fluorescence imaging of these genetically engineered probes can provide rapid validation of newly developed exogenous probes that fluoresce at different wavelengths. For example, the plasmid containing the gene encoding red fluorescent protein (RFP) was transfected into cell lines previously developed to either express or not-express specific cell surface receptors. Various antibody-based or receptor ligand-based optical contrast agents with either green or near infrared fluorophores were developed to concurrently target and validate cancer cells and their positive and negative controls, such as ?-D-galactose receptor, HER1 and HER2 in a single animal/organ. Spectrally resolved fluorescence multicolor imaging was used to detect separate fluorescent emission spectra from the exogenous agents and RFP. Therefore, using this in vivo imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the target-specific optical contrast agents, thus reducing the number of animals needed to conduct these experiments.

Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hama, Yukihiro; Koyama, Yoshinori; Barrett, Tristan; Urano, Yasuteru; Choyke, Peter L.

2007-02-01

361

Pathophysiology of Acute Experimental Pancreatitis: Lessons from Genetically Engineered Animal Models and New Molecular Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of acute pancreatitis is growing and worldwide population-based studies report a doubling or tripling since the 1970s. 25% of acute pancreatitis are severe and associated with histological changes of necrotizing pancreatitis. There is still no specific medical treatment for acute pancreatitis. The average mortality resides around 10%. In order to develop new specific medical treatment strategies for acute

Claus Schäfer; Anne Barbara Tietz; Burkhard Göke

2005-01-01

362

Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.  

PubMed

We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be controlled by one computer. PMID:24637442

Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

2014-01-01

363

Genetic engineering of plants for improved crop production. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of genetic engineering to improve crop production. Genetic alterations of plants to provide insect protection, herbicide resistance, disease resistance, improved quality, and higher yield are discussed. Methods used to develop environmentally tolerant crops that are able to withstand extremes of temperature, reduced water consumption, and reduced fertilizer requirements are examined. Genetic engineering of microorganisms that are beneficial to plants is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01

364

Engineering modular and tunable genetic amplifiers for scaling transcriptional signals in cascaded gene networks.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology aims to control and reprogram signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realize repurposed, beneficial applications. Here we report the design and construction of a set of modular and gain-tunable genetic amplifiers in Escherichia coli capable of amplifying a transcriptional signal with wide tunable-gain control in cascaded gene networks. The devices are engineered using orthogonal genetic components (hrpRS, hrpV and PhrpL) from the hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene regulatory network in Pseudomonas syringae. The amplifiers can linearly scale up to 21-fold the transcriptional input with a large output dynamic range, yet not introducing significant time delay or significant noise during signal amplification. The set of genetic amplifiers achieves different gains and input dynamic ranges by varying the expression levels of the underlying ligand-free activator proteins in the device. As their electronic counterparts, these engineered transcriptional amplifiers can act as fundamental building blocks in the design of biological systems by predictably and dynamically modulating transcriptional signal flows to implement advanced intra- and extra-cellular control functions. PMID:25030903

Wang, Baojun; Barahona, Mauricio; Buck, Martin

2014-08-01

365

Insights into wild-type and mutant p53 functions provided by genetically engineered mice.  

PubMed

Recent whole-exome sequencing studies of numerous human cancers have now conclusively shown that the TP53 tumor-suppressor gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Despite extensive studies of the TP53 gene and its encoded protein (p53), our understanding of how TP53 mutations contribute to cancer initiation and progression remain incomplete. Genetically engineered mice with germline or inducible Trp53 somatic mutations have provided important insights into the mechanisms by which different types of p53 mutation influence cancer development. Trp53 germline mutations that alter specific p53 structural domains or posttranslation modification sites have benefitted our understanding of wild-type p53 functions in a whole organism context. Moreover, genetic approaches to reestablish functional wild-type p53 to p53-deficient tissues and tumors have increased our understanding of the therapeutic potential of restoring functional p53 signaling to cancers. This review outlines many of the key insights provided by the various categories of Trp53 mutant mice that have been generated by multiple genetic engineering approaches. PMID:24415648

Donehower, Lawrence A

2014-06-01

366

Competition in a spatially heterogeneous environment: modelling the risk of spread of a genetically engineered population.  

PubMed

In recent years regulations have been developed to address the risks of releasing genetically engineered organisms into the natural environment. These risks are generally considered to be proportional to the exposure multiplied by the hazard. Exposure is, in part, determined by the spatial spread of the organisms, a component of risk suited to mathematical analysis. In this paper we exampine a mathematical model describing the spread of organisms introduced into a hetereogeneous environment, focusing on the risk of spread and plausibility of containment strategies. Two competing populations are assumed, one the natural species and the other an engineered species or strain, both of which move randomly in a spatially heterogenous environment consisting of alternating favourable and unfavourable patches. The classical Lotka-Volterra competition model with diffusion is used. Analyses of the possible spread and invasion of engineered organisms are thus reduced to finding periodic travelling wave solutions to the model equations. We focus on whether a very small number of engineered organisms can spatially invade a natural population. Initially we investigate the problem for spatially periodic diffusion coefficients and demonstrate that, under the right circumstances and a large enough unfavourable patch, invasion does not succeed. However, if spatially periodic carrying capacities are assumed along with spatially varying diffusion rates, the situation is far more complex. In this case containment of the engineered species is no longer only a simple function of the unfavourable patch length. By using perturbation solutions to the nonuniform steady states, approximate invasion conditions are obtained. PMID:8813010

Cruywagen, G C; Kareiva, P; Lewis, M A; Murray, J D

1996-02-01

367

Genetically engineering cyanobacteria to convert CO?, water, and light into the long-chain hydrocarbon farnesene.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered cyanobacteria offer a shortcut to convert CO2 and H2O directly into biofuels and high value chemicals for societal benefits. Farnesene, a long-chained hydrocarbon (C15H24), has many applications in lubricants, cosmetics, fragrances, and biofuels. However, a method for the sustainable, photosynthetic production of farnesene has been lacking. Here, we report the photosynthetic production of farnesene by the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using only CO2, mineralized water, and light. A codon-optimized farnesene synthase gene was chemically synthesized and then expressed in the cyanobacterium, enabling it to synthesize farnesene through its endogenous non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway. Farnesene excreted from the engineered cyanobacterium volatilized into the flask head space and was recovered by adsorption in a resin column. The maximum photosynthetic productivity of farnesene was 69.1?±?1.8 ?g·L(-1)·O.D.(-1)·d(-1). Compared to the wild type, the farnesene-producing cyanobacterium also exhibited a 60 % higher PSII activity under high light, suggesting increased farnesene productivity in such conditions. We envision genetically engineered cyanobacteria as a bio-solar factory for photosynthetic production of a wide range of biofuels and commodity chemicals. PMID:25301585

Halfmann, Charles; Gu, Liping; Gibbons, William; Zhou, Ruanbao

2014-12-01

368

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts  

PubMed Central

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley—Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus. PMID:21444312

Rowntree, Jennifer K.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

369

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts.  

PubMed

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley-Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus. PMID:21444312

Rowntree, Jennifer K; Cameron, Duncan D; Preziosi, Richard F

2011-05-12

370

Engineering antigen-specific T cells from genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells in immunodeficient mice.  

PubMed

There is a desperate need for effective therapies to fight chronic viral infections. The immune response is normally fastidious at controlling the majority of viral infections and a therapeutic strategy aimed at reestablishing immune control represents a potentially powerful approach towards treating persistent viral infections. We examined the potential of genetically programming human hematopoietic stem cells to generate mature CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express a molecularly cloned, "transgenic" human anti-HIV T cell receptor (TCR). Anti-HIV TCR transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells directed the maturation of a large population of polyfunctional, HIV-specific CD8+ cells capable of recognizing and killing viral antigen-presenting cells. Thus, through this proof-of-concept we propose that genetic engineering of human hematopoietic stem cells will allow the tailoring of effector T cell responses to fight HIV infection or other diseases that are characterized by the loss of immune control. PMID:19997617

Kitchen, Scott G; Bennett, Michael; Gali?, Zoran; Kim, Joanne; Xu, Qing; Young, Alan; Lieberman, Alexis; Joseph, Aviva; Goldstein, Harris; Ng, Hwee; Yang, Otto; Zack, Jerome A

2009-01-01

371

Methods to measure the influence of genetically engineered bacteria on ecological processes in soil  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the document is to summarize the methods and concepts that have been developed and used by the author and his colleagues to study the potential effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) introduced, deliberately or accidently, into soil on microbemediated ecological processes in soil. The potential impacts of GEMs on the structure and function of natural environments into which the GEMs are introduced is the bottom-line aspect in the concern about the survival of, and genetic transfer by, GEMs in these habitats. If a GEM survives in the habitat into which it is introduced, does the job for which it was designed, and even if the novel gene(s) is transferred to indigenous microbes, there should be little cause for concern unless the novel gene(s), either in the introduced GEM or in an indigenous recipient(s), results in some unexpected impacts on the environment.

Stotzky, G.

1990-01-01

372

Exopolysaccharide production by a genetically engineered Enterobacter cloacae strain for microbial enhanced oil recovery.  

PubMed

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a petroleum biotechnology for manipulating function and/or structure of microbial environments existing in oil reservoirs for prolonged exploitation of the largest source of energy. In this study, an Enterobacter cloacae which is capable of producing water-insoluble biopolymers at 37°C and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at higher temperature. The resultant transformants, GW3-3.0, could produce exopolysaccharide up to 8.83 g l(-1) in molasses medium at 54°C. This elevated temperature was within the same temperature range as that for many oil reservoirs. The transformants had stable genetic phenotype which was genetically fingerprinted by RAPD analysis. Core flooding experiments were carried out to ensure effective controlled profile for the simulation of oil recovery. The results have demonstrated that this approach has a promising application potential in MEOR. PMID:21444201

Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Zhong, Weizhang; Xiao, Meng; Yi, Wenjing; Yu, Li; Fu, Pengcheng

2011-05-01

373

Genetically engineered mouse models of cancer reveal new insights about the anti-tumor immune response  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a complex disease that can originate in virtually all tissues of the body, and tumors progress through many different stages during their development. While genetic mutations in the emerging cancer cells drive this disease, it has become increasingly clear that cancer development is strongly influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. Cells of the immune system are critical components of this extrinsic network of cancer regulators, contributing significantly to the microenvironment of most cancers and either promoting or inhibiting the initiation and progression of this disease. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) mouse models of spontaneous cancer are starting to shape our understanding of how anti-tumor T cells may act to prevent or inhibit cancer progression in some settings and not others. Lessons learned from investigating spontaneous mouse cancer models have important implications for directing clinical efforts that attempt to direct a cancer patient’s immune system to eradicate their disease. PMID:23465466

DuPage, Michel; Jacks, Tyler

2014-01-01

374

Is genetic engineering ever going to take off in forage, turf and bioenergy crop breeding?  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic engineering offers the opportunity to generate unique genetic variation that is either absent in the sexually compatible gene pool or has very low heritability. The generation of transgenic plants, coupled with breeding, has led to the production of widely used transgenic cultivars in several major cash crops, such as maize, soybean, cotton and canola. The process for regulatory approval of genetically engineered crops is slow and subject to extensive political interference. The situation in forage grasses and legumes is more complicated. Scope Most widely grown forage, turf and bioenergy species (e.g. tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, switchgrass, alfalfa, white clover) are highly self-incompatible and outcrossing. Compared with inbreeding species, they have a high potential to pass their genes to adjacent plants. A major biosafety concern in these species is pollen-mediated transgene flow. Because human consumption is indirect, risk assessment of transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy species has focused on their environmental or ecological impacts. Although significant progress has been made in genetic modification of these species, commercialization of transgenic cultivars is very limited because of the stringent and costly regulatory requirements. To date, the only transgenic forage crop deregulated in the US is ‘Roundup Ready’ (RR) alfalfa. The approval process for RR alfalfa was complicated, involving several rounds of regulation, deregulation and re-regulation. Nevertheless, commercialization of RR alfalfa is an important step forward in regulatory approval of a perennial outcrossing forage crop. As additional transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy crops are generated and tested, different strategies have been developed to meet regulatory requirements. Recent progress in risk assessment and deregulation of transgenic forage and turf species is summarized and discussed. PMID:22378838

Wang, Zeng-Yu; Brummer, E. Charles

2012-01-01

375

18F-FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Drug-Induced Metabolic Changes in Genetically Engineered Mouse Lung Cancer Models.  

PubMed

The most commonly used radiotracer for cancer imaging in humans and mice is 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG). We have used FDG coupled with positron-emission tomography (PET) to assess the pharmacodynamic efficacy of a number of therapeutics in genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models. In this protocol, we present our approach for FDG-PET imaging of early tumor metabolic changes induced by drug treatment. Special consideration is given to animal preparation, anesthesia, and PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging of mice with lung tumors. Specifically, we recommend fasting the mice overnight to reduce background, using sevoflurane anesthesia and a "conscious" uptake period to minimize cardiac FDG uptake, adopting a relatively short duration of CT and PET scanning to facilitate serial imaging, and quantifying the comparison between the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) of lung tumors before and after treatment to determine treatment effects. Used in this manner, FDG-PET can rapidly assess tumor metabolism before and after treatment with an experimental therapeutic. In many cases, metabolic changes are apparent after just a single dose of treatment, helping to show target engagement and modulation by the drug (pharmacodynamic efficacy) within days of starting therapy. PMID:25646497

Wang, Yuchuan; Kung, Andrew L

2015-01-01

376

Genetic Engineering of Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax and In Vitro Differentiation under Axenic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite's biology. This is in part due to the fact that no reproducible experimental methods had been developed to maintain the different evolutive forms of this trypanosome under laboratory conditions. Appropriate protocols were developed in the 1990s for the axenic maintenance of three major animal Trypanosoma species: T. b. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. These pioneer studies rapidly led to the successful genetic manipulation of T. b. brucei and T. congolense. Advances were made in the understanding of these parasites' biology and virulence, and new drug targets were identified. By contrast, challenging in vitro conditions have been developed for T. vivax in the past, and this per se has contributed to defer both its genetic manipulation and subsequent gene function studies. Here we report on the optimization of non-infective T. vivax epimastigote axenic cultures and on the process of parasite in vitro differentiation into metacyclic infective forms. We have also constructed the first T. vivax specific expression vector that drives constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter gene. This vector was then used to establish and optimize epimastigote transfection. We then developed highly reproducible conditions that can be used to obtain and select stably transfected mutants that continue metacyclogenesis and are infectious in immunocompetent rodents. PMID:22216367

D'Archivio, Simon; Medina, Mathieu; Cosson, Alain; Chamond, Nathalie; Rotureau, Brice; Minoprio, Paola; Goyard, Sophie

2011-01-01

377

Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2009-01-01

378

Mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated AZI1 – an attractive candidate for genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinases and their targets have been in the limelight of plant stress research. Signaling pathways mediating the responses to multiple stresses deserve particular attention. In a recent study, we reported AZI1, a member of the lipid transfer protein family, to play a role in MPK3-mediated responses to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. MPK3 controls AZI1 at the transcriptional and posttranslational level. The AZI1 protein has several properties that make it very attractive for genetic engineering. A model of multi-level control of AZI1 by MPK3 is proposed, and strategies toward optimizing AZI1 protein properties are briefly discussed. PMID:24518841

Pitzschke, Andrea; Datta, Sneha; Persak, Helene

2014-01-01

379

Crystals of Serum Albumin for Use in Genetic Engineering and Rational Drug Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serum albumin crystal forms have been produced which exhibit superior x-ray diffraction quality. The crystals are produced from both recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, canine, and baboon serum albumin and allow the performance of drug-binding studies as well as genetic engineering studies. The crystals are grown from solutions of polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulphate within prescribed limits during growth times from one to several weeks and include the following space groups: P2(sub 1), C2, P1.

Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

380

Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for detection, fate, and survival analysis of genetically engineered microorganisms and their recombinant genetic material  

SciTech Connect

The research included in this document represents the current scientific information available regarding the applicability of terrestrial microcosms and related methodologies for evaluating detection methods and the fate and survival of microorganisms in the environment. The three terrestrial microcosms described in this document were used to evaluate the survival and fate of recombinant bacteria in soils and in association with plant surfaces and insects and their transport through soil with percolating water and root systems, and to test new methods and procedures to improve detection and enumeration of bacteria in soil. Simple (potting soil composed of peat mix and perlite, lacking environmental control and monitoring) and complex microcosms (agricultural soil with partial control and monitoring of environmental conditions) were demonstrated to be useful tools for preliminary assessments of microbial viability in terrestrial ecosystems. These studies evaluated the survival patterns of Enterobacter cloacae (pBR322) in soil and on plant surfaces and the ingestion of this same microorganism by cutworms and survival in the foregut and frass. The Versacore microcosm design was used to monitor the fate and competitiveness of genetically engineered bacteria in soil. Both selective media and gene probes were used successfully to follow the fate of two recombinant Pseudomonas sp. introduced into Versacore microcosms. Intact soil-core microcosms were employed to evaluate the fate and transport of genetically altered Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in soil and the plant rhizosphere. The usefulness of these various microcosms as a tool for risk assessment is underscored by the ease in obtaining soil from a proposed field release site to evaluate subsequent GEM fate and survival.

Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

1989-02-01

381

Genetic engineering for increasing fungal and bacterial disease resistance in crop plants.  

PubMed

We review the current and future potential of genetic engineering strategies used to make fungal and bacterial pathogen-resistant GM crops, illustrating different examples of the technologies and the potential benefits and short-falls of the strategies. There are well- established procedures for the production of transgenic plants with resistance towards these pathogens and considerable progress has been made using a range of new methodologies. There are no current commercially available transgenic plant species with increased resistance towards fungal and bacterial pathogens; only plants with increased resistance towards viruses are available. With an improved understanding of plant signaling pathways in response to a range of other pathogens, such as fungi, additional candidate genes for achieving resistance are being investigated. The potential for engineering plants for resistance against individual devastating diseases or for plants with resistance towards multiple pathogens is discussed in detail. PMID:21844674

Wally, Owen; Punja, Zamir K

2010-01-01

382

Expanding the Scope of Site-Specific Recombinases for Genetic and Metabolic Engineering  

PubMed Central

Site-specific recombinases are tremendously valuable tools for basic research and genetic engineering. By promoting high-fidelity DNA modifications, site-specific recombination systems have empowered researchers with unprecedented control over diverse biological functions, enabling countless insights into cellular structure and function. The rigid target specificities of many sites-specific recombinases, however, have limited their adoption in fields that require highly flexible recognition abilities. As a result, intense effort has been directed toward altering the properties of site-specific recombination systems by protein engineering. Here, we review key developments in the rational design and directed molecular evolution of site-specific recombinases, highlighting the numerous applications of these enzymes across diverse fields of study. PMID:23982993

Gaj, Thomas; Sirk, Shannon J.; Barbas, Carlos F.

2014-01-01

383

Overview of genetically engineered mouse models of colorectal carcinoma to enable translational biology and drug development.  

PubMed

Preclinical models for colorectal cancer (CRC) are critical for translational biology and drug development studies to characterize and treat this condition. Mouse models of human cancer are particularly popular because of their relatively low cost, short life span, and ease of use. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of CRC are engineered from germline or somatic modification of critical tumor suppressor genes and/or oncogenes that drive mutations in human disease. Detailed in this overview are the salient features of several useful colorectal cancer GEMMs and their value as tools for translational biology and preclinical drug development. Curr. Protoc. Pharmacol. 65:14.29.1-14.29.10. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24934606

Roper, Jatin; Martin, Eric S; Hung, Kenneth E

2014-01-01

384

Design and testing of a synthetic biology framework for genetic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic biology approaches can make a significant contribution to the advance of metabolic engineering by reducing the development time of recombinant organisms. However, most of synthetic biology tools have been developed for Escherichia coli. Here we provide a platform for rapid engineering of C. glutamicum, a microorganism of great industrial interest. This bacteria, used for decades for the fermentative production of amino acids, has recently been developed as a host for the production of several economically important compounds including metabolites and recombinant proteins because of its higher capacity of secretion compared to traditional bacterial hosts like E. coli. Thus, the development of modern molecular platforms may significantly contribute to establish C. glutamicum as a robust and versatile microbial factory. Results A plasmid based platform named pTGR was created where all the genetic components are flanked by unique restriction sites to both facilitate the evaluation of regulatory sequences and the assembly of constructs for the expression of multiple genes. The approach was validated by using reporter genes to test promoters, ribosome binding sites, and for the assembly of dual gene operons and gene clusters containing two transcriptional units. Combinatorial assembly of promoter (tac, cspB and sod) and RBS (lacZ, cspB and sod) elements with different strengths conferred clear differential gene expression of two reporter genes, eGFP and mCherry, thus allowing transcriptional “fine-tuning”of multiple genes. In addition, the platform allowed the rapid assembly of operons and genes clusters for co-expression of heterologous genes, a feature that may assist metabolic pathway engineering. Conclusions We anticipate that the pTGR platform will contribute to explore the potential of novel parts to regulate gene expression, and to facilitate the assembly of genetic circuits for metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum. The standardization provided by this approach may provide a means to improve the productivity of biosynthetic pathways in microbial factories for the production of novel compounds. PMID:23134565

2012-01-01

385

Formation mechanism of chalcogenide nanocrystals confined inside genetically engineered virus-like particles  

PubMed Central

Engineered virus-like particles (VLP) are attractive for fabricating nanostructured materials for applications in diverse areas such as catalysis, drug delivery, biomedicine, composites, etc. Basic understanding of the interaction between the inorganic guest and biomolecular host is thus important for the controlled synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles inside VLP and rational assembly of ordered VLP-based hierarchical nanostructures. We have investigated in detail the formation mechanism and growth kinetics of semiconducting nanocrystals confined inside genetically engineered bacteriophage P22 VLP using semiconducting CdS as a prototypical example. The selective nucleation and growth of CdS at the engineered sites is found to be uniform during the early stage, followed by a more stochastic growth process. Furthermore, kinetic studies reveal that the presence of an engineered biotemplate helps in significantly retarding the reaction rate. These findings provide guidance for the controlled synthesis of a wide range of other inorganic materials confined inside VLP, and are of practical importance for the rational design of VLP-based hierarchical nanostuctures. PMID:24452221

Zhou, Ziyou; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Li, Rui; Prevelige, Peter E.; Gupta, Arunava

2014-01-01

386

Ethical manipulations: an ethical evaluation of the debate surrounding genetic engineering.  

PubMed

"Manipulation" per se is not bad. The crucial question in the moral debate about genetic engineering is: When and how are we allowed to manipulate? Unfortunately, the moral discussion surrounding this question is itself being manipulated. There are moral manipulations (by those who wish to either reassure or to alarm) and there are ethical manipulations (the failed utilitarian calculus and the centering of the discussion only around rules, rights, and duties). A different ethical approach is needed: one based on virtues. The duty of ethics is to help us understand the moral possibilities in each situation, i.e., to develop our moral sensibility. In the area of genetic engineering research we are motivated by a will to know, but at the same time we fear total self knowledge. We want to control, to improve our world and ourselves, but we recoil at obtaining ultimate perfection. Therefore, we must value the unknowable, the uncontrollable. Our everincreasing capacity to mould the world and ourselves is making it more difficult to develop a sensitivity for what is given and cannot be made. It is dangerous for our ethics to assume the activistic traits of our technology. We risk losing a fundamental element of what we are, or ought to be. We should train ourselves in moral passivity. PMID:1863642

van Tongeren, P J

1991-01-01

387

Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

2014-06-01

388

Designing an Action Selection Engine for Behavioral Animation of Intelligent Virtual Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a new action selection scheme for behavioral animation in computer graphics. This scheme provides a powerful\\u000a mechanism for the determination of the sequence of actions to be performed by the virtual agents emulating real world’s life.\\u000a In particular, the present contribution focuses on the description of the system architecture and some implementation issues.\\u000a Then, the performance of

Francisco Luengo; Andrés Iglesias

2005-01-01

389

Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics  

E-print Network

of Human Genetics Human Genetics Journal of Heredity CurrentGenetics Molecular Biology and Evolution Animal Genetics Human Molecular Genetics Genetics European J. of Human Genetics Genetics Selection Evolution American J. Human Genetics Heredity Annals of Human Genetics Hereditas Opthalmic Genetics Japanese Journal

Innes, David J.

390

An Ultra High-Throughput, Whole-Animal Screen for Small Molecule Modulators of a Specific Genetic Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

High-throughput screening (HTS) is a powerful approach to drug discovery, but many lead compounds are found to be unsuitable for use in vivo after initial screening. Screening in small animals like C. elegans can help avoid these problems, but this system has been limited to screens with low-throughput or no specific molecular target. We report the first in vivo 1536-well plate assay for a specific genetic pathway in C. elegans. Our assay measures induction of a gene regulated by SKN-1, a master regulator of detoxification genes. SKN-1 inhibitors will be used to study and potentially reverse multidrug resistance in parasitic nematodes. Screens of two small commercial libraries and the full Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) of ?364,000 compounds validate our platform for ultra HTS. Our platform overcomes current limitations of many whole-animal screens and can be widely adopted for other inducible genetic pathways in nematodes and humans. PMID:23637990

Leung, Chi K.; Wang, Ying; Malany, Siobhan; Deonarine, Andrew; Nguyen, Kevin; Vasile, Stefan; Choe, Keith P.

2013-01-01

391

Evaluating Learning and Attitudes on Tissue Engineering: A Study of Children Viewing Animated Digital Dome Shows Detailing the Biomedicine of Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art–science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made them think, 75% enjoyed it, and 89% felt that they learned something. We discuss the potential impact the films might have on public knowledge, health literacy, and attitudes toward the science of tissue engineering. PMID:21943030

Wilson, Anna C.; Gonzalez, Laura L.

2012-01-01

392

Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra possessing transcription activator-like effectors used for genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra is a causal agent of bacterial pustule disease in soybean. This bacterium possesses transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors which are useful for genetic/protein engineering applications in higher organisms including plants and humans. Here, we report that the draft genome sequence consists of 5,337,885-bp double-stranded DNA encoding 4674 open reading frames (ORFs) in 13 different contigs. This genome sequence would be useful in applications of TAL effectors in genetic engineering and in elucidating virulence factors against plants. PMID:24657734

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Park, Hye-Jee; Ryu, Sangryeol; Han, Sang-Wook

2014-06-10

393

A GENETIC BASE FOR ESTIMATING THE GENETIC TRANSMITTING ABILITY  

E-print Network

A GENETIC BASE FOR ESTIMATING THE GENETIC TRANSMITTING ABILITY OF DAIRY BULLS IN POPULATIONS UNDERGOING GENETIC CHANGE (1) F. N. DICKINSON Acting Leader, Animal Impvovement Pvogvams Laboratory, Animal Physiology and Genetics Institute, Agvicultuval Research Service, United States Department of Agvicultuve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Production of Engineered Fabrics Using Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Hybrid Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of fabric engineering which is generally practised in most of the textile mills is very complicated, repetitive, tedious and time consuming. To eliminate this trial and error approach, a new approach of fabric engineering has been attempted in this work. Data sets of construction parameters [comprising of ends per inch, picks per inch, warp count and weft count] and three fabric properties (namely drape coefficient, air permeability and thermal resistance) of 25 handloom cotton fabrics have been used. The weights and biases of three artificial neural network (ANN) models developed for the prediction of drape coefficient, air permeability and thermal resistance were used to formulate the fitness or objective function and constraints of the optimization problem. The optimization problem was solved using genetic algorithm (GA). In both the fabrics which were attempted for engineering, the target and simulated fabric properties were very close. The GA was able to search the optimum set of fabric construction parameters with reasonably good accuracy except in case of EPI. However, the overall result is encouraging and can be improved further by using larger data sets of handloom fabrics by hybrid ANN-GA model.

Mitra, Ashis; Majumdar, Prabal Kumar; Banerjee, Debamalya

2014-11-01

395

A Pseudomonas putida strain genetically engineered for 1,2,3-trichloropropane bioremediation.  

PubMed

1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a toxic compound that is recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Attempts to isolate TCP-degrading organisms using enrichment cultivation have failed. A potential biodegradation pathway starts with hydrolytic dehalogenation to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP), followed by oxidative metabolism. To obtain a practically applicable TCP-degrading organism, we introduced an engineered haloalkane dehalogenase with improved TCP degradation activity into the DCP-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida MC4. For this purpose, the dehalogenase gene (dhaA31) was cloned behind the constitutive dhlA promoter and was introduced into the genome of strain MC4 using a transposon delivery system. The transposon-located antibiotic resistance marker was subsequently removed using a resolvase step. Growth of the resulting engineered bacterium, P. putida MC4-5222, on TCP was indeed observed, and all organic chlorine was released as chloride. A packed-bed reactor with immobilized cells of strain MC4-5222 degraded >95% of influent TCP (0.33 mM) under continuous-flow conditions, with stoichiometric release of inorganic chloride. The results demonstrate the successful use of a laboratory-evolved dehalogenase and genetic engineering to produce an effective, plasmid-free, and stable whole-cell biocatalyst for the aerobic bioremediation of a recalcitrant chlorinated hydrocarbon. PMID:24973068

Samin, Ghufrana; Pavlova, Martina; Arif, M Irfan; Postema, Christiaan P; Damborsky, Jiri; Janssen, Dick B

2014-09-01

396

Comparison of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Brain Tumors in a Scid Mouse Model of Human Malignant Glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered viruses and viral genes inserted into retroviral vectors are increasingly being considered for experimental therapy of brain tumors. A primary target of these viruses and vectors is human gliomas, the most frequently occurring primary human brain tumor. To investigate the potential of genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) in the therapy of these tumors, we compared the attributes

Renee Chambers; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; Samita Andreansky; Subhendra Chatterjee; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1995-01-01

397

Ethical concerns and risk perceptions associated with different applications of genetic engineering: Interrelationships with the perceived need for regulation of the technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetic engineering and its plausible consequences raises a level of controversy that can be identified at the level of public rather than scientific debate. Opposition to genetic engineering may manifest itself in rejection of the technology overall, or rejection of specific aspects of the technology, where public attitudes may be defined by a complex set of perceptions

Lynn J. Frewer; Richard Shepherd

1995-01-01

398

Consumer Attitudes and Decision-Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food Products – A Review of the Literature and a Presentation of Models for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have to date explained consumer attitudes and purchase decisions with regard to genetically engineered food products. However, the increased marketing of genetically engineered food products and the considerable concern that consumers seem to express with regard to the technology call for the development of a theoretical basis for research into these issues. The aim of this article is

Lone Bredahl; Klaus G. Grunert; Lynn J. Frewer

1998-01-01

399

The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of food is the science which involves deliberate modification of the genetic material of plants or animals. It is an old agricultural practice carried on by farmers since early historical times, but recently it has been improved by technology. Many foods consumed today are either genetically modified (GM) whole foods, or contain ingredients derived from gene modification technology.

Stella G. Uzogara

2000-01-01

400

Heritable multiplex genetic engineering in rats using CRISPR/Cas9.  

PubMed

The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been proven to be an efficient gene-editing tool for genome modification of cells and organisms. Multiplex genetic engineering in rat holds a bright future for the study of complex disease. Here, we show that this system enables the simultaneous disruption of four genes (ApoE, B2m, Prf1, and Prkdc) in rats in one-step, by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs into fertilized eggs. We further observed the gene modifications are germline transmittable, and confirmed the off-target mutagenesis and mosaicism are rarely detected by comprehensive analysis. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9 system makes it possible to efficiently and reliably generate gene knock-out rats. PMID:24598943

Ma, Yuanwu; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yingdong; Chen, Wei; Ma, Jing; Huang, Xingxu; Zhang, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

401

Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here. PMID:24402175

Li, Hong-Ye; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

2014-01-01

402

The Establishment of Genetically Engineered Canola Populations in the U.S.  

PubMed Central

Concerns regarding the commercial release of genetically engineered (GE) crops include naturalization, introgression to sexually compatible relatives and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species through hybridization. To date there have been few documented reports of escape leading some researchers to question the environmental risks of biotech products. In this study we conducted a systematic roadside survey of canola (Brassica napus) populations growing outside of cultivation in North Dakota, USA, the dominant canola growing region in the U.S. We document the presence of two escaped, transgenic genotypes, as well as non-GE canola, and provide evidence of novel combinations of transgenic forms in the wild. Our results demonstrate that feral populations are large and widespread. Moreover, flowering times of escaped populations, as well as the fertile condition of the majority of collections suggest that these populations are established and persistent outside of cultivation. PMID:21998689

Schafer, Meredith G.; Ross, Andrew A.; Londo, Jason P.; Burdick, Connie A.; Lee, E. Henry; Travers, Steven E.; Van de Water, Peter K.; Sagers, Cynthia L.

2011-01-01

403

Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

Williams, A.L.

1998-07-01

404

Coating with genetic engineered hydrophobin promotes growth of fibroblasts on a hydrophobic solid.  

PubMed

Class I Hydrophobins self-assemble at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces into a highly insoluble amphipathic film. Upon self-assembly of these fungal proteins hydrophobic solids turn hydrophilic, while hydrophilic materials can be made hydrophobic. Hydrophobins thus change the nature of a surface. This property makes them interesting candidates to improve physio- and physico-chemical properties of implant surfaces. We here show that growth of fibroblasts on Teflon can be improved by coating the solid with genetically engineered SC3 hydrophobin. Either deleting a stretch of 25 amino acids at the N-terminus of the mature hydrophobin (TrSC3) or fusing the RGD peptide to this end (RGD-SC3) improved growth of fibroblasts on the solid surface. In addition, we have shown that assembled SC3 and TrSC3 are not toxic when added to the medium of a cell culture of fibroblasts in amounts up to 125 microg ml(-1). PMID:12361625

Janssen, M I; van Leeuwen, M B M; Scholtmeijer, K; van Kooten, T G; Dijkhuizen, L; Wösten, H A B

2002-12-01

405

The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of viral genes. The vectors currently being developed are (i) helper free amplicons, (ii) replication defective viruses, and (iii) genetically engineered replication competent viruses with restricted host range. Whereas the former two types of vectors require stable, continuous cell lines expressing viral genes for their replication, the replication competent viruses will replicate on approved primary human cell strains.

Roizman, Bernard

1996-10-01

406

Can we build it better? Using BAC genetics to engineer more effective cytomegalovirus vaccines.  

PubMed

The magnitude and durability of immunity to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) following natural infection is compromised by the presence of immune modulation genes that appear to promote evasion of host clearance mechanisms. Since immunity to HCMV offers limited protection, rational design of effective vaccines has been challenging. In this issue of the JCI, Slavuljica and colleagues employ techniques to genetically modify the highly related mouse CMV (MCMV), in the process generating a virus that was rapidly cleared by NK cells. The virus functioned as a safe and highly effective vaccine. Demonstration of the ability to engineer a safe and highly effective live virus vaccine in a relevant rodent model of CMV infection may open the door to clinical trials of safer and more immunogenic HCMV vaccines. PMID:21099107

Schleiss, Mark R

2010-12-01

407

The "campus syndrome" in pigs: neurological, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological characterization of a new genetic animal model of high-frequency tremor.  

PubMed

Inherited neurological diseases in animals are of interest to a wide range of scientific disciplines, particularly because such animals may be suited as genetic animal models for respective human disorders. Because the pig has a number of anatomic and physiologic features similar to those of human beings, this species is becoming increasingly popular in biomedical research. The usefulness of pigs as genetic models of neurological diseases is illustrated by the porcine model of malignant hyperthermia (MH), i.e., a frequently fatal myopathic disease in both pigs and humans. In the present study, we describe a new hereditary movement disorder in Pietrain pigs, which may represent a useful genetic animal model of high-frequency tremor. Because the disorder was first detected in the offspring of a boar named "Campus," we use the term "Campus syndrome" in this respect. Segregation analysis of breeding studies indicates that the syndrome is inherited as a monogenic dominant trait. DNA-based testing of the mutation involved in MH myopathy showed that expression of the Campus syndrome in pigs is not dependent on homozygosity for the MH mutation. In affected pigs, the Campus syndrome develops at an average age of 27 days. The syndrome is characterized by muscular weakness and a very intense tremor of the legs when standing and walking but not when at rest in a lying position. The intensity of tremor and muscular weakness progressively increases with age, resulting in pronounced postural instability. Despite these neurological abnormalities, body weight gain in affected pigs does not differ from that in unaffected siblings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7556540

Richter, A; Wissel, J; Harlizius, B; Simon, D; Schelosky, L; Scholz, U; Poewe, W; Löscher, W

1995-08-01

408

Lentivectors encoding immunosuppressive proteins genetically engineer pancreatic beta-cells to correct diabetes in allogeneic mice.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of genetic engineering with lentivectors to protect transplanted cells from allogeneic rejection was examined using, as a model, type 1 diabetes treatment with beta-cell transplantation, whose widespread use has been limited by the requirement for sustained immunosuppressive treatment to prevent graft rejection. We examined whether lentivectors expressing select immunosuppressive proteins encoded by the adenoviral genome early region 3 (AdE3) would protect transplanted beta-cells from an alloimmune attack. The insulin-producing beta-cell line beta TC-tet (C3HeB/FeJ-derived) was transduced with lentiviruses encoding the AdE3 proteins gp19K and RID alpha/beta. The efficiency of lentiviral transduction of beta TC-tet cells exceeded 85%. Lentivector expression of gp19K decreased surface class I major histocompatibility complex expression by over 90%, whereas RID alpha/beta expression inhibited cytokine-induced Fas upregulation by over 75%. beta TC-tet cells transduced with gp19K and RID alpha/beta lentivectors, but not with a control lentivector, provided prolonged correction of hyperglycemia after transplantation into diabetic BALB/c severe combined immunodeficient mice reconstituted with allogeneic immune effector cells or into diabetic allogeneic BALB/c mice. Thus, genetic engineering of beta-cells using gp19K- and RID alpha/beta-expressing lentiviral vectors may provide an alternative that has the potential to eliminate or reduce treatment with the potent immunosuppressive agents necessary at present for prolonged engraftment with transplanted islets. PMID:19112449

Kojaoghlanian, T; Joseph, A; Follenzi, A; Zheng, J H; Leiser, M; Fleischer, N; Horwitz, M S; DiLorenzo, T P; Goldstein, H

2009-03-01

409

Examining strategies to facilitate vitamin B1 biofortification of plants by genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Thiamin (vitamin B1) is made by plants and microorganisms but is an essential micronutrient in the human diet. All organisms require it as a cofactor in its form as thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) for the activity of key enzymes of central metabolism. In humans, deficiency is widespread particularly in populations where polished rice is a major component of the diet. Considerable progress has been made on the elucidation of the biosynthesis pathway within the last few years enabling concrete strategies for biofortification purposes to be devised, with a particular focus here on genetic engineering. Furthermore, the vitamin has been shown to play a role in both abiotic and biotic stress responses. The precursors for de novo biosynthesis of thiamin differ between microorganisms and plants. Bacteria use intermediates derived from purine and isoprenoid biosynthesis, whereas the pathway in yeast involves the use of compounds from the vitamin B3 and B6 groups. Plants on the other hand use a combination of the bacterial and yeast pathways and there is subcellular partitioning of the biosynthesis steps. Specifically, thiamin biosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast of plants through the separate formation of the pyrimidine and thiazole moieties, which are then coupled to form thiamin monophosphate (TMP). Phosphorylation of thiamin to form TPP occurs in the cytosol. Therefore, thiamin (or TMP) must be exported from the chloroplast to the cytosol for the latter step to be executed. The regulation of biosynthesis is mediated through riboswitches, where binding of the product TPP to the pre-mRNA of a biosynthetic gene modulates expression. Here we examine and hypothesize on genetic engineering approaches attempting to increase the thiamin content employing knowledge gained with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We will discuss the regulatory steps that need to be taken into consideration and can be used a prerequisite for devising such strategies in crop plants. PMID:23755056

Pourcel, Lucille; Moulin, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

2013-01-01

410

Expression of Engineered Nuclear Male Sterility in Brassica napus (Genetics, Morphology, Cytology, and Sensitivity to Temperature).  

PubMed Central

A dominant genetic male sterility trait obtained through transformation in rapeseed (Brassica napus) was studied in the progenies of 11 transformed plants. The gene conferring the male sterility consists of a ribonuclease gene under the control of a tapetum-specific promoter. Two ribonuclease genes, RNase T1 and barnase, were used. The chimaeric ribonuclease gene was linked to the bialophos-resistance gene, which confers resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricine (PPT). The resistance to the herbicide was used as a dominant marker for the male sterility trait. The study presented here concerns three aspects of this engineered male sterility: genetics correlated with the segregation of the T-DNA in the progenies; expression of the male sterility in relation to the morphology and cytology of the androecium; and stability of the engineered male sterility under different culture conditions. Correct segregation, 50% male-sterile, PPT-resistant plants, and 50% male-fertile, susceptible plants were observed in the progeny of seven transformants. The most prominent morphological change in the male-sterile flowers was a noticeable reduction in the length of the stamen filament. The first disturbances of microsporogenesis were observed from the free microspore stage and were followed by a simultaneous degeneration of microspore and tapetal cell content. At anthesis, the sterile anthers contained only empty exines. In some cases, reversion to fertility of male-sterile plants has been observed. Both ribonuclease genes are susceptible to instability. Instability of the RNase T1-male sterility trait increased at temperatures higher than 25[deg] C. Our results do not allow us to confirm this observation for the barnase male-sterile plants. However, the male-sterile plants of the progeny of two independent RNase T1 transformants were stably male sterile under all conditions studied. PMID:12231785

Denis, M.; Delourme, R.; Gourret, J. P.; Mariani, C.; Renard, M.

1993-01-01

411

Draft Genome Sequence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading, Genetically Engineered Bioluminescent Bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (DSM 6700) is a genetically engineered lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain HK44. Annotation of {approx}6.1 Mb sequence indicates that 30% of the traits are unique and distributed over 5 genomic islands, a prophage and two plasmids.

Chauhan, Archana [ORNL; Layton, Alice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Williams, Daniel W [ORNL; Smart, Abby E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ripp, Steven Anthony [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

2011-01-01

412

Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in the risk assessment process to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically-engineered plants on non-target arthropods. While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins f...

413

Consumer perception of risk associated with eating genetically engineered soybeans is less in the presence of a perceived consumer benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether perceived benefit alters personal risk perception associated with eating genetically engineered soybeans, consumer desire for labeling, preferred phrase on a label symbol, and desired information in an educational brochure. Design Comparison of responses of two consumer groups who completed one of two survey versions. Subjects\\/settings One hundred fifty supermarket shoppers, age 21 years and older, for

J. Lynne Brown; Yanchao Ping

2003-01-01

414

Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) delivered by rNDV. We demonstrated that rNDV expressing TRAIL (rNDV-TRAIL) or both human IL-2 and TRAIL (rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL) significantly enhanced inherent anti-neoplastic of rNDV by inducing apoptosis. And we showed that apoptosis-related genes mRNA expression was increased after treated with rNDV-TRAIL or rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL compared with rNDV and rNDV-IL-2. We also demonstrated that both rNDV-IL-2 and rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL induced proliferation of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) in treated mice and elicited expression of TNF-? and IFN-? antitumor cytokines. These mice treated with oncolytic agents exhibited significant reduction in tumor development compared with mice treated with the parental virus. In addition, experiments in both hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma-bearing mice demonstrated that the genetically engineered rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL exhibited prolonged animals' survival compared with rNDV, rNDV-IL-2, and rNDV-TRAIL. In conclusion, the immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy properties of NDV can be enhanced by the introduction of IL-2 and TRAIL genes, whose products initiated a broad cascade of immunological affects and induced tumor cells apoptosis in the microenvironment of the immune system. PMID:24971746

Bai, Fu-Liang; Yu, Yin-Hang; Tian, Hui; Ren, Gui-Ping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Bing; Han, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Qing-Zhong; Li, De-Shan

2014-09-01

415

Biological engineering applications of feedforward neural networks designed and parameterized by genetic algorithms.  

PubMed

Two neural network (NN) applications in the field of biological engineering are developed, designed and parameterized by an evolutionary method based on the evolutionary process of genetic algorithms. The developed systems are a fault detection NN model and a predictive modeling NN system. An indirect or 'weak specification' representation was used for the encoding of NN topologies and training parameters into genes of the genetic algorithm (GA). Some a priori knowledge of the demands in network topology for specific application cases is required by this approach, so that the infinite search space of the problem is limited to some reasonable degree. Both one-hidden-layer and two-hidden-layer network architectures were explored by the GA. Except for the network architecture, each gene of the GA also encoded the type of activation functions in both hidden and output nodes of the NN and the type of minimization algorithm that was used by the backpropagation algorithm for the training of the NN. Both models achieved satisfactory performance, while the GA system proved to be a powerful tool that can successfully replace the problematic trial-and-error approach that is usually used for these tasks. PMID:15963690

Ferentinos, Konstantinos P

2005-09-01

416

Criteria for Identifying and Evaluating Candidate Sites for Open-Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent laboratory successes in the development of genetically engineered mosquitoes for controlling pathogen transmission have fostered the need for standardized procedures for advancing the technical achievements to practical tools. It is incumbent in many cases for the same scientists doing the in-laboratory discovery research to also take on the initial challenges of developing the pathway that will move the technologies to the field. One of these challenges is having a set of criteria for selecting collaborators and sites for efficacy and safety field trials that combine rigorous science with good ethical and legal practices. Specific site-selection criteria were developed in four categories—Scientific, Regulatory, Community Engagement, and Resources—in anticipation of open-field releases of a transgenic mosquito strain designed to suppress populations of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The criteria are derived from previous published material, discussions, and personal experiences with the expectation of providing guidance to laboratory scientists for addressing the conceptual and operational considerations for identifying partner researchers and countries with whom to collaborate. These criteria are not intended to be prescriptive nor can they be applied to every circumstance where genetic approaches are proposed for deployment. However, we encourage those involved in the discovery phase of research to consider each criterion during project planning activities, and where appropriate, incorporate them into a “go/no-go” decision-making process for further development and testing of the technologies. PMID:24689963

Brown, David M.; Alphey, Luke S.; McKemey, Andrew; Beech, Camilla

2014-01-01

417

Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering  

PubMed Central

Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

2013-01-01

418

Pathway engineering for phenolic acid accumulations in Salvia miltiorrhiza by combinational genetic manipulation.  

PubMed

To produce beneficial phenolic acids for medical and commercial purposes, researchers are interested in improving the normally low levels of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza. Here, we present a strategy of combinational genetic manipulation to enrich the precursors available for Sal B biosynthesis. This approach, involving the lignin pathway, requires simultaneous, ectopic expression of an Arabidopsis Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 transcription factor (AtPAP1) plus co-suppression of two endogenous, key enzyme genes: cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (SmCCR) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (SmCOMT). Compared with the untransformed control, we achieved a greater accumulation of Sal B (up to 3-fold higher) along with a reduced lignin concentration. This high-Sal B phenotype was stable in roots during vegetative growth and was closely correlated with increased antioxidant capacity for the corresponding plant extracts. Although no outward change in phenotype was apparent, we characterized the molecular phenotype through integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome profiling. Our results demonstrated the far-reaching consequences of phenolic pathway perturbations on carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, photo-respiration, and stress responses. This report is the first to describe the production of valuable end products through combinational genetic manipulation in S. miltiorrhiza plants. Our strategy will be effective in efforts to metabolically engineer multi-branch pathway(s), such as the phenylpropanoid pathway, in economically significant medicinal plants. PMID:24269612

Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Ya-Ping; Wu, Yu-Cui; Hua, Wen-Ping; Chen, Chen; Ge, Qian; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

2014-01-01

419

Site-specific genetic engineering of the Anopheles gambiae Y chromosome  

PubMed Central

Despite its function in sex determination and its role in driving genome evolution, the Y chromosome remains poorly understood in most species. Y chromosomes are gene-poor, repeat-rich and largely heterochromatic and therefore represent a difficult target for genetic engineering. The Y chromosome of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae appears to be involved in sex determination although very little is known about both its structure and function. Here, we characterize a transgenic strain of this mosquito species, obtained by transposon-mediated integration of a transgene construct onto the Y chromosome. Using meganuclease-induced homologous repair we introduce a site-specific recombination signal onto the Y chromosome and show that the resulting docking line can be used for secondary integration. To demonstrate its utility, we study the activity of a germ-line–specific promoter when located on the Y chromosome. We also show that Y-linked fluorescent transgenes allow automated sex separation of this important vector species, providing the means to generate large single-sex populations. Our findings will aid studies of sex chromosome function and enable the development of male-exclusive genetic traits for vector control. PMID:24821795

Bernardini, Federica; Galizi, Roberto; Menichelli, Miriam; Papathanos, Philippos-Aris; Dritsou, Vicky; Marois, Eric; Crisanti, Andrea; Windbichler, Nikolai

2014-01-01

420

Site-specific genetic engineering of the Anopheles gambiae Y chromosome.  

PubMed

Despite its function in sex determination and its role in driving genome evolution, the Y chromosome remains poorly understood in most species. Y chromosomes are gene-poor, repeat-rich and largely heterochromatic and therefore represent a difficult target for genetic engineering. The Y chromosome of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae appears to be involved in sex determination although very little is known about both its structure and function. Here, we characterize a transgenic strain of this mosquito species, obtained by transposon-mediated integration of a transgene construct onto the Y chromosome. Using meganuclease-induced homologous repair we introduce a site-specific recombination signal onto the Y chromosome and show that the resulting docking line can be used for secondary integration. To demonstrate its utility, we study the activity of a germ-line-specific promoter when located on the Y chromosome. We also show that Y-linked fluorescent transgenes allow automated sex separation of this important vector species, providing the means to generate large single-sex populations. Our findings will aid studies of sex chromosome function and enable the development of male-exclusive genetic traits for vector control. PMID:24821795

Bernardini, Federica; Galizi, Roberto; Menichelli, Miriam; Papathanos, Philippos-Aris; Dritsou, Vicky; Marois, Eric; Crisanti, Andrea; Windbichler, Nikolai

2014-05-27

421

Building genetic networks using relatedness information: a novel approach for the estimation of dispersal and characterization of group structure in social animals.  

PubMed

Natal dispersal is an important life history trait driving variation in individual fitness, and therefore, a proper understanding of the factors underlying dispersal behaviour is critical to many fields including population dynamics, behavioural ecology and conservation biology. However, individual dispersal patterns remain difficult to quantify despite many years of research using direct and indirect methods. Here, we quantify dispersal in a single intensively studied population of the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) using genetic networks created from the combination of pairwise relatedness data and social networking methods and compare this to dispersal estimates from re-sighting data. This novel approach not only identifies movements between social groups within our study sites but also provides an estimation of immigration rates of individuals originating outside the study site. Both genetic and re-sighting data indicated that dispersal was strongly female biased, but the magnitude of dispersal estimates was much greater using genetic data. This suggests that many previous studies relying on mark-recapture data may have significantly underestimated dispersal. An analysis of spatial genetic structure within the sampled population also supports the idea that females are more dispersive, with females having no structure beyond the bounds of their own social group, while male genetic structure expands for 750 m from their social group. Although the genetic network approach we have used is an excellent tool for visualizing the social and genetic microstructure of social animals and identifying dispersers, our results also indicate the importance of applying them in parallel with behavioural and life history data. PMID:22335253

Rollins, Lee Ann; Browning, Lucy E; Holleley, Clare E; Savage, James L; Russell, Andrew F; Griffith, Simon C

2012-04-01

422

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains a significant threat to productivity, profitability, animal wel-  

E-print Network

Ruminant Genetics and Infectious Disease Infectious disease in cattle production remains the need for novel approaches to disease control. One of the opportunities to mitigate infectious disease threats is to use genetic selection for cattle with natural resistance to infectious disease. Resistance

423

Genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance identified in Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Enteroccocus spp. isolated from U.S. food animals  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in bacteria isolated from U.S. food animals has increased over the last several decades as have concerns of AR foodborne zoonotic human infections. Resistance mechanisms identified in U.S. animal isolates of Salmonella enterica included resistance to aminoglycosides (e.g., alleles of aacC, aadA, aadB, ant, aphA, and StrAB), ?-lactams (e.g., blaCMY?2, TEM?1, PSE?1), chloramphenicol (e.g., floR, cmlA, cat1, cat2), folate pathway inhibitors (e.g., alleles of sul and dfr), and tetracycline [e.g., alleles of tet(A), (B), (C), (D), (G), and tetR]. In the U.S., multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in Salmonella animal isolates were associated with integrons, or mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as IncA/C plasmids which can be transferred among bacteria. It is thought that AR Salmonella originates in food animals and is transmitted through food to humans. However, some AR Salmonella isolated from humans in the U.S. have different AR elements than those isolated from food animals, suggesting a different etiology for some AR human infections. The AR mechanisms identified in isolates from outside the U.S. are also predominantly different. For example the extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) are found in human and animal isolates globally; however, in the U.S., ESBLs thus far have only been found in human and not food animal isolates. Commensal bacteria in animals including Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. may be reservoirs for AR mechanisms. Many of the AR genes and MGEs found in E. coli isolated from U.S. animals are similar to those found in Salmonella. Enterococcus spp. isolated from animals frequently carry MGEs with AR genes, including resistances to aminoglycosides (e.g., alleles of aac, ant, and aph), macrolides [e.g., erm(A), erm(B), and msrC], and tetracyclines [e.g., tet(K), (L), (M), (O), (S)]. Continuing investigations are required to help understand and mitigate the impact of AR bacteria on human and animal health. PMID:23734150

Frye, Jonathan G.; Jackson, Charlene R.

2013-01-01

424

Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

McLure, John W.

2001-01-01

425

Genetically engineered virus-resistant plants in developing countries: current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

Plant viruses cause severe crop losses worldwide. Conventional control strategies, such as cultural methods and biocide applications against arthropod, nematode, and plasmodiophorid vectors, have limited success at mitigating the impact of plant viruses. Planting resistant cultivars is the most effective and economical way to control plant virus diseases. Natural sources of resistance have been exploited extensively to develop virus-resistant plants by conventional breeding. Non-conventional methods have also been used successfully to confer virus resistance by transferring primarily virus-derived genes, including viral coat protein, replicase, movement protein, defective interfering RNA, non-coding RNA sequences, and protease, into susceptible plants. Non-viral genes (R genes, microRNAs, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, dsRNAse, RNA modifying enzymes, and scFvs) have also been used successfully to engineer resistance to viruses in plants. Very few genetically engineered (GE) virus resistant (VR) crops have been released for cultivation and none is available yet in developing countries. However, a number of economically important GEVR crops, transformed with viral genes are of great interest in developing countries. The major issues confronting the production and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries are primarily socio-economic and related to intellectual property rights, biosafety regulatory frameworks, expenditure to generate GE crops and opposition by non-governmental activists. Suggestions for satisfactory resolution of these factors, presumably leading to field tests and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries, are given. PMID:20109667

Reddy, D V R; Sudarshana, M R; Fuchs, M; Rao, N C; Thottappilly, G

2009-01-01

426

A genetic replacement system for selection-based engineering of essential proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Essential genes represent the core of biological functions required for viability. Molecular understanding of essentiality as well as design of synthetic cellular systems includes the engineering of essential proteins. An impediment to this effort is the lack of growth-based selection systems suitable for directed evolution approaches. Results We established a simple strategy for genetic replacement of an essential gene by a (library of) variant(s) during a transformation. The system was validated using three different essential genes and plasmid combinations and it reproducibly shows transformation efficiencies on the order of 107 transformants per microgram of DNA without any identifiable false positives. This allowed for reliable recovery of functional variants out of at least a 105-fold excess of non-functional variants. This outperformed selection in conventional bleach-out strains by at least two orders of magnitude, where recombination between functional and non-functional variants interfered with reliable recovery even in recA negative strains. Conclusions We propose that this selection system is extremely suitable for evaluating large libraries of engineered essential proteins resulting in the reliable isolation of functional variants in a clean strain background which can readily be used for in vivo applications as well as expression and purification for use in in vitro studies. PMID:22898007

2012-01-01

427

New feeds from genetically modified plants: substantial equivalence, nutritional equivalence, digestibility, and safety for animals and the food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction by recombinant DNA technology of new genes into major crops used by animals has raised important questions about the safety of novel feeds. The recently amended European Council Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC requires an assessment of risks for human, animals and the environment before viable seeds can be imported or the plant itself can be cultivated in Europe. In addition,

A. Aumaitre; Karen Aulrich; A. Chesson; G. Flachowsky; G. Piva

2002-01-01

428

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

429

Comparison of Drug and Cell-Based Delivery: Engineered Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II Prevent Arthritis in Mouse and Rat Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNF? and blocks TNF?-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNF?-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNF?-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNF? generated from either implanted TNF?-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNF?, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1?, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNF? complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNF? and IL1?, but not interferon ?, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation within the arthritic joint. PMID:23592838

Liu, Linda N.; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe

2013-01-01

430

Comparison of drug and cell-based delivery: engineered adult mesenchymal stem cells expressing soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II prevent arthritis in mouse and rat animal models.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology where tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) plays a critical role. Etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (hsTNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1, is used to treat RA based on the rationale that sTNFR binds TNF? and blocks TNF?-mediated inflammation. We compared hsTNFR protein delivery from genetically engineered human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with etanercept. Blocking TNF?-dependent intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on transduced hMSCs and inhibition of nitric oxide production from TNF?-treated bovine chondrocytes by conditioned culture media from transduced hMSCs demonstrated the functionality of the hsTNFR construction. Implanted hsTNFR-transduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced mouse serum circulating TNF? generated from either implanted TNF?-expressing cells or lipopolysaccharide induction more effectively than etanercept (TNF?, 100%; interleukin [IL]-1?, 90%; and IL-6, 60% within 6 hours), suggesting faster clearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-TNF? complex from the animals. In vivo efficacy of sTNFR-transduced MSCs was illustrated in two (immune-deficient and immune-competent) arthritic rodent models. In the antibody-induced arthritis BalbC/SCID mouse model, intramuscular injection of hsTNFR-transduced hMSCs reduced joint inflammation by 90% compared with untransduced hMSCs; in the collagen-induced arthritis Fischer rat model, both sTNFR-transduced rat MSCs and etanercept inhibited joint inflammation by 30%. In vitro chondrogenesis assays showed the ability of TNF? and IL1?, but not interferon ?, to inhibit hMSC differentiation to chondrocytes, illustrating an additional negative role for inflammatory cytokines in joint repair. The data support the utility of hMSCs as therapeutic gene delivery vehicles and their potential to be used in alleviating inflammation within the arthritic joint. PMID:23592838

Liu, Linda N; Wang, Gang; Hendricks, Kyle; Lee, Keunmyoung; Bohnlein, Ernst; Junker, Uwe; Mosca, Joseph D

2013-05-01

431

Detection and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings.  

PubMed

A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n=61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n=120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (?2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n=232) and Nagori, Karachi (n=136), but all tested negative for FMDV. In the Landhi dairy colony, Pakistan, a cohort of 179 apparently healthy animals was studied. On their arrival within the colony, thirty-nine (22%) of these animals were found positive for FMDV RNA (serotype A was identified), while 130 (72.6%) had antibodies to FMDV non-structural proteins. Thus, newly introduced animals may be a significant source of the disease in the colony. Only two animals from the cohort were detected as becoming positive for FMDV RNA during a follow-up period of 4months; however, only 10 animals remained negative for anti-NSP antibodies during this period. PMID:22212855

Jamal, S M; Ferrari, G; Hussain, M; Nawroz, A H; Aslami, A A; Khan, E; Murvatulloev, S; Ahmed, S; Belsham, G J

2012-10-01

432

Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): Implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture-recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007. We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult turtles in 2007. We found a constant adult survival of 0. 893 (SE = 0. 018, 95% confidence interval, 0. 853-0. 924) between 1992 and 2007. Using 18 microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic status of this population with five other bog turtle populations. The target population displayed allelic richness (4. 8 ?? 0. 5) and observed heterozygosity (0. 619 ?? 0. 064) within the range of the other bog turtle populations. Coalescent analysis of population growth rate, effective population size, and timing of population structuring event also indicated the genetics of the target population were comparable to the other populations studied. Estimates of effective population size were a proportion of the census size in all populations except the target population, in which the effective population size was larger than the census size (30 turtles vs. 11 turtles). We attribute the high genetic diversity in the target population to the presence of multiple generations of old turtles. This study illustrates that the demographic status of populations of long-lived species may not be reflected genetically if a decline occurred recently. Consequently, the genetic integrity of populations of long-lived animals experiencing rapid demographic bottlenecks may be preserved through conservation efforts effective in addressing demographic problems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Pittman, S.E.; King, T.L.; Faurby, S.; Dorcas, M.E.

2011-01-01

433

Genetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students to understand basic principles of genetics, including relationships of genotype to phenotype, concepts of recessive and dominant alleles, and how understanding meiosis and fertilization provides the basis for understanding inheritance, as summarized in Punnett squares. The Student Handout includes an analysis of the inheritance of albinism that teaches all of these concepts, a Coin Toss Genetics activity that helps students understand the probabilistic nature of Punnett square predictions, and an analysis of the inheritance of sickle cell anemia that reinforces the basic concepts and introduces some of the complexities of genetics. The Genetics Supplement includes two additional activities, an analysis of student data on the sex makeup of sibships and pedigree analyses of recessive and dominant alleles with challenge questions that introduce the role of mutations and an evaluation of Punnett squares and pedigrees as models of inheritance.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid; Poethig, Scott

434

Genetics  

MedlinePLUS

... made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Genes are sections of DNA. The location of the gene is called the ... differences occur in less than 1% of the DNA sequence and produce variants of a particular gene ...

435

Differential function of phosphodiesterase families in the brain: gaining insights through the use of genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the only known enzymes to degrade cAMP and cGMP, intracellular signaling molecules key to numerous cellular functions. There are 11 PDE families identified to date, and each is expressed in a unique pattern across brain regions. Here, we review genetic mouse models in which PDEs are either directly manipulated (e.g., genetically deleted) or are changed in a

Michele P. Kelly; Nicholas J. Brandon

2009-01-01

436

Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.  

PubMed

Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. The transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene, was found to compromise seed germination, plant growth and yield. These physiological costs provide a possible explanation for the inducibility of an (E)-?-caryophyllene-synthase gene in wild and cultivated maize. The overexpression of the terpene synthase gene did not impair plant resistance nor volatile emission. However, constitutive terpenoid emission increased plant apparency to herbivores, including adults and larvae of the above ground pest Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting in an increase in leaf damage. Although terpenoid overproducing lines were also attractive to the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera below ground, they did not suffer more root damage in the field, possibly because of the enhanced attraction of entomopathogenic nematodes. Furthermore, fewer adults of the root herbivore Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii were found to emerge near plants that emitted (E)-?-caryophyllene and ?-humulene. Yet, overall, under the given field conditions, the costs of constitutive volatile production overshadowed its benefits. This study highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the physiological and ecological consequences of genetically engineering plant signals in the field to determine the potential of this approach for sustainable pest management strategies. PMID:23425633

Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Erb, Matthias; Hiltpold, Ivan; Hibbard, Bruce Elliott; Gaillard, Mickaël David Philippe; Bilat, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg; Cambet-Petit-Jean, Xavier; Turlings, Ted Christiaan Joannes; Zwahlen, Claudia

2013-06-01

437

A genetically engineered live-attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency virus that co-expresses the RANTES gene improves the magnitude of cellular immunity in rhesus macaques  

SciTech Connect

Regulated-on-activation-normal-T-cell-expressed-and-secreted (RANTES), a CC-chemokine, enhances antigen-specific T helper (Th) type-1 responses against HIV-1. To evaluate the adjuvant effects of RANTES against HIV vaccine candidate in SHIV-macaque models, we genetically engineered a live-attenuated SHIV to express the RANTES gene (SHIV-RANTES) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the vaccination, the plasma viral loads were same in the SHIV-RANTES-inoculated monkeys and the parental nef-deleted SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-RANTES provided some immunity in monkeys by remarkably increasing the antigen-specific CD4{sup +} Th cell-proliferative response and by inducing an antigen-specific IFN-{gamma} ELISpot response. The magnitude of the immunity in SHIV-RANTES-immunized animals, however, failed to afford greater protection against a heterologous pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge compared to control SHIV-NI-immunized animals. SHIV-RANTES immunized monkeys, elicited robust cellular CD4{sup +} Th responses and IFN-{gamma} ELISpot responses after SHIV-C2/1 challenge. These findings suggest that the chemokine RANTES can augment vaccine-elicited, HIV-specific CD4{sup +} T cell responses.

Shimizu, Yuya [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Inaba, Katsuhisa [Laboratory of Primate Model, Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kaneyasu, Kentaro [Laboratory of Primate Model, Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ibuki, Kentaro [Laboratory of Primate Model, Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Himeno, Ai [Laboratory of Primate Model, Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okoba, Masashi [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Goto, Yoshitaka [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Hayami, Masanori [Laboratory of Primate Model, Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Miura, Tomoyuki [Laboratory of Primate Model, Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Haga, Takeshi [Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)]. E-mail: a0d518u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp

2007-04-25

438

Research review paper The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of food is the science which involves deliberate modification of the genetic material of plants or animals. It is an old agricultural practice carried on by farmers since early histor- ical times, but recently it has been improved by technology. Many foods consumed today are either genetically modified (GM) whole foods, or contain ingredients derived from gene modification

Stella G. Uzogara

439

Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.  

PubMed

Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency. PMID:22717231

Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M

2013-03-01

440

Assessing the Radiation Response of Lung Cancer with Different Gene Mutations Using Genetically Engineered Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are a heterogeneous group of carcinomas harboring a variety of different gene mutations. We have utilized two distinct genetically engineered mouse models of human NSCLC (adenocarcinoma) to investigate how genetic factors within tumor parenchymal cells influence the in vivo tumor growth delay after one or two fractions of radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Primary lung adenocarcinomas were generated in vivo in mice by intranasal delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase. Lung cancers expressed oncogenic KrasG12D and were also deficient in one of two tumor suppressor genes: p53 or Ink4a/ARF. Mice received no radiation treatment or whole lung irradiation in a single fraction (11.6?Gy) or in two 7.3?Gy fractions (14.6?Gy total) separated by 24?h. In each case, the biologically effective dose (BED) equaled 25?Gy10. Response to RT was assessed by micro-CT 2?weeks after treatment. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining were performed to assess the integrity of the p53 pathway, the G1 cell-cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis. Results: Tumor growth rates prior to RT were similar for the two genetic variants of lung adenocarcinoma. Lung cancers with wild-type (WT) p53 (LSL-Kras; Ink4a/ARFFL/FL mice) responded better to two daily fractions of 7.3?Gy compared to a single fraction of 11.6?Gy (P?=?0.002). There was no statistically significant difference in the response of lung cancers deficient in p53 (LSL-Kras; p53FL/FL mice) to a single fraction (11.6?Gy) compared to 7.3?Gy?×?2 (P?=?0.23). Expression of the p53 target genes p21 and PUMA were higher and bromodeoxyuridine uptake was lower after RT in tumors with WT p53. Conclusion: Using an in vivo model of malignant lung cancer in mice, we demonstrate that the response of primary lung cancers to one or two fractions of RT can be influenced by specific gene mutations. PMID:23565506

Perez, Bradford A.; Ghafoori, A. Paiman; Lee, Chang-Lung; Johnston, Samuel M.; Li, Yifan; Moroshek, Jacob G.; Ma, Yan; Mukherjee, Sayan; Kim, Yongbaek; Badea, Cristian T.; Kirsch, David G.

2013-01-01

441

A Cell Lysis and Protein Purification - Single Molecule Assay Devices for Evaluation of Genetically Engineered Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed two devices applicable to evaluate genetically engineered proteins in single molecule assay: on-chip cell lysis device, and protein purification - assay device. A motor protein, F1-ATPase expressed in E.coli, was focused in this report as a target protein. Cell lysis was simply performed by applying pulse voltage between Au electrodes patterned by photolithography, and its efficiency was determined by absorptiometry. The subsequent processes, purification and assay of extracted proteins, were demonstrated in order to detect F1-ATPase and to evaluate its activity. The specific bonding between his-tag in F1-ATPase and Ni-NTA coated on a glass surface was utilized for the purification process. After immobilization of F1-ATPase, avidin-coated microspheres and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) solution were infused sequentially to assay the protein. Microsphere rotation was realized by activity of F1-ATPase corresponding to ATP hydrolysis. Results show that the cell lysis device, at the optimum condition, extracts enough amount of protein for single molecule assay. Once cell lysate was injected to the purification - assay device, proteins were diffused in the lateral direction in a Y-shape microchannel. The gradient of protein concentratioin provides an optimal concentration for the assay i.e. the highest density of rotating beads. Density of rotating beads is also affected by the initial concentration of protein injected to the device. The optimum concentration was achieved by our cell lysis device not by the conventional method by ultrasonic wave. Rotation speed was analyzed for several microspheres assayed in the purification - assay device, and the results were compatible to that of conventional assay in which F1-ATPase was purified in bulk scale. In conclusion, we have demonstrated on-chip cell lysis and assay appropriate for the sequential analysis without any pretreatment. On-chip devices replacing conventional bioanalytical methods will be integrated a total analysis system to evaluate engineered protein and DNA.

Nakyama, Tetsuya; Tabata, Kazuhito; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokokawa, Ryuji

442

Genetic engineering to enhance crop-based phytonutrients (nutraceuticals) to alleviate diet-related diseases.  

PubMed

Nutrition studies have provided unambiguous evidence that a number of human health maladies including chronic coronary artery, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer and age- and lifestyle-related diseases are associated with the diet. Several favorable and a few deleterious natural dietary ingredients have been identified that predispose human populations to various genetic and epigenetic based disorders. Media dissemination of this information has greatly raised public awareness of the beneficial effects due to increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and whole grain cereals-foods rich in phytonutrients, protein and fiber. However, the presence of intrinsically low levels of the beneficial phytonutrients in the available genotypes of crop plants is not always at par with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for different phytonutrients (nutraceuticals). Molecular engineering of crop plants has offered a number of tools to markedly enhance intracellular concentrations of some of the beneficial nutrients, levels that, in some cases, are closer to the RDA threshold. This review brings together literature on various strategies utilized for bioengineering both major and minor crops to increase the levels of desirable phytonutrients while also decreasing the concentrations of deleterious metabolites. Some of these include increases in: protein level in potato; lysine in corn and rice; methionine in alfalfa; carotenoids (beta-carotene, phytoene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) in rice, potato, canola, tomato; choline in tomato; folates in rice, corn, tomato and lettuce; vitamin C in corn and lettuce; polyphenolics such as flavonol, isoflavone, resveratrol, chlorogenic acid and other flavonoids in tomato; anthocyanin levels in tomato and potato; alpha-tocopherol in soybean, oil seed, lettuce and potato; iron and zinc in transgenic rice. Also, molecular engineering has succeeded in considerably reducing the levels of the offending protein glutelin in rice, offering proof of concept and a new beginning for the development of super-low glutelin cereals for celiac disease patients. PMID:21520708

Mattoo, Autar K; Shukla, Vijaya; Fatima, Tahira; Handa, Avtar K; Yachha, Surender K

2010-01-01

443

The genetic heterogeneity and mutational burden of engineered melanomas in zebrafish models  

PubMed Central

Background Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Expression of oncogenic BRAF or NRAS, which are frequently mutated in human melanomas, promote the formation of nevi but are not sufficient for tumorigenesis. Even with germline mutated p53, these engineered melanomas present with variable onset and pathology, implicating additional somatic mutations in a multi-hit tumorigenic process. Results To decipher the genetics of these melanomas, we sequence the protein coding exons of 53 primary melanomas generated from several BRAFV600E or NRASQ61K driven transgenic zebrafish lines. We find that engineered zebrafish melanomas show an overall low mutation burden, which has a strong, inverse association with the number of initiating germline drivers. Although tumors reveal distinct mutation spectrums, they show mostly C?>?T transitions without UV light exposure, and enrichment of mutations in melanogenesis, p53 and MAPK signaling. Importantly, a recurrent amplification occurring with pre-configured drivers BRAFV600E and p53-/- suggests a novel path of BRAF cooperativity through the protein kinase A pathway. Conclusion This is the first analysis of a melanoma mutational landscape in the absence of UV light, where tumors manifest with remarkably low mutation burden and high heterogeneity. Genotype specific amplification of protein kinase A in cooperation with BRAF and p53 mutation suggests the involvement of melanogenesis in these tumors. This work is important for defining the spectrum of events in BRAF or NRAS driven melanoma in the absence of UV light, and for informed exploitation of models such as transgenic zebrafish to better understand mechanisms leading to human melanoma formation. PMID:24148783

2013-01-01

444

AnimAl BehAvior AnimAl Biology Anthropology AviAn ScienceS BiochemiStry, moleculAr, cellulAr AnD DevelopmentAl Biology BiologicAl SyStemS engineering BiomeDicAl engineering BiophySicS BioStAtiSticS clinicAl reSeArch  

E-print Network

AnimAl BehAvior § AnimAl Biology § Anthropology § AviAn ScienceS § BiochemiStry, moleculAr, cellulAnAgement* § epiDemiology § FooD Science § ForenSic Science § gloBAl heAlth* § heAlth inFormAticS § immunology, anthropology, ecology, entomology, neurobiology, psychology, physiology, veterinary science, wildlife biology

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

445

Animal Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The focus of this Science NetLinks lesson is threefold. First, to expose students to the fact that all species have a capacity for communication. Second, to enlighten students to the fact that communication abilities range from very simple to extremely complex, depending upon the species. Third, to realize that communication is influenced by a species' genetic makeup, its environment, and the numerous ways by which animals and humans respond to and adapt to their surroundings.

Science Netlinks

2003-09-09

446

Ex situ conservation genetics: a review of molecular studies on the genetic consequences of captive breeding programmes for endangered animal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Captive breeding has become an important tool in species conservation programmes. Current management strategies for ex situ populations are based on theoretical models, which have mainly been tested in model species or assessed using studbook data.\\u000a During recent years an increasing number of molecular genetic studies have been published on captive populations of several\\u000a endangered species. However, a comprehensive analysis

Kathrin A. Witzenberger; Axel Hochkirch

2011-01-01

447

Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

2013-01-01

448

Reveal, A General Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Inference of Genetic Network Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given the immanent gene expression mapping covering whole genomes during development, health and disease, we seek computational methods to maximize functional inference from such large data sets. Is it possible, in principle, to completely infer a complex regulatory network architecture from input/output patterns of its variables? We investigated this possibility using binary models of genetic networks. Trajectories, or state transition tables of Boolean nets, resemble time series of gene expression. By systematically analyzing the mutual information between input states and output states, one is able to infer the sets of input elements controlling each element or gene in the network. This process is unequivocal and exact for complete state transition tables. We implemented this REVerse Engineering ALgorithm (REVEAL) in a C program, and found the problem to be tractable within the conditions tested so far. For n = 50 (elements) and k = 3 (inputs per element), the analysis of incomplete state transition tables (100 state transition pairs out of a possible 10(exp 15)) reliably produced the original rule and wiring sets. While this study is limited to synchronous Boolean networks, the algorithm is generalizable to include multi-state models, essentially allowing direct application to realistic biological data sets. The ability to adequately solve the inverse problem may enable in-depth analysis of complex dynamic systems in biology and other fields.

Liang, Shoudan; Fuhrman, Stefanie; Somogyi, Roland

1998-01-01

449

Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.  

PubMed

Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

2013-09-01

450

Genetically engineered metal ion binding sites on the outside of a Channel's transmembrane beta-barrel.  

PubMed

We are exploring the ability of genetically engineered versions of the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin (alphaHL) ion channel to serve as rationally designed sensor components for analytes including divalent cations. We show here that neither the hemolytic activity nor the single channel current of wild-type alphaHL was affected by [Zn(II)]

Kasianowicz, J J; Burden, D L; Han, L C; Cheley, S; Bayley, H

1999-02-01

451

Illuminating p53 function in cancer with genetically engineered mouse models  

PubMed Central

The key role of the p53 protein in tumor suppression is highlighted by its frequent mutation in human cancers and by the completely penetrant cancer predisposition of p53 null mice. Beyond providing definitive evidence for the critical function of p53 in tumor suppression, genetically engineered mouse models have offered numerous additional insights into p53 function. p53 knock-in mice expressing tumor-derived p53 mutants have revealed that these mutants display gain-of-function activities that actively promote carcinogenesis. The generation of p53 knock-in mutants with alterations in different domains of p53 has helped further elucidate the cellular and biochemical activities of p53 that are most fundamental for tumor suppression. In addition, modulation of p53 post-translational modification (PTM) status by generating p53 knock-in mouse strains with mutations in p53 PTM sites has revealed a subtlety and complexity to p53 regulation. Analyses of mouse models perturbing upstream regulators of p53 have solidified the notion that the p53 pathway can be compromised by means other than direct p53 mutation. Finally, switchable p53 models that allow p53 reactivation in tumors have helped evaluate the potential of p53 restoration therapy for cancer treatment. Collectively, mouse models have greatly enhanced our understanding of physiological p53 function and will continue to provide new biological and clinical insights in future investigations. PMID:24394915

Garcia, Patty B.; Attardi, Laura D.

2014-01-01

452

Behavior of pollutant-degrading microorganisms in aquifers: Predictions for genetically engineered organisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bioremediation via environmental introductions of degradative microorganisms requires that the microbes survive in substantial numbers and effect an increase in the rate and extent of pollutant removal. Combined field and microcosm studies were used to assess these abilities for laboratory-grown bacteria. Following introduction into a contaminated aquifer, viable cells of Pseudomonas sp. B13 were present in the contaminant plume for 447 days; die-off was rapid in pristine areas. In aquifer microcosms, survival of B13 and FR120, a genetically engineered derivative of B13 having enhanced catabolic capabilities for substituted aromatics, was comparable to B13 field results; both bacteria degraded target pollutants in microcosms made with aquifer samples from the aerobic zone of the pollutant plume. Results suggest that field studies with nonrecombinant microorganisms may be coupled to laboratory studies with derivative strains to estimate their bioremediative efficacy. Furthermore, laboratory strains of bacteria can survive for extended periods of time in nature and thus may have important bioremediative applications. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

Krumme, M.L.; Smith, R.L.; Egestorff, J.; Thiem, S.M.; Tiedje, J.M.; Timmis, K.N.; Dwyer, D.F.

1994-01-01

453

Establishment of the mathematical model for diagnosing the engine valve faults by genetic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available machine fault diagnostic methods show unsatisfactory performances on both on-line and intelligent analyses because their operations involve intensive calculations and are labour intensive. Aiming at improving this situation, this paper describes the development of an intelligent approach by using the Genetic Programming (abbreviated as GP) method. Attributed to the simple calculation of the mathematical model being constructed, different kinds of machine faults may be diagnosed correctly and quickly. Moreover, human input is significantly reduced in the process of fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is validated by an illustrative example, in which three kinds of valve states inherent in a six-cylinders/four-stroke cycle diesel engine, i.e. normal condition, valve-tappet clearance and gas leakage faults, are identified. In the example, 22 mathematical functions have been specially designed and 8 easily obtained signal features are used to construct the diagnostic model. Different from existing GPs, the diagnostic tree used in the algorithm is constructed in an intelligent way by applying a power-weight coefficient to each feature. The power-weight coefficients vary adaptively between 0 and 1 during the evolutionary process. Moreover, different evolutionary strategies are employed, respectively for selecting the diagnostic features and functions, so that the mathematical functions are sufficiently utilized and in the meantime, the repeated use of signal features may be fully avoided. The experimental results are illustrated diagrammatically in the following sections.

Yang, Wen-Xian

2006-05-01

454

Genetic Engineering Activates Biosynthesis of Aromatic Fumaric Acid Amides in the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The Aspergillus fumigatus nonribosomal peptide synthetase FtpA is among the few of this species whose natural product has remained unknown. Both FtpA adenylation domains were characterized in vitro. Fumaric acid was identified as preferred substrate of the first and both l-tyrosine and l-phenylalanine as preferred substrates of the second adenylation domain. Genetically engineered A. fumigatus strains expressed either ftpA or the regulator gene ftpR, encoded in the same cluster of genes, under the control of the doxycycline-inducible tetracycline-induced transcriptional activation (tet-on) cassette. These strains produced fumaryl-l-tyrosine and fumaryl-l-phenylalanine which were identified by liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Modeling of the first adenylation domain in silico provided insight into the structural requirements to bind fumaric acid as peptide synthetase substrate. This work adds aromatic fumaric acid amides to the secondary metabolome of the important human pathogen A. fumigatus which was previously not known as a producer of these compounds. PMID:25527545

Kalb, Daniel; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Lackner, Gerald; Scharf, Daniel H; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk

2015-03-01

455

Improvement of vitamin E quality and quantity in tobacco and lettuce by chloroplast genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Vitamin E (tocopherol: Toc) is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant synthesized in chloroplasts. Among the 8 isoforms of vitamin E, ?-Toc has the highest activity in humans. To generate transgenic plants with enhanced vitamin E activity, we applied a chloroplast transformation technique. Three types of the transplastomic tobacco plants (pTTC, pTTMT and pTTC-TMT) carrying the Toc cyclase (TC) or ?-Toc methyltransferase (?-TMT) gene and the TC plus ?-TMT genes as an operon in the plastid genome, respectively, were generated. There was a significant increase in total levels of Toc due to an increase in ?-Toc in the pTTC plants. Compared to the wild-type plants, Toc composition was altered in the pTTMT plants. In the pTTC-TMT plants, total Toc levels increased and ?-Toc was a major Toc isoform. Furthermore, to use chloroplast transformation to produce ?-Toc-rich vegetable, TC-overexpressing transplastomic lettuce plants (pLTC) were generated. Total Toc levels and vitamin E activity increased in the pLTC plants compared with the wild-type lettuce plants. These findings indicated that chloroplast genetic engineering is useful to improve vitamin E quality and quantity in plants. PMID:22990376

Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Sahoko; Suzuki, Akiko; Tamoi, Masahiro; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

2013-04-01

456

Evaluating oversight systems for emerging technologies: a case study of genetically engineered organisms.  

PubMed

The U.S. oversight system for genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) was evaluated to develop hypotheses and derive lessons for oversight of other emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology. Evaluation was based upon quantitative expert elicitation, semi-standardized interviews, and historical literature analysis. Through an interdisciplinary policy analysis approach, blending legal, ethical, risk analysis, and policy sciences viewpoints, criteria were used to identify strengths and weaknesses of GEOs oversight and explore correlations among its attributes and outcomes. From the three sources of data, hypotheses and broader conclusions for oversight were developed. Our analysis suggests several lessons for oversight of emerging technologies: the importance of reducing complexity and uncertainty in oversight for minimizing financial burdens on small product developers; consolidating multi-agency jurisdictions to avoid gaps and redundancies in safety reviews; consumer benefits for advancing acceptance of GEO products; rigorous and independent pre- and post-market assessment for environmental safety; early public input and transparency for ensuring public confidence; and the positive role of public input in system development, informed consent, capacity, compliance, incentives, and data requirements and stringency in promoting health and environmental safety outcomes, as well as the equitable distribution of health impacts. Our integrated approach is instructive for more comprehensive analyses of oversight systems, developing hypotheses for how features of oversight systems affect outcomes, and formulating policy options for oversight of future technological products, especially nanotechnology products. PMID:20122100

Kuzma, Jennifer; Najmaie, Pouya; Larson, Joel

2009-01-01

457

Advances in homology directed genetic engineering of human pluripotent and adult stem cells  

PubMed Central

The ability to introduce precise genomic modifications in human cells has profound implications for both basic and applied research in stem cells, ranging from identification of genes regulating stem cell self-renewal and multilineage differentiation to therapeutic gene correction and creation of in vitro models of human diseases. However, the overall efficiency of this process is challenged by several factors including inefficient gene delivery into stem cells and low rates of homology directed site-specific targeting. Recent studies report the development of novel techniques to improve gene targeting efficiencies in human stem cells; these methods include molecular engineering of viral vectors to efficiently deliver episomal genetic sequences that can participate in homology directed targeting, as well as the design of synthetic proteins that can introduce double-stranded breaks in DNA to initiate such recombination events. This review focuses on the potential of these new technologies to precisely alter the human stem cell genome and also highlights the possibilities offered by the combination of these complementary strategies. PMID:24179598

Ramamoorthi, Kalpith; Curtis, Donald; Asuri, Prashanth

2013-01-01

458

Creating highly amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay signals from genetically engineered bacteriophage.  

PubMed

For early detection of many diseases, it is critical to be able to diagnose small amounts of biomarkers in blood or serum. One of the most widely used sensing assays is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which typically uses detection monoclonal antibodies conjugated to enzymes to produce colorimetric signals. To increase the overall sensitivities of these sensors, we demonstrate the use of a dually modified version of filamentous bacteriophage Fd that produces significantly higher colorimetric signals in ELISAs than what can be achieved using antibodies alone. Because only a few proteins at the tip of the micron-long bacteriophage are involved in antigen binding, the approximately 4000 other coat proteins can be augmented-by either chemical functionalization or genetic engineering-with hundreds to thousands of functional groups. In this article, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophage that bear a large genomic fusion that allows them to bind specific antibodies on coat protein 3 (p3) and multiple biotin groups on coat protein 8 (p8) to bind to avidin-conjugated enzymes. In direct ELISAs, the anti-rTNF? (recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha)-conjugated bacteriophage show approximately 3- to 4-fold gains in signal over that of anti-rTNF?, demonstrating their use as a platform for highly sensitive protein detection. PMID:25447463

Brasino, Michael; Lee, Ju Hun; Cha, Jennifer N

2015-02-01

459

Genetically engineered metal ion binding sites on the outside of a Channel's transmembrane beta-barrel.  

PubMed Central

We are exploring the ability of genetically engineered versions of the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin (alphaHL) ion channel to serve as rationally designed sensor components for analytes including divalent cations. We show here that neither the hemolytic activity nor the single channel current of wild-type alphaHL was affected by [Zn(II)]

Kasianowicz, J J; Burden, D L; Han, L C; Cheley, S; Bayley, H

1999-01-01

460

Review of animal models designed to predict the potential allergenicity of novel proteins in genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety assessment of genetically modified crops involves the evaluation of the potential allergenicity of novel proteins by using several in silico and in vitro endpoints. In this publication, the variables and questions associated with the development of in vivo models are examined and several unpublished results are presented. Both rodent and non-rodent (dog and pig) models have been investigated

G. S. Ladics; L. M. J. Knippels; A. H. Penninks; G. A. Bannon; R. E. Goodman; C. Herouet-Guicheney

2010-01-01

461

Copyright 1999 by the Genetics Society of America The Age of Nonsynonymous and Synonymous Mutations in Animal mtDNA  

E-print Network

Copyright © 1999 by the Genetics Society of America The Age of Nonsynonymous and Synonymous of recurrent neutral and deleterious mutations, the mean age of segregating neutral mutations is greater than the mean age of segregating selected mutations, even in the absence of recombination. We develop a test

Nielsen, Rasmus

462

Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli from Human and Animal Sources Uncovers Multiple Resistances from Human Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli are widely used as indicators of fecal contamination, and in some cases to identify host sources of fecal contamination in surface water. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for 600 generic E. coli isolates obtained from surface water and sediment from creeks and channels along the middle Santa Ana River (MSAR) watershed of southern California, USA,

A. Mark Ibekwe; Shelton E. Murinda; Alexandria K. Graves

2011-01-01

463

Genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Capsicum represents one of several well characterized Solanaceous genera. A wealth of classical and molecular genetics research is available for the genus. Information gleaned from its cultivated relatives, tomato and potato, provide further insight for basic and applied studies. Early ...

464

On-line heat flux measurements improve the culture medium for the growth and productivity of genetically engineered CHO cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasingly competitive commercial production of target proteins by hybridoma and genetically engineered cells,\\u000a there is an urgent requirement for biosensors to monitor and control on-line and in real time the growth of cultured cells.\\u000a Since growth is accompanied by an enthalpy change, heat dissipation measured by calorimetry could act as an index for metabolic\\u000a flow rate. Recombinant CHO

Yue H. Guan; Richard B. Kemp

1999-01-01

465

Comparison of immune responses to different foot-and-mouth disease genetically engineered vaccines in guinea pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P12A3C gene from FMDV (serotype O) encoding the capsid precursor protein, and the highly immunogenic gene FHG, which encodes multiple epitopes of FMDV capsid proteins, were inserted into eukaryotic expression vectors to compare different candidate genetically engineered vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A modified live pseudorabies virus (MLPRV) was also used to deliver P12A3C. Guinea pigs were inoculated intramuscularly

Qingxia Yao; Ping Qian; Qinfeng Huang; Yi Cao; Huanchun Chen

2008-01-01

466

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

467

Genetic Engineering of Glycinebetaine Production toward Enhancing Stress Tolerance in Plants: Metabolic Limitations1  

PubMed Central

Glycinebetaine (betaine) affords osmoprotection in bacteria, plants and animals, and protects cell components against harsh conditions in vitro. This and a compelling body of other evidence have encouraged the engineering of betaine production in plants lacking it. We have installed the metabolic step for oxidation of choline, a ubiquitous substance, to betaine in three diverse species, Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), by constitutive expression of a bacterial choline oxidase gene. The highest levels of betaine in independent transgenics were 18.6, 12.8, and 13 ?mol g?1 dry weight, respectively, values 10- to 20-fold lower than the levels found in natural betaine producers. However, choline-fed transgenic plants synthesized substantially more betaine. Increasing the choline supplementation further enhanced betaine synthesis, up to 613 ?mol g?1 dry weight in Arabidopsis, 250 ?mol g?1 dry weight in B. napus, and 80 ?mol