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Sample records for genetically modified animals

  1. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies. PMID:20204589

  2. Attitudes towards the use of genetically modified animals in research.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Weary, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Here we provide the first experimental evidence that public concerns about the use of animals in research are accentuated when genetically modified (GM) animals are used. Using an online survey, we probed participant views on two uses of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without GM. We surveyed 327 animal technicians, researchers, advocates, university students and others. In both scenarios and across demographics, support dropped off when the research required the use of GM pigs or GM corn. For example, 66% of participants supported using pigs to reduce phosphorus pollution, but this declined to 49% when the pigs were fed GM corn and to 20% when the research required the creation of a new GM line of pigs. Those involved in animal research were more consistently supportive compared to those who were not or those who were vegetarians. PMID:21560543

  3. Genetically modified laboratory animals in the name of the 3Rs?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Arianna

    2006-01-01

    Although the introduction of GM animal models at first was viewed as a potent way to enhance experimental biology in the name of the 3Rs by its proponents, over the years, the number of animals used has greatly increased and concerns about the suffering of these animals have emerged in the debate. The purpose of this contribution is to show the need and the urgency for a systematic evaluation of genetically modified laboratory animals (GM animals) according to the 3Rs principle. This evaluation presents various difficulties due to the special features of the genetic modifications of animals, the variety of scientific purposes connected with the use of these animals, the lack of coherent statistical data about this use and the difficulties related to the welfare assessment of these animals. In this article I discuss the significance of the procedures involving GM animals for each of the 3R principles. On this basis, I offer an answer to the question of whether these procedures are compatible with the spirit of the 3Rs. PMID:17186113

  4. 20 Years of hypertension research using genetically modified animals: no clinically promising approaches in sight.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Lavinia; Völkel, Manfred; Lindl, Toni

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of essential or primary hypertension is increasing, especially in the northern hemisphere, but although the disease displays clear symptoms, its aetiology appears very complex, and thus no causal treatment is available yet. In the 1990's, genetically modified animals (GMO) were considered to be the key to solving this problem of high complexity. However, until now, although a few approaches have shown that old, well-known drugs have a positive effect (decrease of blood pressure) on such animal models of hypertension, no approach has appeared in the literature of this area of research which might indicate a direct connection between GMO and a therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent this type of hypertension in humans. Instead, criticism of the GMO approach has accumulated in the last years, arguing that it is misleading as this disease does not have a monogenic cause and so complementary regulatory mechanisms could prevent the true identification of the function of the modified genes. Furthermore, the technology is best developed in mice, whose physiology of blood pressure is different from that of humans. Because of species specificity, it is not easy to extrapolate the results from animal models of hypertension to human hypertension. Also, in the years 2000 to 2004 a reorientation of the technology and the aims of this kind of research took place. Therefore, although these approaches are without exception deemed "very promising" in the literature, it cannot be expected that research on GMO will make any contribution to a new therapeutic strategy in the near future. PMID:19326032

  5. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  6. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Aulrich, K; Böhme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn. PMID:11865766

  7. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rőszer, Tamás; Pintye, Éva; Benkő, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

  8. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Roszer, Tamas; Pintye, Eva; Benko', Ilona

    2008-12-08

    Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

  9. Development of a novel genetically modified bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for detection of fluoroquinolones in animal-derived foods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guyue; Dong, Xiaobing; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-12-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQNs) are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The residues and antimicrobial resistance of such antibiotics are a major public health concern. To realize multianalyte detection of FQN residues, a genetically modified bacterium, Escherichia coli pK12 harboring plasmid pRecAlux3, was constructed in this study to develop a bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for the detection of FQNs in animal-derived foods. This assay was based on the principle of induction of an SOS response by FQNs via inducing the recA-promoter-fused luciferase reporter gene existing on the plasmid pRecAlux3. E. coli pK12 was able to recognize 11 FQNs: difloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. This method could be applied to 11 edible tissues, including milk, fish muscle, and the muscles, livers, and kidneys of cattle, chickens, and pigs, with a very simple and rapid sample extraction procedure using only phosphate-buffered saline. The limits of detection of the FQNs were between 12.5 and 100 μg kg(-1), all of which were lower than the maximum residue limits. Most of the recoveries of the FQNs were in the range from 60 to 120 %, and the interassay coefficients of variation were less than 30 %. This method, confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography, is reliable and can be used as both a screening test and a semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of FQN is known. PMID:25354889

  10. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

  11. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

    2013-11-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

  12. Genetically modified organisms and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Diamand, E

    1999-12-01

    The genetic modification of organisms for food use has raised serious concern about the potential for adverse effects on the environment, ecosystems and on the health of humans and animals. As a relatively new technology, its impacts remain uncertain but could range from disturbances to the genetic functioning of individual organisms to a reduction in the biodiversity of farmland. As a result, the question of how to monitor for potential impacts is beset with problems. The fact that genetic modification can be used on a range of organisms for a variety of purposes means that those developing monitoring systems will need to be as imaginative as those developing GMOs. In the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food use, concern has focussed on the transfer of genes to other organisms, the potential for effects on non-target organisms, or on the health of humans and animals, and the likelihood of adverse effects on wildlife due to changes in farming practice. As with other new and unfamiliar technologies, genetic modification is also plagued by the problem of uncertainty. Novel genes are inserted randomly into the genome of the host organisms, and this leads to the possibility of unexpected effects. Unanticipated environmental disasters, such as the concentration of persistent organic pollutants in ecosystems at high latitudes, have highlighted the need for monitoring despite the obvious difficulties inherent in monitoring for unexpected effects. PMID:11529177

  13. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry. PMID:26906932

  14. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  15. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us. PMID:23243917

  16. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  17. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  18. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. PMID:25154728

  19. [Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling. PMID:23338641

  20. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems. PMID:25636347

  1. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  2. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment. PMID:11963810

  3. Congenital and Genetic Disease in Domestic Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, John J.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)

  4. Genetics of Infectious Disease Resistance in Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize genomic resources available for studies of genetic control of infectious disease resistance in animals. It will then review data collected in our and collaborators’ labs of genetic control of swine resistance to viral infections, e.g., Porcine reproductive and respir...

  5. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  6. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  7. Animal Genetic Resource Trade Flows: Economic Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout human history, livestock producers have relied on a vibrant international exchange of genetic resources to achieve improvements in the quality and productivity of their animals. In recent years, however, some observers have argued that changes in the legal, technological, and economic env...

  8. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health. PMID:25827570

  9. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596

  10. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  11. Genetically modified myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Wayne

    2010-11-30

    Myths abound when it comes to GE crops. At their worst, myths play an active role in discouraging the use of GE to solve problems that afflict humankind, such as malnutrition and birth defects. Of all the various myths, two have been particularly important in preventing the use of GE maize in its areas of origin. The first is that transgenic maize will contaminate and destroy land races, thus destroying biodiversity and its associated cultural traditions. This myth totally ignores the fact that the gene flow that has taken place between maize and its progenitor, between the land races, and between land races and modern hybrids, has not led to any dire consequences. The second myth is that crops are natural and have not been modified by humans, or if they have, that plant breeding does not alter DNA. This myth ignores the fact that for the most part, it is impossible to alter the appearance of crops without changing the DNA. In fact, DNA movement within the crop genome is normal and its movement leads to double-strand DNA repair, with results like those found around transgene insertion sites. In addition, plants have ways to create novel genes. These changes help plants adapt to evolution and to human selection. The net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes. PMID:20609417

  12. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  13. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. PMID:25063421

  14. [Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].

    PubMed

    Drobník, J

    2002-03-01

    Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries. PMID:12046253

  15. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the “domestication phenotype.” In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen in a range of different animals. However, the genetic basis of these associated changes is still puzzling. The genes for these different traits tend to be grouped together in clusters in the genome, though it is still not clear whether these clusters represent pleiotropic effects, or are in fact linked clusters. This review focuses on what is currently known about the genetic architecture of domesticated animal species, if genes of large effect (often referred to as major genes) are prevalent in driving the domestication phenotype, and whether pleiotropy can explain the loci underpinning these diverse traits being colocated. PMID:26512200

  16. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  17. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods. PMID:16036615

  18. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food. PMID:23009001

  19. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  20. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  1. Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

  2. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. PMID:26709962

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  4. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  5. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products. PMID:16860900

  6. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed. PMID:9930018

  7. Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Kleter, Gijs A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

  8. The Genetics of Deafness in Domestic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Strain, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Although deafness can be acquired throughout an animal’s life from a variety of causes, hereditary deafness, especially congenital hereditary deafness, is a significant problem in several species. Extensive reviews exist of the genetics of deafness in humans and mice, but not for deafness in domestic animals. Hereditary deafness in many species and breeds is associated with loci for white pigmentation, where the cochlear pathology is cochleo-saccular. In other cases, there is no pigmentation association and the cochlear pathology is neuroepithelial. Late onset hereditary deafness has recently been identified in dogs and may be present but not yet recognized in other species. Few genes responsible for deafness have been identified in animals, but progress has been made for identifying genes responsible for the associated pigmentation phenotypes. Across species, the genes identified with deafness or white pigmentation patterns include MITF, PMEL, KIT, EDNRB, CDH23, TYR, and TRPM1 in dog, cat, horse, cow, pig, sheep, ferret, mink, camelid, and rabbit. Multiple causative genes are present in some species. Significant work remains in many cases to identify specific chromosomal deafness genes so that DNA testing can be used to identify carriers of the mutated genes and thereby reduce deafness prevalence. PMID:26664958

  9. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  10. Methods to Study Metastasis in Genetically Modified Mice.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farhia; Beverly, Levi J; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Podsypanina, Katrina

    2016-02-01

    Metastasis is often modeled by xenotransplantation of cell lines in immunodeficient mice. A wealth of information about tumor cell behavior in the new environment is obtained from these efforts. Yet by design, this approach is "tumor-centric," as it focuses on cell-autonomous determinants of human tumor dissemination in mouse tissues, in effect using the animal body as a sophisticated "Petri dish" providing nutrients and support for tumor growth. Transgenic or gene knockout mouse models of cancer allow the study of tumor spread as a systemic disease and offer a complimentary approach for studying the natural history of cancer. This introduction is aimed at describing the overall methodological approach to studying metastasis in genetically modified mice, with a particular focus on using animals with regulated expression of potent human oncogenes in the breast. PMID:26832689

  11. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Gómez, Javier A; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic. Evaluations for each GM crop or trait have been conducted using different feeding periods, animal models, and parameters. The most common result is that GM and conventional sources induce similar nutritional performance and growth in animals. However, adverse microscopic and molecular effects of some GM foods in different organs or tissues have been reported. Diversity among the methods and results of the risk assessments reflects the complexity of the subject. While there are currently no standardized methods to evaluate the safety of GM foods, attempts towards harmonization are on the way. More scientific effort is necessary in order to build confidence in the evaluation and acceptance of GM foods. PMID:19146501

  12. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering. PMID:23571013

  13. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  14. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  15. Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araujo, Welington Luiz

    2003-11-01

    About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as yeasts. After the introduction of recombinant DNA techniques, the transfer of DNA between species belonging to different genera, families or kingdoms became possible. The release of transgenic plants has aroused debates about several aspects of the environmental and human risks that could result from the introduction of genetically modified crops. Less effort has been dedicated to evaluate the impact of transgenic plants on their associated microorganisms, some of which (e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic microbiota) are extremely important for the survival of the plant. Investigations have been made regarding the horizontal transfer of genetic material between transgenic plants and microorganisms and on the disturbance of useful symbiotic associations between plants and endophytic, epiphytic and rhizosphere communities. In most cases the results do no show any adverse effect of transgenic plants on autochthonous plant-associated microorganisms. Results from our laboratory show small changes caused by genetically modified endophytic bacteria on the indigenous endophytic population of the sweet orange Citrus sinensis. In tests using appropriated fungal strains preliminary results using extracts from transgenic plants indicate that these plants do not affect haploidization, mitotic crossing-over, mutation rate or chromosomal alterations. PMID:14644324

  16. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

  17. Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

  18. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  19. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  20. Genetically modified plants and human health

    PubMed Central

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  1. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  2. Accretion stream mapping with `genetically modified fireflies'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, C. M.; Hakala, Pasi; Cropper, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin

    2004-07-01

    We apply an eclipse mapping technique using `genetically modified fireflies' to the eclipse light curves of HU Aqr and EP Dra. The technique makes as few assumptions as possible about the location of accretion stream material, allowing the emission to be located anywhere within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf. We model two consecutive eclipses in the UBVRC band for HU Aqr, and four consecutive `white'-light eclipses for EP Dra, to determine the changing brightness distribution of stream material. We find firefly distributions which are consistent with accretion through a curtain of material in both HU Aqr and EP Dra, and show that the previously assumed two-part ballistic and magnetic trajectory is a good approximation for polars. Model fits to the colour-band data of HU Aqr indicate that the material confined to the magnetic field lines is brightest, and most of the emission originates from close to the white dwarf. There is evidence for emission from close to a calculated ballistic stream in both HU Aqr and EP Dra. We propose that a change in the stream density causes a change in the location of the bright material in the accretion stream in EP Dra.

  3. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  4. [Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches. PMID:19129956

  5. Biological safety concepts of genetically modified live bacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Frey, Joachim

    2007-07-26

    Live vaccines possess the advantage of having access to induce cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity; thus in certain cases they are able to prevent infection, and not only disease. Furthermore, live vaccines, particularly bacterial live vaccines, are relatively cheap to produce and easy to apply. Hence they are suitable to immunize large communities or herds. The induction of both cell-mediated immunity as well as antibody-mediated immunity, which is particularly beneficial in inducing mucosal immune responses, is obtained by the vaccine-strain's ability to colonize and multiply in the host without causing disease. For this reason, live vaccines require attenuation of virulence of the bacterium to which immunity must be induced. Traditionally attenuation was achieved simply by multiple passages of the microorganism on growth medium, in animals, eggs or cell cultures or by chemical or physical mutagenesis, which resulted in random mutations that lead to attenuation. In contrast, novel molecular methods enable the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) targeted to specific genes that are particularly suited to induce attenuation or to reduce undesirable effects in the tissue in which the vaccine strains can multiply and survive. Since live vaccine strains (attenuated by natural selection or genetic engineering) are potentially released into the environment by the vaccinees, safety issues concerning the medical as well as environmental aspects must be considered. These involve (i) changes in cell, tissue and host tropism, (ii) virulence of the carrier through the incorporation of foreign genes, (iii) reversion to virulence by acquisition of complementation genes, (iv) exchange of genetic information with other vaccine or wild-type strains of the carrier organism and (v) spread of undesired genes such as antibiotic resistance genes. Before live vaccines are applied, the safety issues must be thoroughly evaluated case-by-case. Safety assessment

  6. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

  7. Genetically modified mouse models for the study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Perumal; Mahesh Kumar, M Jerald; Venkatesan, Ramasamy; Majundar, Subeer S; Juyal, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD represents a large spectrum of diseases ranging from (1) fatty liver (hepatic steatosis); (2) steatosis with inflammation and necrosis; to (3) cirrhosis. The animal models to study NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are extremely useful, as there are still many events to be elucidated in the pathology of NASH. The study of the established animal models has provided many clues in the pathogenesis of steatosis and steatohepatitis, but these remain incompletely understood. The different mouse models can be classified in two large groups. The first one includes genetically modified (transgenic or knockout) mice that spontaneously develop liver disease, and the second one includes mice that acquire the disease after dietary or pharmacological manipulation. Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in the pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, genetically modified animal models may be a key for the treatment of NAFLD. Ideal animal models for NASH should closely resemble the pathological characteristics observed in humans. To date, no single animal model has encompassed the full spectrum of human disease progression, but they can imitate particular characteristics of human disease. Therefore, it is important that the researchers choose the appropriate animal model. This review discusses various genetically modified animal models developed and used in research on NAFLD. PMID:22468076

  8. TRACKING GENE FLOW FROM A GENETICALLY MODIFIED CREEPING BENTGRASS -- METHODS, MEASURES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creeping bentgrass (CBG) expressing an engineered gene for resistance to glyphosate herbicide is one of the first genetically modified (GM) perennial crops to undergo regulatory review for commercial release by the US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health and Inspection S...

  9. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  10. Reproductive biotechnologies and management of animal genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global awareness has increased efforts to conserve animal genetic resources (AnGR). Ex-situ conservation and management of AnGR is exclusively dependent upon an array of reproductive and genetic biotechnologies. These technologies range from well established protocols, e.g., cryopreservation of sper...

  11. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered. PMID:22373855

  12. Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and

  13. The use of genetically-engineered animals in science: perspectives of Canadian Animal Care Committee members.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Dale, Julie; Griffin, Gilly

    2013-05-01

    The genetic engineering of animals for their use in science challenges the implementation of refinement and reduction in several areas, including the invasiveness of the procedures involved, unanticipated welfare concerns, and the numbers of animals required. Additionally, the creation of genetically-engineered animals raises problems with the Canadian system of reporting animal numbers per Category of Invasiveness, as well as raising issues of whether ethical limits can, or should, be placed on genetic engineering. A workshop was held with the aim of bringing together Canadian animal care committee members to discuss these issues, to reflect on progress that has been made in addressing them, and to propose ways of overcoming any challenges. Although previous literature has made recommendations with regard to refinement and reduction when creating new genetically-engineered animals, the perception of the workshop participants was that some key opportunities are being missed. The participants identified the main roadblocks to the implementation of refinement and reduction alternatives as confidentiality, cost and competition. If the scientific community is to make progress concerning the implementation of refinement and reduction, particularly in the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals, addressing these roadblocks needs to be a priority. PMID:23781934

  14. Modifier Genes and the Plasticity of Genetic Networks in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Bruce A.; Yu, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Modifier genes are an integral part of the genetic landscape in both humans and experimental organisms, but have been less well explored in mammals than other systems. A growing number of modifier genes in mouse models of disease nonetheless illustrate the potential for novel findings, while new technical advances promise many more to come. Modifier genes in mouse models include induced mutations and spontaneous or wild-derived variations captured in inbred strains. Identification of modifiers among wild-derived variants in particular should detect disease modifiers that have been shaped by selection and might therefore be compatible with high fitness and function. Here we review selected examples and argue that modifier genes derived from natural variation may provide a bias for nodes in genetic networks that have greater intrinsic plasticity and whose therapeutic manipulation may therefore be more resilient to side effects than conventional targets. PMID:22511884

  15. Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Greger, M

    2010-02-01

    The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the commercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in transgenic research, rather than on the health and welfare implications of the intended productivity enhancement. Unless breeding goals are redefined to reflect social concerns, the occurrence and magnitude of undesirable side effects may increase and consumer confidence in the nascent technology may be undermined. PMID:19820044

  16. Behavior genetics and the domestication of animals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Per

    2014-02-01

    Across species, a similar suite of traits tends to develop in response to domestication, including modifications in behavior. Reduced fear and increased stress tolerance were central in early domestication, and many domestication-related behaviors may have developed as traits correlated to reduced fear. Genetic mechanisms involved in domestication of behavior can be investigated by using top-down or bottom-up approaches, either starting from the behavior variation and searching for underlying genes or finding selected loci and then attempting to identify the associated phenotypes. Combinations of these approaches have proven powerful, and examples of results from such studies are presented and discussed. This includes loci associated with tameness in foxes and dogs, as well as loci correlated with reduced aggression and increased sociality in chickens. Finally, some examples are provided on epigenetic mechanisms in behavior, and it is suggested that selection of favorable epigenetic variants may have been an important mechanism in domestication. PMID:25384136

  17. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  18. Genetically modified proteins: functional improvement and chimeragenesis

    PubMed Central

    Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasily; Podvolotskaya, Anna; Rasskazov, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging role of site-specific mutagenesis and chimeragenesis for the functional improvement of proteins in areas where traditional protein engineering methods have been extensively used and practically exhausted. The novel path for the creation of the novel proteins has been created on the farther development of the new structure and sequence optimization algorithms for generating and designing the accurate structure models in result of x-ray crystallography studies of a lot of proteins and their mutant forms. Artificial genetic modifications aim to expand nature's repertoire of biomolecules. One of the most exciting potential results of mutagenesis or chimeragenesis finding could be design of effective diagnostics, bio-therapeutics and biocatalysts. A sampling of recent examples is listed below for the in vivo and in vitro genetically improvement of various binding protein and enzyme functions, with references for more in-depth study provided for the reader's benefit. PMID:26211369

  19. Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

  20. [Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].

    PubMed

    Aris, A; Paris, K

    2010-12-01

    Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. PMID:21111655

  1. Genetic modifiers of obesity and bariatric surgery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Samantha; Hubal, Monica J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable trait. While acute and chronic changes in body weight or obesity-related comorbidities are heavily influenced by environmental factors, there are still strong genomic modifiers that help account for inter-subject variability in baseline traits and in response to interventions. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of our current understanding of genetic influences on obesity, with emphasis on genetic modifiers of baseline traits and responses to intervention. We begin by reviewing how genetic variants can influence obesity. We then examine genetic modifiers of weight loss via different intervention strategies, focusing on known and potential modifiers of surgical weight loss outcomes. We will pay particular attention to the effects of patient age on outcomes, addressing the risks and benefits of adopting early intervention strategies. Finally, we will discuss how the field of bariatric surgery can leverage knowledge of genetic modifiers to adopt a personalized medicine approach for optimal outcomes across this widespread and diverse patient population. PMID:24491368

  2. Allelopathic effect of methanolic extracts of genetically modified and non-genetically modified canola on soybean.

    PubMed

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    This study on the effect of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola on soybean was carried out for physiological and biochemical biosafety assessment of GM canola. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.) under sterilized conditions. The extracts applied were of 3, 5, and 10% concentrations. The results showed that methanolic extracts of both GM and non-GM canola improved the germination percentage. However, germination rate index was significantly decreased with concomitant increase in mean germination time of soybean. A significant rate of decrease was observed in root fresh weight while increase in shoot length took place; when treatment of GM canola extracts were applied, however, no effect was observed in shoot fresh weight. A significant increase in protein contents, as well as phenolic, carotenoids, proline, and chlorophyll a content, was observed when different GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean; however, a significant rate of reduction in chlorophyll b content was observed by the application of GM canola treatment. Similar results were observed for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities. A significant increase in the sugar content levels was observed when GM canola treatments (3, 5, and 10%) were applied to soybean. PMID:24105070

  3. Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Ted M.; Ko, Han Seok; Dawson, Valina L.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA) and non-DA neurons, the almost uniform presence of Lewy bodies, and motor deficits. Although the majority of PD is sporadic, specific genetic defects in rare familial cases have provided unique insights into the pathogenesis of PD. Through the creation of animal and cellular models of mutations in LRRK2 and α-synuclein, which are linked to autosomal dominant PD, and mutations in parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1, which are responsible for autosomal recessive PD, insight into the molecular mechanisms of this disorder are leading to new ideas about the pathogenesis of PD. In this review, we discuss the animal models for these genetic causes of PD, their limitations and value. Moreover, we discuss future directions and potential strategies for optimization of the genetic models. PMID:20547124

  4. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  5. Perceived naturalness and acceptance of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Tenbült, Petra; de Vries, Nanne K; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2005-08-01

    This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as less natural. The extent to which GM affects the perceived naturalness of a product partly depends on the kind of product. PMID:15896875

  6. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  7. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. PMID:27321680

  8. Birefringent filter design by use of a modified genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wen, Mengtao; Yao, Jianping

    2006-06-10

    A modified genetic algorithm is proposed for the optimization of fiber birefringent filters. The orientation angles and the element lengths are determined by the genetic algorithm to minimize the sidelobe levels of the filters. Being different from the normal genetic algorithm, the algorithm proposed reduces the problem space of the birefringent filter design to achieve faster speed and better performance. The design of 4-, 8-, and 14-section birefringent filters with an improved sidelobe suppression ratio is realized. A 4-section birefringent filter designed with the algorithm is experimentally realized. PMID:16761031

  9. GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-05-01

    A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated

  10. Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.

    PubMed

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-12-01

    Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components. PMID:17080241

  11. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  12. Genetic animal models of malformations of cortical development and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael; Roper, Steven N

    2016-02-15

    Malformations of cortical development constitute a variety of pathological brain abnormalities that commonly cause severe, medically-refractory epilepsy, including focal lesions, such as focal cortical dysplasia, heterotopias, and tubers of tuberous sclerosis complex, and diffuse malformations, such as lissencephaly. Although some cortical malformations result from environmental insults during cortical development in utero, genetic factors are increasingly recognized as primary pathogenic factors across the entire spectrum of malformations. Genes implicated in causing different cortical malformations are involved in a variety of physiological functions, but many are focused on regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal migration. Advances in molecular genetic methods have allowed the engineering of increasingly sophisticated animal models of cortical malformations and associated epilepsy. These animal models have identified some common mechanistic themes shared by a number of different cortical malformations, but also revealed the diversity and complexity of cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of the pathological lesions and resulting epileptogenesis. PMID:25911067

  13. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-01-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

  14. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Widyastuti, Tri Nisa; Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in at least one of teaching, research and consultancy) in the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia were selected randomly from its faculties of agriculture, veterinary, fishery, animal husbandry, forestry, agricultural technology, mathematics and science, and the post graduate department. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire. The result showed that the majority (72.8%) of the respondents were favorably disposed towards GM foods, 14.8% were neutral, and only 12.5% were against them. The majority (78.3%) stated that they would try GM food if offered. Most (71%) reported that they were aware of the term "GM foods". Only half of the respondents felt that they had a basic understanding about GM foods. However, based on a knowledge test, 69.8% had a good knowledge score. Nearly 50% indicated that they were more exposed to news which supported GM foods. Over 90% said that there should be some form of labeling to distinguish food containing GM ingredients from non-GM foods. Attitudes were significantly associated with willingness to try GM foods if offered, restrictions on GM foods, and exposure to media reports about the pros and cons of GM foods. PMID:17468097

  15. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  16. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  17. tRNA Modification and Genetic Code Variations in Animal Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Yokobori, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    In animal mitochondria, six codons have been known as nonuniversal genetic codes, which vary in the course of animal evolution. They are UGA (termination codon in the universal genetic code changes to Trp codon in all animal mitochondria), AUA (Ile to Met in most metazoan mitochondria), AAA (Lys to Asn in echinoderm and some platyhelminth mitochondria), AGA/AGG (Arg to Ser in most invertebrate, Arg to Gly in tunicate, and Arg to termination in vertebrate mitochondria), and UAA (termination to Tyr in a planaria and a nematode mitochondria, but conclusive evidence is lacking in this case). We have elucidated that the anticodons of tRNAs deciphering these nonuniversal codons (tRNATrp for UGA, tRNAMet for AUA, tRNAAsn for AAA, and tRNASer and tRNAGly for AGA/AGG) are all modified; tRNATrp has 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNAMet has 5-formylcytidine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNASer has 7-methylguanosine and tRNAGly has 5-taurinomethyluridine in their anticodon wobble position, and tRNAAsn has pseudouridine in the anticodon second position. This review aims to clarify the structural relationship between these nonuniversal codons and the corresponding tRNA anticodons including modified nucleosides and to speculate on the possible mechanisms for explaining the evolutional changes of these nonuniversal codons in the course of animal evolution. PMID:22007289

  18. HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

  19. "It just goes against the grain." Public understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alison

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of qualitative research on public understandings of food risks, focusing on lay understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK context. A range of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical literature on food, risk, and the public understanding of science are reviewed. The fieldwork methods are outlined and empirical data from a range of lay groups are presented. Major themes include: varying "technical" knowledge of science, the relationship between knowledge and acceptance of genetic modification, the uncertainty of scientific knowledge, genetic modification as inappropriate scientific intervention in "nature", the acceptability of animal and human applications of genetic modification, the appropriate boundaries of scientific innovation, the necessity for GM foods, the uncertainty of risks in GM food, fatalism about avoiding risks, and trust in "experts" to manage potential risks in GM food. Key discussion points relating to a sociological understanding of public attitudes to GM food are raised and some policy implications are highlighted. PMID:12430532

  20. Genetic variation modifies risk for neurodegeneration based on biomarker status

    PubMed Central

    Hohman, Timothy J.; Koran, Mary Ellen I.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While a great deal of work has gone into understanding the relationship between Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, brain atrophy, and disease progression, less work has attempted to investigate how genetic variation modifies these relationships. The goal of this study was two-fold. First, we sought to identify high-risk vs. low-risk individuals based on their CSF tau and Aβ load and characterize these individuals with regard to brain atrophy in an AD-relevant region of interest. Next, we sought to identify genetic variants that modified the relationship between biomarker classification and neurodegeneration. Methods: Participants were categorized based on established cut-points for biomarker positivity. Mixed model regression was used to quantify longitudinal change in the left inferior lateral ventricle. Interaction analyses between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and biomarker group status were performed using a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the Bonferroni procedure. Results: One intergenic SNP (rs4866650) and one SNP within the SPTLC1 gene (rs7849530) modified the association between amyloid positivity and neurodegeneration. A transcript variant of WDR11-AS1 gene (rs12261764) modified the association between tau positivity and neurodegeneration. These effects were consistent across the two sub-datasets and explained approximately 3% of variance in ventricular dilation. One additional SNP (rs6887649) modified the association between amyloid positivity and baseline ventricular volume, but was not observed consistently across the sub-datasets. Conclusions: Genetic variation modifies the association between AD biomarkers and neurodegeneration. Genes that regulate the molecular response in the brain to oxidative stress may be particularly relevant to neural vulnerability to the damaging effects of amyloid-β. PMID:25140149

  1. Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Gyu Seek; Cho, Dae Hyun; Won, Yong Hyuck; Seok, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Rhee Da; Chae, Soo Yeong; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kui Lea; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2005-12-10

    Each specific protein has an individual gene encoding it, and a foreign gene introduced to a plant can be used to synthesize a new protein. The identification of potential reproductive and developmental toxicity from novel proteins produced by genetically modified (GM) crops is a difficult task. A science-based risk assessment is needed in order to use GM crops as a conventional foodstuff. In this study, the specific characteristics of GM food and low-level chronic exposure were examined using a five-generation animal study. In each generation, rats were fed a solid pellet containing 5% GM potato and non-GM potato for 10 wk prior to mating in order to assess the potential reproductive and developmental toxic effects. In the multigeneration animal study, there were no GM potato-related changes in body weight, food consumption, reproductive performance, and organ weight. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using extracted genomic DNA to examine the possibility of gene persistence in the organ tissues after a long-term exposure to low levels of GM feed. In each generation, the gene responsible for bar was not found in any of the reproductive organs of the GM potato-treated male and female rats, and the litter-related indexes did not show any genetically modified organism (GMO)-related changes. The results suggest that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects on the multigeneration reproductive-developmental ability. PMID:16326439

  2. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. PMID:26436847

  3. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  4. [Genetically modified foods. Advantages and human health risks].

    PubMed

    Filip, Lorena; Miere, Doina; Indrei, L L

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important issue with which the mankind is confronting now is related to the quantitatively as well as qualitatively assurance of the food supply necessary for human species existence. In this context, by means of genetic engineering, modified genetic organisms were obtained. In the first stage, plant crops with high productivity and resistant against diseases and pests were obtained. After that, food products having modified organoleptic properties and high nutrition values were produced. The main problem concerning the long-term consumption of these products is their toxicity, which until now was not confirmed or denied. For this reason, tests are necessary to be made in order to stipulate and prevent these effects. PMID:16004228

  5. Manufacturing genetically modified T cells for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gee, A P

    2015-03-01

    Compliance with Food and Drug Administration regulations relating to initiating early phase clinical trials of new cellular therapy products often presents a hurdle to new investigators. One of the biggest obstacles is the requirement to manufacture the therapeutic products under current Good Manufacturing Practices-a system that is usually poorly understood by both basic researchers and clinicians. This article reviews the major points that must be addressed when manufacturing genetically modified T cells for therapeutic use. PMID:25633481

  6. Controversy over genetically modified organisms: the governing laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Keatley, K L

    2000-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are increasingly becoming a topic of controversy in the U.S. and abroad. The public is questioning their safety and wanting the products labeled as genetically modified. There are other concerns from some of the scientific world and some government officials and organizations such as the Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) that question whether adequate research has been done to qualify GMOs as safe for long-term use. Of particular concern are the allergenic properties, a GMO may impart, possible transfer effects of antibiotic resistance (given that antibiotic resistant marker genes are used for many GMOs), the expression of previously unexpressed traits, and the drift of pollen from genetically modified crops. It has also been noted that the laws and regulations governing the biotechnology world are outdated, are not comprehensive, and span too many agencies. The primary agencies currently regulating biotechnology are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PMID:11710306

  7. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies. PMID:26035842

  8. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed Central

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field. PMID:12826486

  9. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review. PMID:26329332

  10. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  11. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient either because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard, because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds, or because they can be overcome by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code to confer metabolic dependence on nonstandard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically circumvent their biocontainment mechanisms using environmentally available compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape via mutagenesis and HGT. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

  12. Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

    2004-09-01

    Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

  13. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  14. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Daniel J; Lajoie, Marc J; Mee, Michael T; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E; Gregg, Christopher J; Stoddard, Barry L; Church, George M

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites. PMID:25607366

  15. The Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Demnerová, Kateřina; Pouchová, Vladimíra

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those whose genetic material has been altered by the insertion of a new gene or by the deletion of an existing one(s). Modern biotechnology, in particular, the rise of genetic engineering, has supported the development of GMOs suitable for research purposes and practical applications (Gepts, 2002; Novoselova,Meuwissen, & Huirne, 2007; Sakakibara & Saito, 2006). For over 20 years GM bacteria and other GM organisms have been used in laboratories for the study of gene functions (Maliga & Small, 2007; Ratledge & Kristiansen, 2006). Agricultural plants were the first GMOs to be released into the environment and placed on the market. Farmers around the world use GMsoybeans, GMcorn and GM cotton that are herbicide tolerant, or insect resistant, or combine several traits that reduce the costs associated with crop production (Corinne, Fernandez-Cornejo, & Goodhue, 2004).

  16. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    DOEpatents

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  17. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  18. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  19. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  20. Transgenic animal models of neurodegeneration based on human genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Richie, Christopher T.; Hoffer, Barry J.; Airavaara, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease. PMID:20931247

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China’s major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans. PMID:26380899

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans. PMID:26380899

  3. An animal model of differential genetic risk for methamphetamine intake

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tamara J.; Shabani, Shkelzen

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA) use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine-associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the development of a

  4. Genetically Modified T-Cell Therapy for Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    DeRenzo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    T-cell immunotherapy may offer an approach to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma, who fail current therapies. In addition, it has the potential to reduce treatment-related complications for all patients. Generating tumor-specific T cells with conventional antigen presenting cells ex vivo is time consuming and often results in T-cell products with a low frequency of tumor-specific T cells. In addition, the generated T cells remain sensitive to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Genetic modification of T cells is one strategy to overcome these limitations. For example, T cells can be genetically modified to render them antigen specific, resistant to inhibitory factors, or increase their ability to home to tumor sites. Most genetic modification strategies have only been evaluated in preclinical models, however early phase clinical trials are in progress. In this chapter we review the current status of gene-modified T-cell therapy with special focus on osteosarcoma, highlighting potential antigenic targets, preclinical and clinical studies, and strategies to improve current T-cell therapy approaches. PMID:24924183

  5. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

  6. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs. PMID:25342149

  7. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s...

  8. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds. PMID:24915369

  9. Clinical application of genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Michael H; Westwood, Jennifer A; Slaney, Clare Y; Darcy, Phillip K

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies are emerging as highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In these approaches, a variety of materials are used to boost immunity against malignant cells. A key component of many of these approaches is functional tumor-specific T cells, but the existence and activity of sufficient T cells in the immune repertoire is not always the case. Recent methods of generating tumor-specific T cells include the genetic modification of patient lymphocytes with receptors to endow them with tumor specificity. These T cells are then expanded in vitro followed by infusion of the patient in adoptive cell transfer protocols. Genes used to modify T cells include those encoding T-cell receptors and chimeric antigen receptors. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of genetic engineering of T cells followed by details of their use against cancer in the clinic. PMID:25505964

  10. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

  11. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  12. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society. PMID:22267031

  13. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  14. Genetic and non-genetic animal models for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal etiologies. We discuss the known animal models, mostly in mice and rats, of ASD that helps us to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of human ASD. We describe only models where behavioral testing has shown autistic like behaviors. Some genetic models mimic known human syndromes like fragile X where ASD is part of the clinical picture, and others are without defined human syndromes. Among the environmentally induced ASD models in rodents, the most common model is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA) either prenatally or early postnatally. VPA induces autism-like behaviors following single exposure during different phases of brain development, implying that the mechanism of action is via a general biological mechanism like epigenetic changes. Maternal infection and inflammation are also associated with ASD in man and animal models. PMID:27142188

  15. Evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong) posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Cathay (CHY)) in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus

  16. Direct visualization of specifically modified extracellular glycans in living animals

    PubMed Central

    Attreed, Matthew; Desbois, Muriel; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2012-01-01

    Modification patterns of the extracellular glycan heparan sulfate coordinate protein function in metazoans, yet in vivo imaging of such non-genetically encoded structures has been impossible. Here we report a transgenic method in Caenorhabditis elegans that allows direct live imaging of specific heparan sulfate modification patterns. This experimental approach reveals a dynamic and cell-specific heparan sulfate landscape and could in principle be adapted to visualize and analyze any extracellular molecule in vivo. PMID:22466794

  17. Direct visualization of specifically modified extracellular glycans in living animals.

    PubMed

    Attreed, Matthew; Desbois, Muriel; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Bülow, Hannes E

    2012-05-01

    Modification patterns of heparan sulfate coordinate protein function in metazoans, yet in vivo imaging of such non-genetically encoded structures has been impossible. Here we report a transgenic method in Caenorhabditis elegans that allows direct live imaging of specific heparan sulfate modification patterns. This experimental approach reveals a dynamic and cell-specific heparan sulfate landscape and could in principle be adapted to visualize and analyze any extracellular molecule in vivo. PMID:22466794

  18. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    PubMed Central

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  19. Maximum hydrogen production from genetically modified microalgae biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Jose; Kava, Vanessa; Ordonez, Juan

    A transient mathematical model for managing microalgae derived H2 production as a source of renewable energy is developed for a well stirred photobioreactor, PBR. The model allows for the determination of microalgae and H2 mass fractions produced by the PBR in time. A Michaelis-Menten expression is proposed for modeling the rate of H2 production, which introduces an expression to calculate the resulting effect on H2 production rate after genetically modifying the microalgae. The indirect biophotolysis process was used. Therefore, an opportunity was found to optimize the aerobic to anaerobic stages time ratio of the cycle for maximum H2 production rate, i.e., the process rhythm. A system thermodynamic optimization is conducted with the model equations to find accurately the optimal system operating rhythm for maximum H2 production rate, and how wild and genetically modified species compare to each other. The maxima found are sharp, showing up to a ~60% variation in hydrogen production rate within 2 days around the optimal rhythm, which highlights the importance of system operation in such condition. Therefore, the model is expected to be useful for design, control and optimization of H2 production. Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq (project 482336/2012-9).

  20. Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.

    PubMed

    Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

    2013-06-15

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. PMID:23566850

  1. How to make foods safer--genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Moseley, B E

    2001-01-01

    It is the responsibility of companies developing genetically modified foods, and of regulatory authorities that approve their marketing, to ensure that they are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are intended to replace in the diet. This requires that any novel material introduced into the food material should not be allergenic. If the novel gene has come from an allergenic source, e.g. nuts, it is necessary to demonstrate using immunological procedures applied to the IgE fractions of pooled sera from individuals with confirmed allergies that the novel protein is non-allergenic. When the novel gene is from a non-allergenic source then it is necessary to demonstrate lack of significant amino acid sequence homology to known allergens together with sensitivity to food manufacturing and digestive processes. Consumer confidence in genetically modified foods would be significantly improved if hypoallergenic varieties of crops and food products that are currently allergenic could be developed. Techniques such as antisense technology and single site amino acid substitution have been shown to have such potential. PMID:11298012

  2. Genetic animal models of dystonia: common features and diversities.

    PubMed

    Richter, Franziska; Richter, Angelika

    2014-10-01

    Animal models are pivotal for studies of pathogenesis and treatment of disorders of the central nervous system which in its complexity cannot yet be modeled in vitro or using computer simulations. The choice of a specific model to test novel therapeutic strategies for a human disease should be based on validity of the model for the approach: does the model reflect symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment response present in human patients? In the movement disorder dystonia, prior to the availability of genetically engineered mice, spontaneous mutants were chosen based on expression of dystonic features, including abnormal muscle contraction, movements and postures. Recent discovery of a number of genes and gene products involved in dystonia initiated research on pathogenesis of the disorder, and the creation of novel models based on gene mutations. Here we present a review of current models of dystonia, with a focus on genetic rodent models, which will likely be first choice in the future either for pathophysiological or for preclinical drug testing or both. In order to help selection of a model depending on expression of a specific feature of dystonia, this review is organized by symptoms and current knowledge of pathogenesis of dystonia. We conclude that albeit there is increasing need for research on pathogenesis of the disease and development of improved models, current models do replicate features of dystonia and are useful tools to develop urgently demanded treatment for this debilitating disorder. PMID:25034123

  3. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis. PMID:19687043

  4. Genetic Characterization and Classification of Human and Animal Sapoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Lu, Zhongyan; Phan, Tung; Delwart, Eric L.; Saif, Linda J.; Wang, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs), including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2). We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G) based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV), one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5' RACE methods. We also determined the 5’- and 3’-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1) “GTG” at the 5′-end of the genome, and a short (9~14 nt) 5′-untranslated region; and 2) the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P) of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG) surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII), sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII), and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain. PMID:27228126

  5. Genetic Characterization and Classification of Human and Animal Sapoviruses.

    PubMed

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Lu, Zhongyan; Phan, Tung; Delwart, Eric L; Saif, Linda J; Wang, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs), including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2). We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G) based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV), one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5' RACE methods. We also determined the 5'- and 3'-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1) "GTG" at the 5'-end of the genome, and a short (9~14 nt) 5'-untranslated region; and 2) the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P) of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG) surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII), sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII), and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain. PMID:27228126

  6. Genetic Modifiers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Politano, Luisa; Melacini, Paola; Calore, Chiara; Polo, Angela; Vianello, Sara; Sorarù, Gianni; Semplicini, Claudio; Pantic, Boris; Taglia, Antonella; Picillo, Ester; Magri, Francesca; Gorni, Ksenija; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Vita, Giuseppe; Comi, Giacomo P.; Ermani, Mario; Calvo, Vincenzo; Angelini, Corrado; Hoffman, Eric P.; Pegoraro, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication and leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DCM onset is variable, suggesting modifier effects of genetic or environmental factors. We aimed to determine if polymorphisms previously associated with age at loss of independent ambulation (LoA) in DMD (rs28357094 in the SPP1 promoter, rs10880 and the VTTT/IAAM haplotype in LTBP4) also modify DCM onset. Methods A multicentric cohort of 178 DMD patients was genotyped by TaqMan assays. We performed a time-to-event analysis of DCM onset, with age as time variable, and finding of left ventricular ejection fraction < 50% and/or end diastolic volume > 70 mL/m2 as event (confirmed by a previous normal exam < 12 months prior); DCM-free patients were censored at the age of last echocardiographic follow-up. Results Patients were followed up to an average age of 15.9 ± 6.7 years. Seventy-one/178 patients developed DCM, and median age at onset was 20.0 years. Glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment (n = 88 untreated; n = 75 treated; n = 15 unknown) did not have a significant independent effect on DCM onset. Cardiological medications were not administered before DCM onset in this population. We observed trends towards a protective effect of the dominant G allele at SPP1 rs28357094 and recessive T allele at LTBP4 rs10880, which was statistically significant in steroid-treated patients for LTBP4 rs10880 (< 50% T/T patients developing DCM during follow-up [n = 13]; median DCM onset 17.6 years for C/C-C/T, log-rank p = 0.027). Conclusions We report a putative protective effect of DMD genetic modifiers on the development of cardiac complications, that might aid in risk stratification if confirmed in independent cohorts. PMID:26513582

  7. Mouse Sperm Cryopreservation and Recovery of Genetically Modified Mice.

    PubMed

    Low, Benjamin E; Taft, Rob A; Wiles, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Highly definable genetically, the humble mouse is the "reagent" mammal of choice with which to probe and begin to understand the human condition in all its complexities. With the recent advance in direct genome editing via targeted nucleases, e.g., TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, the possibilities in using these sophisticated tools have increased substantially leading to a massive increase in the variety of strain numbers of genetically modified lines. With this increase comes a greater need to economically and creatively manage their numbers. Further, once characterized, lines may be of limited use but still need to be archived in a format allowing their rapid resurrection. Further, maintaining colonies on "the shelf" is financially draining and carries potential risks including natural disaster loss, disease, and strain contamination. Here we outline a simple and economic protocol to cryopreserve mouse sperm from many different genetic backgrounds, and outline its recovery via in vitro fertilization (IVF). The combined use of sperm cryopreservation and IVF now allows a freedom and versatility in mouse management facilitating rapid line close down with the option to later recover and rapidly expand as needed. PMID:27150083

  8. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

  9. Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.

    PubMed

    Meriç, S; Cakır, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Arı, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2. PMID:24634172

  10. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples. PMID:27086015

  11. Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Kukucková, Martina; Renczésová, Veronika; Natarajan, Satheesh; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Hodosy, Július; Behuliak, Michal; Vlková, Barbora; Minárik, Gabriel; Szemes, Tomás; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, but environmental side effects on biodiversity must also be recognized. Numerous methods have been developed to assess the potential risk of every GM food type. Benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer. This includes improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. Recombinant probiotics and the principle of alternative gene therapy represent the latest approach of using GM organisms for biomedical applications. This article tries to summarize and to explain the problematic topic of GM food. PMID:16298508

  12. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  13. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  14. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

  15. Genetically modified foods, science, consumers and the media.

    PubMed

    Rowland, I R

    2002-02-01

    In contrast to the situation in the USA, where a wide range of genetically modified (GM) foods is available, in Europe very few GM products have been approved for marketing as foods, and there is widespread public concern about their safety and environmental impact. The marketing of a GM crop for food use in Europe falls under the EC novel foods regulations, and applications require the submission of an extensive dossier of information. The safety evaluation of GM foods presents considerable problems both in the conduct and interpretation of experimental studies, because conventional toxicity tests used in the evaluation of simple chemicals may not be appropriate for whole foods. To rationalise the safety evaluation process and to circumvent the difficulties in toxicological assessment of food materials, the concept of substantial equivalence has been developed. The concept is that if it can be demonstrated that the novel food is essentially similar to its conventional counterpart in terms of critical nutritional or anutritional components, then it is likely to be no more or less toxic than the latter. The possible introduction of unintended effects by the genetic modification process is particularly problematic for the safety evaluation process. The new genomic and post-genomic techniques are potentially valuable in the safety evaluation of GM foods, although they are as yet in their infancy. PMID:12002791

  16. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    PubMed

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. PMID:24426015

  17. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena; Romeis, Jörg; Vaughn, Justin; Wal, Jean-Michel; Glenn, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. The development and role of emerging "omics" technologies in the assessment of unintended effects was also discussed. Several themes recurred in a number of talks; for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. Another common observation was that "unintended" does not necessarily mean "harmful". This paper summarizes key points from the information presented at the meeting to provide readers with current viewpoints on these topics. PMID:25716164

  18. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%. PMID:22397265

  19. Unveiling the roles of the glutathione redox system in vivo by analyzing genetically modified mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Junichi; Ito, Jun-itsu; Zhang, Xuhong; Kurahashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Redox status affects various cellular activities, such as proliferation, differentiation, and death. Recent studies suggest pivotal roles of reactive oxygen species not only in pathogenesis under oxidative insult but also in intracellular signal transduction. Glutathione is present in several millimolar concentrations in the cytoplasm and has multiple roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Two enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, constitute the de novo synthesis machinery, while glutathione reductase is involved in the recycling of oxidized glutathione. Multidrug resistant proteins and some other transporters are responsible for exporting oxidized glutathione, glutathione conjugates, and S-nitrosoglutathione. In addition to antioxidation, glutathione is more positively involved in cellular activity via its sulfhydryl moiety of a molecule. Animals in which genes responsible for glutathione metabolism are genetically modified can be used as beneficial and reliable models to elucidate roles of glutathione in vivo. This review article overviews recent progress in works related to genetically modified rodents and advances in the elucidation of glutathione-mediated reactions. PMID:21980221

  20. Pharmacological profiling of zebrafish behavior using chemical and genetic classification of sleep-wake modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Okabe, Shiko; Sasagawa, Shota; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-wake states are impaired in various neurological disorders. Impairment of sleep-wake states can be an early condition that exacerbates these disorders. Therefore, treating sleep-wake dysfunction may prevent or slow the development of these diseases. Although many gene products are likely to be involved in the sleep-wake disturbance, hypnotics and psychostimulants clinically used are limited in terms of their mode of action and are not without side effects. Therefore, there is a growing demand for developing new hypnotics and psychostimulants with high efficacy and few side effects. Toward this end, animal models are indispensable for use in genetic and chemical screens to identify sleep-wake modifiers. As a proof-of-concept study, we performed behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with chemical and genetic sleep-wake modifiers. We were able to demonstrate that behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with hypnotics or psychostimulants from 9 to 10 days post-fertilization was sufficient to identify drugs with specific modes of action. We were also able to identify behavioral endpoints distinguishing GABA-A modulators and hypocretin (hcrt) receptor antagonists and between sympathomimetic and non-sympathomimetic psychostimulants. This behavioral profiling can serve to identify genes related to sleep-wake disturbance associated with various neuropsychiatric diseases and novel therapeutic compounds for insomnia and excessive daytime sleep with fewer adverse side effects. PMID:26578964

  1. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms. PMID:25036693

  2. Psychological determinants of willingness to taste and purchase genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ellen; Campbell, Scott

    2004-10-01

    Decreasing acceptance of biotechnologies over time has been reported in Europe. Studies claim that attitudes are negative, even hostile, and that people are very worried about genetic engineering in food and medicine. However, such studies are mostly based on surveys and these have significant methodological problems, such as low response rates, which may indicate that only those with strong views respond, thus biasing the sample. Here an alternative method, involving "topic-blind" recruitment of participants and a behavioral measure (food tasting), was used. We show that in a topic-blind sample of 100 individuals, 93% willingly tasted and ate what they believed to be genetically modified (GM) food in an experimental setting, and 48% said they would buy GM food in the future, results that are surprising in the context of other reports about attitudes and intentions toward GM food. Purchasers and nonpurchasers differed in their attitudes toward GM food on key risk-related scales (particularly on a dread-not dread scale--a measure of integral affect--and an ethical-unethical scale). Despite these differences, however, and despite their negative attitude, most nonpurchasers (85.7%) still tasted the GM apple. Incidental affect (state stress and trait worry) was not found to influence risk-related judgments about GM food. Integral affect (dread of GM plants and animals used for food) and concerns about the future risks of GM animals in food were found to be key predictors of willingness to purchase GM food. PMID:15563302

  3. Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenke

    2010-02-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs), as well as their ecological risks have been a topic of considerable public debate since they were first released in 1996. To date, no consistent conclusions have been drawn dealing with ecological risks on soil microorganisms of GMPs for the present incompatible empirical data. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), important in regulating aboveground and underground processes in ecosystems, are the most crucial soil microbial community worthy of being monitored in ecological risks assessment of GMPs for their sensitivity to environmental alterations (plant, soil, climatic factor etc.). Based on current data, we suggest that there is a temporal-spatial relevance between expression and rhizosphere secretion of anti-disease and insecticidal proteins (e.g., Bt-Bacillus thuringiensis toxins) in and outer roots, and AMF intraradical and extraradical growth and development. Therefore, taking Bt transgenic plants (BTPs) for example, Bt insecticidal proteins constitutive expression and rhizosphere release during cultivation of BTPs may damage some critical steps of the AMF symbiotic development. More important, these processes of BTPs coincide with the entire life cycle of AMF annually, which may impact the diversity of AMF after long-term cultivation period. It is proposed that interactions between GMPs and AMF should be preferentially studied as an indicator for ecological impacts of GMPs on soil microbial communities. In this review, advances in impacts of GMPs on AMF and the effect mechanisms were summarized, highlighting the possible ecological implications of interactions between GMPs and AMF in soil ecosystems. PMID:19806453

  4. Electrochemiluminescence-PCR detection of genetically modified organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2005-01-01

    The detection methods for genetically modified (GM) components in foods have been developed recently. But many of them are complicated and time-consuming; some of them need to use the carcinogenic substance, and can"t avoid false-positive results. In this study, an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection GM tobaccos is proposed. The Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter was amplified by PCR, Then hybridized with a Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR)-labeled and a biotinylated probe. The hybridization products were captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal of the TBR label. Whether the tobaccos contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the ECL signal of CaMV35S promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM tobaccos. The ECL-PCR method provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its safety, simplicity and high efficiency.

  5. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price. PMID:16834625

  6. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. PMID:26567205

  7. Biofilm control with natural and genetically-modified phages.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda Shankar; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most dominant and diverse entities in the universe, have the potential to be one of the most promising therapeutic agents. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic crisis in the last few decades have resulted in a renewed interest in phage therapy. Furthermore, bacteriophages, with the capacity to rapidly infect and overcome bacterial resistance, have demonstrated a sustainable approach against bacterial pathogens-particularly in biofilm. Biofilm, as complex microbial communities located at interphases embedded in a matrix of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS), is involved in health issues such as infections associated with the use of biomaterials and chronic infections by multidrug resistant bacteria, as well as industrial issues such as biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in food industry and membrane biofouling in water and wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most recent studies on the potential of phage therapy using natural and genetically-modified lytic phages and their associated enzymes in fighting biofilm development in various fields including engineering, industry, and medical applications are reviewed. Phage-mediated prevention approaches as an indirect phage therapy strategy are also explored in this review. In addition, the limitations of these approaches and suggestions to overcome these constraints are discussed to enhance the efficiency of phage therapy process. Finally, future perspectives and directions for further research towards a better understanding of phage therapy to control biofilm are recommended. PMID:26931607

  8. Fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine.

    PubMed

    León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Morales, Pilar; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-10-21

    In this work, a novel screening methodology based on the combined use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is developed for the fast and sensitive detection of genetically modified yeasts in wine. As model, a recombinant EKD-13 Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain was selected and different wines were prepared using either recombinant or conventional yeasts. Special emphasis is put on the yeast DNA extraction step, exploring different commercial and non-commercial methods, in order to overcome the important difficulty of obtaining amplifiable DNA from wine samples. To unequivocally detect the transgenic yeast, two specific segments of the transgenic construction were amplified. In addition, a third primer pair was used as amplification control to confirm the quality of the yeast DNA obtained from the extraction step. CGE-LIF provides high sensitivity, good analysis speed and impressive resolution of DNA fragments, making this technique very convenient to optimize multiplex PCR parameters and to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. Thus, the CGE-LIF method provided %RSD values for DNA migration times lower than 0.82% (n=10) with the same capillary and lower than 1.92% (n=15) with three different capillaries, allowing the adequate size determination of the PCR products with an error lower than 4% compared to the theoretically expected. The whole method developed in this work requires less than one working day and grants the sensitive detection of transgenic yeasts in wine samples. PMID:21296357

  9. Genetically modified crops: success, safety assessment, and public concern.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om V; Ghai, Shivani; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2006-08-01

    With the emergence of transgenic technologies, new ways to improve the agronomic performance of crops for food, feed, and processing applications have been devised. In addition, ability to express foreign genes using transgenic technologies has opened up options for producing large quantities of commercially important industrial or pharmaceutical products in plants. Despite this high adoption rate and future promises, there is a multitude of concerns about the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on the environment. Potential contamination of the environment and food chains has prompted detailed consideration of how such crops and the molecules that they produce can be effectively isolated and contained. One of the reasonable steps after creating a transgenic plant is to evaluate its potential benefits and risks to the environment and these should be compared to those generated by traditional agricultural practices. The precautionary approach in risk management of GM plants may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Effective risk assessment and monitoring mechanisms are the basic prerequisites of any legal framework to adequately address the risks and watch out for new risks. Several agencies in different countries monitor the release of GM organisms or frame guidelines for the appropriate application of recombinant organisms in agro-industries so as to assure the safe use of recombinant organisms and to achieve sound overall development. We feel that it is important to establish an internationally harmonized framework for the safe handling of recombinant DNA organisms within a few years. PMID:16639559

  10. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  11. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  12. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  13. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria. PMID:12083279

  14. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  15. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups. PMID:24381520

  16. Fungal community associated with genetically modified poplar during metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Hur, Moonsuk; Lim, Young Woon; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Choi, Young Im; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Il; Yi, Hana

    2012-12-01

    Due to the increasing demand for phytoremediation, many transgenic poplars have been developed to enhance the bioremediation of heavy metals. However, structural changes to indigenous fungal communities by genetically modified organisms (GMO) presents a major ecological issue, due to the important role of fungi for plant growth in natural environments. To evaluate the effect of GM plant use on environmental fungal soil communities, extensive sequencing-based community analysis was conducted, while controlling the influence of plant clonality, plant age, soil condition, and harvesting season. The rhizosphere soils of GM and wild type (WT) poplars at a range of growth stages were sampled together with unplanted, contaminated soil, and the fungal community structures were investigated by pyrosequencing the D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene. The results show that the overall structure of the rhizosphere fungal community was not significantly influenced by GM poplars. However, the presence of GM specific taxa, and faster rate of community change during poplar growth, appeared to be characteristic of the GM plant-induced effects on soil-born fungal communities. The results of this study provide additional information about the potential effects of GM poplar trees aged 1.5-3 years, on the soil fungal community. PMID:23274976

  17. Aphid–parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat

    PubMed Central

    von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J. F.; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore–natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid–parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited. PMID:21247941

  18. Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I; Constable, A; Davies, H V; Engel, K H; Gatehouse, A M R; Kärenlampi, S; Kok, E J; Leguay, J-J; Lehesranta, S; Noteborn, H P J M; Pedersen, J; Smith, M

    2004-07-01

    The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original modification and that might impact primarily on health. The document first deals with the potential for unintended effects caused by the processes of transgene insertion (DNA rearrangements) and makes comparisons with genetic recombination events and DNA rearrangements in traditional breeding. The document then focuses on the potential value of evolving "profiling" or "omics" technologies as non-targeted, unbiased approaches, to detect unintended effects. These technologies include metabolomics (parallel analysis of a range of primary and secondary metabolites), proteomics (analysis of polypeptide complement) and transcriptomics (parallel analysis of gene expression). The technologies are described, together with their current limitations. Importantly, the significance of unintended effects on consumer health are discussed and conclusions and recommendations presented on the various approaches outlined. PMID:15123383

  19. Role of genetic modifiers in an orthologous rat model of ARPKD

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Caitlin C.; Hoffman, Matthew; Sweeney, William E.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Xiao, Bing; Jacob, Howard J.; Avner, Ellis D.

    2012-01-01

    Human data and animal models of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) suggest that genetic factors modulate the onset and severity of the disease. We report here for the first time that ARPKD susceptibility is attenuated by introgressing the mutated Pkhd1 disease allele from the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat onto the FHH (Fawn-Hooded Hypertensive) genetic background. Compared with PCK, the FHH.Pkhd1 strain had significantly decreased renal cyst formation that coincided with a threefold reduction in mean kidney weights. Further analysis revealed that the FHH. Pkhd1 is protected from increased blood pressure as well as elevated plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. On the other hand, liver weight and biliary cystogenesis revealed no differences between PCK and FHH.Pkdh1, indicating that genes within the FHH genetic background prevent the development of renal, but not hepatic, manifestations of ARPKD. Microarray expression analysis of kidneys from 30-day-old PCK rats revealed increased expression of genes previously identified in PKD renal expression profiles, such as inflammatory response, extracellular matrix synthesis, and cell proliferation genes among others, whereas the FHH.Pkhd1 did not show activation of these common markers of disease. This newly developed strain can serve as a tool to map modifier genes for renal disease in ARPKD and provides further insight into disease variability and pathophysiology. PMID:22669842

  20. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-11-15

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  1. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights. PMID:22892687

  2. Labeling of genetically modified food: closer to reality in the United States?

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2013-01-01

    Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common. PMID:24047092

  3. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  4. NeuroGeM, a knowledgebase of genetic modifiers in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of neurons in the human brain. Although the majority of NDs are sporadic, evidence is accumulating that they have a strong genetic component. Therefore, significant efforts have been made in recent years to not only identify disease-causing genes but also genes that modify the severity of NDs, so-called genetic modifiers. To date there exists no compendium that lists and cross-links genetic modifiers of different NDs. Description In order to address this need, we present NeuroGeM, the first comprehensive knowledgebase providing integrated information on genetic modifiers of nine different NDs in the model organisms D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. NeuroGeM cross-links curated genetic modifier information from the different NDs and provides details on experimental conditions used for modifier identification, functional annotations, links to homologous proteins and color-coded protein-protein interaction networks to visualize modifier interactions. We demonstrate how this database can be used to generate new understanding through meta-analysis. For instance, we reveal that the Drosophila genes DnaJ-1, thread, Atx2, and mub are generic modifiers that affect multiple if not all NDs. Conclusion As the first compendium of genetic modifiers, NeuroGeM will assist experimental and computational scientists in their search for the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NDs. http://chibi.ubc.ca/neurogem. PMID:24229347

  5. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  6. Correction of lysosomal storage in the liver and spleen of MPS VII mice by implantation of genetically modified skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Moullier, P; Bohl, D; Heard, J M; Danos, O

    1993-06-01

    Genetic defects of lysosomal hydrolases result in severe storage diseases and treatments based on enzyme replacement have been proposed. In mice lacking beta-glucuronidase, which develop a disease homologous to human mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (Sly syndrome), we have used autologous implants of genetically-modified skin fibroblasts for the continuous in vivo production of the enzyme. The human beta-glucuronidase cDNA was introduced with a retroviral vector into mutant mice skin fibroblasts grown in primary culture. Fourteen mutant mice were implanted intraperitoneally with these modified cells embedded into collagen lattices. All animals expressed beta-glucuronidase from the vascularized neo-organs that developed after implantation and accumulated the enzyme in their tissues. A complete disappearance of the lysosomal storage lesions was observed in their liver and spleen. PMID:8348154

  7. Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes

  8. Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sachi

    2015-05-01

    I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents. PMID:25903238

  9. Distribution of the modified nucleoside Q and its derivatives in animal and plant transfer RNA's.

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, H; Kuchino, Y; Nihei, K; Nishimura, S

    1975-01-01

    The modified nucleoside, 7-(4,5-cis-dihydroxy-1-cyclopenten-3-yl-aminomethyl)-7-deazaguanosine, designated as Q, and its derivative, Q*, were found in tRNA's from various organisms, including several mammalian tissues, other animals such as starfish, lingula and hagfish, and wheat germ. Q isolated from rat liver tRNA was found to be identical with E. coli Q by mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography. Thus the rare modified nucleoside Q originally isolated from E. coli tRNA, is widely distributed in various organisms. Analysis of the mass spectrum of Q* suggested that it has a different side chain from Q. PMID:1187350

  10. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  11. Genetically modified plants and food hypersensitivity diseases: usage and implications of experimental models for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Vanessa E; Hogan, Simon P

    2006-08-01

    The recent advances in biotechnology in the plant industry have led to increasing crop production and yield that in turn has increased the usage of genetically modified (GM) food in the human food chain. The usage of GM foods for human consumption has raised a number of fundamental questions including the ability of GM foods to elicit potentially harmful immunological responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. To assess the safety of foods derived from GM plants including allergenic potential, the US FDA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), and the EU have developed approaches for evaluation assessment. One assessment approach that has been a very active area of research and debate is the development and usage of animal models to assess the potential allergenicity of GM foods. A number of specific animal models employing rodents, pigs, and dogs have been developed for allergenicity assessment. However, validation of these models is needed and consideration of the criteria for an appropriate animal model for the assessment of allergenicity in GM plants is required. We have recently employed a BALB/c mouse model to assess the potential allergenicity of GM plants. We have been able to demonstrate that this model is able to detect differences in antigenicity and identify aspects of protein post-translational modifications that can alter antigenicity. Furthermore, this model has also enabled us to examine the usage of GM plants as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the current approaches to assess the allergenic potential of GM food and particularly focusing on the usage of animal models to determine the potential allergenicity of GM foods and gives an overview of our recent findings and implications of these studies. PMID:16364445

  12. The Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) website: genome-wide association analysis for genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Kevin; Harold, Denise; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H.; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT. The age at onset of clinical symptoms is determined primarily by the length of this CAG expansion but is also influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. OBJECTIVE Recently, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at discovering genetic modifiers, we identified loci associated with age at onset of motor signs that are significant at the genome-wide level. However, many additional HD modifiers may exist but may not have achieved statistical significance due to limited power. METHODS In order to disseminate broadly the entire GWAS results and make them available to complement alternative approaches, we have developed the internet website "GeM MOA" where genetic association results can be searched by gene name, SNP ID, or genomic coordinates of a region of interest. RESULTS Users of the Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) site can therefore examine support for association between any gene region and age at onset of HD motor signs. GeM MOA's interactive interface also allows users to navigate the surrounding region and to obtain association p-values for individual SNPs. CONCLUSIONS Our website conveys a comprehensive view of the genetic landscape of modifiers of HD from the existing GWAS, and will provide the means to evaluate the potential influence of genes of interest on the onset of HD. GeM MOA is freely available at https://www.hdinhd.org/. PMID:26444025

  13. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  14. Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here. PMID:24662477

  15. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also infects approximately 25% of the world’s human population. T. gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication and transmission occur i...

  16. An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice.

    PubMed

    Thon, R; Vondeling, H; Lassen, J; Hansen, A K; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2009-07-01

    An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews, which were audio-taped and transcribed. The results were extracted using content analysis by theme. The investigation confirmed that few animals were systematically phenotyped and an observational approach was found to be widespread. The primary interest of the interviewees was phenotyping for impaired animal welfare. The concept of phenotyping was widely understood and perceived as a scientific advantage. The comprehensiveness of the protocols and the resources required for phenotyping were seen as problematic. All participants addressed this issue, be it regarding lack of time, money or expertise. Also, among the negative statements were worries about the capability of the available protocols to produce the information needed by the individual scientist. Phenotyping was predicted to become much more widespread in the future and its success was expected to depend on the development of reliable, fast and inexpensive methods. The study identified different aims of phenotyping and the suitability of the published protocols for these purposes was discussed. The contradiction between the limited use of characterization and its advantages was also discussed and proposals for the improvement of future phenotyping strategies are formulated. PMID:19237456

  17. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

  18. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  19. [How can we guarantee the genetic richness of our domestic animals?].

    PubMed

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    Finland has committed to follow the international biodiversity agreement, which among other things also applies to the preservation of genetic resources of domestic animals. In Finland, the preservation of genetic resources within agriculture andforestry is implemented through programs on national gene resources. The particular aim of the Finnish National Animal Genetic Resources Program is to preserve our original breeds and gene resources thereof and encourage a sustainable use of the domestic breeds. In addition to the protective value, an economic, social and cultural historical significance can be assigned to the original breeds. PMID:27522836

  20. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed. PMID:15378169

  1. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  2. Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

  3. Genetic Engineering of Dystroglycan in Animal Models of Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sciandra, Francesca; Bigotti, Maria Giulia; Giardina, Bruno; Bozzi, Manuela; Brancaccio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, dystroglycan (DG) is the central component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), a multimeric protein complex that ensures a strong mechanical link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Several muscular dystrophies arise from mutations hitting most of the components of the DGC. Mutations within the DG gene (DAG1) have been recently associated with two forms of muscular dystrophy, one displaying a milder and one a more severe phenotype. This review focuses specifically on the animal (murine and others) model systems that have been developed with the aim of directly engineering DAG1 in order to study the DG function in skeletal muscle as well as in other tissues. In the last years, conditional animal models overcoming the embryonic lethality of the DG knock-out in mouse have been generated and helped clarifying the crucial role of DG in skeletal muscle, while an increasing number of studies on knock-in mice are aimed at understanding the contribution of single amino acids to the stability of DG and to the possible development of muscular dystrophy. PMID:26380289

  4. Distribution of genetic marker concentrations for fecal indicator bacteria in sewage and animal feces.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Catherine A; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A; Shanks, Orin C

    2012-06-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log(10) copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  5. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  6. The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

  7. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  8. The animal genetic resource information network (AnimalGRIN) database: A database design and implementation case

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript presents a case study that is based on an actual project for the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The NAGP collects, preserves, and documents germplasm from various breeds of livestock in the United States, in order to preserve and e...

  9. Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Jennifer R.; Anzar, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling. PMID:20886016

  10. Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Summary The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferation potential. Here, we summarize the recent developments in genetic engineering of T-cell-based biopharmaceuticals, covering criteria for their clinical application in regard to safety and efficacy. PMID:24474888

  11. Role of stem cells in large animal genetic engineering in the TALENs-CRISPR era.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and gene targeting technologies in mice has revolutionised the field of genetics. The relative ease with which genes can be knocked out, and exogenous sequences introduced, has allowed the mouse to become the prime model for deciphering the genetic code. Not surprisingly, the lack of authentic ESCs has hampered the livestock genetics field and has forced animal scientists into adapting alternative technologies for genetic engineering. The recent discovery of the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by upregulation of a handful of reprogramming genes has offered renewed enthusiasm to animal geneticists. However, much like ESCs, establishing authentic iPSCs from the domestic animals is still beset with problems, including (but not limited to) the persistent expression of reprogramming genes and the lack of proven potential for differentiation into target cell types both in vitro and in vivo. Site-specific nucleases comprised of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulated interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) emerged as powerful genetic tools for precisely editing the genome, usurping the need for ESC-based genetic modifications even in the mouse. In this article, in the aftermath of these powerful genome editing technologies, the role of pluripotent stem cells in livestock genetics is discussed. PMID:24305178

  12. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  13. Chemical and flavor profiles of genetically modified peanut varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop throughout the world. It is susceptible to many types of fungal pathogens. Genetic engineering offers great potential for developing peanut cultivars resistant to a broad spectrum of pathogens that pose a recurring threat to peanut hea...

  14. Improved bioavailability of calcium in genetically-modified carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate absorbed calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female young adults, we used a dual stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled genetically-mo...

  15. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  16. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction.

    PubMed

    Bell, R L; Hauser, S; Rodd, Z A; Liang, T; Sari, Y; McClintick, J; Rahman, S; Engleman, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein, we sought to place the P rat's behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this chapter discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  17. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  18. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  19. Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

    2002-01-01

    Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200

  20. Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1991-12-06

    The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

  1. Interacting proteins as genetic modifiers of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jiang; Friedman, Meyer; Li, Shihua

    2007-11-01

    Huntington disease is caused by polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin, a 350 kD protein that is ubiquitously expressed and widely distributed at the subcellular level. Recently, Kaltenbach et al. identified a large collection of novel huntingtin-interacting proteins, several of which modify mutant huntingtin toxicity in Drosophila. Thus, the interaction of mutant huntingtin with certain protein partners can influence its toxicity and therefore the severity and/or progression of Huntington disease. PMID:17961788

  2. Genetically Modified Flax Expressing NAP-SsGT1 Transgene: Examination of Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  3. Antitumor cell-complex vaccines employing genetically modified tumor cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F

    2014-02-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  4. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals. PMID:25873489

  5. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Antonio; Herrero, María José; Sendra, Luis; Botella, Rafael; Diaz, Ana; Algás, Rosa; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok) and a low producer (p2F). Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP) IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01). When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05). Significant survival (40%) was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells. PMID:24556729

  6. Genetically modified flax expressing NAP-SsGT1 transgene: examination of anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  7. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  8. Genetic structure and diversity of animal populations exposed to metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Studying the genetic diversity of wild populations that are affected by pollution provides a basis for estimating the risks of environmental contamination to both wildlife, and indirectly to humans. Such research strives to produce both a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which genetic diversity is affected,and the long-term effects of the pollutants involved.In this review, we summarize key aspects of the field of genetic ecotoxicology that encompasses using genetic patterns to examine metal pollutants as environmental stressors of natural animal populations. We address genetic changes that result from xenobiotic exposure versus genetic alterations that result from natural ecological processes. We also describe the relationship between metal exposure and changes in the genetic diversity of chronically exposed populations, and how the affected populations respond to environmental stress. Further, we assess the genetic diversity of animal populations that were exposed to metals, focusing on the literature that has been published since the year 2000.Our review disclosed that the most common metals found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb; however, differences in the occurrence between aquatic (Cd=Zn>Cu>Pb>Hg) and terrestrial (Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni)environments were observed. Several molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in impacted populations, the order of the most common ones of which were SSR's > allozyme > RAPD's > mtDNA sequencing> other molecular markers.Genetic diversity was reduced for nearly all animal populations that were exposed to a single metal, or a mixture of metals in aquatic ecosystems (except in Hyalella azteca, Littorina littorea, Salmo trutta, and Gobio gobio); however, the pattern was less clear when terrestrial ecosystems were analyzed.We propose that future research in the topic area of this paper emphasizes seven key areas of activity that pertain to the methodological design of genetic

  9. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

    2007-02-21

    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis. PMID:17300145

  10. The effect of multigenerational diet containing genetically modified triticale on immune system in mice.

    PubMed

    Krzyżowska, M; Wincenciak, M; Winnicka, A; Baranowski, A; Jaszczak, K; Zimny, J; Niemiałtowski, M

    2010-01-01

    The safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) food and feed is performed to identify the possible effects upon animal and human health, also the long-term, multigenerational influence upon functioning of different organs and systems, such as the immune system. In this study C57BL/6J mice were fed for five consecutive generations with pellets containing 20% of conventional triticale grain (control) vs. pellets containing 20% of the transgenic triticale grain resistant to BASTA herbicide (experimental). The F5 experimental animals showed enlarged inguinal and axillary lymph nodes, but not spleens, and increased WBC counts in blood (but within the norm for Mus musculus). Immunophenotyped cell suspensions derived from spleens, inguinal and axillaris lymph nodes and PBMCs from blood showed the significant decrease in the percentage of T cells in spleen and lymph nodes and the B cells in lymph nodes and blood of the F5 experimental mice in comparison to the control F5 mice. Immunoblotting analysis of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL- 6, IFN-gamma levels in serum showed significantly increased IL-2 levels and decreased IL-6 levels in the F5-experimental mice sera. No significant changes in the levels of IgE in sera in both mice groups were observed. The obtained results indicate that multigenerational use of feeds for rodents containing the GM-triticale leads to expansion of the B cell compartment in the secondary lymphoid organs, but it is not caused by malignant processes or the allergic response. PMID:21033555

  11. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

  12. Safety assessment, detection and traceability, and societal aspects of genetically modified foods. European Network on Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Crops (ENTRANSFOOD). Concluding remarks.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; König, A; Kleter, G A; Hammes, W P; Knudsen, I

    2004-07-01

    The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process. PMID:15123387

  13. Comparative analysis of cholinesterase activities in food animals using modified Ellman and Michel assays

    PubMed Central

    Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in blood and tissue is currently the most important method of confirming the diagnosis of such exposure. The study also characterized the level of ChE activity in the selected organs/tissues of these animals and determined the best organ/tissue in which to measure ChE activity. The ChE activities were found to be higher in cattle than in sheep and higher in erythrocytes than in plasma and serum. The anticoagulant heparin significantly affects AChE activity in plasma compared with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Of the different tissues tested, the mean of ChE activities was found to be highest in tissue from liver, followed by lung, muscle, kidney, and heart for sheep and cattle. In pigs, the ChE activities tested higher in kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and heart. The highest activities of ChE were found in pigs, followed by cattle and sheep. There was no significant difference between the modified Ellman and Michel method, but the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) values were higher when the Michel method was used. PMID:22468023

  14. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

  15. Piezoelectric Sensor for Determination of Genetically Modified Soybean Roundup Ready® in Samples not Amplified by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Stobiecka, Magdalena; Cieśla, Jarosław M.; Janowska, Beata; Tudek, Barbara; Radecka, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    The chemically modified piezoelectrodes were utilized to develop relatively cheap and easy to use biosensor for determination of genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean (RR soybean). The biosensor relies on the immobilization onto gold piezoelectrodes of the 21-mer single stranded oligonucleotide (probes) related to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, which is an active component of an insert integrated into RR soybean genome. The hybridization reaction between the probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The system was optimized using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were applied for EPSPS gene detection in DNA samples extracted from animal feed containing 30% RR soybean amplified by the PCR and nonamplified by PCR. The detection limit for genomic DNA was in the range of 4.7·105 numbers of genom copies contained EPSPS gene in the QCM cell. The properties such as sensitivity and selectivity of piezoelectric senor presented here indicated that it could be applied for the direct determination of genetically modified RR soybean in the samples non-amplified by PCR.

  16. Stakeholder views on the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals in research.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H

    2016-05-01

    This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. PMID:27256452

  17. A new modified animal model of myosin-induced experimental autoimmune myositis enhanced by defibrase

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Jing, Luo; Hong-Hua, Li; Xiang-Hui, Lu; Jie-Xiao, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effect of defibrase (a proteolytic enzyme extraction of Agkistrodon halys venom) on experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) in guinea pigs and explored the option of using a modified pig model of EAM to enhance the study of this disease. Material and methods Guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: group A (control group) was immunized with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA), then received 6 injections of saline weekly; group B (EAM group) was immunized with partially purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of saline; group C (EAM + defibrase group) was immunized with purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of defibrase. The animals were observed for their general health condition and the body weight was measured daily. Plasma levels of fibrinogen and creatine kinase (CK) were determined. Muscle tissues were examined histologically. Results After immunizations for 6 weeks, incidence of EAM in groups A, B and C was 0 (0/7), 83.3% (10/12) and 100% (15/15), respectively. Guinea pigs with EAM presented angeitis symptoms of muscle weakness. Histological analysis revealed a significant difference. Muscles with EAM had scattered or diffuse inflammatory manifestations, which are also common pathological features of human idiopathic polymyositis (IPM). Defibrase-treated animals displayed extensive inflammation and fiber necrosis compared with the EAM group (histological score: 2.80 ±1.15 vs. 1.88 ±1.32, p < 0.05). Severity of inflammation of group B was mainly mild to moderate; 16.7% (2/12) of animals developed severe inflammation. Incidence of severe inflammation with a score up to 4 in group C was 40% (6/15). Conclusions Defibrase can exacerbate myosin-induced EAM; thus a new modified model was generated. PMID:26788090

  18. Gene banks a mechanism for harnessing animal genetic resources for food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased productivity for livestock is needed to sustainably meet growing consumer demands. Climate change places another layer of complexity on the raising animal productivity. To meet these challenges a wide variety of genetic resources is needed. But maintaining this variety in-situ can be costl...

  19. Options and legal requirements for national and regional animal genetic resources collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contraction of animal genetic resources on a global scale has motivated countries to establish gene banks as a mechanism to conserve national resources. Gene banks should establish a set of policies that insure they are complying with national laws. The two primary areas of consideration are ho...

  20. Improved genetically modified Escherichia coli strain for prescreening antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Bartus, H R; Mirabelli, C K; Auerbach, J I; Shatzman, A R; Taylor, D P; Johnson, R K; Rosenberg, M; Crooke, S T

    1984-01-01

    Clinical experience suggests that drugs that interact with and damage DNA are useful in cancer chemotherapy (H. Umezawa , p. 43-72, in V. T. DeVita , Jr., and H. Busch [ed.], Methods in Cancer Research; Cancer Drug Development, vol. XVI, 1979). Prescreening systems for antitumor agents in natural products require assays that are exquisitely sensitive, since the active components are often produced in quantities of micrograms per milliliter or less. One assay used to identify agents that interact with DNA is the biochemical induction assay, utilizing Escherichia coli BR 513 (R. K. Elespuru and R. J. White, Cancer Res. 43:2819-2830, 1983). In this paper we describe a genetic modification of strain BR 513 that displays an expanded spectrum of activity. This strain may provide an improved prescreen for detecting natural products that interact with DNA. PMID:6203484

  1. Preclinical animal study and clinical trail of modified extraoral craniofacial implants.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, L; Schlegel, K A; Wiltfang, J; Neukam, F W; Rupprecht, S

    2007-01-01

    We report on our experience using a new endosseous implant designed to provide sufficient retention to various types of facial prostheses. In a preclinical animal experiment implants (N=12, 4 x 3.5 mm) were placed in the frontal calvarial region of nine adult pigs. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks to evaluate the implant incorporation microradiographically. The clinical outcome and patient satisfaction of implant-retained prostheses were evaluated in a group of 10 patients with facial defects by using clinical assessment and standardized questionnaires for patients and relatives. In the prospective clinical study 33 identical modified implants for extraoral anchorage were placed for the fixation of various prostheses in the midfacial (eye, nose) and ear regions in the course of a clinical trial and observed over a follow-up period of 34 months. The bone-implant contact in the animal experiment reached 31% (+/-2) at 2 weeks, 39% (+/-1) after 4 weeks and 51% (+/-5) at 8 weeks. In the clinical trial, no implants were lost and all implants remained osseointegrated as confirmed clinically and radiographically, providing a stable prosthetic restoration. The analysis of the questionnaire indicates an improvement of the quality of life of patients with respect to aesthetic and psychological well-being. The results demonstrate that extraoral implants not only achieve sufficient osseointegration but also show good clinical handling and easy fixation possibilities for prosthetic anchorage. PMID:17392045

  2. 2015 Guidelines for Establishing Genetically Modified Rat Models for Cardiovascular Research

    PubMed Central

    Flister, Michael J.; Prokop, Jeremy W.; Lazar, Jozef; Shimoyama, Mary; Dwinell, Melinda; Geurts, Aron

    2015-01-01

    The rat has long been a key physiological model for cardiovascular research; most of the inbred strains having been previously selected for susceptibility or resistance to various cardiovascular diseases (CVD). These CVD rat models offer a physiologically relevant background on which candidates of human CVD can be tested in a more clinically translatable experimental setting. However, a diverse toolbox for genetically modifying the rat genome to test molecular mechanisms has only recently become available. Here, we provide a high-level description of several strategies for developing genetically modified rat models of CVD. PMID:25920443

  3. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    PubMed Central

    JIN, Li-Fang; LI, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC) approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches. PMID:27469251

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibres enhanced with poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-02-01

    Genetically modified flax fibres, derived from transgenic flax with expression of three bacterial genes necessary for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have been analysed. These transgenic flaxes, enhanced with different amount of the PHB, have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes as well as the differences between the natural and genetically modified flax fibres. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibres.

  5. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Fang; Li, Jin-Song

    2016-07-18

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC) approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches. PMID:27469251

  6. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

  7. Animal medical genetics: a perspective on the epidemiology and control of inherited disorders.

    PubMed

    Jolly, R D; Dittmer, K E; Blair, H T

    2016-05-01

    This perspective considers genetic disorders of domestic animal populations, in particular their epidemiology and control. Inherited disorders of animals share the same basic molecular biology as those of human beings, but they differ in their epidemiology due largely to the breed structure of the various species, human control of breeding and a greater influence of the founder effect, particularly due to extensive use of a limited number of sires, and inbreeding. Control of genetic disorders in animals is also more practical through extensive screening for disease, or heterozygous animals within defined breed populations, followed by exclusion of affected or carrier animals from breeding. This is assisted by the fact that, within a breed, many inherited monogenic disorders are associated with a single mutation. However some of the more important disorders may be inherited in a non-Mendelian manner, being influenced by multiple genes as well as environmental factors. These aspects are discussed and contrasted with similar aspects in human medical genetics. PMID:26667890

  8. Ranking of Nellore animals in cattle championships: genetic parameters and correlations with production traits.

    PubMed

    Simielli Filho, E A; Mercadante, M E Z; Ii Vasconcelos Silva, J A; Josahkian, L A

    2014-01-01

    Records of 17,141 Nellore cattle participating in cattle championships, born from 1994-2009, were used to estimate genetic parameters between animal rank in cattle championships, evaluated from weaning to 36 months of age as repeated traits, and growth, fertility, and carcass traits, evaluated at 365 days of age as single traits. Two traits were defined for animal rank in cattle championships: value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 3rd place within the age category, and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP3). Value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 5th place within the age category and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP5). The (co)variance components were estimated based on Bayesian inference under a 2-trait threshold-linear animal model. The posterior means of heritability estimated for TOP3 and TOP5 were 0.182 ± 0.010 and 0.260 ± 0.012, respectively, and their repeatabilities were 0.341 ± 0.007 and 0.400 ± 0.007, respectively. High-ranking animals generally presented higher breeding values for body weight, height, body length, and heart girth. The phenotypic correlations indicate that judges of cattle championships primarily rank animals based on weight and heart girth. PMID:25117330

  9. Use of genetically modified bacteria to modulate adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Susan M; González, Pablo A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2009-06-01

    Infectious diseases caused by virulent bacteria are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. However, attenuated strains derived from pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, are highly immunogenic and can be used as vaccines to promote immunity against parental pathogenic bacteria strains. Further, they can be genetically manipulated to either express foreign antigens or deliver exogenous DNA, in order to induce immunity against other pathogens or antigens. Contrarily, specific structural modifications in attenuated Salmonella have allowed the generation of strains that can be well tolerated by the immune system and reduce inflammatory responses. It is thought that those strains could be considered as vectors to promote specific immune tolerance for certain auto-antigens or allergens and reduce unwanted or self-reactive immune responses. In addition, some structural features of Salmonella can contribute to defining the nature and type of polarization of the adaptive immune response induced after immunization, which can be considered as a tool to modulate antigen-specific immunity. In this article we discuss recent advances in the understanding of immune system modulation by molecular components of bacteria and their exploitation for the rational induction of pathogen immunity or antigen-specific tolerance. PMID:19519362

  10. Regulatory options for genetically modified crops in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Bhagirath; Gheysen, Godelieve; Buysse, Jeroen; van der Meer, Piet; Burssens, Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    The introduction of semi-dwarfing, high-yielding and nutrients-responsive crop varieties in the 1960s and 1970s alleviated the suffering of low crop yield, food shortages and epidemics of famine in India and other parts of the Asian continent. Two semi-dwarfing genes, Rht in wheat and Sd-1 in rice heralded the green revolution for which Dr. Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. In contrast, the revolutionary new genetics of crop improvement shamble over formidable obstacles of regulatory delays, political interferences and public misconceptions. India benefited immensely from the green revolution and is now grappling to deal with the nuances of GM crops. The development of GM mustard discontinued prematurely in 2001 and insect-resistant Bt cotton varieties were successfully approved for commercial cultivation in 2002 in an evolving nature of regulatory system. However, the moratorium on Bt brinjal by MOEF in 2010 meant a considerable detour from an objective, science-based, rigorous institutional process of regulatory approval to a more subjective, nonscience-driven, political decision-making process. This study examines what ails the regulatory system of GM crops in India and the steps that led to the regulatory logjam. Responding to the growing challenges and impediments of existing biosafety regulation, it suggests options that are critical for GM crops to take roots for a multiplier harvest. PMID:24460889